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Sample records for human demographic parameters

  1. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  2. Demographic and transportation parameters in RADTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts at Sandia National Laboratories have focused not only on modification of the RADTRAN transportation risk analysis code but also on updating the default parameters for population, land use, and roadway characteristics used by the code. Changes to the code have been discussed earlier in this Conference. This paper summarizes the results of a review of transportation and demographic parameters, performed to complement recent model modifications

  3. Demographic and transportation parameters in RADTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the default parameters for each of the three major variable categories -- transportation network, land use, and population -- in the current version of the RADTRAN code. Changes in the variable assumptions associated with the release of RADTRAN 4.0 will then be described as will the options for users to supply locally-available, rather than national-level, default values. Finally, long-term enhancements anticipated for the code will be discussed. 17 refs

  4. Estimating demographic parameters from large-scale population genomic data using Approximate Bayesian Computation

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    Li Sen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC approach has been used to infer demographic parameters for numerous species, including humans. However, most applications of ABC still use limited amounts of data, from a small number of loci, compared to the large amount of genome-wide population-genetic data which have become available in the last few years. Results We evaluated the performance of the ABC approach for three 'population divergence' models - similar to the 'isolation with migration' model - when the data consists of several hundred thousand SNPs typed for multiple individuals by simulating data from known demographic models. The ABC approach was used to infer demographic parameters of interest and we compared the inferred values to the true parameter values that was used to generate hypothetical "observed" data. For all three case models, the ABC approach inferred most demographic parameters quite well with narrow credible intervals, for example, population divergence times and past population sizes, but some parameters were more difficult to infer, such as population sizes at present and migration rates. We compared the ability of different summary statistics to infer demographic parameters, including haplotype and LD based statistics, and found that the accuracy of the parameter estimates can be improved by combining summary statistics that capture different parts of information in the data. Furthermore, our results suggest that poor choices of prior distributions can in some circumstances be detected using ABC. Finally, increasing the amount of data beyond some hundred loci will substantially improve the accuracy of many parameter estimates using ABC. Conclusions We conclude that the ABC approach can accommodate realistic genome-wide population genetic data, which may be difficult to analyze with full likelihood approaches, and that the ABC can provide accurate and precise inference of demographic parameters from

  5. Demographic and human dimension of international migration in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Duhinets H. V.; Rielina I. Ie.

    2015-01-01

    Modern transformation of the economic system of this country led to structural changes in the social environment. Movement of population and human resources inside and outside the country increased. The growth of the scale of international migration processes, their mixed impact on the development of the countries, qualitative transformation of the specified processes determine the importance of the study of demographic and employment dimension of the international migration processes in Ukra...

  6. Domestication and human demographic history in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S Ivan; Postillone, María Bárbara; Rindel, Diego

    2017-05-01

    The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America. We employ mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), radiocarbon data and Bayesian methods to estimate differences in population size, human occupation and explore the demographic changes of human populations in three regions (i.e., South-Central Andes, Northwest, and South Patagonia). We also use archaeological evidence to infer the main diet changes in these regions. The absolute population size during the later Late Holocene was fifteen times larger in the South-Central Andes than in Northwest Patagonia, and two times larger in the latter region than in South Patagonia. The South-Central Andes display the earlier and more abrupt population growth, beginning about 9000 years BP, whereas Northwest Patagonia exhibits a more slow growth, beginning about 7000-7500 years BP. South Patagonia represents a later and slower population increase. In this work we uncovered a well-supported pattern of the demographic change in the populations from South-Central Andes and Patagonia, obtained on the basis of different data and quantitative approaches, which suggests that the incorporation of domestic resources was paramount for the demographic expansion of these populations during the Holocene. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of effective population size to demographic parameters in house sparrow populations.

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    Stubberud, Marlene Waege; Myhre, Ane Marlene; Holand, Håkon; Kvalnes, Thomas; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N. Using the global variance-based Sobol' method for the sensitivity analyses, we found that Ne/N was most sensitive to demographic variance, especially among older individuals. Furthermore, the individual reproductive values (that determine the demographic variance) were most sensitive to variation in fecundity. Our results draw attention to the applicability of sensitivity analyses in population management and conservation. For population management aiming to reduce the loss of genetic variation, a sensitivity analysis may indicate the demographic parameters towards which resources should be focused. The result of such an analysis may depend on the life history and mating system of the population or species under consideration, because the vital rates and sex-age classes that Ne/N is most sensitive to may change accordingly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. When celibacy matters: incorporating non-breeders improves demographic parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Deborah; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    In long-lived species only a fraction of a population breeds at a given time. Non-breeders can represent more than half of adult individuals, calling in doubt the relevance of estimating demographic parameters from the sole breeders. Here we demonstrate the importance of considering observable non-breeders to estimate reliable demographic traits: survival, return, breeding, hatching and fledging probabilities. We study the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). In this species, the breeding cycle lasts almost a year and birds that succeed a given year tend to skip the next breeding occasion while birds that fail tend to breed again the following year. Most non-breeders remain unobservable at sea, but still a substantial number of observable non-breeders (ONB) was identified on breeding sites. Using multi-state capture-mark-recapture analyses, we used several measures to compare the performance of demographic estimates between models incorporating or ignoring ONB: bias (difference in mean), precision (difference is standard deviation) and accuracy (both differences in mean and standard deviation). Our results highlight that ignoring ONB leads to bias and loss of accuracy on breeding probability and survival estimates. These effects are even stronger when studied in an age-dependent framework. Biases on breeding probabilities and survival increased with age leading to overestimation of survival at old age and thus actuarial senescence and underestimation of reproductive senescence. We believe our study sheds new light on the difficulties of estimating demographic parameters in species/taxa where a significant part of the population does not breed every year. Taking into account ONB appeared important to improve demographic parameter estimates, models of population dynamics and evolutionary conclusions regarding senescence within and across taxa.

  9. Can establishment success be determined through demographic parameters? A case study on five introduced bird species.

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    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available The dominant criterion to determine when an introduced species is established relies on the maintenance of a self-sustaining population in the area of introduction, i.e. on the viability of the population from a demographic perspective. There is however a paucity of demographic studies on introduced species, and establishment success is thus generally determined by expert opinion without undertaking population viability analyses (PVAs. By means of an intensive five year capture-recapture monitoring program (involving >12,000 marked individuals we studied the demography of five introduced passerine bird species in southern Spain which are established and have undergone a fast expansion over the last decades. We obtained useful estimates of demographic parameters (survival and reproduction for one colonial species (Ploceus melanocephalus, confirming the long-term viability of its local population through PVAs. However, extremely low recapture rates prevented the estimation of survival parameters and population growth rates for widely distributed species with low local densities (Estrilda troglodytes and Amandava amandava but also for highly abundant yet non-colonial species (Estrilda astrild and Euplectes afer. Therefore, determining the establishment success of introduced passerine species by demographic criteria alone may often be troublesome even when devoting much effort to field-work. Alternative quantitative methodologies such as the analysis of spatio-temporal species distributions complemented with expert opinion deserve thus their role in the assessment of establishment success of introduced species when estimates of demographic parameters are difficult to obtain, as is generally the case for non-colonial, highly mobile passerines.

  10. Estimating demographic parameters using a combination of known-fate and open N-mixture models.

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    Schmidt, Joshua H; Johnson, Devin S; Lindberg, Mark S; Adams, Layne G

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of demographic parameters are required to infer appropriate ecological relationships and inform management actions. Known-fate data from marked individuals are commonly used to estimate survival rates, whereas N-mixture models use count data from unmarked individuals to estimate multiple demographic parameters. However, a joint approach combining the strengths of both analytical tools has not been developed. Here we develop an integrated model combining known-fate and open N-mixture models, allowing the estimation of detection probability, recruitment, and the joint estimation of survival. We demonstrate our approach through both simulations and an applied example using four years of known-fate and pack count data for wolves (Canis lupus). Simulation results indicated that the integrated model reliably recovered parameters with no evidence of bias, and survival estimates were more precise under the joint model. Results from the applied example indicated that the marked sample of wolves was biased toward individuals with higher apparent survival rates than the unmarked pack mates, suggesting that joint estimates may be more representative of the overall population. Our integrated model is a practical approach for reducing bias while increasing precision and the amount of information gained from mark-resight data sets. We provide implementations in both the BUGS language and an R package.

  11. Perfluorinated and chlorinated pollutants as predictors of demographic parameters in an endangered seabird

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Lorentsen, Svein-Hakon; Herzke, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Despite global occurrence of several perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) the potential ecological effects of such substances on natural populations are not known. In endangered lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) on the Norwegian Coast, the blood concentrations of PFCs were as high as legacy organochlorines (OCs), and here we examined whether PFCs show associations similar to those of OCs to factors potentially affecting population growth, by evaluating relationships between contaminant concentrations and demographic parameters (reproductive performance and the probability of adults returning between breeding seasons). PFCs were not adversely associated with demographic parameters, while the most persistent OCs; notably PCB and p,p'-DDE, were adversely associated with early chick survival, and adult return rate. This study thus suggests that when the concentrations of PFCs and OCs are of similar magnitude in a gull population, OCs are more likely to cause adverse ecological effects. - When the concentrations of PFCs and OCs are of similar magnitude in a population of gulls, OCs seem to have a stronger propensity for causing adverse ecological effects

  12. Spatially explicit inference for open populations: estimating demographic parameters from camera-trap studies.

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    Gardner, Beth; Reppucci, Juan; Lucherini, Mauro; Royle, J Andrew

    2010-11-01

    We develop a hierarchical capture-recapture model for demographically open populations when auxiliary spatial information about location of capture is obtained. Such spatial capture-recapture data arise from studies based on camera trapping, DNA sampling, and other situations in which a spatial array of devices records encounters of unique individuals. We integrate an individual-based formulation of a Jolly-Seber type model with recently developed spatially explicit capture-recapture models to estimate density and demographic parameters for survival and recruitment. We adopt a Bayesian framework for inference under this model using the method of data augmentation which is implemented in the software program WinBUGS. The model was motivated by a camera trapping study of Pampas cats Leopardus colocolo from Argentina, which we present as an illustration of the model in this paper. We provide estimates of density and the first quantitative assessment of vital rates for the Pampas cat in the High Andes. The precision of these estimates is poor due likely to the sparse data set. Unlike conventional inference methods which usually rely on asymptotic arguments, Bayesian inferences are valid in arbitrary sample sizes, and thus the method is ideal for the study of rare or endangered species for which small data sets are typical.

  13. Clinical, psychological and demographic parameters of body pain in multiple sclerosis

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    Ghasem Salehpoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body pain in multiple sclerosis (MS is a common phenomenon that can create or exacerbate by different parameters of clinical, psychological and demographic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parameters of clinical (fatigue, clinical course, body mass index and duration, psychological (depression, anxiety and stress and demographic (age, gender, marital status and education characters with multiple sclerosis patient’s body pain. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been performed in the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Guilan Province and Imam Reza Specialized and Sub-specialized Clinic, Rasht City, Iran during June to February 2010. In this study 162 patients with MS were selected by consecutive sampling. We used the clinical and demographic variables inventory, body pain subscale of the health survey questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and fatigue severity scale along with identical analog-spring balance. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and point bi-serial, one-way analysis of variance, Gabriel test and stepwise multiple regression. Results: The findings showed that patients who scored 3 or higher in relapses experienced significantly more body pain than patients who scored 1-2 times of relapses (P= 0.031. In the meantime, significant differences were not found between the two groups of patients with a score of 3 or higher in relapses and non-relapse and between non-relapse patients and with a score 1-2 times of relapses in terms of body pain. Also, significant differences were not found in different groups of hospitalization in terms of body pain. However, anxiety and fatigue together could explain significantly 25% of the shared variance of body pain (F= 26.29, P≤ 0.0009. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of psychological and clinical factors on body pain exacerbation in MS patients. Therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to consider

  14. Modeling the Temporal Nature of Human Behavior for Demographics Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felbo, Bjarke; Sundsøy, Pål; Pentland, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phone metadata is increasingly used for humanitarian purposes in developing countries as traditional data is scarce. Basic demographic information is however often absent from mobile phone datasets, limiting the operational impact of the datasets. For these reasons, there has been a growing...... interest in predicting demographic information from mobile phone metadata. Previous work focused on creating increasingly advanced features to be modeled with standard machine learning algorithms. We here instead model the raw mobile phone metadata directly using deep learning, exploiting the temporal...... on both age and gender prediction using only the temporal modality in mobile metadata. We finally validate our method on low activity users and evaluate the modeling assumptions....

  15. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es

  16. A less field-intensive robust design for estimating demographic parameters with Mark-resight data

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    McClintock, B.T.; White, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    The robust design has become popular among animal ecologists as a means for estimating population abundance and related demographic parameters with mark-recapture data. However, two drawbacks of traditional mark-recapture are financial cost and repeated disturbance to animals. Mark-resight methodology may in many circumstances be a less expensive and less invasive alternative to mark-recapture, but the models developed to date for these data have overwhelmingly concentrated only on the estimation of abundance. Here we introduce a mark-resight model analogous to that used in mark-recapture for the simultaneous estimation of abundance, apparent survival, and transition probabilities between observable and unobservable states. The model may be implemented using standard statistical computing software, but it has also been incorporated into the freeware package Program MARK. We illustrate the use of our model with mainland New Zealand Robin (Petroica australis) data collected to ascertain whether this methodology may be a reliable alternative for monitoring endangered populations of a closely related species inhabiting the Chatham Islands. We found this method to be a viable alternative to traditional mark-recapture when cost or disturbance to species is of particular concern in long-term population monitoring programs. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Socio-economic and demographic determinants of Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approaches to reduce related morbidity and mortality include screening for cervical cancer and administration of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine to HPV non-infected females to trigger host resistance. The uptake of HPV vaccine globally has been reported to be less than 1%. Objectives: To assess the level and ...

  18. A comparative study of development and demographic parameters of Tetranychus merganser and Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae) at different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, M. S.; Moriya, D.; Badii, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on development and demographic parameters such as the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) of the two spider mite species Tetranychus merganser Boudreaux and T. kanzawai Kishida at eleven constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 40C at intervals of 2.5...

  19. [Population genetic study of Russian cosmonauts and test subjects: genetic demographic parameters and immunogenetic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, O L; Pobedonostseva, E Iu; Prokhorovskaia, V D; Kholod, O N; Evsiukov, A N; Bogomolov, V V; Voronkov, Iu I; Filatova, L M; Larina, O N; Sidorenko, L A; Morgun, V V; Kasparanskiĭ, R R; Altukhov, Iu P

    2006-10-01

    Genetic demographic characteristics and immunogenetic markers (blood groups ABO, Rhesus, MNSs, P, Duffy, Kidd, and Kell) have been studied in a group of 132 Russian cosmonauts and test subjects (CTSG). Analysis of pedigrees has shown a high exogamy in the preceding generations: almost half of the subjects have mixed ethnic background. According to the results of genetic demographic analysis, a sample from the Moscow population was used as control group (CG). Comparison between the CTSG and CG has demonstrated significant differences in genotype frequencies for several blood group systems. The CTSG is characterized by a decreased proportion of rare interlocus genotypic combinations and an increased man heterozygosity. Analysis of the distributions of individual heterozygosity for loci with codominant expression of alleles has shown that highly heterozygous loci are more frequent in the CTSG. Taking into account that the CTSG has been thoroughly selected from the general population, it is concluded that heterozygosity is related to successful adaptation to a space flight.

  20. Analysis of changes of demographic parameters in different groups of Chernigiv region population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridzhuk, M.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    To perform comparison of the changes in different social and age groups of the population of Chernigiv region, Kozeletsky district in particular, which was exposed to considerable radioactive contamination, during the recent 20 years (beginning from 1977). The Chernobyl accident together with social and other unfavorable factors caused negative demographic changes in the contaminated districts. Reduction in the number of different social groups of the population is expected

  1. The Socio-Demographic Changes in Romania: an Analysis from the Human Development Perspective

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    Mioara BORZA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The social and demographic changes registered in recent years, at European and Romanian level, have produced some effects visible in various reference areas. By this paper, we propose to achieve an empirical analysis meant to emphasize the main socio-economic changes of the last 10 years and their influence on the human society development. Based on the inventory of statistical data referring to the socio-demographic dynamics and using a research methodology based on inductive reasoning, dynamic and dialectics analysis, we will obtain some results of research that indicate: the human development is in positive evolution, even the number of population is decreasing.

  2. Fractionation parameters for human tissues and tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Turesson, I.; Bogaert, W. van den

    1989-01-01

    Time-dose factors such as fractionation sensitivity (α/β) can sometimes be estimated from clinical data, when there is a wide variation in dose, fraction size, treatment time, etc. This report summarizes estimates of fractionation parameters derived from clinical results. Consistent with the animal data, α/β is higher for acutely responding than for late-responding normal tissues. While many human tumors seem to be characterized by high α/β values, there are exceptions (e.g. melanomas). Repair kinetics may be slower in human than in rodent skin and mucosa, but there are no hard and fast estimates of the repair halftime. Regeneration in head and neck tumors is equivalent to a daily dose of 1 Gy or less, while in the mucosa it is equivalent to approximately 1.8 Gy/day. (author)

  3. Accessing camera trap survey feasibility for estimating Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae demographic parameters

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    Pedro Henrique F. Peres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Demographic information is the basis for evaluating and planning conservation strategies for an endangered species. However, in numerous situations there are methodological or financial limitations to obtain such information for some species. The marsh deer, an endangered Neotropical cervid, is a challenging species to obtain biological information. To help achieve such aims, the study evaluated the applicability of camera traps to obtain demographic information on the marsh deer compared to the traditional aerial census method. Fourteen camera traps were installed for three months on the Capão da Cruz floodplain, in state of São Paulo, and ten helicopter flyovers were made along a 13-kilometer trajectory to detect resident marsh deer. In addition to counting deer, the study aimed to identify the sex, age group and individual identification of the antlered males recorded. Population estimates were performed using the capture-mark-recapture method with the camera trap data and by the distance sampling method for aerial observation data. The costs and field efforts expended for both methodologies were calculated and compared. Twenty independent photographic records and 42 sightings were obtained and generated estimates of 0.98 and 1.06 ind/km², respectively. In contrast to the aerial census, camera traps allowed us to individually identify branch-antlered males, determine the sex ratio and detect fawns in the population. The cost of camera traps was 78% lower but required 20 times more field effort. Our analysis indicates that camera traps present a superior cost-benefit ratio compared to aerial surveys, since they are more informative, cheaper and offer simpler logistics. Their application extends the possibilities of studying a greater number of populations in a long-term monitoring.

  4. Detecting recent changes in the demographic parameters of drosophilid populations from western and central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiges, Axelle; Yassin, Amir; Ikogou, Maya; Lelarge, Clément; Sikoa, Axelle-Rolande; Mona, Stefano; Veuille, Michel

    2013-07-01

    Previous genetic studies showing evidence of past demographic changes in African drosophilids suggested that these populations had strongly responded to Quaternary climate changes. We surveyed nine species of Zaprionus, a drosophilid genus mostly present in Africa, in forests located between southern Senegal and Gabon. The mitochondrial COI gene showed contrasted levels of sequence variation across species. Populations of the only cosmopolitan species of the genus, Z. indianus, and of its closely related sibling species, Z. africanus, are highly polymorphic and appear to have undergone a continuous population expansion beginning about 130,000 years ago. Five less variable species probably underwent a population expansion beginning only about 20,000-30,000 years ago. One of them, Z. taronus, was significantly structured between forest blocks. The last two species were nearly monomorphic, probably due to infection by Wolbachia. These results are similar to those obtained in three species from the melanogaster subgroup, and may be typical of the responses of African drosophilid populations to glacial cycles.

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC-ANAMNESTIC PARAMETERS WHICH AFFECT IMPLEMENTATION OF BABY FRIENDLY PROGRAM

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    Bozidar Jovanovic

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Various studies and extensive researches, particularly during recent years, on the advantages of breastfeeding and the use of breast milk in infant`s nourishment, have stressed its immeasurable benefit to mothers, infants, family and society. The objective of the research was to ascertain demographic and anamnestic factors affecting the implementation of the baby friendly program. The study was undertaken at OGC CC Kragujevac and based on data from 432 women. The mean age of the examinees was 25,9 years and they were 6 months younger than the corresponding examinees from similar world researches. In most cases, the examinees were from urban areas and lived in bigger families, which did not affect the implementation of the program. With equal probability, it was the first or second pregnancy and in most cases, there were no hospitalizations during the pregnancy in both tested groups. Medications are more often used during the implementation of the baby friendly program. The reason for positive influence of the use of medications during the pregnancy on implementation of the baby friendly program probably lies in better supervision of the pregnancy. The gestation age did not influence the selection into the program. By means of higher level of supervision and by the use of medications during pregnancy, we can positively influence mother`s and infant`s starting with the baby friendly programme implementation.

  6. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Ramadan, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been introduced accidentally into the Hawaiian Islands. They are the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (introduced in 1895), the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (in 1907), the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (in 1945) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) (in 1983). These fruit flies jeopardise development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii, cause exported fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatment and provide a reservoir for introduction into mainland United States. The establishment of fruit flies in Hawaii resulted in subsequent releases of numerous entomophagous insects. For example, Bess et al. (1961) listed a total of 32 natural enemies released between 1947 and 1952. Today, Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) are the most abundant species. These species have played a major role in the reduction of fruit flies throughout the Hawaiian Islands. For example, as a result of parasitisation (60-79.1%) by F. arisanus, the average number of Oriental fruit fly larvae per guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit declined from 8.5 in 1950 to 2.6 in 1955 (Clausen et al. 1965). Demographic population analysis has diverse applications: analysing population stability and structure, estimating extinction probabilities, predicting life history evolution, predicting outbreaks in pest species and examining the dynamics of colonising or invading species. This study of the demography of Hawaiian fruit flies and their parasitoids is based on data from Vargas et al. (1984) and Vargas and Ramadan (1998). This paper describes the comparative demography of F. arisanus, B. tryoni, B. longicaudata, B. vandenboschi, P. incisi and P. fletcheri

  7. The demographics of human and malaria movement and migration patterns in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindolia, Deepa K; Garcia, Andres J; Huang, Zhuojie; Smith, David L; Alegana, Victor A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-11-05

    The quantification of parasite movements can provide valuable information for control strategy planning across all transmission intensities. Mobile parasite carrying individuals can instigate transmission in receptive areas, spread drug resistant strains and reduce the effectiveness of control strategies. The identification of mobile demographic groups, their routes of travel and how these movements connect differing transmission zones, potentially enables limited resources for interventions to be efficiently targeted over space, time and populations. National population censuses and household surveys provide individual-level migration, travel, and other data relevant for understanding malaria movement patterns. Together with existing spatially referenced malaria data and mathematical models, network analysis techniques were used to quantify the demographics of human and malaria movement patterns in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Movement networks were developed based on connectivity and magnitudes of flow within each country and compared to assess relative differences between regions and demographic groups. Additional malaria-relevant characteristics, such as short-term travel and bed net use, were also examined. Patterns of human and malaria movements varied between demographic groups, within country regions and between countries. Migration rates were highest in 20-30 year olds in all three countries, but when accounting for malaria prevalence, movements in the 10-20 year age group became more important. Different age and sex groups also exhibited substantial variations in terms of the most likely sources, sinks and routes of migration and malaria movement, as well as risk factors for infection, such as short-term travel and bed net use. Census and survey data, together with spatially referenced malaria data, GIS and network analysis tools, can be valuable for identifying, mapping and quantifying regional connectivities and the mobility of different demographic

  8. Use of the robust design to estimate seasonal abundance and demographic parameters of a coastal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly C Smith

    Full Text Available As delphinid populations become increasingly exposed to human activities we rely on our capacity to produce accurate abundance estimates upon which to base management decisions. This study applied mark-recapture methods following the Robust Design to estimate abundance, demographic parameters, and temporary emigration rates of an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus population off Bunbury, Western Australia. Boat-based photo-identification surveys were conducted year-round over three consecutive years along pre-determined transect lines to create a consistent sampling effort throughout the study period and area. The best fitting capture-recapture model showed a population with a seasonal Markovian temporary emigration with time varying survival and capture probabilities. Abundance estimates were seasonally dependent with consistently lower numbers obtained during winter and higher during summer and autumn across the three-year study period. Specifically, abundance estimates for all adults and juveniles (combined varied from a low of 63 (95% CI 59 to 73 in winter of 2007 to a high of 139 (95% CI 134 to148 in autumn of 2009. Temporary emigration rates (γ' for animals absent in the previous period ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 (mean  =  0.54; ±SE 0.11 with a peak during spring. Temporary emigration rates for animals present during the previous period (γ'' were lower, ranging from 0.00 to 0.29, with a mean of 0.16 (± SE 0.04. This model yielded a mean apparent survival estimate for juveniles and adults (combined of 0.95 (± SE 0.02 and a capture probability from 0.07 to 0.51 with a mean of 0.30 (± SE 0.04. This study demonstrates the importance of incorporating temporary emigration to accurately estimate abundance of coastal delphinids. Temporary emigration rates were high in this study, despite the large area surveyed, indicating the challenges of sampling highly mobile animals which range over large spatial areas.

  9. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J

    2010-10-05

    Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  10. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  11. Demographic and spatio-temporal variation in human plague at a persistent focus in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Makundi, R H; Machang'u, R S

    2006-01-01

    Human plague in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania has been a public health problem since the first outbreak in 1980. The wildlife reservoir is unknown and eradication measures that have proved effective elsewhere in Tanzania appear to fail in this region. We use census data from 2002...... and hospital records kept since 1986 to describe the temporal, spatial and demographic variation in human plague. A seasonal peak in cases occurs from December to February with the numbers of cases during this peak varying between 0 and 1150. Variation in incidence, calculated for each village as the mean...... number of cases per thousand inhabitants per year, indicates that human plague is concentrated around a group of three neighbouring, relatively isolated, high-altitude villages; Nywelo, Madala and Gologolo. However, there was no evidence that these villages were acting as a source of infection...

  12. Nitrogen in Hydroponic Growing Medium of Tomato Affects the Demographic Parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, R S; Madadi, H; Hosseini, M; Delshad, M; Dashti, F

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of different nitrogen levels (380, 310, 240, and 174 ppm) on the life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on hydroponically cultured tomato plants. Our data show that there is a positive correlation between the nitrogen content and the demographic parameters, as the intrinsic rate of increase of T. vaporariorum was the lowest (0.059 ± 0.007 day(-1)) at 174 ppm and the highest (0.088 ± 0.005 day(-1)) at 380 ppm of nitrogen. The net reproduction rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean developmental time (T) were significantly influenced by the nitrogen levels. The mean longevity of males and females showed a positive relationship with the nitrogen level, ranging from 64.8 ± 3.96 to 76.3 ± 2.44 for males and 61.6 ± 5.35 to 71.2 ± 2.44 for females, observed in the lowest and highest nitrogen levels, respectively. The relationship between nitrogen fertilization and T. vaporariorum management on tomato crops is discussed.

  13. Meat and Nicotinamide: A Causal Role in Human Evolution, History, and Demographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C Williams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hunting for meat was a critical step in all animal and human evolution. A key brain-trophic element in meat is vitamin B 3 /nicotinamide. The supply of meat and nicotinamide steadily increased from the Cambrian origin of animal predators ratcheting ever larger brains. This culminated in the 3-million-year evolution of Homo sapiens and our overall demographic success. We view human evolution, recent history, and agricultural and demographic transitions in the light of meat and nicotinamide intake. A biochemical and immunological switch is highlighted that affects fertility in the ‘de novo’ tryptophan-to-kynurenine-nicotinamide ‘immune tolerance’ pathway. Longevity relates to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumer pathways. High meat intake correlates with moderate fertility, high intelligence, good health, and longevity with consequent population stability, whereas low meat/high cereal intake (short of starvation correlates with high fertility, disease, and population booms and busts. Too high a meat intake and fertility falls below replacement levels. Reducing variances in meat consumption might help stabilise population growth and improve human capital.

  14. New approaches to human mobility: using mobile phones for demographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John R B; Espenshade, Thomas J; Bartumeus, Frederic; Chung, Chang Y; Ozgencil, Necati Ercan; Li, Kathleen

    2013-06-01

    This article explores new methods for gathering and analyzing spatially rich demographic data using mobile phones. It describes a pilot study (the Human Mobility Project) in which volunteers around the world were successfully recruited to share GPS and cellular tower information on their trajectories and respond to dynamic, location-based surveys using an open-source Android application. The pilot study illustrates the great potential of mobile phone methodology for moving spatial measures beyond residential census units and investigating a range of important social phenomena, including the heterogeneity of activity spaces, the dynamic nature of spatial segregation, and the contextual dependence of subjective well-being.

  15. [From personnel administration to human resource management : demographic risk management in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C E; Gerbershagen, M U; Salehin, J; Weib, M; Schmidt, K; Wolff, F; Wappler, F

    2011-06-01

    The healthcare market is facing a serious shortage of qualified personnel in 2020. Aging of staff members is one important driver of this human resource deficit but current planning periods of 1-2 years cannot compensate the demographic effects on staff portfolio early enough. Therefore, prospective human resource planning is important to avoid loss of competence. The long range development (10 years) of human resources in the hospitals of the City of Cologne was analyzed. The basis for the analysis was a simulation model that included fluctuation of staff, retirement, maternity leave, status of employee illness, partial retirement and fresh engagements per department and profession. The model was matched with the staff requirements for each department. The results showed a capacity analysis which was used to convey strategic measures for staff recruitment and retention. The greatest risk for shortage of qualified staff was found in the fluctuation of doctors and in the aging work force. Without strategic human resource management the hospitals would face a 50% reduction of the work force within 10 years and after 2 years there would be a 25% deficit of anesthesiologists with impact on the function of operation rooms (OR) and intensive care units. Qualification and continuous training of staff members as well as process optimization are the most important spheres of activity for human resource management in order to recruit and retain qualified staff members. Prospective human resource planning for the OR and intensive care units can help to detect shortage of staff and loss of competence early enough to apply effective personnel development measures. A growing number of companies have started to plan ahead of the current demand of human resources. Hospitals should follow this example because the competition for qualified staff members is increasing rapidly.

  16. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Jesse; Sawaya, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071) for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975) for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981) for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024) for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948) for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957) for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative population growth

  17. A Comparison of Grizzly Bear Demographic Parameters Estimated from Non-Spatial and Spatial Open Population Capture-Recapture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    Full Text Available Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071 for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975 for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981 for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024 for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948 for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957 for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative

  18. Demographic and ecological risk factors for human influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Agustian, Dwi; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Uyeki, Timothy M; Simões, Eric A F

    2017-09-01

    Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang subdistricts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011. Passive influenza surveillance with RT-PCR confirmation of influenza A viral RNA in respiratory specimens was utilized for case ascertainment. A population census and mapping were utilized for population data collection. The presence of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections in a household was modeled using Generalized Estimating Equations. Each additional child aged <5 years in a household increased the odds of H3N2 approximately 5 times (OR=4.59, 95%CI: 3.30-6.24) and H1N1pdm09 by 3.5 times (OR=3.53, 95%CI: 2.51-4.96). In addition, the presence of 16-30 birds in the house was associated with an increased odds of H3N2 (OR=5.08, 95%CI: 2.00-12.92) and H1N1pdm09 (OR=12.51 95%CI: 6.23-25.13). Our findings suggest an increase in influenza A virus infections in rural Indonesian households with young children and poultry. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. effects of septrin administration on blood cells parameters in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    honey

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... RESEARCH PAPER. EFFECTS OF SEPTRIN ADMINISTRATION ON BLOOD CELLS PARAMETERS IN. HUMANS. *1Onyebuagu P.C., 2Kiridi K. and 1Pughikumo D.T.. 1Department of Human Physiology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa, Nigeria. 2Department of Radiology, Niger. Delta University, Bayelsa ...

  20. Long–term variation of demographic parameters in four small game species in Europe: opportunities and limits to test for a global pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gée, A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, decreases in several populations of some small sedentary game species have been reported in Europe. From the literature, we extracted mortality and reproductive rates that were available for European populations in four iconic species, the grey partridge (Perdix perdix, the black grouse (Tetrao tetrix, the capercaillie (T. urogallus and the brown hare (Lepus europaeus, to examine how demographic parameters vary with time. Our study revealed the need to consider many confounding factors (age, sex, origin of studied individuals, season, country and methods and the scarcity of recent demographic studies. Statistical analyses showed contrasted patterns of demographic traits with time within and between species. Our results highlighted that there may be consistency with a population decrease in grey partridge and black grouse that has been reported in the literature. However, analyses in capercaillie and brown hare showed less support for a population decrease at the European scale. The significant effects of interactions between time and age (in grey partridge, capercaillie and brown hare, method or origin of individuals on demographic traits and the emergence of contrasted patterns between short, intermediate and long monitoring periods (in grey partridge and black grouse suggested that further studies should pay particular attention to potential confounding factors. Finally, the lack of recent data and doubts about the relative importance of reported causal factors indicate the need for further studies on the links between demographic traits, densities and environmental changes in the long term, and particularly on the role of predation and habitat change.

  1. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island–associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33’/21°S07’), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June–October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61–85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886–0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ” = γ’ < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat. PMID:28640918

  2. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulau, Violaine; Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07'), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  3. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Dulau

    Full Text Available Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07', in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast. The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85, based on a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03 distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958 and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01, while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only and temporally (five months per year. Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  4. Sensitivity of risk parameters to human errors for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.; Hall, R.E.; Kerr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitivities of the risk parameters, emergency safety system unavailabilities, accident sequence probabilities, release category probabilities and core melt probability were investigated for changes in the human error rates within the general methodological framework of the Reactor Safety Study for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Impact of individual human errors were assessed both in terms of their structural importance to core melt and reliability importance on core melt probability. The Human Error Sensitivity Assessment of a PWR (HESAP) computer code was written for the purpose of this study

  5. MORPHOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF GUT MICROFLORA IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Meijer, B.C

    1991-01-01

    The morphology of faecal microflora of nine healthy human volunteers was studied by digital image analysis of microscopic slides. Weekly specimens were collected during an 8-week period. Seven morphometrical parameters were derived: the means and medians of components 1, 2 and 3, and morphometrical

  6. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Design. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. Results. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes’ holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. PMID:27694560

  7. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-09-30

    The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes' holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Is It Necessary Managing Carnivores to Reverse the Decline of Endangered Prey Species? Insights from a Removal Experiment of Mesocarnivores to Benefit Demographic Parameters of the Pyrenean Capercaillie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Moreno-Opo

    Full Text Available Mesopredator control has long been used to alleviate the effect of elevated predation pressure on vulnerable, threatened or valuable species. However, the convenience of using mesopredator controls is technically questionable and scientifically-sound research is therefore required to evaluate the impact of predation on prey case by case. In this study we evaluated the effect of the alteration of terrestrial mesopredator dynamics on the demographic parameters of a relict capercaillie Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus population currently in decline for which the impact of predation has not previously been assessed. We used a six-year mesocarnivore removal experiment (2008-2013 together with seven-years of previous demographic information on capercaillies (1999-2007 within a before-after control-impact (BACI design to evaluate the effect of mesocarnivore removal on capercaillie demographic parameters and on spatial behaviour of the most frequent predatory mesocarnivores of the capercaillie (Martes spp. and red fox Vulpes vulpes. Using a dynamic site-occupancy approach, the reduction of mesocarnivore population levels as a result of removal was clear for marten species, mainly during key months for capercaillie reproduction, but not for the red fox. Our results show that the breeding success of capercaillies was enhanced in areas where carnivores were removed and was inversely related to the occupation level of the studied mesocarnivores, although being only significant for Martes spp. Moreover, capercaillie predation rates were lower and adult survival seemingly higher in treatment during the removal phase. Cost-effective, long-term management interventions to ensure the recovery of this threatened capercaillie population are discussed in the light of the results. At our study area, the decision for implementing predation management should be included within a broader long-term conservation perspective. In this regard, a more feasible and sustainable

  9. Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Flokatoula, Maria; Armeni, Eleni; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Augoulea, Areti; Antoniou, Aris; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Panoulis, Constantinos; Dendrinos, Spyridon; Papacharalambous, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited. To evaluate the frequency of asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VFs), and potential risk factors, in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study at the University Menopause Clinic. Four hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women aged 35 to 80 years, with an average menopausal age of 9.2±7.1 years. They included medical history, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), and LS lateral radiographs. Lumbar spine lateral radiographs were evaluated according to quantitative procedures, aiming to identify VFs. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and values of BMD were compared according to the presence of VFs. A total of 37 (8.15%) women had at least one VF. Lumbar spine and FN-osteoporosis was identified in up to 23.1% and 40.9% subjects with prevalent VFs, respectively. The prevalence of VFs was largely associated with age, with women aged 60 years or more presenting an up to fourfold risk compared with younger women. Moreover, the presence of VFs was associated with higher menopausal age, advanced age at menarche, a history of early menopause, and prolonged lactation. Lower LS-BMD and, especially, FN-BMD were negatively associated with VF prevalence (prevalent VF vs. no VF: LS-BMD, 0.89±0.16 g/cm(2) vs. 0.98±0.16 g/cm(2), p=.010; FN-BMD, 0.72±0.10 g/cm(2) vs. 0.81±0.12 g/cm(2), p=.008). Asymptomatic VFs are common among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women. More than 50% subjects with prevalent VFs present with normal BMD or osteopenia. Age and bone density classification at the FN presented the strongest association with the prevalence of VFs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human's serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Divsalar; Tahereh, Haghpanah; Mohammadreza, Afarinesh; Minoo, Mahmoudi Zarandi

    2010-05-01

    Iran is a significant consumer of opium, and, generally, of opioids, in the world. Addiction is one of the important issues of the 21st century and is an imperative issue in Iran. Long-term consumption of opioids affects homeostasis. To determine the effects of opium and heroin consumption on serum biochemical parameters. In a cross-sectional study, subjects who had consumed heroin (n = 35) or opium (n = 42) for more than two years and 35 nonaddict volunteers as the control group were compared in regard to various biochemical parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, creatinine, and total protein. Chromatography was used to confirm opioid consumption, and the concentration of biochemical parameters was determined by laboratory diagnostic tests on serum. No significant differences were found in Na(+), Ca(2+), BUN, UA, TG, creatinine, and total protein concentrations among the three groups. FBS, K(+), and UA levels were significantly lower in opium addicts compared to the control group. Serum Ca(2+) concentration of heroin addicts showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control group. Both addict groups showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Chronic use of opium and heroin can change serum FBS, K(+), Ca(2+), UA, and cholesterol. This study, one of few on the effects of opium on serum biochemical parameters in human subjects, has the potential to contribute to the investigation of new approaches for further basic studies.

  11. Using population demographic parameters to assess impacts of two polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-47, BDE-209) on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jingjing; Wang, You; Chen, Hongmei; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaohong; Qi, Lei; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are highly persistent anthropogenic contaminants found in the environment, posing a risk to aquatic ecosystems, whereas there is a lack of data concerning their impacts on marine invertebrates. The objective of this study was to assess the relative lethal and sublethal aquatic toxicity effects of two PBDEs, BDE-47 and BDE-209 congeners, on marine zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis associated with PBDE concentrations and time of exposure. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed to determine actual PBDE concentrations. Rotifer population demographic parameters from life tables, including age-specific survivorship (lx), age-specific fecundity (mx), net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), life expectancy (E0) and generation time (T), were used as measures of treatment effects. Results from this study have revealed increasingly intense negative effects on many of the rotifer demographic parameters with elevated PBDE concentrations. The population growth curves of B. plicatilis showed almost no lag phase and reached peak abundances within 11 days, while B. plicatilis exposed to BDE-209 had a lag phase of about 5 days. In addition, increased PBDE levels reduced the population abundances and peak population densities of B. plicatilis. The two PBDEs have caused the carrying capacity (K) suppressed and the negative influence turned more serious as the concentration rose. Results also revealed that the time to reach growth curve inflection point (Tp) was shortened by PBDEs to different degrees. This study not only indicated that life table demography and population growth curve studies were two important aspects used to evaluate toxicant PBDE effects, but also compared the two PBDE disruptions to the population growth and reproduction of the rotifer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Demographic changes and marker properties affect detection of human population differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichwankul Kittipong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating genetically between populations is valuable for admixture and population stratification detection and in understanding population history. This is easy to achieve for major continental populations, but not for closely related populations. It has been claimed that a large marker panel is necessary to reliably distinguish populations within a continent. We investigated whether empirical genetic differentiation could be accomplished efficiently among three Asian populations (Hmong, Thai, and Chinese using a small set of highly variable markers (15 tetranucleotide and 17 dinucleotide repeats. Results Hmong could be differentiated from Thai and Chinese based on multi-locus genotypes, but Thai and Chinese were indistinguishable from each other. We found significant evidence for a recent population bottleneck followed by expansion in the Hmong that was not present in the Thai or Chinese. Tetranucleotide repeats were less useful than dinucleotide repeat markers in distinguishing between major continental populations (Asian, European, and African while both successfully distinguished Hmong from Thai and Chinese. Conclusion Demographic history contributes significantly to robust detection of intracontinental population structure. Populations having experienced a rapid size reduction may be reliably distinguished as a result of a genetic drift -driven redistribution of population allele frequencies. Tetranucleotide markers, which differ from dinucleotide markers in mutation mechanism and rate, are similar in information content to dinucleotide markers in this situation. These factors should be considered when identifying populations suitable for gene mapping studies and when interpreting interpopulation relationships based on microsatellite markers.

