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Sample records for human declarative memory

  1. Human declarative memory formation: segregating rhinal and hippocampal contributions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, G.S.E.; Klaver, P.; Fell, J.; Grunwald, T.; Elger, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is the core structure of the declarative memory system, but which specific operation is performed by anatomically defined MTL substructures? One hypothesis proposes that the hippocampus carries out an exclusively mnemonic operation during declarative memory formation

  2. Temporomandibular disorders and declarative memory.

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    Yang, Dongmei; Ye, Ling

    2011-05-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a somatic manifestation of stress. Previous researches suggested hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity in TMD, through which TMD patients exhibited abnormalities of the stress response hormone - causing additional cortisol release. Increased cortisol, the principal circulating glucocorticoid in humans, would impair memory retrieval of declarative material. This effect on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the hippocampus. The hypothesis we proposed is that TMD might result in declarative memory impairment by increasing the cortisol.

  3. Development of the declarative memory system in the human brain.

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    Ofen, Noa; Kao, Yun-Ching; Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Kim, Heesoo; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2007-09-01

    Brain regions that are involved in memory formation, particularly medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), have been identified in adults, but not in children. We investigated the development of brain regions involved in memory formation in 49 children and adults (ages 8-24), who studied scenes during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recognition memory for vividly recollected scenes improved with age. There was greater activation for subsequently remembered scenes than there was for forgotten scenes in MTL and PFC regions. These activations increased with age in specific PFC, but not in MTL, regions. PFC, but not MTL, activations correlated with developmental gains in memory for details of experiences. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that gray matter volume in PFC, but not in MTL, regions reduced with age. These results suggest that PFC regions that are important for the formation of detailed memories for experiences have a prolonged maturational trajectory.

  4. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, M; Schuijer, J; Lodestijn, F; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, M

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experimen...

  5. Enhancing a declarative memory in humans: the effect of clonazepam on reconsolidation.

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    Rodríguez, M L C; Campos, J; Forcato, C; Leiguarda, R; Maldonado, H; Molina, V A; Pedreira, M E

    2013-01-01

    A consolidated memory recalled by a specific reminder can become unstable (labile) and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time. This labilization phase is followed by a process of stabilization called reconsolidation. The phenomenon has been shown in diverse types of memory, and different pharmacological agents have been used to disclose its presence. Several studies have revealed the relevance of the GABAergic system to this process. Consequently, our hypothesis is that the system is involved in the reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans. Thus, using our verbal learning task, we analyzed the effect of benzodiazepines on the re-stabilization of the declarative memory. On Day 1, volunteers learned an association between five cue- response-syllables. On Day 2, the verbal memory was labilized by a reminder presentation, and then a placebo capsule or 0.25 mg or 0.03 mg of clonazepam was administered to the subjects. The verbal memory was evaluated on Day 3. The volunteers who had received the 0.25 mg clonazepam along with the specific reminder on Day 2, exhibited memory improvement. In contrast, there was no effect when the drug was given without retrieval, when the memory was simply retrieved instead of being reactivated or when short-term memory testing was performed 4 h after reactivation. We discuss the GABAergic role in reconsolidation, which shows a collateral effect on other memories when the treatment is aimed at treating anxiety disorders. Further studies might elucidate the role of GABA in the reconsolidation process associated with dissimilar scenarios. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  6. Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation.

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    Larrosa, Pablo Nicolás Fernández; Ojea, Alejandro; Ojea, Ignacio; Molina, Victor Alejandro; Zorrilla-Zubilete, María Aurelia; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase. However, previous studies show that the expression of memories during reminder sessions is not a condition to trigger the reconsolidation process since unexpressed memories can be reactivated and labilized. Here we evaluate whether it is possible to reactivate-labilize a memory under the impairing-effects of a mild stressor. We used a paradigm of human declarative memory whose reminder structure allows us to differentiate between a reactivated-labile memory state and a reactivated but non-labile state. Subjects memorized a list of five cue-syllables associated with their respective response-syllables. Seventy-two hours later, results showed that the retrieval of the paired-associate memory was impaired when tested 20min after a mild stressor (cold pressor stress (CPS)) administration, coincident with cortisol levels increase. Then, we investigated the long-term effects of CPS administration prior to the reminder session. Under conditions where the reminder initiates the reconsolidation process, CPS impaired the long-term memory expression tested 24h later. In contrast, CPS did not show effects when administered before a reminder session that does not trigger reconsolidation. Results showed that memory reactivation-labilization occurs even when retrieval was impaired. Memory reactivation under stress could hinder

  7. Novelty detection and encoding for declarative memory within the human hippocampus.

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    Grunwald, Thomas; Kurthen, Martin

    2006-10-01

    Intracranial recordings of cognitive potentials within the human hippocampal system have identified N400 potentials in the anterior mesial temporal lobe (AMTL-N400) that correlate with verbal memory performance and are associated with novelty detection. Their amplitudes to "new" but not "old" words in a verbal recognition task correlate with the neuronal density of the hippocampal CA1-region and can be reduced selectively by the NMDA-receptor blocker ketamine. Moreover, it could be shown that NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity with Hebbian characteristics, can be readily induced in human hippocampal slices but not in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. In these latter patients, we also found a reduction of AMTL-N400 amplitudes similar to the one induced by ketamine. In addition, we could show that hippocampal novelty detection is associated with successful encoding for declarative memory. Together, our findings suggest that successful encoding for declarative memory is at least in part mediated by NMDA-receptor dependent novelty detection within the human hippocampal system.

  8. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory.

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    Bos, Marieke G N; Schuijer, Jantien; Lodestijn, Fleur; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans by modulating the reconsolidation process. Here, we tested in two experiments whether post-reactivation stress may affect the strength of declarative memory in humans. In both experiments, participants were instructed to learn neutral, positive and negative words. Approximately 24h later, participants received a reminder of the word list followed by exposure to the social evaluative cold pressor task (reactivation/stress group, nexp1=20; nexp2=18) or control task (reactivation/no-stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=18). An additional control group was solely exposed to the stress task, without memory reactivation (no-reactivation/stress group, nexp1=23; nexp2=21). The next day, memory performance was tested using a free recall and a recognition task. In the first experiment we showed that participants in the reactivation/stress group recalled more words than participants in the reactivation/no-stress and no-reactivation/stress group, irrespective of valence of the word stimuli. Furthermore, participants in the reactivation/stress group made more false recognition errors. In the second experiment we replicated our observations on the free recall task for a new set of word stimuli, but we did not find any differences in false recognition. The current findings indicate that post-reactivation stress can improve declarative memory performance by modulating the process of reconsolidation. This finding contributes to our understanding why some memories are more persistent than others.

  9. [Effect of daytime nap on consolidation of declarative memory in humans].

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    Ukraintseva, Iu V; Dorokhov, V B

    2011-01-01

    We studied effects of a daytime nap (1 hour) with including only NREM sleep on performance of declarative memory task (60 semantically unrelated word pairs) and general functional state. During training, procedure of learning of 30 word pairs was presented once, and that of the other 30 pairs was repeated twice. Strength of the task acquisition was tested. Subjects participated in two experiments: basic and control one. After learning participants either took a nap (basic experiment) or kept awake looking movies (control experiment). In 4.5 hours after the training session all the subjects were retested. As compared to the subjects who stayed awake during the training-retesting interval, subjects who had a NREM nap demonstrated enhanced performance. Concerning the strength of task acquisition, sleep-dependent performance was observed only for the word pairs learned once. Naps did not affect the functional state assessed by the reaction time dynamics and psychological testing.

  10. Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.N.; Schuijer, J.; Lodestijn, F.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of negative emotional memories is often accompanied by the experience of stress. Upon retrieval, a memory trace can temporarily return into a labile state, where it is vulnerable to change. An unresolved question is whether post-retrieval stress may affect the strength of declarative memor

  11. Interfering with theories of sleep and memory: sleep, declarative memory, and associative interference.

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    Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Hulbert, Justin C; Stickgold, Robert; Dinges, David F; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2006-07-11

    Mounting behavioral evidence in humans supports the claim that sleep leads to improvements in recently acquired, nondeclarative memories. Examples include motor-sequence learning; visual-discrimination learning; and perceptual learning of a synthetic language. In contrast, there are limited human data supporting a benefit of sleep for declarative (hippocampus-mediated) memory in humans (for review, see). This is particularly surprising given that animal models (e.g.,) and neuroimaging studies (e.g.,) predict that sleep facilitates hippocampus-based memory consolidation. We hypothesized that we could unmask the benefits of sleep by challenging the declarative memory system with competing information (interference). This is the first study to demonstrate that sleep protects declarative memories from subsequent associative interference, and it has important implications for understanding the neurobiology of memory consolidation.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep improves declarative memory.

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    Marshall, Lisa; Mölle, Matthias; Hallschmid, Manfred; Born, Jan

    2004-11-03

    In humans, weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability in the motor, visual, and prefrontal cortex. Periods rich in slow-wave sleep (SWS) not only facilitate the consolidation of declarative memories, but in humans, SWS is also accompanied by a pronounced endogenous transcortical DC potential shift of negative polarity over frontocortical areas. To experimentally induce widespread extracellular negative DC potentials, we applied anodal tDCS (0.26 mA) [correction] repeatedly (over 30 min) bilaterally at frontocortical electrode sites during a retention period rich in SWS. Retention of declarative memories (word pairs) and also nondeclarative memories (mirror tracing skills) learned previously was tested after this period and compared with retention performance after placebo stimulation as well as after retention intervals of wakefulness. Compared with placebo stimulation, anodal tDCS during SWS-rich sleep distinctly increased the retention of word pairs (p affect declarative memory. Procedural memory was also not affected by tDCS. Mood was improved both after tDCS during sleep and during wake intervals. tDCS increased sleep depth toward the end of the stimulation period, whereas the average power in the faster frequency bands (,alpha, and beta) was reduced. Acutely, anodal tDCS increased slow oscillatory activity sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories.

  13. Effect of two prednisone exposures on mood and declarative memory.

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    Brown, E Sherwood; Beard, Laura; Frol, Alan B; Rush, A John

    2006-07-01

    Corticosteroids are essential for life and an integral part of the stress response. However, in excess, corticosteroids can be associated with a variety of effects on the brain including hippocampal atrophy and even neuronal death, mood changes, and declarative memory impairment. The magnitude of mood change in patients receiving prednisone is reportedly associated with previous lifetime corticosteroid exposure, consistent with a sensitization or kindling process whereby greater effects are observed with repeated exposure. To our knowledge, the effect of multiple corticosteroid exposures on mood and memory has not been previously examined prospectively in animals or humans. In this study, 30 human volunteers, with no history of systemic prescription corticosteroid therapy, were given (in random order using a crossover design) two 3-day exposures of prednisone (60 mg/day) and one of identical placebo, with 11-day washouts between each medication exposure. Before and after each 3-day prednisone/placebo exposure, declarative memory was assessed using different versions of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to minimize practice or learning effects, while mood was assessed with the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Internal State Scale. No significant mood changes were found. However, a significant decrease in aspects of RAVLT performance was observed after the first prednisone exposure consistent with a decline in declarative memory performance. The decline in RAVLT performance was significantly smaller after the second prednisone exposure as compared to the initial prednisone exposure. Thus, a second prednisone exposure was associated with an attenuated prednisone-effect on declarative memory. These data suggest tolerance or habituation, rather than sensitization, to prednisone effects on declarative memory during a second exposure. Implications and possible explanations for the findings are discussed.

  14. Declarative vs. Procedural Memory: Roles in Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Fakhraee Faruji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Memory is not a single faculty but is a combination of multiple distinct abilities (Schacter, 1987. The declarative-procedural distinction is used both with regard to knowledge and memory that stores this knowledge. Ellis (2008 used the terms explicit/implicit, and declarative/procedural interchangeably. In this article the researcher aims at identifying the different aspects of declarative/procedural memory, interaction between these two types of memory, and the role they may play in second language acquisition.

  15. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

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    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Page, Debra; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory largely explain the language deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These abnormalities are posited to result in core deficits of procedural memory, which in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact, and should play an important compensatory role for grammar. These claims were tested by examining measures of working, declarative and procedural memory in 51 children with SLI and 51 matched typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10). Working memory was assessed with the Working Memory Test Battery for Children, declarative memory with the Children’s Memory Scale, and procedural memory with a visuo-spatial Serial Reaction Time task. As compared to the TD children, the children with SLI were impaired at procedural memory, even when holding working memory constant. In contrast, they were spared at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD children, but with declarative memory in the children with SLI. These findings replicate and extend previous studies of working, declarative and procedural memory in SLI. Overall, we

  16. Working, declarative and procedural memory in specific language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lum, J. A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; Page, D.

    2012-01-01

    in turn explain the grammar problems in the disorder. The abnormalities are also likely to lead to problems with other, non-procedural functions, such as working memory, that rely at least partly on the affected brain structures. In contrast, declarative memory is expected to remain largely intact...... at declarative memory for visual information, and at declarative memory in the verbal domain after controlling for working memory and language. Visuo-spatial short-term memory was intact, whereas verbal working memory was impaired, even when language deficits were held constant. Correlation analyses showed...... neither visuo-spatial nor verbal working memory was associated with either lexical or grammatical abilities in either the SLI or TD children. Declarative memory correlated with lexical abilities in both groups of children. Finally, grammatical abilities were associated with procedural memory in the TD...

  17. Declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation in children with sleep disorder

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    Eszter eCsabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy sleep is essential in children’s cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development. However, remarkably little is known about the influence of sleep disorders on different memory processes in childhood. Such data could give us a deeper insight into the effect of sleep on the developing brain and memory functions and how the relationship between sleep and memory changes from childhood to adulthood. In the present study we examined the effect of sleep disorder on declarative and non-declarative memory consolidation by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB which is characterized by disrupted sleep structure. We used a story recall task to measure declarative memory and Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT task to assess non-declarative memory. This task enables us to measure two aspects of non-declarative memory, namely general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 12-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed that children with SDB exhibited a generally lower declarative memory performance both in the learning and testing phase; however, both the SDB and control groups exhibited retention of the previously recalled items after the offline period. Here we showed intact non-declarative consolidation in SDB group in both sequence-specific and general motor skill. These findings suggest that sleep disorders in childhood have a differential effect on different memory processes (online vs. offline and give us insight into how sleep disturbances affects developing brain.

  18. Developmental dissociation between the maturation of procedural memory and declarative memory.

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    Finn, Amy S; Kalra, Priya B; Goetz, Calvin; Leonard, Julia A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-02-01

    Declarative memory and procedural memory are known to be two fundamentally different kinds of memory that are dissociable in their psychological characteristics and measurement (explicit vs. implicit) and in the neural systems that subserve each kind of memory. Declarative memory abilities are known to improve from childhood through young adulthood, but the developmental maturation of procedural memory is largely unknown. We compared 10-year-old children and young adults on measures of declarative memory and working memory capacity and on four measures of procedural memory that have been strongly dissociated from declarative memory (mirror tracing, rotary pursuit, probabilistic classification, and artificial grammar). Children had lesser declarative memory ability and lesser working memory capacity than adults, but children exhibited learning equivalent to adults on all four measures of procedural memory. Therefore, declarative memory and procedural memory are developmentally dissociable, with procedural memory being adult-like by age 10years and declarative memory continuing to mature into young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability

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    Maren Jasmin Cordi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reactivations in hippocampal brain areas are critically involved in memory consolidation processes during sleep. In particular, specific firing patterns of hippocampal place cells observed during learning are replayed during subsequent sleep and rest in rodents. In humans, experimentally inducing hippocampal memory reactivations during slow-wave sleep (but not during wakefulness benefits consolidation and immediately stabilizes declarative memories against future interference. Importantly, spontaneous hippocampal replay activity can also be observed during rapid-eye movement (REM sleep and some authors have suggested that replay during REM sleep is related to processes of memory consolidation. However, the functional role of reactivations during REM sleep for memory stability is still unclear. Here, we reactivated memories during REM sleep and examined its consequences for the stability of declarative memories. After three hours of early, slow-wave sleep (SWS rich sleep, 16 healthy young adults learned a 2-D object location task in the presence of a contextual odor. During subsequent REM sleep, participants were either re-exposed to the odor or to an odorless vehicle, in a counterbalanced within subject design. Reactivation was followed by an interference learning task to probe memory stability after awakening. We show that odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep does not stabilize memories against future interference. We propose that the beneficial effect of reactivation during sleep on memory stability might be critically linked to processes characterizing SWS including, e.g., slow oscillatory activity, sleep spindles or low cholinergic tone, which are required for a successful redistribution of memories from medial temporal lobe regions to neocortical long-term stores.

  20. Rhinal-hippocampal theta coherence during declarative memory formation: interaction with gamma synchronization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Klaver, P.; Elfadil, H.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The hippocampus and the rhinal cortex, two substructures of the medial temporal lobe, together play a crucial role in human declarative memory formation. To investigate in detail the mechanism connecting these two structures transiently during memory formation we recorded depth EEG in epilepsy

  1. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory fu

  2. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders.

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    Ullman, Michael T; Pullman, Mariel Y

    2015-04-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional in these disorders, and because it can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, this system should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A compensatory role for declarative memory in neurodevelopmental disorders

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    Ullman, Michael T.; Pullman, Mariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on neurodevelopmental disorders has focused on their abnormalities. However, what remains intact may also be important. Increasing evidence suggests that declarative memory, a critical learning and memory system in the brain, remains largely functional in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because declarative memory remains functional, and because this system can learn and retain numerous types of information, functions, and tasks, it should be able to play compensatory roles for multiple types of impairments across the disorders. Here, we examine this hypothesis for specific language impairment, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We lay out specific predictions for the hypothesis and review existing behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence. Overall, the evidence suggests that declarative memory indeed plays compensatory roles for a range of impairments across all five disorders. Finally, we discuss diagnostic, therapeutic and other implications. PMID:25597655

  4. The role of working memory and declarative memory in trace conditioning.

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    Connor, David A; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    Translational assays of cognition that are similarly implemented in both lower and higher-order species, such as rodents and primates, provide a means to reconcile preclinical modeling of psychiatric neuropathology and clinical research. To this end, Pavlovian conditioning has provided a useful tool for investigating cognitive processes in both lab animal models and humans. This review focuses on trace conditioning, a form of Pavlovian conditioning typified by the insertion of a temporal gap (i.e., trace interval) between presentations of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US). This review aims to discuss pre-clinical and clinical work investigating the mnemonic processes recruited for trace conditioning. Much work suggests that trace conditioning involves unique neurocognitive mechanisms to facilitate formation of trace memories in contrast to standard Pavlovian conditioning. For example, the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to play critical roles in trace conditioning. Moreover, cognitive mechanistic accounts in human studies suggest that working memory and declarative memory processes are engaged to facilitate formation of trace memories. The aim of this review is to integrate cognitive and neurobiological accounts of trace conditioning from preclinical and clinical studies to examine involvement of working and declarative memory.

  5. Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation.

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    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-02-17

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is considered essential for proper functioning of the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory system, and it represents a major neuropharmacological target for the treatment of memory deficits, such as those in Alzheimer's disease. During slow-wave sleep (SWS), however, declarative memory consolidation is particularly strong, while acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus drop to a minimum. Observations in rats led to the hypothesis that the low cholinergic tone during SWS is necessary for the replay of new memories in the hippocampus and their long-term storage in neocortical networks. However, this low tone should not affect nondeclarative memory systems. In this study, increasing central nervous cholinergic activation during SWS-rich sleep by posttrial infusion of 0.75 mg of the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine completely blocked SWS-related consolidation of declarative memories for word pairs in human subjects. The treatment did not interfere with consolidation of a nondeclarative mirror tracing task. Also, physostigmine did not alter memory consolidation during waking, when the endogenous central nervous cholinergic tone is maximal. These findings are in line with predictions that a low cholinergic tone during SWS is essential for declarative memory consolidation.

  6. Declarative memory and skill-related knowledge: Evidence from a case study of amnesia and implications for theories of memory.

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    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Ovans, Zoe; Landau, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of memory have long been framed by a distinction between declarative and non-declarative memory. We question the sharpness of the distinction by reporting evidence from amnesic L.S.J., who despite retrograde memory losses in declarative knowledge domains, shows sparing of declarative knowledge related to premorbid skill (e.g., playing an instrument). We previously showed that L.S.J. had severe losses of retrograde declarative knowledge across areas of premorbid expertise (e.g., artists of famous works) and everyday knowledge (e.g., company names for logos). Here we present evidence that L.S.J. has sparing of what we call skill-related declarative knowledge, in four domains in which she had premorbid skill (art, music, aviation, driving). L.S.J.'s pattern of loss and sparing raises questions about the strict separation between classically-defined memory types and aligns with a recent proposal by Stanley and Krakauer [2013. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7,1-11].

  7. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  8. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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    Landorf, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    A study of human rights prepares students for their role as global citizens and their study of practices in the world's countries that relate to the rights of human beings. Today, when one talks of human rights it is usually with reference to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is the task of teachers to give students the…

  9. Binge drinking and declarative memory in university students.

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    Parada, María; Corral, Montserrat; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Holguín, Socorro Rodríguez; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Binge drinking (BD), which is characterized by sporadic consumption of large quantities of alcohol in short periods, is prevalent among university students. Animal studies have shown that BD is associated with damage to the hippocampus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in learning and memory. The temporal cortex undergoes structural and functional changes during adolescence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between BD and declarative memory in male and female university students. The participants were 122 students (between 18 and 20 years of age): 62 BD (30 women) and 60 non-BD (29 women). The neuropsychological assessment included the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Weschler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory subtest, to evaluate verbal declarative memory, and the WMS-III Family Pictures subtest, to measure visual declarative memory. The BD students remembered fewer words in the interference list and displayed greater proactive interference in the RAVLT; they performed worse in the Logical Memory subtest, both on immediate and delayed recall. There were no differences between the groups in performance of the Family Pictures subtest. No significant interactions were observed between BD and sex. Binge drinking is associated with poorer verbal declarative memory, regardless of sex. The findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Longitudinal studies will help determine the nature of this relationship, the neurodevelopmental trajectories for each sex, and the repercussions on academic performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.; Maris, E.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a

  11. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Maris, E.G.G.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a

  12. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Maris, E.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a magnetoencephalog

  13. Theta and gamma oscillations predict encoding and retrieval of declarative memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osipova, D.; Takashima, A.; Oostenveld, R.; Fernandez, G.; Maris, E.; Jensen, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a magnetoencephalog

  14. Stress selectively affects the reactivated components of a declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Dorskind, Joelle M

    2014-10-01

    When long-term memories are reactivated, they can reenter a transient plastic state in which they are vulnerable to interference or physiological manipulations. The present study attempted to directly affect reactivated memories through a stress manipulation, and compared the effects of stress on reactivated and nonreactivated components of a declarative memory in a within-subject design. We presented image pairs that consisted of an image of an animal and an image of an unrelated object. Participants were instructed to memorize the object images. Forty-eight hours later, we presented half of the animal images again in an unrelated task to indirectly reactivate the associated object images. Immediately after reactivation, participants were exposed to cold pressor stress or a warm water control condition. Forty-eight hours later, we assessed memory for the object images with a free recall test. Reactivation boosted memory performance in the control condition, such that reactivated items were better recalled than nonreactivated items. This memory-enhancing effect of reactivation was completely abolished by cold pressor stress. Importantly, stress selectively impacted only the reactivated items while leaving memory for the nonreactivated items unaffected. The present study shows that it is possible to selectively reactivate and modulate specific parts of a declarative memory.

  15. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  16. Pupil size signals novelty and predicts later retrieval success for declarative memories of natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Marnix; Frässle, Stefan; Rutishauser, Ueli; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2013-02-08

    Declarative memories of personal experiences are a key factor in defining oneself as an individual, which becomes particularly evident when this capability is impaired. Assessing the physiological mechanisms of human declarative memory is typically restricted to patients with specific lesions and requires invasive brain access or functional imaging. We investigated whether the pupil, an accessible physiological measure, can be utilized to probe memories for complex natural visual scenes. During memory encoding, scenes that were later remembered elicited a stronger pupil constriction compared to scenes that were later forgotten. Thus, pupil size predicts success or failure of memory formation. In contrast, novel scenes elicited stronger pupil constriction than familiar scenes during retrieval. When viewing previously memorized scenes, those that were forgotten (misjudged as novel) still elicited stronger pupil constrictions than those correctly judged as familiar. Furthermore, pupil constriction was influenced more strongly if images were judged with high confidence. Thus, we propose that pupil constriction can serve as a marker of novelty. Since stimulus novelty modulates the efficacy of memory formation, our pupil measurements during learning indicate that the later forgotten images were perceived as less novel than the later remembered pictures. Taken together, our data provide evidence that pupil constriction is a physiological correlate of a neural novelty signal during formation and retrieval of declarative memories for complex, natural scenes.

  17. Non-declarative memory in the rehabilitation of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, S; Malec, J F; Bergquist, T

    2005-09-01

    The ability of amnesic patients to learn and retain non-declarative information has been consistently demonstrated in the literature. This knowledge provided by basic cognitive neuroscience studies has been widely neglected in neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory impaired patients. This study reports the case of a 43 year old man with severe amnesia following an anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm rupture. The patient integrated a comprehensive (holistic) day treatment programme for rehabilitation of brain injury. The programme explored the advantages of using preserved non-declarative memory capacities, in the context of commonly used rehabilitation approaches (i.e. compensation for lost function and domain-specific learning). The patient's ability to learn and retain new cognitive and perceptual-motor skills was found to be critical for the patient's improved independence and successful return to work.

  18. Optimized Parallel Execution of Declarative Programs on Distributed Memory Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈美明; 田新民; 等

    1993-01-01

    In this paper,we focus on the compiling implementation of parlalel logic language PARLOG and functional language ML on distributed memory multiprocessors.Under the graph rewriting framework, a Heterogeneous Parallel Graph Rewriting Execution Model(HPGREM)is presented firstly.Then based on HPGREM,a parallel abstact machine PAM/TGR is described.Furthermore,several optimizing compilation schemes for executing declarative programs on transputer array are proposed.The performance statistics on transputer array demonstrate the effectiveness of our model,parallel abstract machine,optimizing compilation strategies and compiler.

  19. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  20. Altered Intrinsic Hippocmapus Declarative Memory Network and Its Association with Impulsivity in Abstinent Heroin Dependent Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tian-Ye; Shao, Yong-Cong; Xie, Chun-Ming; Ye, En-Mao; Zou, Feng; Fu, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gang; Chen, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Zheng-Guo; Li, Shi-Jiang; Yang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that addiction can be considered a disease of aberrant learning and memory with impulsive decision-making. In the past decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that drug addiction is involved in multiple memory systems such as classical conditioned drug memory, instrumental learning memory and the habitual learning memory. However, most of these studies have focused on the contributions of non-declarative memory, and declarative memory has largely been neglected in the research of addiction. Based on a recent finding that hippocampus, as a core functioning region of declarative memory, was proved biased the decision-making process based on past experiences by spreading associated reward values throughout memory. Our present study focused on the hippocampus. By utilizing seed-based network analysis on the resting-state functional MRI datasets with the seed hippocampus we tested how the intrinsic hippocampal memory network altered towards drug addiction, and examined how the functional connectivity strength within the altered hippocampal network correlated with behavioral index ‘impulsivity’. Our results demonstrated that HD group showed enhanced coherence between hippocampus which represents declarative memory system and non-declarative rewardguided learning memory system, and also showed attenuated intrinsic functional link between hippocampus and top-down control system, compared to the CN group. This alteration was furthered found to have behavioral significance over the behavioral index ‘impulsivity’ measured with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). These results provide insights into the mechanism of declarative memory underlying the impulsive behavior in drug addiction. PMID:25008351

  1. Investigating the Contribution of Procedural and Declarative Memory to the Acquisition of Past Tense Morphology: Evidence from Finnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Evan; Kirjavainen, Minna

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that investigated the role of procedural and declarative memory in the acquisition of Finnish past tense morphology. Two competing models were tested. Ullman's (2004) declarative/procedural model predicts that procedural memory supports the acquisition of regular morphology, whereas declarative memory supports…

  2. Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is considered essential for proper functioning of the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory system, and it represents a major neuropharmacological target for the treatment of memory deficits, such as those in Alzheimer's disease. During slow-wave sleep (SWS), however, declarative memory consolidation is particularly strong, while acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus drop to a minimum. Observations in rats led to the hypothesis that the low cholinergic ...

  3. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A; Adcock, R Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for navigating to correct locations (approach) or punished for navigating to incorrect platforms (avoidance). Participants' skin conductance levels (SCLs) were recorded during navigation to investigate the role of physiological arousal in motivated learning. Behavioral results revealed that, overall, approach motivation enhanced and avoidance motivation impaired memory performance compared to nonmotivated spatial learning. This advantage was evident across several performance indices, including accuracy, learning rate, path length, and proximity to platform locations during probe trials. SCL analysis revealed three key findings. First, within subjects, arousal interacted with approach motivation, such that high arousal on a given trial was associated with performance deficits. In addition, across subjects, high arousal negated or reversed the benefits of approach motivation. Finally, low-performing, highly aroused participants showed SCL responses similar to those of avoidance-motivation participants, suggesting that for these individuals, opportunities for reward may evoke states of learning similar to those typically evoked by threats of punishment. These results provide a novel characterization of how approach and avoidance motivation influence declarative memory and indicate a critical and selective role for arousal in determining how reinforcement influences goal-oriented learning.

  4. Delayed onset of a daytime nap facilitates retention of declarative memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Alger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning followed by a period of sleep, even as little as a nap, promotes memory consolidation. It is now generally recognized that sleep facilitates the stabilization of information acquired prior to sleep. However, the temporal nature of the effect of sleep on retention of declarative memory is yet to be understood. We examined the impact of a delayed nap onset on the recognition of neutral pictorial stimuli with an added spatial component. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants completed an initial study session involving 150 neutral pictures of people, places, and objects. Immediately following the picture presentation, participants were asked to make recognition judgments on a subset of "old", previously seen, pictures versus intermixed "new" pictures. Participants were then divided into one of four groups who either took a 90-minute nap immediately, 2 hours, or 4 hours after learning, or remained awake for the duration of the experiment. 6 hours after initial learning, participants were again tested on the remaining "old" pictures, with "new" pictures intermixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, we found a stabilizing benefit of sleep on the memory trace reflected as a significant negative correlation between the average time elapsed before napping and decline in performance from test to retest (p = .001. We found a significant interaction between the groups and their performance from test to retest (p = .010, with the 4-hour delay group performing significantly better than both those who slept immediately and those who remained awake (p = .044, p = .010, respectively. Analysis of sleep data revealed a significant positive correlation between amount of slow wave sleep (SWS achieved and length of the delay before sleep onset (p = .048. The findings add to the understanding of memory processing in humans, suggesting that factors such as waking processing and homeostatic increases in need for sleep over time modulate

  5. Noradrenergic enhancement of associative fear memory in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ample evidence in animals and humans supports the noradrenergic modulation in the formation of emotional memory. However, in humans the effects of stress on emotional memory are traditionally investigated by declarative memory tests (e.g., recall, recognition) for non-associative emotional stimuli (

  6. Learning and Overnight Retention in Declarative Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kemény, Ferenc; Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    We examined learning and retention in nonverbal and verbal declarative memory in Hungarian children with (n = 21) and without (n = 21) SLI. Recognition memory was tested both 10 minutes and one day after encoding. On nonverbal items, only the children with SLI improved overnight, with no resulting group differences in performance. In the verbal domain, the children with SLI consistently showed worse performance than the typically-developing children, but the two groups showed similar overnight changes. The findings suggest the possibility of spared or even enhanced declarative memory consolidation in SLI. PMID:28046095

  7. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  8. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G

    2015-01-01

    What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.

  9. The relation between receptive grammar and procedural, declarative, and working memory in specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eConti-Ramsden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females and 46 typically developing (TD children (30 males, 16 females, both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group x procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and Procedural Deficit Hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children

  10. Altered neural network supporting declarative long-term memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poettrich, Katrin; Weiss, Peter H; Werner, Annett; Lux, Silke; Donix, Markus; Gerber, Johannes; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Fink, Gereon R; Holthoff, Vjera A

    2009-02-01

    Autobiographical episodic memory represents a subsystem of declarative long-term memory and largely depends on combining information from multiple sources. The purpose of this study was to assess neural correlates of declarative long-term memory in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and controls using fMRI and a task requiring autobiographical and semantic memory retrieval. Comparison of the network supporting episodic autobiographical and semantic memory irrespective of remoteness (recent and remote) revealed significant activations in right parietal cortex and precuneus bilaterally in the patients. Autobiographical episodic versus semantic memory retrieval in the controls led to significant bilateral activations of the parietal-temporal junction, left temporal pole, anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and cerebellum. In contrast, MCI patients activated left supplementary motor area, left premotor and superior temporal cortex. In MCI patients compared to controls a dysfunction of the retrosplenial cortex during memory retrieval was revealed by a lack of differential activation in relation to recency of memories and memory type. Our data suggest that MCI leads to a loss of specificity in the neural network supporting declarative long-term memory.

  11. Memory, neurodynamics, and human relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Jim; Stevens, David

    2002-01-01

    In this article we discuss the implications of the functional organization and dynamics of the brain for understanding human relationships. In particular, we focus on the brain's multiple memory systems and the various roles they play in organizing the interactions of people as they come to know one another. The distinction between the relatively independent declarative, procedural, and emotional learning systems is especially significant in this regard, as the former mediates what we know about one another, the second mediates what we do with one another, and the third affects behavior by altering our emotional state. Knowledge of the functioning of these dissociable memory systems provides a novel perspective on relationships--both ordinary social relationships and those that develop in psychotherapy--and further illuminates psychotherapeutic transference and countertransference phenomena. We begin with a review of the neural basis of these processes, then turn our attention to the interpersonal level of analysis.

  12. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Janna eMantua; Keenan M Mahan; Owen S Henry; Rebecca M. C. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of wor...

  13. [Selective alteration of the declarative memory systems in patients treated with a high number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami-González, L; Boget-Llucià, T; Bernardo, M; Marcos, T; Cañizares-Alejos, S; Penadés, R; Portella, M J; Castelví, M; Raspall, T; Salamero, M

    The reversible electrochemical effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on specific areas of the brain enable the neuroanatomical bases of some cognitive functions to be studied. In research carried out on memory systems, a selective alteration of the declarative ones has been observed after treatment with ECT. Little work has been done to explore the differential alteration of the memory subsystems in patients with a high number of ECT sessions. AIM. To study the declarative and non declarative memory system in psychiatric patients submitted to maintenance ECT treatment, with a high number of previous ECT sessions. 20 patients submitted to treatment with ECT (10 diagnosed as having depression and 10 with schizophrenia) and 20 controls, who were paired by age, sex and psychopathological diagnosis. For the evaluation of the declarative memory system, the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) logical memory test was used. The Hanoi Tower procedural test was employed to evaluate the non declarative system. Patients treated with ECT performed worse in the WMS logical memory test, but this was only significant in patients diagnosed as suffering from depression. No significant differences were observed in the Hanoi Tower test. A selective alteration of the declarative systems was observed in patients who had been treated with a high number of ECT sessions, while the non declarative memory systems remain unaffected.

  14. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  15. Hippocampus: cognitive processes and neural representations that underlie declarative memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent studies using functional brain imaging in humans and neuropsychological analyses of humans and animals with hippocampal damage have revealed some of the elemental cognitive processes mediated by the hippocampus...

  16. Procedural and declarative memory task performance, and the memory consolidation function of sleep, in recent and abstinent ecstasy/MDMA users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Seddon, Jennifer; George, Sophie; Parrott, Andrew C; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew P; Jones, Katy A; Morgan, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Ecstasy/MDMA use has been associated with various memory deficits. This study assessed declarative and procedural memory in ecstasy/MDMA users. Participants were tested in two sessions, 24 h apart, so that the memory consolidation function of sleep on both types of memory could also be assessed. Groups were: drug-naive controls (n = 24); recent ecstasy/MDMA users, who had taken ecstasy/MDMA 2-3 days before the first testing session (n = 25), and abstinent users, who had not taken ecstasy/MDMA for at least 8 days before testing (n = 17). Procedural memory did not differ between groups, but greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy was associated with poorer procedural memory. Recent ecstasy/MDMA users who had taken other drugs (mainly cannabis) 48-24 h before testing exhibited poorer declarative memory than controls, but recent users who had not taken other drugs in this 48-24-h period did not differ from controls. Greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy, and of cocaine, were associated with greater deficits in declarative memory. These results suggest that procedural, as well as declarative, memory deficits are associated with the extent of past ecstasy use. However, ecstasy/MDMA did not affect the memory consolidation function of sleep for either the declarative or the procedural memory task.

  17. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    ...) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers...

  18. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  19. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  20. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  1. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  2. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Armed Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Aurey, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Born out of the horror of war, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights seems to leave outside any traces of its bellicose ancestry. As a figure of the intimate relationship between the State and its citizens, Human Rights Law reports to the sole domestic sphere of States. Between a Law of War as the perfect expression of States’ sovereignty and an international community still in its infancy, the UDHR seemed to be able to “guide” men and nations only in those periods...

  3. Human learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a

  4. Long-term consolidation of declarative memory: insight from temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramoni, Eve; Felician, Olivier; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Guedj, Eric; Guye, Maxime; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2011-03-01

    Several experiments carried out with a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have demonstrated normal memory performance at standard delays of recall (i.e. minutes to hours) but impaired performance over longer delays (i.e. days or weeks), suggesting altered long-term consolidation mechanisms. These mechanisms were specifically investigated in a group of five adult-onset pharmaco-sensitive patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, exhibiting severe episodic memory complaints despite normal performance at standardized memory assessment. In a first experiment, the magnitude of autobiographical memory loss was evaluated using retrograde personal memory tasks based on verbal and visual cues. In both conditions, results showed an unusual U-shaped pattern of personal memory impairment, encompassing most of the patients' life, sparing however, periods of the childhood, early adulthood and past several weeks. This profile was suggestive of a long-term consolidation impairment of personal episodes, adequately consolidated over 'short-term' delays but gradually forgotten thereafter. Therefore, in a subsequent experiment, patients were submitted to a protocol specifically devised to investigate short and long-term consolidation of contextually-bound experiences (episodic memory) and context-free information (semantic knowledge and single-items). In the short term (1 h), performance at both contextually-free and contextually-bound memory tasks was intact. After a 6-week delay, however, contextually-bound memory performance was impaired while contextually-free memory performance remained preserved. This effect was independent of task difficulty and the modality of retrieval (recall and recognition). Neuroimaging studies revealed the presence of mild metabolic changes within medial temporal lobe structures. Taken together, these results show the existence of different consolidation systems within declarative memory. They suggest that mild medial temporal lobe dysfunction

  5. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

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    Cynthia G. Wible

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  6. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  7. Long-Term Memory: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies of Declarative and Procedural Memory in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This review examined the status of long-term memory systems in specific language impairment (SLI)--declarative memory and aspects of procedural memory in particular. Studies included in the review were identified following a systematic search of the literature and findings combined using meta-analysis. This review showed that individuals with SLI…

  8. Age-related alterations in simple declarative memory and the effect of negative stimulus valence.

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    Murty, Vishnu P; Sambataro, Fabio; Das, Saumitra; Tan, Hao-Yang; Callicott, Joseph H; Goldberg, Terry E; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2009-10-01

    Healthy aging has been shown to modulate the neural circuitry underlying simple declarative memory; however, the functional impact of negative stimulus valence on these changes has not been fully investigated. Using BOLD fMRI, we explored the effects of aging on behavioral performance, neural activity, and functional coupling during the encoding and retrieval of novel aversive and neutral scenes. Behaviorally, there was a main effect of valence with better recognition performance for aversive greater than neutral stimuli in both age groups. There was also a main effect of age with better recognition performance in younger participants compared to older participants. At the imaging level, there was a main effect of valence with increased activity in the medial-temporal lobe (amygdala and hippocampus) during both encoding and retrieval of aversive relative to neutral stimuli. There was also a main effect of age with older participants showing decreased engagement of medial-temporal lobe structures and increased engagement of prefrontal structures during both encoding and retrieval sessions. Interestingly, older participants presented with relatively decreased amygdalar-hippocampal coupling and increased amygdalar-prefrontal coupling when compared to younger participants. Furthermore, older participants showed increased activation in prefrontal cortices and decreased activation in the amygdala when contrasting the retrieval of aversive and neutral scenes. These results suggest that although normal aging is associated with a decline in declarative memory with alterations in the neural activity and connectivity of brain regions underlying simple declarative memory, memory for aversive stimuli is relatively better preserved than for neutral stimuli, possibly through greater compensatory prefrontal cortical activity.