  13. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  14. Ageing, human capital and demographic dividends with endogenous growth, labour supply and foreign capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edle von Gaessler, Anne; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We modify a Lucas-type endogenous growth model to contain endogenous labour supply, imperfect international capital movements, and estimated interest and education time functions. Solutions based on realistic calibrations show that (i) the rate of human capital depreciation through ageing has a much

  15. Demographics of an ornate box turtle population experiencing minimal human-induced disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, S.J.; Iverson, J.B.; Savidge, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced disturbances may threaten the viability of many turtle populations, including populations of North American box turtles. Evaluation of the potential impacts of these disturbances can be aided by long-term studies of populations subject to minimal human activity. In such a population of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) in western Nebraska, we examined survival rates and population growth rates from 1981-2000 based on mark-recapture data. The average annual apparent survival rate of adult males was 0.883 (SE = 0.021) and of adult females was 0.932 (SE = 0.014). Minimum winter temperature was the best of five climate variables as a predictor of adult survival. Survival rates were highest in years with low minimum winter temperatures, suggesting that global warming may result in declining survival. We estimated an average adult population growth rate (????) of 1.006 (SE = 0.065), with an estimated temporal process variance (????2) of 0.029 (95% CI = 0.005-0.176). Stochastic simulations suggest that this mean and temporal process variance would result in a 58% probability of a population decrease over a 20-year period. This research provides evidence that, unless unknown density-dependent mechanisms are operating in the adult age class, significant human disturbances, such as commercial harvest or turtle mortality on roads, represent a potential risk to box turtle populations. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. TU-C-12A-09: Modeling Pathologic Response of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer to Chemo-Radiotherapy Using Quantitative PET/CT Features, Clinical Parameters and Demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H; Chen, W; Kligerman, S; D’Souza, W; Suntharalingam, M; Lu, W; Tan, S; Kim, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop predictive models using quantitative PET/CT features for the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: This study included 20 patients who underwent tri-modality therapy (CRT + surgery) and had 18 F-FDG PET/CT scans before initiation of CRT and 4-6 weeks after completion of CRT but prior to surgery. Four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) conventional PET/CT response measures (SUVmax, tumor diameter, etc.); (2) clinical parameters (TNM stage, histology, etc.) and demographics; (3) spatial-temporal PET features, which characterize tumor SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns, geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT; and (4) all features combined. An optimal feature set was identified with recursive feature selection and cross-validations. Support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed for prediction of pathologic tumor response to CRT, using cross-validations to avoid model over-fitting. Prediction accuracy was assessed via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and precision was evaluated via confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC. Results: When applied to the 4 groups of tumor features, the LR model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.10), 0.73 (0.07), 0.90 (0.06), and 0.90 (0.06). The SVM model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.56 (0.07), 0.60 (0.06), 0.94 (0.02), and 1.00 (no misclassifications). Using spatial-temporal PET features combined with conventional PET/CT measures and clinical parameters, the SVM model achieved very high accuracy (AUC 1.00) and precision (no misclassifications), significantly better than using conventional PET/CT measures or clinical parameters and demographics alone. For groups with a large number of tumor features (groups 3 and 4), the SVM model achieved significantly higher accuracy than the LR model. Conclusion: The SVM model using all features including

  17. Modeling Pathologic Response of Esophageal Cancer to Chemoradiation Therapy Using Spatial-Temporal 18F-FDG PET Features, Clinical Parameters, and Demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Tan, Shan; Chen, Wengen; Kligerman, Seth; Kim, Grace; D'Souza, Warren D.; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct predictive models using comprehensive tumor features for the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: This study included 20 patients who underwent trimodality therapy (CRT + surgery) and underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) both before and after CRT. Four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) conventional PET/CT response measures (eg, standardized uptake value [SUV] max , tumor diameter); (2) clinical parameters (eg, TNM stage, histology) and demographics; (3) spatial-temporal PET features, which characterize tumor SUV intensity distribution, spatial patterns, geometry, and associated changes resulting from CRT; and (4) all features combined. An optimal feature set was identified with recursive feature selection and cross-validations. Support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) models were constructed for prediction of pathologic tumor response to CRT, cross-validations being used to avoid model overfitting. Prediction accuracy was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and precision was evaluated by confidence intervals (CIs) of AUC. Results: When applied to the 4 groups of tumor features, the LR model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.57 (0.10), 0.73 (0.07), 0.90 (0.06), and 0.90 (0.06). The SVM model achieved AUCs (95% CI) of 0.56 (0.07), 0.60 (0.06), 0.94 (0.02), and 1.00 (no misclassifications). With the use of spatial-temporal PET features combined with conventional PET/CT measures and clinical parameters, the SVM model achieved very high accuracy (AUC 1.00) and precision (no misclassifications)—results that were significantly better than when conventional PET/CT measures or clinical parameters and demographics alone were used. For groups with many tumor features (groups 3 and 4), the SVM model achieved significantly higher accuracy than

  18. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  19. A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Shi (Wentao); Q. Ayub (Qasim); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.G. Shao (Rong Guang); S.B. Zuniga (Sofia); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); Y. Xue (Yali); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and

  20. Quantifying the demographic cost of human-related mortality to a raptor population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, W. Grainger; Wiens, David; Law, Peter R.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, Teresa L.; Driscoll, Daniel E.; Jackman, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to a wide variety of human-related mortality agents, and yet population-level effects are rarely quantified. Doing so requires modeling vital rates in the context of species life-history, behavior, and population dynamics theory. In this paper, we explore the details of such an analysis by focusing on the demography of a resident, tree-nesting population of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of an extensive (142 km2) windfarm in California. During 1994–2000, we tracked the fates of >250 radio-marked individuals of four life-stages and conducted five annual surveys of territory occupancy and reproduction. Collisions with wind turbines accounted for 41% of 88 uncensored fatalities, most of which were subadults and nonbreeding adults (floaters). A consistent overall male preponderance in the population meant that females were the limiting sex in this territorial, monogamous species. Estimates of potential population growth rate and associated variance indicated a stable breeding population, but one for which any further decrease in vital rates would require immigrant floaters to fill territory vacancies. Occupancy surveys 5 and 13 years later (2005 and 2013) showed that the nesting population remained intact, and no upward trend was apparent in the proportion of subadult eagles as pair members, a condition that would have suggested a deficit of adult replacements. However, the number of golden eagle pairs required to support windfarm mortality was large. We estimated that the entire annual reproductive output of 216–255 breeding pairs would have been necessary to support published estimates of 55–65 turbine blade-strike fatalities per year. Although the vital rates forming the basis for these calculations may have changed since the data were collected, our approach should be useful for gaining a clearer understanding of how anthropogenic mortality affects the health of raptor populations, particularly those species with delayed

  1. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  2. Evaluating the reliability of Persian version of ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQoL) questionnaire and related clinical and demographic parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sasan; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Bidad, Katayoon; Qorbani, Mostafa; Mahmoudi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQoL) is an instrument for assessing quality of life (QoL). The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of Persian version of ASQoL questionnaire and evaluation of QoL status and related factors in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and sixty-three Iranian patients with AS who fulfilled modified New York criteria were enrolled. Patients were evaluated using questionnaires including demographic and clinical variables, Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), fatigue, Bath AS Metrology Index, pain and ASQoL. Reliability and validity of Persian version of ASQoL were evaluated by test-re-test agreement, internal consistency and correlation with specific scales. Relationship of parameters with ASQoL was analyzed by multiple regression. Age, disease duration and ASQoL score (mean ± SD) were 37.74 ± 9.88, 14.49 ± 8.47 and 8.02 ± 5.28 years, respectively. Test-re-test reproducibility for ASQoL was good as assessed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC: 0.97, P educational level, r = -0.37). Persian version of ASQoL is a valid and reliable scale to assess QoL in AS. Function, fatigue, mood, hip mobility and education are the factors which should be noted to achieve the best QoL.

  3. Characteristic parameters of electromagnetic signals from a human heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xin-Yuan; Wang Yin; Zhang Su-Ming; Gao Hong-Lei; Pei Liu-Qing; Dai Yuan-Dong

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field of a human heart system is a bioelectromagnetic field. Electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) are both carriers of electromagnetic information about the cardiac system, and they are nonstationary signals. In this study, ECG and MCG data from healthy subjects are acquired; the MCG data are captured using a high-T c radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (HTc rf SQUIDs) and the QRS complexes in these data are analysed by the evolutionary spectrum analysis method. The results show that the quality factor Q and the central frequency f z of the QRS complex evolutionary spectrum are the characteristic parameters (CHPs) of ECG and MCG in the time—frequency domain. The confidence intervals of the mean values of the CHPs are estimated by the Student t distribution method in mathematical statistics. We believe that there are threshold ranges of the mean values of Q and f z for healthy subjects. We have postulated the following criterion: if the mean values of CHPs are in the proper ranges, the cardiac system is in a normal condition and it possesses the capability of homeostasis. In contrast, if the mean values of the CHPs do not lie in the proper ranges, the homeostasis of the cardiac system is lacking and some cardiac disease may follow. The results and procedure of MCG CHPs in the study afford a technological route for the application of HTc rf SQUIDs in cardiology. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. ADAPTIVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF PERSON RECOGNITION MODEL IN A STOCHASTIC HUMAN TRACKING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    W. Nakanishi; T. Fuse; T. Ishikawa

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at an estimation of parameters of person recognition models using a sequential Bayesian filtering method. In many human tracking method, any parameters of models used for recognize the same person in successive frames are usually set in advance of human tracking process. In real situation these parameters may change according to situation of observation and difficulty level of human position prediction. Thus in this paper we formulate an adaptive parameter estimation ...

  5. On the Interplay between Order Parameter Dynamics and System Parameter Dynamics in Human Perceptual-Cognitive-Behavioral Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T D

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that perceiving, thinking, and acting are human activities that correspond to self-organized patterns. The emergence of such patterns can be completely described in terms of the dynamics of the pattern amplitudes, which are referred to as order parameters. The patterns emerge at bifurcations points when certain system parameters internal and external to a human agent exceed critical values. At issue is how one might study the order parameter dynamics for sequences of consecutive, emergent perceptual, cognitive, or behavioral activities. In particular, these activities may in turn impact the system parameters that have led to the emergence of the activities in the first place. This interplay between order parameter dynamics and system parameter dynamics is discussed in general and formulated in mathematical terms. Previous work that has made use of this two-tiered framework of order parameter and system parameter dynamics are briefly addressed. As an application, a model for perception under functional fixedness is presented. Finally, it is argued that the phenomena that emerge in this framework and can be observed when human agents perceive, think, and act are just as likely to occur in pattern formation systems of the inanimate world. Consequently, these phenomena do not necessarily have a neurophysiological basis but should instead be understood from the perspective of the theory of self-organization.

  6. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  7. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577-587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture-mark-recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture-mark-recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and less precise

  8. Sensor Data Acquisition and Processing Parameters for Human Activity Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian D. Bersch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that parameter selection for data sampling frequency and segmentation techniques (including different methods and window sizes has an impact on the classification accuracy. For Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, no clear information to select these parameters exists, hence a wide variety and inconsistency across today’s literature is observed. This paper presents the empirical investigation of different data sampling rates, segmentation techniques and segmentation window sizes and their effect on the accuracy of Activity of Daily Living (ADL event classification and computational load for two different accelerometer sensor datasets. The study is conducted using an ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA based on 32 different window sizes, three different segmentation algorithm (with and without overlap, totaling in six different parameters and six sampling frequencies for nine common classification algorithms. The classification accuracy is based on a feature vector consisting of Root Mean Square (RMS, Mean, Signal Magnitude Area (SMA, Signal Vector Magnitude (here SMV, Energy, Entropy, FFTPeak, Standard Deviation (STD. The results are presented alongside recommendations for the parameter selection on the basis of the best performing parameter combinations that are identified by means of the corresponding Pareto curve.

  9. Changing demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on changing population demographics, poor academic preparation for and a decreasing interest in engineering among college students which indicates possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. The talent pool for engineering must be enlarged to include women and minority men, if we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S

  10. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Oktapodas, M.; Palkovičová Murinová, L.; Babjaková, J.; Verner, M.A.; DeWitt, J.C.; Babinská, K.; Thevenet-Morrison, K.; Čonka, K.; Drobná, B.; Thurston, S.W.; Lawrence, B.P.; Dozier, A.M.; Jarvinen-Seppo, K.M.; Patayová, H.; Trnovec, T.; Legler, J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184

  11. ESTIMATION OF HUMAN BODY SHAPE PARAMETERS USING MICROSOFT KINECTSENCOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Vasilkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a human body shape estimation technology based on scan data acquired from sensor controller Microsoft Kinect is described. This device includes an RGB camera and a depth sensor that provides, for each pixel of the image,a distance from the camera focus to the object. A scan session produces a triangulated high-density surface noised with oscillations, isolated fragments and holes. When scanning a human, additional noise comes from garment folds and wrinkles. An algorithm of creating a sparse and regular 3D human body model (avatar free of these defects, which approximates shape, posture and basic metrics of the scanned body is proposed. This solution finds application in individual clothing industry and computer games, as well.

  12. Calculation of Inertial Parameters to Find Dynamic Human Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2004-03-01

    A number of authenticated models of the human body have been produced during decades of research, and yet deficient substitutes continue to be concocted. Recent examples of the latter sadly include: (a) if human = water and potato = water, then human = potato; (b) pancreas = hot dog; and, (c) spine = plastic pipe. Omission of any suitable use of biology in these cases makes the inadequacies involved all the more unacceptable. The unduly simplistic nature seen there is contrasted with the correct procedures documented in this paper. Particular attention is paid here to the fields of anatomy and anthropometry, and the unique challenges[1] associated with pediatric cases are also discussed. The results of this study show that the naivety in the flawed examples above and elsewhere is completely unjustified, even for first-order speculations. The importance of first-hand clinical experience is explained as an essential component in the determination of accurate biomechanical data for human kinematics. 1. Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 44, 273 (1999).

  13. Study on human physiological parameters for monitoring of mental works in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Ishii, Keiichiro; Nakasa, Hiroyasu; Shigeta, Sadayoshi.

    1982-01-01

    To prevent outbreaks of the wrong operation and judgement in the nuclear power plant, human conditions of body and mind should be taken into consideration particularly for the mental works such as inspection and monitoring. To estimate human conditions quantitatively by the measurement of human physiological parameters, this paper presents the following experimental results. (1) Physiological parameters are estimated from both sides of biological meanings and the applicability to field works. (2) Time variation of the parameters is investigated in mental simulation tests in order to select a good indicator of mental fatigue. (3) Correlation analysis between mental fatigue indexes and physiological parameters shows that the heart rate is a best indicator. (author)

  14. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  15. Thorium-232 in human tissues: Metabolic parameters and radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehney, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Higher than environmental levels of 232 Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a Th refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Concentrations of 232 Th in these samples and in tissues from two cases of non-occupational exposure were examined for compatibility with dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICPP 1979a). The concentrations of 232 Th in the lungs of the Th workers relative to the concentrations in bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y aerosols of Th and the exposure histories of the subjects, and concentrations in the pulmonary lymph nodes were much lower than calculated for three of the Th workers and both non-occupational cases. Least-squares fits to the measured concentrations showed that the biological half-times of Th in liver, spleen, and kidneys are similar to the half-time in bone instead of the factor of 10 less suggested in Publication 30, and the fractions translocated from body fluids were found to be about 0.03, 0.02, and 0.005, respectively, when the fraction to bone was held at the suggested value of 0.7. Fitted values of the respiratory parameters differed significantly between cases and the differences were ascribable to aerosol differences. Average inhalation rates calculated for individual Th workers ranged from 50 to 110 Bq 232 Th y -1 , and dose equivalents as high as 9.3 Sv to the lungs, 2.0 Sv to bone surfaces, and 1.1 Sv effective dose equivalent were calculated from the inhalation rates and fitted values of the metabolic parameters. The radiation doses were about the same when calculated from parameter values fitted with an assumed translocation fraction of 0.2 from body fluids to bone instead of 0.7

  16. Human endogenous retroviruses and chosen disease parameters in morphea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Silny, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Morphea (localized scleroderma) is a relatively rare disease characterized by excessive skin fibrosis. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are largely distributed within the human genome with hundreds of thousands of elements. The HERV have been widely studied in autoimmune disorders, yet hardly ever assessed in diseases with a good prognosis such as morphea. Aim In this study we focus on the possible relations between the expression of chosen HERV and factors influencing the pathomechanism of the disease, such as age, sex, titres of anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as duration, activity, and severity of the disease (LoSSI index). Material and methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting six HERV sequences of interest were performed on samples derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin biopsies. Results In PBMC we found a statistically significant negative correlation between HERV-W env expression and LoSSI index (p = 0.01). Additionally, HERV-W env was downregulated in patients with the active form of morphea. In all other cases we found no correlation whatsoever nor statistically significant differences below the p = 0.05 threshold. Conclusions Morphea seems to be an autoimmune disease where the impact of HERV is not so apparent. It seems that probing many patients for the expression of just a few sequences is not as effective as previously expected. For initial studies of HERV in other diseases we recommend high throughput techniques such as HERV-dedicated DNA microarrays or massive parallel sequencing. PMID:28261031

  17. Human endogenous retroviruses and chosen disease parameters in morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał J. Kowalczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Morphea (localized scleroderma is a relatively rare disease characterized by excessive skin fibrosis. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV are largely distributed within the human genome with hundreds of thousands of elements. The HERV have been widely studied in autoimmune disorders, yet hardly ever assessed in diseases with a good prognosis such as morphea. Aim: In this study we focus on the possible relations between the expression of chosen HERV and factors influencing the pathomechanism of the disease, such as age, sex, titres of anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as duration, activity, and severity of the disease (LoSSI index. Material and methods: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting six HERV sequences of interest were performed on samples derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and skin biopsies. Results: In PBMC we found a statistically significant negative correlation between HERV-W env expression and LoSSI index (p = 0.01. Additionally, HERV-W env was downregulated in patients with the active form of morphea. In all other cases we found no correlation whatsoever nor statistically significant differences below the p = 0.05 threshold. Conclusions : Morphea seems to be an autoimmune disease where the impact of HERV is not so apparent. It seems that probing many patients for the expression of just a few sequences is not as effective as previously expected. For initial studies of HERV in other diseases we recommend high throughput techniques such as HERV-dedicated DNA microarrays or massive parallel sequencing.

  18. Infrared spectra in monitoring biochemical parameters of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S; Singh, R A; Jain, N

    2012-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is gaining recognition as a promising method. The infrared spectra of selected regions (2000-400cm -1 ) of blood tissue samples are reported. Present study related to the role of spectral peak fitting in the study of human blood and quantitative interpretations of infrared spectra based on chemometrics. The spectral variations are interpreted in terms of the biochemical and pathological processes involved. The mean RNA/DNA ratio of fitted intensities and analytical area as calculated from the transmittance peaks at 1121cm -1 /1020cm -1 is found to be 0.911A.U and 2.00A.U. respectively. The ratio of 1659cm -1 /1544cm -1 (amide-I/amide-II) bands is found to shed light on the change in the DNA content. The ratio of amide-I/amide-II is almost unity (≅1.054) for blood spectra. The deviation from unity is an indication of DNA absorption from the RBC cells. The total phosphate content has found to be 25.09A.U. The level for glycogen/phosphate ratio (areas under peaks 1030cm -1 /1082cm -1 ) is found to be 0.286A.U. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated carbonyl compounds (C=O) in blood samples is in form of esters and the analytical areas under the spectral peaks at 1740cm -1 and 1731cm -1 for unsaturated esters and saturated esters respectively found to be 0.618A.U.

  19. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; Oktapodas, Marina; Murinová, L’ubica Palkovičová; Babinská, Katarina; Babjaková, Jana; Verner, Marc-André; DeWitt, Jamie C.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Čonka, Kamil; Drobná, Beata; Chovancová, Jana; Thurston, Sally W.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Dozier, Ann M.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Patayová, Henrieta; Trnovec, Tomáš; Legler, Juliette; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lamoree, Marja H.

    2017-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184 colostrum samples collected from women participating in a cohort study in eastern Slovakia between 2002 and 2004. During their hospital delivery stay, mothers completed a food frequency questionnaire, and demographic and reproductive data were also collected. PFOS and PFOA predictors were identified by optimizing multiple linear regression models using Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). The geometric mean concentration in colostrum was 35.3 pg/ml for PFOS and 32.8 pg/ml for PFOA., In multivariable models, parous women had 40% lower PFOS (95% CI: −56 to −17%) and 40% lower PFOA (95% CI: −54 to −23%) concentrations compared with nulliparous women. Moreover, fresh/frozen fish consumption, longer birth intervals, and Slovak ethnicity were associated with higher PFOS and PFOA concentrations in colostrum. These results will help guide the design of future epidemiologic studies examining milk PFAS concentrations in relation to health endpoints in children. PMID:27244128

  20. Adaptive Parameter Estimation of Person Recognition Model in a Stochastic Human Tracking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, W.; Fuse, T.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at an estimation of parameters of person recognition models using a sequential Bayesian filtering method. In many human tracking method, any parameters of models used for recognize the same person in successive frames are usually set in advance of human tracking process. In real situation these parameters may change according to situation of observation and difficulty level of human position prediction. Thus in this paper we formulate an adaptive parameter estimation using general state space model. Firstly we explain the way to formulate human tracking in general state space model with their components. Then referring to previous researches, we use Bhattacharyya coefficient to formulate observation model of general state space model, which is corresponding to person recognition model. The observation model in this paper is a function of Bhattacharyya coefficient with one unknown parameter. At last we sequentially estimate this parameter in real dataset with some settings. Results showed that sequential parameter estimation was succeeded and were consistent with observation situations such as occlusions.

  1. Parameters Estimation For A Patellofemoral Joint Of A Human Knee Using A Vector Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszkiewicz, A.; Knapczyk, J.

    2015-08-01

    Position and displacement analysis of a spherical model of a human knee joint using the vector method was presented. Sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation were performed using the evolutionary algorithm method. Computer simulations for the mechanism with estimated parameters proved the effectiveness of the prepared software. The method itself can be useful when solving problems concerning the displacement and loads analysis in the knee joint.

  2. Lead, cadmium and arsenic in human milk and their socio-demographic and lifestyle determinants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Maya; Daou, Farah; Hassan, Hussein; Yamani, Osama; Kharma, Joelle Abi; Attieh, Zouheir; Elaridi, Jomana

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of newborns to toxic metals is of special interest due to their reported contamination in breast milk and potential harm. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and factors associated with lead, cadmium and arsenic contamination in breast milk collected from lactating mothers in Lebanon. A total of 74 breast milk samples were collected from primaparas according to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. A survey was administered to determine the demographic and anthropometric characteristics of participating lactating mothers. Dietary habits were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The milk samples were analyzed for the presence of arsenic, cadmium and lead using microwave-assisted digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic contamination was found in 63.51% of breast milk samples (mean 2.36 ± 1.95 μg/L) whereas cadmium and lead were detected in 40.54% and 67.61% of samples respectively (means 0.87 ± 1.18 μg/L and 18.18 ± 13.31 μg/L). Regression analysis indicated that arsenic contamination was associated with cereal and fish intake (p = 0.013 and p = 0.042 respectively). Residence near cultivation activities (p = 0.008), smoking status before pregnancy (p = 0.046), potato consumption (p = 0.046) and education level (p = 0.041) were associated with lead contamination. Cadmium contamination was significantly associated with random smoke exposure (p = 0.002). Our study is the first in Lebanon to report toxic metal contamination in breast milk. Although estimated weekly infant intake of these metals from breast milk was found to be lower than the limit set by international guidelines, our results highlight the need for developing strategies to protect infants from exposure to these hazardous substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research on human physiological parameters intelligent clothing based on distributed Fiber Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Changyun; Shi, Boya; Li, Hongqiang

    2008-12-01

    A human physiological parameters intelligent clothing is researched with FBG sensor technology. In this paper, the principles and methods of measuring human physiological parameters including body temperature and heart rate in intelligent clothing with distributed FBG are studied, the mathematical models of human physiological parameters measurement are built; the processing method of body temperature and heart rate detection signals is presented; human physiological parameters detection module is designed, the interference signals are filtered out, and the measurement accuracy is improved; the integration of the intelligent clothing is given. The intelligent clothing can implement real-time measurement, processing, storage and output of body temperature and heart rate. It has accurate measurement, portability, low cost, real-time monitoring, and other advantages. The intelligent clothing can realize the non-contact monitoring between doctors and patients, timely find the diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases, and make patients get timely treatment. It has great significance and value for ensuring the health of the elders and the children with language dysfunction.

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf : Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Materials and Methods: Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy

  5. The role of human demographic history in determining the distribution and frequency of transferase-deficient galactosaemia mutations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flanagan, J M

    2010-02-01

    Classical or transferase-deficient galactosaemia is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutation in the human Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene. Of some 170 causative mutations reported, fewer than 10% are observed in more than one geographic region or ethnic group. To better understand the population history of the common GALT mutations, we have established a haplotyping system for the GALT locus incorporating eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and three short tandem repeat markers. We analysed haplotypes associated with the three most frequent GALT gene mutations, Q188R, K285N and Duarte-2 (D2), and estimated their age. Haplotype diversity, in conjunction with measures of genetic diversity and of linkage disequilibrium, indicated that Q188R and K285N are European mutations. The Q188R mutation arose in central Europe within the last 20 000 years, with its observed east-west cline of increasing relative allele frequency possibly being due to population expansion during the re-colonization of Europe by Homo sapiens in the Mesolithic age. K285N was found to be a younger mutation that originated in Eastern Europe and is probably more geographically restricted as it arose after all major European population expansions. The D2 variant was found to be an ancient mutation that originated before the expansion of Homo sapiens out of Africa.

  6. Sensitivity of risk parameters to human errors in reactor safety study for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Hall, R.E.; Swoboda, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivities of the risk parameters, emergency safety system unavailabilities, accident sequence probabilities, release category probabilities and core melt probability were investigated for changes in the human error rates within the general methodological framework of the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Impact of individual human errors were assessed both in terms of their structural importance to core melt and reliability importance on core melt probability. The Human Error Sensitivity Assessment of a PWR (HESAP) computer code was written for the purpose of this study. The code employed point estimate approach and ignored the smoothing technique applied in RSS. It computed the point estimates for the system unavailabilities from the median values of the component failure rates and proceeded in terms of point values to obtain the point estimates for the accident sequence probabilities, core melt probability, and release category probabilities. The sensitivity measure used was the ratio of the top event probability before and after the perturbation of the constituent events. Core melt probability per reactor year showed significant increase with the increase in the human error rates, but did not show similar decrease with the decrease in the human error rates due to the dominance of the hardware failures. When the Minimum Human Error Rate (M.H.E.R.) used is increased to 10 -3 , the base case human error rates start sensitivity to human errors. This effort now allows the evaluation of new error rate data along with proposed changes in the man machine interface

  7. Evaluation of microstructural parameters of human dentin by digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tavares Coutinho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image analysis was used to fully characterize the microstructure of human dentin. With the automatic routine implemented, field and region parameters related to human dentin characterization were obtained in significant statistical quantities. The results obtained for the density, area fraction, distance between neighbors, tilt angle, area and average diameter of the dentinary tubules are presented for unerupted third molars. The results, grouped per class of dentin or per tooth, are discussed in the light of the previous data found on the literature.

  8. Comparison of predictability for human pharmacokinetics parameters among monkeys, rats, and chimeric mice with humanised liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Maki; Iwasaki, Shinji; Chisaki, Ikumi; Nakagawa, Sayaka; Amano, Nobuyuki; Hirabayashi, Hideki

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of chimeric mice with humanised liver (PXB mice) for the prediction of clearance (CL t ) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vd ss ), in comparison with monkeys, which have been reported as a reliable model for human pharmacokinetics (PK) prediction, and with rats, as a conventional PK model. 2. CL t and Vd ss values in PXB mice, monkeys and rats were determined following intravenous administration of 30 compounds known to be mainly eliminated in humans via the hepatic metabolism by various drug-metabolising enzymes. Using single-species allometric scaling, human CL t and Vd ss values were predicted from the three animal models. 3. Predicted CL t values from PXB mice exhibited the highest predictability: 25 for PXB mice, 21 for monkeys and 14 for rats were predicted within a three-fold range of actual values among 30 compounds. For predicted human Vd ss values, the number of compounds falling within a three-fold range was 23 for PXB mice, 24 for monkeys, and 16 for rats among 29 compounds. PXB mice indicated a higher predictability for CL t and Vd ss values than the other animal models. 4. These results demonstrate the utility of PXB mice in predicting human PK parameters.

  9. Online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes of a human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-07-31

    We have developed a method for online determination of biophysical parameters of mucous membranes (MMs) of a human body (transport scattering coefficient, scattering anisotropy factor, haemoglobin concentration, degrees of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries with blood) from measurements of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection. The method is based on regression relationships between linearly independent components of the measured light signals and the unknown parameters of MMs, obtained by simulation of the radiation transfer in the MM under conditions of its general variability. We have proposed and justified the calibration-free fibre-optic method for determining the concentration of haemoglobin in MMs by measuring the light signals diffusely reflected by the tissue in four spectral regions at two different distances from the illumination spot. We have selected the optimal wavelengths of optical probing for the implementation of the method. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  10. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D

    2016-04-01

    The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.

  11. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  12. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf: Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 3T scanner and a 16-channel Torso XL coil. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired to perform fiber tractography and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis for each muscle of both legs. Fiber tractography was used to separate seven lower leg muscles. Associations between DTI parameters and confounds were evaluated. All muscles were additionally separated in seven identical segments along the z-axis to evaluate intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained for each muscle with low standard deviations (SDs) (SD FA : 0.01-0.02; SD MD : 0.07-0.14(10 -3 )). We found significant differences in FA values of the tibialis anterior muscle (AT) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles between men and women for whole muscle FA (two-sample t-tests; AT: P = 0.0014; EDL: P = 0.0004). We showed significant intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters between adjacent segments in most calf muscles (P < 0.001). Whereas muscle insertions showed higher (SD 0.03-0.06) than muscle bellies (SD 0.01-0.03), no relationships between FA or MD with age or BMI were found. Inter- and intramuscular variations in diffusion parameters of the calf were shown, which are not related to age or BMI in this age group. Differences between muscle belly and insertion should be considered when interpreting datasets not including whole muscles. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1137-1148. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Temporal parameter change of human postural control ability during upright swing using recursive least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akifumi; Ishida, Mizuri; Sagawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive quantitative assessment indicators of the human postural control ability. An inverted pendulum is applied to standing human body and is controlled by ankle joint torque according to PD control method in sagittal plane. Torque control parameters (KP: proportional gain, KD: derivative gain) and pole placements of postural control system are estimated with time from inclination angle variation using fixed trace method as recursive least square method. Eight young healthy volunteers are participated in the experiment, in which volunteers are asked to incline forward as far as and as fast as possible 10 times over 10 [s] stationary intervals with their neck joint, hip joint and knee joint fixed, and then return to initial upright posture. The inclination angle is measured by an optical motion capture system. Three conditions are introduced to simulate unstable standing posture; 1) eyes-opened posture for healthy condition, 2) eyes-closed posture for visual impaired and 3) one-legged posture for lower-extremity muscle weakness. The estimated parameters Kp, KD and pole placements are applied to multiple comparison test among all stability conditions. The test results indicate that Kp, KD and real pole reflect effect of lower-extremity muscle weakness and KD also represents effect of visual impairment. It is suggested that the proposed method is valid for quantitative assessment of standing postural control ability.

  15. Radiobiological parameters of a human tumor parent line and four tumor clones of a human epidermoid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Beckett, M.; Dahlberg, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the radiobiological parameters of a parent tumor line and four tumor clones of a human squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The parent line and clones have a tumor morphology, aneuploid karyotype, and the ability to passage continuously in vitro. With the exception of clone F2A, all cell lines form tumors in nude mice. The parent line, SCC-12 has a D/sub o/ of 154 and an n 7.5 In four tumor clones, D/sub o/ ranges from 131 (clone V) to 266 (clone B2); n ranges from 22.8 in clone V to 2.1 in clone B2. PLDR following 1100 rad ranges from 1.7 in clone B2 to 13.1 in clone V. However, PLDR following equitoxic doses of radiation is similar in the parent and all sub-clones. Radiobiological heterogeneity may complicate predictive assays for clinical radiotherapy

  16. Socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ahoada-East local government area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuonwu Obi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using "Determine" (Abbott Laboratories, Japan, Start-Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Subjects included 152 consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25΁7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%. HIV infection was higher among females (10.9% compared to males (10.1% and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1% (P= 0.08. HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74% compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection.

  17. Correlation between the parameters of radiosensitivity in human cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Kim, Won Dong; Min, Kyung Soo

    1998-01-01

    We conducted clonogenic assay using human cancer cell lines (MKN-45, PC-14, Y-79, HeLa) to investigate a correlation between the parameters of radiosensitivity. Human cancer cell lines were irradiated with single doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10Gy for the study of radiosensitivity and sublethal damage repair capacity was assessed with two fractions of 5Gy separated with a time interval of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Surviving fraction was assessed with clonogenic assay using Sperman-Karber method and mathematical analysis of survival curves was done with linear-quadratic (LQ), multitarget-single hit(MS) model and mean inactivation dose(D). Surviving fractions at 2Gy(SF2) were variable among the cell lines, ranged from 0.174 to 0.85. The SF2 of Y-79 was lowest and that of PC-14 was highest(p<0.05, t-test). LQ model analysis showed that the values of α for Y-79, MKN-45, HeLa and PC-14 were 0.603, 0.356, 0.275 and 0.102 respectively, and those of β were 0.005, 0.016, 0.025 and 0.027 respectively. Fitting to MS model showed that the values of Do for Y-79, MKN-45, HeLa and PC-14 were 1.59, 1.84, 1.88 and 2.52 respectively, and those of n were 0.97, 1.46, 1.52 and 1.69 respectively. The Ds calculated by Gauss-Laguerre method were 1.62, 2.37, 2.61 and 3.95 respectively. So the SF2 was significantly correlated with α, Do and D. Their Pearson correlation coefficiencics were -0.953 and 0.993, 0.999 respectively(p<0.05). Sublethal damage repair was saturated around 4 hours and recovery ratios (RR) at plateau phase ranged from 2 to 3.79. But RR was not correlated with SF2, α, β, Do, D. The intrinsic radiosensitivity was very different among the tested human cell lines. Y-79 was the most sensitive and PC-14 was the least sensitive. SF2 was well correlated with α, Do, and D. RR was high for MKN-45 and HeLa but had nothing to do with radiosensitivity parameters. These basic parameters can be used as baseline data for various in vitro radiobiological experiments

  18. Sex determination of human mandible using metrical parameters by computed tomography: A prospective radiographic short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sex determination of unidentified human remains is very important in forensic medicine, medicolegal cases, and forensic anthropology. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone that commonly resists postmortem damage and forms an important source of personal identification. Additional studies have demonstrated the applicability of facial reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography scan (3D-CT for the purpose of individual identification. Aim: To determine the sex of human mandible using metrical parameters by CT. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty subjects (15 males and 15 females, with age group ranging between 10 and 60 years obtained from the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital. CT scan was performed on all the subjects, and the data obtained were reconstructed for 3D viewing. After obtaining 3D-CT scan, a total of seven mandibular measurements, i.e., gonial angle (G-angle, ramus length (Ramus-L, minimum ramus breadth and gonion-gnathion length (G-G-L, bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth (BIC-Br, and coronoid length (CO-L were measured; collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis program by Student's t-test. Results: The result of the study showed that out of seven parameters, G-angle, Ramus-L, G-G-L, BIC-Br, and CO-L showed a significant statistical difference (P < 0.05, with overall accuracy of 86% for males and 82% for females. Conclusion: Personal identification using mandible by conventional methods has already been proved but with variable efficacies. Advanced imaging modalities can aid in personal identification with much higher accuracy than conventional methods.

  19. Modeling bioaccumulation in humans using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (PPLFERS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, Emma, E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se; Czub, Gertje; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2011-04-01

    Chemical partition coefficients between environmental media and biological tissues are a key component of bioaccumulation models. The single-parameter linear free energy relationships (spLFERs) commonly used for predicting partitioning are often derived using apolar chemicals and may not accurately capture polar chemicals. In this study, a poly-parameter LFER (ppLFER) based model of organic chemical bioaccumulation in humans is presented. Chemical partitioning was described by an air-body partition coefficient that was a volume weighted average of ppLFER based partition coefficients for the major organs and tissues constituting the human body. This model was compared to a spLFER model treating the body as a mixture of lipid ({approx} octanol) and water. Although model agreement was good for hydrophobic chemicals (average difference 15% for log K{sub OW} > 4 and log K{sub OA} > 8), the ppLFER model predicted {approx} 90% lower body burdens for hydrophilic chemicals (log K{sub OW} < 0). This was mainly due to lower predictions of muscle and adipose tissue sorption capacity for these chemicals. A comparison of the predicted muscle and adipose tissue sorption capacities of hydrophilic chemicals with measurements indicated that the ppLFER and spLFER models' uncertainties were similar. Consequently, little benefit from the implementation of ppLFERs in this model was identified. - Research Highlights: {yields}Implementation of ppLFERs resulted in on average 90% lower predicted body burdens. {yields}Uncertainties in spLFER and ppLFER predictions were similar. {yields}The benefit from implementation of ppLFERs in bioaccumulation models was limited.

  20. Focal Electrically Administered Therapy (FEAT): Device parameter effects on stimulus perception in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Linder, Katie; Ricci, Raffaella; Li, Xingbao; Anderson, Berry; Arana, Ashley; Nahas, Ziad; Amassian, Vahe; Long, James; George, Mark S.; Sackeim, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Focal Electrically-Administered Therapy (FEAT) is a new method of transcranial electrical stimulation capable of focal modulation of cerebral activity. Other than invasive studies in animals and examination of motor output in humans, there are limited possibilities for establishing basic principles about how variation in stimulus parameters impact on patterns of intracortical stimulation. This study used a simpler paradigm, and evaluated the effects of different stimulation parameters on subjective perception of the quality and location of scalp pain. Methods In two studies, 19 subjects were randomly stimulated over the left forehead, varying the anode-cathode arrangement, the intensity of stimulation, the electrode size and placement, and whether the current flow was unidirectional or bidirectional. Subjects rated the location of the sensation, and its quality. Results The perceived center of stimulation moved toward the cathode, regardless of placement. This shift in subjective sensation was more prominent when the electricity was unidirectional. Additionally, more intense stimulation, as well as stimulation with a smaller electrode, caused greater perceived pain. Unidirectional stimulation was rated more painful when traveling from a large anode to a small cathode and less painful when traveling from a small anode to a large cathode. Finally, participants were more likely to perceive the electrical stimulation as moving towards a specific direction when the intensity was high than when it was low. Conclusions The intensity and location of sensations can be manipulated by varying the intensity, current direction, or geometry of electrodes. PMID:19092677

  1. Alfuzosin hydrochloride transdermal films: evaluation of physicochemical, in vitro human cadaver skin permeation and thermodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayan Pattnaik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the investigation was to develop a transdermal therapeutic system for alfuzosin hydrochloride and to study the effects of polymeric system and loading dose on the in vitro skin permeation pattern. Materials and methods: Principles of experimental design have been exploited to develop the dosage form. Ratio of ethyl cellulose (EC and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and loading dose were selected as independent variables and their influence on the cumulative amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride permeated per cm2 of human cadaver skin at 24 h (Q24, permeation flux (J and steady state permeability coefficient (P SS were studied using experimental design. Various physicochemical parameters of the transdermal films were also evaluated. Activation energy for in vitro transdermal permeation has been estimated. Results: Ratio of EC and PVP was found to be the main influential factor for all the dependent variables studied. Drug loading dose was also found to influence the dependent variables but to a lesser extent. Physicochemical parameters of the prepared films were evaluated and found satisfactory. Activation energy for alfuzosin permeation has also been estimated and reported. Conclusion: The therapeutic system was found to be dermatologically non-irritant and hence, a therapeutically effective amount of alfuzosin hydrochloride can be delivered via a transdermal route.

  2. Comparison of human embryomorphokinetic parameters in sequential or global culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdar, Nadia; Brugnon, Florence; Bouche, Cyril; Jouve, Guilhem; Veau, Ségolène; Drapier, Hortense; Rousseau, Chloé; Pimentel, Céline; Viard, Patricia; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine; Ravel, Célia

    2017-08-01

    A prospective study on randomized patients was conducted to determine how morphokinetic parameters are altered in embryos grown in sequential versus global culture media. Eleven morphokinetic parameters of 160 single embryos transferred were analyzed by time lapse imaging involving two University-affiliated in vitro fertilization (IVF) centers. We found that the fading of the two pronuclei occurred earlier in global (22.56±2.15 hpi) versus sequential media (23.63±2.71 hpi; p=0.0297). Likewise, the first cleavage started earlier at 24.52±2.33 hpi vs 25.76±2.95 hpi (p=0.0158). Also, the first cytokinesis was shorter in global medium, lasting 18±10.2 minutes in global versus 36±37.8 minutes in sequential culture medium (p culture medium. Our study highlights the need to adapt morphokinetic analysis accordingly to the type of media used to best support human early embryo development.

  3. Quantitatively Plotting the Human Face for Multivariate Data Visualisation Illustrated by Health Assessments Using Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. Methods. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+ in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z>3 was still counted as 3. The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. Results. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. Conclusions. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  4. Identification of Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer Structure Parameters for Human Body Dynamics Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincas Benevicius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to their small size, low weight, low cost and low energy consumption, MEMS accelerometers have achieved great commercial success in recent decades. The aim of this research work is to identify a MEMS accelerometer structure for human body dynamics measurements. Photogrammetry was used in order to measure possible maximum accelerations of human body parts and the bandwidth of the digital acceleration signal. As the primary structure the capacitive accelerometer configuration is chosen in such a way that sensing part measures on all three axes as it is 3D accelerometer and sensitivity on each axis is equal. Hill climbing optimization was used to find the structure parameters. Proof-mass displacements were simulated for all the acceleration range that was given by the optimization problem constraints. The final model was constructed in Comsol Multiphysics. Eigenfrequencies were calculated and model’s response was found, when vibration stand displacement data was fed into the model as the base excitation law. Model output comparison with experimental data was conducted for all excitation frequencies used during the experiments.

  5. [Effect of recombinant human growth hormone therapy on metabolic parameters in patients with craniopharyngioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J F; Wang, X; Xiong, S Y; Zheng, J J; Yu, B Q; Nie, M; Wu, X Y; Qi, S T

    2017-11-14

    Objective: To investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic parameters in patients with craniopharyngioma surgeries. Methods: Totallys 30 patients with craniopharyngioma were included in this retrospective study. They were divided into growth hormone (GH) group and control group according to whether they received rhGH therapy or not. The following parameters, including body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumstance, transaminase, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were compared after rhGH therapy for 4-6 months. Results: In GH group, patients were 18-46 (30.0±8.8) years old. The duration after craniopharyngioma surgery was (12.9±5.4) years. Before rhGH therapy, they had got sufficient thyroid and glucocorticoid hormone replacement. After rhGH therapy, the body weight decreased from (92.3±20.1) to (87.6 ±14.6) kg ( P =0.190), with a reduction of BMI from (30.1±5.9) to (28.2±3.7) kg/m(2) ( P =0.120). The waist circumference decreased from (104.4±9.4) cm to (98.8±10.6) cm ( P =0.002). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased from (52±34) to (28±19) U/L ( P =0.029), with a reduction of aspartate transaminase (AST) from (46±21) to (33±18) U/L ( P =0.035) and γ-glutamyl transpeptadase (GGT) from (59±42) to (29±15) U/L ( P =0.02). hsCRP decreased from (5.3±4.9) to (2.3±2.8) mg/L ( P =0.006) and triglyceride (TG) decreased from (1.8±0.7) to (1.5±0.6) mmol/L ( P =0.028). Fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and free fat acid (FFA) were not significantly changed(all P >0.05). In the control group, the above mentioned parameters did not changed significantly during 4-6 months of observational period(all P >0.05). Conclusion: rhGH therapy improves metabolic parameters in patients after craniopharyngioma surgery by decreasing body weight, waist circumstance and fat deposit in liver, as well as

  6. Dancing with Demographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  7. Evaluation of a Silicone Membrane as an Alternative to Human Skin for Determining Skin Permeation Parameters of Chemical Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takashi; Yakumaru, Masafumi; Nishioka, Keisuke; Higashi, Yoshihiro; Sano, Tomohiko; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a silicone membrane as an alternative to human skin using the skin permeation parameters of chemical compounds. An in vitro permeation study using 15 model compounds was conducted, and permeation parameters comprising permeability coefficient (P), diffusion parameter (DL(-2)), and partition parameter (KL) were calculated from each permeation profile. Significant correlations were obtained in log P, log DL(-2), and log KL values between the silicone membrane and human skin. DL(-2) values of model compounds, except flurbiprofen, in the silicone membrane were independent of the lipophilicity of the model compounds and were 100-fold higher than those in human skin. For antipyrine and caffeine, which are hydrophilic, KL values in the silicone membrane were 100-fold lower than those in human skin, and P values, calculated as the product of a DL(-2) and KL, were similar. For lipophilic compounds, such as n-butyl paraben and flurbiprofen, KL values for silicone were similar to or 10-fold higher than those in human skin, and P values for silicone were 100-fold higher than those in human skin. Furthermore, for amphiphilic compounds with log Ko/w values from 0.5 to 3.5, KL values in the silicone membrane were 10-fold lower than those in human skin, and P values for silicone were 10-fold higher than those in human skin. The silicone membrane was useful as a human skin alternative in an in vitro skin permeation study. However, depending on the lipophilicity of the model compounds, some parameters may be over- or underestimated.

  8. Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.

    Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender males and females; (3) blood pressure degree persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.

  9. Multi-parameter in vitro toxicity testing of crizotinib, sunitinib, erlotinib, and nilotinib in human cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Kimberly R.; Wappel, Robert L.; Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M.; Kramer, James W.; Brown, Arthur M.; Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) have greatly improved the treatment and prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, unexpected cardiotoxicity has arisen in a subset of patients treated with these agents that was not wholly predicted by pre-clinical testing, which centers around animal toxicity studies and inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a multi-parameter test panel assessing the effect of drug treatment on cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological endpoints could accurately predict cardiotoxicity. We examined how 4 FDA-approved TKi agents impacted cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metabolic status, impedance, and ion channel function in human cardiomyocytes. The 3 drugs clinically associated with severe cardiac adverse events (crizotinib, sunitinib, nilotinib) all proved to be cardiotoxic in our in vitro tests while the relatively cardiac-safe drug erlotinib showed only minor changes in cardiac cell health. Crizotinib, an ALK/MET inhibitor, led to increased ROS production, caspase activation, cholesterol accumulation, disruption in cardiac cell beat rate, and blockage of ion channels. The multi-targeted TKi sunitinib showed decreased cardiomyocyte viability, AMPK inhibition, increased lipid accumulation, disrupted beat pattern, and hERG block. Nilotinib, a second generation Bcr-Abl inhibitor, led to increased ROS generation, caspase activation, hERG block, and an arrhythmic beat pattern. Thus, each drug showed a unique toxicity profile that may reflect the multiple mechanisms leading to cardiotoxicity. This study demonstrates that a multi-parameter approach can provide a robust characterization of drug-induced cardiomyocyte damage that can be leveraged to improve drug safety during early phase development. - Highlights: • TKi with known adverse effects show unique cardiotoxicity profiles in this panel. • Crizotinib increases ROS, apoptosis, and

  10. Hematological parameters of human immunodeficiency virus positive pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulqadir, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Sagir Gumel; Kuliya, Aisha Gwarzo; Tukur, Jamilu; Yusuf, Aminu Abba; Musa, Abubakar Umar

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) scourge continues to affect young women within the reproductive age group and pregnancy is a recognized indication for the use antiretroviral (ARV) drugs among HIV-positive women. The aim is to determine the combined effect of pregnancy, HIV and ARV drugs on the hematological parameters of the pregnant women. This was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted among 70 each of HIV-positive and negative pregnant women. Bio-demographic and clinical data were extracted from the client folder and 4 ml of blood sample was obtained from each participant. Full blood count was generated using Swelab automatic hematology analyzer while reticulocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were conducted manually. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version software 16 while P women with HIV had statistically significant lower hematocrit and white blood cell (WBC) and higher ESR than pregnant women without HIV ( P 0.05). However, among HIV positive pregnant women, those with CD4 count 0.050) between women on first- and second-line ARV regimens. There is a significant difference in terms of hematological parameters between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in this environment.

  11. A compositional look at the human gastrointestinal microbiome and immune activation parameters in HIV infected subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece A Mutlu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy.

  12. The basal kinetic parameters of glycogen synthase in human myotube cultures are not affected by chronic high insulin exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Schrøder, H D; Handberg, A

    2001-01-01

    results show that chronic exposure of human myotubes to high insulin with or without high glucose did not affect the basal kinetic parameters but abolished the reactivity of GS to acute insulin stimulation. We suggest that insulin induced insulin resistance of GS is caused by a failure of acute insulin......There is no consensus regarding the results from in vivo and in vitro studies on the impact of chronic high insulin and/or high glucose exposure on acute insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase (GS) kinetic parameters in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic...... parameters of glycogen synthase activity in human myotube cultures at conditions of chronic high insulin combined or not with high glucose exposure, before and after a subsequent acute insulin stimulation. Acute insulin stimulation significantly increased the fractional activity (FV(0.1)) of GS, increased...

  13. FindFoci: a focus detection algorithm with automated parameter training that closely matches human assignments, reduces human inconsistencies and increases speed of analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Herbert

    Full Text Available Accurate and reproducible quantification of the accumulation of proteins into foci in cells is essential for data interpretation and for biological inferences. To improve reproducibility, much emphasis has been placed on the preparation of samples, but less attention has been given to reporting and standardizing the quantification of foci. The current standard to quantitate foci in open-source software is to manually determine a range of parameters based on the outcome of one or a few representative images and then apply the parameter combination to the analysis of a larger dataset. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of using machine learning to train a new algorithm (FindFoci to determine optimal parameters. FindFoci closely matches human assignments and allows rapid automated exploration of parameter space. Thus, individuals can train the algorithm to mirror their own assignments and then automate focus counting using the same parameters across a large number of images. Using the training algorithm to match human assignments of foci, we demonstrate that applying an optimal parameter combination from a single image is not broadly applicable to analysis of other images scored by the same experimenter or by other experimenters. Our analysis thus reveals wide variation in human assignment of foci and their quantification. To overcome this, we developed training on multiple images, which reduces the inconsistency of using a single or a few images to set parameters for focus detection. FindFoci is provided as an open-source plugin for ImageJ.

  14. Robust Demographic Inference from Genomic and SNP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excoffier, Laurent; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia; Sousa, Vitor C.; Foll, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a flexible and robust simulation-based framework to infer demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS) computed on large genomic datasets. We show that our composite-likelihood approach allows one to study evolutionary models of arbitrary complexity, which cannot be tackled by other current likelihood-based methods. For simple scenarios, our approach compares favorably in terms of accuracy and speed with , the current reference in the field, while showing better convergence properties for complex models. We first apply our methodology to non-coding genomic SNP data from four human populations. To infer their demographic history, we compare neutral evolutionary models of increasing complexity, including unsampled populations. We further show the versatility of our framework by extending it to the inference of demographic parameters from SNP chips with known ascertainment, such as that recently released by Affymetrix to study human origins. Whereas previous ways of handling ascertained SNPs were either restricted to a single population or only allowed the inference of divergence time between a pair of populations, our framework can correctly infer parameters of more complex models including the divergence of several populations, bottlenecks and migration. We apply this approach to the reconstruction of African demography using two distinct ascertained human SNP panels studied under two evolutionary models. The two SNP panels lead to globally very similar estimates and confidence intervals, and suggest an ancient divergence (>110 Ky) between Yoruba and San populations. Our methodology appears well suited to the study of complex scenarios from large genomic data sets. PMID:24204310

  15. Application of silver films with different roughness parameter for septic human serum albumin detection by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyubin, A. Y.; Konstantinova, E. I.; Matveeva, K. I.; Slezhkin, V. A.; Samusev, I. G.; Demin, M. V.; Bryukhanov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the rough silver films parameters investigation, used as media for surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy for health and septic human serum albumin (HSA) study results have been presented. The detection of small concentrations of HSA isolated from blood serum and it main vibrational groups identification has been done.

  16. Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's

  17. Correlation between endogenous polyamines in human cardiac tissues and clinical parameters in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, Clara; Rubín, José Manuel; Bordallo, Carmen; Suárez, Lorena; Bordallo, Javier; Sánchez, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Polyamines contribute to several physiological and pathological processes, including cardiac hypertrophy in experimental animals. This involves an increase in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and intracellular polyamines associated with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increases. The aim of the study was to establish the role of these in the human heart in living patients. For this, polyamines (by high performance liquid chromatography) and the activity of ODC and N(1)-acetylpolyamine oxidases (APAO) were determined in the right atrial appendage of 17 patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation to correlate with clinical parameters. There existed enzymatic activity associated with the homeostasis of polyamines. Left atria size was positively associated with ODC (r = 0.661, P = 0.027) and negatively with APAO-N(1) -acetylspermine (r = -0.769, P = 0.026), suggesting that increased levels of polyamines are associated with left atrial hemodynamic overload. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart rate were positively associated with spermidine (r = 0.690, P = 0.003; r = 0.590, P = 0.021) and negatively with N(1)-acetylspermidine (r = -0.554, P = 0.032; r = -0.644, P = 0.018). LVEF was negatively correlated with cAMP levels (r = -0.835, P = 0.001) and with cAMP/ODC (r = -0.794, P = 0.011), cAMP/spermidine (r = -0.813, P = 0.001) and cAMP/spermine (r = -0.747, P = 0.003) ratios. Abnormal LVEF patients showed decreased ODC activity and spermidine, and increased N(1) -acetylspermidine, and cAMP. Spermine decreased in congestive heart failure patients. The trace amine isoamylamine negatively correlated with septal wall thickness (r = -0.634, P = 0.008) and was increased in cardiac heart failure. The results indicated that modifications in polyamine homeostasis might be associated with cardiac function and remodelling. Increased cAMP might have a deleterious effect on function. Further studies should confirm these findings and the involvement of

  18. Parameters effects study on pulse laser for the generation of surface acoustic waves in human skin detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Chen, Kun; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen

    2015-10-01

    Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves (LSAWs) has been promisingly and widely used in recent years due to its rapid, high accuracy and non-contact evaluation potential of layered and thin film materials. For now, researchers have applied this technology on the characterization of materials' physical parameters, like Young's Modulus, density, and Poisson's ratio; or mechanical changes such as surface cracks and skin feature like a melanoma. While so far, little research has been done on providing practical guidelines on pulse laser parameters to best generate SAWs. In this paper finite element simulations of the thermos-elastic process based on human skin model for the generation of LSAWs were conducted to give the effects of pulse laser parameters have on the generated SAWs. And recommendations on the parameters to generate strong SAWs for detection and surface characterization without cause any damage to skin are given.

  19. Serbian demographers on demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this paper is to collect the opinions of the leading demographers in Serbia on four significant matters. The matters are: development, state and future of demography, the successfulness of researchers in this scientific discipline, improvement of the Stanovništvo journal, as well as the population priority of our society and range of population policies. Method: A qualitative interview was chosen as the instrument for data collection. Namely, a structured interview, based on nine questions was sent by e-mail to eleven addresses of relevant demographers in the second half of October 2013. The basic reason for sending questions by e-mail was the aspiration to obtain authentic replies which require time for contemplation. Ten completed questionnaires were returned within two weeks. On the one hand, an integral picture on the chosen themes for research was attempted to be obtained in the analysis of received opinions to certain groups of questions and on the other hand to portray the spectrum of different observations. The responses of our prominent demographers were analyzed and compared to clearly pronounced standpoints of eminent demographers published in world journals on similar themes and with findings of internet researches among members of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Results: The results show that there is a high level of consent among demographers in Serbia regarding the well positioning of demography in relation to other social studies and its good perspectives. The interviewed experts see the future of demography in its integration with a wide circle of sciences, the application of demography and/or greater engagement of researchers in carrying out public policies. However, the estimations of the interviewed demographers as regards the development and state of demography in Serbia are divided. Although a large number of topics had been listed, migrations and population

  20. Relating plant height to demographic rates and extinction vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de Melinda M.J.; Hilbers, Jelle P.; Jongejans, Eelke; Ozinga, Wim A.; Hendriks, A.J.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.

    2018-01-01

    To prioritize conservation efforts, it is important to know which plant species are most vulnerable to extinction. Intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities depend on demographic parameters, but for many species these demographic parameters are lacking. Body size has been successfully used as proxy of

  1. Parameters for Pyrethroid Insecticide QSAR and PBPK/PD Models for Human Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pyrethroid insecticide parameter review is an extension of our interest in developing quantitative structure–activity relationship–physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (QSAR-PBPK/PD) models for assessing health risks, which interest started with the organoph...

  2. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  3. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  4. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  5. Equity in human papilloma virus vaccination uptake? : sexual behaviour, knowledge and demographics in a cross-sectional study in (un)vaccinated girls in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollers, Madelief; Lubbers, Karin; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrordus; Daemen, Toos; Westra, Tjalke A; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Nijman, Hans W; de Melker, Hester E; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is part of a national program equally accessible for all girls invited for vaccination. To assess possible inequalities in vaccine uptake, we investigated differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls with regard to

  6. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments...... and storage, noise level and visual privacy. However, if job performance is considered, then satisfaction with the main indoor environmental parameters should be addressed first as they affected self-estimated job performance to the highest extent. The present study showed that overall satisfaction...... with personal workspace affected significantly the self-estimated job performance. Increasing overall satisfaction with the personal workspace by about 15% would correspond to an increase of self-estimated job performance by 3.7%. Among indoor environmental parameters and building features, satisfaction...

  7. Variability of morphometric parameters of human trabecular tissue from coxo-arthritis and osteoporotic samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marinozzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric and architectural bone parameters change in diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. The mechanical strength of bone is primarily influenced by bone quantity and quality. Bone quality is defined by parameters such as trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular density and degree of anisotropy that describe the micro-architectural structure of bone. Recently, many studies have validated microtomography as a valuable investigative technique to assess bone morphometry, thanks to micro-CT non-destructive, non-invasive and reliability features, in comparison to traditional techniques such as histology. The aim of this study is the analysis by micro-computed tomography of six specimens, extracted from patients affected by osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, in order to observe the tridimensional structure and calculate several morphometric parameters.

  8. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this screening tool. There are six demographic indicators: Demographic Index, Supplementary Demographic Index, Individuals under Age 5, Individuals over Age 64, Percent Low-Income, Linguistic Isolation, Percent Minority, and Less than High School Education.

  9. [Recent demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  10. Binocular video ophthalmoscope for simultaneous recording of sequences of the human retina to compare dynamic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Ralf P.; Milczarek, Aleksandra; Odstrcilik, Jan; Kolar, Radim

    2017-07-01

    A parallel video ophthalmoscope was developed to acquire short video sequences (25 fps, 250 frames) of both eyes simultaneously with exact synchronization. Video sequences were registered off-line to compensate for eye movements. From registered video sequences dynamic parameters like cardiac cycle induced reflection changes and eye movements can be calculated and compared between eyes.

  11. Establishing 'quality of life' parameters using behavioural guidelines for humane euthanasia of captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Sp; Schapiro, Sj; Bernacky, Bj; Wilkerson, Gk

    2013-09-01

    Chronic pain and distress are universally accepted conditions that may adversely affect an animal's quality of life (QOL) and lead to the humane euthanasia of an animal. At most research institutions and zoological parks in the USA, a veterinarian, who has physically examined the animal and reviewed the clinical records, ultimately decides when an animal has reached a humane endpoint. To aid in the difficult process of interpreting pain and distress, we have developed specific behavioural guidelines, in addition to standard clinical information, to help define unique characteristics and traits of primates to assess and promote discussion of an individual primate's QOL, and thereby, to assist in the decision-making process regarding euthanasia. These guidelines advocate the creation of a QOL team when the animal is diagnosed with a life-threatening or debilitating chronic condition, or at the time the animal is entered into a terminal study. The team compiles a list of characteristics unique to that individual animal by utilising a questionnaire and a behavioural ethogram. This list enables the team to quantitatively assess any deviations from the established normal behavioural repertoire of that individual. Concurrently, the QOL team determines the number of behavioural deviations that are needed to trigger an immediate discussion of the necessity for humane euthanasia of the animal. The team remains intact once created, and revisits the animal's condition as frequently as deemed necessary. This process improves animal welfare by continuing the quest to optimally define QOL for captive primates, and potentially for all captive animals.

  12. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  13. A testbed to explore the optimal electrical stimulation parameters for suppressing inter-ictal spikes in human hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Chi Hsiao; Pen-Ning Yu; Dong Song; Liu, Charles Y; Heck, Christi N; Millett, David; Berger, Theodore W

    2014-01-01

    New interventions using neuromodulatory devices such as vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation are available or under study for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Since the actual mechanisms of the onset and termination of the seizure are still unclear, most researchers or clinicians determine the optimal stimulation parameters through trial-and-error procedures. It is necessary to further explore what types of electrical stimulation parameters (these may include stimulation frequency, amplitude, duration, interval pattern, and location) constitute a set of optimal stimulation paradigms to suppress seizures. In a previous study, we developed an in vitro epilepsy model using hippocampal slices from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Using a planar multi-electrode array system, inter-ictal activity from human hippocampal slices was consistently recorded. In this study, we have further transferred this in vitro seizure model to a testbed for exploring the possible neurostimulation paradigms to inhibit inter-ictal spikes. The methodology used to collect the electrophysiological data, the approach to apply different electrical stimulation parameters to the slices are provided in this paper. The results show that this experimental testbed will provide a platform for testing the optimal stimulation parameters of seizure cessation. We expect this testbed will expedite the process for identifying the most effective parameters, and may ultimately be used to guide programming of new stimulating paradigms for neuromodulatory devices.

  14. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weigh...... increased slightly with maceration, whereas body weight and head circumference were unaffected. User-friendly charts and tables of mean values and standard deviations for nonmacerated and macerated fetuses are provided.......Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...

  15. Relationship of periodontal clinical parameters with bacterial composition in human dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaka, Hidetake; Takeshita, Toru; Sato, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Junji; Hase, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    More than 600 bacterial species have been identified in the oral cavity, but only a limited number of species show a strong association with periodontitis. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive outline of the microbiota in dental plaque related to periodontal status. Dental plaque from 90 subjects was sampled, and the subjects were clustered based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes. Here, we evaluated (1) periodontal clinical parameters between clusters; (2) the correlation of subgingival bacterial composition with supragingival bacterial composition; and (3) the association between bacterial interspecies in dental plaque using a graphical Gaussian model. Cluster 1 (C1) having high prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The values of the parameters in Cluster 2a (C2a) having high prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria were markedly lower than those in C1. A cluster having low prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria in supragingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The bacterial patterns between subgingival plaque and supragingival plaque were significantly correlated. Chief pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, formed a network with other pathogenic species in C1, whereas a network of non-pathogenic species, such as Rothia sp. and Lautropia sp., tended to compete with a network of pathogenic species in C2a. Periodontal status relates to non-pathogenic species as well as to pathogenic species, suggesting that the bacterial interspecies connection affects dental plaque virulence.

  16. Application of morphological and physiological parameters representative of a sample Brazilian population in the human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, A.A.; Cardoso, J.C.S.; Lourenco, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) proposed in ICRP Publication 66 account for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. These changing characteristics can influence the rates and the sites of deposition. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The HRTM model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. lt is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined in ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The respiratory values at different levels of activity for ages varying from

  17. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of fatty acids to human serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1990-01-01

    Binding of laurate and myristate anions to human serum albumin has been studied over a range of temperatures, 5-37 degrees C, at pH 7.4. The binding curves indicate that the strength of binding of the first few molecules of fatty acid to albumin (r less than 5) decreases with increasing temperatu...

  18. A New Theory for Calculation of Some Biochemical Parameters Concentration in Human Serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, K.A.; Amien, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    The serum volumes of the blood samples are varied from one patient to another according to the packed cell volume (PCV %), so if the patient sample has low PCV %, it will have high serum volume and vice versa. To calculate a certain clinical parameter such as glucose in the serum of patients using the conventional calculation, it will give the concentration in units per deci liter serum, while by calculating the concentration according to the ratio of serum volume to the total volume of the blood, it will give different results. Thus, the present study aimed to find a new theory used for calculation of some biochemical parameters concentration taking into consideration the ratio of plasma volume to the total blood volume. The present study was conducted on 122 subjects. These subjects were categorized into 4 groups. Group 1 (G1) comprised 40 healthy subjects as control group, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 low PCV % patients, group 3 (G3) comprised 30 subjects with relatively high PCV % and group 4 comprised 22 diabetic patients. Each group of the previous groups was further subdivided into group a (G a ) and group b (G b ). In the later group, the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ), which is the ratio of plasma volume (V p ) to the blood volume (V b ) TSH hormone, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated and the results were multiplied by the correction factor (V p /V b ) to get the results after correction. Compared the results before and after correction, there was a very highly significant (ρ p /V b ), thus we recommended that biochemical parameters results must be calculated as indicated in the present study to obtain actual results which might be useful in the correct diagnosis, monitoring and follow up of the different diseases

  19. Thermally induced changes of optical and vital parameters in human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, C.; Schwandt, D.; Beuthan, J.; Mildaziene, V.; Zabarylo, U.; Minet, O.

    2010-11-01

    Minimally invasive laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) presents an alternative method to conventional tumor therapeutically interventions, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or nuclear medicine. Optical tissue characteristics of tumor cells and their heat-induced changes are essential issues for controlling LITT progressions. Therefore, it is indispensable to exactly know the absorption coefficient μa, the scattering coefficient μs and the anisotropy factor g as well as their changes under rising temperatures in order to simulate the treatment parameters successfully. Optical parameters of two different cancer model tissues - breast cancer cells species MX1 and colon cancer cells species CX1 - were measured in the spectral range 400 - 1100 nm as well as in the temperature range 37 - 60°C. The absorption coefficient of both cell species was low throughout the spectral range analyzed, while μs of both species rose with increasing temperatures. The anisotropy factor g however dropped for both tissues with increasing temperatures. Light scatterings inside tissues proceeded continuously forward for all species tested. It was demonstrated that optical tissue properties undergo significant changes along with the vital status of the cells when the temperature increases.

  20. A comparative evaluation of semen parameters in pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Baran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural disaster leading to accumulation of environmental contaminants may have substantial effects on the male reproductive system. Our aim was to compare and assess semen parameters in a normospermic population residing in the Southern Louisiana, USA area pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina. We retrospectively evaluated semen analyses data (n = 3452 of 1855 patients who attended the Tulane University Andrology/Fertility Clinic between 1999 and 2013. The study inclusion criteria were men whose semen analyses showed ≥ 1.5 ml volume; ≥15 million ml -1 sperm concentration; ≥39 million total sperm count; ≥40% motility; >30% morphology, with an abstinence interval of 2-7 days. After the inclusion criteria applied to the population, 367 normospermic patients were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and group-based analyses were performed to interpret the differences between the pre-Katrina (Group 1, 1999-2005 and the post-Katrina (Group 2, 2006-2013 populations. There were significant differences in motility, morphology, number of white blood cell, immature germ cell count, pH and presence of sperm agglutination, but surprisingly there were no significant differences in sperm count between the two populations. This long-term comparative analysis further documents that a major natural disaster with its accompanied environmental issues can influence certain semen parameters (e.g., motility and morphology and, by extension, fertility potential of the population of such areas.

  1. Developmental steps of the human cervical spine: parameters for evaluation of skeletal maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcos Fabio Henriques; de Lima, Rodrigo Lopes; De-Ary-Pires, Bernardo; Pires-Neto, Mário Ary; de Ary-Pires, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The central objective of this investigation was to focus on the development of the cervical spine observed by lateral cephalometric radiological images of children and adolescents (6-16 years old). A sample of 26 individuals (12 girls and 14 boys) was classified according to stages of cervical spine maturation in two subcategories: group I (initiation phase) and group II (acceleration phase). The morphology of the cervical spine was assessed by lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained in accordance with an innovative method for establishing a standardized head posture. A total of 29 linear variables and 5 angular variables were used to clarify the dimensions of the cervical vertebrae. The results suggest that a few measurements can be used as parameters of vertebral maturation both for males and females. The aforementioned measurements include the inferior depth of C2-C4, the inferior depth of C5, the anterior height of C4-C5, and the posterior height of C5. We propose original morphological parameters that may prove remarkably useful in the determination of bone maturational stages of the cervical spine in children and adolescents.

  2. An assessment of human-elephant conflict and associated ecological and demographic factors in Nilambur, Western Ghats of Kerala, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rohini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elephant conservation carries cost in the form of human-elephant conflict and affects the wellbeing of people living near ecologically important areas.  Conflicts impart serious challenges towards the survival of Asian Elephants, which are categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Issues of wildlife conservation are least addressed in areas with less restricted categories of protection.  Hence an attempt was made to evaluate the intensity of elephant conflict and factors associated with its occurrence in villages with forest fringes of North and South Forest Divisions of Nilambur, Kerala, southern India.  It was hypothesized that variables such as number of houses, area of village, livestock population, forest frontage, and presence of water source along the forest boundary abutting the village to be the underlying correlates of conflict.  Field studies were conducted fortnightly from June 2014 to May 2015, by visiting farms and households of 17 selected forest fringe villages.  Observational methods, questionnaire surveys and secondary data collection were employed for this purpose.  A total of 277 incidents of crop depredation, 12 incidents of property damage, three human injuries, and one human death due to conflict were recorded during this period.  Crop raiding was highest during post monsoon season and it was low during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.  Multiple linear regression results suggest that forest frontage and livestock population were significant predictors of conflict incidence.  Information regarding the prime causes of conflict will be helpful for planning strategies for the establishment of appropriate mitigation methods.  The present study serves as baseline information which will be helpful for formulating prospective management plans.

  3. Measurement and analysis of geometric parameters of human carotid bifurcation using image post-processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yunjing; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate variation in the carotid bifurcation geometry of adults of different age by MR angiography images combining image post-processing technique. Methods: Images of the carotid bifurcations of 27 young adults (≤40 years old) and 30 older subjects ( > 40 years old) were acquired via contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Three dimensional (3D) geometries of the bifurcations were reconstructed and geometric parameters were measured by post-processing technique. Results: The geometric parameters of the young versus older groups were as follows: bifurcation angle (70.268 degree± 16.050 degree versus 58.857 degree±13.294 degree), ICA angle (36.893 degree±11.837 degree versus 30.275 degree±9.533 degree), ICA planarity (6.453 degree ± 5.009 degree versus 6.263 degree ±4.250 degree), CCA tortuosity (0.023±0.011 versus 0.014± 0.005), ICA tortuosity (0.070±0.042 versus 0.046±0.022), ICA/CCA diameter ratio (0.693± 0.132 versus 0.728±0.106), ECA/CCA diameter ratio (0.750±0.123 versus 0.809±0.122), ECA/ ICA diameter ratio (1.103±0.201 versus 1.127±0.195), bifurcation area ratio (1.057±0.281 versus 1.291±0.252). There was significant statistical difference between young group and older group in-bifurcation angle, ICA angle, CCA tortuosity, ICA tortuosity, ECA/CCA and bifurcation area ratio (F= 17.16, 11.74, 23.02, 13.38, 6.54, 22.80, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions: MR angiography images combined with image post-processing technique can reconstruct 3D carotid bifurcation geometry and measure the geometric parameters of carotid bifurcation in vivo individually. It provides a new and convenient method to investigate the relationship of vascular geometry and flow condition with atherosclerotic pathological changes. (authors)

  4. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore......PURPOSE: To characterize human gastric fluid with regard to rheological properties and gastric lipase activity. In addition, traditional physicochemical properties were determined. METHODS: Fasted HGA were collected from 19 healthy volunteers during a gastroscopic examination. Rheological...... be considered in gastric evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems....

  5. Numerical analysis of the effect of turbulence transition on the hemodynamic parameters in human coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Arun; Gawandalkar, Udhav Ulhas; Kini, Girish; Buradi, Abdulrajak; Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Saba, Luca; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamics plays an important role in atherogenesis and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD). The primary biological effect due to blood turbulence is the change in wall shear stress (WSS) on the endothelial cell membrane, while the local oscillatory nature of the blood flow affects the physiological changes in the coronary artery. In coronary arteries, the blood flow Reynolds number ranges from few tens to several hundreds and hence it is generally assumed to be laminar while calculating the WSS calculations. However, the pulsatile blood flow through coronary arteries under stenotic condition could result in transition from laminar to turbulent flow condition. In the present work, the onset of turbulent transition during pulsatile flow through coronary arteries for varying degree of stenosis (i.e., 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%) is quantitatively analyzed by calculating the turbulent parameters distal to the stenosis. Also, the effect of turbulence transition on hemodynamic parameters such as WSS and oscillatory shear index (OSI) for varying degree of stenosis is quantified. The validated transitional shear stress transport (SST) k-ω model used in the present investigation is the best suited Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model to capture the turbulent transition. The arterial wall is assumed to be rigid and the dynamic curvature effect due to myocardial contraction on the blood flow has been neglected. Our observations shows that for stenosis 50% and above, the WSSavg, WSSmax and OSI calculated using turbulence model deviates from laminar by more than 10% and the flow disturbances seems to significantly increase only after 70% stenosis. Our model shows reliability and completely validated. Blood flow through stenosed coronary arteries seems to be turbulent in nature for area stenosis above 70% and the transition to turbulent flow begins from 50% stenosis.

  6. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  7. A cross-sectional assessment of population demographics, HIV risks and human rights contexts among men who have sex with men in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan; Adams, Darrin; Lebona, Judith; Kaibe, Bafokeng; Letsie, Puleng; Tshehlo, Relebohile; Wirtz, Andrea; Beyrer, Chris

    2011-07-04

    Evidence is increasing of high HIV risks among southern African men who have sex with men (MSM). This represents the first study of HIV risks and human rights contexts among MSM in Lesotho. Two hundred and fifty-two men who reported ever having anal sex with another man were accrued with snowball sampling and were administered a structured quantitative instrument in October and November 2009. Of the participants, 96.4% (240/249) were ethnic Basotho with a mean age of 26.3 years (range 18-56), 49.6% (124/250) were currently employed, and 95.2% (238/250) had at least a secondary-level education. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 11.6% (22/190); 54.5% (128/235) reported being tested for HIV in the last year. HIV knowledge was low; only 3.7% (8/212) of MSM knew that receptive anal intercourse was the highest risk for HIV and that a water-based lubricant was most appropriate to use with condoms.Bivariate associations of wearing condoms during last intercourse with men include: having easy access to condoms (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2-8.5, p sexual partners (OR 3.5, 95% 1.4-8.3, p sexually transmitted infecton (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.76, p 0.05).Human rights abuses were common: 76.2% (170/223) reported at least one abuse, including rape (9.8%, 22/225), blackmail (21.3%, 47/221), fear of seeking healthcare (22.2%, 49/221), police discrimination (16.4%, 36/219), verbal or physical harassment (59.8%, 140/234), or having been beaten (18.9%, 43/228). MSM in Lesotho are at high risk for HIV infection and human rights abuses. Evidence-based and rights-affirming HIV prevention programmes supporting the needs of MSM should be developed and implemented.

  8. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of some halogenated inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiewska, Maria; Makowska, Małgorzata; Maj, Piotr; Wielechowska, Monika; Bretner, Maria; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two new compounds being potential human CK2a inhibitors are studied. • Their IC50 values were determined in vitro. • The heats of binding and kbind were estimated using DSC. • The increased stability of protein–ligand complexes was followed by fluorescence. • Methylated TBBt derivative (MeBr3Br) is almost as active as TBBt. - Abstract: The interaction of human CK2α with a series of tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) analogs, in which one of the bromine atoms proximal to the triazole/imidazole ring is replaced by a methyl group, was studied by biochemical (IC 50 ) and biophysical methods (thermal stability of protein–ligand complex monitored by DSC and fluorescence). Two newly synthesized tri-bromo derivatives display inhibitory activity comparable to that of the reference compounds, TBBt and TBBz, respectively. DSC analysis of the stability of protein–ligand complexes shows that the heat of ligand binding (H bind ) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions involving the triazole/imidazole ring, as indicated by a strong correlation between H bind and ligand pK a . Screening, based on fluorescence-monitored thermal unfolding of protein–ligand complexes, gave comparable results, clearly identifying ligands that most strongly bind to the protein. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly, relative to possible intermolecular halogen bonding, in binding of the ligands to the CK2α ATP-binding site

  9. Non-human primates avoid the detrimental effects of prenatal androgen exposure in mixed-sex litters: combined demographic, behavioral, and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Snowdon, Charles T; McGrew, William C; Lawler, Richard R; Guevara, Elaine E; McIntosh, Annick; O'Connor, Timothy

    2016-12-01

    Producing single versus multiple births has important life history trade-offs, including the potential benefits and risks of sharing a common in utero environment. Sex hormones can diffuse through amniotic fluid and fetal membranes, and females with male littermates risk exposure to high levels of fetal testosterone, which are shown to have masculinizing effects and negative fitness consequences in many mammals. Whereas most primates give birth to single offspring, several New World monkey and strepsirrhine species regularly give birth to small litters. We examined whether neonatal testosterone exposure might be detrimental to females in mixed-sex litters by compiling data from long-term breeding records for seven primate species (Saguinus oedipus; Varecia variegata, Varecia rubra, Microcebus murinis, Mirza coquereli, Cheirogaleus medius, Galago moholi). Litter sex ratios did not differ from the expected 1:2:1 (MM:MF:FF for twins) and 1:2:2:1 (MMM:MMF:MFF:FFF for triplets). Measures of reproductive success, including female survivorship, offspring-survivorship, and inter-birth interval, did not differ between females born in mixed-sex versus all-female litters, indicating that litter-producing non-human primates, unlike humans and rodents, show no signs of detrimental effects from androgen exposure in mixed sex litters. Although we found no evidence for CYP19A1 gene duplications-a hypothesized mechanism for coping with androgen exposure-aromatase protein evolution shows patterns of convergence among litter-producing taxa. That some primates have effectively found a way to circumvent a major cost of multiple births has implications for understanding variation in litter size and life history strategies across mammals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Assessment of beating parameters in human induced pluripotent stem cells enables quantitative in vitro screening for cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirenko, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.sirenko@moldev.com [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Cromwell, Evan F., E-mail: evan.cromwell@moldev.com [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Crittenden, Carole [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Wignall, Jessica A. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Wright, Fred A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes show promise for screening during early drug development. Here, we tested a hypothesis that in vitro assessment of multiple cardiomyocyte physiological parameters enables predictive and mechanistically-interpretable evaluation of cardiotoxicity in a high-throughput format. Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed for 30 min or 24 h to 131 drugs, positive (107) and negative (24) for in vivo cardiotoxicity, in up to 6 concentrations (3 nM to 30 uM) in 384-well plates. Fast kinetic imaging was used to monitor changes in cardiomyocyte function using intracellular Ca{sup 2+} flux readouts synchronous with beating, and cell viability. A number of physiological parameters of cardiomyocyte beating, such as beat rate, peak shape (amplitude, width, raise, decay, etc.) and regularity were collected using automated data analysis. Concentration–response profiles were evaluated using logistic modeling to derive a benchmark concentration (BMC) point-of-departure value, based on one standard deviation departure from the estimated baseline in vehicle (0.3% dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated cells. BMC values were used for cardiotoxicity classification and ranking of compounds. Beat rate and several peak shape parameters were found to be good predictors, while cell viability had poor classification accuracy. In addition, we applied the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) approach to integrate and display data across many collected parameters, to derive “cardiosafety” ranking of tested compounds. Multi-parameter screening of beating profiles allows for cardiotoxicity risk assessment and identification of specific patterns defining mechanism-specific effects. These data and analysis methods may be used widely for compound screening and early safety evaluation in drug development. - Highlights: • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are promising in vitro models. • We tested if evaluation

  11. Assessment of beating parameters in human induced pluripotent stem cells enables quantitative in vitro screening for cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirenko, Oksana; Cromwell, Evan F.; Crittenden, Carole; Wignall, Jessica A.; Wright, Fred A.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes show promise for screening during early drug development. Here, we tested a hypothesis that in vitro assessment of multiple cardiomyocyte physiological parameters enables predictive and mechanistically-interpretable evaluation of cardiotoxicity in a high-throughput format. Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed for 30 min or 24 h to 131 drugs, positive (107) and negative (24) for in vivo cardiotoxicity, in up to 6 concentrations (3 nM to 30 uM) in 384-well plates. Fast kinetic imaging was used to monitor changes in cardiomyocyte function using intracellular Ca 2+ flux readouts synchronous with beating, and cell viability. A number of physiological parameters of cardiomyocyte beating, such as beat rate, peak shape (amplitude, width, raise, decay, etc.) and regularity were collected using automated data analysis. Concentration–response profiles were evaluated using logistic modeling to derive a benchmark concentration (BMC) point-of-departure value, based on one standard deviation departure from the estimated baseline in vehicle (0.3% dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated cells. BMC values were used for cardiotoxicity classification and ranking of compounds. Beat rate and several peak shape parameters were found to be good predictors, while cell viability had poor classification accuracy. In addition, we applied the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) approach to integrate and display data across many collected parameters, to derive “cardiosafety” ranking of tested compounds. Multi-parameter screening of beating profiles allows for cardiotoxicity risk assessment and identification of specific patterns defining mechanism-specific effects. These data and analysis methods may be used widely for compound screening and early safety evaluation in drug development. - Highlights: • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are promising in vitro models. • We tested if evaluation of

  12. Safety of higher dosages of Viscum album L. in animals and humans - systematic review of immune changes and safety parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiene Helmut

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viscum album L extracts (VAE, mistletoe and isolated mistletoe lectins (ML have immunostimulating properties and a strong dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. They are frequently used in complementary cancer treatment, mainly to improve quality of life, but partly also to influence tumour growth, especially by injecting VAE locally and in high dosage. The question is raised whether these higher dosages can induce any harm or immunosuppressive effects. Methods Systematic review of all experiments and clinical studies investigating higher dosages of VAE in animals and humans (Viscum album > 1 mg in humans corresponding to > 0.02 mg/kg in animals or ML > 1 ng/kg and assessing immune parameters or infections or adverse drug reactions. Results 69 clinical studies and 48 animal experiments reported application of higher doses of VAE or ML and had assessed immune changes and/or harm. In these studies, Viscum album was applied in dosages up to 1500 mg in humans and 1400 mg/kg in animals, ML was applied up to 6.4 μg/kg in humans and in animals up to 14 μg/kg subcutaneously, 50 μg/kg nasally and 500 μg/kg orally. A variety of immune parameters showed fluctuating or rising outcomes, but no immunosuppressive effect. Side effects consisted mainly of dose-dependent flu-like symptoms (FLS, fever, local reactions at the injection site and various mild unspecific effects. Occasionally, allergic reactions were reported. After application of high doses of recombinant ML, reversible hepatotoxicity was observed in some cases. Conclusions Application of higher dosages of VAE or ML is not accompanied by immunosuppression; altogether VAE seems to exhibit low risk but should be monitored by clinicians when applied in high dosages.

  13. Biodistribution parameters and radiation absorbed dose estimates for radiolabeled human low density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, R.V.; Ryan, J.W.; Williams, K.A.; Atcher, R.W.; Brechbiel, M.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Fleming, R.M.; Stark, V.J.; Lathrop, K.A.; Harper, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    The authors propose a model to generate radiation absorbed dose estimates for radiolabeled low density lipoprotein (LDL), based upon eight studies of LDL biodistribution in three adult human subjects. Autologous plasma LDL was labeled with Tc-99m, I-123, or In-111 and injected intravenously. Biodistribution of each LDL derivative was monitored by quantitative analysis of scintigrams and direct counting of excreta and of serial blood samples. Assuming that transhepatic flux accounts for the majority of LDL clearance from the bloodstream, they obtained values of cumulated activity (A) and of mean dose per unit administered activity (D) for each study. In each case highest D values were calculated for liver, with mean doses of 5 rads estimated at injected activities of 27 mCi, 9 mCi, and 0.9 mCi for Tc-99m-LDL, I-123-LDL, and In-111-LDL, respectively

  14. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of some halogenated inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiewska, Maria; Makowska, Małgorzata [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Maj, Piotr [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Wielechowska, Monika; Bretner, Maria [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Poznański, Jarosław, E-mail: jarek@ibb.waw.pl [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Shugar, David [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Two new compounds being potential human CK2a inhibitors are studied. • Their IC50 values were determined in vitro. • The heats of binding and kbind were estimated using DSC. • The increased stability of protein–ligand complexes was followed by fluorescence. • Methylated TBBt derivative (MeBr3Br) is almost as active as TBBt. - Abstract: The interaction of human CK2α with a series of tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) analogs, in which one of the bromine atoms proximal to the triazole/imidazole ring is replaced by a methyl group, was studied by biochemical (IC{sub 50}) and biophysical methods (thermal stability of protein–ligand complex monitored by DSC and fluorescence). Two newly synthesized tri-bromo derivatives display inhibitory activity comparable to that of the reference compounds, TBBt and TBBz, respectively. DSC analysis of the stability of protein–ligand complexes shows that the heat of ligand binding (H{sub bind}) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions involving the triazole/imidazole ring, as indicated by a strong correlation between H{sub bind} and ligand pK{sub a}. Screening, based on fluorescence-monitored thermal unfolding of protein–ligand complexes, gave comparable results, clearly identifying ligands that most strongly bind to the protein. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly, relative to possible intermolecular halogen bonding, in binding of the ligands to the CK2α ATP-binding site.

  15. Influence of position and stimulation parameters on intracortical inhibition and facilitation in human tongue motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk

    2014-01-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) can be used to assess short-interval intracortical inhibitory (SICI) and facilitatory (ICF) networks. Many methodological parameters may however influence the outcome. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of body positions (recline...... motor cortex and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from contralateral tongue muscles. In study 1, single pulse and three ppTMS ISIs: 2, 10, 15 ms were applied 8 times each in three blocks (TS: 120%, 140% and 160% of resting motor threshold (rMT); CS: 80% of rMT) in two different body...... positions (recline and supine) randomly. In study 2, single pulse and four ppTMS ISIs: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 ms were applied 8 times each in randomized order in two blocks (CS: 70% and 80% of rMT; TS: 120% of rMT). There was a significant effect of body position (P=0.049), TS intensities (P

  16. A WSN based Environment and Parameter Monitoring System for Human Health Comfort: A Cloud Enabled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohara Pai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The number and type of sensors measuring physical and physiological parameters have seen dramatic increase due to progress in the MEMS and Nano Technology. The Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in turn is bringing new applications in environment monitoring and healthcare in order to improve the quality of service especially in hospitals. The adequacy of WSNs to gather critical information has provided solution but with limited storage, computation and scalability. This limitation is addressed by integrating WSN with cloud services. But, once the data enters the cloud the owner has no control over it. Hence confidentiality and integrity of the data being stored in the cloud are compromised. In this proposed work, secure sensor-cloud architecture for the applications in healthcare is implemented by integrating two different clouds. The sink node of WSN outsources data into the cloud after performing operations to secure the data. Since the SaaS and IaaS environments of Cloud Computing are provided by two different cloud service providers (CSPs, both the CSPs will not have complete information of the architecture. This provides inherent security as data storage and data processing are done on different clouds.