  9. Declarative memory consolidation during the first night in a sleep lab: the role of REM sleep and cortisol.

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    Goerke, Monique; Cohrs, Stefan; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Grittner, Ulrike; Sommer, Werner; Kunz, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    While the consolidation of declarative memory is supported by slow wave sleep (SWS) in healthy subjects, it has been shown to be associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in patients with insomnia. Sleep during a subject's first night in an unfamiliar environment is often disturbed, and this so-called first-night effect (FNE) has often been used as a model of transient insomnia. Additionally, sleeping for the first time in an unfamiliar environment can lead to increased cortisol secretion, and declarative memory consolidation likely depends on low cortisol levels, especially during the early part of the night. Accounting for intersubject variability in the FNE, we examined the relationship between sleep stages, cortisol secretion and declarative memory performance in 27 healthy young men. Declarative memory performance improved significantly after sleep. Whereas memory performance during the learning session and retrieval testing was strongly associated with cortisol secretion, the overnight gain was not. Post hoc analyses indicated that the overnight gain appears to be modulated by the extent of the FNE: a significant overnight improvement in memory performance was found only in subjects with a weak FNE (n=12). In these subjects, no association was found between any sleep stage and the improvement observed in their memory performance. In subjects with a strong FNE (n=12), however, the overnight change in memory performance was associated with the proportion of REM sleep and the total number of REMs. Disturbed sleep in an unfamiliar environment therefore appears to affect the memory consolidation process.

  10. Solidarity and the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

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    Gunson, Darryl

    2009-06-01

    Recent work has stressed the importance of the concept of solidarity to bioethics and social philosophy generally. But can and should it feature in documents such as the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights as anything more than a vague notion with multiple possible interpretations? Although noting the tension between universality and particularity that such documents have to deal with, and also noting that solidarity has a political content, the paper explores the suggestion that solidarity should feature more centrally in international regulations. The paper concludes with the view that when solidarity is seen aright, the UDBHR is an implicitly solidaristic document.

  11. Context-dependent enhancement of declarative memory performance following acute psychosocial stress.

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    Smeets, T; Giesbrecht, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H

    2007-09-01

    Studies on how acute stress affects learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, with some studies reporting enhancing effects while others report impairing effects. Recently, Joëls et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152-158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n=16), a memory stress group (n=18), or a no-stress control group (n=18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.

  12. Glutamate and GABA concentration changes in the globus pallidus internus of Parkinson's patients during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks: a report of two subjects.

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    Buchanan, Robert J; Gjini, Klevest; Darrow, David; Varga, Georgeta; Robinson, Jennifer L; Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2015-03-01

    The basal ganglia, typically associated with motor function, are involved in human cognitive processes, as demonstrated in behavioral, lesion, and noninvasive functional neuroimaging studies. Here we report task-contingent changes in concentrations of the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) of two patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery by utilizing in-vivo microdialysis measurements during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks. Performance of an implicit memory task (weather prediction task-WPT) was associated with increased levels of glutamate and GABA in the GPi compared to their concentrations at baseline. On the other hand, performance of a declarative memory task (verbal learning task-VLT) was associated with decreased levels of glutamate and GABA in GPi compared to baseline during the encoding and immediate recall phase with less conclusive results during the delayed recall phase. These results are in line with hypothesized changes in these neurotransmitter levels: an increase of excitatory (Glu) input from subthalamic nucleus (STN) to GPi during implicit memory task performance and a decrease of inhibitory inputs (GABA) from globus pallidus externus (GPe) and striatum to GPi during declarative memory performance. Consistent with our previous report on in-vivo neurotransmitter changes during tasks in STN, these data provide corroborative evidence for the direct involvement of basal ganglia in cognitive functions and complements our model of the functional circuitry of basal ganglia in the healthy and Parkinson's disease affected brain.

  13. Effect of emotional and neutral declarative memory consolidation on sleep architecture.

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    Ward, Marcus P; Peters, Kevin R; Smith, Carlyle T

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between emotional or neutral declarative memory consolidation and sleep architecture was investigated. Thirty university students (21 females) viewed negative, neutral, or positive pictures and rated their valence and arousal in the evening. Participants performed a recognition test 1 h later and then underwent overnight polysomnography. Their post-encoding sleep architecture was compared to a baseline night. Participants returned 6 days following encoding for a second recognition test. Results showed no group (Negative, Neutral, Positive) differences in recognition 1 h or 6 days following encoding. Stage 2 sleep spindle density decreased across all groups following encoding, and recognition after 6 days was positively correlated with Stage 2 sleep spindle density on both nights. There was no change in REM density in any of the groups. This is the first investigation into phasic sleep microarchitecture changes following emotional and neutral declarative learning. Future investigations may benefit from more salient emotional stimuli.

  14. Positive modulation of a neutral declarative memory by a threatening social event.

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    Fernández, Rodrigo S; Bavassi, Luz; Campos, Jorge; Allegri, Ricardo F; Molina, Victor A; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E

    2015-12-01

    Memories can be altered by negative or arousing experiences due to the activation of the stress-responsive sympatho-adrenal-medullary axis (SYM). Here, we used a neutral declarative memory that was acquired during multi-trial training to determine the effect of a threatening event on memory without emotional valence. To this end, participants received a new threatening social protocol before learning pairs of meaningless syllables and were tested either 15 min, 2 days or 8 days after acquisition. We first demonstrated that this threatening social situation activates not only the SYM axis (Experiment 1) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; Experiment 2), but also, it improves the acquisition or early consolidation of the syllable pairs (Experiment 3). This improvement is not a transient effect; it can be observed after the memory is consolidated. Furthermore, this modulation increases the persistence of memory (Experiment 4). Thus, it is possible to affect memories with specific events that contain unrelated content and a different valence.

  15. Gender difference in the effect of daytime sleep on declarative memory for pictures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo WANG; Xiao-lan FU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate gender difference in the effects of daytime sleep on item and source memories, which are dissociable elements of declarative memory, and the effects of sleep on recollection and familiarity, which are two processes underlying recognition. Methods: Participants saw a series of pictures with either blue or red background, and were then given a pretest for item and source memories. Then males and females respectively were randomly assigned either to a wake or a sleep condition. In the wake condition, participants remained awake until the posttest; in the sleep condition, participants slept for 1 h until awakened and asked to remain awake until the posttest. Results: Daytime sleep contributed to retention of source memory rather than item memory in females, whereas males undergoing daytime sleep had a trend towards increased familiarity. For females, however, neither recollection nor familiarity appeared to be influenced by daytime sleep. Conclusion: The mechanism underlying gender difference may be linked with different memory traces resulting from different encoding strategies, as well as with different electrophysiological changes during daytime sleep.

  16. An empirical test of the independence between declarative and procedural working memory in Oberauer's (2009) theory.

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    Barrouillet, Pierre; Corbin, Lucie; Dagry, Isabelle; Camos, Valérie

    2015-08-01

    It has recently been suggested that working memory could be conceived as two symmetrical subsystems with analogous structure and processing principles: a declarative working memory storing objects of thought available for cognitive operations, and a procedural working memory holding representations of what to do with these objects (Oberauer, Psychology of learning and motivation 51: 45-100, 2009). Within this theoretical framework, the two subsystems are thought to be independent and fueled by their own capacity. The present study tested this hypothesis through two experiments using a complex span task in which participants were asked to maintain consonants for further recall while performing response selection tasks. In line with Oberauer's conception, the load of the procedural working memory was varied by manipulating the number of stimulus-response mappings of the response selection task. Increasing the number of these mappings had a strong detrimental effect on recall performance. Besides contradicting Oberauer's proposal, this finding supports models that assume a resource-sharing between processing and storage in working memory.

  17. Impact of nocturnal sleep deprivation on declarative memory retrieval in students at an orphanage: a psychoneuroradiological study

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    Tantawy AO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed O Tantawy,1 Hamdy N El Tallawy,2 Hussein RS Farghaly,3 Wafaa M Farghaly,3 Amr S Hussein1 1Educational Psychology Department, Faculty of Education, 2Neurology and Psychiatry Department, 3Nuclear Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Arab Republic of Egypt Background and methods: This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on total and partial (early and late declarative memory and activation in the areas of the brain involved in these activities. The study included two experiments. Experiment 1 included 40 male residents of an orphanage aged 16–19 years, who were divided into four groups (n = 10 each and subjected to total sleep deprivation, normal sleep, early-night sleep deprivation, or late-night sleep deprivation. Experiment 2 included eight students from the same institution who were divided into the same four groups (n = 2 as in experiment 1. Declarative memory was tested using lists of associated word pairs in both experiments, and activation of the relevant brain regions was measured before and after retrieval by single-photon emission computed tomography for subjects in experiment 2 only. Results: Students subjected to normal sleep had significantly higher scores for declarative memory retrieval than those subjected to total sleep deprivation (P = 0.002, early-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.005, or late-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.02. The left temporal lobe showed the highest rate of activity during memory retrieval after normal sleep, whereas the frontal, parietal, and right temporal lobes were more active after sleep deprivation. Conclusion: Both slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep play an active role in consolidation of declarative memory, which in turn allows memory traces to be actively reprocessed and strengthened during sleep, leading to improved performance in memory recall. Keywords: late-night sleep deprivation, early-night sleep deprivation, total sleep deprivation

  18. Opposing effects of DHEA replacement in elderly subjects on declarative memory and attention after exposure to a laboratory stressor.

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    Wolf, O T; Kudielka, B M; Hellhammer, D H; Hellhammer, J; Kirschbaum, C

    1998-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by a continuous decline of the adrenal steroid hormone DHEA and its ester DHEAS. Results from studies in rodents have demonstrated that DHEA(S) administration can enhance memory in several test paradigms. However studies from this laboratory did not find positive effects of DHEA treatment on cognitive performance in young and elderly humans. With respect to a possible mechanism of DHEA activity, effects on several neurotransmitter receptors as well as a possible antiglucocorticoid action are discussed. For high levels of glucocorticoids, a disruptive effect on hippocampal mediated memory is documented in rodents and humans. Therefore it was speculated that, if an antiglucocorticoid action of DHEA would underlie the observed beneficial effects of DHEA on memory, these effects might only be detectable if subjects are stressed (and therefore have high cortisol levels). To test this hypothesis 75 elderly women and men participated in a placebo controlled experiment. Subjects took DHEA (50 mg/day) or placebo for 2 weeks (double blind). Thereafter they participated in a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Before and after stress exposure subjects completed two declarative memory tests (visual-verbal and spatial) as well as one attention test. In addition recall of visual material learned before stress was assessed after stress. Baseline DHEAS levels were significantly lower compared with young adults. DHEA replacement increased DHEAS levels into ranges found in young subjects. DHEA-substituted subjects showed a trend towards a larger cortisol stress response. In the visual memory test subjects under DHEA recalled less items after stress which they had learned before stress. In the attention test however subjects under DHEA performed better than subjects from the placebo group after stress. No interaction between stress and DHEA was found for the spatial memory task. The effects of DHEA substitution on

  19. The Significance of UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on the Human Genome & Human Rights

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    Shawn H.E. Harmon

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern medical research, particularly genetic research, is changing the nature of medicine. Concerns surrounding these changes and their potential negative impact on human rights led UNESCO to spearhead collaboration by experts in the creation of an international instrument intended to provide guidance for the promotion of bioethics and the protection of human rights in the genetic context. The result was the Universal Declaration of the Human Genome and Human Rights. This article briefly highlights the scientific and social setting into which the Declaration was injected. This is followed by a consideration of the drafting body (the IBC so as to assess whether UNESCO was the appropriate body to lead this project. The process by which the Declaration was created is also considered so as to assess whether it represents an example of ethical and democratic drafting. Finally, the substantive content of the Declaration is considered and measured against the pre-existing regime so as to assess whether it represents an intelligible and coherent response to the concerns raised capable of offering guidance now and into the future. By assessing these procedural and substantive matters, one can draw some tentative conclusions about the utility and significance of the Declaration.

  20. [Genetic individuality and the universal declaration on the human genome and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueiros, Jesús M; Saruwatari, Garbiñe; Oliva-Sánchez, Pablo Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the epistemic and ontological relationship between science and law through the concept of individual in the Universal Declaration of the Human Genome and Human Rights. We argue for a better understanding of this relationship in order to foresee ethical and social consequences derived from Law adopting concepts with a strong scientific meaning.

  1. Enhancing effects of acute psychosocial stress on priming of non-declarative memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Almela, Mercedes; Espín, Laura; Gómez-Amor, Jesús; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-05-01

    Social stress affects cognitive processes in general, and memory performance in particular. However, the direction of these effects has not been clearly established, as it depends on several factors. Our aim was to determine the impact of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress on short-term non-declarative memory and declarative memory performance. Fifty-two young participants (18 men, 34 women) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Implicit memory was assessed by a priming test, and explicit memory was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The TSST provoked greater salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) responses than the control task. Men had a higher cortisol response to stress than women, but no sex differences were found for sAA release. Stress was associated with an enhancement of priming but did not affect declarative memory. Additionally, the enhancement on the priming test was higher in those whose sAA levels increased more in response to stress (r(48) = 0.339, p = 0.018). Our results confirm an effect of acute stress on priming, and that this effect is related to SNS activity. In addition, they suggest a different relationship between stress biomarkers and the different memory systems.

  2. Naps in school can enhance the duration of declarative memories learned by adolescents

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    Nathalia eLemos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-minute lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I, or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II. In Experiment I (n=371, students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 hours, and after 1, 2 or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n=213, students were invited to nap for up to 50 minutes (duration of a regular class; surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30 or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in

  3. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-03-04

    Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED) can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T) levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27) show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27), using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  4. Enhancement of declarative memory associated with emotional content in a Brazilian sample

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    Frank J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented that emotional arousal may enhance long-term memory. This is an adaptation of a paradigm previously used in North American and European samples in investigations of the influence of emotion on long-term retention. A sample of 46 healthy adults of high and low educational levels watched a slide presentation of stories. A randomly assigned group watched a story with an arousing content and another group watched a neutral story. The stories were matched for structure and comprehensibility and the set and order of the 11 slides were the same in both conditions. Immediately after viewing the slide presentation, the participants were asked to rate the emotionality of the narrative. The arousing narrative was rated as being more emotional than the neutral narrative (t (44 = -3.6, P<0.001. Ten days later subjects were asked to remember the story and answer a multiple-choice questionnaire about it. The subjects who watched the arousing story had higher scores in the free recall measure (t (44 = -2.59, P<0.01. There were no differences between groups in the multiple-choice test of recognition memory (t (44 = 0.26. These findings confirm that an emotional arousing content enhances long-term declarative memory and indicate the possibility of applying this instrument to clinical samples of various cultural backgrounds.

  5. Emotional and neutral declarative memory impairments and associated white matter microstructural abnormalities in adults with type 2 diabetes.

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    Yau, Po Lai; Javier, David; Tsui, Wai; Sweat, Victoria; Bruehl, Hannah; Borod, Joan C; Convit, Antonio

    2009-12-30

    Declarative memory impairment is frequently reported among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who also demonstrate hippocampal volume reduction. Our goals were to ascertain whether emotional memory, which is mediated by neural circuits overlapping those of declarative memory, is also affected. In addition we wanted to characterize cerebral white matter (WM) involvement in T2DM. We studied 24 middle-aged and elderly patients with T2DM who were free of obvious vascular pathology or a psychiatric disorder, and 17 age- and education-matched healthy individuals with no evidence of insulin resistance. We examined emotional and neutral memory and performed a whole-brain voxelwise WM assessment utilizing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We found clear evidence of impairment in declarative memory among diabetic subjects and in addition found some preliminary support to suggest a possible blunting of the memory facilitation by emotional material among female but not male diabetics. This report is also the first DTI assessment among individuals with T2DM, which after accounting for overt WM damage, revealed diffuse but predominantly frontal and temporal WM microstructural abnormalities, with extensive involvement of the temporal stem. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that immediate, but not delayed, emotional memory performance was explained by temporal stem FA, independent of age, poor metabolic regulation, and systolic blood pressure. Given that the temporal lobe memory networks appear to be particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of T2DM, this may help explain the observed memory impairments among diabetics. Future efforts should better clarify, with a larger sample, whether emotional memory is affected in adults with T2DM and whether there are clear gender effects.

  6. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  7. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eMantua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations. Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-hrs later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 yrs were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n=14, TBI Wake (n=12, non-TBI Sleep (n=15, non-TBI Wake (n=15. Each TBI participant was >1 yr post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-hr intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  8. Memory consolidation in human sleep depends on inhibition of glucocorticoid release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plihal, W; Born, J

    1999-09-09

    Early sleep dominated by slow-wave sleep has been found to be particularly relevant for declarative memory formation via hippocampo-neocortical networks. Concurrently, early nocturnal sleep is characterized by an inhibition of glucocorticoid release from the adrenals. Here, we show in healthy humans that this inhibition serves to support declarative memory consolidation during sleep. Elevating plasma glucocorticoid concentration during early sleep by administration of cortisol impaired consolidation of paired associate words, but not of non-declarative memory of visuomotor skills. Since glucocorticoid concentration was enhanced only during retention sleep, but not during acquisition or retrieval, a specific effect on the consolidation process is indicated. Blocking mineralocorticoid receptors by canrenoate did not affect memory, suggesting inactivation of glucocorticoid receptors to be the essential prerequisite for memory consolidation during early sleep.

  9. Stressed memories: How acute stress affects memory formation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Hermans, E.J.; Pu, Z.; Joels, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Stressful, aversive events are extremely well remembered. Such a declarative memory enhancement is evidently beneficial for survival, but the same mechanism may become maladaptive and culminate in mental diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress hormones are known to enhance

  10. Depressive Mood and Testosterone Related to Declarative Verbal Memory Decline in Middle-Aged Caregivers of Children with Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caring for children diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as an eating disorder (ED can be used as a model of chronic stress. This kind of stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers’ cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory of women caregivers. Moreover, high depressive mood and variations in testosterone (T levels moderate this cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether caregivers of individuals with EDs (n = 27 show declarative memory impairments compared to non-caregivers caregivers (n = 27, using for this purpose a standardized memory test (Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Its purpose was also to examine the role of depressive mood and T in memory decline. Results showed that ED caregivers presented high depressive mood, which was associated to worse verbal memory performance, especially in the case of women. In addition, all caregivers showed high T levels. Nonetheless, only in the case of women caregivers did T show a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance, meaning that the increases of T were associated to the improvement in verbal memory performance, but only up to a certain point, as after such point T continued to increase and memory performance decreased. Thus, chronic stress due to caregiving was associated to disturbances in mood and T levels, which in turn was associated to verbal memory decline. These findings should be taken into account in the implementation of intervention programs for helping ED caregivers cope with caregiving situations and to prevent the risk of a pronounced verbal memory decline.

  11. Music therapy intervention effects in the non declarative memory of children with Williams syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araujo, Gustavo; Leite, Julio; Gattino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    at once a week intervals, individually and 45min duration per session. The evaluations were done by the WISC III and the IMTAP scales measuring the IQ responses and the cognitive abilities before and after music therapy interventions. Results: To compare the different study time sequence, the WISCIII...... the music therapy treatment effects on the cognitive abilities with greater emphasis to the non declarative memory in children with Williams Syndrome. Method: A before and after experiment was conducted including 10 individuals with Williams Syndrome aged between 6 to 18 receiving 10 treatment sessions...... scales calculated average was 52.2 before treatment (CI 95% 49.72 to 54.68 p = 0.001) and the IMTAP scales average was 70.2 (CI 95% 68.69 to 71.71 p = 0.001) the post period intervention WISC III scales average range was 59 (CI 95% 55.86 to 62.14 p = 0.001) and 83.3 for the IMTAP (CI 95% 80.01 to 86.59 p...

  12. Impact of nocturnal sleep deprivation on declarative memory retrieval in students at an orphanage: a psychoneuroradiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Tantawy AO; El Tallawy HN; Farghaly HRS; Farghaly WM; Hussein AS

    2013-01-01

    Ahmed O Tantawy,1 Hamdy N El Tallawy,2 Hussein RS Farghaly,3 Wafaa M Farghaly,3 Amr S Hussein1 1Educational Psychology Department, Faculty of Education, 2Neurology and Psychiatry Department, 3Nuclear Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Arab Republic of Egypt Background and methods: This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on total and partial (early and late) declarative memory and activation in the areas of the brain involved in these activities. T...

  13. The role of sleep in declarative memory consolidation--direct evidence by intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Haupt, Sven; Fernández, Guillén; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2008-03-01

    Two step theories of memory formation assume that an initial learning phase is followed by a consolidation stage. Memory consolidation has been suggested to occur predominantly during sleep. Very recent findings, however, suggest that important steps in memory consolidation occur also during waking state but may become saturated after some time awake. Sleep, in this model, specifically favors restoration of synaptic plasticity and accelerated memory consolidation while asleep and briefly afterwards. To distinguish between these different views, we recorded intracranial electroencephalograms from the hippocampus and rhinal cortex of human subjects while they retrieved information acquired either before or after a "nap" in the afternoon or on a control day without nap. Reaction times, hippocampal event-related potentials, and oscillatory gamma activity indicated a temporal gradient of hippocampal involvement in information retrieval on the control day, suggesting hippocampal-neocortical information transfer during waking state. On the day with nap, retrieval of recent items that were encoded briefly after the nap did not involve the hippocampus to a higher degree than retrieval of items encoded before the nap. These results suggest that sleep facilitates rapid processing through the hippocampus but is not necessary for information transfer into the neocortex per se.

  14. Goal-dependent modulation of declarative memory: neural correlates of temporal recency decisions and novelty detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, Nicole M; Wagner, Anthony D

    2007-06-18

    Declarative memory allows an organism to discriminate between previously encountered and novel items, and to place past encounters in time. Numerous imaging studies have investigated the neural processes supporting item recognition, whereas few have examined retrieval of temporal information. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted while subjects engaged in temporal recency and item novelty decisions. Subjects encountered three-alternative forced-choice retrieval trials, each consisting of two words from a preceding study phase and one novel word, and were instructed to either identify the novel item (Novelty trials) or the more recently presented study item (Recency trials). Relative to correct Novelty decisions, correct Recency decisions elicited greater activation in a network of left-lateralized regions, including frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus. A conjunction analysis revealed that these left-lateralized regions overlapped with those previously observed to be engaged during source recollection versus novelty detection, suggesting that during Recency trials subjects attempted to recollect event details. Consistent with this interpretation, correct Recency decisions activated posterior hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex, whereas incorrect Recency decisions elicited greater anterior cingulate activation. The magnitude of this latter effect positively correlated with activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Finally, correct Novelty decisions activated the anterior medial temporal lobe to a greater extent than did correct Recency decisions, suggesting that medial temporal novelty responses are not obligatory but rather can be modulated by the goal-directed allocation of attention. Collectively, these findings advance understanding of how subjects strategically engage frontal and parietal mechanisms in the service of attempting to remember the temporal order of events

  15. Using model-based functional MRI to locate working memory updates and declarative memory retrievals in the fronto-parietal network

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Jelmer P.; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used model-based functional MRI (fMRI) to locate two functions of the fronto-parietal network: declarative memory retrievals and updating of working memory. Because regions in the fronto-parietal network are by definition coherently active, locating functions within this network is difficult. To overcome this problem, we applied model-based fMRI, an analysis method that uses predictions of a computational model to inform the analysis. We applied model-based fMRI to five prev...

  16. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  17. Acute pre-learning stress and declarative memory: impact of sex, cortisol response and menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Laura; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2013-05-01

    This study explores the influence of pre-learning stress on performance on declarative memory tasks in healthy young adults in relation to sex and menstrual cycle phase. The sample was composed of 119 students (32 men and 87 women) from 18 to 25 years of age. The women were tested in different hormonal stages (30 in follicular phase, 34 in luteal phase, and 23 using oral contraceptives). The participants were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control condition. Afterwards, their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). In the control condition, all groups of women recalled more words than men, but these differences disappeared in the group exposed to TSST because men's performance on the memory test improved, but only to the level of women. In addition, our data suggest that in women the relationship between cortisol and memory can be modulated by sex hormone levels, since in luteal women a negative relationship was found between memory performance and peak cortisol level. These results confirm that sex differences need to be considered in the relationship between pre-learning stress and memory performance.

  18. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups.

  19. The interface between bioethics and cultural diversity under the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2008-06-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights has made clear its aims to provide a universal framework of principles and procedures to guide States in the formulation of their legislation, policies or other instruments in the field ofbioethics and also to guide the actions of individuals, groups, communities, institutions and corporations so as to promote appreciation for human dignity and to protect human rights. It also sets up 15 principles to be applied. One of the principles in the Declaration is about the recognition of cultural diversity as an important element of bioethics. Thus it is clear that bioethics has its relativeness and is susceptible to different cultures. However, in order not to have the bioethics principles being defeated because of the cultural factor, the Declaration set forth conditions to limit the application of the cultural diversity element. This approach is called "qualified absoluteness" by the author. The paper discusses these conditions and the problems arising from their applications. Basically, there is a clear line drawn to limit the application of cultural diversity in setting up and in applying bioethical rules. The line drawn is based on the concept of human rights, the principles and concepts of which have not only been set forth in the Human Rights Convention, but have also been prescribed in other provisions in the Declaration. From conceptual viewpoint, the Declaration has listed a number of soft-law rules, which in turn also provide authorization for the government or private or public groups to take cultural diversity into account. Although the rules set forth in most of the parts in the Declaration are of soft but absolute mandates in nature, the requirement of paying due regard to cultural diversity is in fact providing governments as well as groups a possibility to enact or apply their bioethical rules to reflect their cultural uniqueness. The term "qualified absoluteness" is used in this paper to reflect

  20. Genome-wide studies of verbal declarative memory in nondemented older people: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Debette (Stéphanie); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Bressler (Jan); M. Schuur (Maaike); G.D. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); G. Davies (Gail); C. Wolf (Christiane); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.B. Chibnik (Lori); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); D.J.F. De Quervain (Dominique J.F.); V. Srikanth (Velandai); J. Lahti (Jari); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); L. Priebe; L. Yu (Lei); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.F. Wilson (James F); H. Campbell (Harry); K. Petrovic (Katja); M. Fornage (Myriam); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); R. Yeo (Robin); R. Boxall (Ruth); J.T. Becker (James); O. Stegle (Oliver); R. Mather; V. Chouraki (Vincent); Q. Sun (Qi); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Resnick (Susan); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M. Kirin (Mirna); A. Wright (Alan); M.K. Jonsdottir (Maria K.); R. Au (Rhoda); A. Becker (Albert); N. Amin (Najaf); M.A. Nalls (Michael); S.T. Turner (Stephen); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); B.A. Oostra (Ben); G. Windham (Gwen); L.H. Coker (Laura); W. Zhao (Wei); D.S. Knopman (David); G. Heiss (Gerardo); M.D. Griswold (Michael); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Vitart (Veronique); N. Hastie (Nick); L. Zgaga (Lina); I. Rudan (Igor); O. Polasek (Ozren); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P. Schofield (Peter); S.-H. Choi (Seung-Hoan); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); Y. An (Yang); R.T. Perry (Rodney T.); R.E. Kennedy (Richard E.); M.M. Sale (Michèle M.); J. Wang (Jing); V.G. Wadley (Virginia G.); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); A. Pattie (Alison); J.M. Starr (John); D.J. Porteous (David J.); X. Liu (Xuan); R. Thomson (Russell); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); A.A. Assareh (Arezoo A.); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); E. Widen (Elisabeth); A. Palotie (Aarno); Y.-C. Hsieh (Yi-Chen); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Vogler (Christian); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Shulman (Lee); A. Beiser (Alexa); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); C.O. Schmidt (Carsten O.); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); M.M. Nöthen (Markus M.); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J. Attia (John); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J.-F. Dartigues (Jean-François); H. Amieva (Hélène); K. Räikkönen (Katri); M. Garcia (Melissa); P.A. Wolf (Philip); A. Hofman (Albert); W.T. Longstreth Jr; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); P.L. DeJager (Philip L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Teumer (Alexander); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); S. Cichon (Sven); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Grodstein (Francine); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A. Papassotiropoulos (Andreas); D.A. Bennett (David); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies for

  1. Genome-wide studies of verbal declarative memory in nondemented older people: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Debette (Stéphanie); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Bressler (Jan); M. Schuur (Maaike); G.D. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); G. Davies (Gail); C. Wolf (Christiane); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); L.B. Chibnik (Lori); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); D.J.F. De Quervain (Dominique J.F.); V. Srikanth (Velandai); J. Lahti (Jari); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); L. Priebe; L. Yu (Lei); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.F. Wilson (James F); H. Campbell (Harry); K. Petrovic (Katja); M. Fornage (Myriam); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); R. Yeo (Robin); R. Boxall (Ruth); J.T. Becker (James); O. Stegle (Oliver); R. Mather; V. Chouraki (Vincent); Q. Sun (Qi); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Resnick (Susan); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M. Kirin (Mirna); A. Wright (Alan); M.K. Jonsdottir (Maria K.); R. Au (Rhoda); A. Becker (Albert); N. Amin (Najaf); M.A. Nalls (Michael); S.T. Turner (Stephen); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); B.A. Oostra (Ben); G. Windham (Gwen); L.H. Coker (Laura); W. Zhao (Wei); D.S. Knopman (David); G. Heiss (Gerardo); M.D. Griswold (Michael); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Vitart (Veronique); N. Hastie (Nick); L. Zgaga (Lina); I. Rudan (Igor); O. Polasek (Ozren); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P. Schofield (Peter); S.-H. Choi (Seung-Hoan); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); Y. An (Yang); R.T. Perry (Rodney T.); R.E. Kennedy (Richard E.); M.M. Sale (Michèle M.); J. Wang (Jing); V.G. Wadley (Virginia G.); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); A. Pattie (Alison); J.M. Starr (John); D.J. Porteous (David J.); X. Liu (Xuan); R. Thomson (Russell); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); A.A. Assareh (Arezoo A.); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); E. Widen (Elisabeth); A. Palotie (Aarno); Y.-C. Hsieh (Yi-Chen); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Vogler (Christian); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Shulman (Lee); A. Beiser (Alexa); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); C.O. Schmidt (Carsten O.); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); M.M. Nöthen (Markus M.); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J. Attia (John); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J.-F. Dartigues (Jean-François); H. Amieva (Hélène); K. Räikkönen (Katri); M. Garcia (Melissa); P.A. Wolf (Philip); A. Hofman (Albert); W.T. Longstreth Jr; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); P.L. DeJager (Philip L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Teumer (Alexander); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); S. Cichon (Sven); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Grodstein (Francine); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A. Papassotiropoulos (Andreas); D.A. Bennett (David); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragrap

  2. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  3. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Lippelt

    Full Text Available Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  4. [Alzheimer's disease and human memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, F; Giffard, B; Rauchs, G; Chételat, G; Piolino, P; Desgranges, B

    2006-10-01

    Memory disorders observed in Alzheimer's disease gave rise, from the eighties, to a detailed analysis into the framework of cognitive neuropsychology which aimed at describing the deficits of very specific processes. Beyond their clinical interest, these studies contributed to the modelisation of human memory thanks to the characterization of different memory systems and their relationships. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease and insists on particular cognitive phenomena. Hence, several examples are developed in the domains of semantic memory (such as hyperpriming and hypopriming effects) and autobiographical memory. Recent results highlight the existence of severe autobiographical amnesia observed in all neurodegenerative diseases, though with contrasting profiles: Ribot's gradient in Alzheimer's disease (showing that remote memories are better preserved than recent ones), reverse gradient in semantic dementia and no clear gradient in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. The second part of this article presents advances in cognitive neuroscience searching to disclose the cerebral substrates of these cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. The studies using functional imaging techniques are the most informative regarding this problematic. While showing the dysfunctions of an extended network, they emphasize the selectivity of cerebral damages that are at the root of very specific cognitive dysfunctions, coming close in that way to the conceptions of cognitive neuropsychology. These neuroimaging studies unravel the existence of compensatory mechanisms, which until recently were clearly missing in the literature on neurodegenerative diseases. These different researches lead to a wide conception of human memory, not just limited to simple instrumental processes (encoding, storage, retrieval), but necessarily covering models of identity and continuity of the subject, which interact in a dynamic way

  5. Hippocampal sleep features: relations to human memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Moroni, Fabio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Nobili, Lino

    2012-01-01

    The recent spread of intracranial electroencephalographic (EEG) recording techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific patterns of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, non-REM sleep) in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples) that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate

  6. Hippocampal sleep features: relations to human memory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eFerrara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of intracranial EEG recordings techniques for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epileptic patients is providing new information on the activity of different brain structures during both wakefulness and sleep. The interest has been mainly focused on the medial temporal lobe, and in particular the hippocampal formation, whose peculiar local sleep features have been recently described, providing support to the idea that sleep is not a spatially global phenomenon. The study of the hippocampal sleep electrophysiology is particularly interesting because of its central role in the declarative memory formation. Recent data indicate that sleep contributes to memory formation. Therefore, it is relevant to understand whether specific pattern of activity taking place during sleep are related to memory consolidation processes. Fascinating similarities between different states of consciousness (wakefulness, REM sleep, NREM sleep in some electrophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive processes have been reported. For instance, large-scale synchrony in gamma activity is important for waking memory and perception processes, and its changes during sleep may be the neurophysiological substrate of sleep-related deficits of declarative memory. Hippocampal activity seems to specifically support memory consolidation during sleep, through specific coordinated neurophysiological events (slow waves, spindles, ripples that would facilitate the integration of new information into the pre-existing cortical networks. A few studies indeed provided direct evidence that rhinal ripples as well as slow hippocampal oscillations are correlated with memory consolidation in humans. More detailed electrophysiological investigations assessing the specific relations between different types of memory consolidation and hippocampal EEG features are in order. These studies will add an important piece of knowledge to the elucidation of the ultimate sleep

  7. The Impact of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on the Study of History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Baets, Antoon

    2009-01-01

    There is perhaps no text with a broader impact on our lives than the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is strange, therefore, that historians have paid so little attention to the UDHR. I argue that its potential impact on the study of history is profound. After asking whether the

  8. Global bioethics: did the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights miss the boat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox

    2007-10-01

    This paper explores the evolution of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR), which was adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) in 2005. While the draft UDBHR generated controversy among bioethicists, the process through which it evolved excluded mainstream bioethicists. The absence of peer review affects the declaration's content and significance. This paper critically analyses its content, commenting on the failure to acknowledge socioeconomic and other factors that impede its implementation. The UDBHR outlines ideal standards but fails to provide guidance that can be readily applied in different settings. It strives for universality but does not contribute to understanding of universal or global bioethics.

  9. Stress and memory in humans: twelve years of progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-10-13

    Stress leads to an enhanced activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in an increased release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. These hormones influence target systems in the periphery as well as in the brain. The present review paper describes the impact of the human stress hormone cortisol on episodic long-term memory. Starting out with our early observation that stress as well as cortisol treatment impaired declarative memory, experiments by the author are described, which result in an enhanced understanding of how cortisol influences memory. The main conclusions are that stress or cortisol treatment temporarily blocks memory retrieval. The effect is stronger for emotional arousing material independent of its valence. In addition cortisol only influences memory when a certain amount of testing induced arousal occurs. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study suggests that the neuronal correlate of the cortisol induced retrieval blockade is a reduced activity of the hippocampus. In contrast to the effects on retrieval cortisol enhances memory consolidation. Again this effect is often stronger for emotionally arousing material and sometimes occurs at the cost of memory for neutral material. A fMRI study revealed that higher cortisol levels were associated with a stronger amygdala response to emotional stimuli. Thus stimulatory effects of cortisol on this structure might underlie the cortisol induced enhancement of emotional memory consolidation. The findings presented are in line with models derived from experiments in rodents and are of relevance for our understanding of stress associated psychiatric disorders.

  10. On the tenth anniversary of the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2015-01-01

    In 2005 the representatives of 191 states meeting for the General Conference of UNESCO unanimously approved the "Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights". The Declaration is the only instrument of its kind: it was the first document adopted by a global organisation that addressed the whole range of issues with which bioethics is concerned and that is a legal instrument. Many of the principles affirmed in the Declaration had already been amply absorbed into the discipline of bioethics. All of them can be traced to the dignity and equality of every individual. The most evident novelty is to be found less in the content of the principles than in the balancing of individual and societal perspectives. Also in evidence are several compromises that were adopted in order to promote dialogue and mutual understanding.

  11. Whose dignity? Resolving ambiguities in the scope of "human dignity" in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald

    2007-10-01

    In October 2005, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR). A concept of central importance in the declaration is that of "human dignity". However, there is lack of clarity about its scope, especially concerning the question of whether prenatal human life has the same dignity and rights as born human beings. This ambiguity has implications for the interpretation of important articles of the delcaration, including 2(c), 4, 8, 10 and 11. The paper applies relevant provisions of the UDBHR to specific cases, addresses problems of internal consistency and considers attempts at clarifying the scope of "human dignity" by the negotiating parties. An analysis of the important relationship between the UDBHR and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which the UDBHR refers in its title and elsewhere, shows that because of a crucial emphatic asymmetry, a broad reading according to which the UDBHR must be understood to ascribe human rights and dignity to prenatal life is untenable. However, the view that the UDBHR confers human rights and dignity on humans from the moment of birth onwards is robust and defensible. This conclusion is important for a proper understanding of the declaration and its use, as stated in Articles 1(2) and 22, the latter urging states ".. to give effect to the principles .. in this declaration". Similarly, it has implications for the use of the declaration in the wider context of bioethics-related law and policy, as well as in academic and other discussions where increasing reference to the UDBHR is likely.

  12. Temporal and cerebellar brain regions that support both declarative memory formation and retrieval.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weis, S.; Klaver, P.; Reul, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Using event-related fMRI, we scanned young healthy subjects while they memorized real-world photographs and subsequently tried to recognize them within a series of new photographs. We confirmed that activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and inferior prefrontal cortex correlates with declarative

  13. The role of sleep in declarative memory consolidation--direct evidence by intracranial EEG.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axmacher, N.; Haupt, S.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Two step theories of memory formation assume that an initial learning phase is followed by a consolidation stage. Memory consolidation has been suggested to occur predominantly during sleep. Very recent findings, however, suggest that important steps in memory consolidation occur also during waking

  14. An Agreement to Disagree: The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and the Absence of Regional Identity in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Davies

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN’s engagement with human rights culminated in the creation of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration in 2012. The Declaration is fascinating in three ways: Its institutional origins are surprising, it was agreed upon by states with very different positions on the role of human rights domestically, and it both contains commitments far in advance of some members and is at the same time dangerously regressive. The three leading frameworks that currently interrogate the Declaration fail to provide convincing insights into all three of those dimensions. To correct these shortcomings, this article applies the notion of an “incompletely theorized agreement” to the study of the Declaration, arguing that member states understand the Declaration in very different ways and agreed to it for similarly diverse reasons. Further, I argue that the Declaration neither articulates a shared regional identity relating to respect for human rights, nor can it be understood as marking an early point towards the creation of this identity. Instead, the current diversity of regional opinions on human rights and democracy is perceived as legitimate and will endure. The article concludes by considering whether this denudes the Declaration of value, arguing that its importance will vary: The more progressive the member state, the more important the Declaration will be in the future.

  15. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  16. Declaring the Existence of Human Germ-Cell Mutagens

    Science.gov (United States)

    After more than 80 years of searching for human germ-cell mutagens, I think that sufficient evidence already exists for a number of agents to be so considered, and definitive confirmation seems imminent due to the application ofrecently developed genomic techniques. In preparatio...

  17. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  18. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO's broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders-academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives-felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration's development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations.