  17. Noninvasive measurement of postocclusive parameters in human forearm blood by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Prahlad; Radhakrishnan, S.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba

    2005-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light in the wavelength range from 700 to 900 nm can pass through skin, bone and other tissues relatively easily. As a result, NIR techniques allow a noninvasive assessment of hemoglobin saturation for a wide range of applications, such as in the study of muscle metabolism, the diagnosis of vascular disorders, brain imaging, and breast cancer detection. Near infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an effective tool to measure the hemoglobin concentration in the tissues, which can discriminate optically the oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin species because of their different near-infrared absorption spectra. We have developed an NIRS probe consisting of a laser diode of 830 nm wavelength and a PIN photodiode in reflectance mode. We have selected a set of healthy volunteers (mean age 30, range 26-40 years) for the study. The probe is placed on forearm of each subject and the backscattered light intensity is measured by occluding the blood flow at 210, 110 and 85 mmHg pressures. Recovery time, peak time and time after 50% release of the cuff pressure are determined from the optical densities during the post occlusive state of forearm. These parameters are useful for determining the transient increase in blood flow after the release of blood occlusion. Clinically, the functional aspects of blood flow in the limbs could be evaluated noninvasively by NIRS.

  18. Early childbearing, human capital attainment and mortality risk: Evidence from a longitudinal demographic surveillance area in rural-KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardington, Cally; Menendez, Alicia; Mutevedzi, Tinofa

    2014-01-01

    Using a rich longitudinal dataset, we examine the relationship between teen fertility and both subsequent educational outcomes and HIV related mortality risk in rural South Africa. Human capital deficits among teen mothers are large and significant, with earlier births associated with greater deficits. In contrast to many other studies from developed countries, we find no clear evidence of selectivity into teen childbearing in either schooling trajectories or pre-fertility household characteristics. Enrolment rates among teen mothers only begin to drop in the period immediately preceding the birth and future teen mothers are not behind in their schooling relative to other girls. Older teen mothers and those further ahead in school for their age pre-birth are more likely to continue schooling after the birth. In addition to adolescents’ higher biological vulnerability to HIV infection, pregnancy also appears to increase the risk of contracting HIV. Following women over an extended period, we document a higher HIV related mortality risk for teen mothers that cannot be explained by household characteristics in early adulthood. Controlling for age at sexual debut, we find that teen mothers report lower condom use and older partners than other sexually active adolescents. PMID:26028690

  19. Nonrandom variability in respiratory cycle parameters of humans during stage 2 sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarreszadeh, M; Bruce, E N; Gothe, B

    1990-08-01

    We analyzed breath-to-breath inspiratory time (TI), expiratory time (TE), inspiratory volume (VI), and minute ventilation (Vm) from 11 normal subjects during stage 2 sleep. The analysis consisted of 1) fitting first- and second-order autoregressive models (AR1 and AR2) and 2) obtaining the power spectra of the data by fast-Fourier transform. For the AR2 model, the only coefficients that were statistically different from zero were the average alpha 1 (a1) for TI, VI, and Vm (a1 = 0.19, 0.29, and 0.15, respectively). However, the power spectra of all parameters often exhibited peaks at low frequency (less than 0.2 cycles/breath) and/or at high frequency (greater than 0.2 cycles/breath), indicative of periodic oscillations. After accounting for the corrupting effects of added oscillations on the a1 estimates, we conclude that 1) breath-to-breath fluctuations of VI, and to a lesser extent TI and Vm, exhibit a first-order autoregressive structure such that fluctuations of each breath are positively correlated with those of immediately preceding breaths and 2) the correlated components of variability in TE are mostly due to discrete high- and/or low-frequency oscillations with no underlying autoregressive structure. We propose that the autoregressive structure of VI, TI, and Vm during spontaneous breathing in stage 2 sleep may reflect either a central neural mechanism or the effects of noise in respiratory chemical feedback loops; the presence of low-frequency oscillations, seen more often in Vm, suggests possible instability in the chemical feedback loops. Mechanisms of high-frequency periodicities, seen more often in TE, are unknown.

  20. Prevalence and associated demographic characteristics of exposure to multiple metals and their species in human populations: The United States NHANES, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youn K; Lewin, Michael D; Ruiz, Patricia; Eichner, June E; Mumtaz, Moiz M

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) are among the top 10 pollutants of global health concern. Studies have shown that exposures to these metals produce severe adverse effects. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects, particularly joint toxicities, are poorly understood in humans. The objective of this investigation was to identify and characterize prevalent combinations of these metals and their species in the U.S. NHANES population to provide background data for future studies of potential metal interactions. Exposure was defined as urine or blood levels ≥ medians of the NHANES 2007-2012 participants ≥6 years (n = 7408). Adjusted-odds ratios (adj-OR) and 95% confidence intervals were determined for covariates (age, gender, and race/ethnicity, cotinine and body mass index). Species-specific analysis was also conducted for As and Hg including iAs (urinary arsenous acid and/or arsenic acid), met-iAs (urinary monomethylarsonic acid and/or dimethylarsinic acid), and oHg (blood methyl-mercury and/or ethyl-mercury). For combinations of As and Hg species, age- and gender-specific prevalence was determined among NHANES 2011-2012 participants (n = 2342). Data showed that approximately 49.3% of the population contained a combination of three or more metals. The most prevalent unique specific combinations were Pb/Cd/Hg/As, Pb/Cd/Hg, and Pb/Cd. Age was consistently associated with these combinations: adj-ORs ranged from 10.9 (Pb/Cd) to 11.2 (Pb/Cd/Hg/As). Race/ethnicity was significant for Pb/Cd/Hg/As. Among women of reproductive age, frequency of oHg/iAs/met-iAS and oHg/met-iAs was 22.9 and 40.3%, respectively. These findings may help prioritize efforts to assess joint toxicities and their impact on public health.

  1. Biomonitoring of Human Exposure to Prestige Oil: Effects on DNA and Endocrine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez-Cadahía

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, about 400 tankers spilled more than 377765 tons of oil, with the Prestige accident (Galician coast, NW Spain, November 2002 the most recent. Taking into account the consistent large number of individuals exposed to oil that exists all over the world, it seems surprising the absence in the literature of studies focused on the chronic effects of this exposure on human health. In this work we evaluated the level of DNA damage by means of comet assay, and the potential endocrine alterations (prolactin and cortisol caused by Prestige oil exposure in a population of 180 individuals, classified in 3 groups according to the tasks performed, and 60 controls. Heavy metals in blood were determined as exposure biomarkers, obtaining significant increases of aluminum, nickel and lead in the exposed groups as compared to controls. Higher levels of genetic damage and endocrine alterations were also observed in the exposed population. DNA damage levels were influenced by age, sex, and the use of protective clothes, and prolactin concentrations by the last two factors. Surprisingly, the use of mask did not seem to protect individuals from genetic or endocrine alterations. Moreover, polymorphisms in genes encoding for the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of oil components were analyzed as susceptibility biomarkers. CYP1A1-3’UTR and EPHX1 codons 113 and 139 variant alleles were related to higher damage levels, while lower DNA damage was observed in GSTM1 and GSTT1 null individuals.

  2. Quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS platform for absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter measurements: Demonstration with human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Villanueva-Palero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine relies on accurate measurements of relevant material properties of target absorbers. Here, we present a method for simultaneous measurements of the absorption coefficient and Grüneisen parameter of small volume of liquid scattering and absorbing media using a coupled-integrating sphere system which we refer to as quantitative photoacoustic integrating sphere (QPAIS platform. The derived equations do not require absolute magnitudes of optical energy and pressure values, only calibration of the setup using aqueous ink dilutions is necessary. As a demonstration, measurements with blood samples from various human donors are done at room and body temperatures using an incubator. Measured absorption coefficient values are consistent with known oxygen saturation dependence of blood absorption at 750 nm, whereas measured Grüneisen parameter values indicate variability among five different donors. An increasing Grüneisen parameter value with both hematocrit and temperature is observed. These observations are consistent with those reported in literature.

  3. Convergence of human brain mapping tools: neuronavigated TMS parameters and fMRI activity in the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Diekhoff, Svenja; Wang, Ling E; Liuzzi, Gianpiero; Uludağ, Kamil; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are well-established tools for investigating the human motor system in-vivo. We here studied the relationship between movement-related fMRI signal changes in the primary motor cortex (M1) and electrophysiological properties of the hand motor area assessed with neuronavigated TMS in 17 healthy subjects. The voxel showing the highest task-related BOLD response in the left hand motor area during right hand movements was identified for each individual subject. This fMRI peak voxel in M1 served as spatial target for coil positioning during neuronavigated TMS. We performed correlation analyses between TMS parameters, BOLD signal estimates and effective connectivity parameters of M1 assessed with dynamic causal modeling (DCM). The results showed a negative correlation between the movement-related BOLD signal in left M1 and resting as well as active motor threshold (MT) obtained for left M1. The DCM analysis revealed that higher excitability of left M1 was associated with a stronger coupling between left supplementary motor area (SMA) and M1. Furthermore, BOLD activity in left M1 correlated with ipsilateral silent period (ISP), i.e. the stronger the task-related BOLD response in left M1, the higher interhemispheric inhibition effects targeting right M1. DCM analyses revealed a positive correlation between the coupling of left SMA with left M1 and the duration of ISP. The data show that TMS parameters assessed for the hand area of M1 do not only reflect the intrinsic properties at the stimulation site but also interactions with remote areas in the human motor system. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Male reproductive system parameters in a two-generation reproduction study of ammonium perfluorooctanoate in rats and human relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Raymond G; Kennedy, Gerald L; Olsen, Geary W; Butenhoff, John L

    2010-04-30

    Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (ammonium PFOA) is an industrial surfactant that has been used primarily as a processing aid in the manufacture of fluoropolymers. The environmental and metabolic stability of PFOA together with its presence in human blood and long elimination half-life have led to extensive toxicological studies in laboratory animals. Two recent publications based on observations from the Danish general population have reported: (1) a negative association between serum concentrations of PFOA in young adult males and their sperm counts and (2) a positive association among women with time to pregnancy. A two-generation reproduction study in rats was previously published (2004) in which no effects on functional reproduction were observed at doses up to 30mg ammonium PFOA/kg body weight. The article contained the simple statement: "In males, fertility was normal as were all sperm parameters". In order to place the recent human epidemiological data in perspective, herein we provide the detailed male reproductive parameters from that study, including sperm quality and testicular histopathology. Sperm parameters in rats from the two-generation study in all ammonium PFOA treatment groups were unaffected by treatment with ammonium PFOA. These observations reflected the normal fertility observations in these males. No evidence of altered testicular and sperm structure and function was observed in ammonium PFOA-treated rats whose mean group serum PFOA concentrations ranged up to approximately 50,000ng/mL. Given that median serum PFOA in the Danish cohorts was approximately 5ng/mL, it seems unlikely that concentrations observed in the general population, including those recently reported in Danish general population, could be associated causally with a real decrement in sperm number and quality.

  5. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra El; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique ‘tissue normoxia’ or ‘physioxia’ status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO2, i.e. ‘hypoxia’. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO2 values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O2 whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O2, an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. PMID:21251211

  6. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; El Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-06-01

    Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique 'tissue normoxia' or 'physioxia' status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO(2), i.e. 'hypoxia'. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO(2) values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O(2) whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O(2), an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Thermodynamics parameters for binding of halogenated benzotriazole inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiewska, Maria; Kucińska, Katarzyna; Makowska, Małgorzata; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of human CK2α (hCK2α) with nine halogenated benzotriazoles, TBBt and its analogues representing all possible patterns of halogenation on the benzene ring of benzotriazole, was studied by biophysical methods. Thermal stability of protein-ligand complexes, monitored by calorimetric (DSC) and optical (DSF) methods, showed that the increase in the mid-point temperature for unfolding of protein-ligand complexes (i.e. potency of ligand binding to hCK2α) follow the inhibitory activities determined by biochemical assays. The dissociation constant for the ATP-hCK2α complex was estimated with the aid of microscale thermophoresis (MST) as 4.3±1.8 μM, and MST-derived dissociation constants determined for halogenated benzotriazoles, when converted according to known ATP concentrations, perfectly reconstruct IC50 values determined by the biochemical assays. Ligand-dependent quenching of tyrosine fluorescence, together with molecular modeling and DSC-derived heats of unfolding, support the hypothesis that halogenated benzotriazoles bind in at least two alternative orientations, and those that are efficient hCK2α inhibitors bind in the orientation which TBBt adopts in its complex with maize CK2α. DSC-derived apparent heat for ligand binding (ΔΔHbind) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions between Lys68 and the triazole ring of the ligand, as indicated by a good correlation between ΔΔHbind and ligand pKa. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly (~40 kJ/mol), relative to possible intermolecular halogen/hydrogen bonding (less than 10 kJ/mol), in binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the ATP-binding site of hCK2α. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Elasticities and the link between demographic and evolutionary dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Multivariate selection models and demographic matrix projections are closely related. The subtle differences among the parameters of both approaches (sensitivities, elasticities, selection differentials, and gradients) can be confusing. I suggest a hierarchical framework for analysis using

  9. Bremsstrahlung parameters of praseodymium-142 in different human tissues. A dosimetric perspective for 142Pr radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, M.K.; Jabal-Ameli, H.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Sadeghi, M.; Sadjadi, S.; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Praseodymium-142 [T 1/2 =19.12 h, E β -=2.162 MeV (96.3%), E γ =1575 keV (3.7%)] is one of the 141 Pr radioisotopes. Many studies have been attempted to assess the significance of usage 142 Pr in radionuclide therapy. In many studies, the dosimetric parameters of 142 Pr sources were calculated by modeling 142 Pr sources in the water phantom and scoring the energy deposited around it. However, the medical dosimetry calculations in water phantom consider Bremsstrahlung production, raising the question: ''How important is to simulate human tissues instead of using water phantom?'' This study answers these questions by estimation of 142 Pr Bremsstrahlung parameters. The Bremsstrahlung parameters of 142 Pr as therapeutic beta nuclides in different human tissues (adipose, blood, brain, breast, cell nucleus, eye lens, gastrointestinal tract, heart, kidney, liver, lung deflated, lymph, muscle, ovary, pancreas, cartilage, red marrow, spongiosa, yellow marrow, skin, spleen, testis, thyroid and different skeleton bones) were calculated by extending the national council for radiation protection model. The specific Bremsstrahlung constant (Γ Br ), probability of energy loss by beta during Bremsstrahlung emission (P Br ) and Bremsstrahlung activity (A release ) Br were estimated. It should be mentioned that Monte Carlo simulation was used for estimation of 142 Pr Bremsstrahlung activity based on the element compositions of different human tissues and the calculated exposures from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Γ Br for yellow marrow was smallest amount (1.1962 x 10 -3 C/kg-cm 2 /MBq-h) compared to the other tissues and highest for cortical bone (2.4764 x 10 -3 C/kg-cm 2 /MBq-h), and, overall, Γ Br for skeletal tissues were greater than other tissues. In addition, Γ Br breast was 1.8261 x 10 -3 C/kg-cm 2 /MBq-h which was greater than sacrum and spongiosa bones. Moreover, according to (A release ) Br of 142 Pr, the patients receiving 142 Pr do not have to be hospitalized for

  10. Estimation and Statistical Analysis of Human Voice Parameters to Investigate the Influence of Psychological Stress and to Determine the Vocal Tract Transfer Function of an Individual

    OpenAIRE

    Mongia, Puneet Kumar; Sharma, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study the principal focus is to examine the influence of psychological stress (both positive and negative stress) on the human articulation and to determine the vocal tract transfer function of an individual using inverse filtering technique. Both of these analyses are carried out by estimating various voice parameters. The outcomes of the analysis of psychological stress indicate that all the voice parameters are affected due to the influence of stress on humans. About 35 out of 51 p...

  11. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Demographic structure and macroeconomic trends

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Yunus; Basso, H.S.; Smith, Ronald; Grasl, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in demographic structure on long term\\ud trends of key macroeconomic variables using a Panel VAR for 21 OECD economies from 1970-2014. The panel data variation assists the identification of demographic effects, while the dynamic structure,\\ud incorporating multiple channels of influence, uncovers long-term effects.\\ud We propose a theoretical model, relating demographics, innovation and\\ud growth, whose simulations match our empirical findings. The current\\ud...

  13. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  14. Interaction of fisetin with human serum albumin by fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations: binding parameters and conformational changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana; Hillebrand, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between fisetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective flavonoid, and human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by means of fluorescence (steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The formation of a 1:1 complex with a constant of about 10 5 M -1 was evidenced. Foerster's resonance energy transfer and competitive binding with site markers warfarin and ibuprofen were considered and discussed. Changes in the CD band of HSA indicate a decrease in the α-helix content upon binding. An induced CD signal for bound fisetin was observed and rationalized in terms of density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: → Fisetin-BSA system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. → Binding parameters, association constant and number of sites were estimated. → Binding site of fisetin was identified by competitive experiments. → Conformational changes in HSA and fisetin were evidenced by circular dichroism. → TDDFT calculated CD spectra supported the experimental data.

  15. Interaction of fisetin with human serum albumin by fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations: binding parameters and conformational changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania); Hillebrand, Mihaela, E-mail: mihh@gw-chimie.math.unibuc.ro [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-08-15

    The interaction between fisetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective flavonoid, and human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by means of fluorescence (steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The formation of a 1:1 complex with a constant of about 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} was evidenced. Foerster's resonance energy transfer and competitive binding with site markers warfarin and ibuprofen were considered and discussed. Changes in the CD band of HSA indicate a decrease in the {alpha}-helix content upon binding. An induced CD signal for bound fisetin was observed and rationalized in terms of density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: > Fisetin-BSA system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. > Binding parameters, association constant and number of sites were estimated. > Binding site of fisetin was identified by competitive experiments. > Conformational changes in HSA and fisetin were evidenced by circular dichroism. > TDDFT calculated CD spectra supported the experimental data.

  16. A probabilistic approach to the assessment of some life history pattern parameters in a Middle Pleistocene human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, A I; Ipina, S L; Bermúdez de Castro, J M

    2000-06-01

    Parameters of a Middle Pleistocene human population such as the expected length of the female reproductive period (E(Y)), the expected interbirth interval (E(X)), the survival rate (tau) for females after the expected reproductive period, the rate (phi(2)) of women who, given that they reach first birth, do not survive to the end of the expected reproductive period, and the female infant plus juvenile mortality rate (phi(1)) have been assessed from a probabilistic standpoint provided that such a population were stationary. The hominid sample studied, the Sima de los Huesos (SH) cave site, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain), is the most exhaustive human fossil sample currently available. Results suggest that the Atapuerca (SH) sample can derive from a stationary population. Further, in the case that the expected reproductive period ends between 37 and 40 yr of age, then 24 less, similarE(Y) less, similar27 yr, E(X)=3 yr, 0.224

  17. Three-dimensional biomechanical properties of human vocal folds: Parameter optimization of a numerical model to match in vitro dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anxiong; Berry, David A.; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Döllinger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The human voice signal originates from the vibrations of the two vocal folds within the larynx. The interactions of several intrinsic laryngeal muscles adduct and shape the vocal folds to facilitate vibration in response to airflow. Three-dimensional vocal fold dynamics are extracted from in vitro hemilarynx experiments and fitted by a numerical three-dimensional-multi-mass-model (3DM) using an optimization procedure. In this work, the 3DM dynamics are optimized over 24 experimental data sets to estimate biomechanical vocal fold properties during phonation. Accuracy of the optimization is verified by low normalized error (0.13 ± 0.02), high correlation (83% ± 2%), and reproducible subglottal pressure values. The optimized, 3DM parameters yielded biomechanical variations in tissue properties along the vocal fold surface, including variations in both the local mass and stiffness of vocal folds. That is, both mass and stiffness increased along the superior-to-inferior direction. These variations were statistically analyzed under different experimental conditions (e.g., an increase in tension as a function of vocal fold elongation and an increase in stiffness and a decrease in mass as a function of glottal airflow). The study showed that physiologically relevant vocal fold tissue properties, which cannot be directly measured during in vivo human phonation, can be captured using this 3D-modeling technique. PMID:22352511

  18. Modeling H-ARS using hematological parameters: a comparison between the non-human primate and mini-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolduc, David L.; Buenger, Rolf; Moroni, Maria; Blakely, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple hematological biomarkers (i.e. complete blood counts and serum chemistry parameters) were used in a multivariate linear-regression fit to create predictive algorithms for estimating the severity of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) using two different species (i.e. Goettingen Mini-pig and non-human primate (NHP) (Macacca mulatta)). Biomarker data were analyzed prior to irradiation and between 1-60 days (mini-pig) and 1-30 days (NHP) after irradiation exposures of 1.6-3.5 Gy (mini-pig) and 6.5 Gy (NHP) 60 Co gamma ray doses at 0.5-0.6 Gy min -1 and 0.4 Gy min -1 , respectively. Fitted radiation risk and injury categorization (RRIC) values and RRIC prediction percent accuracies were compared between the two models. Both models estimated H-ARS severity with over 80% overall predictive power and with receiver operating characteristic curve area values of 0.884 and 0.825. These results based on two animal radiation models support the concept for the use of a hematopoietic-based algorithm for predicting the risk of H-ARS in humans. (authors)

  19. A Community Patient Demographic System

    OpenAIRE

    Gabler, James M.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A Community Patient Demographic System is described. Its purpose is to link patient identification, demographic and insurance information among multiple organizations in a community or among multiple registration systems within the same organization. This function requires that there be a competent patient identification methodology and clear definition of local responsibilities for number assignment and database editing.

  20. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  1. Demographic inferences from large-scale NGS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov

    .g. human genetics. In this thesis, the three papers presented demonstrate the advantages of NGS data in the framework of population genetics for elucidating demographic inferences, important for understanding conservation efforts, selection and mutational burdens. In the first whole-genome study...... that the demographic history of the Inuit is the most extreme in terms of population size, of any human population. We identify a slight increase in the number of deleterious alleles because of this demographic history and support our results using simulations. We use this to show that the reduction in population size...

  2. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A

    1998-05-01

    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries.

  3. Achieving a demographic breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H

    1994-09-01

    President Hosni Mubarak received the United Nations Population Award on June 14, 1994, because of his contribution to the promotion of the national population program in Egypt. Egypt has been tackling the population problem on three fronts: high rate of natural increase (2.3% in 1994), unbalanced population distribution along the Nile Valley and the Mediterranean coast that account for just 4% of the land, and insufficient educational and health levels. At present seven major programs are being implemented throughout the country to curb population increase involving information, education and communication; family planning; human resource development; improving maternal and child health, and educational level; increasing employment; the empowerment of women; and systematic land development. The total fertility rate dropped to 3.9 during 1990-1992 from 5.3 during 1979-1980. The crude birth rate dropped to 29.2/1000 population in 1992 from 38.7/1000 in 1986. The crude death rate also decreased to 7.4/1000 in 1992 from 9.2/1000 in 1986. The infant mortality rate decreased to 62 during 1988-1992 from 132 during 1975-1979. The contraceptive prevalence rate climbed from 24.25 in 1980 to 47.1% in 1992. The strong endorsement by the Grand Mufti that Islam supports family planning made many people change their traditional view that family planning was forbidden by the Koran. The political commitment from the President led to the provision of large budgets for the national population program. Technical and program assistance provided by donors including the United States Agency for International Development has greatly contributed to mass media campaigns and service delivery. 63.4% of acceptors received family planning services or contraceptives from the private sector. Egypt is willing to share its population and family planning experience with other developing countries that have similar economic and social conditions particularly if financial assistance by industrialized

  4. A new path in defining light parameters for hair growth: Discovery and modulation of photoreceptors in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscone, Serena; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Raafs, Bianca; Bikker, Jan W; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Farjo, Nilofer; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2017-09-01

    Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches. The functional significance of Opsin 3 was assessed by silencing its expression in the hair follicle cells followed by a transcriptomic profiling. Proprietary LED-based devices emitting two discrete visible wavelengths were used to access the effects of selected optical parameters on hair growth ex vivo and outer root sheath cells in vitro. The expression of OPN2 (Rhodopsin) and OPN3 (Panopsin, Encephalopsin) was detected in the distinct compartments of skin and anagen hair follicle. Treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of blue light with 453 nm central wavelength significantly prolonged anagen phase in hair follicles ex vivo that was correlated with sustained proliferation in the light-treated samples. In contrast, hair follicle treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of 689 nm light (red light) did not significantly affect hair growth ex vivo. Silencing of OPN3 in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells resulted in the altered expression of genes involved in the control of proliferation and apoptosis, and abrogated stimulatory effects of blue light (3.2 J/cm 2 ; 453 nm) on proliferation in the outer root sheath cells. We provide the first evidence that (i) OPN2 and OPN3 are expressed in human hair follicle, and (ii) A 453 nm blue light at low radiant exposure exerts a positive effect on hair growth ex vivo, potentially via interaction with OPN3. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:705-718, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  5. Effect of variation of geometric parameters on the flow within a synthetic models of lower human airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Moreno, Andres Santiago; Duque Daza, Carlos Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The effects of variation of two geometric parameters, such as bifurcation angle and carina rounding radius, during the respiratory inhalation process, are studied numerically using two synthetic models of lower human airways. Laminar flow simulations were performed for six angles and three rounding radius, for 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 for Reynolds numbers. Numerical results showed the existence of a direct relationship between the deformation of the velocity profiles (effect produced by the bifurcation) and the vortical structures observed through the secondary flow patterns. It is observed that the location of the vortices (and their related saddle point) is associated with the displacement of the velocity peak. On the other hand, increasing the angle and the rounding radius seems to bring about a growth of the pressure drop, which in turn displaces the distribution and peaks of the maximum shear stresses of the carina, that is, of the bifurcation point. Some physiological effects associated with the phenomena produced by these geometric variations are also discussed.

  6. Human and riverine impacts on the dynamics of seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dongseon; Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-04-01

    We investigated seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea, which has been exposed to significant human influences, in each core month of four seasons for between 2010 and 2012. The survey data were analyzed using multivariate statistics analysis (cluster and factor analysis). As a result, we found that the Seomjin River (the fifth largest river in South Korea) and biological activity, including phytoplankton photosynthesis and bacterial decomposition, were the main factors determining the overall water quality of the bay. However, the impacts of these factors varied both spatially and seasonally, because the factors were linked with the geographical environments and seasonal variations in freshwater discharge. In particular, the Seomjin River was primarily responsible for nitrate, silicate, total alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon, and exhibited a significant impact in the summer. During the past 10 years, nutrient loads from the river and industrial complexes to the bay have decreased. The impacts of this decrease are visible in the phosphate concentration, which has fallen to a third of its initial value. We also examined the potential role of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen cycling in the study area.

  7. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  8. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  9. Is the demographic dividend an education dividend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Lutz, Wolfgang; Sanderson, Warren

    2014-02-01

    The effect of changes in age structure on economic growth has been widely studied in the demography and population economics literature. The beneficial effect of changes in age structure after a decrease in fertility has become known as the "demographic dividend." In this article, we reassess the empirical evidence on the associations among economic growth, changes in age structure, labor force participation, and educational attainment. Using a global panel of countries, we find that after the effect of human capital dynamics is controlled for, no evidence exists that changes in age structure affect labor productivity. Our results imply that improvements in educational attainment are the key to explaining productivity and income growth and that a substantial portion of the demographic dividend is an education dividend.

  10. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  11. Nutritional status and laboratory parameters among internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-19

    Mar 19, 2015 ... Relation of demographic characteristics, laboratory parameters, ... high density lipoprotein, cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin and protein, weight and BMI. Among 130 ... density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, triglyceride,.

  12. Preliminary studies into the effects of the human pharmaceutical Clofibric acid on sperm parameters in adult Fathead minnow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnalls, Tamsin J; Hala, David N; Sumpter, John P

    2007-08-15

    The effects of Clofibric acid (a persistent environmental metabolite of Clofibrate, a human pharmaceutical), on Fathead minnows were studied. Fibrates are used to prevent cardiovascular disease through their antilipidemic activity. In a series of experiments, in which fish were exposed to waterborne Clofibric acid, no convincing, reproducible antilipidemic effects were observed. In contrast, in three separate experiments, Clofibric acid affected the reproductive axis of fish. Spermatogenesis was apparently impaired, leading to a marked reduction in sperm count in two of the three experiments. Various measures of sperm motility were also reduced, although only significantly so at the highest concentration of Clofibric acid tested (1mg/L). There were also indications that plasma androgen concentrations were reduced. These effects of Clofibric acid on the reproductive axis of fish are similar to those that occur in some mammals as a side-effect of the drug. Taken together, a weight-of-evidence argument would suggest that the main discernable effect of Clofibric acid on fish is likely to be a reproductive, not an antilipidemic, one. Although some of these reproductive effects of Clofibric acid occurred only at a high concentration (1mg/L), others occurred at lower concentrations (microg/litre), near or similar to those reported in the aquatic environment (ng to low microg/litre range). Although we recognise that this is not a definitive study of the effects of Clofibric acid on fish reproduction, the results strongly suggest that Clofibric acid could adversely affect sperm parameters and androgen concentrations in adult Fathead minnows. Further studies are warranted. This may be an example of a drug in which an accidentally discovered side-effect found in mammals turns out to be the most important effect in a different vertebrate group, namely fish.

  13. Methodology and parameters for assessing human health effects for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Looney, B.B.; Pickett, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the components of risk assessment and presents the technical basis for application of the risk evaluation process to the principal pollutants at SRP: radionuclides, toxic chemicals, and carcinogenic compounds. An extensive technical data base from the fields of radiation health physics, toxicology, and environmental sciences is required to accomplish this task. The origin and meaning of this data base is summarized for each class of contaminant and parameter values provided for use in numerical analysis of risk. The process of risk assessment is associated with uncertainties, a fact which is frequently stated in the technical literature addressing this subject. A review of risk assessment uncertainties and the limitations of predictive risk assessment are summarized. Risk estimators for each class of contaminants at the SRP have been tabulated for radionuclides, toxic chemicals, and carcinogens from the technical literature. Estimation of human health risk is not an additive process for radiation effects and chemical carcinogenesis since their respective dosimetric models are distinctly different even though the induction of cancer is reported to be the common end result. It is recommended in this report that risk estimation for radionuclides and chemical carcinogens should be tabulated separately and this recommendation has been applied in all environmental information documentation published by the Savannah River Laboratory. Impacts due to toxic chemicals in the biosphere should also be estimated as a separate entity since toxic chemical risk estimators are uniquely different and do not reflect the probability of a detrimental health effect. 23 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Artha J; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    There is a large proportion of minority youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Disproportionate minority contact (DMC) occurs when the proportion of any ethnic group is higher at any given stage in the juvenile justice process than the proportion of this group in the general population. There are several theories explaining the presence and persistence of DMC. This article reviews the history of DMC and the theories and implications of this problem. It discusses several targets for interventions designed to reduce DMC and offer resources in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, James S.

    2011-05-01

    Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

  16. Social demographic change and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  17. Implications of research staff demographics for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does, Serena; Ellemers, Naomi; Dovidio, John F; Norman, Jasmine B; Mentovich, Avital; van der Lee, Romy; Goff, Phillip Atiba

    2018-03-01

    Long-standing research traditions in psychology have established the fundamental impact of social categories, such as race and gender, on people's perceptions of themselves and others, as well as on the general human cognition and behavior. However, there is a general tendency to ignore research staff demographics (e.g., researchers' race and gender) in research development and research reports. Variation in research staff demographics can exert systematic and scientifically informative influences on results from psychological research. Consequently, research staff demographics need to be considered, studied, and/or reported, along with how these demographics were allowed to vary across participants or conditions (e.g., random assignment, matched with participant demographics, or included as a factor in the experimental design). In addition to providing an overview of multidisciplinary evidence of research staff demographics effects, we discuss how research staff demographics might influence research findings through (a) ingroup versus outgroup effects, (b) stereotype and (implicit) bias effects, and (c) priming and social tuning effects. Finally, an overview of recommended considerations is included (see the Appendix) to help illustrate how to systematically incorporate relevant research staff demographics in psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Patterns of demographic change in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, D H

    1992-06-01

    Considerable scholarly debate has focused on the nature of demographic change in the Americas before and after 1492. Recent research on human skeletal samples and related archeological materials suggests that morbidity and mortality were increasing throughout much of the Western Hemisphere before 1492 in response to increased population density, increased sedentism, and changing subsistence. The evidence suggests that after 1492 population reduction was caused not by continental pandemics but by localized or regional epidemics augmented by social and economic disruption. The twentieth century has witnessed remarkable Native American population recovery, fueled both by improvements in health care and changing definitions of "being Indian."

  19. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Ebener, Stefan; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  20. Are Demographics the Nation's Destiny?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Gene V.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the demographic trends affecting America's public schools. As an expert on empirical evaluation of education, the author believes the major debates over vouchers, charter schools, bilingual education, and other issues are not really about preparing the next generation to compete with China or India, or about…

  1. Demographic Modelling in Weed Biocontrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic matrix modeling of plant populations can be a powerful tool to identify key life stage transitions that contribute the most to population growth of an invasive plant and hence should be targeted for disruption. Therefore, this approach has the potential to guide the pre-release selection...

  2. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site. 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, Brooke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-26

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of applicant site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991 and 2010. They are being updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  3. Land and Water Use Characteristics and Human Health Input Parameters for use in Environmental Dosimetry and Risk Assessments at the Savannah River Site 2017 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stagich, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-25

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of relatively small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters, but the use of site-specific values is encouraged. Detailed surveys of land-use and water-use parameters were conducted in 1991, 2008, 2010, and 2016 and are being concurred with or updated in this report. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk, and vegetable consumption rates, as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors (to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS) are documented. The intent of this report is to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data, and that is maintained via review of future-issued national references (to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released). These reviews will continue to be added to this document by revision.

  4. Three-dimensional evaluation of human jaw bone microarchitecture: correlation between the microarchitectural parameters of cone beam computed tomography and micro-computer tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Eun; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Huh, Kyung-Hoe

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the potential feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Sixty-eight specimens from four pairs of human jaw were scanned using both micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of 19.37-μm voxel size and CBCT of 100-μm voxel size. The correlation of 3-dimensional parameters between CBCT and micro-CT was evaluated. All parameters, except bone-specific surface and trabecular thickness, showed linear correlations between the 2 imaging modalities (P < .05). Among the parameters, bone volume, percent bone volume, trabecular separation, and degree of anisotropy (DA) of CBCT images showed strong correlations with those of micro-CT images. DA showed the strongest correlation (r = 0.693). Most microarchitectural parameters from CBCT were correlated with those from micro-CT. Some microarchitectural parameters, especially DA, could be used as strong predictors of bone quality in the human jaw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  6. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  7. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-01-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  8. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Personal emergency call system based on human vital and system technical parameters in a Smart Home environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampicke, M; Schadow, B; Rossdeutscher, W; Fellbaum, K; Boenick, U

    2002-11-01

    Progress in microtechnology and radio transmission technology has enabled the development of highly reliable emergency-call systems. The present article describes systems that have been specially designed to improve the safety and independence of handicapped and elderly persons living at home. For such persons immediate help in an emergency situation is of crucial importance. The technical state of the art of emergency-call systems specially developed for use by the elderly, is briefly discussed, in particular the well-known radio emergency-call button, with the aid of which an alarm can be activated manually. This system, however, does not offer adequate safety in all emergency situations. Alternative or complementary systems designed to automatically trigger an alarm on the basis of the recording and evaluation of so-called vital parameters, are therefore proposed. In addition, in a smart-home environment with networked devices, further parameters--so-called environment parameters can be used. It is found that the identification of an emergency situation becomes more reliable as the number of parameters employed increases.

  10. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  11. N-Linked Glycosylation is an Important Parameter for Optimal Selection of Cell Lines Producing Biopharmaceutical Human IgG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, Patrick H. C.; Gerritsen, Jolanda; Perdok, Gerrard; Valbjorn, Jesper; Vink, Tom; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the variations in N-linked glycosylation of human IgG molecules derived from 105 different stable cell lines each expressing one of the six different antibodies. Antibody expression was based on glutamine synthetase selection technology in suspension growing CHO-KISV cells. The glycans

  12. Effect of stimulus parameters and contraction level on inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles: Implications for contingent stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadidi, F; Wang, K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Examine the effect of stimulus duration as well as stimulus intensity and level of muscle contraction on the inhibitory responses in human jaw-closing muscles. Design: The inhibitory jaw-reflexes, ES1 and ES2, were recorded in the surface electromyogram (EMG) of masseter and temporal...

  13. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories and the Human Cell Nucleus: Comparison between simulated Parameters and Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown, although it is important for gene regulation and replication. For a long time the interphase nucleus has been viewed as a 'spaghetti soup' of DNA without much internal

  14. Semen parameters of a semen donor before and after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Cornelissen, M.; de Vries, J. W.; Lowe, S. H.; Jurriaans, S.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2004-01-01

    Semen samples from a donor who seroconverted for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during the period that he was donating at our clinic were stored before and after infection. Semen analysis was done on all of these samples before cryopreservation. Retrospectively, both qualitative and

  15. Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litra A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

  16. Correlations of 3T DCE-MRI Quantitative Parameters with Microvessel Density in a Human-Colorectal-Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sung Jun; An, Chan Sik; Koom, Woong Sub; Song, Ho Taek; Suh, Jin Suck

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters and microvascular density (MVD) in a human-colon-cancer xenograft mouse model using 3 Tesla MRI. A human-colon-cancer xenograft model was produced by subcutaneously inoculating 1 X 106 DLD-1 human-colon-cancer cells into the right hind limbs of 10 mice. The tumors were allowed to grow for two weeks and then assessed using MRI. DCE-MRI was performed by tail vein injection of 0.3 mmol/kg of gadolinium. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn at the midpoints along the z-axes of the tumors, and a Tofts model analysis was performed. The quantitative parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve) from the whole transverse ROI and the hotspot ROI of the tumor were calculated. Immunohistochemical microvessel staining was performed and analyzed according to Weidner's criteria at the corresponding MRI sections. Additional Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was performed to evaluate tumor necrosis. The Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rho correlation analysis were performed to prove the existence of a correlation between the quantitative parameters, necrosis, and MVD. Whole transverse ROI of the tumor showed no significant relationship between the MVD values and quantitative DCE-MRI parameters. In the hotspot ROI, there was a difference in MVD between low and high group of Ktrans and Kep that had marginally statistical significance (ps = 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). Also, Ktrans and Kep were found to have an inverse relationship with MVD (r -0.61, p = 0.06 in Ktrans; r = -0.60, p = 0.07 in Kep). Quantitative analysis of T1-weighted DCE-MRI using hotspot ROI may provide a better histologic match than whole transverse section ROI. Within the hotspots, Ktrans and Kep tend to have a reverse correlation with MVD in this colon cancer mouse model.

  17. Correlations of 3T DCE-MRI Quantitative Parameters with Microvessel Density in a Human-Colorectal-Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sung Jun; An, Chan Sik; Koom, Woong Sub; Song, Ho Taek; Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To investigate the correlation between quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters and microvascular density (MVD) in a human-colon-cancer xenograft mouse model using 3 Tesla MRI. A human-colon-cancer xenograft model was produced by subcutaneously inoculating 1 X 106 DLD-1 human-colon-cancer cells into the right hind limbs of 10 mice. The tumors were allowed to grow for two weeks and then assessed using MRI. DCE-MRI was performed by tail vein injection of 0.3 mmol/kg of gadolinium. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn at the midpoints along the z-axes of the tumors, and a Tofts model analysis was performed. The quantitative parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve) from the whole transverse ROI and the hotspot ROI of the tumor were calculated. Immunohistochemical microvessel staining was performed and analyzed according to Weidner's criteria at the corresponding MRI sections. Additional Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was performed to evaluate tumor necrosis. The Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rho correlation analysis were performed to prove the existence of a correlation between the quantitative parameters, necrosis, and MVD. Whole transverse ROI of the tumor showed no significant relationship between the MVD values and quantitative DCE-MRI parameters. In the hotspot ROI, there was a difference in MVD between low and high group of Ktrans and Kep that had marginally statistical significance (ps = 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). Also, Ktrans and Kep were found to have an inverse relationship with MVD (r -0.61, p = 0.06 in Ktrans; r = -0.60, p = 0.07 in Kep). Quantitative analysis of T1-weighted DCE-MRI using hotspot ROI may provide a better histologic match than whole transverse section ROI. Within the hotspots, Ktrans and Kep tend to have a reverse correlation with MVD in this colon cancer mouse model.

  18. Photobiomodulation of distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts: a rational approach towards the selection of effective light parameters for skin rejuvenation and wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Charles; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E.; Raafs, Bianca; Moolenaar, Mitchel; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2016-03-01

    Distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts play complementary roles in skin rejuvenation and wound healing, which makes them a target of phototherapy. However, knowledge about differential responses of specific cell lineages to different light parameters and moreover the actual molecular targets remain to be unravelled. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of a range of parameters of light on the metabolic activity, collagen production, and cell migration of distinct lineages of human dermal fibroblasts. A rational approach was used to identify parameters with high therapeutic potential. Fibroblasts exhibited both inhibitory and cytotoxic change when exposed to a high dose of blue and cyan light in tissue culture medium containing photo-reactive species, but were stimulated by high dose red and near infrared light. Cytotoxic effects were eliminated by refreshing the medium after light exposure by removing potential ROS formed by extracellular photo-reactive species. Importantly, distinct lineages of fibroblasts demonstrated opposite responses to low dose blue light treatment when refreshing the medium after exposure. Low dose blue light treatment also significantly increased collagen production by papillary fibroblasts; high dose significantly retarded closure of the scratch wound without signs of cytotoxicity, and this is likely to have involved effects on both cell migration and proliferation. We recommend careful selection of fibroblast subpopulations and their culture conditions, a systematic approach in choosing and translating treatment parameters, and pursuit of fundamental research on identification of photoreceptors and triggered molecular pathways, while seeking effective parameters to address different stages of skin rejuvenation and wound healing.