  19. Steroid abnormalities and the developing brain: declarative memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Françoise S; Merke, Deborah P; Schroth, Elizabeth A; Keil, Margaret F; Hardin, Julie; Poeth, Kaitlin; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2008-02-01

    Steroid hormones modulate memory in animals and human adults. Little is known on the developmental effects of these hormones on the neural networks underlying memory. Using Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) as a naturalistic model of early steroid abnormalities, this study examines the consequences of CAH on memory and its neural correlates for emotionally arousing and neutral material in children. Seventeen patients with CAH and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy children (ages 12-14 years) completed the study. Subjects were presented positive, negative and neutral pictures. Memory recall occurred about 30min after viewing the pictures. Children with CAH showed memory deficits for negative pictures compared to healthy children (p0.1). In patients, 24h urinary-free cortisol levels (reflecting glucocorticoid replacement therapy) and testosterone levels were not associated with memory performance. These findings suggest that early steroid imbalances affect memory for negative material in children with CAH. Such memory impairments may result from abnormal brain organization and function following hormonal dysfunction during critical periods of development.

  20. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Holz

    Full Text Available Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25 or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25, followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  1. The timing of learning before night-time sleep differentially affects declarative and procedural long-term memory consolidation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Sleep after learning has been shown to foster the consolidation of new memories. However, fundamental questions on the best timing of learning before night-time sleep persist. We tested the hypothesis that learning directly prior to night-time sleep compared to 7.5 hrs prior to night-time sleep provides better conditions for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Fifty healthy female adolescents (aged 16-17 years) were trained on a declarative word-pair and a procedural finger-tapping task at 3 pm (afternoon group, n = 25) or at 9 pm (evening group, n = 25), followed by a sleep laboratory night. Retrieval was assessed 24 hours and 7 days after initial training. Subjects trained in the afternoon showed a significantly elevated retention rate of word-pairs compared to subjects trained in the evening after 24 hours, but not after 7 days. In contrast, off-line gains in finger-tapping performance were significantly higher in subjects trained in the evening compared to those trained in the afternoon after both retention intervals. The observed enhanced consolidation of procedural memories after training in the evening fits to current models of sleep-related memory consolidation. In contrast, the higher retention of declarative memories after encoding in the afternoon is surprising, appeared to be less robust and needs further investigation.

  2. Consolidation effect of repeated processing of declarative knowledge in mental experiences during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Fagioli, Igino; Mazzetti, Michela; Tuozzi, Giovanni

    2006-05-15

    Sleep may positively influence declarative memory through the processing, which transforms items of declarative knowledge into contents of mental sleep experience (MSE). A prediction from this general hypothesis is that the consolidation level should be higher for the output of items repeatedly processed and transformed into identical or very similar (so-called interrelated) contents of distinct MSEs of the same night rather than for the output of items presumably processed once (that is, all other, non-interrelated contents). Two experiments examined whether and how far the frequency and long-term retention of interrelated contents depend on the repeated processing of given items rather than on the experimental procedure applied for detection of interrelated contents. This procedure entails both multiple awakenings and a verbal report of MSE after awakening. Multiple awakenings could facilitate the re-access and elaboration of some contents into the subsequent (i.e. contiguous) MSE rather than non-contiguous MSEs; verbal reports could enhance the delayed recall of interrelated contents in as much as repeatedly encoded. The first experiment showed that interrelated contents were more frequent and better retained than both non-interrelated and pseudo-interrelated (i.e. by-chance similar or identical) contents, and even more in pairs of contiguous than non-contiguous MSEs collected from the first four periods of REM sleep on each experimental night. The second experiment showed that the frequency and retention rate of interrelated contents, while higher than those of non-interrelated and pseudo-interrelated contents, were not significantly different in pairs of MSEs which were verbally or mentally recalled after awakening provoked during the first four periods of REM sleep in each experimental night. Taken together, these findings indicate that the advantage provided by repeated processing during REM sleep for the consolidation of the output of items of declarative

  3. High-intensity stress elicits robust cortisol increases, and impairs working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory in Special Forces candidates: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, John; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Smeets, Tom; von Grumbkow, Jasper

    2010-07-01

    While running a selection procedure, 27 male Belgian Special Forces candidates, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 5.1), were randomly assigned to a no-stress control (n = 14) or a high-intensity stress group (n = 13). Participants in the latter group were exposed to an extremely strenuous mock prisoner of war (POW) exercise. Immediately after stress or control treatment, working memory and visuo-spatial declarative memory performances were measured by the digit span (DS) test and the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF), respectively. Concurrently, stress levels were assessed by obtaining salivary cortisol measurements and subjectively by the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). As expected, exposure to high-intensity stress led to both robust cortisol increases and significant differences in TLX scores. Stress induction also significantly impaired DS and ROCF performances. Moreover, delta cortisol increases and ROCF performance in the POW stress group showed a significant negative correlation, while DS performances followed the same tendency. Summarizing, the current findings complement and extend previous work on hormonal stress effects, and the subsequent performance deterioration on two memory tests in a unique high-intensity stress environment.

  4. Music therapy intervention effects in the non declarative memory of children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome children (FAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araujo, Gustavo; Gattino, Gustavo; Leite, Julio

    2017-01-01

    sessions, with weekly intervals, individually and 45min sessions. The evaluations were executed by the WISC III and the IMTAP scales measuring the IQ responses and the cognitive abilities before and after the music therapy interventions. A random assessor measured the before and after results...... for the WISC-III scale was 78.60 and standard deviation 2.41 (CI 95% 74.40 a 82.80 p=0.000) and for the IMTAP was 85.70 and standard deviation 2.52 (CI 95% 80.75 a 90.65 p=0.000). This study verifies that intervention with music therapy presents positive effects for this population, even in short term......This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy treatment applied to the non declarative memory development in the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome children (FAS). A before and after experiment was conducted which included 10 individuals with FAS aged between 6 to 17, each received 13 treatment...

  5. Increased resting-state perfusion after repeated encoding is related to later retrieval of declarative associative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Groen

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2 and after (Post extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR. Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1 no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly

  6. Increased resting-state perfusion after repeated encoding is related to later retrieval of declarative associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Georg; Sokolov, Alexander N; Jonas, Christina; Roebling, Robert; Spitzer, Manfred

    2011-05-12

    Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2) and after (Post) extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR). Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1) no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly contribute to the long

  7. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  8. Impossible, impractical, and non-identifiable? New criteria regarding consent for human tissue research in the Declaration of Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, Flora; Elger, Bernice S

    2013-06-01

    The 2008 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki (Declaration) includes a new paragraph dealing specifically with the standards of informed consent required for research involving identifiable human tissue samples and/or data. In cases where obtaining consent would be impossible or unduly burdensome, researchers may now proceed without it, following approval of the project by an ethics committee. This is a significant development in the Declaration, yet so far it has received little attention. We examine the implications of paragraph 25, and assess its role in the debates on proper sample handling. In particular, we question whether the use of the term "identifiable" weakens the paragraph, as its meaning depends on national context. Relying on this term to designate samples that could be traced to the donor, and therefore carry risk for that donor, is impossible if its meaning is not universally accepted. The Declaration of Helsinki is now entering a new revision phase. In order to protect sample donors, paragraph 25 should be enhanced, and the remit of the Declaration strengthened, by a more precise description of which samples and data count as identifiable.

  9. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ogmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson–Shiffrin “modal model” forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. Wh...

  10. Orbitofrontal contributions to human working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Koenigs, Michael; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-04-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in human memory, the necessity of the orbitofrontal cortex for key competencies of working memory remains largely unexplored. We therefore studied human brain lesion patients to determine whether the orbitofrontal cortex is necessary for working memory function, administering subtests of the Wechsler memory scale, the Wechsler adult intelligence scale, and the n-back task to 3 participant groups: orbitofrontal lesions (n = 24), prefrontal lesions not involving orbitofrontal cortex (n = 40), and no brain lesions (n = 54). Orbitofrontal damage was reliably associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests involving the coordination of working memory maintenance, manipulation, and monitoring processes (n-back task) but not on pure tests of working memory maintenance (digit/spatial span forward) or manipulation (digit/spatial span backward and letter-number sequencing). Our findings elucidate a central component of the neural architecture of working memory, providing key neuropsychological evidence for the necessity of the orbitofrontal cortex in executive control functions underlying the joint maintenance, manipulation, and monitoring of information in working memory.

  11. Beijing Lunar Declaration 2010: B) Technology and Resources; Infrastructures and Human Aspects; Moon, Space and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Foing, B. H.; Plescial, J.; Cohen, B.; Blamont, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Beijing Lunar Declaration endorsed by the delegates of the Global Lunar Conference/11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, held at Beijing on 30 May- 3 June 2010. Specifically we focus on Part B:Technologies and resources; Infrastructures and human aspects; Moon, Space, Society and Young Explorers. We recommend continued and enhanced development and implementation of sessions about lunar exploration, manned and robotic, at key scientific and engineering meetings. A number of robotic missions to the Moon are now undertaken independently by various nations, with a degree of exchange of information and coordination. That should increase towards real cooperation, still allowing areas of competition for keeping the process active, cost-effective and faster. - Lunar landers, pressurized lunar rover projects as presented from Europe, Asia and America are important steps that can create opportunities for international collaboration, within a coordinated village of robotic precursors and assistants to crew missions. - We have to think about development, modernization of existing navigation capabilities, and provision of lunar positioning, navigation and data relay assets to support future robotic and human exploration. New concepts and new methods for transportation have attracted much attention and are of great potential.

  12. Hierarchical control of procedural and declarative category-learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Benjamin O; Crossley, Matthew J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2017-02-16

    Substantial evidence suggests that human category learning is governed by the interaction of multiple qualitatively distinct neural systems. In this view, procedural memory is used to learn stimulus-response associations, and declarative memory is used to apply explicit rules and test hypotheses about category membership. However, much less is known about the interaction between these systems: how is control passed between systems as they interact to influence motor resources? Here, we used fMRI to elucidate the neural correlates of switching between procedural and declarative categorization systems. We identified a key region of the cerebellum (left Crus I) whose activity was bidirectionally modulated depending on switch direction. We also identified regions of the default mode network (DMN) that were selectively connected to left Crus I during switching. We propose that the cerebellum-in coordination with the DMN-serves a critical role in passing control between procedural and declarative memory systems.

  13. Postretrieval new learning does not reliably induce human memory updating via reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Tom E; Taqi, Mahdi; Shanks, David R

    2016-05-10

    Reconsolidation theory proposes that retrieval can destabilize an existing memory trace, opening a time-dependent window during which that trace is amenable to modification. Support for the theory is largely drawn from nonhuman animal studies that use invasive pharmacological or electroconvulsive interventions to disrupt a putative postretrieval restabilization ("reconsolidation") process. In human reconsolidation studies, however, it is often claimed that postretrieval new learning can be used as a means of "updating" or "rewriting" existing memory traces. This proposal warrants close scrutiny because the ability to modify information stored in the memory system has profound theoretical, clinical, and ethical implications. The present study aimed to replicate and extend a prominent 3-day motor-sequence learning study [Walker MP, Brakefield T, Hobson JA, Stickgold R (2003) Nature 425(6958):616-620] that is widely cited as a convincing demonstration of human reconsolidation. However, in four direct replication attempts (n = 64), we did not observe the critical impairment effect that has previously been taken to indicate disruption of an existing motor memory trace. In three additional conceptual replications (n = 48), we explored the broader validity of reconsolidation-updating theory by using a declarative recall task and sequences similar to phone numbers or computer passwords. Rather than inducing vulnerability to interference, memory retrieval appeared to aid the preservation of existing sequence knowledge relative to a no-retrieval control group. These findings suggest that memory retrieval followed by new learning does not reliably induce human memory updating via reconsolidation.

  14. Interference Conditions of the Reconsolidation Process in Humans: The Role of Valence and Different Memory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo S.; Bavassi, Luz; Kaczer, Laura; Forcato, Cecilia; Pedreira, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Following the presentation of a reminder, consolidated memories become reactivated followed by a process of re-stabilization, which is referred to as reconsolidation. The most common behavioral tool used to reveal this process is interference produced by new learning shortly after memory reactivation. Memory interference is defined as a decrease in memory retrieval, the effect is generated when new information impairs an acquired memory. In general, the target memory and the interference task used are the same. Here we investigated how different memory systems and/or their valence could produce memory reconsolidation interference. We showed that a reactivated neutral declarative memory could be interfered by new learning of a different neutral declarative memory. Then, we revealed that an aversive implicit memory could be interfered by the presentation of a reminder followed by a threatening social event. Finally, we showed that the reconsolidation of a neutral declarative memory is unaffected by the acquisition of an aversive implicit memory and conversely, this memory remains intact when the neutral declarative memory is used as interference. These results suggest that the interference of memory reconsolidation is effective when two task rely on the same memory system or both evoke negative valence. PMID:28066212

  15. Interference conditions of the reconsolidation process in humans: the role of valence and different memory systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the presentation of a reminder, consolidated memories become reactivated followed by a process of re-stabilization, which is referred to as reconsolidation. The most common behavioral tool used to reveal this process is interference produced by new learning shortly after memory reactivation. Memory interference is defined as a decrease in memory retrieval, the effect is generated when new information impairs an acquired memory. In general, the target memory and the interference task used are the same. Here we investigated how different memory systems and/or their valence could produce memory reconsolidation interference. We showed that a reactivated neutral declarative memory could be interfered by new learning of a different neutral declarative memory. Then, we revealed that an aversive implicit memory could be interfered by the presentation of a reminder followed by a threatening social event. Finally, we showed that the reconsolidation of a neutral declarative memory is unaffected by the acquisition of an aversive implicit memory and conversely, this memory remains intact when the neutral declarative memory is used as interference. These results suggest that the interference of memory reconsolidation is effective when two task rely on the same memory system or both evoke negative valence.

  16. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  17. Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300-600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  18. Memory, scene construction, and the human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyun; Dede, Adam J O; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2015-04-14

    We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus--one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large lesions of the medial temporal lobe. The patients were intact on all of the spatial tasks and impaired on all of the memory tasks. We discuss earlier studies that associated performance on these spatial tasks to hippocampal function. Our results demonstrate the importance of medial temporal lobe structures for memory and raise doubts about the idea that these structures have a prominent role in spatial cognition.

  19. The development of brain systems associated with successful memory retrieval of scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ofen (Noa); X.J. Chai (Xiaoqian); K.D.I. Schuil (Karen); S. Whitfield-Gabrieli (Susan); J.D.E. Gabrieli (John D.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNeuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful memory retrieval of scenes in children, adolescents, and young

  20. Key points for developing an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G; Rorty, M V

    2001-05-01

    Human rights legislation pertaining to applications of human genetic science is still lacking at an international level. Three international human rights documents now serve as guidelines for countries wishing to develop such legislation. These were drafted and adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Human Genome Organization, and the Council of Europe. It is critically important that the international nursing community makes known its philosophy and practice-based knowledge relating to ethics and human rights, and contributes to the globalization of genetics. Nurses have particular expertise because they serve in a unique role at grass roots level to mediate between genetic science and its application to public health policies and medical interventions. As a result, nurses worldwide need to focus a constant eye on human rights ideals and interpret these within social, cultural, economic and political contexts at national and local levels. The purpose of this article is to clarify and legitimate the need for an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy. Because nurses around the world are the professional workforce by which genetic health care services and genetic research protocols will be delivered in the twenty-first century, members of the discipline of nursing need to think globally while acting locally. Above all other disciplines involved in genetics, nursing is in a good position to articulate an expanded theory of ethics beyond the principled approach of biomedical ethics. Nursing is sensitive to cultural diversity and community values; it is sympathetic to and can introduce an ethic of caring and relational ethics that listen to and accommodate the needs of local people and their requirements for public health.

  1. Human T Cell Memory: A Dynamic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek C. Macallan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term T cell-mediated protection depends upon the formation of a pool of memory cells to protect against future pathogen challenge. In this review we argue that looking at T cell memory from a dynamic viewpoint can help in understanding how memory populations are maintained following pathogen exposure or vaccination. For example, a dynamic view resolves the apparent paradox between the relatively short lifespans of individual memory cells and very long-lived immunological memory by focussing on the persistence of clonal populations, rather than individual cells. Clonal survival is achieved by balancing proliferation, death and differentiation rates within and between identifiable phenotypic pools; such pools correspond broadly to sequential stages in the linear differentiation pathway. Each pool has its own characteristic kinetics, but only when considered as a population; single cells exhibit considerable heterogeneity. In humans, we tend to concentrate on circulating cells, but memory T cells in non-lymphoid tissues and bone marrow are increasingly recognised as critical for immune defence; their kinetics, however, remain largely unexplored. Considering vaccination from this viewpoint shifts the focus from the size of the primary response to the survival of the clone and enables identification of critical system pinch-points and opportunities to improve vaccine efficacy.

  2. How Human Memory and Working Memory Work in Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    小那覇, 洋子; Onaha, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    We often draw an analogy between human memory and computers. Information around us is taken into our memory storage first, and then we use the information in storage whatever we need it in our daily life. Linguistic information is also in storage and we process our thoughts based on the memory that is stored. Memory storage consists of multiple memory systems; one of which is called working memory that includes short-term memory. Working memory is the central system that underpins the process...

  3. The intersection between bioethics and human rights in the light of the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Aline Albuquerque S

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the increasing interconnection between bioethics and human rights that can be observed in recent international norms relating to biomedicine. To this end, the analysis has been focused on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) adopted by UNESCO in 2005. Investigating the meanings of the intersection perceived in the UDBHR has led to the understanding of how bioethics and human rights are in accordance, under the normative perspective. Hence, in normative terms, the intersection between bioethics and human rights is clearly undisputable. However, there is no way to affirm that it is consolidated, as UDBHR's adoption is recent and its consolidation, together with its precepts, depends on state and non-state agents. The efficacy of a norm and its content depends on social, cultural and economic conditions, that is, it depends on a series of factors that influence the normative system. In the case of the UDBHR, its effective application and assimilation of its principles are directly linked to the use that bioethical institutions make of them and to how the community of bioethicists will project them in their thoughts and theory production. If, on the one hand UDBHR symbolizes the intersection confirmation--which is of extreme importance for its consolidation--on the other hand its range and consequent stabilization are submitted to the actions from governments, social institutions and bioethicists. Hence, there is still a lot to do in terms of introducing the human rights precepts into bioethics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this goal. Thus based on the meanings of the intersection between bioethics and human rights identified in the UDBHR, this article presents five ways to understand the connection between these two fields.

  4. 人类外显记忆脑机制研究进展%The Neural Mechanisms of Human Explicit Memory Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程灶火; 王力

    2002-01-01

    The fMRI and ERPs have played important role s in understanding neura l mechanisms of human memory. Recent studies have revealed that distinct regions in medial temporal and prefrontal areas exhibit more neural activity during suc cessful than unsuccessful memory formation. The results from different studies s uggest that relational and non-relational memories are mediated by distinct sub- regions in medial temporal and prefrontal cortex and there are extensive interac tions between them in a parallel and bi-directional fashions. Emotionally arousi ng events enhance neural activity in amygdala, which in turn may modulate proces sing in other brain regions responsible for declarative memory formation.

  5. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Met Allele Load on Declarative Memory Related Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodds, Chris M; Henson, Richard N; Suckling, John;

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates episodic memory performance via effects on hippocampal neural circuitry. However, fMRI studies have yielded inconsistent results in this respect. Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of met allele load on activation...... of memory circuitry. In the present study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of the effects of the BDNF polymorphism on brain responses during episodic memory encoding and retrieval, including an investigation of the effect of met allele load on memory related activation in the medial temporal lobe....... In contrast to previous studies, we found no evidence for an effect of BDNF genotype or met load during episodic memory encoding. Met allele carriers showed increased activation during successful retrieval in right hippocampus but this was contrast-specific and unaffected by met allele load. These results...

  6. ADMINISTRACIÓN DE INSULINA POR VÍA INTRANASAL Y MEMORIA DECLARATIVA: REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA DE LA LITERATURA Intranasal insulin administration and declarative memory: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Jagua Gualdrón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La insulina participa de los procesos de formación de la memoria y los defectos en su señalización podrían estar relacionados con el déficit cognitivo y las enfermedades neurode-generativas como la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Objetivo. Evaluar la relación entre la administración de la insulina por vía intranasal y la memoria declarativa en estudios en humanos. Material y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda intensiva y sistemática de estudios publicados entre enero de 1997 y diciembre del 2008 a través de las bases de datos MEDLINE, Cochrane, DynaMed y LILACS. Los estudios fueron sometidos a dos pruebas de calidad metodológica, se les realizó un análisis crítico y se aplicó estadística básica. Resultados. Se hallaron cinco artículos que incluían 252 personas. De ellos 143 tenían diagnóstico probable de la enfermedad de Alzheimer o alteración cognitiva leve. Los estudios reportan mejoría en las tareas de la memoria a corto y largo plazo en los grupos que recibieron la insulina comparados con quienes recibieron el placebo. Conclusión. Los estudios son pocos y difíciles de comparar. Sin embargo tras este análisis puede sugerirse que la insulina actúa durante la formación de la memoria declarativa y podría emplearse en el tratamiento de los trastornos de la memoria.Background. Insulin acts in memory formation and its signal impairment can be related with mild cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Objective. To evaluate the relationship between intranasal insulin administration and declarative memory in studies with human. Materials and methods. A systematic search of studies published from January 1997 to december 2008 through electronic databases MEDLINE, DynaMed, Cochrane and LIlACS. Articles were evaluated with two tests for methodological validity and a basic statistical analysis was performed. Results. We find five articles that include 252 persons. 143 have

  7. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory

  8. Supramodal parametric working memory processing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Bernhard; Blankenburg, Felix

    2012-03-07

    Previous studies of delayed-match-to-sample (DMTS) frequency discrimination in animals and humans have succeeded in delineating the neural signature of frequency processing in somatosensory working memory (WM). During retention of vibrotactile frequencies, stimulus-dependent single-cell and population activity in prefrontal cortex was found to reflect the task-relevant memory content, whereas increases in occipital alpha activity signaled the disengagement of areas not relevant for the tactile task. Here, we recorded EEG from human participants to determine the extent to which these mechanisms can be generalized to frequency retention in the visual and auditory domains. Subjects performed analogous variants of a DMTS frequency discrimination task, with the frequency information presented either visually, auditorily, or by vibrotactile stimulation. Examining oscillatory EEG activity during frequency retention, we found characteristic topographical distributions of alpha power over visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortices, indicating systematic patterns of inhibition and engagement of early sensory areas, depending on stimulus modality. The task-relevant frequency information, in contrast, was found to be represented in right prefrontal cortex, independent of presentation mode. In each of the three modality conditions, parametric modulations of prefrontal upper beta activity (20-30 Hz) emerged, in a very similar manner as recently found in vibrotactile tasks. Together, the findings corroborate a view of parametric WM as supramodal internal scaling of abstract quantity information and suggest strong relevance of previous evidence from vibrotactile work for a more general framework of quantity processing in human working memory.

  9. Human rights from the Nuremberg Doctors Trial to the Geneva Declaration. Persons and institutions in medical ethics and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and the "Geneva Declaration" by the World Medical Association, both in 1948, were preceded by the foundation of the United Nations in New York (1945), the World Medical Association in London (1946) and the World Health Organization in Geneva (1948). After the end of World War II the community of nations strove to achieve and sustain their primary goals of peace and security, as well as their basic premise, namely the health of human beings. All these associations were well aware of the crimes by medicine, in particular by the accused Nazi physicians at the Nuremberg Doctors Trial (1946/47, sentence: August 1947). During the first conference of the World Medical Association (September 1947) issues of medical ethics played a major role: and a new document was drafted concerning the values of the medical profession. After the catastrophe of the War and the criminal activities of scientists, the late 1940s saw increased scrutiny paid to fundamental questions of human rights and medical ethics, which are still highly relevant for today's medicine and morality. The article focuses on the development of medical ethics and human rights reflected in the statement of important persons, codes and institutions in the field.

  10. Episodic memory and appetite regulation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Brunstrom

    Full Text Available Psychological and neurobiological evidence implicates hippocampal-dependent memory processes in the control of hunger and food intake. In humans, these have been revealed in the hyperphagia that is associated with amnesia. However, it remains unclear whether 'memory for recent eating' plays a significant role in neurologically intact humans. In this study we isolated the extent to which memory for a recently consumed meal influences hunger and fullness over a three-hour period. Before lunch, half of our volunteers were shown 300 ml of soup and half were shown 500 ml. Orthogonal to this, half consumed 300 ml and half consumed 500 ml. This process yielded four separate groups (25 volunteers in each. Independent manipulation of the 'actual' and 'perceived' soup portion was achieved using a computer-controlled peristaltic pump. This was designed to either refill or draw soup from a soup bowl in a covert manner. Immediately after lunch, self-reported hunger was influenced by the actual and not the perceived amount of soup consumed. However, two and three hours after meal termination this pattern was reversed - hunger was predicted by the perceived amount and not the actual amount. Participants who thought they had consumed the larger 500-ml portion reported significantly less hunger. This was also associated with an increase in the 'expected satiation' of the soup 24-hours later. For the first time, this manipulation exposes the independent and important contribution of memory processes to satiety. Opportunities exist to capitalise on this finding to reduce energy intake in humans.

  11. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  12. Common Kibra alleles are associated with human memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stephan, Dietrich A; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hoerndli, Frederic J; Craig, David W; Pearson, John V; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Brunner, Fabienne; Corneveaux, Jason; Osborne, David; Wollmer, M Axel; Aerni, Amanda; Coluccia, Daniel; Hänggi, Jürgen; Mondadori, Christian R A; Buchmann, Andreas; Reiman, Eric M; Caselli, Richard J; Henke, Katharina; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2006-10-20

    Human memory is a polygenic trait. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify memory-related gene variants. A genomic locus encoding the brain protein KIBRA was significantly associated with memory performance in three independent, cognitively normal cohorts from Switzerland and the United States. Gene expression studies showed that KIBRA was expressed in memory-related brain structures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging detected KIBRA allele-dependent differences in hippocampal activations during memory retrieval. Evidence from these experiments suggests a role for KIBRA in human memory.

  13. Visuospatial declarative learning despite profound verbal declarative amnesia in Korsakoff's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Postma, Albert; Nijboer, Tanja C W; Wijnia, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-03-20

    Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content. The results of this study demonstrate that patients with KS have compromised declarative memory functioning on all memory indices. Performance was lowest for the encoding operation compared to the working memory and delayed recall operation. With respect to the content, visuospatial memory was relatively better preserved than verbal memory. All memory operations functioned suboptimally, although the most pronounced disturbance was found in verbal memory encoding. Based on the preserved declarative memory capacities in patients, visuospatial memory can form a more promising target for compensatory memory rehabilitation than verbal memory. It is therefore relevant to increase the number of spatial cues in memory rehabilitation for KS patients.

  14. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  15. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2016-01-01

    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level.

  16. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO: Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2016-06-01

    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level.

  17. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  18. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory.

  19. Exploiting human memory B cell heterogeneity for improved vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Thomas Pauli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major goal in vaccination is establishment of long-term, prophylactic humoral memory to a pathogen. Two major components to long-lived humoral memory are plasma cells for the production of specific immunoglobulin and memory B cells that survey for their specific antigen in the periphery for later affinity maturation, proliferation, and differentiation. The study of human B cell memory has been aided by the discovery of a general marker for B cell memory, expression of CD27; however, new data suggests the existence of CD27- memory B cells as well. These recently described non-canonical memory populations have increasingly pointed to the heterogeneity of the memory compartment. The novel B memory subsets in humans appear to have unique origins, localization, and functions compared to what was considered to be a classical memory B cell. In this article, we review the known B cell memory subsets, the establishment of B cell memory in vaccination and infection, and how understanding these newly described subsets can inform vaccine design and disease treatment.

  20. Glucocorticoids boost stimulus-response memory formation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Stress affects memory beyond hippocampus-dependent spatial or episodic memory processes. In particular, stress may influence also striatum-dependent stimulus-response (S-R) memory processes. Rodent studies point to an important role of glucocorticoids in the modulation of S-R memory. However, whether glucocorticoids influence S-R memory processes in humans is still unknown. Therefore, we examined in the current experiment the impact of glucocorticoids on the formation of S-R memories in humans. For this purpose, healthy men and women received either hydrocortisone or a placebo 45 min before completing an S-R association learning task and an S-R navigation task. In addition, participants performed also a virtual spatial navigation task and a spatial navigation task in a real environment. Memory of all four learning tasks was tested one week later. Our data showed that hydrocortisone before learning enhanced memory of the S-R association learning task. Moreover, hydrocortisone enhanced the memory of the virtual spatial navigation task, mainly in women. Memory performance in the other tasks remained unaffected by hydrocortisone. These findings provide first evidence that glucocorticoids may facilitate S-R memory formation processes in humans.

  1. IL-10 is excluded from the functional cytokine memory of human CD4+ memory T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ivascu, Claudia; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Peihua; Angeli, Roberta; Maggi, Laura; Eckhardt, Florian; Tykocinski, Lars; Haefliger, Carolina; Möwes, Beate; Sieper, Jochen; Radbruch, Andreas; Annunziato, Francesco; Thiel, Andreas

    2007-08-15

    Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, profoundly influence gene expression of CD4(+) Th-specific cells thereby shaping memory Th cell function. We demonstrate here a correlation between a lacking fixed potential of human memory Th cells to re-express the immunoregulatory cytokine gene IL10 and its DNA methylation status. Memory Th cells secreting IL-10 or IFN-gamma were directly isolated ex vivo from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers, and the DNA methylation status of IL10 and IFNG was assessed. Limited difference in methylation was found for the IL10 gene locus in IL-10-secreting Th cells, as compared with Th cells not secreting IL-10 isolated directly ex vivo or from in vitro-established human Th1 and Th2 clones. In contrast, in IFN-gamma(+) memory Th cells the promoter of the IFNG gene was hypomethylated, as compared with IFN-gamma-nonsecreting memory Th cells. In accordance with the lack of epigenetic memory, almost 90% of ex vivo-isolated IL-10-secreting Th cells lacked a functional memory for IL-10 re-expression after restimulation. Our data indicate that IL10 does not become epigenetically marked in human memory Th cells unlike effector cytokine genes such as IFNG. The exclusion of IL-10, but not effector cytokines, from the functional memory of human CD4(+) T lymphocytes ex vivo may reflect the need for appropriate regulation of IL-10 secretion, due to its potent immunoregulatory potential.

  2. Darwin and the Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain.

  3. The role of awareness and working memory in human transitive inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libben, M; Titone, D

    2008-01-01

    The human ability to perform transitive inference (TI) is an area of debate from a neurocognitive standpoint. Some studies emphasize a stimulus driven medial-temporal lobe process [Preston, A.R., Shrager, Y., Dudukovic, N.M., Gabrieli, J.D., 2004. Hippocampal contribution to the novel use of relational information in declarative memory. Hippocampus 14, 148-152; Titone, D., Ditman, T., Holzman, P., Eichenbaum, H., Levy, D., 2004. A transitive inference test of relational memory in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 68, 235-247; Van Elzakker, M., O'Reilley, R., Rudy, J., 2003. Transivity, flexibility, conjenctive representation and the hippocampus: an empirical analysis. Hippocampus 13, 334-340] while others emphasize a higher-level frontal lobe strategy that requires the flexible maintenance of information in working memory [Waltz, J., Knowlton, B., Holyoak, K., Boone, K., Mishkin, F., de Menedezes Santos, M., Thomas, C., Miller, B., 1999. A system for relational reasoning in human prefrontal cortex. Psychol. Sci. 10, 119-125]. In two experiments we investigated when and how adults employ different cognitive strategies during TI by evaluating the interaction between task instructions and individual differences in working memory capacity. Participants engaged in a paired discrimination task involving a 6-unit TI hierarchy and were either prior aware, prior unaware or serendipitously aware of the hierarchical relationship among stimulus items. Both prior aware participants and serendipitously aware participants were more likely to engage in a logic-based strategy compared to unaware participants who relied upon stimulus-driven strategies. Individual differences in working memory were associated with the acquisition of awareness in the serendipitously aware group and with the maintenance of awareness in the prior aware group. These findings suggest that the capacity for TI may be supported by multiple neurocognitive strategies, and that the specific strategy employed is

  4. CPEB3 is associated with human episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Christian; Spalek, Klara; Aerni, Amanda; Demougin, Philippe; Müller, Ariane; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB) proteins are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory in model organisms. A highly conserved, mammalian-specific short intronic sequence within CPEB3 has been identified as a ribozyme with self-cleavage properties. In humans, the ribozyme sequence is polymorphic and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism that influences cleavage activity of the ribozyme. Here we show that this variation is related to performance in an episodic memory task and that the effect of the variation depends on the emotional valence of the presented material. Our data suggest a role for human CPEB3 in human episodic memory.

  5. CPEB3 is associated with human episodic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Vogler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding (CPEB proteins are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory in model organisms. A highly conserved, mammalian-specific short intronic sequence within CPEB3 has been identified as a ribozyme with self-cleavage properties. In humans the ribozyme sequence is polymorphic and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism which influences cleavage activity of the ribozyme. Here we show that this variation is related to performance in an episodic memory task and that the effect of the variation depends on the emotional valence of the presented material. Our data support a role for human CPEB3 in human episodic memory.

  6. False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-12-03

    Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  8. Genetics of human episodic memory: dealing with complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2011-09-01

    Episodic memory is a polygenic behavioral trait with substantial heritability estimates. Despite its complexity, recent empirical evidence supports the notion that behavioral genetic studies of episodic memory might successfully identify trait-associated molecules and pathways. The development of high-throughput genotyping methods, of elaborated statistical analyses and of phenotypic assessment methods at the neural systems level will facilitate the reliable identification of novel memory-related genes. Importantly, a necessary crosstalk between behavioral genetic studies and investigation of causality by molecular genetic studies will ultimately pave the way towards the identification of biologically important, and hopefully druggable, genes and molecular pathways related to human episodic memory.

  9. Restoring a reputation: invoking the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights to bear on pharmaceutical pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    In public health, the issue of pharmaceutical pricing is a perennial problem. Recent high-profile examples, such as the September 2015 debacle involving Martin Shkreli and Turing Pharmaceuticals, are indicative of larger, systemic difficulties that plague the pharmaceutical industry in regards to drug pricing and the impact it yields on their reputation in the eyes of the public. For public health ethics, the issue of pharmaceutical pricing is rather crucial. Simply, individuals within a population require pharmaceuticals for disease prevention and management. In order to be effective, these pharmaceuticals must be accessibly priced. This analysis will explore the notion of corporate social responsibility in regards to pharmaceutical pricing with an aim of restoring a positive reputation upon the pharmaceutical industry in the public eye. The analysis will utilize the 2005 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) to establish implications regarding the societal responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in a global context. To accomplish this, Article 14 of the UDBHR-social responsibility and health-will be articulated in order to advocate a viewpoint of socially responsible capitalism in which pharmaceutical companies continue as profit-making ventures, yet establish moral concern for the welfare of all their stakeholders, including the healthcare consumer.

  10. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that stress may orchestrate the engagement of multiple memory systems in the brain. In particular, stress is thought to favor dorsal striatum-dependent procedural over hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these modulatory effects of stress remain elusive, especially in humans. Here, we targeted the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced modulation of dorsal striatal and hippocampal memory systems in the human brain using a combination of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacologic blockade of the MR. Eighty healthy participants received the MR antagonist spironolactone (300 mg) or a placebo and underwent a stressor or control manipulation before they performed, in the scanner, a classification task that can be supported by the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. Stress after placebo did not affect learning performance but reduced explicit task knowledge and led to a relative increase in the use of more procedural learning strategies. At the neural level, stress promoted striatum-based learning at the expense of hippocampus-based learning. Functional connectivity analyses showed that this shift was associated with altered coupling of the amygdala with the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade before stress prevented the stress-induced shift toward dorsal striatal procedural learning, same as the stress-induced alterations of amygdala connectivity with hippocampus and dorsal striatum, but resulted in significantly impaired performance. Our findings indicate that the stress-induced shift from hippocampal to dorsal striatal memory systems is mediated by the amygdala, required to preserve performance after stress, and dependent on the MR. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  11. Teaching the Transformative Agenda of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian MacNaughton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism has dominated the world for over three decades and now permeates our laws, policies and practices at the international, national and local levels. The International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, the European Union, the United States and China all support trade liberalization, privatization of public services and the primacy of markets over people. Indeed, neoliberalism has become so ingrained that it has become invisible and many of us no longer notice when new agendas conflict with international human rights laws and principles to which almost all countries in the world have committed themselves. Adopted in 1948, immediately after World War II, to implement one of the four goals of the new United Nations Organization, the norms and aspirations elaborated in the UDHR provide a framework for a radically different world than the one we have today. In this article, we revisit the content of the UDHR, beginning with the right to a social and international order in which everyone’s rights can be realized, and consider other key provisions that conflict with neoliberalism, including the rights to the benefits of science, to full employment and decent work, to progressive realization of free higher education, to nondiscrimination on the grounds of economic status and to solidarity. We also share some activities that we use in the classroom and online to make the transformative agenda of the UDHR visible to students and demonstrate how far we have strayed from the aspiration of a world in which everyone enjoys their human rights.  The article concludes that teaching a holistic vision of the UDHR in a neoliberal world is a radical human rights curriculum.

  12. Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here, we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines.

  13. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans.

  14. [The Bilbao declaration: international meeting on the law concerning the human genome project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Bilbao statement was the result of a work meeting, held the day before the closing session by a group of representative experts, formed by general chairmen and meeting organizers. The compelled and necessary consent gave rise to the document that was read and communicated to the world's public opinion during the closing act on may 26, 1993. Notwithstanding, the working group considered that the divulged version was provisory and committed to continue the task of re-elaborating the statement. The aim was to complete and improve it, taking the greatest advantage of the important meeting achievements. The document that is next reproduced is the definitive integral version of the Bilbao Statement. The expert group that takes the responsibility of this Statement is Jean Dausset, Nobel Prize of Medicine (1980); Carleton Gajdusek, Nobel Prize of Medicine (1976); Santiago Grisolía president of UNESCO committee for the Genome Project; Michael Kirby, President of the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, Australia; Aaron Klug, member of the Constitutional Council, Paris, France; Rafael Mendizábal, Judge of the Constitutional Court, Madrid, Spain; Juan Bautista Pardo, President of the Superior Court of Justice of the Basque Country and Carlos María Romeo Casabona, Director of the Chair of Law and Human Genome of the University of Deusto (Bilbao).

  15. Memory-related brain lateralisation in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Nicol, Alister U

    2015-03-01

    Visual imprinting in chicks and song learning in songbirds are prominent model systems for the study of the neural mechanisms of memory. In both systems, neural lateralisation has been found to be involved in memory formation. Although many processes in the human brain are lateralised--spatial memory and musical processing involves mostly right hemisphere dominance, whilst language is mostly left hemisphere dominant--it is unclear what the function of lateralisation is. It might enhance brain capacity, make processing more efficient, or prevent occurrence of conflicting signals. In both avian paradigms we find memory-related lateralisation. We will discuss avian lateralisation findings and propose that birds provide a strong model for studying neural mechanisms of memory-related lateralisation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bolender

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description” requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

  17. [The right to enjoy the benefits of sciences. An approximation to its contents, considering the Declarations of UNESCO on the genome, human genetic data, and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada

    2015-01-01

    The Right to Enjoy the Benefits of Scientific Progress, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has recovered importance with the recently UNESCO Statements. The object of this work is to make a study about the content of this right, reviewing how it is recognized at the International Human Rights Law as well as to analyses how it is possible that it could be protected in the Spanish Constitution. The starting point of this work is the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress is not an autonomous human right, but integral part of the freedom of scientific research.

  18. Brain computer interface to enhance episodic memory in human participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Burke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has revealed that neural oscillations in the theta (4-8 Hz and alpha (9-14 Hz bands are predictive of future success in memory encoding. Because these signals occur before the presentation of an upcoming stimulus, they are considered stimulus-independent in that they correlate with enhanced memory encoding independent of the item being encoded. Thus, such stimulus-independent activity has important implications for the neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory as well as the development of cognitive neural prosthetics. Here, we developed a brain computer interface (BCI to test the ability of such pre-stimulus activity to modulate subsequent memory encoding. We recorded intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG in neurosurgical patients as they performed a free recall memory task, and detected iEEG theta and alpha oscillations that correlated with optimal memory encoding. We then used these detected oscillatory changes to trigger the presentation of items in the free recall task. We found that item presentation contingent upon the presence of prestimulus theta and alpha oscillations modulated memory performance in more sessions than expected by chance. Our results suggest that an electrophysiological signal may be causally linked to a specific behavioral condition, and contingent stimulus presentation has the potential to modulate human memory encoding.