  19. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokan, Nikola; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping-generations model to study the growth-maximizing level of public debt under conditions of demograhic change. It is shown that the optimal debt level depends on a positive marginal productivity of public capital. In general, it also depends on the demographic par...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  20. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  1. 31P-NMR spectroscopy in measurements of physiological parameters and response to therapy of human melanoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Dag Rune

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether ''31P-NMR spectroscopy can be utilized in prediction and monitoring of response to therapy or tumours. The specific aims were: 1) To investigate possible correlations between on the one hand bio energetics status, phospholipids resonance ratios, intracellular pH and phosphorus T 1 s and on the other hand tumour blood supply and oxygenation, tumour proliferation and necrotic fraction across tumour lines. 2) Reveal possible correlations between changes in tumour bio energetics status and phosphorus T 1 s and the changes in tumour blood flow, tumour oxygenation and necrotic fraction. 3) To investigate whether irradiation and hyperthermia treatment of tumours affect bio energetics status and phosphorus T 1 s. 4) To identify the tumour physiological factors that is effected by the treatment and influence the bio energetics status and phosphorus T 1 s. The results are presented in 8 papers with titles: 1)''31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of six human melanoma zeno graft lines: Tumour bio energetic status and blood supply. 2) ''31P NMR spectroscopy studies of phospholipid metabolism in human melanoma xenograft lines differing in rate of tumour cell proliferation. 3) ''31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of four human melanoma xenograft lines: Spin-lattice relaxation times. 4) Effect of melanin on phosphorus T 1 s in human melanoma xenografts studied by ''31P MRS 5) Spin-lattice relaxation time of inorganic phosphate in human tumour xenografts measured in vivo by ''31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy influence of oxygen tension. 6) Effects of hyperthermia on bio energetic status and phosphorus T 1 s in human melanoma xenografts monitored by ''31P-MRS. 7) Monitoring of tumour reoxygenation following irradiation by ''31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy an experimental study of human melanoma xenografts. 8) Radiation-induced changes in phosphorus T 1 values in human melanoma xenografts studied

  2. Some observations on plutonium transfers in human and animal food-chains and Gi tract: plutonium complexation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    1986-06-01

    Although many data have been accumulated concerning the distribution of Pu in waters, soils, and foodchains, recent studies have raised the question of the Pu physico-chemical species and their differential availability. Accordingly, we reviewed published data on the transfer of Pu in foodchains and in the gastrointestinal tracts. Dietetic, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological parameters have been studied and their incidence on the intestinal transfer factor f 1 of Pu in man briefly discussed: the transfer in the trophic chains often increases Pu mobility and perhaps f 1 . Experimental research is needed to obtain quantitative data [fr

  3. Differences between the most used equations in BAT-human studies to estimate parameters of skin temperature in young lean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tellez, Borja; Sanchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Acosta, Francisco M; Alcantara, Juan M A; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2017-09-05

    Cold exposure is necessary to activate human brown adipose tissue (BAT), resulting in heat production. Skin temperature is an indirect measure to monitor the body's reaction to cold. The aim of this research was to study whether the most used equations to estimate parameters of skin temperature in BAT-human studies measure the same values of temperature in young lean men (n = 11: 23.4 ± 0.5 years, fat mass: 19.9 ± 1.2%). Skin temperature was measured with 26 ibuttons at 1-minute intervals in warm and cold room conditions. We used 12 equations to estimate parameters of mean, proximal, and distal skin temperature as well as skin temperature gradients. Data were analysed with Temperatus software. Significant differences were found across equations to measure the same parameters of skin temperature in warm and cold room conditions, hampering comparison across studies. Based on these findings, we suggest to use a set of 14 ibuttons at anatomical positions reported by ISO STANDARD 9886:2004 plus five ibuttons placed on the right supraclavicular fossa, right middle clavicular bone, right middle upper forearm, right top of forefinger, and right upper chest.

  4. Estimation and Statistical Analysis of Human Voice Parameters to Investigate the Influence of Psychological Stress and to Determine the Vocal Tract Transfer Function of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kumar Mongia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the principal focus is to examine the influence of psychological stress (both positive and negative stress on the human articulation and to determine the vocal tract transfer function of an individual using inverse filtering technique. Both of these analyses are carried out by estimating various voice parameters. The outcomes of the analysis of psychological stress indicate that all the voice parameters are affected due to the influence of stress on humans. About 35 out of 51 parameters follow a unique course of variation from normal to positive and negative stress in 32% of the total analyzed signals. The upshot of the analysis is to determine the vocal tract transfer function for each vowel for an individual. The analysis indicates that it can be computed by estimating the mean of the pole zero plots of that individual’s vocal tract estimated for the whole day. Besides this, an analysis is presented to find the relationship between the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract and the vocal tract cavities. The results of the analysis indicate that all the LPC coefficients of the vocal tract are affected due to change in the position of any cavity.

  5. Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In Patients With Gastrointestinal Disorders, Using Quantail Regression Analysis. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate relation between demographic factors and hospitalization in gastrointestinal disorders.

  6. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 juin 2009 ... Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in Developing Countries ... countries comes from analysis of demographic and health survey data. ... Navrongo (Ghana), Matlab (Bangladesh) and Filabavi (Viet Nam) ...

  7. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  8. Effects of Yoga and Pranayama on Human Reaction Time and Certain Physiological Parameters in Normal and Obesity College Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sivasankar; Dr.V.Vallimurugan

    2017-01-01

    Yoga is a process of gaining control over the mind, as defined by Patanjali. Stress has been implicated as one of the major causes of essential obesity. Yoga works on every cell of the body. Yoga influences body as well as controls the stress in the individual. An index of the processing ability of central nervous system and a simple means of determining sensory-motor performance is referred to as reaction time (RT). It has been proclaimed that human performance including central neural proce...

  9. Is the propagation speed of ultrasound in human organs a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization? Evaluation using the liver parenchyma in children and adolescents as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, M.; Franke, I.

    2011-01-01

    New sonographic machines permit the measurement of the propagation speed of ultrasound (PSU) in humans. The liver seems to be an appropriate organ for examining whether the PSU may be used as a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization since the liver is easily accessible to sonography and its variable content of fat impacts the PSU. Purpose: To determine whether there is a measurable correlation between obesity and PSU in the liver. Methods: In 69 children and adolescents, the PSU in the liver was measured sonographically and correlated to BMI, age, size and weight of the children. Results: A strong correlation was found between the PSU in the liver and the BMI. The PSU was significantly lower in obese children (1507 m/s) than in children with normal body weight (1564 m/s). Conclusion: PSU seems to be promising as an additional diagnostic parameter for characterizing liver tissue. Further evaluation is necessary. (orig.)

  10. Estimating demographic contributions to effective population size in an age-structured wild population experiencing environmental and demographic stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Amanda E; Bignal, Eric M; McCracken, Davy I; Piertney, Stuart B; Reid, Jane M

    2017-09-01

    A population's effective size (N e ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However, estimating N e , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the N e to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. A sophisticated demographic method of estimating N e /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated. However, this method requires detailed individual- and population-level data on sex- and age-specific reproduction and survival, and has rarely been implemented. Here, we use the reproductive value method and detailed demographic data to estimate N e /N for a small and apparently isolated red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) population of high conservation concern. We additionally calculated two single-sample molecular genetic estimates of N e to corroborate the demographic estimate and examine evidence for unobserved immigration and gene flow. The demographic estimate of N e /N was 0.21, reflecting a high total demographic variance (σ2dg) of 0.71. Females and males made similar overall contributions to σ2dg. However, contributions varied among sex-age classes, with greater contributions from 3 year-old females than males, but greater contributions from ≥5 year-old males than females. The demographic estimate of N e was ~30, suggesting that rates of increase of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation per generation will be relatively high. Molecular genetic estimates of N e computed from linkage disequilibrium and approximate Bayesian computation were approximately 50 and 30, respectively, providing no evidence of substantial unobserved immigration which could bias demographic estimates of N e . Our analyses identify

  11. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  12. Comparative effects of red and white grapes on oxidative markers and lipidemic parameters in adult hypercholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Ali Reza; Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Shakouri; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of consuming red versus white whole grapes on oxidative and lipidemic indices in people with hypercholesterolemia. Sixty nine patients were randomized into three groups. The two treatment groups consumed 500 g of either Condori red grapes or Shahroodi white grapes daily for 8 weeks, and the third group served as a control. Plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (TG), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by colorimetric methods at baseline and at the end of the study. In addition, the polyphenol and fiber content of the two grape varieties was measured. TBARS was reduced in both study groups compared to the control group, and the reduction was greater in the group that consumed red grapes compared to the white grapes. TAC was increased significantly in both red and white grape consuming groups compared to the control group. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were decreased in the red grape group compared to the control group. No significant changes in fasting blood glucose, TG or HDL-C were observed among the groups. The results of this study suggest that consumption of the whole fruit of red grapes has more potent anti-oxidative and hypolipidemic effects compared to the white grapes in hyperlipidemic adult humans. Hence, the whole fruit of red grapes may be an excellent fruit choice not only to prevent oxidative stress related metabolic disorders but also cholesterol related cardiovascular diseases, particularly in hyperlipidemic adult humans.

  13. Matrix dimensions bias demographic inferences: implications for comparative plant demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2010-12-01

    While the wealth of projection matrices in plant demography permits comparative studies, variation in matrix dimensions complicates interspecific comparisons. Collapsing matrices to a common dimension may facilitate such comparisons but may also bias the inferred demographic parameters. Here we examine how matrix dimension affects inferred demographic elasticities and how different collapsing criteria perform. We analyzed 13 x 13 matrices representing nine plant species, collapsing these matrices (i) into even 7 x 7, 5 x 5, 4 x 4, and 3 x 3 matrices and (ii) into 5 x 5 matrices using different criteria. Stasis and fecundity elasticities increased when matrix dimension was reduced, whereas those of progression and retrogression decreased. We suggest a collapsing criterion that minimizes dissimilarities between the original- and collapsed-matrix elasticities and apply it to 66 plant species to study how life span and growth form influence the relationship between matrix dimension and elasticities. Our analysis demonstrates that (i) projection matrix dimension has significant effects on inferred demographic parameters, (ii) there are better-performing methods than previously suggested for standardizing matrix dimension, and (iii) herbaceous perennial projection matrices are particularly sensitive to changes in matrix dimensionality. For comparative demographic studies, we recommend normalizing matrices to a common dimension by collapsing higher classes and leaving the first few classes unaltered.

  14. The mRNA expression of SETD2 in human breast cancer: correlation with clinico-pathological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Sarakbi, W; Sasi, W [St George' s University of London, Blackshaw Road, Tooting, London, SW17 OQT (United Kingdom); Jiang, WG [University Department of Surgery, Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff University, CF14 4XN (United Kingdom); Roberts, T; Newbold, RF [Institute of Cancer Genetics and Pharmacogenomics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Mokbel, K [St George' s University of London, Blackshaw Road, Tooting, London, SW17 OQT (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Genetics and Pharmacogenomics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-21

    SET domain containing protein 2 (SETD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is involved in transcriptional elongation. There is evidence that SETD2 interacts with p53 and selectively regulates its downstream genes. Therefore, it could be implicated in the process of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 3p and we previously demonstrated that the 3p21.31 region of chromosome 3 was associated with permanent growth arrest of breast cancer cells. This region includes closely related genes namely: MYL3, CCDC12, KIF9, KLHL18 and SETD2. Based on the biological function of these genes, SETD2 is the most likely gene to play a tumour suppressor role and explain our previous findings. Our objective was to determine, using quantitative PCR, whether the mRNA expression levels of SETD2 were consistent with a tumour suppressive function in breast cancer. This is the first study in the literature to examine the direct relationship between SETD2 and breast cancer. A total of 153 samples were analysed. The levels of transcription of SETD2 were determined using quantitative PCR and normalized against (CK19). Transcript levels within breast cancer specimens were compared to normal background tissues and analyzed against conventional pathological parameters and clinical outcome over a 10 year follow-up period. The levels of SETD2 mRNA were significantly lower in malignant samples (p = 0.0345) and decreased with increasing tumour stage. SETD2 expression levels were significantly lower in samples from patients who developed metastasis, local recurrence, or died of breast cancer when compared to those who were disease free for > 10 years (p = 0.041). This study demonstrates a compelling trend for SETD2 transcription levels to be lower in cancerous tissues and in patients who developed progressive disease. These findings are consistent with a possible tumour suppressor function of this gene in breast cancer.

  15. Evaluation of metabolism, plasma protein binding and other biological parameters after administration of (−)-[18 F]Flubatine in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patt, Marianne; Becker, Georg A.; Grossmann, Udo; Habermann, Bernd; Schildan, Andreas; Wilke, Stephan; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Graef, Susanne; Fischer, Steffen; Smits, René; Hoepping, Alexander; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Steinbach, Jörg; Gertz, Hermann-Josef; Hesse, Swen; Schönknecht, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine is a PET tracer with high affinity and selectivity for the nicotinic acetylcholine α 4 β 2 receptor subtype. A clinical trial assessing the availability of this subtype of nAChRs was performed. From a total participant number of 21 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs), the following parameters were determined: plasma protein binding, metabolism and activity distribution between plasma and whole blood. Methods: Plasma protein binding and fraction of unchanged parent compound were assessed by ultracentrifugation and HPLC, respectively. The distribution of radioactivity (parent compound + metabolites) between plasma and whole blood was determined ex vivo at different time-points after injection by gamma counting after separation of whole blood by centrifugation into the cellular and non-cellular components. In additional experiments in vitro, tracer distribution between these blood components was assessed for up to 90 min. Results: A fraction of 15% ± 2% of (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine was found to be bound to plasma proteins. Metabolic degradation of (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine was very low, resulting in almost 90% unchanged parent compound at 90 min p.i. with no significant difference between AD and HC. The radioactivity distribution between plasma and whole blood changed in vivo only slightly over time from 0.82 ± 0.03 at 3 min p.i. to 0.87 ± 0.03 at 270 min p.i. indicating the contribution of only a small amount of metabolites. In vitro studies revealed that (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine was instantaneously distributed between cellular and non-cellular blood parts. Discussion: (−)-[ 18 F]Flubatine exhibits very favourable characteristics for a PET radiotracer such as slow metabolic degradation and moderate plasma protein binding. Equilibrium of radioactivity distribution between plasma and whole blood is reached instantaneously and remains almost constant over time allowing both convenient sample handling and

  16. Demographic patterns and sustainable development in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, E O

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the present demographic patterns in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, do not augur well for the achievement of sustainable development. Ghana is characterized by a youthful population, rapid population growth, uneven population distribution, high fertility, and rural-urban migration which has brought human numbers into collision with resources to sustain them. It is submitted that the issues discussed are equally applicable to the subregion as well. The estimated population in 1993 was about 16.4 million. The population of Ghana increased from 1970 to 1984 at a rate of growth of 2.6% per annum. The proliferation of small settlements has serious implications for sustainable development. Urban centers comprised about 12.9% of the total population in 1948, 23% in 1960, 28.3% in 1970, and 31.3% in 1984. The average woman in Ghana still has more than six children. The 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) indicated that the median age at first marriage for women was 16.5 years. Contraceptive use is low in sub-Sahara Africa. Currently married women (15-49) currently using any modern method ranged from 1% in Burundi (1987) and Mali (1987) to 36% in Zimbabwe (1988/89). The rapid population growth in Ghana, coupled with the concentration of infrastructural facilities and job opportunities in the urban centers, has resulted in a massive rural-urban migration. Basic social facilities like health, water, housing, and electricity have been stretched to their breakpoints. The Government of Ghana initiated a major effort to put environmental issues on the priority agenda in March 1988. This led to the preparation of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) in 1991 to address issues relating to the protection of the environment, but the need is still urgent to adopt relevant population policies as a basic strategy in sustainable development.

  17. Modulation of plasma N-acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; Lin, Lin; Gillingham, Leah G; Yang, Haifeng; Omar, Jaclyn M

    2014-12-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-signaling molecules involved in satiety and energetics; however, how diet impacts circulating NAE concentrations and their downstream metabolic actions in humans remains unknown. Objectives were to examine effects of diets enriched with high-oleic canola oil (HOCO) or HOCO blended with flaxseed oil (FXCO), compared with a Western diet (WD), on plasma NAE levels and the association with energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Using a randomized controlled crossover design, 36 hypercholesterolemic participants consumed three isoenergetic diets for 28 days, each containing 36% energy from fat, of which 70% was HOCO, FXCO, or WD. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS was used to measure plasma NAE levels and indirect calorimetry to assess energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. After 28 days, compared with WD, plasma oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and alpha-linolenoyl ethanolamide (ALEA) levels were significantly increased in response to HOCO and FXCO (P = 0.002, P < 0.001), respectively. Correlation analysis demonstrated an inverse association between plasma OEA levels and percent body fat (r = -0.21, P = 0.04), and a positive association was observed between the plasma arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA)/OEA ratio and android:gynoid fat (r = 0.23, P = 0.02), respectively. Results suggest that plasma NAE levels are upregulated via their dietary lipid substrates and may modulate regional and total fat mass through lipid-signaling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Estimation of parameters for the electrostatic discharge current equation with real human discharge events reference using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsivelis, P S; Gonos, I F; Stathopulos, I A

    2010-01-01

    Thorough study of the electrostatic discharge (ESD) current equation shows that it may be different from the equation proposed in the IEC 61000-4-2 Standard. This problem is dealt with in this paper. Using a 2.5 GHz digital oscilloscope and a 50 Ω Pellegrini target as the measuring system, and a dc power supply to provide a charging voltage of 2 kVdc, a series of measurements were performed, so real human-to-metal ESD current waveforms were recorded. Treating the average waveform as a reference, a genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to the equation of the IEC 61000-4-2 Standard for the ESD current, in order to achieve its best fitting to the data set. Four different error norms were used for the GA applications. The best result of the applications of each of them was saved and compared to the others. Thus, a very satisfactory modification of the Standard's equation is presented, which is closer to the real ESD current waveform

  19. Application of carbon-11 labelled nicotine in the measurement of human cerebral blood flow and other physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, Fuji; Hayashi, Tokishi; Iio, Masaaki; Hara, Toshihiko

    1993-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), we measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in five normal human subjects after intravenous injection of carbon-11 labelled (R)nicotine. The rCBF of the same subjects was measured by PET using the C 15 O 2 inhalation steady-state method. The distribution of 11 C activity in the brain after injection of 11 C-(R)nicotine was almost equivalent to the CBF image obtaines with C 15 O 2 inhalation steady-state method. The kinetics of 11 C-(R)nicotine in the brain was analysed using a two-compartment model consisting of vascular and brain tissue compartments. The rCBF values obtained with 11 C-(R)nicotine were higher than with C 15 O 2 gas. It is possible that the relatively long fixed distribution of 11 C-(R)nicotine with a short uptake period allows stimulation studies by measurement of CBF to be performed with better photon flux and a longer imaging time than are possible with H 2 15 O. (orig.)

  20. Cultural innovations and demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richerson, Peter J; Boyd, Robert; Bettinger, Robert L

    2009-04-01

    Demography plays a large role in cultural evolution through its effects on the effective rate of innovation. If we assume that useful inventions are rare, then small isolated societies will have low rates of invention. In small populations, complex technology will tend to be lost as a result of random loss or incomplete transmission (the Tasmanian effect). Large populations have more inventors and are more resistant to loss by chance. If human populations can grow freely, then a population-technology-population positive feedback should occur such that human societies reach a stable growth path on which the rate of growth of technology is limited by the rate of invention. This scenario fits the Holocene to a first approximation, but the late Pleistocene is a great puzzle. Large-brained hominins existed in Africa and west Eurasia for perhaps 150,000 years with, at best, slow rates of technical innovation. The most sophisticated societies of the last glacial period appear after 50,000 years ago and were apparently restricted to west and north-central Eurasia and North Africa. These patterns have no simple, commonly accepted explanation. We argue that increased high-frequency climate change around 70,000-50,000 years ago may have tipped the balance between humans and their competitor-predators, such as lions and wolves, in favor of humans. At the same time, technically sophisticated hunters would tend to overharvest their prey. Perhaps the ephemeral appearance of complex tools and symbolic artifacts in Africa after 100,000 years ago resulted from hunting inventions that allowed human populations to expand temporarily before prey overexploitation led to human population and technology collapse. Sustained human populations of moderate size using distinctively advanced Upper Paleolithic artifacts may have existed in west Eurasia because cold, continental northeastern Eurasia-Beringia acted as a protected reserve for prey populations.

  1. Relationship of tumor necrosis factor alpha genotypes with various biochemical parameters of normal, over weight and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M.; Chaudhary, B.; Shakoori, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-alpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes and elevated levels of this cytokine have been associated with obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to test whether the TNF-alpha -308 polymorphism were associated with insulin resistance or obesity related traits in non-diabetic and diabetic patients visiting Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Fatima Hospital and Irfan Clinic in Sargodha. In non diabetic subjects the AA allele carriers, compared with homozygous G allele carriers had significantly lower (28%) triglyceride values and 15% higher HDL yal ues, whereas other parameters tested 81id not show any significant variation. In diabetic patients the AA allele carriers, compared with GG allele carriers, besides having 31 % higher FBS and 26% higher creatinine, had 20% higher cholesterol and 34% higher triglycerides. The HDL values were 14% less, compared to GG allele carriers. In normal subjects (BMI 22.85:1:0.25 kgim2), the AA allele carriers showed 132%, 125%, 65% and 112% higher triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL values compared with GG allele carriers. The HDL and creatinine did not show any significant change. In the overweight subjects (BMI: 27.17+-0.17 kgim/sup 2/) all these values were lower than in AA allele carriers compared with GG allele carriers. The AA allele carries had FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL 28%, 48%, 14% and 14% lower than in the GG allele' carriers, respectively. In obese subjects, (BMI: 36.73+-0.78kgm/sup 2/), however, the FBS, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine values were 5%, 8%, 7% and 14% higher in AA allele carries compared to GG allele carriers, respectively. The LDL content was 8% lower in AA allele carrier as compared with the respective GG allele carriers, It is concluded that replacement of G at -308 with A leads to reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subject, whereas in diabetic patients this mutation-increases the risk of CVD. Using BMI as index of obesity, it was

  2. In vitro enantioselective human liver microsomal metabolism and prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of tetrabenazine by DLLME-CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocato, Mariana Zuccherato; de Lima Moreira, Fernanda; de Albuquerque, Nayara Cristina Perez; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

    2016-09-05

    A new capillary electrophoresis method for the enantioselective analysis of cis- and trans- dihydrotetrabenazine (diHTBZ) after in vitro metabolism by human liver microsomes (HLMs) was developed. The chiral electrophoretic separations were performed by using tris-phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) containing 1% (w/v) carboxymethyl-β-CD as background electrolyte with an applied voltage of +15kV and capillary temperature kept at 15°C. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was employed to extract the analytes from HLMs. Dichloromethane was used as extraction solvent (75μL) and acetone as disperser solvent (150μL). The method was validated according to official guidelines and showed to be linear over the concentration range of 0.29-19.57μmolL(-1) (r=0.9955) for each metabolite enantiomer. Within- and between-day precision and accuracy evaluated by relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 15% for all enantiomers. The stability assay showed that the analytes kept stable under handling, storage and in metabolism conditions. After method validation, an enantioselective in vitro metabolism and in vivo pharmacokinetic prediction was carried out. This study showed a stereoselective metabolism and the observed kinetic profile indicated a substrate inhibition behavior. DiHTBZ enantiomers were catalyzed mainly by CYP2C19 and the predicted clearance suggests that liver metabolism is the main route for TBZ elimination which supports the literature data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  4. Public health and demographic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, C.H.; Loebl, A.S.; Miller, F.L.; Ritchey, P.N. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to assess the methodology and available data sources appropriate for use in analytical studies and environmental impact statements concerning the health effects of nuclear power plants. The techniques developed should be applicable as well to evaluation of the known risks of high levels of radiation exposure and of conflicting evidence on low-level effects, such as those associated with the normal operations of nuclear power plants. To accomplish this purpose, a two-pronged approach has been developed. The first involves a determination of the public health and demographic data sources of local, state, and federal origin that are available for use in analyses of health effects and environmental impact statements. The second part involves assessment of the methods used by epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and other scientists as found in the literature on health effects. This two-pronged approach provides a means of assessing the strength and shortcomings of studies of the impact of nuclear facilities on the health of the general population in a given locality

  5. Thymic function and T cell parameters in a natural human experimental model of seasonal infectious diseases and nutritional burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Gareth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study exploits a natural human experimental model of subsistence farmers experiencing chronic and seasonally modified food shortages and infectious burden. Two seasons existed, one of increased deprivation and infections (Jul-Dec, another of abundance and low infections (Jan-Jun; referred to as the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection seasons respectively. Prior analysis showed a 10-fold excess in infectious disease associated mortality in young adults born in the hungry/high infection versus harvest/low infection season, and reduced thymic output and T cell counts in infancy. Here we report findings on the role of early life stressors as contributors to the onset of T cell immunological defects in later life. Methods We hypothesised that season of birth effects on thymic function and T cell immunity would be detectable in young adults since Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated this to be the time of greatest mortality divergence. T cell subset analyses by flow-cytometry, sjTRECs, TCRVβ repertoire and telomere length by PCR, were performed on samples from 60 males (18-23 y selected to represent births in the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection Results Total lymphocyte counts were normal and did not differ by birth season. CD3+ and CD4+ but not CD8+ counts were lower for those born during the hungry/high infection season. CD8+ telomere length also tended to be shorter. Overall, CD8+ TCRVβ repertoire skewing was observed with 'public' expressions and deletions seen in TCRVβ12/22 and TCRVβ24, respectively but no apparent effect of birth season. Conclusions We conclude that, although thymic function was unchanged, the CD4+ and CD3+ counts, and CD8+ telomere length results suggested that aspects of adult T cell immunity were under the influence of early life stressors. The endemicity of CMV and HBV suggested that chronic infections may modulate immunity through T cell repertoire development. The

  6. Comparison of the kinetic parameters of the truncated catalytic subunit and holoenzyme of human DNA polymerase ε

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahurancik, Walter J.; Baranovskiy, Andrey G.; Tahirov, Tahir H.; Suo, Zucai

    2015-01-01

    Numerous genetic studies have provided compelling evidence to establish DNA polymerase ε (Polε) as the primary DNA polymerase responsible for leading strand synthesis during eukaryotic nuclear genome replication. Polε is a heterotetramer consisting of a large catalytic subunit that contains the conserved polymerase core domain as well as a 3′ → 5′ exonuclease domain common to many replicative polymerases. In addition, Polε possesses three small subunits that lack a known catalytic activity but associate with components involved in a variety of DNA replication and maintenance processes. Previous enzymatic characterization of the Polε heterotetramer from budding yeast suggested that the small subunits slightly enhance DNA synthesis by Polε in vitro. However, similar studies of the human Polε heterote-tramer (hPolε) have been limited by the difficulty of obtaining hPolε in quantities suitable for thorough investigation of its catalytic activity. Utilization of a baculovirus expression system for overexpression and purification of hPolε from insect host cells has allowed for isolation of greater amounts of active hPolε, thus enabling a more detailed kinetic comparison between hPolε and an active N-terminal fragment of the hPolε catalytic subunit (p261N), which is readily overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Here, we report the first pre-steady-state studies of fully-assembled hPolε. We observe that the small subunits increase DNA binding by hPolε relative to p261N, but do not increase processivity during DNA synthesis on a single-stranded M13 template. Interestingly, the 3′ → 5′ exonuclease activity of hPolε is reduced relative to p261N on matched and mismatched DNA substrates, indicating that the presence of the small subunits may regulate the proofreading activity of hPolε and sway hPolε toward DNA synthesis rather than proofreading. PMID:25684708

  7. LIBP-Pred: web server for lipid binding proteins using structural network parameters; PDB mining of human cancer biomarkers and drug targets in parasites and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Munteanu, Cristian R; Postelnicu, Lucian; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Gestal, Marcos; Pazos, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    Lipid-Binding Proteins (LIBPs) or Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins (FABPs) play an important role in many diseases such as different types of cancer, kidney injury, atherosclerosis, diabetes, intestinal ischemia and parasitic infections. Thus, the computational methods that can predict LIBPs based on 3D structure parameters became a goal of major importance for drug-target discovery, vaccine design and biomarker selection. In addition, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) contains 3000+ protein 3D structures with unknown function. This list, as well as new experimental outcomes in proteomics research, is a very interesting source to discover relevant proteins, including LIBPs. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no general models to predict new LIBPs based on 3D structures. We developed new Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models based on 3D electrostatic parameters of 1801 different proteins, including 801 LIBPs. We calculated these electrostatic parameters with the MARCH-INSIDE software and they correspond to the entire protein or to specific protein regions named core, inner, middle, and surface. We used these parameters as inputs to develop a simple Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier to discriminate 3D structure of LIBPs from other proteins. We implemented this predictor in the web server named LIBP-Pred, freely available at , along with other important web servers of the Bio-AIMS portal. The users can carry out an automatic retrieval of protein structures from PDB or upload their custom protein structural models from their disk created with LOMETS server. We demonstrated the PDB mining option performing a predictive study of 2000+ proteins with unknown function. Interesting results regarding the discovery of new Cancer Biomarkers in humans or drug targets in parasites have been discussed here in this sense.

  8. Human Papillomavirus and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Correlation With Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Seong; Park, Mina; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jinna

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parameters on the basis of the status of human papillomavirus (HPV) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx by use of histogram analysis. A total of 22 consecutive patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC underwent DCE-MRI before receiving treatment. DCE parameter maps of the volume transfer constant (K(trans)), the flux rate constant (kep), and the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (ve) were obtained. The histogram parameters were calculated using the entire enhancing tumor volume and were compared between the patient subgroups on the basis of HPV and EGFR biomarker statuses. The cumulative histogram parameters of K(trans) and kep showed lower values in the HPV-negative and EFGR-overexpression group than in the HPV-positive EGFR-negative group. These differences were statistically significant for the mean (p = 0.009), 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile values of K(trans) and for the 25th percentile value of kep when correlated with HPV status in addition to the mean K(trans) value (p = 0.047) and kep value (p = 0.004) when correlated with EGFR status. No statistically significant difference in ve was found on the basis of HPV and EGFR status. DCE-MRI is useful for the assessment of the tumor microenvironment associated with HPV and EGFR biomarkers before treatment of patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC.

  9. Gender inequalities and demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A summary was provided of the central findings about gender inequalities in Egypt, India, Ghana, and Kenya published by the Population Council in 1994. These countries exhibited gender inequalities in different ways: the legal, economic, and educational systems; family planning and reproductive health services; and the health care system. All countries had in common a high incidence of widowhood. Widowhood was linked with high levels of insecurity, which were linked with high fertility. Children thus became insurance in old age. In Ghana, women's insecurity was threatened through high levels of marital instability and polygyny. In Egypt, insecurity was translated into economic vulnerability because of legal discrimination against women when family systems were disrupted. In India and all four countries, insecurity was reflective of limited access to education, an impediment to economic autonomy. In all four countries, women's status was inferior due to limited control over reproductive decision making about childbearing limits and contraception. In India, the cultural devaluation of girls contributed to higher fertility to satisfy the desire for sons. In India and Egypt, family planning programs were dominated by male-run organizations that were more concerned about demographic objectives than reproductive health. The universal inequality was the burden women carry for contraception. Family planning programs have ignored the local realities of reproductive behavior, family structures, and gender relations. The assumption that husbands and wives have similar fertility goals or that fathers fully share the costs of children is mistaken in countries such as Ghana. Consequently, fertility has declined less than 13% in Ghana, but fertility has declined by over 30% in Kenya. Family planning programs must be aware of gender issues.

  10. [Maternal mortality: the demographic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, D

    1989-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined maternal mortality (MM) as a death following a delivery or during the 42 day period following a prolonged or complicated delivery. This definition is ambiguous because it does not take into account the institutional causes (deficiencies) that lead to MM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) nor does it reflect all the reasons leading to MM because of the lack of nationwide health information systems and the lack of accurate statistics. While developed countries can depend on the state to provide accurate statistics, developing countries depend on hospitals, health training centers and special surveys to provide such data which often leads to 25-50% gross underestimations of MM. The most recent WHO data (1989) shows that SSA has the highest MM rates worldwide, ranging from 500- 700/100,000 as compared to Asia with 55-650; Latin America with 110-210 and the developed countries with 10-48. The data for SSA doesn't reflect the true situation in the rural areas where MM rates are over 1000/1000,000. MM is a symptom of poor countries where women contribute to their own deaths through repeated pregnancies, causing significant socioeconomic losses to society. UNICEF (1988) has categorized the demographic factors as high risk for women based on: 1) the age of the mother, and 2) the number of pregnancies. Family planning (FP) reduces MM by preventing illegal abortions; it reduces the number of unwanted pregnancies and increases the earnings of a community by reducing the number of pregnant women. The experience of developed countries demonstrates how women have avoided high-risk and unwanted pregnancies.

  11. Public Pension Reform, Demographics, and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    von Weizsäcker, Robert K

    1994-01-01

    Starting from a simple, descriptive model of individual income, an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes is established. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system is introduced. The resulting government budget constraint entails interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown ...

  12. LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-08-06

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6

  13. Land And Water Use Characteristics And Human Health Input Parameters For Use In Environmental Dosimetry And Risk Assessments At The Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6

  14. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  15. Cost-effectiveness of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in Nigeria: a decision analysis using pragmatic parameter estimates for cost and programme coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Obinna I; Lhachimi, Stefan K

    2017-12-08

    World Health Organisation recommends routine Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination for girls when its cost-effectiveness in the country or region has been duly considered. We therefore aimed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Nigeria using pragmatic parameter estimates for cost and programme coverage, i.e. realistically achievable in the studied context. A microsimulation frame-work was used. The natural history for cervical cancer disease was remodelled from a previous Nigerian model-based study. Costing was based on health providers' perspective. Disability adjusted life years attributable to cervical cancer mortality served as benefit estimate. Suitable policy option was obtained by calculating the incremental costs-effectiveness ratio. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to assess parameter uncertainty. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to explore the robustness of the policy recommendation to key parameters alteration. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) was calculated to determine the expected opportunity cost associated with choosing the optimal scenario or strategy at the maximum cost-effectiveness threshold. Combination of the current scenario of opportunistic screening and national HPV vaccination programme (CS + NV) was the only cost-effective and robust policy option. However, CS + NV scenario was only cost-effective so far the unit cost of HPV vaccine did not exceed $5. EVPI analysis showed that it may be worthwhile to conduct additional research to inform the decision to adopt CS + NV. National HPV vaccination combined with opportunist cervical cancer screening is cost-effective in Nigeria. However, adoption of this strategy should depend on its relative efficiency when compared to other competing new vaccines and health interventions.

  16. Demographic characteristics of MS patients in Poland's upper Silesia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzchala, Krystyna; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Dobrakowski, Pawel; Kubicka-Baczyk, Katarzyna; Niedziela, Natalia; Sowa, Pawel

    2015-05-01

    In Poland, no national registry of MS patients has yet been introduced. So far, no demographic studies have been conducted in patients with MS in Upper Silesia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, a selected demographic and clinical parameters in MS patients from the Upper Silesia region and compare these characteristics with previously published data from other regions of Poland. 640 patients with clinically defined MS, were prospectively and randomly selected for the study. Social, socio-economic, and demographic data were obtained through a questionnaire study. All subjects performed a self-assessment of their health condition using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS version questionnaires. The ratio of women to men was 2.18. The average age of onset was 29.6 ± 11.1 years; the disease duration was 7.9 ± 4.5 years. The relapsing-remitting form of MS was diagnosed in 73.12%. In 71.25% the onset was monofocal and in 28.75% multifocal disease onset was observed. Among the studied population 339 (52.97%) patients were still employed. A mean EQ-VAS score of 66.11 ± 20.12 was calculated. Results from our study identify for the first time the demographic and clinical characteristics of the Upper Silesia MS population.

  17. Demographic and Economic Changes and Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charner, Ivan

    The interaction of demographic and economic shifts has led to, and will continue to effect, changes in the postsecondary education system and institutions. Demographic shifts include aging of the population, more women in the paid labor force, and increased numbers of minorities. Economic shifts include the growth of the information sector,…

  18. Is there a Demographic Time-bomb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states......The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states...

  19. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans

    The demographic transition is a universal phenomenon. All regions of the world experience a change from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels. The onset and pace of the demographic transition vary between regions and countries because of differences in timing of events and conditions

  20. 5 CFR 841.404 - Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demographic factors. 841.404 Section 841.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Government Costs § 841.404 Demographic...

  1. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Matthijs, K.; Neels, K.; Timmerman, C.; Haers, J.; Mels, S.

    2016-01-01

    Willekens, F. (2015) Demographic transitions in Europe and the world. In: K. Matthijs, K. Neels, C. Timmerman. J. Haers and S. Mels eds. Population change at work in Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. Beyond the demographic divide. Ashgate (International Population Studies Series) pp. 13-44.

  2. Signal-to-noise ratio and MR tissue parameters in human brain imaging at 3, 7, and 9.4 tesla using current receive coil arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohmann, Rolf; Speck, Oliver; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Relaxation times, transmit homogeneity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and parallel imaging g-factor were determined in the human brain at 3T, 7T, and 9.4T, using standard, tight-fitting coil arrays. The same human subjects were scanned at all three field strengths, using identical sequence parameters and similar 31- or 32-channel receive coil arrays. The SNR of three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo images was determined using a multiple replica approach and corrected with measured flip angle and T2 (*) distributions and the T1 of white matter to obtain the intrinsic SNR. The g-factor maps were derived from 3D gradient echo images with several GRAPPA accelerations. As expected, T1 values increased, T2 (*) decreased and the B1 -homogeneity deteriorated with increasing field. The SNR showed a distinctly supralinear increase with field strength by a factor of 3.10 ± 0.20 from 3T to 7T, and 1.76 ± 0.13 from 7T to 9.4T over the entire cerebrum. The g-factors did not show the expected decrease, indicating a dominating role of coil design. In standard experimental conditions, SNR increased supralinearly with field strength (SNR ∼ B0 (1.65) ). To take full advantage of this gain, the deteriorating B1 -homogeneity and the decreasing T2 (*) have to be overcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian

    2011-01-01

    of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set......In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  4. Demographics of dogs, cats, and rabbits attending veterinary practices in Great Britain as recorded in their electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Noble, Peter-John M; Jones, Phil H; Menacere, Tarek; Buchan, Iain; Reynolds, Suzanna; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Everitt, Sally; Radford, Alan D

    2017-07-11

    Understanding the distribution and determinants of disease in animal populations must be underpinned by knowledge of animal demographics. For companion animals, these data have been difficult to collect because of the distributed nature of the companion animal veterinary industry. Here we describe key demographic features of a large veterinary-visiting pet population in Great Britain as recorded in electronic health records, and explore the association between a range of animal's characteristics and socioeconomic factors. Electronic health records were captured by the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), from 143 practices (329 sites) in Great Britain. Mixed logistic regression models were used to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and species and breed ownership, and preventative health care interventions. Dogs made up 64.8% of the veterinary-visiting population, with cats, rabbits and other species making up 30.3, 2.0 and 1.6% respectively. Compared to cats, dogs and rabbits were more likely to be purebred and younger. Neutering was more common in cats (77.0%) compared to dogs (57.1%) and rabbits (45.8%). The insurance and microchipping relative frequency was highest in dogs (27.9 and 53.1%, respectively). Dogs in the veterinary-visiting population belonging to owners living in least-deprived areas of Great Britain were more likely to be purebred, neutered, insured and microchipped. The same association was found for cats in England and for certain parameters in Wales and Scotland. The differences we observed within these populations are likely to impact on the clinical diseases observed within individual veterinary practices that care for them. Based on this descriptive study, there is an indication that the population structures of companion animals co-vary with human and environmental factors such as the predicted socioeconomic level linked to the owner's address. This 'co-demographic' information suggests that further

  5. Epidemiology and clinical parameters of adult human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Gu; Ele, Pu; Okocha, Ec; Iloduba, Uc

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has continued to ravage the teeming populations in Nigeria, with disastrous consequences. Despite many studies and progress on HIV/AIDS in Africa, the data on the status of the patients at the commencement of therapy is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical and some laboratory features of adult HIV/AIDS patients, seen at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between July 2002 and October 2004. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Adult patients living with HIV/AIDS were studied using an interview administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1. A total of 400 respondents participated in this study. The mean age was 36.8 (8.8) years. Almost 60% patients were married and the HIV concordance rate was 53.3% (136/255). Nearly 30% of the families had at least one child positive for HIV. The most common associated risky behavior was injection administered in patent medicine stores 74.5%(302/400) and the most common clinical symptom was respiratory. Of the 400 patients recruited in this study, 19 (4.8%) were lost to follow-up on the 6 months' visit, giving a follow-up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was statistically significant difference in the mean body weight (P = 0.02), mean total white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and mean CD4(+) count (P < 0.001) at presentation and after 6 months of ART therapy. HIV/AIDS patients present late and body weight, CD4(+) count and total white blood cell count seemed to recover quickly on commencement of ART. The prevalence of concordance among couples and mother to child transmission rates tended to be high. Administration of injectable at patent medicine stores and multiple sexual partners are the most significant risk factors.

  6. Genetic demographic networks: Mathematical model and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Marek; Wojdyła, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    Recent improvement in the quality of genetic data obtained from extinct human populations and their ancestors encourages searching for answers to basic questions regarding human population history. The most common and successful are model-based approaches, in which genetic data are compared to the data obtained from the assumed demography model. Using such approach, it is possible to either validate or adjust assumed demography. Model fit to data can be obtained based on reverse-time coalescent simulations or forward-time simulations. In this paper we introduce a computational method based on mathematical equation that allows obtaining joint distributions of pairs of individuals under a specified demography model, each of them characterized by a genetic variant at a chosen locus. The two individuals are randomly sampled from either the same or two different populations. The model assumes three types of demographic events (split, merge and migration). Populations evolve according to the time-continuous Moran model with drift and Markov-process mutation. This latter process is described by the Lyapunov-type equation introduced by O'Brien and generalized in our previous works. Application of this equation constitutes an original contribution. In the result section of the paper we present sample applications of our model to both simulated and literature-based demographies. Among other we include a study of the Slavs-Balts-Finns genetic relationship, in which we model split and migrations between the Balts and Slavs. We also include another example that involves the migration rates between farmers and hunters-gatherers, based on modern and ancient DNA samples. This latter process was previously studied using coalescent simulations. Our results are in general agreement with the previous method, which provides validation of our approach. Although our model is not an alternative to simulation methods in the practical sense, it provides an algorithm to compute pairwise

  7. Demographic Ranking of the Baltic Sea States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluka N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study lies in the acute need to modernise the tools for a more accurate and comparable reflection of the demographic reality of spatial objects of different scales. This article aims to test the methods of “demographic rankings” developed by Yermakov and Shmakov. The method is based on the principles of indirect standardisation of the major demographic coefficients relative to the age structure.The article describes the first attempt to apply the method to the analysis of birth and mortality rates in 1995 and 2010 for 140 countries against the global average, and for the Baltic Sea states against the European average. The grouping of countries and the analysis of changes over the given period confirmed a number of demographic development trends and the persistence of wide territorial disparities in major indicators. The authors identify opposite trends in ranking based on the standardised birth (country consolidation at the level of averaged values and mortality (polarisation rates. The features of demographic process development in the Baltic regions states are described against the global and European background. The study confirmed the validity of the demographic ranking method, which can be instrumental in solving not only scientific but also practical tasks, including those in the field of demographic and social policy.

  8. Fatal disease and demographic Allee effect: population persistence and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Avner; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2012-01-01

    If a healthy stable host population at the disease-free equilibrium is subject to the Allee effect, can a small number of infected individuals with a fatal disease cause the host population to go extinct? That is, does the Allee effect matter at high densities? To answer this question, we use a susceptible-infected epidemic model to obtain model parameters that lead to host population persistence (with or without infected individuals) and to host extinction. We prove that the presence of an Allee effect in host demographics matters even at large population densities. We show that a small perturbation to the disease-free equilibrium can eventually lead to host population extinction. In addition, we prove that additional deaths due to a fatal infectious disease effectively increase the Allee threshold of the host population demographics.

  9. The consequences of a sudden demographic change on the seroprevalence pattern, virulence genes, identification and characterisation of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in the Salmonella enterica isolated from clinically diarrhoeic humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Hassan, W M M; Mohamed, R A H

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify and characterise integrons and integrated resistance gene cassettes among eight multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in Egypt. Virulotyping by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the presence of virulence genes. Integron PCR was used to detect the presence of class 1 in the MDR strains. The associated individual resistance gene cassettes were identified using specific PCRs. The isolated serovars were Salmonella Grampian (C1; 2/5), Larose (C1; 1/5), Hato (B; 1/5) and Texas (B; 1/5). Among the Salmonella serovars, five Salmonella isolates showed the highest resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, lincomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and trimethoprim (100%), followed by neomycin, norfloxacin and tetracycline (80%), while the lowest resistance was recorded to colistin sulphate and ciprofloxacin in percentages of 20 and 40%, respectively. The invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD and sopB genes were detected in all isolates (100%), while the spvC and gipA genes were totally (100%) absent from all isolates. The remaining three virulence genes were diversely distributed as follows: the bcfC gene was detected in all isolates except Salmonella Hato (80%); the sodC1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian and Salmonella Texas (60%); and the sopE1 gene was detected only in Salmonella Grampian, Hato and Texas (60%). Class 1 integrons were detected in 90% of the MDR isolates, comprising serovars Muenster, Florian, Noya, Grampian, Larose, Hato and Texas. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 45% harboured Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) either right junction or right and left junction having an A-C-S-T phenotype. Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 44% harboured integron gene cassette aadA2, while 11% harboured the floR gene present in multidrug resistance flanked by two integrons of SGI1. The results of the present study indicate that

  10. Demographic Risks of the Pension Reform in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Konstantinovich Solovyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of the demographic crisis in the country’s fiscal system. In the article, the pension system for the first time is considered as a multifactorial model, which during the different historical periods corrects the degree of its dependence on the interdependent complex of macroeconomic and demographic factors. The economically sound and socially correct accounting of the interference of retirement age and the specified development factors of pension system requires a fundamental change in the methodological approaches to the problem of raising the retirement age by using the actuarial methods of forecasting. The actuarial analysis of the problem of retirement age shows that the perception of the linear dependence on demographic parameters of the age when the national pension is awarded cannot be considered as a tool for regulating the efficiency of the pension system. For the science-based solution to the problem of rising the retirement age, along with the dynamics of demographic parameters, it is necessary to take into account the whole range of macroeconomic conditions for the state development as well as the long-term socio-economic consequences. Another significant result of the study are the specific parameters of the actuarial assessments of the impact of demographic and macroeconomic conditions of increasing the retirement age in Russia, conducted using the state statistical data. The practical proposals to mitigate the negative economic consequences are formulated. The key conclusion reached is that the raising of the retirement age should be aimed exclusively at the economic stimulation of the formation of the pension rights of the insured in the long term, rather than to the short-term savings of the state budget. The methodological approaches grounded in the work, and the quantitative results of the actuarial calculations may be applied in the shaping the public pension policy when

  11. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querbes, A.; Vaesen, K.; Houkes, W.N.

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological

  12. Lethality and Autonomous Systems: The Roboticist Demographic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moshkina, Lilia V; Arkin, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Office. The robotics researcher demographic, one of several targeted in this survey that includes policy makers, the military, and the general public, provides the data for this report...

  13. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of Yam In Delta State, Nigeria. ... analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area was male - dominated (78.8%), most of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

  15. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  16. Linear pharmacokinetic parameters for monoclonal antibodies are similar within a species and across different pharmacological targets: A comparison between human, cynomolgus monkey and hFcRn Tg32 transgenic mouse using a population-modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Alison; Keunecke, Anne; van Steeg, Tamara J; van der Graaf, Piet H; Avery, Lindsay B; Jones, Hannah; Berkhout, Jan

    2018-04-10

    The linear pharmacokinetics (PK) of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be considered a class property with values that are similar to endogenous IgG. Knowledge of these parameters across species could be used to avoid unnecessary in vivo PK studies and to enable early PK predictions and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) simulations. In this work, population-pharmacokinetic (popPK) modeling was used to determine a single set of 'typical' popPK parameters describing the linear PK of mAbs in human, cynomolgus monkey and transgenic mice expressing the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn Tg32), using a rich dataset of 27 mAbs. Non-linear PK was excluded from the datasets and a 2-compartment model was applied to describe mAb disposition. Typical human popPK estimates compared well with data from comparator mAbs with linear PK in the clinic. Outliers with higher than typical clearance were found to have non-specific interactions in an affinity-capture self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy assay, offering a potential tool to screen out these mAbs at an early stage. Translational strategies were investigated for prediction of human linear PK of mAbs, including use of typical human popPK parameters and allometric exponents from cynomolgus monkey and Tg32 mouse. Each method gave good prediction of human PK with parameters predicted within 2-fold. These strategies offer alternative options to the use of cynomolgus monkeys for human PK predictions of linear mAbs, based on in silico methods (typical human popPK parameters) or using a rodent species (Tg32 mouse), and call into question the value of completing extensive in vivo preclinical PK to inform linear mAb PK.

  17. Comparison of cryopreserved human sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen: effect on motility parameters, morphology, and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyatanasakchai, Piyaphan; Sophonsritsuk, Areephan; Weerakiet, Sawaek; Wansumrit, Surapee; Chompurat, Deonthip

    2008-11-01

    To compare the effects of cryopreserved sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen on sperm motility, morphology, and sperm function. Experimental study. Andrology laboratory at Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Thirty-eight semen samples with normal motility and sperm count were collected from 38 men who were either patients of an infertility clinic or had donated sperm for research. Each semen sample was divided into two aliquots. Samples were frozen with static-phase vapor cooling. One aliquot was plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), and the other was stored in vapor-phase nitrogen (-179 degrees C) for 3 days. Thawing was performed at room temperature. Motility was determined by using computer-assisted semen analysis, sperm morphology was determined by using eosin-methylene blue staining, and sperm function was determined by using a hemizona binding test. Most of the motility parameters of sperm stored in the vapor phase were not significantly different from those stored in the liquid phase of liquid nitrogen, except in amplitude of lateral head displacement. The percentages of normal sperm morphology in both vapor and liquid phases also were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the number of bound sperm in hemizona between sperm cryopreserved in both vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of human sperm in a vapor phase of liquid nitrogen was comparable to cryopreservation in a liquid phase of liquid nitrogen.

  18. Demographic Analysis from Biometric Data: Achievements, Challenges, and New Frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlian; Zhang, Man; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2018-02-01

    Biometrics is the technique of automatically recognizing individuals based on their biological or behavioral characteristics. Various biometric traits have been introduced and widely investigated, including fingerprint, iris, face, voice, palmprint, gait and so forth. Apart from identity, biometric data may convey various other personal information, covering affect, age, gender, race, accent, handedness, height, weight, etc. Among these, analysis of demographics (age, gender, and race) has received tremendous attention owing to its wide real-world applications, with significant efforts devoted and great progress achieved. This survey first presents biometric demographic analysis from the standpoint of human perception, then provides a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art advances in automated estimation from both academia and industry. Despite these advances, a number of challenging issues continue to inhibit its full potential. We second discuss these open problems, and finally provide an outlook into the future of this very active field of research by sharing some promising opportunities.

  19. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  20. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  1. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae) adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Marcelo Henrique de; Von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800). For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0), and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates...

  2. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  3. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, E. B.

    2015-07-01

    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  4. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  5. Effects of demographic structure on key properties of stochastic density-independent population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar

    2012-12-01

    The development of stochastic demography has largely been based on age structured populations, although other types of demographic structure, especially permanent and dynamic heterogeneity, are likely common in natural populations. The combination of stochasticity and demographic structure is a challenge for analyses of population dynamics and extinction risk, because the population structure will fluctuate around the stable structure and the population size shows transient fluctuations. However, by using a diffusion approximation for the total reproductive value, density-independent dynamics of structured populations can be described with only three population parameters: the expected population growth rate, the environmental variance and the demographic variance. These parameters depend on population structure via the state-specific vital rates and transition rates. Once they are found, the diffusion approximation represents a substantial reduction in model complexity. Here, we review and compare the key population parameters across a wide range of demographic structure, from the case of no structure to the most general case of dynamic heterogeneity, and for both discrete and continuous types. We focus on the demographic variance, but also show how environmental stochasticity can be included. This study brings together results from recent models, each considering a specific type of population structure, and places them in a general framework for structured populations. Comparison across different types of demographic structure reveals that the reproductive value is an essential concept for understanding how population structure affects stochastic dynamics and extinction risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Demographic and audiological factors as predictors of hearing handicap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Currently available evidence reveals comparatively few studies of psychological effects of hearing impairments, in spite of the fact that clinicians have for a long time been aware of a connection between the acquired hearing impairment and mental disorders. They are focused on the investigation of dysfunction in general. Thus, three domains of the auditory imbalance may be distinguished: disorder, disability and handicap. 'Handicap', according to the definition of the World Health Organization, is a hindrance in an individual that results from an impairment or disability and represents psychological response of the individual to the impairment. OBJECTIVE Validation of acquired hearing impairment as a risk factor of psychical disorders as well as an analysis of relation of some demographic factors (sex, age, education and audiological factors (degree and duration of the impairment with the frequency of hearing handicap. METHOD MMPI-201 has been applied in 60 subjects affected with otosclerosis, potential candidates for stapedectomy, before and after the surgery. RESULTS Individuals with acquired hearing impairment manifest more frequent disorders of psychical functioning in comparison with general population, while demographic and audiometric parameters did not correlate with acquired hearing handicap. CONCLUSION It may be assumed that the very recognition of demographic and audio-logical factors can not help much in the understanding of the psychological stress associated with hearing impairment.

  7. [Demographic transition or revolution? The weaknesses and implications of the demographic transition theory. Part 1: the origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1998-01-01

    The work of Adolphe Landry is reviewed in relation to development of demographic transition theory. Landry was appointed administrator in 1912 of the National Alliance Against Depopulation and remained active in it his whole life. He also helped create family allowance programs in France. As early as 1909, Landry described three different population regimes. In the "primitive" regime, which characterized all nonhuman life and human life during most of history, the population was adjusted to available subsistence by mortality. In the "intermediate" phase, restrictions on marriage and control of reproduction outside marriage maintained the population at a level below the maximum supportable. In the "contemporary" regime, the universal practice of contraception and abortion could lead to very low levels of fertility. The spread of contraception and low fertility appeared to Landry a true demographic revolution. He attributed the acceptance of contraception to a change in the common aspirations of human beings regarding their conditions, a desire for improved material well-being and social advancement, and an increased spirit of rationality and even calculation in their behavior. Landry believed that the contemporary regime, unlike the preceding two, had no mechanism implying equilibrium. The demographic revolution freed fertility from social determinants and linked it more closely to individual interests. Landry expected the contemporary regime to spread throughout the entire world, with many areas still in the primitive phase passing directly to the contemporary. He was concerned with the effects of demographic aging, and he deplored birth control propaganda that claimed it as a cure for unemployment and for overpopulation in the poor Asian countries. The birth control movements in England and the US were successful in bringing the two countries into the contemporary regime. A number of organizations such as the Population Association of America and the Office of

  8. Responsible ownership of dogs and human health in neighborhoods of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gilda Garibotti; Daniela Zacharías; Verónica Flores; Sebastián Catriman; Antonella Falconaro; Surpik Kabaradjian; María L. Luque; Beatriz Macedo; Juliana Molina; Carlos Rauque; Matías Soto; Gabriela Vázquez; Rocío Vega; Gustavo Viozzi

    2017-01-01

    Human relationship with dogs associates with numerous and varied benefits on human health; however, it also presents significant risks. The goal of this study was to describe demographic parameters and characteristics of dog ownership with possible implications on human health and to evaluate the prevalence of dog bites and traffic accidents due to dogs. Interviews were conducted in the neighborhoods of Nuestras Malvinas and Nahuel Hue in San Carlos de Bariloche. The percentage of homes with ...

  9. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change

  10. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  11. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life or other related time measures, whose use in demographic...... research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures......, and a full identity that relates the six of them. One of these identities is the age-period-cohort identity, while the other three are relatively novel. We provide a topological overview of the diagrams that pertain to these identities. The 3-d geometric representation of the full six-way identity...

  12. Fertility in the Age of Demographic Maturity: An Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatole Romaniuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As humanity is moving into a new age of its demographic evolution, I call it demographic maturity, the emerging demographic configurations – generational sub-replacement fertility, advanced aging and potential population implosion – call for new ways of thinking about population and new policy approaches. While we live longer and healthier, we also reproduce less and less. We are stuck in a culture of low fertility. The strong motivations for foregoing motherhood are financial: a two-salary wage is better than one even for the higher middle class. No less important is the woman’s financial independence in a societal environment where marriage as an institution is under considerable stress. Motherhood is to be rewarded adequately for its highly important social role and it has to be sufficient to reassure potential mothers of their financial concerns. What is required is a more balanced resource allocation between production and reproduction. The old welfare type hand-outs like child bonuses do not work. Societies, particularly the rich, ought to realize that to raise fertility, even to generational replacement level, not only is a much greater financial effort called for but some of the tenants of the liberal economy need to be put into question to make room for social concerns such a renewal of generations, if they want to survive as national entities. This essay advocates a stationary population as the best response to challenges such as ecological health, national identity and cohesion, and possibly world peace.

  13. [The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's)

  14. Demographics, political power and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz-eakin, D

    1993-01-01

    "Growth theory may be used to predict the response of saving, capital formation, and output growth to large demographic shifts. Such large shifts would also be expected to alter the demand for government services and the desired levels of taxation in the population. This paper extends the overlapping-generations model of economic growth to predict the evolution of government tax and spending policy through the course of a major demographic shift. Simulations suggest that this approach may yield valuable insights into the evolution of policy in the United States and other industrialized economies." excerpt

  15. From Demographic Dividend to Demographic Burden? : Regional Trends of Population Aging in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Matytsin, Mikhail; Moorty, Lalita; Richter, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Do regions with higher working age populations grow faster? This paper examines this question using data from Russian regions and finds evidence that demographic trends influence regional growth convergence. In other words, keeping other factors constant, poorer regions grow faster than richer regions, and some of the growth convergence is explained by demographic changes: faster growth in...

  16. The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

    2013-05-20

    Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental vs Demographic Stochasticity in Population Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Braumann, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Compares the effect on population growth of envinonmental stochasticity (random environmental variations described by stochastic differential equations) with demographic stochasticity (random variations in births and deaths described by branching processes and birth-and-death processes), in the density-independent and the density-dependent cases.

  18. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  19. Psychological and Demographic Correlates of Career Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzle, Matthias; Korner, Astrid; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing diversity of career patterns, resulting from the relative decline of stable employment. In the present study of 1368 employed and self-employed German adults career pattern diversity was assessed using nine pictograms. The goal was to identify psychological and demographic correlates of these patterns and to…

  20. Demographic development in ASEAN: a comparative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, A N; Pardoko, H; Lim, L L; Hongladorom, C

    1981-01-01

    A comparative overview of recent demographic developments in the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region is presented. Countries discussed include Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Separate consideration is given to mortality; fertility; and migration, spatial distribution, and employment. A final section is concerned with emerging issues and directions for population policy.

  1. Global demographic change and climate policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Jaimes, Richard; Motavasseli, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Between 1950 and 2017, world average life expectancy increased from below-50 to above-70, while the fertility rate dropped from 5 to about 2.5. We develop and calibrate an analytic climate-economy model with overlapping generations to study the effect of such demographic change on capital markets

  2. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  3. Changing demographics and shrinking engineering enrollments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that changing U.S. population demographics, poor academic preparation, and a decreasing interest in engineering among college student indicate possible shortages ahead, particularly among chemical and petroleum engineers. If we are to ensure an adequate future supply for the U.S., the engineering talent pool must be enlarged to include women and minority men

  4. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyuk et al.

    demographic environment also plays a significant role in the ... Also, Child mortality rates are known to be higher in poor .... especially Christian women have better health education than ... urban life which could have some impacts on malaria prevention .... insecticides, leave in decent areas and are able to access medical ...

  5. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The shift from high to low levels of mortality and fertility called the demographic transition occurred over a century ago in the developed world. While the reasons for the transition in Western Europe and North America are well documented, little is known about the transition in developing countries except that it is reported to ...

  6. Demographic characteristics of nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    The selection of a nuclear installations sites can not be conceived without a deep analysis of demographic context. This analysis permits to define the critical populations around the installation and is an essential element of emergency plans. 1 tab., 2 refs. (F.M.)

  7. The demographic dynamics of small island societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; D'ayala, P G; Marcus, E; Mcelroy, J L; Rossi, O

    1987-01-01

    Small islands and microstates have demonstrated a unique demographic pattern, including cycles of swift population increases or decreases well beyond natural birth and death rate balances. These demographic fluctuations have been produced largely by rises or declines in market opportunities. The process of taking advantage of favorable opportunities is always followed by a specialization in the given activity, without regard to environmental protection issues or a longterm strategy for economic development and resource diversification. The population growth phase is associated with increasing fragility of the economic base, whether because of the external dangers of overspecialization or induced internal dysfunctions such as disease and resource depletion. Eventually complete collapse results, causing chronic outmigration or even depopulation. Case histories of maritime basins in the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and Pacific show that the demographic structure of small islands has been particularly sensitive to changing economic opportunities, the vagaries of market forces, and cataclysmic natural events. Experience in these areas suggests that balanced economic development of small islands should be based on diversification of activities, thus ensuring a relatively stable pattern of growth, sound environmental management, and control of dangerous demographic fluctuations. Special attention should be given to the development of broad-based research and cooperation to integrate specific island opportunities within a regional network.

  8. The demographic situation in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.F.; Heering, E.L.; van Nimwegen, N.; van der Erf, R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent demographic situation and related population trends in the 27 Member States of the European Union. Some attention will also be paid to its two Candidate Countries, Croatia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, as well as to the EFTA Countries (Iceland,

  9. demographic factors associated factors associated with malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    .8%) than those in other nce of 35.4% which was actors can predispose alence of malaria in a study were significantly eveloping guidelines and more effective disease endemic areas (Bashar et therefore attempts to rmation on possible demographic factors d out in four selected geria; Major Ibrahim B. Hospital Zaria, Hajiya.

  10. Demographic change in the northern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Johnson; Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Forest spans more than 26 million acres across Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. With densely settled urban cores, sprawling suburbs, struggling industrial and forest products towns, fast growing recreational areas, and isolated rural villages, the region includes many of the diverse strands that together compose the demographic fabric of the...

  11. Demographic monitoring of Wright fishhook cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Kass

    2001-01-01

    Wright fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus wrightiae Benson) is a small barrel cactus endemic to the San Rafael Swell in south-central Utah. It was listed as an endangered species in 1979 due to its small population size, threats of over-collecting, and development associated with oil and gas. Demographic monitoring was initiated in 1993 with the following objectives: to...

  12. Clinico - demographic factors associated with diarrhoeal disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of under-5 children presenting with diarrhoeal disease, and the clinicodemographic variables associated with the outcome at the emergency paediatric ward (CHER) of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South- East Nigeria. Methods: Clinical and demographic ...

  13. Demographic profile of patients diagnosed with intracranial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Meningiomas are common brain tumours and display gender, racial and ethnic differences in their demographic profile. ... The mean age of patients was 45.7 ± 10.5 years with a female-to-male ratio of 3.8:1. The mean ...

  14. Demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and personality on job performance among civil servants in Southwest Nigeria. The sample consists of 400 civil servants (males = 275, females = 125) randomly selected from Southwestern ...

  15. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  16. Accuracy of Demographic Inferences from the Site Frequency Spectrum: The Case of the Yoruba Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Marguerite; Lambert, Amaury; Achaz, Guillaume

    2017-05-01

    Some methods for demographic inference based on the observed genetic diversity of current populations rely on the use of summary statistics such as the Site Frequency Spectrum (SFS). Demographic models can be either model-constrained with numerous parameters, such as growth rates, timing of demographic events, and migration rates, or model-flexible, with an unbounded collection of piecewise constant sizes. It is still debated whether demographic histories can be accurately inferred based on the SFS. Here, we illustrate this theoretical issue on an example of demographic inference for an African population. The SFS of the Yoruba population (data from the 1000 Genomes Project) is fit to a simple model of population growth described with a single parameter ( e.g. , founding time). We infer a time to the most recent common ancestor of 1.7 million years (MY) for this population. However, we show that the Yoruba SFS is not informative enough to discriminate between several different models of growth. We also show that for such simple demographies, the fit of one-parameter models outperforms the stairway plot, a recently developed model-flexible method. The use of this method on simulated data suggests that it is biased by the noise intrinsically present in the data. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  18. Demographic Structural Theory: 25 Years On

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack A. Goldstone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available I am grateful to Cliodynamics for this special issue revisiting the ideas put forth in Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World (Goldstone 1991, 2016 a quarter century ago. The two things that one could hope for in advancing any theory are that it proves capable of being advanced and enriched by other scholars, and that it proves capable of being applied in new ways and to new phenomena that were not anticipated. This issue gives examples of both, and shows how scholars are even now only beginning to tap the possibilities of Demographic Structural Theory (DST in explaining politics, history, and long-term economic trends. In this essay, I will tell the story of how demographic structural theory was conceived, relate its early reception among scholars, and comment on the important contributions by other scholars to this special issue.

  19. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

  20. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  1. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  2. Running injuries - changing trends and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B

    2011-01-01

    Running injuries are common. Recently the demographic has changed, in that most runners in road races are older and injuries now include those more common in master runners. In particular, Achilles/calf injuries, iliotibial band injury, meniscus injury, and muscle injuries to the hamstrings and quadriceps represent higher percentages of the overall injury mix in recent epidemiologic studies compared with earlier ones. Evidence suggests that running mileage and previous injury are important predictors of running injury. Evidence-based research now helps guide the treatment of iliotibial band, patellofemoral syndrome, and Achilles tendinopathy. The use of topical nitroglycerin in tendinopathy and orthotics for the treatment of patellofemoral syndrome has moderate to strong evidence. Thus, more current knowledge about the changing demographics of runners and the application of research to guide treatment and, eventually, prevent running injury offers hope that clinicians can help reduce the high morbidity associated with long-distance running.

  3. Using Twitter data for demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Yildiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media data is a promising source of social science data. However, deriving the demographic characteristics of users and dealing with the nonrandom, nonrepresentative populations from which they are drawn represent challenges for social scientists. Objective: Given the growing use of social media data in social science research, this paper asks two questions: 1 To what extent are findings obtained with social media data generalizable to broader populations, and 2 what is the best practice for estimating demographic information from Twitter data? Methods: Our analyses use information gathered from 979,992 geo-located Tweets sent by 22,356 unique users in South East England between 23 June and 4 July 2014. We estimate demographic characteristics of the Twitter users with the crowd-sourcing platform CrowdFlower and the image-recognition software Face++. To evaluate bias in the data, we run a series of log-linear models with offsets and calibrate the nonrepresentative sample of Twitter users with mid-year population estimates for South East England. Results: CrowdFlower proves to be more accurate than Face++ for the measurement of age, whereas both tools are highly reliable for measuring the sex of Twitter users. The calibration exercise allows bias correction in the age-, sex-, and location-specific population counts obtained from the Twitter population by augmenting Twitter data with mid-year population estimates. Contribution: The paper proposes best practices for estimating Twitter users' basic demographic characteristics and a calibration method to address the selection bias in the Twitter population, allowing researchers to generalize findings based on Twitter to the general population.

  4. [Demographic characteristics of consumers in Indonesia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananta, A

    1993-06-01

    "This paper presents a mosaic of business opportunities arising from the different demographic characteristics of the provinces in the western part of Indonesia. The author discusses the total number of population, density, and per capita income to [shed] some light on the volume of the market. He also presents the business impact of the [changes] in fertility, mortality, and the...life style of those aged 40-64." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. Demographic and economic disparities among Arctic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jennifer Irene; Aanesen, Margrethe; Klokov, Konstantin; Kruschov, Sergei; Hausner, Vera Helene

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. Published version at http://doi.org/10.1080/1088937X.2015.1065926. We use demographic and economic indicators to analyze spatial differences and temporal trends across 18 regions surrounding the Arctic Ocean. Multifactor and cluster analysis were used on 10 indicators reflecting income, employment and demography from 1995 to 2008. The main difference is between regions with high population densities, low natural growth rate, and low unemployment (Ru...

  6. Demographic Modeling Via 3-dimensional Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Viquez, Juan Jose; Campos, Alexander; Loria, Jorge; Mendoza, Luis Alfredo; Viquez, Jorge Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a new model for demographic simulation which can be used to forecast and estimate the number of people in pension funds (contributors and retirees) as well as workers in a public institution. Furthermore, the model introduces opportunities to quantify the financial ows coming from future populations such as salaries, contributions, salary supplements, employer contribution to savings/pensions, among others. The implementation of this probabilistic model will be of great ...

  7. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF ADVENTURE TOURISTS IN PRETORIA

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Jeanette Lötter; Sue Geldenhuys; Marius Potgieter

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to examine different motivations and segment differentiations in niche markets such as adventure tourism seeing that it is not a well-defined segment in the discipline of tourism studies. In order to assist adventure tourism companies towards identifying and developing effective marketing strategies to attract or penetrate the adventure niche market, this study aims to contribute towards the current understanding of adventure tourists in Pretoria by compiling a demographic pro...

  8. Responsive survey design, demographic data collection, and models of demographic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Link, Cynthia F; Groves, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    To address declining response rates and rising data-collection costs, survey methodologists have devised new techniques for using process data ("paradata") to address nonresponse by altering the survey design dynamically during data collection. We investigate the substantive consequences of responsive survey design-tools that use paradata to improve the representative qualities of surveys and control costs. By improving representation of reluctant respondents, responsive design can change our understanding of the topic being studied. Using the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6, we illustrate how responsive survey design can shape both demographic estimates and models of demographic behaviors based on survey data. By juxtaposing measures from regular and responsive data collection phases, we document how special efforts to interview reluctant respondents may affect demographic estimates. Results demonstrate the potential of responsive survey design to change the quality of demographic research based on survey data.

  9. Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Radoslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-economic characteristics, due to the proportionally small participation of refugee persons in relation to the total (domicile population, could not significantly influence the total demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of the population of central Serbia and Vojvodina. The most significant contribution of refugee (classifying the refugee corpus in the country's total population is reflected in the mitigation of the depopulation trend, namely population growth, not only both micro-entities, but also lower administrative-territorial entities (districts depending on the enumerated refugee population in them. However, population projections indicate that by the middle of this century (2050 the positive effects of the basically larger number of inhabitants will be lost caused by the inflow of refugee population.

  10. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  11. Beyond demographics is destiny: understanding economic mitigation strategies for demographic change in China

    OpenAIRE

    Judy, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The favorable demographics that have contributed to China’s rapid economic growth are changing. China’s working-age population is currently peaking and within two decades its overall population will begin to shrink. In addition to a shrinking working-age population, China will see an increase in the elderly population and a rising dependency ratio. This demographic change may have an economically significant impact. If China’s enormous...

  12. Use of human factors in the integration of a safety parameter display system (SPDS) and emergency response facility (ERF) capabilities for the James A. Fitzpatrick nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, H.C. Jr.; Gutierrez, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1987, New York Power Authority's Emergency and Process Information Computer (EPIC) System will be operational. The EPIC system was designed to perform two distinct functions: to serve as an advanced replacement for the existing plant process computer and to assist in providing the JAFNPP operations staff with information during plant emergency conditions. Besides meeting the operational and regulatory goals of NYPA, EPIC was designed to meet NYPA human factors criteria. Using human factors literature, industry standards and guidelines, a Human Factors Criteria document was prepared for the EPIC project. This document served as the bases for all hardware, display, and documentation design applicable to EPIC. The major tasks of the EPIC human factors plan include integration of past and present applicable human factors information, establishment of a user definition using data gathered from control room observations (startup and shutdown of JAFNPP), survey of computer programs used by the operators, and obtaining input from licensed operators. These major tasks played a role in the design of the design of the control room configuration, the design and development of computer generated displays, and the format in which the displayed and hard copy information would be presented to the user. This paper presents an overview of the human factors work performed and the documents researched or developed in the design of EPIC displays, software, and hardware. The location and operation of this new computer based information system, like the displays was based on the systematic application of operations and human factors principles

  13. Investing in Health to Create a Third Demographic Dividend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda P

    2016-04-01

    The world is aging as a result of unprecedented successes worldwide adding 30 years of life expectancy and presenting great opportunities for all of society, but only if we invest effectively. This article, written as a requested background article for the World Health Organization 2015 World Report on Aging, proposes that creating health into the oldest ages could lay the basis for a third demographic dividend resulting from the societal benefits from the generative social capital of older adults, on top of the second demographic dividend's savings associated with longer lives. The combination would contribute to stronger and wealthier societies, greater success of the young, and increased societal ability to provide the humane supports needed at the end of life, plus a dividend that would endure. We now know that prevention works at every age and into the oldest ages. A life-course approach to prevention and health promotion is the key investment. The creation of geriatrically knowledgeable and integrated public health, medical and social care systems has the potential to amplify capabilities and well-being to the end of life. Healthy older populations bring both desire for engagement and unique talents. Institutions designed to create impactful roles for older adults to contribute to the success of the young can activate the societal benefits and further enhance health at older ages. Creating a new vision for the opportunities of an older age is the first critical step toward experiencing the benefits of our longer lives and creating a sustained third demographic dividend. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Demographic and Adaptive History of the African Green Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Susanne P

    2017-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the evolutionary history of the African green monkey (genus Chlorocebus) due to the lack of sampled polymorphism data from wild populations. Yet, this characterization of genetic diversity is not only critical for a better understanding of their own history, but also for human biomedical research given that they are one of the most widely used primate models. Here, I analyze the demographic and selective history of the African green monkey, utilizing one of the most comprehensive catalogs of wild genetic diversity to date, consisting of 1,795,643 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms in 25 individuals, representing all five major populations: C. a. aethiops, C. a. cynosurus, C. a. pygerythrus, C. a. sabaeus, and C. a tantalus. Assuming a mutation rate of 5.9 × 10-9 per base pair per generation and a generation time of 8.5 years, divergence time estimates range from 523 to 621 kya for the basal split of C. a. aethiops from the other four populations. Importantly, the resulting tree characterizing the relationship and split-times between these populations differs significantly from that presented in the original genome paper, owing to their neglect of within-population variation when calculating between population-divergence. In addition, I find that the demographic history of all five populations is well explained by a model of population fragmentation and isolation, rather than novel colonization events. Finally, utilizing these demographic models as a null, I investigate the selective history of the populations, identifying candidate regions potentially related to adaptation in response to pathogen exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract; Aplicacao dos parametros fisiologicos e morfologicos de uma amostra da populacao brasileira no modelo matematico do trato respiratorio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-07-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  16. Genetic parameters for androstenone, skatole, indole, and human nose scores as measures of boar taint and their relationship with finishing traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Napel, ten J.; Knol, E.F.; Mathur, P.K.; Crump, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate measures of boar (Sus scrofa) taint as potential selection criteria to reduce boar taint so that castration of piglets will become unnecessary. Therefore, genetic parameters of boar taint measures and their genetic correlations with finishing traits were

  17. The effect of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) on semen parameters in human males: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weihua; Zhou, Zhansong; Liu, Shijian; Li, Qianwei; Yao, Jiwei; Li, Weibing; Yan, Junan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is one of the risk factors of impaired male fertility potential. Studies have investigated the effect of CP/CPPS on several semen parameters but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the association between CP/CPPS and basic semen parameters in adult men. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to August 2013 for case-control studies that involved the impact of CP/CPSS on semen parameters. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMD) of semen parameters were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in a random effects model. Twelve studies were identified, including 999 cases of CP/CPPS and 455 controls. Our results illustrated that the sperm concentration and the percentage of progressively motile sperm and morphologically normal sperm from patients with CP/CPPS were significantly lower than controls (SMD (95% CI) -14.12 (-21.69, -6.63), -5.94 (-8.63, -3.25) and -8.26 (-11.83, -4.66), respectively). However, semen volume in the CP/CPPS group was higher than in the control group (SMD (95% CI) 0.50 (0.11, 0.89)). There was no significant effect of CP/CPPS on the total sperm count, sperm total motility, and sperm vitality. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of CP/CPPS on sperm concentration, sperm progressive motility, and normal sperm morphology. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of CP/CPPS on semen parameters.

  18. Visualising the demographic factors which shape population age structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population pyramid is one of the most popular tools for visualising population age structure. However, it is difficult to discern from the diagram the relative effects of different demographic components on the size of age-specific populations, making it hard to understand exactly how a population's age structure is formed. Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a type of population pyramid which shows how births, deaths, and migration have shaped a population's age structure. Methods: Births, deaths, and population data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A variation on the conventional population pyramid, termed here a components-of-change pyramid, was created. Based on cohort population accounts, it illustrates how births, deaths, and net migration have created the population of each age group. A simple measure which summarises the impact of net migration on age structure is also suggested. Results: Example components-of-change pyramids for several countries and subnational regions are presented, which illustrate how births, deaths, and net migration have fashioned current population age structures. The influence of migration is shown to vary greatly between populations. Conclusions: The new type of pyramid aids interpretation of a population's age structure and helps to understand its demographic history over the last century.

  19. Future scenarios for energy consumption and carbon emissions due to demographic transitions in Chinese households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Biying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Kei, Gomi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2018-02-01

    Population dynamics has been acknowledged as a key concern for projecting future emissions, partly because of the huge uncertainties related to human behaviour. However, the heterogeneous shifts of human behaviour in the process of demographic transition are not well explored when scrutinizing the impacts of population dynamics on carbon emissions. Here, we expand the existing population-economy-environment analytical structure to address the above limitations by representing the trend of demographic transitions to small-family and ageing society. We specifically accommodate for inter- and intra-life-stage variations in time allocation and consumption in the population rather than assuming a representative household, and take a less developed province, Sichuan, in China as the empirical context. Our results show that the demographic shift to small and ageing households will boost energy consumption and carbon emissions, driven by the joint variations in time-use and consumption patterns. Furthermore, biased pictures of changing emissions will emerge if the time effect is disregarded.

  20. The neolithic demographic transition in Europe: correlation with juvenility index supports interpretation of the summed calibrated radiocarbon date probability distribution (SCDPD as a valid demographic proxy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean S Downey

    Full Text Available Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.

  1. Stock vs. Bond Yields, and Demographic Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gozluklu, Arie; Morin, Annaïg

    This paper analyzes the strong comovement between real stock and nominal bond yields at generational (low) frequencies. Life-cycle patterns in savings behavior in an overlapping generations model with cash-in-advance constraints explain this persistent comovement between financial yields. We argue...... that the slow-evolving time-series covariation due to changing population age structure accounts for the equilibrium relation between stock and bond markets. As a result, by exploiting the demographic information into distant future, the forecasting performance of evaluation models improves. Finally, using...

  2. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

  3. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions.

  4. [Demographic development of Croatia, 1991-1994].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajic, I

    1995-01-01

    "The demographic development of Croatia in the period 1991-1994, marked by... Serbian aggression, the state of ¿half-war', and the war in Bosnia and Hercegovina, should be described as irregular--its components being determined by the above conditions. This proves especially true concerning forced migrations and their past and future influence on population change. The paper analyzes the insufficiently studied topic of war mortality, as well as various dimensions of the refugee population. It also emphasizes several structural characteristics of the population, particularly its ethnic structure, and the population dynamics in the temporarily occupied territories." (EXCERPT)

  5. DNA-mediated gene transfer into human diploid fibroblasts derived from normal and ataxia-telangiectasia donors: parameters for DNA transfer and properties of DNA transformants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, P.G.; Webb, M.B.T.; Masson, W.K.; Cox, R.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of the feasibility of DNA-mediated gene transfer into human diploid fibroblasts derived from patients with the radiation sensitive syndrome ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and from a normal donor. Although they are markedly different in their growth characteristics, both normal and A-T strains give similar frequencies for DNA transfer in a model system using the recombinant plasmid pSV2-gpt. pSV2-gpt DNA transformants arise with a frequency between 10 -5 and 10 -4 per viable cell. Analysis of such transformants, although possible, is severely handicapped by the limited clonal life span of diploid human cells. Despite these problems it may be concluded that diploid human fibroblasts are competent recipients for DNA-mediated gene transfer and the putative repair deficiency of A-T does not markedly effect the efficiency of this process. (author)

  6. Calculating the radiological parameters used in non-human biota dose assessment tools using ERICA Tool and site-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, Maria [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece); Florou, Heleny [INRASTES, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Athens (Greece); Kitis, Georgios [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    The substantial complexity in ecosystem-radionuclide interactions is difficult to be represented in terms of radiological doses. Thus, radiological dose assessment tools use typical exposure situations for generalized organisms and ecosystems. In the present study, site-specific data and radioactivity measurements of terrestrial organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) are provided. The retrieved data are used in combination with the ERICA Assessment Tool for calculation of radiological parameters. The process of radionuclide transfer within ecosystem components is represented using concentration ratios (CRs), while for the calculation of dose rates the dose conversion coefficient (DCC) methodology is applied. Comparative assessments are performed between the generic and assessment-specific radiological parameters and between the resulting dose rates. Significant differences were observed between CRs calculated in this study and those reported in the literature for cesium and thorium, which can easily be explained. On the other hand, CRs calculated for radium are in very good agreement with those reported in the literature. The DCCs exhibited some small differences between the reference and the assessment-specific organism due to mass differences. The differences were observed for internal and external dose rates, but they were less pronounced for total dose rates which are typically used in the assessment of radiological impact. The results of the current work can serve as a basis for further studies of the radiological parameters in environments that have not been studied yet. (orig.)

  7. Rapid, global demographic expansions after the origins of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux, Christopher R; Henn, Brenna M; Mountain, Joanna L

    2011-04-12

    The invention of agriculture is widely assumed to have driven recent human population growth. However, direct genetic evidence for population growth after independent agricultural origins has been elusive. We estimated population sizes through time from a set of globally distributed whole mitochondrial genomes, after separating lineages associated with agricultural populations from those associated with hunter-gatherers. The coalescent-based analysis revealed strong evidence for distinct demographic expansions in Europe, southeastern Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa within the past 10,000 y. Estimates of the timing of population growth based on genetic data correspond neatly to dates for the initial origins of agriculture derived from archaeological evidence. Comparisons of rates of population growth through time reveal that the invention of agriculture facilitated a fivefold increase in population growth relative to more ancient expansions of hunter-gatherers.

  8. Community demographics and the propensity to report animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicola; Signal, Tania D

    2006-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increased awareness concerning links between violence to nonhuman animals and violence to humans. This has resulted in a number of cross-reporting initiatives between family service providers and animal welfare organizations. The success of these initiatives rests on individuals being willing to report such violence. Thus, there is a need to determine which variables influence an individual's willingness to report deliberate animal cruelty and abuse. The aim of this study was to examine demographic and attitudinal variables to ascertain their impact on propensity to report deliberate animal harm. A telephone questionnaire resulted in 1,208 valid responses from members of the general community. Results showed a number of variables that affected the propensity to report: gender, occupation, and acknowledgment of the link between family violence and deliberate animal harm. This article discusses these variables and their implications.

  9. Public pensions, family allowances and endogenous demographic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W

    1995-05-01

    "A tax-transfer system deals with redistribution a PAYGmong generations and corrective taxation a PAYGt the same time. Since such a policy is a government's task, we take a normative approach and pose the question: Which tax-transfer system should a government apply to maximize social welfare? The framework we consider allows for endogenous demographic aspects...: first, fertility has a great impact on a PAYG [pay-as-you-go] financed pension insurance; and second, through education human capital is accumulated.... We analyzed the optimal extent of a public pension scheme in the presence of external effects of fertility and education on the net domestic product." Pension schemes in Germany and the United States are compared. excerpt

  10. Predicting primate responses to "Stochastic" demographic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B

    1999-01-01

    Comparative approaches in contemporary primate behavioral ecology have tended to emphasize the deterministic properties of stochastic ecological variables. Yet, primate responses to ecological fluctuations may be mediated by the interactions among demographic processes at the levels of individuals, groups, and populations. In this paper I examine long-term data collected from June 1982-July 1998 on one expanding group of muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) at the Estação Biologica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil to explore the demographic and life history correlates of reproductive seasonality and skewed infant sex ratios. Variation in the size of annual birth cohorts (≥2 infants) was positively related to variation in the annual distribution of births (r (s)=0.96,n=10,p<0.01), indicating the importance of considering the effects that the number of reproductive females may have on interpretations of reproductive seasonality. The female-biased infants sex ratio documented from 59 births was attributed exclusively to multiparous mothers. Primiparous mothers produced comparable numbers of sons (n=6) and daughters (n=7), and were increasingly likely to produce daughters with each subsequent reproductive event. Seven of the 11 females that have produced≥3 infants to date exhibited biases in favor of daughters whereas only 1 was biased in favor of sons. Variation in female sensitivity to local resource competition at different stages of their life histories may account for the female-biased infant sex ration in this population.

  11. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.

    2012-04-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an astronomical journal. Finally, there is some evidence that participation in the AAVSO has a greater impact on the respondents' view of their role in astronomy compared to that expected through increasing amateur astronomy experience alone.

  12. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Amjad, N.; Chand, P.; Ahmed, K.; Ibrahim, S.; Zaidi, S. S. Z.; Rana, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. Methodology: A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Results were expressed as percentages. Results: Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. Conclusion: SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions. (author)

  13. Changing demographics: what to watch for.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P A

    1987-07-01

    Four broad demographic transformations: 1) the population's reconfiguration into smaller household units, especially those comprised of persons living alone; 2) changing employment patterns, notably the shift of married women into paid employment and the resulting proliferation of dual-earner families; 3) transformations in the population's age composition; and 4) the geography of growth in terms of regions that will gain or lose population--can be expected to have a profound impact on opportunities and challenges facing the business sector. The number of future households is projected to increase from 88.6 million in 1986 to 101.5 million by 1996. The sharpest gains will be among households headed by persons ranging in age from the late 30s to the early 50s. The fastest growth through the year 2000 is expected to occur in the Mountain states of the US. Business economists should be alert to these demographic analyses both to spot emerging growth markets and to identify long-term strategic issues, especially as the labor market changes. It will be increasingly important to differentiate time-sensitive from price-sensitive consumers.

  14. Child survival and the demographic "trap".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, S

    1992-02-01

    A debate within the UK public health community has centered around the feasibility of campaigns to improve child survival rates in Africa in the absence of equally aggressive efforts to increase family planning acceptance. The central spokesperson in this debate, Maurice King of the University of Leeds, has argued that population growth in sub-Saharan countries is undermining the carrying capacity of available resources and threatening ecological collapse. These countries are not exhibiting the characteristic demographic transition pattern, in which declining death rates eventually create conditions conducive to lower birth rates. Instead, they have fallen into a "demographic trap " in which population increases are outstripping growth in food production. To remedy this situation, King advocates the introduction of the concept of sustainability of the ecological foundations of health into the World Health Organizations's official definition of health. Richard Jolly of UNICEF has countered King's articles with the insistence that UNICEF has long supported child survival within the broader context of family planning provision and advocacy of birth spacing.

  15. Demographic Characteristics of Strokes Types in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ižnanc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke admitted demographic features planned. We aimed to study demographic feature of stroke patient who admitted to Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment. Material and Method: 01/10/2011 and 01/9/2012, ischemic and hemorrhagic brain training and research hospital in Sanliurfa vascular disease diagnosis and treatment without any exclusion criteria, patient sequential 454 retrospectively.Results: 366%u2019si 88 were ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke. 54.6% by sex male,% 45.4 were women. Average age: 67.86 di.56.3% radiologically roaming the front circulation infarct brain infarct% found the rear 23.2. Hospital stay duration: 9.27 day.. Hemorrhagic stroke was longer this Sura in the group. Mortality rate 4.6% in all in packaging (21 patients, ischemic in boots in 1.9% (7 patients, hemorrhagic of boots were found at 15.9% (14 patients.Discussion: our study of Sanliurfa province stroke data in terms of the region together, although a portion of their valuable results. In the summer, the ischemic stroke incidence is higher.