  19. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  20. Oscillatory Correlates of Memory in Non-human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Michael J.; Buffalo, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to navigate through our environment, explore with our senses, track the passage of time, and integrate these various components to form the experiences which make up our lives is shared among humans and animals. The use of animal models to study memory, coupled with electrophysiological techniques that permit the direct measurement of neural activity as memories are formed and retrieved, has provided a wealth of knowledge about these mechanisms. Here, we discuss current knowledge regarding the specific role of neural oscillations in memory, with particular emphasis on findings derived from non-human primates. Some of these findings provide evidence for the existence in the primate brain of mechanisms previously identified only in rodents and other lower mammals, while other findings suggest parallels between memory-related activity and processes observed in other cognitive modalities, including attention and sensory perception. Taken together, these results provide insight into how network activity may be organized to promote memory formation, and suggest that key aspects of this activity are similar across species, providing important information about the organization of human memory. PMID:23867554

  1. Consolidation effect of the processing of declarative knowledge during human sleep: evidence from long-term retention of interrelated contents of mental sleep experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Fagioli, Igino; Mazzetti, Michela; Tuozzi, Giovanni

    2005-03-15

    Sleep may partly exert a positive influence on memory through the processing underlying the transformation of items of declarative knowledge into contents of mental sleep experience (MSE). This hypothesis implies that the level of consolidation (and thus, long-term retention) should be enhanced for those items which are repeatedly processed and transformed into identical or very similar (so-called interrelated) contents of distinct MSEs developed over the same night. To test this prediction, we examined accessibility at delayed recall (i.e., the next morning) of the interrelated contents of MSEs reported (immediate recall) by 14 subjects who were awakened during the first four periods of rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep in two experimental nights. Interrelated contents were much more frequent, and at delayed recall much better retained, than other, non-interrelated contents in report pairs of MSEs. Moreover, they were also more frequent and better retained than by-chance similar or identical contents, as estimated in report pairs of MSEs of different subjects. These findings provide partial but coherent evidence in favour of the hypothesis that a generation effect occurs during sleep, with a further consolidation of the input and the output of MSE processing (respectively, the items of declarative knowledge and the contents of MSEs resulting from their elaboration during sleep).

  2. The effect of a REM sleep deprivation procedure on different aspects of memory function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild West; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Grønli, Janne; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Portas, Chiara Maria

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that memory is dependent on the occurrence of REM sleep. Research has mainly focused on two distinct types of memory function, declarative and procedural, and it seems that the latter may more directly depend on REM sleep. Memory consolidation has been more investigated than acquisition, maintenance, and recall, despite the fact that sleep may affect flow of information into/from storage. Moreover, tests have often been limited to stimuli within only one modality (usually visual or verbal). This study aimed to clarify the role of REM sleep in memory by investigating aspects of memory function, processing, and modality in the same experimental setting. Tests of acquisition and consolidation of multiple aspects of memory function within the visual and verbal modalities were administrated to subjects before and after REM sleep deprivation. Results show that test performance was not affected by REM sleep deprivation.

  3. Human genome-guided identification of memory-modulating drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Gerhards, Christiane; Heck, Angela; Ackermann, Sandra; Aerni, Amanda; Schicktanz, Nathalie; Auschra, Bianca; Demougin, Philippe; Mumme, Eva; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena; Gschwind, Leo; Hanser, Edveena; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Jessen, Frank; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Milnik, Annette; Paganetti, Paolo; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2013-11-12

    In the last decade there has been an exponential increase in knowledge about the genetic basis of complex human traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. It is not clear, however, to what extent this knowledge can be used as a starting point for drug identification, one of the central hopes of the human genome project. The aim of the present study was to identify memory-modulating compounds through the use of human genetic information. We performed a multinational collaborative study, which included assessment of aversive memory--a trait central to posttraumatic stress disorder--and a gene-set analysis in healthy individuals. We identified 20 potential drug target genes in two genomewide-corrected gene sets: the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and the long-term depression gene set. In a subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers, we aimed at providing a proof of concept for the genome-guided identification of memory modulating compounds. Pharmacological intervention at the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction gene set led to significant reduction of aversive memory. The findings demonstrate that genome information, along with appropriate data mining methodology, can be used as a starting point for the identification of memory-modulating compounds.

  4. A critical role of the human hippocampus in an electrophysiological measure of implicit memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addante, Richard James

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has traditionally been thought to be critical for conscious explicit memory but not necessary for unconscious implicit memory processing. In a recent study of a group of mild amnesia patients with evidence of MTL damage limited to the hippocampus, subjects were tested on a direct test of item recognition confidence while electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired, and revealed intact measures of explicit memory from 400–600ms (mid-frontal old-new effect, FN400). The current investigation re-analyzed this data to study event-related potentials (ERPs) of implicit memory, using a recently developed procedure that eliminated declarative memory differences. Prior ERP findings from this technique were first replicated in two independent matched control groups, which exhibited reliable implicit memory effects in posterior scalp regions from 400–600 msec, which were topographically dissociated from the explicit memory effects of familiarity. However, patients were found to be dramatically impaired in implicit memory effects relative to control subjects, as quantified by a reliable condition × group interaction. Several control analysis were conducted to consider alternative factors that could account for the results, including outliers, sample size, age, or contamination by explicit memory, and each of these factors were systematically ruled out. Results suggest that the hippocampus plays a fundamental role in aspects of memory processing that is beyond conscious awareness. The current findings therefore indicate that both memory systems of implicit and explicit memory may rely upon the same neural structures – but function in different physiological ways. PMID:25562828

  5. Is the HM story only a "remote memory"? Some facts about hippocampus and memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweer, B; Pillon, B; Pochon, J B; Dubois, B

    2001-12-14

    In this review, we argue that a number of current data support the notion that the hippocampal formations play an important role in episodic memory in humans. We will focus on data gathered from three topics within this field: (1) the neuropsychological study of memory in degenerative diseases, which provides striking dissociations of processes, as a function of the location of cerebral lesions and of their functional consequences; (2) the description of patients' memory difficulties after unilateral medial temporal lobectomy. Given the visuo-verbal dissociation, we may anticipate that the study of the effects of such lesions may help in the understanding of the role of the hippocampus in memory, in terms of: (i) the stage of memory processing where the hippocampus is really involved (encoding, consolidation and/or retrieval); (ii) the specificity of the impairments as a function of the nature (verbal vs. visuo-spatial) of the to-be-remembered material; (3) recent evidence from imaging studies: (i) the morphological approach, which provides interesting information with the study of correlations between the volumes of diverse cerebral regions-particularly the volume of the hippocampus-and episodic memory performance and other cognitive measures; (ii) metabolic studies, using PET scan, which were first designed for correlational analyses between performance in episodic memory tasks and glucose utilization at rest in diverse regions of interest, such as the hippocampal formations; (iii) activation studies with PET and functional MRI, which are actually more straightforward, since they allow correlations between the metabolism in regions of interest and performance on line (e.g. during encoding or retrieval of information). In our view, inasmuch as such different approaches-degenerative diseases, lesions or imagery-provide convergent information, they give renewed weight to the notion according to which the hippocampal formations are critically concerned in episodic

  6. Tactile perception and working memory in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassihi, Arash; Akrami, Athena; Esmaeili, Vahid; Diamond, Mathew E

    2014-02-11

    Primates can store sensory stimulus parameters in working memory for subsequent manipulation, but until now, there has been no demonstration of this capacity in rodents. Here we report tactile working memory in rats. Each stimulus is a vibration, generated as a series of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution. To perform the task, the rat positions its whiskers to receive two such stimuli, "base" and "comparison," separated by a variable delay. It then judges which stimulus had greater velocity SD. In analogous experiments, humans compare two vibratory stimuli on the fingertip. We demonstrate that the ability of rats to hold base stimulus information (for up to 8 s) and their acuity in assessing stimulus differences overlap the performance demonstrated by humans. This experiment highlights the ability of rats to perceive the statistical structure of vibrations and reveals their previously unknown capacity to store sensory information in working memory.

  7. Tactile perception and working memory in rats and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassihi, Arash; Akrami, Athena; Esmaeili, Vahid; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2014-01-01

    Primates can store sensory stimulus parameters in working memory for subsequent manipulation, but until now, there has been no demonstration of this capacity in rodents. Here we report tactile working memory in rats. Each stimulus is a vibration, generated as a series of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution. To perform the task, the rat positions its whiskers to receive two such stimuli, “base” and “comparison,” separated by a variable delay. It then judges which stimulus had greater velocity SD. In analogous experiments, humans compare two vibratory stimuli on the fingertip. We demonstrate that the ability of rats to hold base stimulus information (for up to 8 s) and their acuity in assessing stimulus differences overlap the performance demonstrated by humans. This experiment highlights the ability of rats to perceive the statistical structure of vibrations and reveals their previously unknown capacity to store sensory information in working memory. PMID:24449850

  8. BODIL BEGTRUP AND THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Individual agency, transnationalism and intergovernmentalism in early UN human rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, K.

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates the individual agency of the little studied transnational, Bodil Begtrup, in the subfields of women's and minority rights, and refugee and asylum policy. Begtrup fulfilled many roles - as state representative, expert advisor, member of the United Nations' Commission...... the change of the institutional design of the UN human rights institutions. In the subfield of minority rights, refugee and asylum policy, Begtrup acted under tight governmental control because the issue at hand was subject to national interest and domestic party politics. Her agency in the two subfields...... on the Status of Women, and president of a national NGO. This article shows how Begtrup enjoyed wide room for manoeuvre in the subfield of women's rights, and acted in this as a transnational norm entrepreneur and process entrepreneur advocating women's rights as an integral part of human rights and forging...

  9. Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Holger

    2013-12-01

    Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis.

  10. Declarative programming in PROLOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The declarative programming by declarative languages is clearly the best option a programmer can have for a completely readable, flexible and extensible code. Today, the economics of programming is clearly focused on the declarative paradigm while most imperative languages are trying to become cost effective by using new added declarative features for productivity and ease of use, like the Java 8. This paper tries to demonstrate a declarative language like PROLOG is perfectly suitable to be used to solve even common programming issue, like deciding an element is part of an array or not.

  11. Impact of memory on human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, A

    2006-01-01

    Our experience of web access slowing down is a consequence of the aggregated web access pattern of web users. This is just one example among several human oriented services which are strongly affected by human activity patterns. Recent empirical evidence is indicating that human activity patterns are characterized by power law distributions of inter-event times, where large fluctuations rather than regularity is the common case. I show that this temporal heterogeneity can be explained by two mechanisms: (i) humans have some perception of their past activity rate and (ii) based on that they react by accelerating or reducing their activity rate. Using these two mechanisms I explain the inter-event time statistics of Darwin's and Einstein's correspondence and the email activity within an university environment. Moreover, they are typical examples of the the accelerating and reducing class, respectively. These results are relevant to the system design of human oriented services.

  12. Emotional declarative memory assessment of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and patients submitted to mesial temporal lobectomy Avaliação da memória declarativa emocional em pacientes com epilepsia temporal mesial e pacientes submetidos à lobectomia temporal mesial

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epileptic seizures generate cognitive and behavioral impacts in individuals who suffer from epilepsy. Declarative memory is one of the cognitive functions that can be affected by epileptic seizures. The main objective of this work was to investigate neurocognitive function, especially the emotional working memory of patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and that of patients submitted to unilateral mesial temporal lobectomy. A face recognition test that can simult...

  13. Memory regulatory T cells reside in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Rodriguez, Robert; Pauli, Mariela L; Neuhaus, Isaac M; Yu, Siegrid S; Arron, Sarah T; Harris, Hobart W; Yang, Sara Hsin-Yi; Anthony, Bryan A; Sverdrup, Francis M; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth; MacKenzie, Tippi C; Johnson, David S; Meyer, Everett H; Löhr, Andrea; Hsu, Andro; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson; Gupta, Rishu; Debbaneh, Maya G; Butler, Daniel; Huynh, Monica; Levin, Ethan C; Leon, Argentina; Hoffman, William Y; McGrath, Mary H; Alvarado, Michael D; Ludwig, Connor H; Truong, Hong-An; Maurano, Megan M; Gratz, Iris K; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, are a dynamic and heterogeneous population of cells that control immune responses and prevent autoimmunity. We recently identified a subset of Tregs in murine skin with properties typical of memory cells and defined this population as memory Tregs (mTregs). Due to the importance of these cells in regulating tissue inflammation in mice, we analyzed this cell population in humans and found that almost all Tregs in normal skin had an activated memory phenotype. Compared with mTregs in peripheral blood, cutaneous mTregs had unique cell surface marker expression and cytokine production. In normal human skin, mTregs preferentially localized to hair follicles and were more abundant in skin with high hair density. Sequence comparison of TCRs from conventional memory T helper cells and mTregs isolated from skin revealed little homology between the two cell populations, suggesting that they recognize different antigens. Under steady-state conditions, mTregs were nonmigratory and relatively unresponsive; however, in inflamed skin from psoriasis patients, mTregs expanded, were highly proliferative, and produced low levels of IL-17. Taken together, these results identify a subset of Tregs that stably resides in human skin and suggest that these cells are qualitatively defective in inflammatory skin disease.

  14. Dissociating response systems: erasing fear from memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Soeter; M. Kindt

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the extensive evidence in animals, we previously showed that disrupting reconsolidation by noradrenergic blockade produced amnesia for the original fear response in humans. Interestingly, the declarative memory for the fear association remained intact. These results asked for a solid

  15. Classic and contemporary perspectives on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentosela, Mariana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans organize past events as “memories”, i.e. what we learn is encoded and stored in the brain, and by accumulating relevant environmental information we better cope with similar situations in the future. The main research on memory began in the 70s and the most important conclusions have been derived, on the one hand, from animal experiments, and on the other hand, from clinical studies of amnesic patients. Many classification systems of memory have been proposed. First, authors have distinguished among the different phases involved in the process of memory formation: short-term and long-term memory. Second, declarative and non-declarative memories have been recognized. Last, researchers have conceived the need to evaluate memory in a systematic manner through behavioral as well as pharmacological means, in different moments or times to be able to have independent access to the study of the different memory phases or types of memory. This approach to the study of memory has allowed evaluating drug effects on memory and also understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in memory processes. In addition, this research has also aimed at studying brain regions implicated in the diverse memory phenomena under investigation.

  16. Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, T W; Lovallo, W R

    2001-04-01

    Memory tends to be better for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Evidence from animal studies indicates that corticosteroids may be necessary for this memory enhancement to occur. We extend these findings to human memory performance. Following administration of cortisol (20 mg) or placebo, participants were exposed to pictures varying in emotional arousal. Incidental memory for the pictures was assessed one week later. We show that elevated cortisol levels during memory encoding enhances the long-term recall performance of emotionally arousing pictures relative to neutral pictures. These results extend previous work on corticosteroid enhancement of memory and suggest that high cortisol levels during arousing events result in enhanced memory in humans.

  17. The perfect time to be stressed: a differential modulation of human memory by stress applied in the morning or in the afternoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Françoise S; Collicutt, Patrick; Kornik, Rachel; Moszkowski, Robin; Lupien, Sonia J

    2005-12-01

    We measured the effects of a stressful experience on memory for emotionally arousing and neutral material learned after exposure to a stressor which induces a significant increase in corticosteroid stress hormones. Because memory performance can be influenced by circadian changes in corticosteroid levels, subjects were tested either in the morning or in the afternoon. Nineteen healthy men (9 in the morning group and 10 in the afternoon group) were submitted to a psychological stress task before viewing a story composed of emotionally negative and neutral segments, while another 20 healthy males (10 in the morning group and 10 in the afternoon group) viewed the story without being exposed to the psychological stressor. Salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after the stressor. Memory performance was assessed by a one week post learning delayed recall. Results show that stress-induced increases in salivary cortisol levels impaired delayed free recall of emotionally arousing material in the morning group, but not in the afternoon group. There was no effect of stress on memory for neutral material. Altogether, these findings suggest that stressing participants in the morning, at a time of high circulating levels of corticosteroids, over stimulated the corticosteroid receptors in the brain, impairing declarative memory for emotionally arousing material unrelated to the stressor. These findings suggest that the experimental context, i.e., time of day at which the experiment occurs, the nature of the to-be-remembered material (remembering the stressful event itself or material unrelated to the stressor) and the valence of the to-be-remembered material (emotionally arousing vs. neutral), modulates the effects of stress on human declarative memory.

  18. Human Memory Limitations in Multi-Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Atkinson , R. C., & Shiffrin , R. M. Human memory : A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (eds.), The psychology of...informa- tion-processing concepts of Norman (1968) and Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), and from the "levels of processing" formulation of Craik and Lockhart...this selection. These strategies (referred to as "control processes" by Atkinson & Shiffrin , 1968) include the processes that direct attention among

  19. Simulation of Human Episodic Memory by Using a Computational Model of the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Sato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The episodic memory, the memory of personal events and history, is essential for understanding the mechanism of human intelligence. Neuroscience evidence has shown that the hippocampus, a part of the limbic system, plays an important role in the encoding and the retrieval of the episodic memory. This paper reviews computational models of the hippocampus and introduces our own computational model of human episodic memory based on neural synchronization. Results from computer simulations demonstrate that our model provides advantage for instantaneous memory formation and selective retrieval enabling memory search. Moreover, this model was found to have the ability to predict human memory recall by integrating human eye movement data during encoding. The combined approach between computational models and experiment is efficient for theorizing the human episodic memory.

  20. Dynamics of the Human Structural Connectome Underlying Working Memory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Foley, Sonya; Jones, Derek K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain region-specific changes have been demonstrated with a variety of cognitive training interventions. The effect of cognitive training on brain subnetworks in humans, however, remains largely unknown, with studies limited to functional networks. Here, we used a well-established working memory training program and state-of-the art neuroimaging methods in 40 healthy adults (21 females, mean age 26.5 years). Near and far-transfer training effects were assessed using computerized working memory and executive function tasks. Adaptive working memory training led to improvement on (non)trained working memory tasks and generalization to tasks of reasoning and inhibition. Graph theoretical analysis of the structural (white matter) network connectivity (“connectome”) revealed increased global integration within a frontoparietal attention network following adaptive working memory training compared with the nonadaptive group. Furthermore, the impact on the outcome of graph theoretical analyses of different white matter metrics to infer “connection strength” was evaluated. Increased efficiency of the frontoparietal network was best captured when using connection strengths derived from MR metrics that are thought to be more sensitive to differences in myelination (putatively indexed by the [quantitative] longitudinal relaxation rate, R1) than previously used diffusion MRI metrics (fractional anisotropy or fiber-tracking recovered streamlines). Our findings emphasize the critical role of specific microstructural markers in providing important hints toward the mechanisms underpinning training-induced plasticity that may drive working memory improvement in clinical populations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This is the first study to explore training-induced changes in the structural connectome using a well-controlled design to examine cognitive training with up-to-date neuroimaging methods. We found changes in global integration based on white matter connectivity within a

  1. Human memory retention and recall processes. A review of EEG and fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hafeezullah; Malik, Aamir S

    2013-10-01

    Human memory is an important concept in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Our brain is actively engaged in functions of learning and memorization. Generally, human memory has been classified into 2 groups: short-term/working memory, and long-term memory. Using different memory paradigms and brain mapping techniques, psychologists and neuroscientists have identified 3 memory processes: encoding, retention, and recall. These processes have been studied using EEG and functional MRI (fMRI) in cognitive and neuroscience research. This study reviews previous research reported for human memory processes, particularly brain behavior in memory retention and recall processes with the use of EEG and fMRI. We discuss issues and challenges related to memory research with EEG and fMRI techniques.

  2. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  3. Emotion causes targeted forgetting of established memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Strange

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Reconsolidation postulates that reactivation of a memory trace renders it susceptible to disruption by treatments similar to those that impair initial memory consolidation. Despite evidence that implicit, or non-declarative, human memories can be disrupted at retrieval, a convincing demonstration of selective impairment in retrieval of target episodic memories following reactivation is lacking. In human subjects, we demonstrate that if reactivation of a verbal memory, through successful retrieval, is immediately followed by an emotionally aversive stimulus, a significant impairment is evident in its later recall. This effect is time-dependent and persists for at least six days. Thus, in line with a reconsolidation hypothesis, established human episodic memories can be selectively impaired following their retrieval.

  4. CROSSREACTIVE ANTIBODIES AND MEMORY T CELLS TO HUMAN AND ZOONOTIC INFLUENZA A VIRUSES IN VOLUNTEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Losev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a real hazard of transferring zoonotic influenza A viruses, either swine, or avian, into human population. In such case, severity of such pandemics depends on the pathogen-specific immunity in the population. Virtual absence of such immunity in humans was declared in the literature. In this work, we assessed systemic, local, and T-cell immunity to potentially pandemic H3N2sw, H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H7N9 and H2N2 influenza A viruses in a group of healthy adults of different age. Our results indicate that these subjects develop the following immune reactions: (i local (i.e., nasal IgA and cellular (CD4+ and CD8v memory T cells heterosubtypic immunity, in absence of detectable virus-specific serum antibodies to avian influenza A viruses; (ii Local immune responses (as nasal IgA to human A (H2N2 virus which circulated in 1957-1968 were detected both in subjects who could be primed at that time, but also in subjects born after 1968; (iii full-scale systemic and local immunity to potentially pandemic А (H3N2sw swine virus was found in the group. Conclusion. In order of proper epidemiological forecasts and planning appropriate preventive measures for potentially pandemic Influenza A viruses, a regular monitoring of collective immunity should be performed using different adaptive markers. In this respect, any conclusion based on molecular analysis only could lead to considerable mistakes, and should be accomplished by the mentioned immunological studies.

  5. [The Helsinki Declaration: relativism and vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Corrêa, M

    2001-01-01

    The Helsinki Declaration is a crucial ethical landmark for clinical research involving human beings. Since the Declaration was issued, a series of revisions and modifications have been introduced into the original text, but they have not altered its humanist approach or its international force for regulating clinical research. A proposal for an extensive revision of the Declaration's underlying ethical principles has been debated for the past four years. If the proposal is approved, international clinical research involving human beings will be modified, further increasing the vulnerability of certain social groups. This article discusses the historical process involved in passing the Helsinki Declaration and the most recent debate on the new draft. The article analyzes the new text's social implications for underdeveloped countries, arguing for a political approach to the vulnerability concept.

  6. Identification of a genetic cluster influencing memory performance and hippocampal activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2006-03-14

    Experimental work in animals has shown that memory formation depends on a cascade of molecular events. Here we show that variability of human memory performance is related to variability in genes encoding proteins of this signaling cascade, including the NMDA and metabotrobic glutamate receptors, adenylyl cyclase, CAMKII, PKA, and PKC. The individual profile of genetic variability in these signaling molecules correlated significantly with episodic memory performance (P < 0.00001). Moreover, functional MRI during memory formation revealed that this genetic profile correlated with activations in memory-related brain regions, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The present study indicates that genetic variability in the human homologues of memory-related signaling molecules contributes to interindividual differences in human memory performance and memory-related brain activations.

  7. EC declaration of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, M E

    1996-05-01

    The CE-marking procedure requires that manufacturers draw up a written declaration of conformity before placing their products on the market. However, some companies do not realize that this is a requirement for all devices. Also, there is no detailed information concerning the contents and format of the EC declaration of conformity in the medical device Directives or in EC guidance documentation. This article will discuss some important aspects of the EC declaration of conformity and some of the guidance that is available on its contents and format.

  8. Influenza vaccine induces intracellular immune memory of human NK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Dou

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccines elicit antigen-specific antibodies and immune memory to protect humans from infection with drift variants. However, what supports or limits vaccine efficacy and duration is unclear. Here, we vaccinated healthy volunteers with annual vaccine formulations and investigated the dynamics of T cell, natural killer (NK cell and antibody responses upon restimulation with heterologous or homologous influenza virus strains. Influenza vaccines induced potential memory NK cells with increased antigen-specific recall IFN-γ responses during the first 6 months. In the absence of significant changes in other NK cell markers (CD45RO, NKp44, CXCR6, CD57, NKG2C, CCR7, CD62L and CD27, influenza vaccines induced memory NK cells with the distinct feature of intracellular NKp46 expression. Indeed, surface NKp46 was internalized, and the dynamic increase in NKp46(intracellular+CD56dim NK cells positively correlated with increased IFN-γ production to influenza virus restimulation after vaccination. In addition, anti-NKp46 antibodies blocked IFN-γ responses. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism underlying vaccine-induced immunity and NK-related diseases, which may help to design persisting and universal vaccines in the future.

  9. Influenza vaccine induces intracellular immune memory of human NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yaling; Fu, Binqing; Sun, Rui; Li, Wenting; Hu, Wanfu; Tian, Zhigang; Wei, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    Influenza vaccines elicit antigen-specific antibodies and immune memory to protect humans from infection with drift variants. However, what supports or limits vaccine efficacy and duration is unclear. Here, we vaccinated healthy volunteers with annual vaccine formulations and investigated the dynamics of T cell, natural killer (NK) cell and antibody responses upon restimulation with heterologous or homologous influenza virus strains. Influenza vaccines induced potential memory NK cells with increased antigen-specific recall IFN-γ responses during the first 6 months. In the absence of significant changes in other NK cell markers (CD45RO, NKp44, CXCR6, CD57, NKG2C, CCR7, CD62L and CD27), influenza vaccines induced memory NK cells with the distinct feature of intracellular NKp46 expression. Indeed, surface NKp46 was internalized, and the dynamic increase in NKp46(intracellular)+CD56dim NK cells positively correlated with increased IFN-γ production to influenza virus restimulation after vaccination. In addition, anti-NKp46 antibodies blocked IFN-γ responses. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism underlying vaccine-induced immunity and NK-related diseases, which may help to design persisting and universal vaccines in the future.

  10. Rhythmic Working Memory Activation in the Human Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Leszczyński

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM maintenance is assumed to rely on a single sustained process throughout the entire maintenance period. This assumption, although fundamental, has never been tested. We used intracranial electroencephalography (EEG recordings from the human hippocampus in two independent experiments to investigate the neural dynamics underlying WM maintenance. We observed periodic fluctuations between two different oscillatory regimes: Periods of “memory activation” were reflected by load-dependent alpha power reductions and lower levels of cross-frequency coupling (CFC. They occurred interleaved with periods characterized by load-independent high levels of alpha power and CFC. During memory activation periods, a relevant CFC parameter (load-dependent changes of the peak modulated frequency correlated with individual WM capacity. Fluctuations between these two periods predicted successful performance and were locked to the phase of endogenous delta oscillations. These results show that hippocampal maintenance is a dynamic rather than constant process and depends critically on a hierarchy of oscillations.

  11. Scaling Behaviour and Memory in Heart Rate of Healthy Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Shi-Min; PENG Hu; YANG Hui-Jie; ZHOU Tao; ZHOU Pei-Ling; WANG Bing-Hong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate a set of complex heart rate time series from healthy human in different behaviour states with the detrended fluctuation analysis and diffusion entropy (DE) method. It is proposed that the scaling properties are influenced by behaviour states. The memory detected by DE exhibits an approximately same pattern after a detrending procedure. Both of them demonstrate the long-range strong correlations in heart rate. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying dynamical evolution process in the heart rate control system, as well as to model the cardiac dynamic process.

  12. The relationships between memory systems and sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Foret, Jean; Eustache, Francis

    2005-06-01

    Sleep function remains elusive despite our rapidly increasing comprehension of the processes generating and maintaining the different sleep stages. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that sleep is involved in the off-line reprocessing of recently-acquired memories. In this review, we summarize the main results obtained in the field of sleep and memory consolidation in both animals and humans, and try to connect sleep stages with the different memory systems. To this end, we have collated data obtained using several methodological approaches, including electrophysiological recordings of neuronal ensembles, post-training modifications of sleep architecture, sleep deprivation and functional neuroimaging studies. Broadly speaking, all the various studies emphasize the fact that the four long-term memory systems (procedural memory, perceptual representation system, semantic and episodic memory, according to Tulving's SPI model; Tulving, 1995) benefit either from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) (not just SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, or from both sleep stages. Tulving's classification of memory systems appears more pertinent than the declarative/non-declarative dichotomy when it comes to understanding the role of sleep in memory. Indeed, this model allows us to resolve several contradictions, notably the fact that episodic and semantic memory (the two memory systems encompassed in declarative memory) appear to rely on different sleep stages. Likewise, this model provides an explanation for why the acquisition of various types of skills (perceptual-motor, sensory-perceptual and cognitive skills) and priming effects, subserved by different brain structures but all designated by the generic term of implicit or non-declarative memory, may not benefit from the same sleep stages.

  13. Trial-by-trial switching between procedural and declarative categorization systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Roeder, Jessica L; Helie, Sebastien; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-11-30

    Considerable evidence suggests that human category learning recruits multiple memory systems. A popular assumption is that procedural memory is used to form stimulus-to-response mappings, whereas declarative memory is used to form and test explicit rules about category membership. The multiple systems framework has been successful in motivating and accounting for a broad array of empirical observations over the past 20 years. Even so, only a couple of studies have examined how the different categorization systems interact. Both previous studies suggest that switching between explicit and procedural responding is extremely difficult. But they leave unanswered the critical questions of whether trial-by-trial system switching is possible, and if so, whether it is qualitatively different than trial-by-trial switching between two explicit tasks. The experiment described in this article addressed these questions. The results (1) confirm that effective trial-by-trial system switching, although difficult, is possible; (2) suggest that switching between tasks mediated by different memory systems is more difficult than switching between two declarative memory tasks; and (3) point to a serious shortcoming of current category-learning theories.

  14. Cortisol has different effects on human memory for emotional and neutral stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Domes, Gregor; Mathiak, Klaus; Hautzinger, Martin

    2003-12-19

    Adrenal stress hormones are considered to play a role in memory enhancement of emotionally arousing events. To investigate the effects of cortisol on human emotional memory, subjects were administered hydrocortisone (25 mg) or placebo and presented with either an emotionally arousing or a neutral story. Memory for the story was tested 1 week later. In all memory tests, subjects who viewed the emotional story scored better for the emotionally arousing story parts, indicating that arousal enhances memory. In memory of details, cortisol showed an interaction with story valence but no main effect: cortisol enhanced memory for details of the neutral story version, but impaired memory for details of the emotionally arousing version. We thus confirm a non-linear interaction between cortisol and arousal on memory formation.

  15. HIV / AIDS: not just a matter of statistics. The International Conference on AIDS - Law and Humanity culminates into "New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Indian Law Institute with the cooperation of UNDP, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other national and international groups organized the International Conference on AIDS--Law and Humanity, held during December 6-10, 1995, in New Delhi, India. The leading speakers focused on the need for a united approach to the HIV/AIDS-related legal issues, which would protect society against the spread of HIV infection and respect the dignity and fundamental human rights of HIV infected persons or those suspected of being HIV infected and their families and friends. All conference participants adopted the New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS. The Plan has six principles designed to guide policy makers in developing laws and strategies to help fight against HIV/AIDS. The first principle is that sound and scientific data (not presupposition, prejudice, and stereotypes) should form the basis for all laws and policies on HIV/AIDS. It lays out eight objectives that vary from protection of rights and empowerment of individuals, so that by their cooperation the spread of HIV infection is contained, to allocation of adequate resources for prevention, care, and anti-discrimination efforts. The participants recognized actions that have been or need to be implemented to control HIV/AIDS at the international, national/legislative, executive, and judicial levels. For example, an international action at the international level is expansion of strategies by the High Commissioner for Human Rights for promoting the co-existence of human rights of persons with HIV/AIDS and for containment of the epidemic. The participants resolved to establish both national and international committees to address the national and international implications of HIV/AIDS from the point of view of law and humanity. The international committee should work with UNAIDS, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, WHO, and UNDP.

  16. Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Sripada, Chandra S.; Abelson, James L.; Liberzon, Israel; Milad, Mohammed R.; Phan, K. Luan

    2012-01-01

    A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention. Specifically, CB1 receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), can facilitate extinction recall by preventing recovery of extinguished fear in rats. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated in humans. We conducted a study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design, coupling a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) recording with an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) or placebo (PBO) 2 hours prior to extinction learning in 29 healthy adult volunteers (THC = 14; PBO = 15) and tested extinction retention 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects that received PBO, subjects that received THC showed low SCR to a previously extinguished CS when extinction memory recall was tested 24 hours after extinction learning, suggesting that THC prevented the recovery of fear. These results provide the first evidence that pharmacological enhancement of extinction learning is feasible in humans using cannabinoid system modulators, which may thus warrant further development and clinical testing. PMID:22796109

  17. Threat of Punishment Motivates Memory Encoding via Amygdala, Not Midbrain, Interactions with the Medial Temporal Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuits associated with motivated declarative encoding and active threat avoidance have both been described, but the relative contribution of these systems to punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to examine mechanisms of declarative memory enhancement when subjects were motivated to avoid punishments that were contingent on forgetting. A motivational cue on each trial informed participants whether they wo...

  18. A reassessment of IgM memory subsets in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnara, Davide; Squillario, Margherita; Kipling, David; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Da Silva, Lucie; Weller, Sandra; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.; Weill, Jean-Claude; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès

    2015-01-01

    From paired blood and spleen samples from three adult donors we performed high-throughput V-h sequencing of human B-cell subsets defined by IgD and CD27 expression: IgD+CD27+ (“MZ”), IgD−CD27+(“memory”, including IgM (“IgM-only”), IgG and IgA) and IgD−CD27− cells (“double-negative”, including IgM, IgG and IgA). 91,294 unique sequences clustered in 42,670 clones, revealing major clonal expansions in each of these subsets. Among these clones, we further analyzed those shared sequences from different subsets or tissues for Vh-gene mutation, H-CDR3-length, and Vh/Jh usage, comparing these different characteristics with all sequences from their subset of origin, for which these parameters constitute a distinct signature. The IgM-only repertoire profile differed notably from that of MZ B cells by a higher mutation frequency, and lower Vh4 and higher Jh6 gene usage. Strikingly, IgM sequences from clones shared between the MZ and the memory IgG/IgA compartments showed a mutation and repertoire profile of IgM-only and not of MZ B cells. Similarly, all IgM clonal relationships (between MZ, IgM-only, and double-negative compartments) involved sequences with the characteristics of IgM-only B cells. Finally, clonal relationships between tissues suggested distinct recirculation characteristics between MZ and switched B cells. The “IgM-only” subset (including cells with its repertoire signature but higher IgD or lower CD27 expression levels) thus appear as the only subset showing precursor-product relationships with CD27+ switched memory B cells, indicating that they represent germinal center-derived IgM memory B cells, and that IgM memory and MZ B cells constitute two distinct entities. PMID:26355154

  19. Declaration and Announcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Declaration To meet the needs of the national information development and widen the academic exchange channel of the authors, we declare that the journal, PEDOSPHERF,, has joined the databases of Chinese Academic Journal (CD), China Journal Net, and Chinainfo Digital Periodicals. If an author does not agree to include his article in the databases,please make a declaration at the time of contribution. Announcement Since the year 2001, the domestic distributor of PEDOSPHERE will change to the Beijing Bureau for Distribution of Newspapers and Journals, China. The domestic post office distribution No. of PEDOSPHERE is 2-576. For domestic subscribers to PEDOSPHERE,please send your orders to the local post offices in China.

  20. Gamma oscillations correlate with working memory load in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Marc W; Rizzuto, Daniel S; Caplan, Jeremy B; Madsen, Joseph R; Lisman, John; Aschenbrenner-Scheibe, Richard; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Kahana, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    .... Spectral analyses revealed that, in both patients, gamma (30-60 Hz) oscillations increased approximately linearly with memory load, tracking closely with memory load over the course of the trial...

  1. New insights in human memory interference and consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Edwin M

    2012-01-24

    Learning new facts and skills in succession can be frustrating because no sooner has new knowledge been acquired than its retention is being jeopardized by learning another set of skills or facts. Interference between memories has recently provided important new insights into the neural and psychological systems responsible for memory processing. For example, interference not only occurs between the same types of memories, but can also occur between different types of memories, which has important implications for our understanding of memory organization. Converging evidence has begun to reveal that the brain produces interference independently from other aspects of memory processing, which suggests that interference may have an important but previously overlooked function. A memory's initial susceptibility to interference and subsequent resistance to interference after its acquisition has revealed that memories continue to be processed 'off-line' during consolidation. Recent work has demonstrated that off-line processing is not limited to just the stabilization of a memory, which was once the defining characteristic of consolidation; instead, off-line processing can have a rich diversity of effects, from enhancing performance to making hidden rules explicit. Off-line processing also occurs after memory retrieval when memories are destabilized and then subsequently restabalized during reconsolidation. Studies are beginning to reveal the function of reconsolidation, its mechanistic relationship to consolidation and its potential as a therapeutic target for the modification of memories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Computational dissection of human episodic memory reveals mental process-specific genetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksys, Gediminas; Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Freytag, Virginie; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2015-09-01

    Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy young adults. We report robust and replicated associations of the amine compound SLC (solute-carrier) transporters gene set with the learning rate, of the collagen formation and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity gene sets with the modulation of memory strength by negative emotional arousal, and of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions gene set with the repetition-based memory improvement. Furthermore, in a large functional MRI sample of 795 subjects we found that the association between L1CAM interactions and memory maintenance revealed large clusters of differences in brain activity in frontal cortical areas. Our findings provide converging evidence that distinct genetic profiles underlie specific mental processes of human episodic memory. They also provide empirical support to previous theoretical and neurobiological studies linking specific neuromodulators to the learning rate and linking neural cell adhesion molecules to memory maintenance. Furthermore, our study suggests additional memory-related genetic pathways, which may contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of human memory.

  3. False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathryn; Chittka, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time? It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts.

  4. The dynamics of zero: on digital memories of Mars and the human foetus in the globital memory field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna READING

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of digitisation and globalisation are synergetically and dialectically changing the ways in which human beings individually and collectively capture, document, share and preserve memories of the past. This paper develops further the concept of the “globital memory field” with a discursive overview of the development of “digital memory” and the significance of zero in the meaning and practice of digital memory. The paper then explains the key elements of this epistemology, with an emphasis on the significance of zero or nothing in relation to two contrasting examples of the medical imaging of the human fœtus to the capturing and sending back to Earth by NASA’s Curiosity robot images from the surface of Mars.

  5. Classifying Human Body Acceleration Patterns Using a Hierarchical Temporal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Federico; Ascari, Luca; Cagnoni, Stefano

    This paper introduces a novel approach to the detection of human body movements during daily life. With the sole use of one wearable wireless triaxial accelerometer attached to one's chest, this approach aims at classifying raw acceleration data robustly, to detect many common human behaviors without requiring any specific a-priori knowledge about movements. The proposed approach consists of feeding sensory data into a specifically trained Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) to extract invariant spatial-temporal patterns that characterize different body movements. The HTM output is then classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) into different categories. The performance of this new HTM+SVM combination is compared with a single SVM using real-word data corresponding to movements like "standing", "walking", "jumping" and "falling", acquired from a group of different people. Experimental results show that the HTM+SVM approach can detect behaviors with very high accuracy and is more robust, with respect to noise, than a classifier based solely on SVMs.

  6. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  7. MicroRNA-138 is a potential regulator of memory performance in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Julia; Ansaloni, Sara; Schilling, Marcel; Liu, Tian; Radke, Josefine; Jaedicke, Marian; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M.; Mashychev, Andriy; Tegeler, Christina; Radbruch, Helena; Papenberg, Goran; Düzel, Sandra; Demuth, Ilja; Bucholtz, Nina; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors underlie a substantial proportion of individual differences in cognitive functions in humans, including processes related to episodic and working memory. While genetic association studies have proposed several candidate "memory genes," these currently explain only a minor fraction of the phenotypic variance. Here, we performed genome-wide screening on 13 episodic and working memory phenotypes in 1318 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II aged 60 years or older. The analyse...

  8. MicroRNA-138 is a potential regulator of memory performance in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Julia eSchröder; Sara eAnsaloni; Marcel eSchilling; Tian eLiu; Josefine eRadke; Marian eJädicke; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M.; Andriy eMashychev; Christina eTegeler; Helena eRadbruch; Goran ePapenberg; Sandra eDüzel; Ilja eDemuth; Nina eBucholtz; Ulman eLindenberger

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors underlie a substantial proportion of individual differences in cognitive functions in humans, including processes related to episodic and working memory. While genetic association studies have proposed several candidate memory genes, these currently explain only a minor fraction of the phenotypic variance. Here, we performed genome-wide screening on 13 episodic and working memory phenotypes in 1,318 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II aged 60 years or older. The analyses...

  9. A declaration of eco-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Eco-ethics is the essential foundation for sustainable use of the planet. Such a foundation must consist of a series of value judgments to which humanity is committed. This declaration is a tentative attempt to provide some illustrative examples.

  10. International Symposium for Literacy: Declaration of Persepolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convergence, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The full text of the Declaration of Persepolis, adopted by the International Symposium for Literacy, is presented. The Symposium considers literacy to be not only the process of attaining reading, writing, and arithmetic skills, but also a contribution to the liberation and development of the human race. (LH)

  11. Dissecting the human CD4+T cell memory pool

    OpenAIRE

    Rivino, Laura; Rusconi, Sandro; Geginat, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Memory cells can persist for a whole lifetime. Consequently, these cells must possess characteristics which endows them with the capacity to survive in the absence of their cognate antigen, to self-renewal and to rapidly and efficiently respond upon secondary encounter of antigen. It has become increasingly clear that the memory pool can fulfil these diverse requirements because of its extreme heterogeneity which allows a division of labour among the different memory cell subsets. In my study...

  12. Young and Old Pavlovian Fear Memories Can Be Modified with Extinction Training during Reconsolidation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfurth, Elisa C. K.; Kanen, Jonathan W.; Raio, Candace M.; Clem, Roger L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training during reconsolidation has been shown to persistently diminish conditioned fear responses across species. We investigated in humans if older fear memories can benefit similarly. Using a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm we compared standard extinction and extinction after memory reactivation 1 d or 7 d following acquisition.…

  13. An electroconvulsive therapy procedure impairs reconsolidation of episodic memories in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Tendolkar, I.; Wingen, G.A. van; Waarde, J.A. van; Strange, B.A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence for a reconsolidation process in animals, support in humans, especially for episodic memory, is limited. Using a within-subjects manipulation, we found that a single application of electroconvulsive therapy following memory reactivation in patients with unipolar depress

  14. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  15. Young and Old Pavlovian Fear Memories Can Be Modified with Extinction Training during Reconsolidation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfurth, Elisa C. K.; Kanen, Jonathan W.; Raio, Candace M.; Clem, Roger L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training during reconsolidation has been shown to persistently diminish conditioned fear responses across species. We investigated in humans if older fear memories can benefit similarly. Using a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm we compared standard extinction and extinction after memory reactivation 1 d or 7 d following acquisition.…

  16. Declarative Programming in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan DINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the code is rarely self-explanatory, the imperative programming languages are the most commonly used in our days by the programmers all over the world and Java is definitely the lead language in popularity. This paper tries to conclude if there are any chances to use the most popular programming language of the moment in a declarative manner, even if Java itself is an intrinsic imperative language.

  17. Logic and declarative language

    CERN Document Server

    Downward, M

    2004-01-01

    Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.

  18. A computational predictor of human episodic memory based on a theta phase precession network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Sato

    Full Text Available In the rodent hippocampus, a phase precession phenomena of place cell firing with the local field potential (LFP theta is called "theta phase precession" and is considered to contribute to memory formation with spike time dependent plasticity (STDP. On the other hand, in the primate hippocampus, the existence of theta phase precession is unclear. Our computational studies have demonstrated that theta phase precession dynamics could contribute to primate-hippocampal dependent memory formation, such as object-place association memory. In this paper, we evaluate human theta phase precession by using a theory-experiment combined analysis. Human memory recall of object-place associations was analyzed by an individual hippocampal network simulated by theta phase precession dynamics of human eye movement and EEG data during memory encoding. It was found that the computational recall of the resultant network is significantly correlated with human memory recall performance, while other computational predictors without theta phase precession are not significantly correlated with subsequent memory recall. Moreover the correlation is larger than the correlation between human recall and traditional experimental predictors. These results indicate that theta phase precession dynamics are necessary for the better prediction of human recall performance with eye movement and EEG data. In this analysis, theta phase precession dynamics appear useful for the extraction of memory-dependent components from the spatio-temporal pattern of eye movement and EEG data as an associative network. Theta phase precession may be a common neural dynamic between rodents and humans for the formation of environmental memories.

  19. Cortisol variation in humans affects memory for emotionally laden and neutral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Kalin, Ned H; Thurow, Marchell E; Rosenkranz, Melissa A; Davidson, Richard J

    2003-06-01

    In a test of the effects of cortisol on emotional memory, 90 men were orally administered placebo or 20 or 40 mg cortisol and presented with emotionally arousing and neutral stimuli. On memory tests administered within 1 hr of stimulus presentation, cortisol elevations caused a reduction in the number of errors committed on free-recall tasks. Two evenings later, when cortisol levels were no longer manipulated, inverted-U quadratic trends were found for recognition memory tasks, reflecting memory facilitation in the 20-mg group for both negative and neutral information. Results suggest that the effects of cortisol on memory do not differ substantially for emotional and neutral information. The study provides evidence of beneficial effects of acute cortisol elevations on explicit memory in humans.

  20. New learning following reactivation in the human brain: targeting emotional memories through rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkner, Janine; Löw, Andreas; Hamm, Alfons O; Weymar, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Once reactivated, previously consolidated memories destabilize and have to be reconsolidated to persist, a process that might be altered non-invasively by interfering learning immediately after reactivation. Here, we investigated the influence of interference on brain correlates of reactivated episodic memories for emotional and neutral scenes using event-related potentials (ERPs). To selectively target emotional memories we applied a new reactivation method: rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). RSVP leads to enhanced implicit processing (pop out) of the most salient memories making them vulnerable to disruption. In line, interference after reactivation of previously encoded pictures disrupted recollection particularly for emotional events. Furthermore, memory impairments were reflected in a reduced centro-parietal ERP old/new difference during retrieval of emotional pictures. These results provide neural evidence that emotional episodic memories in humans can be selectively altered through behavioral interference after reactivation, a finding with further clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress, memory, and the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-01-01

    Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders.

  2. Motor threshold predicts working memory performance in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Nathalie; Schwegler, Kyrill; Fastenrath, Matthias; Spalek, Klara; Milnik, Annette; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Nyffeler, Thomas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functions, such as working memory, depend on neuronal excitability in a distributed network of cortical regions. It is not known, however, if interindividual differences in cortical excitability are related to differences in working memory performance. In the present transcranial magnetic stimulation study, which included 188 healthy young subjects, we show that participants with lower resting motor threshold, which is related to higher corticospinal excitability, had increased 2-back working memory performance. The findings may help to better understand the link between cortical excitability and cognitive functions and may also have important clinical implications with regard to conditions of altered cortical excitability.

  3. Strong Memory in Time Series of Human Magnetoencephalograms Can Identify Photosensitive Epilepsy

    CERN Document Server

    Yulmetyev, R M; Hänggi, P; Khusaenova, E V; Shimojo, S; Yulmetyeva, D G

    2006-01-01

    o discuss the salient role of the statistical memory effects in the human brain functioning we have analyzed a set of stochastic memory quantifiers that reflects the dynamical characteristics of neuromagnetic brain responses to a flickering stimulus of different color combinations from a group of control subjects which is contrasted with those from a patient with photosensitive epilepsy (PSE). We have discovered the emergence of strong memory and the accompanying transition to a regular and robust regime of chaotic behavior of the signals in the separate areas for a patient with PSE. This finding most likely identifies the regions of the location the protective mechanism in a human organism against occurrence of PSE.

  4. Effects of clorazepate, diazepam, lorazepam, and placebo on human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, M; Pickens, R; Meisch, R; McKenna, T

    1983-12-01

    Healthy adults (N = 10) were given oral doses of lorazepam (1 and 2 mg), diazepam (5 and 10 mg), clorazepate (7.5 and 15 mg), or placebo and tested 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes later on a word-recall memory task. All subjects received each drug dose once and placebo twice in randomized order at weekly intervals. Testing was double-blind. Lorazepam was found to have a significantly greater effect on memory than placebo. Diazepam and clorazepate did not differ significantly from placebo in their effect on word recall. High doses of lorazepam produced more pronounced memory effects than did low doses; neither diazepam nor clorazepate was found to exert a dose-related effect on memory.

  5. A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    A novel computational cognitive model explains human procedural error in terms of declarative memory processes. This is an early version of a process ... model intended to predict and explain multiple classes of procedural error a priori. We begin with postcompletion error (PCE) a type of systematic

  6. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puri, KS; Suresh, KR; Gogtay, NJ; Thatte, UM

    2009-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects...

  7. Declarative Visualization Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  8. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly

  9. Scarcity of autoreactive human blood IgA(+) memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Julie; Lorin, Valérie; Kök, Ayrin; Hieu, Thierry; Bourgeau, Salomé; Mouquet, Hugo

    2016-10-01

    Class-switched memory B cells are key components of the "reactive" humoral immunity, which ensures a fast and massive secretion of high-affinity antigen-specific antibodies upon antigenic challenge. In humans, IgA class-switched (IgA(+) ) memory B cells and IgA antibodies are abundant in the blood. Although circulating IgA(+) memory B cells and their corresponding secreted immunoglobulins likely possess major protective and/or regulatory immune roles, little is known about their specificity and function. Here, we show that IgA(+) and IgG(+) memory B-cell antibodies cloned from the same healthy humans share common immunoglobulin gene features. IgA and IgG memory antibodies have comparable lack of reactivity to vaccines, common mucosa-tropic viruses and commensal bacteria. However, the IgA(+) memory B-cell compartment contains fewer polyreactive clones and importantly, only rare self-reactive clones compared to IgG(+) memory B cells. Self-reactivity of IgAs is acquired following B-cell affinity maturation but not antibody class switching. Together, our data suggest the existence of different regulatory mechanisms for removing autoreactive clones from the IgG(+) and IgA(+) memory B-cell repertoires, and/or different maturation pathways potentially reflecting the distinct nature and localization of the cognate antigens recognized by individual B-cell populations.

  10. BAIAP2 is related to emotional modulation of human memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksys, Gediminas; Ackermann, Sandra; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Rasch, Bjoern; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is the result of many distinct mental processes, such as memory encoding, forgetting, and modulation of memory strength by emotional arousal. These processes, which are subserved by partly distinct molecular profiles, are not always amenable to direct observation. Therefore, computational models can be used to make inferences about specific mental processes and to study their genetic underpinnings. Here we combined a computational model-based analysis of memory-related processes with high density genetic information derived from a genome-wide study in healthy young adults. After identifying the best-fitting model for a verbal memory task and estimating the best-fitting individual cognitive parameters, we found a common variant in the gene encoding the brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAIAP2) that was related to the model parameter reflecting modulation of verbal memory strength by negative valence. We also observed an association between the same genetic variant and a similar emotional modulation phenotype in a different population performing a picture memory task. Furthermore, using functional neuroimaging we found robust genotype-dependent differences in activity of the parahippocampal cortex that were specifically related to successful memory encoding of negative versus neutral information. Finally, we analyzed cortical gene expression data of 193 deceased subjects and detected significant BAIAP2 genotype-dependent differences in BAIAP2 mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that model-based dissociation of specific cognitive parameters can improve the understanding of genetic underpinnings of human learning and memory.

  11. Stress and the engagement of multiple memory systems: integration of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Learning and memory can be controlled by distinct memory systems. How these systems are coordinated to optimize learning and behavior has long been unclear. Accumulating evidence indicates that stress may modulate the engagement of multiple memory systems. In particular, rodent and human studies demonstrate that stress facilitates dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory, at the expense of hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" memory. Based on these data, a model is proposed which states that the impact of stress on the relative use of multiple memory systems is due to (i) differential effects of hormones and neurotransmitters that are released during stressful events on hippocampal and dorsal striatal memory systems, thus changing the relative strength of and the interactions between these systems, and (ii) a modulatory influence of the amygdala which biases learning toward dorsal striatum-based memory after stress. This shift to habit memory after stress can be adaptive with respect to current performance but might contribute to psychopathology in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. BAIAP2 is related to emotional modulation of human memory strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Luksys

    Full Text Available Memory performance is the result of many distinct mental processes, such as memory encoding, forgetting, and modulation of memory strength by emotional arousal. These processes, which are subserved by partly distinct molecular profiles, are not always amenable to direct observation. Therefore, computational models can be used to make inferences about specific mental processes and to study their genetic underpinnings. Here we combined a computational model-based analysis of memory-related processes with high density genetic information derived from a genome-wide study in healthy young adults. After identifying the best-fitting model for a verbal memory task and estimating the best-fitting individual cognitive parameters, we found a common variant in the gene encoding the brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2 (BAIAP2 that was related to the model parameter reflecting modulation of verbal memory strength by negative valence. We also observed an association between the same genetic variant and a similar emotional modulation phenotype in a different population performing a picture memory task. Furthermore, using functional neuroimaging we found robust genotype-dependent differences in activity of the parahippocampal cortex that were specifically related to successful memory encoding of negative versus neutral information. Finally, we analyzed cortical gene expression data of 193 deceased subjects and detected significant BAIAP2 genotype-dependent differences in BAIAP2 mRNA levels. Our findings suggest that model-based dissociation of specific cognitive parameters can improve the understanding of genetic underpinnings of human learning and memory.

  13. Some surprising findings on the involvement of the parietal lobe in human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian

    2009-02-01

    The posterior parietal lobe is known to play some role in a far-flung list of mental processes: linking vision to action (saccadic eye movements, reaching, grasping), attending to visual space, numerical calculation, and mental rotation. Here, we review findings from humans and monkeys that illuminate an untraditional function of this region: memory. Our review draws on neuroimaging findings that have repeatedly identified parietal lobe activations associated with short-term or working memory and episodic memory. We also discuss recent neuropsychological findings showing that individuals with parietal lobe damage exhibit both working memory and long-term memory deficits. These deficits are not ubiquitous; they are only evident under certain retrieval demands. Our review elaborates on these findings and evaluates various theories about the mechanistic role of the posterior parietal lobe in memory. The available data point towards the conclusion that the posterior parietal lobe plays an important role in memory retrieval irrespective of elapsed time. However, the available data do not support simple dichotomies such as recall versus recognition, working versus long-term memory. We conclude by formalizing several open questions that are intended to encourage future research in this rapidly developing area of memory research.

  14. Influence of stress on fear memory processes in an aversive differential conditioning paradigm in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Wilhelm, Frank H; Hartmann, Francina R; Kunz, Sabrina; von Rohr, Isabelle R Rudolf; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2013-07-01

    It is widely assumed that learning and memory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis, expression, maintenance and therapy of anxiety disorders, such as phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memory retrieval is involved in symptom expression and maintenance of these disorders, while memory extinction is believed to be the underlying mechanism of behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. There is abundant evidence that stress and stress hormones can reduce memory retrieval of emotional information, whereas they enhance memory consolidation of extinction training. In this study we aimed at investigating if stress affects these memory processes in a fear conditioning paradigm in healthy human subjects. On day 1, fear memory was acquired through a standard differential fear conditioning procedure. On day 2 (24h after fear acquisition), participants either underwent a stressful cold pressor test (CPT) or a control condition, 20 min before memory retrieval testing and extinction training. Possible prolonged effects of the stress manipulation were investigated on day 3 (48 h after fear acquisition), when memory retrieval and extinction were tested again. On day 2, men in the stress group showed a robust cortisol response to stress and showed lower unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings than men in the control group. This reduction in fear memory retrieval was maintained on day 3. In women, who showed a significantly smaller cortisol response to stress than men, no stress effects on fear memory retrieval were observed. No group differences were observed with respect to extinction. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that stress can reduce memory retrieval of conditioned fear in men. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of stress and glucocorticoids on fear symptoms in anxiety disorders and suggest that such effects may be sex-specific.

  15. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  16. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  17. High-throughput gene expression profiling of memory differentiation in primary human T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Kate

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differentiation of naive T and B cells into memory lymphocytes is essential for immunity to pathogens. Therapeutic manipulation of this cellular differentiation program could improve vaccine efficacy and the in vitro expansion of memory cells. However, chemical screens to identify compounds that induce memory differentiation have been limited by 1 the lack of reporter-gene or functional assays that can distinguish naive and memory-phenotype T cells at high throughput and 2 a suitable cell-line representative of naive T cells. Results Here, we describe a method for gene-expression based screening that allows primary naive and memory-phenotype lymphocytes to be discriminated based on complex genes signatures corresponding to these differentiation states. We used ligation-mediated amplification and a fluorescent, bead-based detection system to quantify simultaneously 55 transcripts representing naive and memory-phenotype signatures in purified populations of human T cells. The use of a multi-gene panel allowed better resolution than any constituent single gene. The method was precise, correlated well with Affymetrix microarray data, and could be easily scaled up for high-throughput. Conclusion This method provides a generic solution for high-throughput differentiation screens in primary human T cells where no single-gene or functional assay is available. This screening platform will allow the identification of small molecules, genes or soluble factors that direct memory differentiation in naive human lymphocytes.

  18. Dissociation between explicit memory and configural memory in the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alison R; Gabrieli, John D E

    2008-09-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the current study explored the differential mnemonic contributions of the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe (MTL) cortices to explicit recognition memory and configural learning. Using a task that required processing of repeated and novel visuospatial contexts across multiple trials, we examined MTL activation in relation to 3 forms of learning in a single paradigm: 1) context-independent procedural learning, 2) context-dependent configural learning, and 3) explicit recognition memory. Activations in hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex were associated with explicit memory, differentiating between subsequently remembered and forgotten repeated contexts, but were unrelated to context-dependent configural learning. Activations in regions of perirhinal and entorhinal cortex were associated with configural learning of repeated contexts independent from explicit memory for those contexts. Procedural learning was unrelated to activation in any MTL region. The time course of activation across learning further differed in MTL subregions with MTL cortex demonstrating repetition-related decreases and hippocampus repetition-related increases. These repetition effects were differentially sensitive to recognition with only activation in hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex tracking recognized items. These imaging findings converge with studies of amnesia and indicate dissociable roles for hippocampus in learning that supports explicit recognition and for anterior MTL cortex in configural learning.

  19. Coupling of Thalamocortical Sleep Oscillations Are Important for Memory Consolidation in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Niknazar

    Full Text Available Sleep, specifically non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, is thought to play a critical role in the consolidation of recent memories. Two main oscillatory activities observed during NREM, cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1.0 Hz and thalamic spindles (12-15 Hz, have been shown to independently correlate with memory improvement. Yet, it is not known how these thalamocortical events interact, or the significance of this interaction, during the consolidation process. Here, we found that systemic administration of the GABAergic drug (zolpidem increased both the phase-amplitude coupling between SO and spindles, and verbal memory improvement in humans. These results suggest that thalamic spindles that occur during transitions to the cortical SO Up state are optimal for memory consolidation. Our study predicts that the timely interactions between cortical and thalamic events during consolidation, contribute to memory improvement and is mediated by the level of inhibitory neurotransmission.

  20. Atypical evening cortisol profile induces visual recognition memory deficit in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Heather

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diurnal rhythm-mediated endogenous cortisol levels in humans are characterised by a peak in secretion after awakening that declines throughout the day to an evening trough. However, a significant proportion of the population exhibits an atypical cycle of diurnal cortisol due to shift work, jet-lag, aging, and mental illness. Results The present study has demonstrated a correlation between elevation of cortisol in the evening and deterioration of visual object recognition memory. However, high evening cortisol levels have no effect on spatial memory. Conclusion This study suggests that atypical evening salivary cortisol levels have an important role in the early deterioration of recognition memory. The loss of recognition memory, which is vital for everyday life, is a major symptom of the amnesic syndrome and early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this study will promote a potential physiologic marker of early deterioration of recognition memory and a possible diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Restoring Latent Visual Working Memory Representations in Human Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Thomas C; Ester, Edward F; Serences, John T

    2016-08-03

    Working memory (WM) enables the storage and manipulation of limited amounts of information over short periods. Prominent models posit that increasing the number of remembered items decreases the spiking activity dedicated to each item via mutual inhibition, which irreparably degrades the fidelity of each item's representation. We tested these models by determining if degraded memory representations could be recovered following a post-cue indicating which of several items in spatial WM would be recalled. Using an fMRI-based image reconstruction technique, we identified impaired behavioral performance and degraded mnemonic representations with elevated memory load. However, in several cortical regions, degraded mnemonic representations recovered substantially following a post-cue, and this recovery tracked behavioral performance. These results challenge pure spike-based models of WM and suggest that remembered items are additionally encoded within latent or hidden neural codes that can help reinvigorate active WM representations.

  2. The prion gene is associated with human long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Wollmer, M Axel; Aguzzi, Adriano; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2005-08-01

    Human cognitive processes are highly variable across individuals and are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic variations affect short-term memory in humans, it is unknown whether genetic variability has also an impact on long-term memory. Because prion-like conformational changes may be involved in the induction of long-lasting synaptic plasticity, we examined the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the prion protein gene (PRNP) on long-term memory in healthy young humans. SNPs in the genomic region of PRNP were associated with better long-term memory performance in two independent populations with different educational background. Among the examined PRNP SNPs, the common Met129Val polymorphism yielded the highest effect size. Twenty-four hours after a word list-learning task, carriers of either the 129MM or the 129MV genotype recalled 17% more information than 129VV carriers, but short-term memory was unaffected. These results suggest a role for the prion protein in the formation of long-term memory in humans.

  3. Stress modulates the engagement of multiple memory systems in classification learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-08-08

    Learning and memory are supported by anatomically and functionally distinct systems. Recent research suggests that stress may alter the contributions of multiple memory systems to learning, yet the underlying mechanism in the human brain remains completely unknown. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked in the present experiment whether stress may modulate the engagement of hippocampus-based "declarative" and striatum-based "procedural" memory systems during classification learning in humans and what brain mechanisms are involved in this effect. We found that stress reduced declarative knowledge about the learning task and changed the used learning strategy from a single-cue-based declarative strategy to a multicue-based procedural strategy, whereas learning performance per se remained unaffected by stress. Neuroimaging revealed that hippocampal activity correlated positively with task performance in the control condition, whereas striatal activity correlated with performance in the stress condition. After stress, hippocampal activity was reduced and even negatively correlated with learning performance. These findings show for the first time that stress alters the engagement of multiple memory systems in the human brain. Stress impaired the hippocampus-dependent system and allowed the striatum to control behavior. The shift toward "procedural" learning after stress appears to rescue task performance, whereas attempts to engage the "declarative" system disrupt performance.

  4. Emotional declarative memory assessment of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and patients submitted to mesial temporal lobectomy Avaliação da memória declarativa emocional em pacientes com epilepsia temporal mesial e pacientes submetidos à lobectomia temporal mesial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara De Vecchi Machado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizures generate cognitive and behavioral impacts in individuals who suffer from epilepsy. Declarative memory is one of the cognitive functions that can be affected by epileptic seizures. The main objective of this work was to investigate neurocognitive function, especially the emotional working memory of patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and that of patients submitted to unilateral mesial temporal lobectomy. A face recognition test that can simultaneously recruit the frontal lobe (working memory and mesial temporal lobe (emotional memory was used to investigate emotional working memory. Our findings showed that the epilepsy factor significantly compromised the performance in the emotional memory test. On the other hand, surgical removal of the epileptic focus promoted an improvement in the emotional working memory of these patients, in addition to the significantly decrease in the number of seizures.Crises epilépticas geram impactos comportamentais e cognitivos em indivíduos que sofrem de epilepsia. Uma das funções cognitivas que pode ser afetada pelas crises epilépticas é a memória declarativa. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi investigar funções cognitivas, especialmente a memória operacional emocional de pacientes com epilepsia temporal mesial unilateral e pacientes submetidos a lobectomia temporal mesial unilateral. Para investigar a memória operacional emocional foi utilizado um teste de reconhecimento de faces que pode recrutar simultaneamente o lobo frontal (memória operacional e o lobo temporal mesial (memória emocional. Nossos resultados demonstram que o fator epilepsia compromete de forma significativa o desempenho no teste de memória emocional. Por outro lado, a remoção cirúrgica do foco epiléptico promoveu uma melhora na memória emocional desses pacientes, além de diminuir o número de crises.

  5. Genetic variation of the RASGRF1 regulatory region affects human hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eBarman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RASGRF1 is an important regulator of intracellular signaling and neural plasticity in the brain. RASGRF1-deficient mice exhibit a complex phenotype with learning deficits and ocular abnormalities. Also in humans, a genome-wide association study has identified the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs8027411 in the putative transcription regulatory region of RASGRF1 as a risk variant of myopia. Here we aimed to assess whether, in line with the RASGRF1 knockout mouse phenotype, rs8027411 might also be associated with human memory function. We performed computer-based neuropsychological learning experiments in two independent cohorts of young, healthy participants. Tests included the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT and the logical memory section of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS. Two sub-cohorts additionally participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of hippocampus function. 119 participants performed a novelty encoding task that had previously been shown to engage the hippocampus, and 63 subjects participated in a reward-related memory encoding study. RASGRF1 rs8027411 genotype was indeed associated with memory performance in an allele dosage-dependent manner, with carriers of the T allele (i.e. the myopia risk allele showing better memory performance in the early encoding phase of the VLMT and in the recall phase of the WMS logical memory section. In fMRI, T allele carriers exhibited increased hippocampal activation during presentation of novel images and during encoding of pictures associated with monetary reward. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a role of the RASGRF1 gene locus in hippocampus-dependent memory and, along with the previous association with myopia, point towards pleitropic effects of RASGRF1 genetic variations on complex neural function in humans.

  6. Cognitive theories as reinforcement history surrogates: the case of likelihood ratio models of human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T; Gaitan, Santino C

    2002-11-01

    B. F. Skinner (1977) once argued that cognitive theories are essentially surrogates for the organism's (usually unknown) reinforcement history. In this article, we argue that this notion applies rather directly to a class of likelihood ratio models of human recognition memory. The point is not that such models are fundamentally flawed or that they are not useful and should be abandoned. Instead, the point is that the role of reinforcement history in shaping memory decisions could help to explain what otherwise must be explained by assuming that subjects are inexplicably endowed with the relevant distributional information and computational abilities. To the degree that a role for an organism's reinforcement history is appreciated, the importance of animal memory research in understanding human memory comes into clearer focus. As Skinner was also fond of pointing out, it is only in the animal laboratory that an organism's history of reinforcement can be precisely controlled and its effects on behavior clearly understood.

  7. The Brussels Declaration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, S; Bisgaard, H; Bjermer, L

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration...... and action on the following points: the systemic inflammatory component of asthma should be better understood and considered in assessments of treatment efficacy; current research must be communicated and responded to quickly; the European Medicines Agency guidance note on asthma should be updated; "real...... world" studies should be funded and results used to inform guidelines; variations in care across Europe should be addressed; people with asthma should participate in their own care; the impact of environmental factors should be understood; and targets should be set for improvement. The present paper...

  8. The effects of cardiovascular exercise on human memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Nordbrandt, Sasja; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0.0...

  9. Human memory retrieval as Lévy foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Theo; Turvey, Michael T.

    2007-11-01

    When people attempt to recall as many words as possible from a specific category (e.g., animal names) their retrievals occur sporadically over an extended temporal period. Retrievals decline as recall progresses, but short retrieval bursts can occur even after tens of minutes of performing the task. To date, efforts to gain insight into the nature of retrieval from this fundamental phenomenon of semantic memory have focused primarily upon the exponential growth rate of cumulative recall. Here we focus upon the time intervals between retrievals. We expected and found that, for each participant in our experiment, these intervals conformed to a Lévy distribution suggesting that the Lévy flight dynamics that characterize foraging behavior may also characterize retrieval from semantic memory. The closer the exponent on the inverse square power-law distribution of retrieval intervals approximated the optimal foraging value of 2, the more efficient was the retrieval. At an abstract dynamical level, foraging for particular foods in one's niche and searching for particular words in one's memory must be similar processes if particular foods and particular words are randomly and sparsely located in their respective spaces at sites that are not known a priori. We discuss whether Lévy dynamics imply that memory processes, like foraging, are optimized in an ecological way.

  10. Robust hippocampal responsivity during retrieval of consolidated associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shoai; Chen, Lillian; Weiss, Craig; Disterhoft, John F

    2015-05-01

    A contentious point in memory research is whether or not the hippocampus plays a time-limited role in the consolidation of declarative memories. A widely held view is that declarative memories are initially encoded in the hippocampus, then transferred to the neocortex for long-term storage. Alternate views argue instead that the hippocampus continues to play a role in remote memory recall. These competing theories are largely based on human amnesic and animal lesion/inactivation studies. However, in vivo electrophysiological evidence supporting these views is scarce. Given that other studies examining the role of the hippocampus in remote memory retrieval using lesion and imaging techniques in human and animal models have provided mixed results, it would be particularly useful to gain insight at the in vivo electrophysiological level. Here we report hippocampal single-neuron and theta activity recorded longitudinally during acquisition and remote retrieval of trace eyeblink conditioning. Results from conditioned rabbits were compared to those obtained from yoked pseudo-conditioned control rabbits. Results reveal continued learning-specific hippocampal activity one month after initial acquisition of the task. Our findings yield insight into the normal physiological responses of the hippocampus during memory processes and provide compelling in vivo electrophysiological evidence that the hippocampus is involved in both acquisition and retrieval of consolidated memories. © 2014 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Apnea-Induced Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disruption Impairs Human Spatial Navigational Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andrew W.; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; David M. Rapoport; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restric...

  12. Caffeine attenuates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, W; Hogervorst, E; Leboux, R; Verhey, F; van Praag, H; Jolles, J

    1995-11-01

    Caffeine consumption can be beneficial for cognitive functioning. Although caffeine is widely recognized as a mild CNS stimulant drug, the most important consequence of its adenosine antagonism is cholinergic stimulation, which might lead to improvement of higher cognitive functions, particularly memory. In this study, the scopolamine model of amnesia was used to test the cholinergic effects of caffeine, administered as three cups of coffee. Subjects were 16 healthy volunteers who received 250 mg caffeine and 2 mg nicotine separately, in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over design. Compared to placebo, nicotine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of storage in short-term memory and attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of speed of short-term memory scanning. Nicotine also attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of reaction time in a response competition task. Caffeine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of free recall from short- and long-term memory, quality and speed of retrieval from long-term memory in a word learning task, and other cognitive and non-cognitive measures, such as perceptual sensitivity in visual search, reading speed, and rate of finger-tapping. On the basis of these results it was concluded that caffeine possesses cholinergic cognition enhancing properties. Caffeine could be used as a control drug in studies using the scopolamine paradigm and possibly also in other experimental studies of cognitive enhancers, as the effects of a newly developed cognition enhancing drug should at least be superior to the effects of three cups of coffee.

  13. Enhanced Human Memory Consolidation With Post-Learning Stress: Interaction With the Degree of Arousal at Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Larry; Gorski, Lukasz; Le, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that endogenous stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone modulate memory consolidation in animals. We recently provided the first demonstration that an endogenous stress hormone (epinephrine) can enhance human memory consolidation. However, these findings also suggested that post-learning stress hormone activation does not uniformly enhance memory for all recently acquired information; rather, that it interacts with the degree ...

  14. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  15. Hierarchy of Processing Memories in the Human Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, S. J.; Uusitalo, M. A.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetic source imaging, obtained with an array of 122 superconducting sensors, reveals a dynamical organization of visual cortical areas suggesting that the participation of local memories is an essential component of visual information processing. Response recovery studies provide evidence that each responding cortical area supports a memory function with a well-defined lifetime. The areas fell into two groups: the earliest in occipital lobes with lifetimes ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 s, and the later ones in temporal, parietal, and frontal areas with lifetimes ranging from 7 to 30 s. Also, within each group the areas responding later tended to have longer lifetimes. These hierarchical features introduce a dynamic element that is lacking in many contemporary models of visual processing.

  16. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise eSaive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What positioned at three specific locations (Where within a visual context (Which context. During the retrieval test, which occurred 24 to 72 hours after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors.

  17. Representation of retrieval confidence by single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, Ueli; Ye, Shengxuan; Koroma, Matthieu; Tudusciuc, Oana; Ross, Ian B.; Chung, Jeffrey M.; Mamelak, Adam N.

    2015-01-01

    Memory-based decisions are often accompanied by an assessment of choice certainty, but the mechanisms of such confidence judgments remain unknown. We studied the response of 1065 individual neurons in the human hippocampus and amygdala while neurosurgical patients made memory retrieval decisions together with a confidence judgment. Combining behavioral, neuronal and computational analysis, we identified a population of memory-selective (MS) neurons whose activity signaled stimulus familiarity and confidence as assessed by subjective report. In contrast, the activity of visually selective (VS) neurons was not sensitive to memory strength. The groups further differed in response latency, tuning, and extracellular waveforms. The information provided by MS neurons was sufficient for a race model to decide stimulus familiarity and retrieval confidence. Together, this demonstrates a trial-by-trial relationship between a specific group of neurons and declared memory strength in humans. We suggest that VS and MS neurons are a substrate for declarative memories. PMID:26053402

  18. Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: from monkey research to human pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Barbeau, E

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a historical overview of decades of research on recognition memory, the process that allows both humans and animals to tell familiar from novel items. The emphasis is put on how monkey research improved our understanding of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) role and how tasks designed for monkeys influenced research in humans. The story starts in the early 1950s. Back then, memory was not a fashionable scientific topic. It was viewed as a function of the whole brain and not of specialized brain areas. All that changed in 1957-1958 when Brenda Milner, a neuropsychologist from Montreal, described patient H.M. He forgot all events as he lived them despite a fully preserved intelligence. He had received a MTL resection to relieve epilepsy. H.M. (1926-2008) would become the most influential patient in brain science. Which structures among those included in H.M.'s large lesion were important for recognition memory could not be evaluated in humans. It was gradually understood only after the successful development of a monkey model of human amnesia by Mishkin in 1978. Selective lesions and two behavioral tasks, delayed nonmatching-to-sample and visual paired comparison, were used to distinguish the contribution of the hippocampus from that of adjacent cortical areas. Driven by findings in non-human primates, human research on recognition memory is now trying to solve the question of whether the different structures composing MTL contributes to familiarity and recollection, the two possible forms taken by recognition. We described in particular two French patients, FRG and JMG, whose deficits support the currently dominant model attributing to the perirhinal cortex a critical role in recognition memory. Research on recognition memory has implications for the clinician as it may help understanding the cognitive deficits observed in different diseases. An illustration of such approach, linking basic and applied research, is provided for Alzheimer's disease.

  19. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  20. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herzog

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin, the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory. After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG. Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also

  1. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  2. Intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus during rest predicts enhanced memory under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Klumpers, Floris; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2017-01-01

    Declarative memories of stressful events are less prone to forgetting than mundane events. Animal research has demonstrated that such stress effects on consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memories require the amygdala. In humans, it has been shown that during learning, increased amygdala-hippocampal interactions are related to more efficient memory encoding. Animal models predict that following learning, amygdala-hippocampal interactions are instrumental to strengthening the consolidation of such declarative memories. Whether this is the case in humans is unknown and remains to be empirically verified. To test this, we analyzed data from a sample of 120 healthy male participants who performed an incidental encoding task and subsequently underwent resting-state functional MRI in a stressful and a neutral context. Stress was assessed by measures of salivary cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate, and subjective ratings. Memory was tested afterwards outside of the scanner. Our data show that memory was stronger in the stress context compared to the neutral context and that stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with this memory enhancement. Interestingly, amygdala-hippocampal connectivity during post-encoding awake rest regardless of context (stress or neutral) was associated with the enhanced memory performance under stress. Thus, our findings are in line with a role for intrinsic functional connectivity during rest between the amygdala and the hippocampus in the state effects of stress on strengthening memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    Declarative or constraint-based business process and workflow notations have received increasing interest in the last decade as possible means of addressing the challenge of supporting at the same time flexibility in execution, adaptability and compliance. However, the definition of concurrent...... of concurrency in DCR Graphs admits asynchronous execution of declarative workflows both conceptually and by reporting on a prototype implementation of a distributed declarative workflow engine. Both the theoretical development and the implementation is supported by an extended example; moreover, the theoretical...

  4. [Collective memories of women who have experienced maternal near miss: health needs and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Cláudia de Azevedo; Tanaka, Ana Cristina dʼAndretta

    2016-09-19

    The collective memories of women that have experienced maternal near miss can help elucidate serious obstetric events, like maternal death. Their experience is authentic and representative, with the construction of a common identity. This identity lends quality to a group's memory, and such memory is thus a social phenomenon. The study analyzed the experience of twelve women who nearly died during the gestational and postpartum cycle. The thematic oral history method was used, from the perspective of health needs and human rights. Six collective memories comprised the discourses: unmet health needs; healthcare deficiencies; denial of contact with the newborn child; violation of rights; absence of demand for rights; and compensation for unmet rights and needs. To understand these women's health needs is to acknowledge the women as bearers of rights and to individualize care, respecting their autonomy, guaranteeing access to technologies, and establishing an effective bond with health professionals.

  5. Effects of acute methamphetamine on emotional memory formation in humans: encoding vs consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael E; Weafer, Jessica; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how stimulant drugs affect memory is important for understanding their addictive potential. Here we examined the effects of acute d-methamphetamine (METH), administered either before (encoding phase) or immediately after (consolidation phase) study on memory for emotional and neutral images in healthy humans. Young adult volunteers (N = 60) were randomly assigned to either an encoding group (N = 29) or a consolidation group (N = 31). Across three experimental sessions, they received placebo and two doses of METH (10, 20 mg) either 45 min before (encoding) or immediately after (consolidation) viewing pictures of emotionally positive, neutral, and negative scenes. Memory for the pictures was tested two days later, under drug-free conditions. Half of the sample reported sleep disturbances following the high dose of METH, which affected their memory performance. Therefore, participants were classified as poor sleepers (less than 6 hours; n = 29) or adequate sleepers (6 or more hours; n = 31) prior to analyses. For adequate sleepers, METH (20 mg) administered before encoding significantly improved memory accuracy relative to placebo, especially for emotional (positive and negative), compared to neutral, stimuli. For poor sleepers in the encoding group, METH impaired memory. METH did not affect memory in the consolidation group regardless of sleep quality. These results extend previous findings showing that METH can enhance memory for salient emotional stimuli but only if it is present at the time of study, where it can affect both encoding and consolidation. METH does not appear to facilitate consolidation if administered after encoding. The study also demonstrates the important role of sleep in memory studies.

  6. Effects of acute methamphetamine on emotional memory formation in humans: encoding vs consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Ballard

    Full Text Available Understanding how stimulant drugs affect memory is important for understanding their addictive potential. Here we examined the effects of acute d-methamphetamine (METH, administered either before (encoding phase or immediately after (consolidation phase study on memory for emotional and neutral images in healthy humans. Young adult volunteers (N = 60 were randomly assigned to either an encoding group (N = 29 or a consolidation group (N = 31. Across three experimental sessions, they received placebo and two doses of METH (10, 20 mg either 45 min before (encoding or immediately after (consolidation viewing pictures of emotionally positive, neutral, and negative scenes. Memory for the pictures was tested two days later, under drug-free conditions. Half of the sample reported sleep disturbances following the high dose of METH, which affected their memory performance. Therefore, participants were classified as poor sleepers (less than 6 hours; n = 29 or adequate sleepers (6 or more hours; n = 31 prior to analyses. For adequate sleepers, METH (20 mg administered before encoding significantly improved memory accuracy relative to placebo, especially for emotional (positive and negative, compared to neutral, stimuli. For poor sleepers in the encoding group, METH impaired memory. METH did not affect memory in the consolidation group regardless of sleep quality. These results extend previous findings showing that METH can enhance memory for salient emotional stimuli but only if it is present at the time of study, where it can affect both encoding and consolidation. METH does not appear to facilitate consolidation if administered after encoding. The study also demonstrates the important role of sleep in memory studies.

  7. M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonism alters sleep without affecting memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Christoph; Power, Ann E; Nofzinger, Eric A; Feige, Bernd; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Kloepfer, Corinna; Waldheim, Bernhard; Radosa, Marc-Philipp; Berger, Mathias; Riemann, Dieter

    2006-11-01

    Preclinical studies have implicated cholinergic neurotransmission, specifically M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation, in sleep-associated memory consolidation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of administering the direct M1 mAChR agonist RS-86 on pre-post sleep memory consolidation. Twenty healthy human participants were tested in a declarative word-list task and a procedural mirror-tracing task. RS-86 significantly reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency and slow wave sleep (SWS) duration in comparison with placebo. Presleep acquisition and postsleep recall rates were within the expected ranges. However, recall rates in both tasks were almost identical for the RS-86 and placebo conditions. These results indicate that selective M1 mAChR activation in healthy humans has no clinically relevant effect on pre-post sleep consolidation of declarative or procedural memories at a dose that reduces REM sleep latency and SWS duration.