  16. Psycho-immunology and HIV infection : biopsychosocial determinants of distress, immunological parameters, and disease progression in homosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Mulder (Niels)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSubjects who have tested positive for the presence of antibodies against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (further abbreviated as HIV), have to live with a lifethreatening infection. At present, no definite medical cure is available that prevents progression of HIV infection.

  17. Modulating effects of bioactive water Naftussya from layers Truskavets’ and Pomyarky on some metabolic and biophysic parameters at humans with dysfunction of neuro-endocrine-immune complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy I Gozhenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously we have been carry out comparative investigation immediate effects of Bioactive Water Naftussya from layers Truskavets’, Pomyarky and Skhidnyts’a on neuro-endocrine-immune complex at men with its dysfunction. The aim of this study is the influence of the use of the course of Bioactive Water Naftussya from layers Truskavets’ and Pomyarky on some metabolic and biophysical parameters at similar patients. Materials and methods. The object of observation were 20 volunteers: ten women and ten men aged 33-76 years without clinical diagnose but with dysfunction of neuro-endocrine-immune complex and metabolism. In daily urine and venous blood we determined the content of electrolytes, nitrogenous metabolites and lipids, recorded conductivity of acupuncture points, rate of electronegative nuclei of buccal epithelium as well as parameters of gas discharge vizualisation (GDV. After examination volunteers within 7 days used bioactive water Naftussya (250 mL three times a day from Truskavets’ or Pomyarky layer, then repeated the tests listed. Results. Weekly use of Bioactive Water Naftussya increases in the normal level of plasma chloride and sodium, normalizes low level of bicarbonate and decreases within the normal levels of potassium and phosphate. Urinary excretion of sodium and chloride increases while excretion and concentration of uric acid decreases, as the urine concentration of phosphates. The index lithogenicity urine decreased from 112% to 103% norm standard. Initially reduced level of plasma triacylglycerides increases, while decreases in the normal level of cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein composition. Among the biophysical parameters detected increase in the normal conductivity acupuncture points Pg (ND at right side, which represent the nervous system, and left shift the ratio between the conductivity of acupuncture points MC (AVL, which represents the immune system. Increases electrokinetic index of

  18. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  19. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H.; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users--a key component of much social science research--remains a…

  20. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenberg, B.I.; Hamilton, S.L.; Walsh, S.M.; Donovan, M.K.; Friedlander, A.; DeMartini, E.; Sala, E.; Sandin, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ~10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management. ?? 2011 Ruttenberg et al.

  1. Predator-induced demographic shifts in coral reef fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I Ruttenberg

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become apparent that human impacts have altered community structure in coastal and marine ecosystems worldwide. Of these, fishing is one of the most pervasive, and a growing body of work suggests that fishing can have strong effects on the ecology of target species, especially top predators. However, the effects of removing top predators on lower trophic groups of prey fishes are less clear, particularly in highly diverse and trophically complex coral reef ecosystems. We examined patterns of abundance, size structure, and age-based demography through surveys and collection-based studies of five fish species from a variety of trophic levels at Kiritimati and Palmyra, two nearby atolls in the Northern Line Islands. These islands have similar biogeography and oceanography, and yet Kiritimati has ∼10,000 people with extensive local fishing while Palmyra is a US National Wildlife Refuge with no permanent human population, no fishing, and an intact predator fauna. Surveys indicated that top predators were relatively larger and more abundant at unfished Palmyra, while prey functional groups were relatively smaller but showed no clear trends in abundance as would be expected from classic trophic cascades. Through detailed analyses of focal species, we found that size and longevity of a top predator were lower at fished Kiritimati than at unfished Palmyra. Demographic patterns also shifted dramatically for 4 of 5 fish species in lower trophic groups, opposite in direction to the top predator, including decreases in average size and longevity at Palmyra relative to Kiritimati. Overall, these results suggest that fishing may alter community structure in complex and non-intuitive ways, and that indirect demographic effects should be considered more broadly in ecosystem-based management.

  2. Hierarchical demographic approaches for assessing invasion dynamics of non-indigenous species: An example using northern snakehead (Channa argus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Lapointe, N.W.R.; Angermeier, P.L.; Murphy, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Models of species' demographic features are commonly used to understand population dynamics and inform management tactics. Hierarchical demographic models are ideal for the assessment of non-indigenous species because our knowledge of non-indigenous populations is usually limited, data on demographic traits often come from a species' native range, these traits vary among populations, and traits are likely to vary considerably over time as species adapt to new environments. Hierarchical models readily incorporate this spatiotemporal variation in species' demographic traits by representing demographic parameters as multi-level hierarchies. As is done for traditional non-hierarchical matrix models, sensitivity and elasticity analyses are used to evaluate the contributions of different life stages and parameters to estimates of population growth rate. We applied a hierarchical model to northern snakehead (Channa argus), a fish currently invading the eastern United States. We used a Monte Carlo approach to simulate uncertainties in the sensitivity and elasticity analyses and to project future population persistence under selected management tactics. We gathered key biological information on northern snakehead natural mortality, maturity and recruitment in its native Asian environment. We compared the model performance with and without hierarchy of parameters. Our results suggest that ignoring the hierarchy of parameters in demographic models may result in poor estimates of population size and growth and may lead to erroneous management advice. In our case, the hierarchy used multi-level distributions to simulate the heterogeneity of demographic parameters across different locations or situations. The probability that the northern snakehead population will increase and harm the native fauna is considerable. Our elasticity and prognostic analyses showed that intensive control efforts immediately prior to spawning and/or juvenile-dispersal periods would be more effective

  3. Sustainable Fiscal Strategies under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Vieira, Filipe

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping generations model to evaluate, first, the steady state growthmaximizing level of public debt around which the economy needs to stabilise; second, how the optimal level of public debt varies as a function of key population parameters; third, how fiscal rules...... designed to stabilise the economy around that debt level need to vary with the population parameters; and, fourth, how the model performs as a reasonable and plausible representation of the economies that we might be concerned with. Finally, following the diminished fiscal space and flexibility...... that is created by deteriorating population parameters, some political economy perspectives are offered....

  4. Evaluation of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Patients in a Tertiary Hospital. ... Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences. Journal Home ... Keywords: Socio-demographics, HIV/AID, Retrospective, Teaching hospital ...

  5. Parameters in three-dimensional osteospheroids of telomerized human mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells grown on osteoconductive scaffolds that predict in vivo bone-forming potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Hansen, Pernille Lund; Larsen, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in monolayer culture is artefactual, lacking an organized bone-like matrix. We present a highly reproducible microwell protocol generating three-dimensional ex vivo multicellular aggregates of telomerized hMSC (hMSC-telomerase re......Osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in monolayer culture is artefactual, lacking an organized bone-like matrix. We present a highly reproducible microwell protocol generating three-dimensional ex vivo multicellular aggregates of telomerized hMSC (h......, was deposited in the scaffold concavities. Here, mature osteoblasts stained positively for differentiated osteoblast markers TAZ, biglycan, osteocalcin, and phospho-AKT. Quantification of collagen birefringence and relatively high expression of genes for matrix proteins, including type I collagen, biglycan...

  6. Estimation of demographic parameters in a tiger population from long-term camera trap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K. Ullas; Nichols, James D.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Chapter 7 (Karanth et al.) illustrated the use of camera trapping in combination with closed population capture–recapture (CR) models to estimate densities of tigers Panthera tigris. Such estimates can be very useful for investigating variation across space for a particular species (e.g., Karanth et al. 2004) or variation among species at a specific location. In addition, estimates of density continued at the same site(s) over multiple years are very useful for understanding and managing populations of large carnivores. Such multi-year studies can yield estimates of rates of change in abundance. Additionally, because the fates of marked individuals are tracked through time, biologists can delve deeper into factors driving changes in abundance such as rates of survival, recruitment and movement (Williams et al. 2002). Fortunately, modern CR approaches permit the modeling of populations that change between sampling occasions as a result of births, deaths, immigration and emigration (Pollock et al. 1990; Nichols 1992). Some of these early “open population” models focused on estimation of survival rates and, to a lesser extent, abundance, but more recent models permit estimation of recruitment and movement rates as well.

  7. The effect of recruitment rate and other demographic parameters on the transmission of dengue disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriatna, A. K.; Anggriani, N.

    2015-03-01

    One of important factors which always appears in most of dengue transmission mathematical model is the number of new susceptible recruited into the susceptible compartment. In this paper we discuss the effect of different rates of recruitment on the transmission of dengue disease. We choose a dengue transmission model with the most realistic form of recruitment rate and analyze the effect of environmental change to the transmission of dengue based on the selected model. We model the effect of environmental change by considering that it can alter the value of mosquito's carrying capacity and mosquito's death rate. We found that the most prevalent effect of the environmental change to the transmission of dengue is when it can alter the death rate of the mosquitoes.

  8. USING ROTIFER POPULATION DEMOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS TO ASSESS IMPACTS OF THE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM TRINITROTOLUENE PHYTOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aquatic chronic lethal and sublethal toxicity effects from the phytoremediation of water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) by the wetland plant species Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot feather). Rotifers (Brachionus...

  9. Combining multistate capture-recapture data with tag recoveries to estimate demographic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Conn, P.B.; Hines, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Matrix population models that allow an animal to occupy more than one state over time are important tools for population and evolutionary ecologists. Definition of state can vary, including location for metapopulation models and breeding state for life history models. For populations whose members can be marked and subsequently re-encountered, multistate mark-recapture models are available to estimate the survival and transition probabilities needed to construct population models. Multistate models have proved extremely useful in this context, but they often require a substantial amount of data and restrict estimation of transition probabilities to those areas or states subjected to formal sampling effort. At the same time, for many species, there are considerable tag recovery data provided by the public that could be modeled in order to increase precision and to extend inference to a greater number of areas or states. Here we present a statistical model for combining multistate capture-recapture data (e.g., from a breeding ground study) with multistate tag recovery data (e.g., from wintering grounds). We use this method to analyze data from a study of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Atlantic Flyway of North America. Our analysis produced marginal improvement in precision, due to relatively few recoveries, but we demonstrate how precision could be further improved with increases in the probability that a retrieved tag is reported.

  10. Temperature-dependent biological and demographic parameters of Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temperature requirements for development and the optimal range of temperatures for growth and reproduction of Coleomegilla maculata De Geer were studied. The development time of individual C. maculata larvae were determined at 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, and 36°C. Development times were converted to...

  11. Demographic parameters of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) reared on two diets developed for Lygus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two artificial diets developed for rearing Lygus spp., a fresh yolk chicken egg based-diet (FYD) and a dry yolk chicken egg based-diet (DYD), were evaluated as an alternative food source for rearing the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Survival to adult was...

  12. Demographic parameters of individual E.coli within and among controlled environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    . This can be achieved by working on isogenic populations under controlled environments. We use a microfluidic device to limit stochastic processes to their molecular components. The high throughput microfluidic device traps thousands of individual E. coli cells and tracks them over their lifespan...

  13. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  14. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

  15. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  16. Is the propagation speed of ultrasound in human organs a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization? Evaluation using the liver parenchyma in children and adolescents as an example; Die Schallleitgeschwindigkeit im menschlichen Gewebe. Ein diagnostisch verwertbarer Parameter? Evaluation am Beispiel der Leber bei Kindern und Jugendlichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik - Kinderradiologie; Franke, I. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Kinderklinik

    2011-09-15

    New sonographic machines permit the measurement of the propagation speed of ultrasound (PSU) in humans. The liver seems to be an appropriate organ for examining whether the PSU may be used as a diagnostic parameter for tissue characterization since the liver is easily accessible to sonography and its variable content of fat impacts the PSU. Purpose: To determine whether there is a measurable correlation between obesity and PSU in the liver. Methods: In 69 children and adolescents, the PSU in the liver was measured sonographically and correlated to BMI, age, size and weight of the children. Results: A strong correlation was found between the PSU in the liver and the BMI. The PSU was significantly lower in obese children (1507 m/s) than in children with normal body weight (1564 m/s). Conclusion: PSU seems to be promising as an additional diagnostic parameter for characterizing liver tissue. Further evaluation is necessary. (orig.)

  17. Resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human semen parameters in the presence of leukocytospermia, smoking habit, and varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Mazzi, Lucia; Campagna, MariaStella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Figura, Natale

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationships between resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and semen parameters, sperm apoptosis, and necrosis in infertile patients and in control subjects with unknown reproductive potential with/without smoking habits, leukocytospermia, and varicocele. Prospective study. Sperm laboratory. A total of 110 selected men. Family history, clinical/physical examination, ELISA determination (resistin, IL-6, TNF-α), semen analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide assay. Relationships among resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α and semen parameters in the presence of smoking habits, varicocele, leukocytospermia, and in infertile subjects. Resistin level was higher in semen than in serum. Resistin semen levels showed negative correlations with sperm motility and positive correlations with apoptotic, necrotic sperm and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers and in cases with leukocytospermia, in which an increase in necrotic sperm and a decrease in the number of sperm with normal morphology and motility were observed. Cytokine levels were significantly higher in infertile patients compared with control subjects with unknown reproductive potential. A total of 74.5% of infertile patients showed leukocytospermia. Semen resistin correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and sperm quality; in cases of leukocytospermia and smoking habits, resistin concentrations were increased, suggesting that resistin may play a regulatory role in inflammation of the male reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Land use and demographic grids in Cosyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.A.; Hasemann, I.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the population, agricultural production, economic activity, and the position of land and sea, are important elements of accident consequence codes. These data are necessary in evaluating the health effects within the population arising from the external dose, inhalation and ingestion pathways. These distributions are also essential in calculating the economic impact of implementing countermeasures, such as relocation and food bans. This paper includes a discussion of the agricultural production and population distribution information available for EC countries, their resolution, availability and sources. The gridded data included in the COSYMA system are described. Particular aspects, such as the difficulties involved with using economic land use information, are also explained. Future developments, and their effect on the requirements for land use and demographic grids, are outlined

  19. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  20. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: Demographic, clinicoradiological, and inflammatory features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marcin Sierra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (ExPNCC, an infection caused by Taenia solium cysticerci that mainly occurs in the ventricular compartment (Ve or the basal subarachnoid space (SAb, is more severe but less frequent and much less studied than parenchymal neurocysticercosis (ParNCC. Demographic, clinical, radiological, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid features of patients affected by ExPNCC are herein described and compared with those of ParNCC patients.429 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, attending the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, a tertiary reference center in Mexico City, from 2000 through 2014, were included. Demographic information, signs and symptoms, radiological patterns, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF laboratory values were retrieved from medical records for all patients. Data were statistically analyzed to assess potential differences depending on cyst location and to determine the effects of age and sex on the disease presentation. In total, 238 ExPNCC and 191 ParNCC patients were included. With respect to parenchymal cysts, extraparenchymal parasites were diagnosed at an older age (P = 0.002, chiefly caused intracranial hypertension (P < 0.0001, were more frequently multiple and vesicular (P < 0.0001, and CSF from these patients showed higher protein concentration and cell count (P < 0.0001. SAb patients were diagnosed at an older age than Ve patients, and showed more frequently seizures, vesicular cysticerci, and higher CSF cellularity. Gender and age modulated some traits of the disease.This study evidenced clear clinical, radiological, and inflammatory differences between ExPNCC and ParNCC, and between SAb and Ve patients, and demonstrated that parasite location determines different pathological entities.

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging Using Intracellular Spies: Quantitative Real-Time Measurement of Intracellular Parameters In Vivo during Interaction of the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus with Human Monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mohebbi

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI is a technique based on the combination of classical spectroscopy and conventional digital image processing. It is also well suited for the biological assays and quantitative real-time analysis since it provides spectral and spatial data of samples. The method grants detailed information about a sample by recording the entire spectrum in each pixel of the whole image. We applied HSI to quantify the constituent pH variation in a single infected apoptotic monocyte as a model system. Previously, we showed that the human-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus conidia interfere with the acidification of phagolysosomes. Here, we extended this finding to monocytes and gained a more detailed analysis of this process. Our data indicate that melanised A. fumigatus conidia have the ability to interfere with apoptosis in human monocytes as they enable the apoptotic cell to recover from mitochondrial acidification and to continue with the cell cycle. We also showed that this ability of A. fumigatus is dependent on the presence of melanin, since a non-pigmented mutant did not stop the progression of apoptosis and consequently, the cell did not recover from the acidic pH. By conducting the current research based on the HSI, we could measure the intracellular pH in an apoptotic infected human monocyte and show the pattern of pH variation during 35 h of measurements. As a conclusion, we showed the importance of melanin for determining the fate of intracellular pH in a single apoptotic cell.

  2. Demographic analysis reveals gradual senescence in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

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    Braeckman Bart P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Free-living flatworms ("Turbellaria" are appropriate model organisms to gain better insight into the role of stem cells in ageing and rejuvenation. Ageing research in flatworms is, however, still scarce. This is partly due to culture difficulties and the lack of a complete set of demographic data, including parameters such as median lifespan and age-specific mortality rate. In this paper, we report on the first flatworm survival analysis. We used the species Macrostomum lignano, which is an emerging model for studying the reciprocal influence between stem cells, ageing and rejuvenation. This species has a median lifespan of 205 ± 13 days (average ± standard deviation [SD] and a 90th percentile lifespan of 373 ± 32 days. The maximum lifespan, however, is more than 745 days, and the average survival curve is characterised by a long tail because a small number of individuals lives twice as long as 90% of the population. Similar to earlier observations in a wide range of animals, in M. lignano the age-specific mortality rate increases exponentially, but levels off at the oldest ages. To compare the senescence of M. lignano with that of other ageing models, we determined the mortality rate doubling time, which is 0.20 ± 0.02 years. As a result, we can conclude that M. lignano shows gradual senescence at a rate similar to the vertebrate ageing models Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. We argue that M. lignano is a suitable model for ageing and rejuvenation research, and especially for the role of stem cells in these processes, due to its accessible stem cell system and regeneration capacity, and the possibility of combining stem cell studies with demographic analyses.

  3. Experts Networks and the European Commission on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni; Willers, Johann Ole

    experts on demographic change. Our findings suggest that on demographic change issues at the EU level, DG EMPL has taken the lead, while DG ECFIN is the secondary actor. Still, internal European Commission dynamics mean that the lead actor on demographic issues has less autonomy in articulating a funded......This paper examines who populates the expert and policy network around demographic change issues in Europe. We examine how competing policy departments in the European Commission Directorates-General (DGs) deal with the issue of Europe’s changing demography, as well as discuss the role of external...... and clear policy position on how to address them. As a consequence, there is little institutional memory and hardly a depository of activity on demographic change. While outside expertise comes primarily from demographers, and other scholars concerned with demographic change, they are primarily an academic...

  4. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  5. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pregnolato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees. Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated. Motivation for study: Organisations are competing for talented employees and to benefit from the value these individuals add, it is required of them to stay at the respective businesses. Previous studies have indicated that employees who are offered a reward package that is aligned to their personal preferences are prone to stay longer at the organisation and to be more engaged at work. However, new and novel ways need to be found to identify the reward preferences of employees. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach and descriptive research design was employed to estimate the individual reward preferences and identify an ideal mix of total reward elements that retain different cohorts of employees. Three questionnaires were distributed, including a Remuneration Managers Questionnaire (n = 7, a Remuneration Preference Questionnaire (n = 368 and a Choice-based Conjoint Task Questionnaire (n = 368. The latter two questionnaires were distributed as an online questionnaire to South African businesses and consisted of eight choice-based conjoint tasks, as well as a field survey. Main findings: The results of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed that all respondents considered financial rewards (Benefits, Performance and Recognition, Remuneration, Career, in that order as relatively speaking, the most important components in their total rewards package that would lead to their retention. For most demographic groups, the remaining three places

  6. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  7. Modeling Relationships Between Flight Crew Demographics and Perceptions of Interval Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Benjamin; Wilson, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted to assess interval management system performance and participants' acceptability and workload while performing three interval management clearance types. Twenty-four subject pilots and eight subject controllers flew ten high-density arrival scenarios into Denver International Airport during two weeks of data collection. This analysis examined the possible relationships between subject pilot demographics on reported perceptions of interval management in IMAC. Multiple linear regression models were created with a new software tool to predict subject pilot questionnaire item responses from demographic information. General patterns were noted across models that may indicate flight crew demographics influence perceptions of interval management.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Bone Structural Parameters Reveals Subchondral Cortical Plate Resorption and Increased Trabecular Bone Remodeling in Human Facet Joint Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Netzer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Facet joint osteoarthritis is a prominent feature of degenerative spine disorders, highly prevalent in ageing populations, and considered a major cause for chronic lower back pain. Since there is no targeted pharmacological therapy, clinical management of disease includes analgesic or surgical treatment. The specific cellular, molecular, and structural changes underpinning facet joint osteoarthritis remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to determine osteoarthritis-related structural alterations in cortical and trabecular subchondral bone compartments. To this end, we conducted comparative micro computed tomography analysis in healthy (n = 15 and osteoarthritic (n = 22 lumbar facet joints. In osteoarthritic joints, subchondral cortical plate thickness and porosity were significantly reduced. The trabecular compartment displayed a 42 percent increase in bone volume fraction due to an increase in trabecular number, but not trabecular thickness. Bone structural alterations were associated with radiological osteoarthritis severity, mildly age-dependent but not gender-dependent. There was a lack of association between structural parameters of cortical and trabecular compartments in healthy and osteoarthritic specimens. The specific structural alterations suggest elevated subchondral bone resorption and turnover as a potential treatment target in facet joint osteoarthritis.

  9. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

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    Shweta Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  10. Population growth, demographic change, and cultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, G; Sage, C

    1994-01-01

    The inclusion of both ecological and socioeconomic components within landscapes makes possible the perception of the hierarchical character of landscape organization. A research approach is needed to conceptualize cultural landscapes as the product of interaction between society and nature. Richard Norgaard's 1984 paper on coevolutionary agricultural development attempts to meet this challenge. Coevolution is the interactive synthesis of natural and social mechanisms of change that characterize the relationship between social systems and ecosystems. The relationship between population, consumption, and environmental changes is complex. Currently industrialized countries present the biggest threat to global environmental resources. The issue of carrying capacity is the corollary of population and the environment. It is primarily the technological factor rather than population that needs to be controlled. The relationship between rich and poor countries is determined by superior economic power. An analysis of landscape change is made, tracing the coevolution of society and environment from the end of the feudal era and making comparisons with continental Europe. Over the years since 1945 the need to realize potential economies of scale has resulted in a wholesale loss of woodlands, hedgerows, and small ponds in the UK. In a global context the likely impacts of population growth and demographic change on landscapes will be influenced by such socioeconomic factors as technology and affluence; policies that ignore cause and effect; and the traditional tendency to treat the environment as a waste repository and a supply depot.

  11. Development, implementation and utilization of 210Pb in vivo measurement techniques as indicator of human being exposure to 222Rn - evaluation of associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its decay products are present in the atmosphere and are the most important contributors for the internal exposure of humans to natural radiation. The execution of in vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the population and in individuals occupationally exposed in underground mines has been studied and recommended as one of the procedures for the estimation of the exposure to 222 Rn. The metabolism of 210 Pb and its distribution within the human body, mainly deposited in the bone tissue, suggests the regions of skull and knee as the most suitable for the in vivo monitoring of such radionuclide. A radiological survey in non uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the State of Parana, in the south of Brazil, had high radon concentration. The aim of this work were: (1) To investigate whether underground coal miners may also have elevated 210 Pb in the skeleton as a result of occupational exposure to radon in the coal mine; (2) To estimate the committed equivalent dose and the committed effective dose in different incorporation scenarios using a computer code. The calibration and the in vivo measurements of underground coal miners were performed in the IRD-CNEN Whole Body Counter shielded room using an array of four high resolution germanium detectors. The detection system was positioned at the head and knee geometries. The minimum detectable quantity of 210 Pb in the skeleton using this methodology was (50 Bq) and the positive results were verified using a mathematical method that applies a moving median smoothing function to the total spectrum for each measurement. In vivo measurements of 210 Pb in 6 out of the 32 underground coal miners ranged between 83 Bq and 164 Bq suggesting that these workers received significant occupational cumulative exposure to 222 Rn. The simulation of some exposure patterns of 222 Rn progeny and 210 Pb incorporation showed that the most important contribution for 210 Pb skeleton deposition was the intake of

  12. Hypoxia Is a Critical Parameter for Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Type I/III Collagen Sponges

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    Tangni Gómez-Leduc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood (UCB is an attractive alternative to bone marrow for isolation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to treat articular cartilage defects. Here, we set out to determine the growth factors (bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1 and oxygen tension effects during chondrogenesis of human UCB-MSCs for cartilage engineering. Chondrogenic differentiation was induced using 3D cultures in type I/III collagen sponges with chondrogenic factors in normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (<5% O2 for 7, 14 and 21 days. Our results show that UCB-MSCs can be committed to chondrogenesis in the presence of BMP-2+TGF-β1. Normoxia induced the highest levels of chondrocyte-specific markers. However, hypoxia exerted more benefit by decreasing collagen X and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13 expression, two chondrocyte hypertrophy markers. However, a better chondrogenesis was obtained by switching oxygen conditions, with seven days in normoxia followed by 14 days in hypoxia, since these conditions avoid hypertrophy of hUCB-MSC-derived chondrocytes while maintaining the expression of chondrocyte-specific markers observed in normoxia. Our study demonstrates that oxygen tension is a key factor for chondrogenesis and suggests that UBC-MSCs 3D-culture should begin in normoxia to obtain a more efficient chondrocyte differentiation before placing them in hypoxia for chondrocyte phenotype stabilization. UCB-MSCs are therefore a reliable source for cartilage engineering.

  13. A demographic model to predict future growth of the Addo elephant population

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Woodd

    1999-01-01

    An age-structured demographic model of the growth of the Addo elephant population was developed using parameters calculated from long-term data on the population. The model was used to provide estimates of future population growth. Expansion of the Addo Elephant National Park is currently underway, and the proposed target population size for elephant within the enlarged park is 2700. The model predicts that this population size will be reached during the year 2043, so that the Addo elephant p...

  14. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  15. Humans (Homo sapiens) judge the emotional content of piglet (Sus scrofa domestica) calls based on simple acoustic parameters, not personality, empathy, nor attitude toward animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruščáková, Iva L; Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Tallet, Céline; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The vocal expression of emotion is likely driven by shared physiological principles among species. However, which acoustic features promote decoding of emotional state and how the decoding is affected by their listener's psychology remain poorly understood. Here we tested how acoustic features of piglet vocalizations interact with psychological profiles of human listeners to affect judgments of emotional content of heterospecific vocalizations. We played back 48 piglet call sequences recorded in four different contexts (castration, isolation, reunion, nursing) to 60 listeners. Listeners judged the emotional intensity and valence of the recordings and were further asked to attribute a context of emission from four proposed contexts. Furthermore, listeners completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality (NEO-FFI personality inventory), empathy [Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] and attitudes to animals (Animal Attitudes Scale). None of the listeners' psychological traits affected the judgments. On the contrary, acoustic properties of recordings had a substantial effect on ratings. Recordings were rated as more intense with increasing pitch (mean fundamental frequency) and increasing proportion of vocalized sound within each stimulus recording and more negative with increasing pitch and increasing duration of the calls within the recording. More complex acoustic properties (jitter, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and presence of subharmonics) did not seem to affect the judgments. The probability of correct context recognition correlated positively with the assessed emotion intensity for castration and reunion calls, and negatively for nursing calls. In conclusion, listeners judged emotions from pig calls using simple acoustic properties and the perceived emotional intensity might guide the identification of the context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Impact of cigarette smoking on histone (H2B) to protamine ratio in human spermatozoa and its relation to sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, M F; Shelko, N; Kartarius, S; Montenarh, M; Hammadeh, M E

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is strongly associated with abnormalities in histone-to-protamine transition and with alteration of protamine expression in human spermatozoa. A proper protamine to histone ratio is, however, essential for sperm chromatin maturity and DNA integrity. Alterations in these sperm nuclear proteins were observed in infertile men. The present prospective study is aimed at evaluating the possible relationship among smoking, semen quality and the histone-to-protamine transition ratio in mature spermatozoa. Histone H2B and protamine 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) were quantified using acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the spermatozoa of 35 smokers and 19 non-smokers. Levels of lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in seminal plasma by thiobarbituric acid assay. Cotinine concentrations were determined in seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Histone H2B levels in smokers (292.27 ± 58.24 ng/10(6)) were significantly higher (p = 0.001) than that of non-smokers (109.1 ± 43.70 ng/10(6)), besides, a significant difference (p > 0.0001) was found for the P1 and P2 ratio between smokers (1.71 ± 0.071) and non-smokers (1.05 ± 0.033). The H2B/(H2B+P1 + P2) ratio (0.29 ± 0.71) of smokers were significantly higher (p = sperm count, motility (p = 0.018), vitality (p = 0.009) and membrane integrity (p = 0.0001) than non-smokers. These results reveal that patients who smoke possess a higher proportion of spermatozoa with an alteration of the histone to protamine ratio than patients who do not smoke, and suggest that cigarette smoking may inversely affect male fertility. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Demographic Predictors of Job Satisfaction among Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hasanlo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the relationship between care quality and job satisfaction of nurses, annual evaluation of job satisfaction and its related factors is recommended to increase the satisfaction and survival of human resources , improve the management style of the organization, and standardize the rights and benefits, especially for people with long work experience in this occupation.

  18. Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Çapar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant. PMID:24881602

  19. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  20. Hierarchial mark-recapture models: a framework for inference about demographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The development of sophisticated mark-recapture models over the last four decades has provided fundamental tools for the study of wildlife populations, allowing reliable inference about population sizes and demographic rates based on clearly formulated models for the sampling processes. Mark-recapture models are now routinely described by large numbers of parameters. These large models provide the next challenge to wildlife modelers: the extraction of signal from noise in large collections of parameters. Pattern among parameters can be described by strong, deterministic relations (as in ultrastructural models) but is more flexibly and credibly modeled using weaker, stochastic relations. Trend in survival rates is not likely to be manifest by a sequence of values falling precisely on a given parametric curve; rather, if we could somehow know the true values, we might anticipate a regression relation between parameters and explanatory variables, in which true value equals signal plus noise. Hierarchical models provide a useful framework for inference about collections of related parameters. Instead of regarding parameters as fixed but unknown quantities, we regard them as realizations of stochastic processes governed by hyperparameters. Inference about demographic processes is based on investigation of these hyperparameters. We advocate the Bayesian paradigm as a natural, mathematically and scientifically sound basis for inference about hierarchical models. We describe analysis of capture-recapture data from an open population based on hierarchical extensions of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. In addition to recaptures of marked animals, we model first captures of animals and losses on capture, and are thus able to estimate survival probabilities w (i.e., the complement of death or permanent emigration) and per capita growth rates f (i.e., the sum of recruitment and immigration rates). Covariation in these rates, a feature of demographic interest, is explicitly

  1. Multiregional demographic projections in practice: a metropolitan example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, P

    1992-01-01

    "This paper examines options for local and regional projections which reflect both demographic interdependencies with jobs and housing at this area scale, and the inapplicability of traditional demographic projection methods to population or areal subdivisions. This context for local demographic projections requires constraints (for example, to job and housing forecasts or to higher area totals), the use of proxy or explanatory indicators to predict demographic rates or totals, and parameterization of demographic schedules, to facilitate comparison across numerous localities and to set future assumptions about demographic components. The traditional framework of self-contained projection by deterministic cohort survival is therefore widened to include regio-scientific and stochastic modelling concepts. The framework for empirical analysis is London [England] and its boroughs." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER) excerpt

  2. The effects of climate change and land-use change on demographic rates and population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwood, Katherine E; McGeoch, Melodie A; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the processes that lead to species extinctions is vital for lessening pressures on biodiversity. While species diversity, presence and abundance are most commonly used to measure the effects of human pressures, demographic responses give a more proximal indication of how pressures affect population viability and contribute to extinction risk. We reviewed how demographic rates are affected by the major anthropogenic pressures, changed landscape condition caused by human land use, and climate change. We synthesized the results of 147 empirical studies to compare the relative effect size of climate and landscape condition on birth, death, immigration and emigration rates in plant and animal populations. While changed landscape condition is recognized as the major driver of species declines and losses worldwide, we found that, on average, climate variables had equally strong effects on demographic rates in plant and animal populations. This is significant given that the pressures of climate change will continue to intensify in coming decades. The effects of climate change on some populations may be underestimated because changes in climate conditions during critical windows of species life cycles may have disproportionate effects on demographic rates. The combined pressures of land-use change and climate change may result in species declines and extinctions occurring faster than otherwise predicted, particularly if their effects are multiplicative. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  3. Demographics, Microbiology and Outcome in Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chance Witt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI are potentially severe infections that have a high morbidity and mortality even with modern medical care. This study examines factors associated with outcomes in patients with NSTI in an academic tertiary care hospital. Design: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with NSTI between 2003 and 2008. Baseline demographics and comorbid conditions, laboratory and clinical parameters, timing of surgery, and outcomes, including length of stay and mortality, were compared with univariate analysis; significant factors were then analyzed for their effects on mortality using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Sixty-nine patients with NSTI were analyzed; 61% were men. Diabetes (39% was the most common comorbid condition. Most infections (55% were polymicrobial. The most common organism in monomicrobial infections was Staphylococcus aureus, and 50 % of these isolates were methicillin resistant. Nine patients (13% required amputation. Mortality was 20%, and the most significant predictor of mortality was a higher respiratory rate on admission (p=0.02. Conclusion: Patients in this series frequently had diabetes, usually had polymicrobial infections, and had a 20% mortality rate.

  4. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-01-01

    Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online...

  5. Bone volume fraction and structural parameters for estimation of mechanical stiffness and failure load of human cancellous bone samples; in-vitro comparison of ultrasound transit time spectroscopy and X-ray μCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Ali Hamed; Wille, Marie-Luise; Langton, Christian M

    2018-02-01

    Conventional mechanical testing is the 'gold standard' for assessing the stiffness (N mm -1 ) and strength (MPa) of bone, although it is not applicable in-vivo since it is inherently invasive and destructive. The mechanical integrity of a bone is determined by its quantity and quality; being related primarily to bone density and structure respectively. Several non-destructive, non-invasive, in-vivo techniques have been developed and clinically implemented to estimate bone density, both areal (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) and volumetric (quantitative computed tomography (QCT)). Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters of velocity and attenuation are dependent upon both bone quantity and bone quality, although it has not been possible to date to transpose one particular QUS parameter into separate estimates of quantity and quality. It has recently been shown that ultrasound transit time spectroscopy (UTTS) may provide an accurate estimate of bone density and hence quantity. We hypothesised that UTTS also has the potential to provide an estimate of bone structure and hence quality. In this in-vitro study, 16 human femoral bone samples were tested utilising three techniques; UTTS, micro computed tomography (μCT), and mechanical testing. UTTS was utilised to estimate bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and two novel structural parameters, inter-quartile range of the derived transit time (UTTS-IQR) and the transit time of maximum proportion of sonic-rays (TTMP). μCT was utilised to derive BV/TV along with several bone structure parameters. A destructive mechanical test was utilised to measure the stiffness and strength (failure load) of the bone samples. BV/TV was calculated from the derived transit time spectrum (TTS); the correlation coefficient (R 2 ) with μCT-BV/TV was 0.885. For predicting mechanical stiffness and strength, BV/TV derived by both μCT and UTTS provided the strongest correlation with mechanical stiffness (R 2 =0.567 and 0.618 respectively) and

  6. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  7. Demographic upheavals in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1995-01-01

    Fertility and life expectancy have changed since the breakup of the Soviet republics in 1991 and continue to change very rapidly. Before 1991, the USSR was the fastest growing developed country in the world. Annual growth rates in the mid-1980s were 0.9% compared to only 0.1% in Europe or 1.1% in the US. Immigration did not greatly affect the USSR's growth rate. By 1993, the population had declined in 8 of the 15 former republics. Deaths exceeded births in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Estonia, and Latvia, followed by Lithuania in 1994. The last census was conducted in 1989. Fertility declined in Russia from 1.9 in 1990 to 1.4 in 1993. Fertility has been low in Lithuania at 1.7, in the Ukraine at 1.6, in Latvia at 1.5, and in Estonia at 1.4. Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan have experienced fertility decline, which was affected by emigration to Russia and other countries after 1990. 25 million Russians have resided in the former republics in 1990. In Kazakhstan, the 160,000 more births than deaths were offset by 200,000 emigrants. Central republics with higher fertility experienced declines after 1990; for example, Kyrgyzstan declined from 3.7 in 1990 to 3.3 in 1993. Life expectancy for males in Russia in 1993 was 58.9 years, which was a decline from 63.8 years in 1990. About 50% of the decline in life expectancy was due to circulatory diseases, and about 25% was due to external causes such as accidents, suicide, and alcoholism. Infant mortality has been increasing since 1990; for example, it increased in the Ukraine from 12.9 in 1990 to 14.1 in 1992. Russia's population in 1993 experienced 700,000 more deaths than births. The demographic impact will be declining school enrollments and smaller employment among the working population to support the aged. The change to a market economy has been uneven in Russia, where it has advanced more rapidly than in the republics. It is unclear whether the declining birth rate and increasing mortality rates will continue, but

  8. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  9. Storefront Cigarette Advertising Differs by Community Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Caughey, Robert W.; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. Design The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Setting Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. Subjects No human subjects were involved in this study. Measures Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Analysis Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. Results The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Conclusion Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising. PMID:20594091

  10. Storefront cigarette advertising differs by community demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Caughey, Robert W; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. No human subjects were involved in this study. Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising.

  11. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Genetic stratigraphy of key demographic events in Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Verónica; Triska, Petr; Pereira, Joana B; Alshamali, Farida; Rito, Teresa; Machado, Alison; Fajkošová, Zuzana; Cavadas, Bruno; Černý, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (~8-37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30-90 generations for "back-to-Africa" migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ~2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ~8 ka. The main "back-to-Africa" migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa.

  14. Economic and demographic assumptions of the public pension insurance system functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic transition is characterized by a decline in birth rates and fertility on the one hand, and an intense increase in the number of old people on the other hand. The intensity of demographic ageing is characteristic of certain countries, being more expressed in developed countries. In such a situation, negative economic consequences arise in the context of unemployment, due to a decreased number of young population and lower participation in the labour market, as well as in the domains of savings, capital market, health protection, pension system and institutional development. These consequences can be mitigated by the application of appropriate economic transition and macroeconomic policy. Demographic tendencies have a great impact on changes in the values of the pension system parameters. The dependence rate indicating the relation between the number of employed people and the number of pensioners, and the average replacement rate representing the relation between the average wage and average pension, are directly dependent on demographic changes and they directly affect the sustainability of the public pension insurance system.

  15. What is on a demographer's mind?: a worldwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the years, the community of demographers has grown in numbers and research interests, and has become increasingly interdisciplinary. The question is whether this process of growth and diversity has led to a fragmented community of demographers. Objective: We examine whether or not

  16. What is on a demographer's mind? : A worldwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the years, the community of demographers has grown in numbers and research interests, and has become increasingly interdisciplinary. The question is whether this process of growth and diversity has led to a fragmented community of demographers. OBJECTIVE We examine whether or not

  17. [Some unique characteristics of the demographic situation in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brui, B; Mikhailov, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors briefly describe the demographic situation in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, using data from the 1989 census and current demographic research. Changes in the birth rate and population growth are examined, and migration flows in the various regions of the republic are compared. Factors affecting low birth rates are analyzed, and trends in marriage, divorce, mortality, and life expectancy are explored.

  18. Epidemiological and demographic HIV/AIDS projections: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and demographic HIV/AIDS projections: South Africa. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... Projections and the Spectrum model program developed by the Futures Group were used to model the South African HIV epidemic, project future trends in HIV/AIDS and estimate the demographic impact of AIDS.

  19. Developing a Global Mindset: Integrating Demographics, Sustainability, Technology, and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raj

    2011-01-01

    Business schools face a number of challenges in responding to the business influences of demographics, sustainability, and technology--all three of which are also the fundamental driving forces for globalization. Demographic forces are creating global imbalances in worker populations and in government finances; the world economy faces…

  20. Optimal demographic information for policy development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After ten years of a democratic education system in South Africa , the demographic realities should be better understood in educational planning. The fragmented nature of the predemocratic education system has led to undesirable perceptions about quality education and has subsequently influenced the demographic ...

  1. Implications of Demographic Change for the Design of Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John H.

    1994-01-01

    The influences that demographic changes may have on the design of private pension plans in the twenty-first century are examined. Major demographic factors to be considered include the aging of the population, declining mortality rate, potential for an even lower mortality rate, improved health for all ages and especially for older workers, and…

  2. Making the Case for Demographic Data in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Katherine J.; Verdoff, Daniel; Rizzo, Bill; Beaudoin, James

    2012-01-01

    Understanding one's community is essential for effective Extension programming across all program areas. The use of current and reliable demographic data is crucial for Extension to develop effective education and programming to track change and to uncover hidden community characteristics. We discuss what demographic data are, present…

  3. The Impact Of Demographic Factors On Organisational Commitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study Investigated the Impact of demographic factors on organization commitment among workers in selected work organizations in Lagos State of Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of demographic factors on workers' commitment to organizations goal achievement in Nigeria. The ex-post ...

  4. Development of an artificial neural network model for risk assessment of skin sensitization using human cell line activation test, direct peptide reactivity assay, KeratinoSens™ and in silico structure alert parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Kouzuki, Hirokazu

    2018-04-01

    It is important to predict the potential of cosmetic ingredients to cause skin sensitization, and in accordance with the European Union cosmetic directive for the replacement of animal tests, several in vitro tests based on the adverse outcome pathway have been developed for hazard identification, such as the direct peptide reactivity assay, KeratinoSens™ and the human cell line activation test. Here, we describe the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction model for skin sensitization risk assessment based on the integrated testing strategy concept, using direct peptide reactivity assay, KeratinoSens™, human cell line activation test and an in silico or structure alert parameter. We first investigated the relationship between published murine local lymph node assay EC3 values, which represent skin sensitization potency, and in vitro test results using a panel of about 134 chemicals for which all the required data were available. Predictions based on ANN analysis using combinations of parameters from all three in vitro tests showed a good correlation with local lymph node assay EC3 values. However, when the ANN model was applied to a testing set of 28 chemicals that had not been included in the training set, predicted EC3s were overestimated for some chemicals. Incorporation of an additional in silico or structure alert descriptor (obtained with TIMES-M or Toxtree software) in the ANN model improved the results. Our findings suggest that the ANN model based on the integrated testing strategy concept could be useful for evaluating the skin sensitization potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gollapudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of one year at a government tertiary care center. Pregnant women in the age group of 13-19 years who delivered during the study period were included in the study group. All pregnant women over 20 years of age who delivered during the same period were taken as control group. Women who had medical disorders complicating pregnancy were excluded from the study. Anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and mode of delivery were the maternal outcomes that were noted. Intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, low birth weight, APGAR score were analysed with respect to the foetus. RESULTS In this study, the total number of pregnant women who delivered during the study period were 4782, 536 were teenage mothers, constituting 11.2% of the total pregnancies. Of the 536 teenage mothers, 69.78% belonged to the rural areas and 71.64% were found to have inadequate antenatal visits to the hospital. The mean age of teenage pregnancy was 17.18 years. Incidence of anaemia was 44.2% in comparison, the control group had an incidence of 33.02%. In our study, incidence of Pregnancy induced hypertension was 18.64% in teenage mothers and 10.6% in non-teenage mothers. The incidence of Antepartum Haemorrhage in our study was 8.94% in teenage mothers. Incidence of lower segment caesarean section was 22.76% in the teenage group as compared to 14.57% in the non-teenage group. In our study, 13.05% of teenage mothers had preterm deliveries as compared to 6.40% of non-teenage mothers

  6. Towards a Non-Human Primate Model of Alpha-Synucleinopathy for Development of Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease: Optimization of AAV1/2 Delivery Parameters to Drive Sustained Expression of Alpha Synuclein and Dopaminergic Degeneration in Macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Koprich

    Full Text Available Recent failures in clinical trials for disease modification in Parkinson's disease have highlighted the need for a non-human primate model of the synucleinopathy underpinning dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The present study was defined to begin the development of such a model in cynomolgus macaque. We have validated surgical and vector parameters to define a means to provide a robust over-expression of alpha-synuclein which is associated with Lewy-like pathology and robust degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, an AAV1/2 vector incorporating strong transcription and transduction regulatory elements was used to deliver the gene for the human A53T mutation of alpha-synuclein. When injected into 4 sites within each substantia nigra (7 μl per site, 1.7 x 1012 gp/ml, this vector provided expression lasting at least 4 months, and a 50% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a 60% reduction in striatal dopamine. Further studies will be required to develop this methodology into a validated model of value as a drug development platform.