  8. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  9. FEMA Current Disaster Declarations -shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists the current Disaster Declarations in Shapefile. This data was compiled and distributed by FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center (MAC). Metadata file...

  10. Enhanced human memory consolidation with post-learning stress: interaction with the degree of arousal at encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Larry; Gorski, Lukasz; Le, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that endogenous stress hormones such as epinephrine and corticosterone modulate memory consolidation in animals. We recently provided the first demonstration that an endogenous stress hormone (epinephrine) can enhance human memory consolidation. However, these findings also suggested that post-learning stress hormone activation does not uniformly enhance memory for all recently acquired information; rather, that it interacts with the degree of arousal at initial encoding of material in modulating memory for the material. Here we tested this hypothesis by administering cold pressor stress (CPS) or a control procedure to subjects after they viewed slides of varying emotional content, and assessing memory for the slides 1 wk later. CPS, which significantly elevated salivary cortisol levels, enhanced memory for emotionally arousing slides compared with the controls, but did not affect memory for relatively neutral slides. These findings further support the view that post-learning stress hormone-related activity interacts with arousal at initial encoding to modulate memory consolidation.

  11. The organization of room geometry and object layout geometry in human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluzenski, Julia; McNamara, Timothy P

    2011-08-01

    Research with humans and with nonhuman species has suggested a special role of room geometry in spatial memory functioning. In two experiments, participants learned the configuration of a room with four corners, along with the configuration of four objects within the room, while standing in a fixed position at the room's periphery. The configurations were either rectangular (Experiment 1) or irregular (Experiment 2). Room geometry was not recalled better than object layout geometry, and memories for both configurations were orientation dependent. These results suggest that room geometry and object layout geometry are represented similarly in human memory, at least in situations that promote long-term learning of object locations. There were also some differences between corners and objects in orientation dependence, suggesting that the two sources of information are represented in similar but separate spatial reference systems. [corrected

  12. The Tbilisi Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    The Tbilisi Declaration of 13 October 1990 approved by participants at an international conference supported by UNFPA, WHO/Europe, PPF/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute is printed in its entirety. The original conference document was altered inspite of IPPF Europe Regions' protestations and final approval that the conference document remain intact. In dispute was the last sentence in the "contraception reduces abortion" section, which originally left out the modifiers and stated that with appropriate backup, simple safe inexpensive ... procedures exist for use in PHC settings. ILPPF urged government agencies to change participant's views; a position expressed and agreed with in Tbilisi. The document itself is concerned with the right to reproductive health, a major public health problem, contraception reduces abortion, and the impact of legislation. The UNFPA formal position on abortion is stated as "not a means of family planning;" government support does not imply endorsement of national policy. UNFPA is concerned with increases in the availability of family planning. Participants agreed that couples and individuals have the right to decide freely, responsibly and without coercion the number and spacing of children, the right to reproductive health, self-determination, and that every child should be a wanted child. Recognition was given to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion as major public health and social problems. Also, it was recognized that abortion rates are highest in countries with weak education in FP and sexuality and constraints on women. Criminal sanctions have no impact on the abortion or birth rates, but are associated with unsafe abortion. Abortion can be reduced through family planning. There is need for 1) high quality reproductive health services that respect women's autonomy and dignity; 2) early sex education; 3) lifestyle changes to place responsibility also on men for contraception, family formation, and rearing; 4) increased

  13. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  14. Low Proliferation and Differentiation Capacities of Adult Hippocampal Stem Cells Correlate with Memory Dysfunction in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coras, Roland; Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Pauli, Elisabeth; Huttner, Hagen B.; Njunting, Marleisje; Kobow, Katja; Villmann, Carmen; Hahnen, Eric; Neuhuber, Winfried; Weigel, Daniel; Buchfelder, Michael; Stefan, Hermann; Beck, Heinz; Steindler, Dennis A.; Blumcke, Ingmar

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus maintains its capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In animal models, hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by cognitive tasks, and experimental ablation of neurogenesis disrupts specific modalities of learning and memory. In humans, the impact of neurogenesis on cognition remains unclear. Here, we…

  15. EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE UPON HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TESTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, RONALD G.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED DURING 1966 TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (A COMBINATION OF 2-IMINO-5-PHENYL-4-OXAZOLIDINONE AND MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE) ON A VARIETY OF HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TASKS. MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (25 OR 37.5 MG) OR A PLACEBO WAS ADMINISTERED ORALLY ON A DOUBLE-BLIND BASIS TO INTELLIGENCE-MATCHED GROUPS…

  16. IMPORTANT -Declaration of income for 2001-

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The local French tax authorities confirm that, in view of the particular procedure for income declaration for CERN members of the personnel, this year CERN income (as stated in the certificate of CERN remuneration provided by the Organization) may be exceptionally declared in either French Francs, or Euros (clearly specifying the currency selected). Practical information concerning the procedure for income declaration may be obtained at the following local information desks : Trésorerie de Gex: Tuesday 12 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésoreriede Ferney: Monday 18 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésoreriede Divonne: Thursday 21 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. French tax authorities have also organised the following information services:Web site Minitel: 3615 IR Service Vocal Server: 08 36 67 10 10 Telephone information: 08 20 32 42 52 Human Resources Division Tel. 72838

  17. Neural populations in human posteromedial cortex display opposing responses during memory and numerical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brett L.; Dastjerdi, Mohammad; Parvizi, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the human default mode network derives primarily from neuroimaging data but its electrophysiological correlates remain largely unexplored. To address this limitation, we recorded intracranially from the human posteromedial cortex (PMC), a core structure of the default mode network, during various conditions of internally directed (e.g., autobiographical memory) as opposed to externally directed focus (e.g., arithmetic calculation). We observed late-onset (>400 ms) increases in broad high γ-power (70–180 Hz) within PMC subregions during memory retrieval. High γ-power was significantly reduced or absent when subjects retrieved self-referential semantic memories or responded to self-judgment statements, respectively. Conversely, a significant deactivation of high γ-power was observed during arithmetic calculation, the duration of which correlated with reaction time at the signal-trial level. Strikingly, at each recording site, the magnitude of activation during episodic autobiographical memory retrieval predicted the degree of suppression during arithmetic calculation. These findings provide important anatomical and temporal details—at the neural population level—of PMC engagement during autobiographical memory retrieval and address how the same populations are actively suppressed during tasks, such as numerical processing, which require externally directed attention. PMID:22949666

  18. Rhinal-hippocampal EEG coherence is reduced during human sleep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Staedtgen, M.; Burr, W.; Kockelmann, E.; Helmstaedter, C.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The deficiency of declarative memory compared with waking state is an often overlooked characteristic of sleep. Here, we investigated whether rhinal-hippocampal coherence, an electrophysiological correlate of declarative memory formation, is significantly altered during sleep as compared with waking

  19. The hippocampus: A central node in a large-scale brain network for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, J; Samson, S

    2015-03-01

    The medial temporal lobe is a key region in the formation and consolidation of conscious or declarative memories. In this review, we will first consider the role of the hippocampus and its surrounding medial temporal lobe structures in recognition memory from a historical perspective. According to the dual process model of recognition memory, recognition judgments can be based on the recollection of details about previous presented stimuli or on the feeling of familiarity. Studies in humans, primates and rodents suggest that the hippocampus, the parahippocampal cortex and the perirhinal cortex play different roles in recollection and familiarity. Then, we will describe the role of the hippocampus and neocortex in memory consolidation: a process in which novel memories become integrated into long-term memory. After presenting possible mechanisms underlying sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation, we will discuss the phenomenon of accelerated long-term forgetting. This type of memory deficit is often observed in epileptic patients with a hippocampal lesion, and provides a novel opportunity to investigate post-encoding and memory consolidation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of oxytocin on human memory processes: validation by a control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D J; Devlin, M C; Ferrier, B M

    1982-07-19

    An earlier report (1) of an adverse effect of high doses of oxytocin on human memory included results of studies on women receiving oxytocin as part of the treatment to induce 2nd trimester therapeutic abortion. These women served as their own controls. We have now been able to study a group of women who have been treated in all ways like the original group, with the exception that they did not receive oxytocin. The results from this external control corroborate the finding that oxytocin affected memory.

  1. The revised Declaration of Helsinki--is justice served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, J C

    2002-02-01

    The World Medical Association revised the Declaration of Helsinki in October 2000. The Declaration is intended to provide a universal set of principles, which direct the ethical conduct of clinical medical research involving human subjects throughout the world. Previous research ethics codes emphasized the principles of informed consent and beneficence toward research subjects. The revised Helsinki Declaration places a premium not only upon these values but also the principle of distributive justice. The new Declaration demands that scientists see to it that the risks and benefits of scientific inquiry are distributed fairly to those that participate in research and to the communities from where participants are drawn. The authors of the Declaration have sought to establish justice by minimizing the use of placebo controls, insisting that populations from where research subjects are drawn stand to benefit from the research, and by requiring that therapeutic agents be made available to all trial participants long after a trial is completed. This paper argues that the aim of seeking a morejust distribution of the risks and benefits of research may actually be undermined by the tools that the Declaration employs to enforce justice.

  2. Ethics of orthodontic clinical research based on Helsinki declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Eka Erwansyah; Naufal Mowandy

    2016-01-01

    Declaration of Helsinki code of ethics on human experimentation, states that the desin and peformance of experimental procedures involving human should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol, Todeterminewhetheraninvestigationin accordancewiththe code of conductin a researchthen letusconsider the contentofthe declarationhelsinkiasour referencein conductingaclinicalstudyusinghuman subjects. In journals, authors are expected to report if the study was carried out in accordance with in...

  3. From the Hawaii Declaration to the Declaration of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmchen, H; Okasha, A

    2000-01-01

    The Declaration of Hawaii, adopted by the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) in 1977, was a significant event. But the needs and new ethical dilemmas of the 1990s led WPA to develop new recommendations on the duties of psychiatrists resulting in the Declaration of Madrid, adopted by WPA in 1996. It outlines the framework of ethical conduct of psychiatrists, formulates seven general guidelines with an increased emphasis on research and resource allocation, and gives five specific guidelines on euthanasia, torture, the death penalty, selection of sex, and organ transplantation.

  4. Age-dependent effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptor polymorphism (His452Tyr) on human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina; Aerni, Amanda; Coluccia, Daniel; Garcia, Esmeralda; Wollmer, Marc A; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Monsch, Andreas U; Stähelin, Hannes B; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2005-05-31

    A polymorphism (His452Tyr) of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2a receptor is associated with episodic memory in healthy young humans. Because 5-HT2a-receptor density decreases with increasing age, we tested whether the 5-HT2a receptor genotype effect on memory is influenced by age. We investigated the association of the His452Tyr genotype with memory performance in 622 healthy study participants aged from 18 to 90 years. In young to middle-aged participants, age significantly influenced genotype effects on episodic memory: the His452Tyr genotype exerted a significant influence on memory only in young participants. In the group of elderly cognitively healthy participants, the His452Tyr genotype did not affect memory performance. We conclude that age strongly modulates the effect of the 5-HT2a receptor polymorphism at residue 452 on episodic memory.

  5. Assessing reliable human mobility patterns from higher-order memory in mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how people move within a geographic area, e.g. a city, a country or the whole world, is fundamental in several applications, from predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemics to inferring migration patterns. Mobile phone records provide an excellent proxy of human mobility, showing that movements exhibit a high level of memory. However, the precise role of memory in widely adopted proxies of mobility, as mobile phone records, is unknown. Here we use 560 millions of call detail records from Senegal to show that standard Markovian approaches, including higher-order ones, fail in capturing real mobility patterns and introduce spurious movements never observed in reality. We introduce an adaptive memory-driven approach to overcome such issues. At variance with Markovian models, it is able to realistically model conditional waiting times, i.e. the probability to stay in a specific area depending on individual's historical movements. Our results demonstrate that in standard mobility models...

  6. Sparse generalized volterra model of human hippocampal spike train transformation for memory prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Robinson, Brian S; Hampson, Robert E; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    In order to build hippocampal prostheses for restoring memory functions, we build multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear dynamical models of the human hippocampus. Spike trains are recorded from the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of epileptic patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. Using CA3 and CA1 spike trains as inputs and outputs respectively, second-order sparse generalized Laguerre-Volterra models are estimated with group lasso and local coordinate descent methods to capture the nonlinear dynamics underlying the spike train transformations. These models can accurately predict the CA1 spike trains based on the ongoing CA3 spike trains and thus will serve as the computational basis of the hippocampal memory prosthesis.

  7. Declaration of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, John B.

    1972-01-01

    Examines possibilities of extinction of the human species as well as responsibility for promoting the continuance of evolution. Continuation will involve restoration, communication, creativity, population growth, prostheses, interdependence, and environmental design. (BL)

  8. 2004 CULTURAL DECLARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛锡武

    2004-01-01

    Globalization has aroused the attention of virtually all politicians, thinkers, scientists, entrepreneurs, writers, artists and scholars of humanity all over the current world, prompting discussions among them on the question. This clearly visible world trend is promoting the sharing by the human race of what modem civilization has generated, in particular those scientific and technological achievements. Meanwhile, globalization has given rise to glaring differences, divergences and clashes among civilizations of countries, nationalities and regions.

  9. Age and gender-related differences in a spatial memory task in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills.

  10. Memória humana e teatro Human memory and theater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna de Souza Alves

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A memória humana é essencial para a atividade teatral. Isso por um motivo óbvio: é ela que possibilita aos atores gravarem suas falas e ao público compreender a mensagem passada pela peça. Neste trabalho, investigamos as noções de memória propostas por Descartes, Hume e Kohonen. Para eles, a memória é imprescindível na obtenção e desenvolvimento do conhecimento. A nosso ver, o estudo da memória é de grande importância para o teatro, à medida que este não seria possível sem aquela.The human memory plays an essential role in theatrical activity because it makes it possible that the actors record their lines and the public understands the message transmitted in the play. In this work, the notion of memory proposed by Descartes, Hume and Kohonen are investigated. For those thinkers, memory is indispensable to obtain and develop knowledge. In our opinion, the study of memory is of great importance for the theater, because the theater doesn't exist without memory.

  11. An association between human hippocampal volume and topographical memory in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eHartley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between human hippocampal structure and topographical memory was investigated in healthy adults (N=30. Structural MR images were acquired, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to estimate local gray matter volume throughout the brain. A complementary automated mesh-based segmentation approach was used to independently isolate and measure specified structures including the hippocampus. Topographical memory was assessed using a version of the Four Mountains Task, a short test designed to target hippocampal spatial function. Each item requires subjects to briefly study a landscape scene before recognizing the depicted place from a novel viewpoint and under altered non-spatial conditions when presented amongst similar alternative scenes. Positive correlations between topographical memory performance and hippocampal volume were observed in both VBM and segmentation-based analyses. Score on the topographical memory task was also correlated with the volume of some subcortical structures, extra-hippocampal gray matter and total brain volume, with the most robust and extensive covariation seen in circumscribed neocortical regions in the insula and anterior temporal lobes. Taken together with earlier findings, the results suggest that global variations in brain morphology affect the volume of the hippocampus and its specific contribution to topographical memory. We speculate that behavioral variation might arise directly through the impact of resource constraints on spatial representations in the hippocampal formation and its inputs, and perhaps indirectly through an increased reliance on non-allocentric strategies.

  12. Communicating with inpatients with memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitchka, Lindsey; Turkstra, Lyn S

    2013-08-01

    Many patients with acquired brain injury have acute impairments in declarative memory, the memory system responsible for learning facts and remembering events, whereas implicit memory for skills, habits, and emotional associations remains intact. The combination of impaired declarative memory and preserved implicit memory has implications for communicating with patients in inpatient rehabilitation, not only in therapy sessions but also in nontherapy interactions with rehabilitation staff. The aim of this study was to describe communication patterns among inpatients with declarative memory impairments and rehabilitation staff members during the early stage postinjury. Participants were five adults with acquired brain injury and declarative memory impairments. Each participant was observed for a full inpatient rehabilitation day. Results showed that staff and visitors frequently asked participants declarative questions to which answers were not verifiable (e.g., questions about preinjury events). Answers that could be verified often were incorrect but were accepted by staff as correct. Results suggest that acute rehabilitation staff may need training in communicating with patients with declarative memory impairments. We suggest strategies to create a more supportive communication environment for inpatients with memory impairment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Effects of sleep on memory for conditioned fear and fear extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory for extinction of conditioned fear is a basic mammalian mechanism for regulating negative emotion. Sleep promotes both the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotion. Sleep can influence consolidation and modification of memories associated with both fear and its extinction. After brief overviews of the behavior and neural circuitry associated with fear conditioning, extinction learning and extinction memory in the rodent and human, interactions of sleep with these processes will be examined. Animal and human studies suggest that sleep can serve to consolidate both fear and extinction memory. In humans, sleep also promotes generalization of extinction memory. Time-of-day effects on extinction learning and generalization are also seen. REM may be a sleep stage of particular importance for the consolidation of both fear and extinction memory as evidenced by selective REM deprivation experiments. REM sleep is accompanied by selective activation of the same limbic structures implicated in the learning and memory of fear and extinction. Preliminary evidence also suggests extinction learning can take place during slow wave sleep. Study of low-level processes such as conditioning, extinction and habituation may allow sleep effects on emotional memory to be identified and inform study of sleep’s effects on more complex, emotionally salient declarative memories. Anxiety disorders are marked by impairments of both sleep and extinction memory. Improving sleep quality may ameliorate anxiety disorders by strengthening naturally acquired extinction. Strategically timed sleep may be used to enhance treatment of anxiety by strengthening therapeutic extinction learned via exposure therapy. PMID:25894546

  14. MicroRNA-138 is a potential regulator of memory performance in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchröder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors underlie a substantial proportion of individual differences in cognitive functions in humans, including processes related to episodic and working memory. While genetic association studies have proposed several candidate memory genes, these currently explain only a minor fraction of the phenotypic variance. Here, we performed genome-wide screening on 13 episodic and working memory phenotypes in 1,318 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II aged 60 years or older. The analyses highlight a number of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with memory performance, including one located in a putative regulatory region of microRNA (miRNA hsa-mir-138-5p (rs9882688, P-value = 7.8x10-9. Expression quantitative trait locus analyses on next-generation RNA-sequencing data revealed that rs9882688 genotypes show a significant correlation with the expression levels of this miRNA in 309 human lymphoblastoid cell lines (P-value = 5x10-4. In silico modeling of other top-ranking GWAS signals identified an additional memory-associated SNP in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of DCP1B, a gene encoding a core component of the mRNA decapping complex in humans, predicted to interfere with hsa-mir-138-5p binding. This prediction was confirmed in vitro by luciferase assays showing differential binding of hsa-mir-138-5p to 3'UTR reporter constructs in two human cell lines (HEK293: P-value = 0.0470; SH-SY5Y: P-value = 0.0866. Finally, expression profiling of hsa-mir-138-5p and DCP1B mRNA in human post-mortem brain tissue revealed that both molecules are expressed simultaneously in frontal cortex and hippocampus, suggesting that the proposed interaction between hsa-mir-138-5p and DCP1B may also take place in vivo. In summary, by combining unbiased genome-wide screening with extensive in silico modeling, in vitro functional assays, and gene expression profiling, our study identified miRNA-138 as a potential molecular regulator of human memory

  15. MicroRNA-138 is a potential regulator of memory performance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Julia; Ansaloni, Sara; Schilling, Marcel; Liu, Tian; Radke, Josefine; Jaedicke, Marian; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M.; Mashychev, Andriy; Tegeler, Christina; Radbruch, Helena; Papenberg, Goran; Düzel, Sandra; Demuth, Ilja; Bucholtz, Nina; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Lill, Christina M.; Bertram, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Genetic factors underlie a substantial proportion of individual differences in cognitive functions in humans, including processes related to episodic and working memory. While genetic association studies have proposed several candidate “memory genes,” these currently explain only a minor fraction of the phenotypic variance. Here, we performed genome-wide screening on 13 episodic and working memory phenotypes in 1318 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II aged 60 years or older. The analyses highlight a number of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with memory performance, including one located in a putative regulatory region of microRNA (miRNA) hsa-mir-138-5p (rs9882688, P-value = 7.8 × 10−9). Expression quantitative trait locus analyses on next-generation RNA-sequencing data revealed that rs9882688 genotypes show a significant correlation with the expression levels of this miRNA in 309 human lymphoblastoid cell lines (P-value = 5 × 10−4). In silico modeling of other top-ranking GWAS signals identified an additional memory-associated SNP in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of DCP1B, a gene encoding a core component of the mRNA decapping complex in humans, predicted to interfere with hsa-mir-138-5p binding. This prediction was confirmed in vitro by luciferase assays showing differential binding of hsa-mir-138-5p to 3′ UTR reporter constructs in two human cell lines (HEK293: P-value = 0.0470; SH-SY5Y: P-value = 0.0866). Finally, expression profiling of hsa-mir-138-5p and DCP1B mRNA in human post-mortem brain tissue revealed that both molecules are expressed simultaneously in frontal cortex and hippocampus, suggesting that the proposed interaction between hsa-mir-138-5p and DCP1B may also take place in vivo. In summary, by combining unbiased genome-wide screening with extensive in silico modeling, in vitro functional assays, and gene expression profiling, our study identified miRNA-138 as a potential molecular regulator of

  16. Do as I … Did! Long-term memory of imitative actions in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-03-01

    This study demonstrates long-term declarative memory of imitative actions in a non-human animal species. We tested 12 pet dogs for their ability to imitate human actions after retention intervals ranging from 1 to 24 h. For comparison, another 12 dogs were tested for the same actions without delay between demonstration and recall. Our test consisted of a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm, combined with the two-action procedure to control for non-imitative processes. Imitative performance of dogs remained consistently high independent of increasing retention intervals, supporting the idea that dogs are able to retain mental representations of human actions for an extended period of time. The ability to imitate after such delays supports the use of long-term declarative memory.

  17. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the Support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Carol L; Sheppard, Kelly Will

    2015-11-03

    The aim was to explore the relation of human milk lutein; choline; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with recognition memory abilities of six-month-olds. Milk samples obtained three to four months postpartum were analyzed for fatty acids, lutein, and choline. At six months, participants were invited to an electrophysiology session. Recognition memory was tested with a 70-30 oddball paradigm in a high-density 128-lead event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Complete data were available for 55 participants. Data were averaged at six groupings (Frontal Right; Frontal Central; Frontal Left; Central; Midline; and Parietal) for latency to peak, peak amplitude, and mean amplitude. Difference scores were calculated as familiar minus novel. Final regression models revealed the lutein X free choline interaction was significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal and central areas (p memory. The DHA X free choline interaction was also significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal, central, and midline areas (p memory. Interactions between human milk nutrients appear important in predicting infant cognition, and there may be a benefit to specific nutrient combinations.

  18. A model of working memory: bridging the gap between electrophysiology and human brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagamets, M A; Horwitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Human neuroimaging methods such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have made possible the study of large-scale distributed networks in the behaving human brain. Although many imaging studies support and extend knowledge gained from other experimental modalities such as animal single-cell recordings, there have also been a substantial number of experiments that appear to contradict the animal studies. Part of the reason for this is that neuroimaging is an indirect measure of neuronal firing activity, and thus interpretation is difficult. Computational modeling can help to bridge the gap by providing a substrate for making explicit the assumptions and constraints provided from other sources such as anatomy, physiology and behavior. We describe a large-scale model of working memory that we have used to examine a number of issues relating to the interpretation of imaging data. The gating mechanism that regulates engagement and retention of short-term memory is revised to better reflect hypothesized underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms. It is shown that in addition to imparting better performance for the memory circuit, this mechanism also provides a better match to imaging data from working memory studies.

  19. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the Support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L. Cheatham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to explore the relation of human milk lutein; choline; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA with recognition memory abilities of six-month-olds. Milk samples obtained three to four months postpartum were analyzed for fatty acids, lutein, and choline. At six months, participants were invited to an electrophysiology session. Recognition memory was tested with a 70–30 oddball paradigm in a high-density 128-lead event-related potential (ERP paradigm. Complete data were available for 55 participants. Data were averaged at six groupings (Frontal Right; Frontal Central; Frontal Left; Central; Midline; and Parietal for latency to peak, peak amplitude, and mean amplitude. Difference scores were calculated as familiar minus novel. Final regression models revealed the lutein X free choline interaction was significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal and central areas (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001; respectively. Higher choline levels with higher lutein levels were related to better recognition memory. The DHA X free choline interaction was also significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal, central, and midline areas (p < 0.01; p < 0.001; p < 0.05 respectively. Higher choline with higher DHA was related to better recognition memory. Interactions between human milk nutrients appear important in predicting infant cognition, and there may be a benefit to specific nutrient combinations.

  20. Statistical quantifiers of memory for an analysis of human brain and neuro-system diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, S. A.; Yulmetyev, R. M.; Panischev, O. Yu.; Hänggi, Peter

    2008-03-01

    On the basis of a memory function formalism for correlation functions of time series we investigate statistical memory effects by the use of appropriate spectral and relaxation parameters of measured stochastic data for neuro-system diseases. In particular, we study the dynamics of the walk of a patient who suffers from Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and compare against the data of healthy people (CO - control group). We employ an analytical method which is able to characterize the stochastic properties of stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing. Our results allow us to estimate quantitatively a few human locomotion function abnormalities occurring in the human brain and in the central nervous system (CNS). Particularly, the patient's gait dynamics are characterized by an increased memory behavior together with sizable fluctuations as compared with the locomotion dynamics of healthy patients. Moreover, we complement our findings with peculiar features as detected in phase-space portraits and spectral characteristics for the different data sets (PD, HD, ALS and healthy people). The evaluation of statistical quantifiers of the memory function is shown to provide a useful toolkit which can be put to work to identify various abnormalities of locomotion dynamics. Moreover, it allows one to diagnose qualitatively and quantitatively serious brain and central nervous system diseases.

  1. Sex differences in stress effects on response and spatial memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to affect learning and memory processes. However, although effects of stress on hippocampus-dependent declarative learning and memory are well-documented, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of stress on striatum-dependent stimulus-response (S-R) learning and memory. Recent evidence indicates that glucocorticoid stress hormones shortly after learning enhance S-R memory consolidation, whereas stress prior to retention testing impairs S-R memory retrieval. Whether stress affects also the acquisition of S-R memories in humans remains unclear. For this reason, we examined here the effects of acute stress on S-R memory formation and contrasted these stress effects with those on hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Healthy men and women underwent a stressor (socially evaluated cold pressor test, SECPT) or a control manipulation before they completed an S-R task and two spatial learning tasks. Memory was assessed one week later. Our data showed that stress impaired S-R memory performance in men but not in women. Conversely, spatial memory was impaired by stress in women but not in men. These findings provide further evidence that stress may alter learning and memory processes beyond the hippocampus. Moreover, our data underline that participants' sex may play a critical role in the impact of stress on multiple memory systems.

  2. Gambiense human african trypanosomiasis and immunological memory: effect on phenotypic lymphocyte profiles and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, Veerle; Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Kestens, Luc; Boel, Luc; Barbé, Barbara; Kande Betu, Victor; van Griensven, Johan; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    In mice, experimental infection with Trypanosoma brucei causes decreased bone marrow B-cell development, abolished splenic B-cell maturation and loss of antibody mediated protection including vaccine induced memory responses. Nothing is known about this phenomenon in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), but if occurring, it would imply the need of revaccination of HAT patients after therapy and abolish hope for a HAT vaccine. The effect of gambiense HAT on peripheral blood memory T- and B-cells and on innate and vaccine induced antibody levels was examined. The percentage of memory B- and T-cells was quantified in peripheral blood, prospectively collected in DR Congo from 117 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infected HAT patients before and six months after treatment and 117 controls at the same time points. Antibodies against carbohydrate antigens on red blood cells and against measles were quantified. Before treatment, significantly higher percentages of memory B-cells, mainly T-independent memory B-cells, were observed in HAT patients compared to controls (CD20+CD27+IgM+, 13.0% versus 2.0%, p<0.001). The percentage of memory T-cells, mainly early effector/memory T-cells, was higher in HAT (CD3+CD45RO+CD27+, 19.4% versus 16.7%, p = 0.003). After treatment, the percentage of memory T-cells normalized, the percentage of memory B-cells did not. The median anti-red blood cell carbohydrate IgM level was one titer lower in HAT patients than in controls (p<0.004), and partially normalized after treatment. Anti-measles antibody concentrations were lower in HAT patients than in controls (medians of 1500 versus 2250 mIU/ml, p = 0.02), and remained so after treatment, but were above the cut-off level assumed to provide protection in 94.8% of HAT patients, before and after treatment (versus 98.3% of controls, p = 0.3). Although functionality of the B-cells was not verified, the results suggest that immunity was conserved in T.b. gambiense infected HAT patients and

  3. Acute and Non-acute Effects of Cannabis on Human Memory Function: A Critical Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Allen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and

  4. Effects of ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Hell, van H.H.; Zuurman, L.; Jansma, J.M.; Mehta, M.A.; Gerven, van J.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing

  5. Effects of ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Hell, van H.H.; Zuurman, L.; Jansma, J.M.; Mehta, M.A.; Gerven, van J.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing ev

  6. Acute and Non-acute Effects of Cannabis on Human Memory Function: A Critical Review of Neuroimaging Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Allen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and

  7. Effects of ¿9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossong, M.G.; Jager, G.; Hell, van H.H.; Zuurman, L.; Jansma, J.M.; Mehta, M.A.; Gerven, van J.; Kahn, R.S.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing ev

  8. The revised Declaration of Helsinki: cosmetic or real change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aisha Y; Foster, Charles

    2016-05-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the World Medical Association's General Assembly in 1964, is the most important set of guidelines about research on human participants. It both reflects and shapes the ethos of international research ethics. It is a living instrument and is reviewed and revised regularly. Its latest revision was in 2013. There are four substantial changes, reflected in the new Paragraph 15 (which deals with compensation for trial related injuries), Paragraph 33 (relating to placebos), Paragraph 20 (relating to vulnerable groups) and the new Paragraph 34 (relating to post-trial provisions). This article analyses these changes, and asks whether they indicate any shift in the overall philosophy of the Declaration. We conclude that these changes, though significant, are not tectonic. They accord with the spirit that has motivated the Declaration through all its iterations, and indicate a steady, incremental evolution towards a holistic code of research ethics for research on human participants. Patient autonomy, though crucial, is no longer the only concern of the Declaration; distributive justice and beneficence are motivating forces too. While the Declaration is aware of the need to facilitate research, it is equally aware of the need to protect the vulnerable, and of the practical difficulties involved in that protection. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  9. Declarative Consciousness for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Leslie G.

    2013-12-01

    Existing information technology tools are harnessed and integrated to provide digital specification of human consciousness of individual persons. An incremental compilation technology is proposed as a transformation of LifeLog derived persona specifications into a Canonical representation of the neocortex architecture of the human brain. The primary purpose is to gain an understanding of the semantical allocation of the neocortex capacity. Novel neocortex content allocation simulators with browsers are proposed to experiment with various approaches of relieving the brain from overload conditions. An IT model of the neocortex is maintained, which is then updated each time new stimuli are received from the LifeLog data stream; new information is gained from brain signal measurements; and new functional dependencies are discovered between live persona consumed/produced signals

  10. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    Declarative or constraint-based business process and workflow notations have received increasing interest in the last decade as possible means of addressing the challenge of supporting at the same time flexibility in execution, adaptability and compliance. However, the definition of concurrent se...... development has been verified correct in the Isabelle-HOL interactive theorem prover....

  11. Concurrency & Asynchrony in Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    Declarative or constraint-based business process and workflow notations have received increasing interest in the last decade as possible means of addressing the challenge of supporting at the same time flexibility in execution, adaptability and compliance. However, the definition of concurrent se...... development has been verified correct in the Isabelle-HOL interactive theorem prover....

  12. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  13. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  14. Studying frequency processing of the brain to enhance long-term memory and develop a human brain protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Wernher; Du, Shengzhi; Balt, Karlien

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobe in conjunction with the hippocampus is responsible for memory processing. The gamma wave is involved with this process. To develop a human brain protocol, a better understanding of the relationship between gamma and long-term memory is vital. A more comprehensive understanding of the human brain and specific analogue waves it uses will support the development of a human brain protocol. Fifty-eight participants aged between 6 and 60 years participated in long-term memory experiments. It is envisaged that the brain could be stimulated through binaural beats (sound frequency) at 40 Hz (gamma) to enhance long-term memory capacity. EEG recordings have been transformed to sound and then to an information standard, namely ASCII. Statistical analysis showed a proportional relationship between long-term memory and gamma activity. Results from EEG recordings indicate a pattern. The pattern was obtained through the de-codification of an EEG recording to sound and then to ASCII. Stimulation of gamma should enhance long term memory capacity. More research is required to unlock the human brains' protocol key. This key will enable the processing of information directly to and from human memory via gamma, the hippocampus and the temporal lobe.

  15. Noninvasively decoding the contents of visual working memory in the human prefrontal cortex within high-gamma oscillatory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, Rafael; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The temporal maintenance and subsequent retrieval of information that no longer exists in the environment is called working memory. It is believed that this type of memory is controlled by the persistent activity of neuronal populations, including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. For a long time, it has been controversially discussed whether, in working memory, the PFC stores past sensory events or, instead, its activation is an extramnemonic source of top-down control over posterior regions. Recent animal studies suggest that specific information about the contents of working memory can be decoded from population activity in prefrontal areas. However, it has not been shown whether the contents of working memory during the delay periods can be decoded from EEG recordings in the human brain. We show that by analyzing the nonlinear dynamics of EEG oscillatory patterns it is possible to noninvasively decode with high accuracy, during encoding and maintenance periods, the contents of visual working memory information within high-gamma oscillations in the human PFC. These results are thus in favor of an active storage function of the human PFC in working memory; this, without ruling out the role of PFC in top-down processes. The ability to noninvasively decode the contents of working memory is promising in applications such as brain computer interfaces, together with computation of value function during planning and decision making processes.

  16. 75 FR 61489 - Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline Hyclate Tablets Accompanied by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of Doxycycline... use of doxycycline hyclate tablets accompanied by emergency use information subject to the terms of..., Michael O. Leavitt, declared an emergency justifying the authorization of the emergency use of...

  17. 77 FR 40060 - Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of All Oral Formulations of Doxycycline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Renewal of Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of All Oral Formulations of Doxycycline... the authorization of emergency use of all oral formulations of doxycycline accompanied by emergency..., Michael O. Leavitt, declared an emergency justifying the emergency use of doxycycline hyclate...

  18. Profile of central and effector memory T cells in the progression of chronic human chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Araújo Fiuza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas disease presents several different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe cardiac and/or digestive clinical forms. Several studies have demonstrated that immunoregulatory mechanisms are important processes for the control of the intense immune activity observed in the chronic phase. T cells play a critical role in parasite specific and non-specific immune response elicited by the host against Trypanosoma cruzi. Specifically, memory T cells, which are basically classified as central and effector memory cells, might have a distinct migratory activity, role and function during the human Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the hypothesis that the disease severity in humans is correlated to the quality of immune responses against T. cruzi, we evaluated the memory profile of peripheral CD4(+ and CD8(+ T lymphocytes as well as its cytokine secretion before and after in vitro antigenic stimulation. We evaluated cellular response from non-infected individuals (NI, patients with indeterminate (IND or cardiac (CARD clinical forms of Chagas disease. The expression of CD45RA, CD45RO and CCR7 surface molecules was determined on CD4(+ and CD8(+ T lymphocytes; the pattern of intracellular cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-10 synthesized by naive and memory cells was determined by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that IND and CARD patients have relatively lower percentages of naive (CD45RA(high CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. However, statistical analysis of ex-vivo profiles of CD4(+ T cells showed that IND have lower percentage of CD45RA(high in relation to non-infected individuals, but not in relation to CARD. Elevated percentages of memory (CD45RO(high CD4(+ T cells were also demonstrated in infected individuals, although statistically significant differences were only observed between IND and NI groups. Furthermore, when we analyzed the profile of secreted cytokines, we observed that CARD patients

  19. Attentive novelty detection in humans is governed by pre-attentive sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiitinen, H; May, P; Reinikainen, K; Näätänen, R

    1994-11-03

    Being able to detect unusual, possibly dangerous events in the environment is a fundamental ability that helps ensure the survival of biological organisms. Novelty detection requires a memory system that models (builds neural representations of) events in the environment, so that changes are detected because they violate the predictions of the model. The earliest physiologically measurable brain response to novel auditory stimuli is the mismatch negativity, MMN, a component of the event-related potential. It is elicited when a predictable series of unvarying stimuli is unexpectedly followed by a deviating stimulus. As the occurrence of MMN is not usually affected by the direction of attention, MMN reflects the operation of automatic sensory (echoic) memory, the earliest memory system that builds traces of the acoustic environment against which new stimuli can be compared. The dependence of attentive novelty detection on earlier, pre-attentive processes, however, has remained elusive. Previous, related studies seem to suggest a relationship between MMN and attentive processes, although no conclusive evidence has so far been shown. Here we address novelty detection in humans both on a physiological and behavioural level, and show how attentive novelty detection is governed by a pre-attentive sensory memory mechanism.

  20. Assessing reliable human mobility patterns from higher order memory in mobile communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamalas, Joan T; De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how people move within a geographical area, e.g. a city, a country or the whole world, is fundamental in several applications, from predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemic to inferring migration patterns. Mobile phone records provide an excellent proxy of human mobility, showing that movements exhibit a high level of memory. However, the precise role of memory in widely adopted proxies of mobility, as mobile phone records, is unknown. Here we use 560 million call detail records from Senegal to show that standard Markovian approaches, including higher order ones, fail in capturing real mobility patterns and introduce spurious movements never observed in reality. We introduce an adaptive memory-driven approach to overcome such issues. At variance with Markovian models, it is able to realistically model conditional waiting times, i.e. the probability to stay in a specific area depending on individuals' historical movements. Our results demonstrate that in standard mobility models the individuals tend to diffuse faster than observed in reality, whereas the predictions of the adaptive memory approach significantly agree with observations. We show that, as a consequence, the incidence and the geographical spread of a disease could be inadequately estimated when standard approaches are used, with crucial implications on resources deployment and policy-making during an epidemic outbreak.

  1. A Single Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Dose Improves B Cell Memory in Previously Infected Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Scherer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although licensed human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are most efficacious in persons never infected with HPV, they also reduce infection and disease in previously infected subjects, indicating natural immunity is not entirely protective against HPV re-infection. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the B cell memory elicited by HPV infection and evaluate whether vaccination merely boosts antibody (Ab levels in previously infected subjects or also improves the quality of B cell memory. Toward this end, the memory B cells (Bmem of five unvaccinated, HPV-seropositive subjects were isolated and characterized, and subject recall responses to a single HPV vaccine dose were analyzed. Vaccination boosted Ab levels 24- to 930-fold (median 77-fold and Bmem numbers 3- to 27-fold (median 6-fold. In addition, Abs cloned from naturally elicited Bmem were generally non-neutralizing, whereas all those isolated following vaccination were neutralizing. Moreover, Ab and plasmablast responses indicative of memory recall responses were only observed in two subjects. These results suggest HPV vaccination augments both the magnitude and quality of natural immunity and demonstrate that sexually active persons could also benefit from HPV vaccination. This study may have important public policy implications, especially for the older ‘catch-up’ group within the vaccine's target population.

  2. Stability of car following with human memory effects and automatic headway compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Rifat; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian

    2010-10-13

    This paper addresses the study of some appropriate control strategies in order to guarantee the exponential stability of a class of deterministic microscopic car-following models including human drivers' memory effects and automated headway controllers. More precisely, the delayed action/decision of human drivers is represented using distributed delays with a gap and the considered automated controller is of proportional derivative type. The analysis is performed in both delay parameter and controller gain parameter spaces, and appropriate algorithms are proposed. Surprisingly, large delays and/or gains improve stability for the corresponding closed-loop schemes. Finally, some illustrative examples as well as various interpretations of the results complete the presentation.

  3. Human memory B cells originate from three distinct germinal center-dependent and -independent maturation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowska, Magdalena A; Driessen, Gertjan J A; Bikos, Vasilis; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Cerutti, Andrea; He, Bing; Biermann, Katharina; Lange, Johan F; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van Zelm, Menno C

    2011-08-25

    Multiple distinct memory B-cell subsets have been identified in humans, but it remains unclear how their phenotypic diversity corresponds to the type of responses from which they originate. Especially, the contribution of germinal center-independent responses in humans remains controversial. We defined 6 memory B-cell subsets based on their antigen-experienced phenotype and differential expression of CD27 and IgH isotypes. Molecular characterization of their replication history, Ig somatic hypermutation, and class-switch profiles demonstrated their origin from 3 different pathways. CD27⁻IgG⁺ and CD27⁺IgM⁺ B cells are derived from primary germinal center reactions, and CD27⁺IgA⁺ and CD27⁺IgG⁺ B cells are from consecutive germinal center responses (pathway 1). In contrast, natural effector and CD27⁻IgA⁺ memory B cells have limited proliferation and are also present in CD40L-deficient patients, reflecting a germinal center-independent origin. Natural effector cells at least in part originate from systemic responses in the splenic marginal zone (pathway 2). CD27⁻IgA⁺ cells share low replication history and dominant Igλ and IgA2 use with gut lamina propria IgA+ B cells, suggesting their common origin from local germinal center-independent responses (pathway 3). Our findings shed light on human germinal center-dependent and -independent B-cell memory formation and provide new opportunities to study these processes in immunologic diseases.

  4. An Analysis of Individualism in the Declaration of Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱微

    2007-01-01

    The awareness of individualism can be traced back to the period of American Revolution when the Declaration of Independence was produced.It expressed basic beliefs concerning freedom,equality,democracy,privacy and the relationship between people and government,which were exactly what the philosophy of individualism mostly dealt with at that time.This paper is to exploit the essence of individualism by analyzing the Declaration .The analysis enables us to reconsider its significance to the issue of America human rights and foreign policies.

  5. Vienna Summit Declaration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-21

    The leaders of the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA) met June 2006 in Vienna to respond to the concerns of their citizens for peace, security, stability and prosperity in an increasingly globalised world. They welcome that over the past year the Transatlantic Partnership has delivered real results as shown by the political and economic Progress Reports issued during the summit (http://www.eu2006.at/en/The{sub C}ouncil{sub P}residency/EU-USSummit/index.html). They remain committed to finding common or complementary lines of action in many areas. Over the last year there have been many examples of how productive the relationship is, in the Middle East, Iran, the Western Balkans, Belarus, on the frozen conflicts, and Sudan, as well as in the efforts to promote transatlantic trade and investment under last Summit's Economic Initiative. They have decided to further strengthen the strategic Partnership by adopting a number of priority actions to support cooperation in the following four areas: Promoting peace, human rights and democracy worldwide; Confronting global challenges, including security; Fostering prosperity and opportunity; and Promoting strategic cooperation on energy and energy security, climate change and sustainable development.

  6. Disruption of Memory Reconsolidation Erases a Fear Memory Trace in the Human Amygdala: An 18-Month Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Björkstrand

    Full Text Available Fear memories can be attenuated by reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we recently showed that reactivation and reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory trace in the basolateral amygdala predicts subsequent fear expression over two days, while reactivation followed by disrupted reconsolidation abolishes the memory trace and suppresses fear. In this follow-up study we demonstrate that the behavioral effect persists over 18 months reflected in superior reacquisition after undisrupted, as compared to disrupted reconsolidation, and that neural activity in the basolateral amygdala representing the initial fear memory predicts return of fear. We conclude that disrupting reconsolidation have long lasting behavioral effects and may permanently erase the fear component of an amygdala-dependent memory.

  7. On existential declarations of independence in IF Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the behaviour of declarations of independence between existential quantifiers in quantifier prefixes of IF sentences; we give a syntactical criterion for deciding whether a sentence beginning with such prefix exists such that its truth values may be affected by removal of the declaration of independence. We extend the result also to equilibrium semantics values for undetermined IF sentences. The main theorem allows us to describe the behaviour of various particular classes of quantifier prefixes, and to prove as a remarkable corollary that all existential IF sentences are equivalent to first-order sentences. As a further consequence, we prove that the fragment of IF sentences with knowledge memory has only first-order expressive power (up to truth equivalence).

  8. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  9. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  10. Women and the Environment: Declaration Encourages Active Participation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    JUNE 5, 1994 has been mandated World Environment Day. On this day the first meeting on Women and the Environment in China was held in Beijing and the Declaration of Chinese Women on Environment was established. According to the declaration, environmental pollution and the destruction of the ecology have posed a serious threat to the survival of the human race. It has become a great issue of common concern. The functions of women in procreation and social development are directly affected by the deterioration of the environment. It is the common interest of the populations of the world to protect the environment. The declaration notes that Chinese women are greatly concerned about the environmental conditions of their

  11. Dendritic Cells Enhance HIV Infection of Memory CD4(+) T Cells in Human Lymphoid Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Angel L; Reuter, Morgan A; McDonald, David

    2016-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in controlling infections by coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses to invading pathogens. Paradoxically, DCs can increase HIV-1 dissemination in vitro by binding and transferring infectious virions to CD4(+) T cells, a process called transinfection. Transinfection has been well characterized in cultured cell lines and circulating primary T cells, but it is unknown whether DCs enhance infection of CD4(+) T cells in vivo. In untreated HIV infection, massive CD4(+) T-cell infection and depletion occur in secondary lymphoid tissues long before decline is evident in the peripheral circulation. To study the role of DCs in HIV infection of lymphoid tissues, we utilized human tonsil tissues, cultured either as tissue blocks or as aggregate suspension cultures, in single-round infection experiments. In these experiments, addition of monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) to the cultures increased T-cell infection, particularly in CD4(+) T cells expressing lower levels of HLA-DR. Subset analysis demonstrated that MDDCs increased HIV-1 infection of central and effector memory T-cell populations. Depletion of endogenous myeloid DCs (myDCs) from the cultures decreased memory T-cell infection, and readdition of MDDCs restored infection to predepletion levels. Using an HIV-1 fusion assay, we found that MDDCs equally increased HIV delivery into naïve, central, and effector memory T cells in the cultures, whereas predepletion of myDCs reduced fusion into memory T cells. Together, these data suggest that resident myDCs facilitate memory T-cell infection in lymphoid tissues, implicating DC-mediated transinfection in driving HIV dissemination within these tissues in untreated HIV/AIDS.

  12. High frequency oscillations are associated with cognitive processing in human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Cimbalnik, Jan; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Vasoli, Vincent; Sulc, Vlastimil; Meyer, Fred; Marsh, W R; Stead, S M; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-08-01

    High frequency oscillations are associated with normal brain function, but also increasingly recognized as potential biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain. Their role in human cognition has been predominantly studied in classical gamma frequencies (30-100 Hz), which reflect neuronal network coordination involved in attention, learning and memory. Invasive brain recordings in animals and humans demonstrate that physiological oscillations extend beyond the gamma frequency range, but their function in human cognitive processing has not been fully elucidated. Here we investigate high frequency oscillations spanning the high gamma (50-125 Hz), ripple (125-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) frequency bands using intracranial recordings from 12 patients (five males and seven females, age 21-63 years) during memory encoding and recall of a series of affectively charged images. Presentation of the images induced high frequency oscillations in all three studied bands within the primary visual, limbic and higher order cortical regions in a sequence consistent with the visual processing stream. These induced oscillations were detected on individual electrodes localized in the amygdala, hippocampus and specific neocortical areas, revealing discrete oscillations of characteristic frequency, duration and latency from image presentation. Memory encoding and recall significantly modulated the number of induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple detections in the studied structures, which was greater in the primary sensory areas during the encoding (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.002) and in the higher-order cortical association areas during the recall (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.001) of memorized images. Furthermore, the induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple responses discriminated the encoded and the affectively charged images. In summary, our results show that high frequency oscillations, spanning a wide range of frequencies, are associated with memory processing and

  13. Regulation of AMPA receptor function by the human memory-associated gene KIBRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren; Volk, Lenora; Anggono, Victor; Johnson, Richard C; Yu, Yilin; Duning, Kerstin; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Xia, Jun; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L

    2011-09-22

    KIBRA has recently been identified as a gene associated with human memory performance. Despite the elucidation of the role of KIBRA in several diverse processes in nonneuronal cells, the molecular function of KIBRA in neurons is unknown. We found that KIBRA directly binds to the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) and forms a complex with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs), the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. KIBRA knockdown accelerates the rate of AMPAR recycling following N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-induced internalization. Genetic deletion of KIBRA in mice impairs both long-term depression and long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, KIBRA knockout mice have severe deficits in contextual fear learning and memory. These results indicate that KIBRA regulates higher brain function by regulating AMPAR trafficking and synaptic plasticity.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced experimental immune activation does not impair memory functions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Oberbeck, J Reiner; Lichte, Philipp; Kobbe, Philipp; Wolf, Oliver T; Montag, Thomas; del Rey, Adriana; Gizewski, Elke R; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2010-11-01

    Systemic immune activation occurring together with release of peripheral cytokines can affect behavior and the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). However, it remains unknown whether and to what extent cognitive functions like memory and attention are affected during transient immune activation. We employed a human endotoxemia model and standardized neuropsychological tests to assess the cognitive effects of an experimental inflammation in two groups of 12 healthy young men before and after intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli, 0.4 ng/kg) or physiological saline. Endotoxin administration caused a profound transient physiological response with elevations in body temperature, number of circulating neutrophils, and increases in plasma cytokine levels [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α], and concentrations of norepinephrine, ACTH and cortisol. However, these changes in immune and neuroendocrine parameters were not associated with alterations of memory performance, selective attention or executive functions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immune activation and induction of memory: lessons learned from controlled human malaria infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Controlled human malaria infections (CHMIs) are a powerful tool to assess the efficacy of drugs and/or vaccine candidates, but also to study anti-malarial immune responses at well-defined time points after infection. In this review, we discuss the insights that CHMI trials have provided into early immune activation and regulation during acute infection, and the capacity to induce and maintain immunological memory. Importantly, these studies show that a single infection is sufficient to induce long-lasting parasite-specific T- and B-cell memory responses, and suggest that blood-stage induced regulatory responses can limit inflammation both in ongoing and potentially future infections. As future perspective of investigation in CHMIs, we discuss the role of innate cell subsets, the interplay between innate and adaptive immune activation and the potential modulation of these responses after natural pre-exposure.

  16. Enumeration and Characterization of Human Memory T Cells by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Calarota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assay has advanced into a useful and widely applicable tool for the evaluation of T-cell responses in both humans and animal models of diseases and/or vaccine candidates. Using synthetic peptides (either individually or as overlapping peptide mixtures or whole antigens, total lymphocyte or isolated T-cell subset responses can be assessed either after short-term stimulation (standard ELISPOT or after their expansion during a 10-day culture (cultured ELISPOT. Both assays detect different antigen-specific immune responses allowing the analysis of effector memory T cells and central memory T cells. This paper describes the principle of ELISPOT assays and discusses their application in the evaluation of immune correlates of clinical interest with a focus on the vaccine field.

  17. Circadian rhythm. Dysrhythmia in the suprachiasmatic nucleus inhibits memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fabian; Lu, Derek; Ha, Phong; Costacurta, Patricia; Chavez, Renee; Heller, H Craig; Ruby, Norman F

    2014-11-14

    Chronic circadian dysfunction impairs declarative memory in humans but has little effect in common rodent models of arrhythmia caused by clock gene knockouts or surgical ablation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). An important problem overlooked in these translational models is that human dysrhythmia occurs while SCN circuitry is genetically and neurologically intact. Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) are particularly well suited for translational studies because they can be made arrhythmic by a one-time photic treatment that severely impairs spatial and recognition memory. We found that once animals are made arrhythmic, subsequent SCN ablation completely rescues memory processing. These data suggest that the inhibitory effects of a malfunctioning SCN on cognition require preservation of circuitry between the SCN and downstream targets that are lost when these connections are severed.

  18. Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Bradley B; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become widely appreciated that value-based decision making is supported by multiple computational strategies. In particular, animal and human behavior in learning tasks appears to include habitual responses described by prominent model-free reinforcement learning (RL) theories, but also more deliberative or goal-directed actions that can be characterized by a different class of theories, model-based RL. The latter theories evaluate actions by using a representation of the contingencies of the task (as with a learned map of a spatial maze), called an "internal model." Given the evidence of behavioral and neural dissociations between these approaches, they are often characterized as dissociable learning systems, though they likely interact and share common mechanisms. In many respects, this division parallels a longstanding dissociation in cognitive neuroscience between multiple memory systems, describing, at the broadest level, separate systems for declarative and procedural learning. Procedural learning has notable parallels with model-free RL: both involve learning of habits and both are known to depend on parts of the striatum. Declarative memory, by contrast, supports memory for single events or episodes and depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is thought to support declarative memory by encoding temporal and spatial relations among stimuli and thus is often referred to as a relational memory system. Such relational encoding is likely to play an important role in learning an internal model, the representation that is central to model-based RL. Thus, insofar as the memory systems represent more general-purpose cognitive mechanisms that might subserve performance on many sorts of tasks including decision making, these parallels raise the question whether the multiple decision systems are served by multiple memory systems, such that one dissociation is grounded in the other. Here we investigated the relationship between model-based RL and

  19. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  20. Declaration of income for 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Information from the Legal Service and the HR Department Information for members of the personnel residing in France Following the introduction of the internal taxation of salaries and emoluments of members of the CERN personnel on 1st January 2005 (cf. Bulletin No. 48-49/2005), the French Finance Ministry has communicated the following information on the procedure for completing the 2005 declaration of income form, which must be returned by 31 May 2006 at the latest. All members of the personnel*) residing in France, whether or not they are of French nationality, are required to complete a declaration of income for 2005 according to the following instructions and to return a signed copy to their local tax office by 31 May 2006 at the latest. Members of the personnel should receive an income declaration form for 2005 at the beginning of May. Those who do not receive a form directly should obtain one from their local 'Centre des Impôts', Trésorerie' or 'Mairie', or download one from the Finance Ministry...

  1. Human cortical θ during free exploration encodes space and predicts subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; Lynch, Gary; Halgren, Eric; Poizner, Howard

    2013-09-18

    Spatial representations and walking speed in rodents are consistently related to the phase, frequency, and/or amplitude of θ rhythms in hippocampal local field potentials. However, neuropsychological studies in humans have emphasized the importance of parietal cortex for spatial navigation, and efforts to identify the electrophysiological signs of spatial navigation in humans have been stymied by the difficulty of recording during free exploration of complex environments. We resolved the recording problem and experimentally probed brain activity of human participants who were fully ambulant. On each of 2 d, electroencephalography was synchronized with head and body movement in 13 subjects freely navigating an extended virtual environment containing numerous unique objects. θ phase and amplitude recorded over parietal cortex were consistent when subjects walked through a particular spatial separation at widely separated times. This spatial displacement θ autocorrelation (STAcc) was quantified and found to be significant from 2 to 8 Hz within the environment. Similar autocorrelation analyses performed on an electrooculographic channel, used to measure eye movements, showed no significant spatial autocorrelations, ruling out eye movements as the source of STAcc. Strikingly, the strength of an individual's STAcc maps from day 1 significantly predicted object location recall success on day 2. θ was also significantly correlated with walking speed; however, this correlation appeared unrelated to STAcc and did not predict memory performance. This is the first demonstration of memory-related, spatial maps in humans generated during active spatial exploration.

  2. Continuous Timescale Long-Short Term Memory Neural Network for Human Intent Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of human intention by observing a series of human actions has been a challenging task. In order to do so, we need to analyze longer sequences of human actions related with intentions and extract the context from the dynamic features. The multiple timescales recurrent neural network (MTRNN model, which is believed to be a kind of solution, is a useful tool for recording and regenerating a continuous signal for dynamic tasks. However, the conventional MTRNN suffers from the vanishing gradient problem which renders it impossible to be used for longer sequence understanding. To address this problem, we propose a new model named Continuous Timescale Long-Short Term Memory (CTLSTM in which we inherit the multiple timescales concept into the Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM recurrent neural network (RNN that addresses the vanishing gradient problem. We design an additional recurrent connection in the LSTM cell outputs to produce a time-delay in order to capture the slow context. Our experiments show that the proposed model exhibits better context modeling ability and captures the dynamic features on multiple large dataset classification tasks. The results illustrate that the multiple timescales concept enhances the ability of our model to handle longer sequences related with human intentions and hence proving to be more suitable for complex tasks, such as intention recognition.

  3. Initial investigation of the effects of an experimentally learned schema on spatial associative memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Mariët; Kroes, Marijn C W; Wagner, Isabella C; Genzel, Lisa; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-12-10

    Networks of interconnected neocortical representations of prior knowledge, "schemas," facilitate memory for congruent information. This facilitation is thought to be mediated by augmented encoding and accelerated consolidation. However, it is less clear how schema affects retrieval. Rodent and human studies to date suggest that schema-related memories are differently retrieved. However, these studies differ substantially as most human studies implement pre-experimental world-knowledge as schemas and tested item or nonspatial associative memory, whereas animal studies have used intraexperimental schemas based on item-location associations within a complex spatial layout that, in humans, could engage more strategic retrieval processes. Here, we developed a paradigm conceptually linked to rodent studies to examine the effects of an experimentally learned spatial associative schema on learning and retrieval of new object-location associations and to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying schema-related retrieval. Extending previous findings, we show that retrieval of schema-defining associations is related to activity along anterior and posterior midline structures and angular gyrus. The existence of such spatial associative schema resulted in more accurate learning and retrieval of new, related associations, and increased time allocated to retrieve these associations. This retrieval was associated with right dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral parietal activity, as well as interactions between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial and lateral parietal regions, and between the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior midline regions, supporting the hypothesis that retrieval of new, schema-related object-location associations in humans also involves augmented monitoring and systematic search processes.

  4. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Mungee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. Methods: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were shown a reminder of the conditioned fearful stimulus. Shortly thereafter, they received either tDCS (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal for 20 min at 1 mA, or sham stimulation. A day later, fear responses of both groups were compared. Results: On Day 3, during fear response assessment, there were no significant differences between the tDCS and sham group (p > 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal did not influence fear memories.

  5. Long-range memory and non-Markov statistical effects in human sensorimotor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Yulmetyev, Renat; Emelyanova, Natalya; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the non-Markov statistical processes and long-range memory effects in human sensorimotor coordination are investigated. The theoretical basis of this study is the statistical theory of non-stationary discrete non-Markov processes in complex systems (Phys. Rev. E 62, 6178 (2000)). The human sensorimotor coordination was experimentally studied by means of standard dynamical tapping test on the group of 32 young peoples with tap numbers up to 400. This test was carried out separately for the right and the left hand according to the degree of domination of each brain hemisphere. The numerical analysis of the experimental results was made with the help of power spectra of the initial time correlation function, the memory functions of low orders and the first three points of the statistical spectrum of non-Markovity parameter. Our observations demonstrate, that with the regard to results of the standard dynamic tapping-test it is possible to divide all examinees into five different dynamic types. We have introduced the conflict coefficient to estimate quantitatively the order-disorder effects underlying life systems. The last one reflects the existence of disbalance between the nervous and the motor human coordination. The suggested classification of the neurophysiological activity represents the dynamic generalization of the well-known neuropsychological types and provides the new approach in a modern neuropsychology.

  6. Effect of general anesthesia in infancy on long-term recognition memory in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Greg; Lee, Joshua; Sall, Jeffrey W; Lee, Bradley H; Alvi, Rehan S; Shih, Jennifer; Rowe, Allison M; Ramage, Tatiana M; Chang, Flora L; Alexander, Terri G; Lempert, David K; Lin, Nan; Siu, Kasey H; Elphick, Sophie A; Wong, Alice; Schnair, Caitlin I; Vu, Alexander F; Chan, John T; Zai, Huizhen; Wong, Michelle K; Anthony, Amanda M; Barbour, Kyle C; Ben-Tzur, Dana; Kazarian, Natalie E; Lee, Joyce Y Y; Shen, Jay R; Liu, Eric; Behniwal, Gurbir S; Lammers, Cathy R; Quinones, Zoel; Aggarwal, Anuj; Cedars, Elizabeth; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-09-01

    Anesthesia in infancy impairs performance in recognition memory tasks in mammalian animals, but it is unknown if this occurs in humans. Successful recognition can be based on stimulus familiarity or recollection of event details. Several brain structures involved in recollection are affected by anesthesia-induced neurodegeneration in animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. Twenty eight children ages 6-11 who had undergone a procedure requiring general anesthesia before age 1 were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched children who had not undergone anesthesia. Recollection and familiarity were assessed in an object recognition memory test using receiver operator characteristic analysis. In addition, IQ and Child Behavior Checklist scores were assessed. In parallel, thirty three 7-day-old rats were randomized to receive anesthesia or sham anesthesia. Over 10 months, recollection and familiarity were assessed using an odor recognition test. We found that anesthetized children had significantly lower recollection scores and were impaired at recollecting associative information compared with controls. Familiarity, IQ, and Child Behavior Checklist scores were not different between groups. In rats, anesthetized subjects had significantly lower recollection scores than controls while familiarity was unaffected. Rats that had undergone tissue injury during anesthesia had similar recollection indices as rats that had been anesthetized without tissue injury. These findings suggest that general anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. In rats, this effect is independent of underlying disease or tissue injury.

  7. The effect of exogenous cortisol during sleep on the behavioral and neural correlates of emotional memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle, Hein J F; Hermans, Erno J; Qin, Shaozheng; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-09-01

    A host of animal work demonstrates that the retention benefit for emotionally aversive over neutral memories is regulated by glucocorticoid action during memory consolidation. Particularly, glucocorticoids may affect systems-level processes that promote the gradual reorganization of emotional memory traces. These effects remain largely uninvestigated in humans. Therefore, in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study we administered hydrocortisone during a polysomnographically monitored night of sleep directly after healthy volunteers studied negative and neutral pictures in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. The following evening memory consolidation was probed during a recognition memory test in the MR scanner by assessing the difference in brain activity associated with memory for the consolidated items studied before sleep and new, unconsolidated items studied shortly before test (remote vs. recent memory paradigm). Hydrocortisone administration resulted in elevated cortisol levels throughout the experimental night with no group difference at recent encoding or test. Behaviorally, we showed that cortisol enhanced the difference between emotional and neutral consolidated memory, effectively prioritizing emotional memory consolidation. On a neural level, we found that cortisol reduced amygdala reactivity related to the retrieval of these same consolidated, negative items. These findings show that cortisol administration during first post-encoding sleep had a twofold effect on the first 24h of emotional memory consolidation. While cortisol prioritized recognition memory for emotional items, it reduced reactivation of the neural circuitry underlying emotional responsiveness during retrieval. These findings fit recent theories on emotional depotentiation following consolidation during sleep, although future research should establish the sleep-dependence of this effect. Moreover, our data may shed light on mechanisms underlying

  8. Osteogenic Capacity of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells is Preserved Following Triggering of Shape Memory Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ling-Fang; Wang, Jing; Baker, Richard M; Wang, Guirong; Mather, Patrick T; Henderson, James H

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymers have enabled the study of programmable, shape-changing, cytocompatible tissue engineering scaffolds. For treatment of bone defects, scaffolds with shape memory functionality have been studied for their potential for minimally invasive delivery, conformal fitting to defect margins, and defect stabilization. However, the extent to which the osteogenic differentiation capacity of stem cells resident in shape memory scaffolds is preserved following programmed shape change has not yet been determined. As a result, the feasibility of shape memory polymer scaffolds being employed in stem cell-based treatment strategies remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that stem cell osteogenic differentiation can be preserved during and following triggering of programmed architectural changes in shape memory polymer scaffolds, human adipose-derived stem cells were seeded in shape memory polymer foam scaffolds or in shape memory polymer fibrous scaffolds programmed to expand or contract, respectively, when warmed to body temperature. Osteogenic differentiation in shape-changing and control scaffolds was compared using mineral deposition, protein production, and gene expression assays. For both shape-changing and control scaffolds, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable amounts of mineral deposition were observed; comparable levels of alkaline phosphatase activity were measured; and no significant differences in the expression of genetic markers of osteogenesis were detected. These findings support the feasibility of employing shape memory in scaffolds for stem cell-based therapies for bone repair.

  9. Negative Facial Expressions - But Not Visual Scenes - Enhance Human Working Memory in Younger and Older Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belham, Flávia Schechtman; Tavares, Maria Clotilde H; Satler, Corina; Garcia, Ana; Rodrigues, Rosângela C; Canabarro, Soraya L de Sá; Tomaz, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the influence of emotion on memory processes across the human lifespan. Some results have shown older adults (OA) performing better with positive stimuli, some with negative items, whereas some found no impact of emotional valence. Here we tested, in two independent studies, how younger adults (YA) and OA would perform in a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task with positive, negative, and neutral images. The task consisted of identifying the new location of a stimulus in a crescent set of identical stimuli presented in different locations in a touch-screen monitor. In other words, participants should memorize the locations previously occupied to identify the new location. For each trial, the number of occupied locations increased until 8 or until a mistake was made. In study 1, 56 YA and 38 OA completed the task using images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Results showed that, although YA outperformed OA, no effects of emotion were found. In study 2, 26 YA and 25 OA were tested using facial expressions as stimuli. Data from this study showed that negative faces facilitated performance and this effect did not differ between age groups. No differences were found between men and women. Taken together, our findings suggest that YA and OA's VSWM can be influenced by the emotional valence of the information, though this effect was present only for facial stimuli. Presumably, this may have happened due to the social and biological importance of such stimuli, which are more effective in transmitting emotions than IAPS images. Critically, our results also indicate that the mixed findings in the literature about the influence of aging on the interactions between memory and emotion may be caused by the use of different stimuli and methods. This possibility should be kept in mind in future studies about memory and emotion across the lifespan.

  10. Threat of punishment motivates memory encoding via amygdala, not midbrain, interactions with the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; Labar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2012-06-27

    Neural circuits associated with motivated declarative encoding and active threat avoidance have both been described, but the relative contribution of these systems to punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to examine mechanisms of declarative memory enhancement when subjects were motivated to avoid punishments that were contingent on forgetting. A motivational cue on each trial informed participants whether they would be punished or not for forgetting an upcoming scene image. Items associated with the threat of shock were better recognized 24 h later. Punishment-motivated enhancements in subsequent memory were associated with anticipatory activation of right amygdala and increases in its functional connectivity with parahippocampal and orbitofrontal cortices. On a trial-by-trial basis, right amygdala activation during the motivational cue predicted hippocampal activation during encoding of the subsequent scene; across participants, the strength of this interaction predicted memory advantages due to motivation. Of note, punishment-motivated learning was not associated with activation of dopaminergic midbrain, as would be predicted by valence-independent models of motivation to learn. These data are consistent with the view that motivation by punishment activates the amygdala, which in turn prepares the medial temporal lobe for memory formation. The findings further suggest a brain system for declarative learning motivated by punishment that is distinct from that for learning motivated by reward.

  11. Focal Cortical Thickness Correlates of Exceptional Memory Training in Vedic Priests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar Padmanabhan Kalamangalam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for semantic memory – the ability to acquire and store knowledge of the world - is highly developed in the human brain. In particular, semantic memory assimilated through an auditory route may be a uniquely human capacity. One method of obtaining neurobiological insight into auditory semantic memory mechanisms is through the study of experts. In this work, we study a group of Hindu Vedic priests, whose religious training requires the memorization of vast tracts of scriptural texts through an oral tradition, recalled spontaneously during a lifetime of subsequent spiritual practice. We demonstrate focal increases of cortical thickness in the dominant prefrontal lobe and non-dominant temporal lobe in Vedic priests, in comparison to a group of matched controls. The findings are relevant to current hypotheses regarding cognitive processes underlying storage and recall of long-term declarative memory.

  12. Pattern Analyses Reveal Separate Experience-Based Fear Memories in the Human Right Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Demanet, Jelle; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Kalisch, Raffael; Brass, Marcel

    2017-08-23

    Learning fear via the experience of contingencies between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is often assumed to be fundamentally different from learning fear via instructions. An open question is whether fear-related brain areas respond differently to experienced CS-US contingencies than to merely instructed CS-US contingencies. Here, we contrasted two experimental conditions where subjects were instructed to expect the same CS-US contingencies while only one condition was characterized by prior experience with the CS-US contingency. Using multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data, we found CS-related neural activation patterns in the right amygdala (but not in other fear-related regions) that dissociated between whether a CS-US contingency had been instructed and experienced versus merely instructed. A second experiment further corroborated this finding by showing a category-independent neural response to instructed and experienced, but not merely instructed, CS presentations in the human right amygdala. Together, these findings are in line with previous studies showing that verbal fear instructions have a strong impact on both brain and behavior. However, even in the face of fear instructions, the human right amygdala still shows a separable neural pattern response to experience-based fear contingencies.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In our study, we addressed a fundamental problem of the science of human fear learning and memory, namely whether fear learning via experience in humans relies on a neural pathway that can be separated from fear learning via verbal information. Using two new procedures and recent advances in the analysis of brain imaging data, we localized purely experience-based fear processing and memory in the right amygdala, thereby making a direct link between human and animal research. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378116-15$15.00/0.

  13. [Learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombroso, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Memory is broadly divided into declarative and nondeclarative forms of memory. The hippocampus is required for the formation of declarative memories, while a number of other brain regions including the striatum, amygdala and nucleus accumbens are involved in the formation of nondeclarative memories. The formation of all memories require morphological changes of synapses: new ones must be formed or old ones strengthened. These changes are thought to reflect the underlying cellular basis for persistent memories. Considerable advances have occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular bases of how these memories are formed. A key regulator of synaptic plasticity is a signaling pathway that includes the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. As this pathway is required for normal memory and learning, it is not surprising that mutations in members of this pathway lead to disruptions in learning. Neurofibromatosis, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome are three examples of developmental disorders that have mutations in key components of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

  14. Communicabilité des droits de l’homme : la Déclaration Universelle et sa mise en texte Human Rights and Communicability: the Universal Declaration as Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Susana

    2010-04-01

    de l’homme, donc leur universalité possible.To what extent does the textual condition of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 (UDHR affect its public status and the universal range of the question it raises, namely, the humanity in man and his rights? This article aims at exemplifying the contribution of a philosophy of communication (extended from dialogue to text to the field of discourse analysis and argumentation. We will apprehend the text of the UDHR as a communicative relationship established in the rhetorical framework of a message to an audience. After having shown the importance of the “duty of dialogue” for approaching human rights (Ethics of discussion; New Rhetoric, the article highlights the importance of integrating dialogical analysis into text analysis in order to restore their full size to the concepts of “meaning”, “dialogism” and “communicability”, quite limited in the dominant theories of discourse, but also to extend them to the text considered as virtual public communication. Textuality is thus understood as a relation of common questioning between an author and a reader invited to settle in the “world of the text”, based on categories stating what is to be sought for or promoted in the real world. The analysis is grounded on the assumption that the Declaration constitutes a communication in absentia between its pragmatic instances: a responsible Authority and a Readership extended to the dimension of humanity, questioned in the text as a “public matter” (res publica.  The article claims that the possible world built by the UDHR is based on the categorical question of an essential human reality, questioned in an existence always threatened by inhumanity, and to which an answer is brought by rights defined as categorical propositions. This textual form supports the declarative effect as well as the public communicability of human rights, therefore their possible universality.

  15. The Human Dentate Gyrus Plays a Necessary Role in Discriminating New Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stevenson; Vieweg, Paula; Gao, Fuqiang; Gilboa, Asaf; Wolbers, Thomas; Black, Sandra E; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-10-10

    Our day-to-day experiences are often similar to one another, occurring in the same place at the same time of day, with common people and objects, and with a shared purpose. Humans have an episodic memory to represent unique, personal events that are rich in detail [1]. For this to occur, at least two basic neural mechanisms are required: one to orthogonalize or "separate" overlapping input patterns at encoding and another to reinstate or "complete" memories from partial cues at retrieval [2-6]. To what extent do these purported "pattern separation" and "pattern completion" mechanisms rely on distinct subfields of the hippocampus [6]? Computational models [4-6] and lesion and genetic studies in rodents [7-12] largely point to the dentate gyrus as responsible for pattern separation and the CA3 and CA1 subfields for pattern completion (but see [13-16]). In high-resolution fMRI studies of humans, behavioral discrimination and completion tasks designed to approximate pattern separation and pattern completion, respectively, elicit the predicted pattern of activity in the dentate gyrus and CA3/CA1 [17-21]. Likewise, impaired behavioral discrimination has been demonstrated in individuals with hippocampal lesions [22, 23], but the lesions most likely encompass other subfields. Examination of these processes in individuals with selective lesions to hippocampal subfields is needed to infer causation [19]. Here, we report the rare case of BL, a 54-year-old man with bilateral ischemic lesions to the hippocampus [24] primarily affecting the dentate gyrus. Studying BL provides the unique opportunity to directly evaluate theories of hippocampal function that assign the dentate gyrus a specific role in discriminating old from new memories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antibodies alter memory and behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planagumà, Jesús; Leypoldt, Frank; Mannara, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Martín-García, Elena; Aguilar, Esther; Titulaer, Maarten J; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Jain, Ankit; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Lakadamyali, Melike; Graus, Francesc; Maldonado, Rafael; Dalmau, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that associates with prominent memory and behavioural deficits. Patients' antibodies react with the N-terminal domain of the GluN1 (previously known as NR1) subunit of NMDAR causing in cultured neurons a selective and reversible internalization of cell-surface receptors. These effects and the frequent response to immunotherapy have suggested an antibody-mediated pathogenesis, but to date there is no animal model showing that patients' antibodies cause memory and behavioural deficits. To develop such a model, C57BL6/J mice underwent placement of ventricular catheters connected to osmotic pumps that delivered a continuous infusion of patients' or control cerebrospinal fluid (flow rate 0.25 µl/h, 14 days). During and after the infusion period standardized tests were applied, including tasks to assess memory (novel object recognition in open field and V-maze paradigms), anhedonic behaviours (sucrose preference test), depressive-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swimming tests), anxiety (black and white, elevated plus maze tests), aggressiveness (resident-intruder test), and locomotor activity (horizontal and vertical). Animals sacrificed at Days 5, 13, 18, 26 and 46 were examined for brain-bound antibodies and the antibody effects on total and synaptic NMDAR clusters and protein concentration using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. These experiments showed that animals infused with patients' cerebrospinal fluid, but not control cerebrospinal fluid, developed progressive memory deficits, and anhedonic and depressive-like behaviours, without affecting other behavioural or locomotor tasks. Memory deficits gradually worsened until Day 18 (4 days after the infusion stopped) and all symptoms resolved over the next week. Accompanying brain tissue studies showed progressive increase of brain-bound human antibodies, predominantly in the hippocampus (maximal on Days

  17. Efficient Methods To Isolate Human Monoclonal Antibodies from Memory B Cells and Plasma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we highlight the advantages of isolating human monoclonal antibodies from the human memory B cells and plasma cell repertoires by using high-throughput cellular screens. Memory B cells are immortalized with high efficiency using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the presence of a toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, while plasma cells are maintained in single-cell cultures by using interleukin 6 (IL-6) or stromal cells. In both cases, multiple parallel assays, including functional assays, can be used to identify rare cells that produce antibodies with unique properties. Using these methods, we have isolated potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against a variety of viruses, in particular, a pan-influenza-A-neutralizing antibody and an antibody that neutralizes four different paramyxoviruses. Given the high throughput and the possibility of directly screening for function (rather than just binding), these methods are instrumental to implement a target-agnostic approach to identify the most effective antibodies and, consequently, the most promising targets for vaccine design. This approach is exemplified by the identification of unusually potent cytomegalovirus-neutralizing antibodies that led to the identification of the target, a pentameric complex that we are developing as a candidate vaccine.

  18. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  19. The formation and stability of recognition memory: what happens upon recall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eDavis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that an already consolidated memory can become destabilised after recall and requires a process of reconsolidation to maintain it for subsequent use has gained much credence over the past decade. Experimental studies in rodents have shown pharmacological, genetic or injurious manipulation at the time of memory reactivation can disrupt the already consolidated memory. Despite the force of experimental data showing this phenomenon, a number of questions have remained unanswered and no consensus has emerged as to the conditions under which a memory can be disrupted following reactivation. To date most rodent studies of reconsolidation are based on negatively reinforced memories, in particular fear-associated memories, while the storage and stability of forms of memory that do not rely on explicit reinforcement have been less often studied. In this review, we focus on recognition memory, a paradigm widely used in humans to probe declarative memory. We briefly outline recent advances in our understanding of the processes and brain circuits involved in recognition memory and review the evidence that recognition memory can undergo reconsolidation upon reactivation. We also review recent findings suggesting that some molecular mechanisms underlying consolidation of recognition memory are similarly recruited after recall to ensure memory stability, while others are more specifically engaged in consolidation or reconsolidation. Finally, we provide novel data on the role of Rsk2, a mental retardation gene, and of the transcription factor zif268/egr1 in reconsolidation of object-location memory, and offer suggestions as to how assessing the activation of certain molecular mechanisms following recall in recognition memory may help understand the relative importance of different aspects of remodelling or updating long-lasting memories.

  20. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound source... Operations, Rubber Tire Manufacturing, Polymer Manufacturing, Industrial Wastewater, Ship Building and...

  1. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  2. Spatial memory and hippocampal function: Where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Good

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of current debates concerning the role of the mammalian hippocampus in learning with a particular emphasis on spatial learning. The review discusses recent debates on (1 the role of the primate hippocampus in recognition memory and object-in-place memory, (2 the role of the hippocampus in spatial navigation in both rats and humans, and (3 the effects of hippocampal damage on processing contextual information. Evidence from these lines of research have led many current theories to posit a function for the hippocampus that has as its organizing principle the association or binding of stimulus representations. Based on this principle, recent theories of hippocampal function have extended their application beyond the spatial domain to capture features of declarative and episodic memory processes.

  3. Increased sleep fragmentation leads to impaired off-line consolidation of motor memories in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Djonlagic

    Full Text Available A growing literature supports a role for sleep after training in long-term memory consolidation and enhancement. Consequently, interrupted sleep should result in cognitive deficits. Recent evidence from an animal study indeed showed that optimal memory consolidation during sleep requires a certain amount of uninterrupted sleep. Sleep continuity is disrupted in various medical disorders. We compared performance on a motor sequence learning task (MST in relatively young subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (n = 16; apnea-hypopnea index 17.1±2.6/h [SEM] to a carefully matched control group (n = 15, apnea-hypopnea index 3.7±0.4/h, p<0.001. Apart from AHI, oxygen nadir and arousal index, there were no significant differences between groups in total sleep time, sleep efficiency and sleep architecture as well as subjective measures of sleepiness based on standard questionnaires. In addition performance on the psychomotor vigilance task (reaction time and lapses, which is highly sensitive to sleep deprivation showed no differences as well as initial learning performance during the training phase. However there was a significant difference in the primary outcome of immediate overnight improvement on the MST between the two groups (controls = 14.7±4%, patients = 1.1±3.6%; P = 0.023 as well as plateau performance (controls = 24.0±5.3%, patients = 10.1±2.0%; P = 0.017 and this difference was predicted by the arousal index (p = 0.02 rather than oxygen saturation (nadir and time below 90% saturation. Taken together, this outcome provides evidence that there is a clear minimum requirement of sleep continuity in humans to ensure optimal sleep dependent memory processes. It also provides important new information about the cognitive impact of obstructive sleep apnea and challenges its current definitions.

  4. Effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration on human encoding and recall memory function: a pharmacological FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; van Hell, Hendrika H; Zuurman, Lineke; Jansma, J Martijn; Mehta, Mitul A; van Gerven, Joop M A; Kahn, René S; Ramsey, Nick F

    2012-03-01

    Deficits in memory function are an incapacitating aspect of various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Animal studies have recently provided strong evidence for involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in memory function. Neuropsychological studies in humans have shown less convincing evidence but suggest that administration of cannabinoid substances affects encoding rather than recall of information. In this study, we examined the effects of perturbation of the eCB system on memory function during both encoding and recall. We performed a pharmacological MRI study with a placebo-controlled, crossover design, investigating the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhalation on associative memory-related brain function in 13 healthy volunteers. Performance and brain activation during associative memory were assessed using a pictorial memory task, consisting of separate encoding and recall conditions. Administration of THC caused reductions in activity during encoding in the right insula, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the left middle occipital gyrus and a network-wide increase in activity during recall, which was most prominent in bilateral cuneus and precuneus. THC administration did not affect task performance, but while during placebo recall activity significantly explained variance in performance, this effect disappeared after THC. These findings suggest eCB involvement in encoding of pictorial information. Increased precuneus activity could reflect impaired recall function, but the absence of THC effects on task performance suggests a compensatory mechanism. These results further emphasize the eCB system as a potential novel target for treatment of memory disorders and a promising target for development of new therapies to reduce memory deficits in humans.