  7. Research of Human Postural Balance Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Griškevičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In present article postural balance between subjects with stroke and healthy subjects, is being investigated with eyes opened and eyes closed. In the research participated 30 healthy subjects and 15 subjects with stroke. At the same time two experimental measurements were performed – postural balance was measured using balance platform and oscillations of the centre of mass were observed using two-axial accelerometer. It was noted, that amplitudes of subjects with stroke were larger almost two times than control group’s of healthy subjects. It was find out, that ratios of pressure distribution on both left and right legs are in range from 1 to 0.9 for healthy subjects, and ratios below 0.9 are common for subjects with stroke. When subjects were standing with eyes closed, sway amplitudes were higher and the ratios of load distribution on left and right legs were lower.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Epidemiology and Clinical Parameters of Adult Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Sub-Saharan Africa has remained the most affected region in the global AIDS .... this will invariably affect the future man power and Nigerian economy if nothing is .... well as development of cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma and ...

  9. A demographic analysis of vertical root fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephen; Berman, Louis H; Blanco, Lucia; Bakland, Leif; Kim, Jay S

    2006-12-01

    Teeth with vertical root fractures (VRFs) have complete or incomplete fractures that extends through the enamel, dentin and pulp, down the long axis of the tooth. Several different variables were investigated and statistically evaluated as to their correlation with the presence of VRFs. Specifically analyzed were gender, tooth location, age, radiographic and clinical findings, bruxism, and pulpal status. The data were collected from three different endodontists, from three different geographic locations, comprising a total of 227 teeth. Although VRFs may occur in conjunction with any of the parameters investigated, only certain factors were found to occur in a significant number of cases. The results indicate that VRFs are statistically more prevalent in mandibular molars and maxillary premolars. They are associated with periradicular bone loss, pain to percussion, extensive restorations, and seem to occur more often in females and older patients. However, VRFs are not necessarily related to periapical bone loss, a widening of the periodontal ligament space, associated periodontal pockets, a sinus tract, particular pulpal status, or bruxism.

  10. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  11. Demographic and clinical predictors of mortality from highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus infection: CART analysis of international cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B Patel

    Full Text Available Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A (H5N1 viruses have occurred in 15 countries, with high mortality to date. Determining risk factors for morbidity and mortality from HPAI H5N1 can inform preventive and therapeutic interventions.We included all cases of human HPAI H5N1 reported in World Health Organization Global Alert and Response updates and those identified through a systematic search of multiple databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, including articles in all languages. We abstracted predefined clinical and demographic predictors and mortality and used bivariate logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship of each candidate predictor with mortality. We developed and pruned a decision tree using nonparametric Classification and Regression Tree methods to create risk strata for mortality.We identified 617 human cases of HPAI H5N1 occurring between December 1997 and April 2013. The median age of subjects was 18 years (interquartile range 6-29 years and 54% were female. HPAI H5N1 case-fatality proportion was 59%. The final decision tree for mortality included age, country, per capita government health expenditure, and delay from symptom onset to hospitalization, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76-0.86.A model defined by four clinical and demographic predictors successfully estimated the probability of mortality from HPAI H5N1 illness. These parameters highlight the importance of early diagnosis and treatment and may enable early, targeted pharmaceutical therapy and supportive care for symptomatic patients with HPAI H5N1 virus infection.

  12. Genetic analysis reveals demographic fragmentation of grizzly bears yielding vulnerably small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Michael F; McLellan, Bruce N; Strobeck, Curtis; Barclay, Robert M R

    2005-11-22

    Ecosystem conservation requires the presence of native carnivores, yet in North America, the distributions of many larger carnivores have contracted. Large carnivores live at low densities and require large areas to thrive at the population level. Therefore, if human-dominated landscapes fragment remaining carnivore populations, small and demographically vulnerable populations may result. Grizzly bear range contraction in the conterminous USA has left four fragmented populations, three of which remain along the Canada-USA border. A tenet of grizzly bear conservation is that the viability of these populations requires demographic linkage (i.e. inter-population movement of both sexes) to Canadian bears. Using individual-based genetic analysis, our results suggest this demographic connection has been severed across their entire range in southern Canada by a highway and associated settlements, limiting female and reducing male movement. Two resulting populations are vulnerably small (bear populations may be more threatened than previously thought and that conservation efforts must expand to include international connectivity management. They also demonstrate the ability of genetic analysis to detect gender-specific demographic population fragmentation in recently disturbed systems, a traditionally intractable yet increasingly important ecological measurement worldwide.

  13. Using Twitter for Demographic and Social Science Research: Tools for Data Collection and Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Tyler H; Lee, Hedwig; Cesare, Nina; Shojaie, Ali; Spiro, Emma S

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users-a key component of much social science research-remains a challenge. This article develops an accurate and reliable data processing approach for social science researchers interested in using Twitter data to examine behaviors and attitudes, as well as the demographic characteristics of the populations expressing or engaging in them. Using information gathered from Twitter users who state an intention to not vote in the 2012 presidential election, we describe and evaluate a method for processing data to retrieve demographic information reported by users that is not encoded as text (e.g., details of images) and evaluate the reliability of these techniques. We end by assessing the challenges of this data collection strategy and discussing how large-scale social media data may benefit demographic researchers.

  14. SPOP Mutations in Prostate Cancer across Demographically Diverse Patient Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Blattner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in the Speckle-Type POZ Protein (SPOP gene occur in up to 15% of prostate cancers. However, the frequency and features of cancers with these mutations across different populations is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SPOP mutations across diverse cohorts and validate a series of assays employing high-resolution melting (HRM analysis and Sanger sequencing for mutational analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: 720 prostate cancer samples from six international cohorts spanning Caucasian, African American, and Asian patients, including both prostate-specific antigen-screened and unscreened populations, were screened for their SPOP mutation status. Status of SPOP was correlated to molecular features (ERG rearrangement, PTEN deletion, and CHD1 deletion as well as clinical and pathologic features. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall frequency of SPOP mutations was 8.1% (4.6% to 14.4%, SPOP mutation was inversely associated with ERG rearrangement (P < .01, and SPOP mutant (SPOPmut cancers had higher rates of CHD1 deletions (P < .01. There were no significant differences in biochemical recurrence in SPOPmut cancers. Limitations of this study include missing mutational data due to sample quality and lack of power to identify a difference in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: SPOP is mutated in 4.6% to 14.4% of patients with prostate cancer across different ethnic and demographic backgrounds. There was no significant association between SPOP mutations with ethnicity, clinical, or pathologic parameters. Mutual exclusivity of SPOP mutation with ERG rearrangement as well as a high association with CHD1 deletion reinforces SPOP mutation as defining a distinct molecular subclass of prostate cancer.

  15. Laser photogrammetry improves size and demographic estimates for whale sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Prebble, Clare E.M.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Whale sharks Rhincodon typus are globally threatened, but a lack of biological and demographic information hampers an accurate assessment of their vulnerability to further decline or capacity to recover. We used laser photogrammetry at two aggregation sites to obtain more accurate size estimates of free-swimming whale sharks compared to visual estimates, allowing improved estimates of biological parameters. Individual whale sharks ranged from 432–917 cm total length (TL) (mean ± SD = 673 ± 118.8 cm, N = 122) in southern Mozambique and from 420–990 cm TL (mean ± SD = 641 ± 133 cm, N = 46) in Tanzania. By combining measurements of stranded individuals with photogrammetry measurements of free-swimming sharks, we calculated length at 50% maturity for males in Mozambique at 916 cm TL. Repeat measurements of individual whale sharks measured over periods from 347–1,068 days yielded implausible growth rates, suggesting that the growth increment over this period was not large enough to be detected using laser photogrammetry, and that the method is best applied to estimating growth rates over longer (decadal) time periods. The sex ratio of both populations was biased towards males (74% in Mozambique, 89% in Tanzania), the majority of which were immature (98% in Mozambique, 94% in Tanzania). The population structure for these two aggregations was similar to most other documented whale shark aggregations around the world. Information on small (sharks, mature individuals, and females in this region is lacking, but necessary to inform conservation initiatives for this globally threatened species. PMID:25870776

  16. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  17. Geographic variation in genetic and demographic performance: new insights from an old biogeographical paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironon, Samuel; Papuga, Guillaume; Villellas, Jesús; Angert, Amy L; García, María B; Thompson, John D

    2017-11-01

    The 'centre-periphery hypothesis' (CPH) is a long-standing postulate in ecology that states that genetic variation and demographic performance of a species decrease from the centre to the edge of its geographic range. This hypothesis is based on an assumed concordance between geographical peripherality and ecological marginality such that environmental conditions become harsher towards the limits of a species range. In this way, the CPH sets the stage for understanding the causes of distribution limits. To date, no study has examined conjointly the consistency of these postulates. In an extensive literature review we discuss the birth and development of the CPH and provide an assessment of the CPH by reviewing 248 empirical studies in the context of three main themes. First, a decrease in species occurrence towards their range limits was observed in 81% of studies, while only 51% demonstrated reduced abundance of individuals. A decline in genetic variation, increased differentiation among populations and higher rates of inbreeding were demonstrated by roughly one in two studies (47, 45 and 48%, respectively). However, demographic rates, size and population performance less often followed CPH expectations (20-30% of studies). We highlight the impact of important methodological, taxonomic, and biogeographical biases on such validation rates. Second, we found that geographic and ecological marginality gradients are not systematically concordant, which casts doubt on the reliability of a main assumption of the CPH. Finally, we attempt to disentangle the relative contribution of geographical, ecological and historical processes on the spatial distribution of genetic and demographic parameters. While ecological marginality gradients explain variation in species' demographic performance better than geographic gradients, contemporary and historical factors may contribute interactively to spatial patterns of genetic variation. We thereby propose a framework that integrates

  18. Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers and Linear/Logistic Regression to Explore the Relationship between Hand Dimensions and Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hurtado, Oscar; Guest, Richard; Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physiological measurements from human subjects and their demographic data is important within both the biometric and forensic domains. In this paper we explore the relationship between measurements of the human hand and a range of demographic features. We assess the ability of linear regression and machine learning classifiers to predict demographics from hand features, thereby providing evidence on both the strength of relationship and the key features underpinning this relationship. Our results show that we are able to predict sex, height, weight and foot size accurately within various data-range bin sizes, with machine learning classification algorithms out-performing linear regression in most situations. In addition, we identify the features used to provide these relationships applicable across multiple applications.

  19. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Runge, Michael C; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steve C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-10-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice for feeding, breeding, and movement. Significant reductions in Arctic sea ice are forecast to continue because of climate warming. We evaluated the impacts of climate change on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea by means of a demographic analysis, combining deterministic, stochastic, environment-dependent matrix population models with forecasts of future sea ice conditions from IPCC general circulation models (GCMs). The matrix population models classified individuals by age and breeding status; mothers and dependent cubs were treated as units. Parameter estimates were obtained from a capture-recapture study conducted from 2001 to 2006. Candidate statistical models allowed vital rates to vary with time and as functions of a sea ice covariate. Model averaging was used to produce the vital rate estimates, and a parametric bootstrap procedure was used to quantify model selection and parameter estimation uncertainty. Deterministic models projected population growth in years with more extensive ice coverage (2001-2003) and population decline in years with less ice coverage (2004-2005). LTRE (life table response experiment) analysis showed that the reduction in lambda in years with low sea ice was due primarily to reduced adult female survival, and secondarily to reduced breeding. A stochastic model with two environmental states, good and poor sea ice conditions, projected a declining stochastic growth rate, log lambdas, as the frequency of poor ice years increased. The observed frequency of poor ice years since 1979 would imply log lambdas approximately - 0.01, which agrees with available (albeit crude) observations of population size. The stochastic model was linked to a set of 10 GCMs compiled by the IPCC; the models were chosen for their ability to reproduce historical observations of sea ice and were forced with "business as usual" (A1B) greenhouse gas emissions. The resulting stochastic population

  20. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: A stochastic demographic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Runge, M.C.; Regehr, E.V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice for feeding, breeding, and movement. Significant reductions in Arctic sea ice are forecast to continue because of climate warming. We evaluated the impacts of climate change on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea by means of a demographic analysis, combining deterministic, stochastic, environment-dependent matrix population models with forecasts of future sea ice conditions from IPCC general circulation models (GCMs). The matrix population models classified individuals by age and breeding status; mothers and dependent cubs were treated as units. Parameter estimates were obtained from a capture-recapture study conducted from 2001 to 2006. Candidate statistical models allowed vital rates to vary with time and as functions of a sea ice covariate. Model averaging was used to produce the vital rate estimates, and a parametric bootstrap procedure was used to quantify model selection and parameter estimation uncertainty. Deterministic models projected population growth in years with more extensive ice coverage (2001-2003) and population decline in years with less ice coverage (2004-2005). LTRE (life table response experiment) analysis showed that the reduction in ?? in years with low sea ice was due primarily to reduced adult female survival, and secondarily to reduced breeding. A stochastic model with two environmental states, good and poor sea ice conditions, projected a declining stochastic growth rate, log ??s, as the frequency of poor ice years increased. The observed frequency of poor ice years since 1979 would imply log ??s ' - 0.01, which agrees with available (albeit crude) observations of population size. The stochastic model was linked to a set of 10 GCMs compiled by the IPCC; the models were chosen for their ability to reproduce historical observations of sea ice and were forced with "business as usual" (A1B) greenhouse gas emissions. The resulting stochastic population projections showed drastic

  1. The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders diagnosed with epilepsy referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex Observation Unit in terms of section 77 and/or 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977.

  2. Effects of Demographic Factors, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9.6) and in females, lower ... fill in a demographic self‑questionnaire that included information about age, gender, ..... of irritable bowel syndrome in young adult Malaysians: A survey .... the development of irritable bowel syndrome in adolescents:.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  4. Demographic Trends (1970-2010) for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Demographic Trends (1970-2010) were derived from Census Block Group Data for 13 different coastal geographies. For a full listing of the geographies available,...

  5. Genetic diversity and demographic evolution of baobab (Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... population of Ferlo has undergone a recent demographic expansion. Although .... diseases, parasites, predators and environmental change. (Amos and ..... Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in Rural West African Subsistence-.

  6. The age demographics of academic librarians a profession apart

    CERN Document Server

    Wilder, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intelligent, The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians discusses trends through easy-to-read charts, tables, and comprehensive data analysis. Exploring possible reasons for the anomalies of this trend, this book explores several surprising facts, such as: 16 percent of the 1995 American Research Libraries population of librarians will retire by the year 2000, another 16 percent between 2000 and 2005, 24 percent between 2005 ...

  7. Assessing economic and demographic impacts of intermodal transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-14

    There exists a large literature of transportation impacts on economic and demographic change. Prior studies have focused on single modes of transportation individually rather than integrating these modes. Yet, little work has been undertaken to study...

  8. Demographic Factors as Correlates of Health – Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-02

    Oct 2, 2014 ... The study concludes that demographic factors like marital status and religious affiliations are correlates to .... before God. The three .... probability of accepting voluntary HIV counselling and testing services than their female.

  9. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  10. Clinical and Socio-Demographic Characteristic of Children who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical and Socio-Demographic Characteristic of Children who receive Emergency Blood Transfusion in Orlu, Imo State Nigeria. ... Malaria was the commonest case of severe anaemia requiring urgent blood transfusion either singly (52.8%) ...

  11. Demographic processes limiting seedling recruitment in arid grassland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony J. Svejcar; Matthew J. Rinella

    2011-01-01

    Seeding is an important management tool in aridland restoration, but seeded species often fail to establish. Previous research has largely focused on the technical aspects of seeding with little effort directed at identifying demographic processes driving recruitment failures.

  12. Modifiable Risk factors of Hypertension and Socio‑demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Hypertension, Modifiable risk factors, Oghara ... to 140/90 mmHg is the most common Non Communicable .... In the first part, data on socio‑demographic variables of the ... blood pressure, and it was measured using sphygmomanometer.

  13. Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and clinical factors affecting adherence to antihypertensive medications and blood pressure control among patients attending the family practice clinic in a tertiary hospital in northern Nigeria.

  14. perceived nutrition benefits and socio-demographic factors affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... AFFECTING CONSUMPTION OF FOREST FOODS IN EASTERN AND ... P. O. Box 2067, .... and knowledge of health benefits of forest .... R FUNGO et al. 210. TABLE 5. Logistic regression analysis on the socio demographic ...

  15. Geo-demographic analysis of fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the combined motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with the Claritas geo-demographic database from the lifestyle perspective to determine the appropriate media to use in ...

  16. The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrestha, Laura B

    2006-01-01

    ...." The objective of this report is to highlight some of the demographic changes that have already occurred since 1950 and to illustrate how these and future trends will reshape the nation in the decades to come (through 2050...

  17. The second demographic transition: a concise overview of its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesthaeghe, Ron

    2014-12-23

    This article gives a concise overview of the theoretical development of the concept of the "second demographic transition" since it was coined in 1986, its components, and its applicability, first to European populations and subsequently also to non-European societies as well. Both the demographic and the societal contrasts between the first demographic transition (FDT) and the second demographic transition (SDT) are highlighted. Then, the major criticisms of the SDT theory are outlined, and these issues are discussed in the light of the most recent developments in Europe, the United States, the Far East, and Latin America. It turns out that three major SDT patterns have developed and that these evolutions are contingent on much older systems of kinship and family organization.

  18. Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Ageing and the Theory of Demographic Transition: The Case of Mauritius. ... the life expectancy of the population and consequently, the society is ageing. ... Originality/Value – Although some studies have been done on ageing yet ...

  19. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Demographics by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of key demographic groups for the EnviroAtlas community. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online...

  1. Booster parameter list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1986-10-01

    The AGS Booster is designed to be an intermediate synchrotron injector for the AGS, capable of accelerating protons from 200 MeV to 1.5 GeV. The parameters listed include beam and operational parameters and lattice parameters, as well as parameters pertaining to the accelerator's magnets, vacuum system, radio frequency acceleration system, and the tunnel. 60 refs., 41 figs

  2. Lumped-parameter models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    A lumped-parameter model represents the frequency dependent soil-structure interaction of a massless foundation placed on or embedded into an unbounded soil domain. In this technical report the steps of establishing a lumped-parameter model are presented. Following sections are included in this report: Static and dynamic formulation, Simple lumped-parameter models and Advanced lumped-parameter models. (au)

  3. The Role of Demographics as Predictors of Successful Performance of Sales Professionals in Business-to-Business Sales Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frino, Michael G.; Desiderio, Katie P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact demographic variables of gender and sales experience have on the performance of business-to-business (B2B) sales professionals. If a deeper understanding can be established of how gender and sales experience variables relate to B2B sales performance, human resource development (HRD) and human…

  4. Auditing Search Engines for Differential Satisfaction Across Demographics

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrotra, R.; Anderson, A.; Diaz, F.; Sharma, A.; Wallach, H. M.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many online services, such as search engines, social media platforms, and digital marketplaces, are advertised as being available to any user, regardless of their age, gender, or other demographic factors. However, there are growing concerns that these services may systematically underserve some groups of users. In this paper, we present a framework for internally auditing such services for differences in user satisfaction across demographic groups, using search engines as a case study. We fi...

  5. Demographic Risks of the Pension Reform in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Arkady Konstantinovich Solovyev

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the impact of the demographic crisis in the country’s fiscal system. In the article, the pension system for the first time is considered as a multifactorial model, which during the different historical periods corrects the degree of its dependence on the interdependent complex of macroeconomic and demographic factors. The economically sound and socially correct accounting of the interference of retirement age and the specified development factor...

  6. Demographic Trends in Germany and their Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rembrandt Scholz; Carsten Schröder

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores demographic trends in Germany, as well as the determinants of these trends, and the economic implications of these demographic changes for the country. A detailed spatial analysis reveals substantial differences in the speed and intensity of the processes of population aging and population decline across the German regions. The results indicate that these processes are particularly pronounced in the state of Mecklenburg Western-Pomerania. As a new contribution to th...

  7. Traditional wealth, modern goods, and demographic behavior in rural Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Garenne, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationships of demographic indicators (fertility, mortality, marriage, education) with modern and traditional wealth in rural Senegal. Data were based on rural households interviewed in the 2011 DHS survey. An Absolute Wealth Index was computed from a list of 15 modern goods. A Traditional Wealth Index was computed from data on land and livestock per capita. Modern wealth was always associated with modern demographic behavior (lower fertility, lower mortality, hig...

  8. Total rewards that retain: A study of demographic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Pregnolato; Mark H.R. Bussin; Anton F. Schlechter

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Changing workplace demographics and a dearth of employees with scarce skills have forced employers to better understand the various factors that retain talented employees. Research purpose: In this empirical study, the reward preferences and ideal combination of total reward elements (based on an estimation of their relative importance) that retain employees from various demographic groups, including employees of different race, gender and age groups, were investigated. M...

  9. Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status

    OpenAIRE

    Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted m...

  10. Total Factor Productivity, Demographic Traits and ICT: Empirical Analysis for Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal MEHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances a model to explain the total factor productivity in Asian countries, most of which are labor surplus and are endowed with substantial human capital. Such promising demographic potentials are considered as complementary factors to use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT. Population with such favorable demographic traits and access to ICT results in higher Total factor productivity (TFP. We call this as Demo-Tech-TFP Model and is tested by using data for 2000-2010 of 24 Asian countries. Econometric concerns like presence of endogenous and/or predetermined covariates and small time-series and cross-sectional dimensions of panel dataset are tackled by using System Generalized Method of Moments (SYS-GMM. Results show considerable support for the Demo-Tech-TFP hypothesis. Need is to design such models that suit the local demography and patterns of technological diffusion currently taking place in developing countries.

  11. The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Richard, Vreni; Crump, Lisa; Moto Daugla, Doumagoum; Hattendorf, Jan; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed. To test and evaluate a mobile demographic surveillance system for mobile pastoralist households, including livestock herds, using mobile phones. Mobile pastoralist camps were monitored (10 for 12 months and 10 for 18 months) using biweekly mobile phone calls with camp leaders and their wives to conduct interviews about the households and livestock. The collected information was validated through personal visits, GPS data and a livestock demographic model. The study showed the feasibility of mobile phone surveillance for mobile pastoralist camps, providing usable, valid information on human and livestock population structures, pregnancy outcomes and herd dynamics, as well as migration patterns. The approach was low-cost and applicable with the existing local resources. Demographic surveillance in mobile populations is feasible using mobile phones. Expansion of the small-scale system into a full mobile demographic surveillance system is warranted and would likely lead to improved planning and provision of human and animal health care.

  12. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  13. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linge, I I; Melikhova, I A; Pavlovski, O [Nuclear Safety Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs.

  14. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, I.I.; Melikhova, I.A.; Pavlovski, O.

    1997-01-01

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Structured Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Epidemics with Immigration and Demographic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Hendrik; Sandmann, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic epidemics with open populations of variable population sizes are considered where due to immigration and demographic effects the epidemic does not eventually die out forever. The underlying stochastic processes are ergodic multi-dimensional continuous-time Markov chains that possess unique equilibrium probability distributions. Modeling these epidemics as level-dependent quasi-birth-and-death processes enables efficient computations of the equilibrium distributions by matrix-analytic methods. Numerical examples for specific parameter sets are provided, which demonstrates that this approach is particularly well-suited for studying the impact of varying rates for immigration, births, deaths, infection, recovery from infection, and loss of immunity.

  16. Structured Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Epidemics with Immigration and Demographic Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Baumann

    Full Text Available Stochastic epidemics with open populations of variable population sizes are considered where due to immigration and demographic effects the epidemic does not eventually die out forever. The underlying stochastic processes are ergodic multi-dimensional continuous-time Markov chains that possess unique equilibrium probability distributions. Modeling these epidemics as level-dependent quasi-birth-and-death processes enables efficient computations of the equilibrium distributions by matrix-analytic methods. Numerical examples for specific parameter sets are provided, which demonstrates that this approach is particularly well-suited for studying the impact of varying rates for immigration, births, deaths, infection, recovery from infection, and loss of immunity.

  17. A demographic model to predict future growth of the Addo elephant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Woodd

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available An age-structured demographic model of the growth of the Addo elephant population was developed using parameters calculated from long-term data on the population. The model was used to provide estimates of future population growth. Expansion of the Addo Elephant National Park is currently underway, and the proposed target population size for elephant within the enlarged park is 2700. The model predicts that this population size will be reached during the year 2043, so that the Addo elephant population can continue to increase for a further 44 years before its target size within the enlarged park is attained.

  18. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H02: There will be no significant statistical association between the educational factors teacher certification type (composite or content specific) and teacher certification pathway and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. H03: There will be no significant statistical association between a teachers' demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. The researcher employed the assistance of the human resource departments of participating districts to generate a demographic report identifying the sex, years of experience, certification types and pathways of the teachers of record for African American male students who took the 10th grade Science TAKS during the 2009-2010 school year. Data ascertained from the demographic report was entered in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (SPSS). A linear regression statistical analysis was used to establish the following: 1). the degree of association between demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS , 2) the degree of association between educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS, 3) the degree of association between demographic and educational factors and the percent passing rate of their African American male students on the 10th grade science TAKS Conclusion: Constantine et al (2009) concluded that although individual teachers appear to have an effect on student achievement, their study could not identify what about a teacher affects student achievement. Similar to Constatine, the researcher did not find any association between the demographic and educational factors of teachers and the science academic achievement of African American males

  19. Better living through conifer removal: A demographic analysis of sage-grouse vital rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Severson

    Full Text Available Sagebrush (Artemisia spp. obligate wildlife species such as the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus face numerous threats including altered ecosystem processes that have led to conifer expansion into shrub-steppe. Conifer removal is accelerating despite a lack of empirical evidence on grouse population response. Using a before-after-control-impact design at the landscape scale, we evaluated effects of conifer removal on two important demographic parameters, annual survival of females and nest survival, by monitoring 219 female sage-grouse and 225 nests in the northern Great Basin from 2010 to 2014. Estimates from the best treatment models showed positive trends in the treatment area relative to the control area resulting in an increase of 6.6% annual female survival and 18.8% nest survival relative to the control area by 2014. Using stochastic simulations of our estimates and published demographics, we estimated a 25% increase in the population growth rate in the treatment area relative to the control area. This is the first study to link sage-grouse demographics with conifer removal and supports recommendations to actively manage conifer expansion for sage-grouse conservation. Sage-grouse have become a primary catalyst for conservation funding to address conifer expansion in the West, and these findings have important implications for other ecosystem services being generated on the wings of species conservation.

  20. Conservation biology for suites of species: Demographic modeling for Pacific island kingfishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D.C.; Haig, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation practitioners frequently extrapolate data from single-species investigations when managing critically endangered populations. However, few researchers initiate work with the intent of making findings useful to conservation efforts for other species. We presented and explored the concept of conducting conservation-oriented research for suites of geographically separated populations with similar natural histories, resource needs, and extinction threats. An example was provided in the form of an investigation into the population demography of endangered Micronesian kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus). We provided the first demographic parameter estimates for any of the 12 endangered Pacific Todiramphus species, and used results to develop a population projection matrix model for management throughout the insular Pacific. Further, we used the model for elasticity and simulation analyses with demographic values that randomly varied across ranges that might characterize congener populations. Results from elasticity and simulation analyses indicated that changes in breeding adult survival exerted the greatest magnitude of influence on population dynamics. However, changes in nestling survival were more consistently correlated with population dynamics as demographic rates were randomly altered. We concluded that conservation practitioners working with endangered Pacific kingfishers should primarily focus efforts on factors affecting nestling and breeder survival, and secondarily address fledgling juveniles and helpers. Further, we described how the generalized base model might be changed to focus on individual populations and discussed the potential application of multi-species models to other conservation situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of geographic, ethnic, and demographic dynamics on the perception of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Peter Niclas; Juran, Sabrina; Liu, Yuen-Jong; Weichman, Katie; Tanna, Neil; Walker, Marc E; Ng, Reuben; Persing, John A

    2014-01-01

    Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder, but influenced by the individual's geographic, ethnic, and demographic background and characteristics. In plastic surgery, objective measurements are used as a foundation for aesthetic evaluations. This study assumes interdependence between variables such as country of residence, sex, age, occupation, and aesthetic perception. Computerized images of a model's face were generated with the ability to alter nasal characteristics and the projection of the lips and chin. A survey containing these modifiable images was sent to more than 13,000 plastic surgeons and laypeople in 50 different countries, who were able to virtually create a face that they felt to be the aesthetically "ideal" and most pleasing. Demographic information about the interviewees was obtained. Values of various aesthetic parameters of the nose were described along with their relationship to geography, demography, and occupation of the respondents. Interregional and ethnic comparison revealed that variables of country of residence, ethnicity, occupation (general public vs surgeon), and sex correlate along a 3-way dimension with the ideal projection of the lips and the chin. Significant interaction effects were found between variables of country of residence or ethnicity with occupation and sex of the respondents. What are considered the "ideal" aesthetics of the face are highly dependent on the individual's cultural and ethnic background and cannot simply and solely be defined by numeric values and divine proportions. As confirmed with this study, ethnic, demographic, and occupational factors impact peoples' perception of beauty significantly.

  2. Using Remote Sensing, Weather, and Demographic Data to Create Risk Maps for Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, C.; Conrad, J.; Del Valle, S.; Ziemann, A.; Fairchild, G.; Generous, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses have dynamics coupled to weather, ecology, human infrastructure, socio-economic demographics, and behavior. We use time-varying remote sensing and weather data, along with demographics and ecozones to predict risk through time for Zika, dengue, and chikungunya outbreaks in Brazil. We use distributed lag methods to quantify the lag between outbreaks and weather. Our statistical model indicates that the relationships between the variables are complex, but that quantifying risk is possible with the right data at appropriate spatio-temporal scales.

  3. Demographic study of two population outbreaks of Elasmoderus wagenknechti (Liebermann) (Orthoptera: Tristiridae) in the transitional desert of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Pizarro, Jorge; Vega, Solange; Vásquez, Hernán; Elgueta, Mario; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Under certain environmental conditions, several species of grasshoppers inhabiting rangeland areas (e.g., inter-valleys) of the Chilean transitional desert can irrupt demographically. One of them is Elasmoderus wagenknechti (Liebermann), an endemic species. We studied two outbreaks occurred in 1996 and 1999. The objectives of the research were to (i) estimate some demographic parameters associated with the aforementioned events, and (ii) compare between them the population parameters. The parameters we studied were density (ind/m(2)), sexual proportion, female fertility (i.e., eggs/female), and the relationship eggs/female versus female size. Density (ind/m(2)) ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 in 1996 and from 0.5 to 0.6 in 1999. ANOVA-tests registered differences in density among study sites and between years. In some of the study sites, females were more abundant than males (e.g., Lomas del Sauce). Females fertility ranged from 27 to 39 eggs per female, with significant differences among sites in 1996 but not in 1999. For females of 30-50 mm body size, a linear relationship was detected between egg number/female and body size. It is concluded that the E. wagenknechti outbreaks are site-specific in the study area and that the demographic parameters examined show a high variability among sites and between events.

  4. Influence of human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 Infection on laboratory parameters of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus Influência da infecção pelo vírus linfotrópico humano tipo 1 (HTLV-1 em parâmetros laboratoriais de pacientes com hepatite C crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fernandes Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 share routes of transmission and some individuals have dual infection. Although some studies point to a worse prognosis of hepatitis C virus in patients co-infected with HTLV-1, the interaction between these two infections is poorly understood. This study evaluated the influence of HTLV-1 infection on laboratory parameters in chronic HCV patients. Twelve HTLV-1/HCV-coinfected patients were compared to 23 patients infected only with HCV, in regard to demographic data, risk factors for viral acquisition, HCV genotype, presence of cirrhosis, T CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts and liver function tests. There was no difference in regard to age, gender, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, HCV genotype or presence of cirrhosis between the groups. Intravenous drug use was the most common risk factor among individuals co-infected with HTLV-1. These patients showed higher TCD8+ counts (p = 0.0159 and significantly lower median values of AST and ALT (p = 0.0437 and 0.0159, respectively. In conclusion, we have shown that HCV/HTLV-1 co-infected patients differs in laboratorial parameters involving both liver and immunological patterns. The meaning of these interactions in the natural history of these infections is a matter that deserves further studies.O vírus da hepatite C (VHC e vírus linfotrópico humano tipo 1 (HTLV-1 compartilham formas de transmissão e algumas pessoas apresentam coinfecção. Embora alguns estudos apontem para um pior prognóstico da infecção pelo VHC em pacientes coinfectados com HTLV-1, a interação entre estas infecções é mal compreendida. Este estudo avaliou a influência da infecção pelo HTLV-1 em parâmetros laboratoriais de pacientes com VHC. 12 coinfectados VHC/HTLV-1 foram comparados com 23 pacientes monoinfectados com VHC, no que diz respeito aos dados demográficos, fatores de risco para aquisição viral, genótipo do VHC, presença de cirrose

  5. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  6. Demographic faultlines: a meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Sherry M B; Patel, Pankaj C

    2011-11-01

    We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., k [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for advancing the study of faultlines. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Disorder parameter of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)

  8. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  9. THE SECOND DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY: A Review and Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Batool; Morgan, S Philip

    2017-07-01

    References to the second demographic transition (SDT) concept/theoretical framework have increased dramatically in the last two decades. The SDT predicts unilinear change toward very low fertility and a diversity of union and family types. The primary driver of these changes is a powerful, inevitable and irreversible shift in attitudes and norms in the direction of greater individual freedom and self-actualization. First, we describe the origin of this framework and its evolution over time. Second, we review the empirical fit of the framework to major changes in demographic and family behavior in the U.S., the West, and beyond. As has been the case for other unilinear, developmental theories of demographic/family change, the SDT failed to predict many contemporary patterns of change/difference. Finally, we review previous critiques and identify fundamental weaknesses of this perspective, and provide brief comparisons to selected alternative approaches.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  11. Demographic Composition of the Online Buyers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan NARDALI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic variables may have an impact on Internet usage patterns. Online buyers’ characteristics keeps changing time along with the shifting dynamics of Turkish consumers’ demographic profile and day by day online shopping becomes a safe and popular option in Turkey. Current study investigates demographic composition of the online buyers that influence consumer attitudes towards online shopping behavior in Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. This study examines attitudes toward online shopping and provides a better understanding of the potential of online buyers for both researchers and practitioners. The study is based on an empirical research work, and a convenience sample of 400. Frequencies, descriptive statistics, and One-Way ANOVA tests were used in the analysis of data. The study shows that Turkish Internet consumer segment is relatively young, well educated, in mid economic status and professions associated with Internet more than five years.

  12. Demographic stagnation and decline in Spain: A cause for concern?

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    Serrano-Martínez José-María

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For years, the Spanish population has been rapidly ageing, showing signs of atony and stagnation. Between 1996 and 2007, in a phase of economic growth, the entry of foreign immigrants drove a global increase in population. But after the economic recession migratory flows show negative net balances. Our objective is to explain and confirm the demographic regression suffered by Spain. We are also interested in showing how the recent and intense immigration process has failed to generate significant changes in natural demographic characteristics and trends. National censuses, published by the National Institute of Statistics (INE, are our main source of demographic data. The analysis of the most recent relevant scientific literature has allowed us to compare opinions and discuss results. The data confirm an uncertain and worrying future for the Spanish population.

  13. Local Government Units in Indonesia: Demographic Attributes and Differences in Financial Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmin Rusmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the outcome of decentralisation reforms in Indonesia, focusing on the association between demographic characteristics and differences in the financial condition of local governments units. It investigates cross-sectional data pertaining to demographic characteristics and financial statements audited by the Supreme Audit Body of 419 Indonesian local government units for the fiscal year 2007. It utilises demographic attributes including scope of entity, location, tenure (date of entry, gender, human development index (HDI and size of local governments to explain differences in the financial condition of Indonesia’s local government. Local government financial condition is proxied by quick ratio, debt ratio, services ratio, and ratio of local to total revenues. The results suggest that scope and location of local government units help explain all of the financial condition variables. The findings further infer that local government units domiciled in Java tend to report better financial conditions relative to those domiciled in other islands. Our results also show that local government units with greater female populations and higher HDI are more likely to have a local authority that (1 has better ability to finance their general services from their unrestricted net assets, and (2 has greater ability to earn more revenues from local sources. Finally, this study documents that the larger the population of a local government unit, the higher its liquidity position, the stronger its ability to funding general services, and the greater its possibility earning revenues from its local sources.

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND STRATEGIC THINKING CAPABILITY

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    Lara Jelenc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic thinking capability is interesting part of the cognitive development of each entrepreneur. This paper develops on notion that there a number of demographic variables that shape the behavior of each particular elements of entrepreneurial orientation and strategic component of each entrepreneur. The demographic variable that have significant role will take the role of moderator in further research. Since both constructs are multidimensional, the demographic variables are not influencing them in the same way. The empirical research has been performed on IT firms in Croatia in 2014. Individual entrepreneurial orientation is measured by the construct developed by Bolton and Lane’s (2012 individual entrepreneurial orientation instrument. The instrument is grounded in the seminal work of Miller (1983, Covin and Slevin (1986; 1988; 1989, Lumpkin and Dess (1996 and Covin and Wales (2011; consisting of three dimensions – risk-taking, innovation, and proactiveness. Strategic thinking was measured by Pisapia’s (2009 Strategic thinking questionnaire (STQ. The STQ asked respondents to rate how often they use systems thinking, reframing, and reflecting skills. Within the framework of individual entrepreneurial orientation the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education abroad and previous experience. Entrepreneurs between 40-60 years old are less prone to risk, female entrepreneurs are more proactive than men, education abroad provides with the additional proactiveness and the entrepreneur with previous experience is prone to higher risk, proactiveness and innovativeness. Within the framework of strategic thinking capability the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education and experience. Entrepreneurs older than 60 score high on system thinking as well as females, females also score higher on reframing. Entrepreneurs with PhD degree score lower on reframing, while managers working more

  15. Demographic processes of developmentally peripheral areas in Hungary

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    Pénzes János

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the demographic processes and challenges of the Hungarian developmentally peripheral settlements. Demographic challenges can be regarded as important consequences of the social and economic disadvantages in spatial terms. However, the interrelating negative demographic tendencies cause even more backward situation blocking or hindering the development. The objective of the current analysis is to discover the demographic characteristics of the peripheral settlements, to detect the spatial disparities and to point out the correlation between backwardness and the investigated demographic phenomena with the help of the census databases 1980-2011 and local datasets on Roma population. Using methods of multivariate statistical analysis, seven indicators were selected in order to achieve the goals of the paper. Backward areas are primarily characterized by population decrease with significant disparities, but there were growing communities among them as well. Some small villages in Northern and Southwestern Hungary will foreseeably face complete depopulation within few years. Primarily small sized villages faced intense decrease in rate of natural change, but dynamic population growth was also detected. Migration loss tends to correlate with the extent of peripherality, as increasing values of migration balance accompany decreasing ratio of peripheral settlements in the area. The ratio of elderly population shows an expressively two-faced character, with the extremely aging and very juvenile settlements. The ratios of Roma population reflect the scale of peripherality. Extended ethnic change could be predicted in Northeastern and Southwestern Hungary and near the Middle Tisza valley. Presented demographic processes will make the backwardness of most of the peripheral settlements stable.

  16. Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Rozing, Maarten P; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J

    2015-01-01

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate...... with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex...

  17. Money attitude of Ukrainian young people: socio-demographic aspect

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    MARIANNA SIMKIV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.

  18. The demographic transition: an attempt to reformulate a population theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsten, E

    1981-01-01

    In this effort to reformulate the demographic transition theory, attention is directed to the following: Malthus and Karl Marx's criticism of his principle of population; the 1st stage of transition, i.e., high mortality, high fertility, and slow population growth; the 2nd stage of declining mortality; the 3rd stage of declining fertility; the 4th stage when mortality and fertility are both low; the growth potential; and the demographic transition in the 3rd world countries. The demographic transition theory has become popular among demographers, economists, historians, and others interested in studying the development of population over time since the end of World War 2. This interest has most likely been created by the anxiety over the population explosion in the 3rd world countries. Transition has made demographers believe that the period of rapid population growth will be automatically succeeded by a period of more or less constant population size. The question that arises is whether it is as simple as that. Demographic transition has to a great extent taken the place of Malthus' principle of population as a general theory of population. Demographic transition appears to describe in a satisfactory way the development of population which all currently industrialized countires have passed through, when going from the preindustrial to the present industrialized stage. The objectives to demographic transition as a general theory are considered. Some of the factors which have accounted for the decline in fertility in Europe may also apply to the 3rd world countries. 1 such factor is the effect of reduced infant and child mortality on the individual level. The fertility decline, caused by reduced infant and child mortality may, however, be of limited size. The great amount of unemployment in the 3rd world may affect fertility in a downward direction. The fertility decline in Europe occurred simultaneously with an industrialization process, which gradually covered the

  19. Do we need numbers? The demographic fingerprint on crisis evidence

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    Dragoş Lucian IVAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic revolution that took place in the world through globalization and through the industrial revolution made a deep and lasting impression that continues to haunt current visions on the future, leaving aside the importance of understanding demographic dynamics. The tendency towards a purely economic “reading” of contemporary reality pays scant regard to the demographic conditions of its production. Put simply, if we are to understand the contemporary crisis and if we desire for our current system to survive we should focus on a reconciliation of demography within the analysis of the actual functioning society.

  20. Ecological and demographic consequences of a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svirezhev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of a nuclear war upon ecological and demographic processes is estimated. The direct effect of nuclear detonations, the radioactive contamination of territories, the pollution by heavy metals and acid rain, as well as the effect of the sharp decline in temperature of the atmosphere ('nuclear winter') are taken into consideration. Estimated is the extent of destruction for the ecosystems of different types. The recovery of ecosystems is shown to be extremely slow or impossible. Demographic and genetic predictions for the nuclear war consequences are presented for various regions of the world. (author)