  5. 77 FR 15179 - Disaster Declaration for Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Counties: Clallam, Grays Harbor, King, Klickitat, Lewis, Mason, Pierce, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston... ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13027 and 13028; Washington Disaster WA-00036] Disaster Declaration for Washington AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of...

  6. 19 CFR 10.821 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.821 Declaration. (a) General. An importer who claims preferential tariff... submit, at the request of the port director, a declaration supporting such a claim for...

  7. The Amstersam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.;

    2011-01-01

    to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible...

  8. How the Learning Path and the Very Structure of a Multifloored Environment Influence Human Spatial Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollé, Laurent; Droulez, Jacques; Bennequin, Daniel; Berthoz, Alain; Thibault, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored how humans memorize landmarks in complex multifloored buildings. They have observed that participants memorize an environment either by floors or by vertical columns, influenced by the learning path. However, the influence of the building's actual structure is not yet known. In order to investigate this influence, we conducted an experiment using an object-in-place protocol in a cylindrical building to contrast with previous experiments which used rectilinear environments. Two groups of 15 participants were taken on a tour with a first person perspective through a virtual cylindrical three-floored building. They followed either a route discovering floors one at a time, or a route discovering columns (by simulated lifts across floors). They then underwent a series of trials, in which they viewed a camera movement reproducing either a segment of the learning path (familiar trials), or performing a shortcut relative to the learning trajectory (novel trials). We observed that regardless of the learning path, participants better memorized the building by floors, and only participants who had discovered the building by columns also memorized it by columns. This expands on previous results obtained in a rectilinear building, where the learning path favoured the memory of its horizontal and vertical layout. Taken together, these results suggest that both learning mode and an environment's structure influence the spatial memory of complex multifloored buildings.

  9. An updated Declaration of Helsinki will provide more protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cecil B

    2013-06-01

    Almost 50 years ago, the World Medical Association adopted the Declaration of Helsinki as an ethical guide for research involving human subjects. There are now proposed revisions under consideration that will provide additional protection for study participants as well as increased clarity regarding the responsibilities of those conducting the research. Making these changes is important in a complex environment where what is ethical is not always self-evident.

  10. Detecting memory and structure in human navigation patterns using Markov chain models of varying order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Philipp; Helic, Denis; Taraghi, Behnam; Strohmaier, Markus

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used models for understanding human navigation on the Web is the Markov chain model, where Web pages are represented as states and hyperlinks as probabilities of navigating from one page to another. Predominantly, human navigation on the Web has been thought to satisfy the memoryless Markov property stating that the next page a user visits only depends on her current page and not on previously visited ones. This idea has found its way in numerous applications such as Google's PageRank algorithm and others. Recently, new studies suggested that human navigation may better be modeled using higher order Markov chain models, i.e., the next page depends on a longer history of past clicks. Yet, this finding is preliminary and does not account for the higher complexity of higher order Markov chain models which is why the memoryless model is still widely used. In this work we thoroughly present a diverse array of advanced inference methods for determining the appropriate Markov chain order. We highlight strengths and weaknesses of each method and apply them for investigating memory and structure of human navigation on the Web. Our experiments reveal that the complexity of higher order models grows faster than their utility, and thus we confirm that the memoryless model represents a quite practical model for human navigation on a page level. However, when we expand our analysis to a topical level, where we abstract away from specific page transitions to transitions between topics, we find that the memoryless assumption is violated and specific regularities can be observed. We report results from experiments with two types of navigational datasets (goal-oriented vs. free form) and observe interesting structural differences that make a strong argument for more contextual studies of human navigation in future work.

  11. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bhinnety

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  12. Final report for the endowment of simulator agents with human-like episodic memory LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Lippitt, Carl Edward; Thomas, Edward Victor; Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schaller, Mark J.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2003-12-01

    This report documents work undertaken to endow the cognitive framework currently under development at Sandia National Laboratories with a human-like memory for specific life episodes. Capabilities have been demonstrated within the context of three separate problem areas. The first year of the project developed a capability whereby simulated robots were able to utilize a record of shared experience to perform surveillance of a building to detect a source of smoke. The second year focused on simulations of social interactions providing a queriable record of interactions such that a time series of events could be constructed and reconstructed. The third year addressed tools to promote desktop productivity, creating a capability to query episodic logs in real time allowing the model of a user to build on itself based on observations of the user's behavior.

  13. A magnetic shape memory micropump: contact-free, and compatible with PCR and human DNA profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullakko, K.; Wendell, L.; Smith, A.; Müllner, P.; Hampikian, G.

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic shape memory (MSM) Ni-Mn-Ga elements are relatively new materials with a variety of remarkable properties. They respond to changes in magnetic fields by elongating and shortening up to 6%. We have constructed a micropump which consists principally of a single component, the MSM element. The pump can be driven by the rotation of a diametrically magnetized cylindrical magnet or by an electrical rotation of the magnetic field; it is reversible, and can be effectively operated by hand without any electrical power. The MSM element does not inhibit the polymerase chain reaction. We demonstrate that it is compatible with forensic applications and show that it does not inhibit human DNA profiling. This novel pump is suitable for lab-on-a-chip applications that require microfluidics.

  14. The Impact of Endurance Training on Human Skeletal Muscle Memory, Global Isoform Expression and Novel Transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maléne E Lindholm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regularly performed endurance training has many beneficial effects on health and skeletal muscle function, and can be used to prevent and treat common diseases e.g. cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and obesity. The molecular adaptation mechanisms regulating these effects are incompletely understood. To date, global transcriptome changes in skeletal muscles have been studied at the gene level only. Therefore, global isoform expression changes following exercise training in humans are unknown. Also, the effects of repeated interventions on transcriptional memory or training response have not been studied before. In this study, 23 individuals trained one leg for three months. Nine months later, 12 of the same subjects trained both legs in a second training period. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs before and after both training periods. RNA sequencing analysis of all 119 skeletal muscle biopsies showed that training altered the expression of 3,404 gene isoforms, mainly associated with oxidative ATP production. Fifty-four genes had isoforms that changed in opposite directions. Training altered expression of 34 novel transcripts, all with protein-coding potential. After nine months of detraining, no training-induced transcriptome differences were detected between the previously trained and untrained legs. Although there were several differences in the physiological and transcriptional responses to repeated training, no coherent evidence of an endurance training induced transcriptional skeletal muscle memory was found. This human lifestyle intervention induced differential expression of thousands of isoforms and several transcripts from unannotated regions of the genome. It is likely that the observed isoform expression changes reflect adaptational mechanisms and processes that provide the functional and health benefits of regular physical activity.

  15. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteban R; Olivera, Gabriela C; Quebrada Palacio, Luz P; González, Mariela N; Hernandez-Vasquez, Yolanda; Sirena, Natalia María; Morán, María L; Ledesma Patiño, Oscar S; Postan, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  16. Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Immune Responses against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghaug, Christina Skår; Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2015-09-16

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4(+) T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4(+) effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4(+) EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4(+) T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4(+) EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component.

  17. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban R Fernández

    Full Text Available Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  18. 75 FR 38958 - Declaration of Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 152 Declaration of Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests to Include Prion; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human...). The draft rule proposes to declare a prion (i.e., proteinaceous infectious particle) a ``pest''...

  19. Short-term memory traces for action bias in human reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Rafal; McClure, Samuel M; Li, Jian; Cohen, Jonathan D; Montague, P Read

    2007-06-11

    Recent experimental and theoretical work on reinforcement learning has shed light on the neural bases of learning from rewards and punishments. One fundamental problem in reinforcement learning is the credit assignment problem, or how to properly assign credit to actions that lead to reward or punishment following a delay. Temporal difference learning solves this problem, but its efficiency can be significantly improved by the addition of eligibility traces (ET). In essence, ETs function as decaying memories of previous choices that are used to scale synaptic weight changes. It has been shown in theoretical studies that ETs spanning a number of actions may improve the performance of reinforcement learning. However, it remains an open question whether including ETs that persist over sequences of actions allows reinforcement learning models to better fit empirical data regarding the behaviors of humans and other animals. Here, we report an experiment in which human subjects performed a sequential economic decision game in which the long-term optimal strategy differed from the strategy that leads to the greatest short-term return. We demonstrate that human subjects' performance in the task is significantly affected by the time between choices in a surprising and seemingly counterintuitive way. However, this behavior is naturally explained by a temporal difference learning model which includes ETs persisting across actions. Furthermore, we review recent findings that suggest that short-term synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons may provide a realistic biophysical mechanism for producing ETs that persist on a timescale consistent with behavioral observations.

  20. Isolating Observer-Based Reference Directions in Human Spatial Memory: Head, Body, and the Self-to-Array Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David; Lippa, Yvonne; Richardson, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of research have suggested the importance of egocentric reference systems for determining how the spatial properties of one's environment are mentally organized. Yet relatively little is known about the bases for egocentric reference systems in human spatial memory. In three experiments, we examine the relative importance of…

  1. Compartmentalization of Total and Virus-Specific Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells in Human Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Heng Giap; Braun, Asolina; Li, Jane; Smith, Corey; Edwards, Jarem; Sierro, Frederic; Feng, Carl G; Khanna, Rajiv; Elliot, Michael; Bell, Andrew; Hislop, Andrew D; Tangye, Stuart G; Rickinson, Alan B; Gebhardt, Thomas; Britton, Warwick J; Palendira, Umaimainthan

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of T cell memory during severe immune suppression results in reactivation of chronic viral infections, such as Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). How different subsets of memory T cells contribute to the protective immunity against these viruses remains poorly defined. In this study we examined the compartmentalization of virus-specific, tissue resident memory CD8+ T cells in human lymphoid organs. This revealed two distinct populations of memory CD8+ T cells, that were CD69+CD103+ and CD69+CD103-, and were retained within the spleen and tonsils in the absence of recent T cell stimulation. These two types of memory cells were distinct not only in their phenotype and transcriptional profile, but also in their anatomical localization within tonsils and spleen. The EBV-specific, but not CMV-specific, CD8+ memory T cells preferentially accumulated in the tonsils and acquired a phenotype that ensured their retention at the epithelial sites where EBV replicates. In vitro studies revealed that the cytokine IL-15 can potentiate the retention of circulating effector memory CD8+ T cells by down-regulating the expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, required for T cell exit from tissues, and its transcriptional activator, Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2). Within the tonsils the expression of IL-15 was detected in regions where CD8+ T cells localized, further supporting a role for this cytokine in T cell retention. Together this study provides evidence for the compartmentalization of distinct types of resident memory T cells that could contribute to the long-term protection against persisting viral infections.

  2. The 5-HT(4) receptor levels in hippocampus correlates inversely with memory test performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Mette Ewers; Fisher, Patrick; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    The cerebral serotonin (5-HT) system is involved in cognitive functions such as memory and learning and animal studies have repeatedly shown that stimulation of the 5-HT type 4 receptor (5-HT(4) R) facilitates memory and learning and further that the 5-HT(4) R modulates cellular memory processes ...

  3. Memory stabilization with targeted reactivation during human slow-wave sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, E.V. van; Takashima, A.; Barth, M.; Zapp, J.; Schad, L.R.; Paller, K.A.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that neural representations of recent experiences become reactivated during sleep, and that this process serves to stabilize associated memories in long-term memory. Here, we initiated this reactivation process for specific memories during slow-wave sleep. Participants studied 50 obje

  4. "The Memory of Beauty" Survives Alzheimer's Disease (but Cannot Help Memory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ferrante, Ilaria; Brita, Anna Clelia; Rossi, Paola; Liperoti, Rosa; Mammarella, Federica; Bernabei, Roberto; Marini Chiarelli, Maria Vittoria; De Luca, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The aesthetic experience, in particular the experience of beauty in the visual arts, should have neural correlates in the human brain. Neuroesthetics is principally implemented by functional studies in normal subjects, but the neuropsychology of the aesthetic experience, that is, the impact of brain damage on the appreciation of works of art, is a neglected field. Here, 16 mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease patients and 15 caregivers expressed their preference on 16 works of art (eight representational and eight abstract) during programmed visits to an art gallery. A week later, all subjects expressed a preference rate on reproductions of the same works presented in the gallery. Both patients and caregivers were consistent in assigning preference ratings, and in patients consistency was independent of the ability to recognize the works on which the preference rate had been given in an explicit memory task. Caregivers performed at ceiling in the memory task. Both patients and caregivers assigned higher preference ratings for representational than for abstract works and preference consistency was comparable in representational and abstract works. Furthermore, in the memory task, patients did not recognize better artworks they had assigned higher preference ratings to, suggesting that emotional stimuli (as presumably visual works of art are) cannot enhance declarative memory in this pathology. Our data, which were gathered in an ecological context and with real-world stimuli, confirm previous findings on the stability of aesthetic preference in patients with Alzheimer's disease and on the independence of aesthetic preference from cognitive abilities such as memory.

  5. Effects of cortisol on memory in women with borderline personality disorder: role of co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, K; Driessen, M; Terfehr, K; Schlosser, N; Fernando, S Carvalho; Otte, C; Beblo, T; Spitzer, C; Löwe, B; Wolf, O T

    2013-03-01

    Stress and cortisol administration are known to have impairing effects on memory retrieval in healthy humans. These effects are reported to be altered in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but they have not yet been investigated in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In a placebo-controlled cross-over study, 71 women with BPD and 40 healthy controls received either placebo or 10 mg of hydrocortisone orally before undertaking a declarative memory retrieval task (word list learning) and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). A working memory test was also applied. Overall, opposing effects of cortisol on memory were observed when comparing patients with controls. In controls, cortisol had impairing effects on memory retrieval whereas in BPD patients cortisol had enhancing effects on memory retrieval of words, autobiographical memory and working memory. These effects were most pronounced for specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval. Patients with BPD alone and those with co-morbid PTSD showed this effect. We also found that co-morbid MDD influenced the cortisol effects: in this subgroup (BPD + MDD) the effects of cortisol on memory were absent. The present results demonstrate beneficial effects of acute cortisol elevations on hippocampal-mediated memory processes in BPD. The absence of these effects in patients with co-morbid MDD suggests that these patients differ from other BPD patients in terms of their sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs).

  6. Dose-related Effects of Salvinorin A in Humans: Dissociative, Hallucinogenic, and Memory Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Katherine A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Reissig, Chad J.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Salvinorin A is a kappa opioid agonist and the principal psychoactive constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum, which has increased in popularity as a recreational drug over the past decade. Few human studies have examined salvinorin A. Objective This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the dose-related effects of inhaled salvinorin A in individuals with histories of hallucinogen use. Methods Eight healthy hallucinogen-using adults inhaled up to 16 doses of salvinorin A (0.375 - 21 μg/kg) in ascending order. Physiological, behavioral, and subjective effects were assessed every 2 min for 60 min after administration. Qualitative subjective effects were assessed retrospectively via questionnaires at the end of sessions. Persisting effects were assessed 1 month later. Results Orderly dose-related effects peaked at 2 min and then rapidly dissipated, replicating previous findings. Subjective effects were intense, with maximal drug strength ratings or unresponsiveness frequently observed at high doses. Questionnaires assessing qualitative effects (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, Pharmacological Class Questionnaire) suggested some overlap with serotonergically mediated classic hallucinogens. Salvinorin A also produced dose-related dissociative effects and impairments in recall/recognition memory. At 1-month follow-up, there was no evidence of persisting adverse effects. Participants reported salvinorin A effects were qualitatively different from other drugs. Conclusions Salvinorin A produces a unique profile of subjective and cognitive effects, including strong dissociative effects and memory impairment, which only partially overlap with classic hallucinogen effects. Along with nonhuman studies of salvinorin A, these results are important for understanding the neurobiology of the kappa opioid system and may ultimately have important therapeutic applications. PMID:23135605

  7. An investigation on the effects of organizational memory and human capital on innovation and absorptive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is considered as an enabling tool for creating value and sustainable competitive advantage for organizations in dynamic environment of our times along with its ever-increasing complexities. Until innovation in developing countries needs more capital and talent, human capital (HC is a key factor in innovative performance. People are the most important factor of exploitation of foreign knowledge; and knowledge focus in business environment is highly dependent on external information sources in order to develop innovation and improve performance of the company. Studies have shown that although importance level of knowledge is increased, but only 30 percent of existing knowledge is being used in organizations. Expensive but evitable mistakes take place due to information blockage; and the risk of losing knowledge is exceptionally higher when people leave the organization. This study is among the field research. The population includes large manufacturing firms across Khuzestan Province having been active throughout 2013. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire and sampling is convenience method. The research questionnaire was distributed among a sample of 331 R&D and Human resources Experts selected using simple random sampling. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and Amos statistical programs. The results indicate that organizational memory had significant impact on ACAP and innovation. Results also showed a significant positive effect of HC on ACAP, but did not support the effect of HC on innovation.

  8. Declaration of the 2nd Meeting of the Committee on Clinical Application of Human Organ Transplantation of China and National Summit of Clinical Application and Management of Human Organ Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ We, medical practitioners of human organ transplantation, met in the 2nd Meeting of the People's Republic of China Ministry of Health Committee on Clinical Application of Human Organ Transplantation and National Summit of Clinical Application and Management of Human Organ Transplantation in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, on 13 and 14 November 2006.

  9. Signs of enhanced sleep and sleep-associated memory processing following the anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines can promote sleep and neuronal processes underlying memory formation. However, this has mainly been revealed in animal studies. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject designed study, we examined how changes in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling affect sleep and sleep-associated memory consolidation in humans. After learning declarative memory tasks (word pairs, texts) and a procedural memory task (finger tapping) in the evening, 21 healthy young men orally received either 200 mg of the anti-inflammatory antibiotic minocycline or placebo shortly before nocturnal sleep. Sleep was allowed between 23:00 and 07:00 h and recorded polysomnographically. Retrieval of memories was tested two days later. Because of outliers or missing data, final sample size was reduced to n = 14-19. Our data suggest that rather than weakening sleep as expected based on animal studies, the anti-inflammatory agent promoted sleep and memory consolidation. Specifically, minocycline increased slow-wave activity (0.68-4.0 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2 and selectively enhanced episodic aspects in memory (i.e. memory for the temporal order of events in the texts). In combination with previous results, our findings indicate that, in humans, reducing pro-inflammatory signalling can act towards deepening non-rapid eye movement sleep and enhancing its memory forming efficacy.

  10. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Human Memory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Training a person in a new knowledge base or skill set is extremely time consuming and costly, particularly in highly specialized domains such as the military and the intelligence community. Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has suggested that a technique called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has the potential to revolutionize training by enabling learners to acquire new skills faster, more efficiently, and more robustly (Bullard et al., 2011). In this project, we tested the effects of tDCS on two types of memory performance that are critical for learning new skills: associative memory and working memory. Associative memory is memory for the relationship between two items or events. It forms the foundation of all episodic memories, so enhancing associative memory could provide substantial benefits to the speed and robustness of learning new information. We tested the effects of tDCS on associative memory, using a real-world associative memory task: remembering the links between faces and names. Working memory refers to the amount of information that can be held in mind and processed at one time, and it forms the basis for all higher-level cognitive processing. We investigated the degree of transfer between various working memory tasks (the N-back task as a measure of verbal working memory, the rotation-span task as a measure of visuospatial working memory, and Raven's progressive matrices as a measure of fluid intelligence) in order to determine if tDCS-induced facilitation of performance is task-specific or general.

  11. Can a Sovereign State Declare Bankruptcy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigienė, Jurgita; Mockienė, Akvilė

    2010-01-01

    ... matter. In order to answer the question of legality, as well as to confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis that sovereign state can declare bankruptcy, descriptive, analytical and comparative methods are used...

  12. The Declaration of Helsinki and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, John R

    2008-01-01

    This section looks back on a ground-breaking contribution to public health, reproduces an extract of the original text and adds a commentary on its significance from a modern perspective. To complement the theme of this month’s issue, John R Williams looks at the Declaration of Helsinki and how it has evolved over time. The original declaration is reproduced here in full with permission of the World Medical Association.

  13. Sleep to find your way: the role of sleep in the consolidation of memory for navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Michele; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tempesta, Daniela; Curcio, Giuseppe; Moroni, Fabio; Marzano, Cristina; De Gennaro, Luigi; Pacitti, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence indicates that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory processes, the actual existence of a sleep-dependent spatial memory consolidation has been not firmly established. Here, by using a computerized 3D virtual navigation tool, we were able to show that topographical orientation in humans largely benefits from sleep after learning, while 10 h of wakefulness during the daytime do not exert similar beneficial effects. In particular, navigation performance enhancement needs sleep in the first post-training night, and no further improvements were seen after a second night of sleep. On the other hand, sleep deprivation hinders any performance enhancement and exerts a proactive disruption of spatial memory consolidation, since recovery sleep do not revert its effects. Spatial memory performance does not benefit from the simple passage of time, and a period of wakefulness between learning and sleep does not seem to have the role of stabilizing memory traces. In conclusion, our results indicate that spatial performance improvement is observed only when learning is followed by a period of sleep, regardless of the retention interval length.

  14. Ethics of orthodontic clinical research based on Helsinki declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Erwansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Declaration of Helsinki code of ethics on human experimentation, states that the desin and peformance of experimental procedures involving human should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol, Todeterminewhetheraninvestigationin accordancewiththe code of conductin a researchthen letusconsider the contentofthe declarationhelsinkiasour referencein conductingaclinicalstudyusinghuman subjects. In journals, authors are expected to report if the study was carried out in accordance with international and national ethical guidelines and inform readers if approval from ethics committee was obtained and if written informed consent was taken from the participant or legal guardian.

  15. Context-Dependent Human Extinction Memory Is Mediated by a Ventromedial Prefrontal and Hippocampal Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kalisch, R; Korenfeld, E; Stephan, K.E.; Weiskopf, N.; Seymour, B; Dolan, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In fear extinction, an animal learns that a conditioned stimulus (CS) no longer predicts a noxious stimulus [unconditioned stimulus (UCS)] to which it had previously been associated, leading to inhibition of the conditioned response (CR). Extinction creates a new CS-noUCS memory trace, competing with the initial fear (CS-UCS) memory. Recall of extinction memory and, hence, CR inhibition at later CS encounters is facilitated by contextual stimuli present during extinction training. In line wit...

  16. 37 CFR 1.69 - Foreign language oaths and declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign language oaths and... Declaration § 1.69 Foreign language oaths and declarations. (a) Whenever an individual making an oath or declaration cannot understand English, the oath or declaration must be in a language that such individual...

  17. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a...

  18. 47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320... Approval § 68.320 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is a... Supplier's Declaration of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible...

  19. IMPORTANT — Declaration of income for 2001 —

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The local French tax authorities confirm that, in view of the particular procedure for income declaration for CERN members of the personnel, this year CERN income (as stated in the certificate of CERN remuneration provided by the Organization) may be exceptionally declared in either French Francs, or Euros (clearly specifying the currency selected). Practical information concerning the procedure for income declaration may be obtained at the following local information desks : Trésorerie deGex: Tuesday12 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésorerie deFerney: Monday18 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. Trésorerie deDivonne: Thursday21 March 9 a.m. to 122 to 4 p.m. French tax authorities have also organised the following information services: Web site: http://www.impots.gouv.fr/ Minitel: 3615 IR Service Vocal Server: 08 36 67 10 10 Telephone information: 08 20 32 42 52 Human Resources Division Tel. 72838

  20. The Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research: historical and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B M

    2012-09-01

    Medical research aims at improving diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic measures and understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of diseases in humans, and their application to improve the quality of life and survival. The subjects involved are exposed to hazards inherent to the experiments. In order to protect the human subjects and to maintain high ethical standards, the World Medical Association had adopted the "Declaration of Helsinki" in 1964. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on the historical and current perspectives on the Declaration of Helsinki in relation to medical research on human subjects.

  1. System consolidation of memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Jan; Wilhelm, Ines

    2012-03-01

    Over the past two decades, research has accumulated compelling evidence that sleep supports the formation of long-term memory. The standard two-stage memory model that has been originally elaborated for declarative memory assumes that new memories are transiently encoded into a temporary store (represented by the hippocampus in the declarative memory system) before they are gradually transferred into a long-term store (mainly represented by the neocortex), or are forgotten. Based on this model, we propose that sleep, as an offline mode of brain processing, serves the 'active system consolidation' of memory, i.e. the process in which newly encoded memory representations become redistributed to other neuron networks serving as long-term store. System consolidation takes place during slow-wave sleep (SWS) rather than rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The concept of active system consolidation during sleep implicates that (a) memories are reactivated during sleep to be consolidated, (b) the consolidation process during sleep is selective inasmuch as it does not enhance every memory, and (c) memories, when transferred to the long-term store undergo qualitative changes. Experimental evidence for these three central implications is provided: It has been shown that reactivation of memories during SWS plays a causal role for consolidation, that sleep and specifically SWS consolidates preferentially memories with relevance for future plans, and that sleep produces qualitative changes in memory representations such that the extraction of explicit and conscious knowledge from implicitly learned materials is facilitated.

  2. Activation of Midbrain Structures by Associative Novelty and the Formation of Explicit Memory in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Bjorn H.; Sellner, Daniela B.; Lauer, Corinna-J.; Habib, Reza; Frey, Julietta U.; Guderian, Sebastian; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Duzel, Emrah

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a close functional relationship between memory formation in the hippocampus and dopaminergic neuromodulation originating in the ventral tegmental area and medial substantia nigra of the midbrain. Here we report midbrain activation in two functional MRI studies of visual memory in healthy young adults. In the first study,…

  3. Activation of Midbrain Structures by Associative Novelty and the Formation of Explicit Memory in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Bjorn H.; Sellner, Daniela B.; Lauer, Corinna-J.; Habib, Reza; Frey, Julietta U.; Guderian, Sebastian; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Duzel, Emrah

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a close functional relationship between memory formation in the hippocampus and dopaminergic neuromodulation originating in the ventral tegmental area and medial substantia nigra of the midbrain. Here we report midbrain activation in two functional MRI studies of visual memory in healthy young adults. In the first study,…

  4. Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and synchronization during working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Lars; Lüchinger, Rafael; Koenig, Thomas; Martin, Ernst; Brandeis, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In humans, theta band (5-7 Hz) power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM) tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and higher frequency band synchronization is modulated during WM. Yet, little is known about the link between BOLD, EEG power, and EEG synchronization during WM, and how these measures develop with human brain maturation or relate to behavioral changes. We examined EEG-BOLD signal correlations from 18 young adults and 15 school-aged children for age-dependent effects during a load-modulated Sternberg WM task. Frontal load (in-)dependent EEG theta power was significantly enhanced in children compared to adults, while adults showed stronger fMRI load effects. Children demonstrated a stronger negative correlation between global theta power and the BOLD signal in the default mode network relative to adults. Therefore, we conclude that theta power mediates the suppression of a task-irrelevant network. We further conclude that children suppress this network even more than adults, probably from an increased level of task-preparedness to compensate for not fully mature cognitive functions, reflected in lower response accuracy and increased reaction time. In contrast to power, correlations between instantaneous theta global field synchronization and the BOLD signal were exclusively positive in both age groups but only significant in adults in the frontal-parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Furthermore, theta synchronization was weaker in children and was--in contrast to EEG power--positively correlated with response accuracy in both age groups. In summary we conclude that theta EEG-BOLD signal correlations differ between spectral power and synchronization and that

  5. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human memory T cell responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaporn Tippayawat

    Full Text Available Infection with the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important cause of community-acquired lethal sepsis in endemic regions in southeast Asia and northern Australia and is increasingly reported in other tropical areas. In animal models, production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma is critical for resistance, but in humans the characteristics of IFN-gamma production and the bacterial antigens that are recognized by the cell-mediated immune response have not been defined.Peripheral blood from 133 healthy individuals who lived in the endemic area and had no history of melioidosis, 60 patients who had recovered from melioidosis, and 31 other patient control subjects were stimulated by whole bacteria or purified bacterial proteins in vitro, and IFN-gamma responses were analyzed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry.B. pseudomallei was a potent activator of human peripheral blood NK cells for innate production of IFN-gamma. In addition, healthy individuals with serological evidence of exposure to B. pseudomallei and patients recovered from active melioidosis developed CD4(+ (and CD8(+ T cells that recognized whole bacteria and purified proteins LolC, OppA, and PotF, members of the B. pseudomallei ABC transporter family. This response was primarily mediated by terminally differentiated T cells of the effector-memory (T(EMRA phenotype and correlated with the titer of anti-B. pseudomallei antibodies in the serum.Individuals living in a melioidosis-endemic region show clear evidence of T cell priming for the ability to make IFN-gamma that correlates with their serological status. The ability to detect T cell responses to defined B. pseudomallei proteins in large numbers of individuals now provides the opportunity to screen candidate antigens for inclusion in protein or polysaccharide-conjugate subunit vaccines against this important but neglected disease.

  6. Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and synchronization during working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Michels

    Full Text Available In humans, theta band (5-7 Hz power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and higher frequency band synchronization is modulated during WM. Yet, little is known about the link between BOLD, EEG power, and EEG synchronization during WM, and how these measures develop with human brain maturation or relate to behavioral changes. We examined EEG-BOLD signal correlations from 18 young adults and 15 school-aged children for age-dependent effects during a load-modulated Sternberg WM task. Frontal load (in-dependent EEG theta power was significantly enhanced in children compared to adults, while adults showed stronger fMRI load effects. Children demonstrated a stronger negative correlation between global theta power and the BOLD signal in the default mode network relative to adults. Therefore, we conclude that theta power mediates the suppression of a task-irrelevant network. We further conclude that children suppress this network even more than adults, probably from an increased level of task-preparedness to compensate for not fully mature cognitive functions, reflected in lower response accuracy and increased reaction time. In contrast to power, correlations between instantaneous theta global field synchronization and the BOLD signal were exclusively positive in both age groups but only significant in adults in the frontal-parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Furthermore, theta synchronization was weaker in children and was--in contrast to EEG power--positively correlated with response accuracy in both age groups. In summary we conclude that theta EEG-BOLD signal correlations differ between spectral power and

  7. Psychobiology of Active and Inactive Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the distinction between short-term memory and long-term memory is no longer adequate for either human or animal memory data. Recommends additional research on the physiological brain processes underlying memory interference and retrieval. (MP)

  8. Effect of propofol on the medial temporal lobe emotional memory system: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, K. O.; Root, J. C.; Mehta, M.; Stern, E.; Pan, H.; Veselis, R. A.; Silbersweig, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects. Methods Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml−1, or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection models. Results Propofol had no effect on the stereotypical amygdalar response to emotional arousal, but caused marked suppression of the hippocampal response. Propofol caused memory performance to become uncoupled from amygdalar activation, but it remained correlated with activation in the posterior hippocampus, which decreased in proportion to amnesia. Conclusions Propofol is relatively ineffective at suppressing amygdalar activation at sedative doses, but abolishes emotional modulation and causes amnesia via mechanisms that commonly involve hyporesponsiveness of the hippocampus. These findings raise the possibility that amygdala-dependent fear systems may remain intact even when a patient has diminished memory of events. This may be of clinical importance in the perioperative development of fear-based psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Clinical trial registration NCT00504894. PMID:26174294

  9. Manufacture of gene-modified human T-cells with a memory stem/central memory phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Eerland, Raquel; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Heemskerk, Bianca; van Rooij, Nienke; van den Berg, Joost H; Beijnen, Jos H; Uckert, Wolfgang; Kvistborg, Pia; Schumacher, Ton N; Haanen, John B A G; Jorritsma, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have made it possible to generate human T-cell products that carry desired functionalities, such as the ability to recognize cancer cells. The currently used strategies for the generation of gene-modified T-cell products lead to highly differentiated cells within the

  10. IL-7 modulates in vitro and in vivo human memory T regulatory cell functions through the CD39/ATP axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Mehwish; Hue, Sophie; Lacabaratz, Christine; Guguin, Aurélie; Wiedemann, Aurélie; Surenaud, Mathieu; Beq, Stéphanie; Croughs, Thérèse; Lelièvre, Jean-Daniel; Lévy, Yves

    2013-09-15

    The heterogeneity of human regulatory T cells (Tregs) may explain the discrepancies between studies on Tregs in physiology and pathology. Contrasting effects of IL-7 on the expansion and survival of human Tregs were reported. Therefore, we investigated the effects of IL-7 on the phenotype and function of well-characterized populations of human Tregs. We show that IL-7 signals via the CD127 receptor on naive, memory, and activated memory Tregs sorted from the blood of healthy donors, but it does not affect their proliferation. In contrast, IL-7 affects their suppressive capacities differently. This effect was modest on naive Tregs but was dramatic (90%) on memory Tregs. We provide evidence that IL-7 exerts a synergistic effect through downmodulation of the ectoenzyme CD39, which converts ATP to ADP/AMP, and an increase in ATP receptor P2X7. Both effects lead to an increase in the ATP-mediated effect, tipping the balance to favor Th17 conversion. Using an IL-7 therapeutic study, we show that IL-7 exerts the same effects in vitro and in vivo in HIV-infected individuals. Globally, our data show that IL-7 negatively regulates Tregs and contributes to increase the number of tools that may affect Treg function in pathology.

  11. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions § 161.30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers...

  12. Nuclear PKC-θ facilitates rapid transcriptional responses in human memory CD4+ T cells through p65 and H2B phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jasmine; Hardy, Kristine; Phetsouphanh, Chan; Tu, Wen Juan; Sutcliffe, Elissa L.; McCuaig, Robert; Sutton, Christopher R.; Zafar, Anjum; Munier, C. Mee Ling; Zaunders, John J.; Xu, Yin; Theodoratos, Angelo; Tan, Abel; Lim, Pek Siew; Knaute, Tobias; Masch, Antonia; Zerweck, Johannes; Brezar, Vedran; Milburn, Peter J.; Dunn, Jenny; Casarotto, Marco G.; Turner, Stephen J.; Seddiki, Nabila; Kelleher, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Memory T cells are characterized by their rapid transcriptional programs upon re-stimulation. This transcriptional memory response is facilitated by permissive chromatin, but exactly how the permissive epigenetic landscape in memory T cells integrates incoming stimulatory signals remains poorly understood. By genome-wide ChIP-sequencing ex vivo human CD4+ T cells, here, we show that the signaling enzyme, protein kinase C theta (PKC-θ) directly relays stimulatory signals to chromatin by binding to transcriptional-memory-responsive genes to induce transcriptional activation. Flanked by permissive histone modifications, these PKC-enriched regions are significantly enriched with NF-κB motifs in ex vivo bulk and vaccinia-responsive human memory CD4+ T cells. Within the nucleus, PKC-θ catalytic activity maintains the Ser536 phosphorylation on the p65 subunit of NF-κB (also known as RelA) and can directly influence chromatin accessibility at transcriptional memory genes by regulating H2B deposition through Ser32 phosphorylation. Furthermore, using a cytoplasm-restricted PKC-θ mutant, we highlight that chromatin-anchored PKC-θ integrates activating signals at the chromatin template to elicit transcriptional memory responses in human memory T cells. PMID:27149922

  13. Statistical epistasis and functional brain imaging support a role of voltage-gated potassium channels in human memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Heck

    Full Text Available Despite the current progress in high-throughput, dense genome scans, a major portion of complex traits' heritability still remains unexplained, a phenomenon commonly termed "missing heritability." The negligence of analytical approaches accounting for gene-gene interaction effects, such as statistical epistasis, is probably central to this phenomenon. Here we performed a comprehensive two-way SNP interaction analysis of human episodic memory, which is a heritable complex trait, and focused on 120 genes known to show differential, memory-related expression patterns in rat hippocampus. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was also used to capture genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activity. A significant, episodic memory-related interaction between two markers located in potassium channel genes (KCNB2 and KCNH5 was observed (P(nominal combined=0.000001. The epistatic interaction was robust, as it was significant in a screening (P(nominal=0.0000012 and in a replication sample (P(nominal=0.01. Finally, we found genotype-dependent activity differences in the parahippocampal gyrus (P(nominal=0.001 supporting the behavioral genetics finding. Our results demonstrate the importance of analytical approaches that go beyond single marker statistics of complex traits.

  14. Tissue resident memory T cells in the human conjunctiva and immune signatures in human dry eye disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanima Bose; Ryan Lee; Aihua Hou; Louis Tong; K George Chandy

    2017-01-01

    Non-recirculating resident memory (TRM ) and recirculating T cells mount vigorous immune responses to both self and foreign antigens in barrier tissues like the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract...

  15. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baird Bill

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves. Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1 Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2 These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3 The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide

  16. Naive and memory human B cells have distinct requirements for STAT3 activation to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenick, Elissa K; Avery, Danielle T; Chan, Anna; Berglund, Lucinda J; Ives, Megan L; Moens, Leen; Stoddard, Jennifer L; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Roesler, Joachim; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M; French, Martyn A; Fulcher, David A; Cook, Matthew C; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Klein, Christoph; Holland, Steven M; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ma, Cindy S; Tangye, Stuart G

    2013-11-18

    Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell-dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10- and IL-21-mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21-induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells.

  17. La Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme comme l’expression d’une vision du monde : une approche topique et génétique The Universal Declaration of Human Rights as an expression of a “vision of the world”: a topical and genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel de Jonge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, je réalise une analyse de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme dans une perspective rhétorique et génétique. A l’aide des comptes rendus des débats préliminaires du Comité de Rédaction de la Déclaration, je montre que le texte a pour arrière-plan la volonté de fonder une vision du monde nouvelle, dans laquelle tout serait mis en œuvre d’un point de vue juridique, éthique, philosophique et psychologique pour que les actes subis par les populations européennes durant la Seconde Guerre Mondiale ne puissent plus se reproduire. Pour ce faire, j’analyse la question de l’expression linguistique des valeurs dans les deux premiers alinéas du préambule de la Déclaration.In this contribution, I analyze the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights from a rhetorical and genetic perspective. Starting from the summary reports of the Declaration Drafting Committee, I try to show that what lies at the background of the text is the feeling that the sufferings of WWII never can be reproduced. The drafters thus founded a new “vision of the world” that has shaped our values since then. I concentrate specifically on the first two lines of the preamble of the Declaration in order to analyze how the values are expressed linguistically in these paragraphs.

  18. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of Sleep Habits on Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Seishu Nakagawa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Yasuyuki Taki; Rui Nouchi; Atsushi Sekiguchi; Yuka Kotozaki; Carlos Makoto Miyauchi; Kunio Iizuka; Ryoichi Yokoyama; Takamitsu Shinada; Yuki Yamamoto; Sugiko Hanawa; Tsuyoshi Araki; Keiko Kunitoki; Yuko Sassa

    2016-01-01

    Sleep facilitates memory consolidation. Consequently, poor sleep quality negatively affects memory performance, and working memory in particular. We investigated sleep habits related to sleep quality including sleep duration, daytime nap duration, nap frequency, and dream content recall frequency (DCRF). Declarative working memory can be subdivided into verbal working memory (VWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM). We hypothesized that sleep habits would have different effects on VWM and...

  19. Human retrosplenial cortex displays transient theta phase locking with medial temporal cortex prior to activation during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Brett L; Kaveh, Anthony; Dastjerdi, Mohammad; Miller, Kai J; Parvizi, Josef

    2013-06-19

    The involvement of retrosplenial cortex (RSC) in human autobiographical memory retrieval has been confirmed by functional brain imaging studies, and is supported by anatomical evidence of strong connectivity between the RSC and memory structures within the medial temporal lobe (MTL). However, electrophysiological investigations of the RSC and its interaction with the MTL have mostly remained limited to the rodent brain. Recently, we reported a selective increase of high-frequency broadband (HFB; 70-180 Hz) power within the human RSC during autobiographical retrieval, and a predominance of 3-5 Hz theta band oscillations within the RSC during the resting state. In the current study, we aimed to explore the temporal dynamics of theta band interaction between human RSC and MTL during autobiographical retrieval. Toward this aim, we obtained simultaneous recordings from the RSC and MTL in human subjects undergoing invasive electrophysiological monitoring, and quantified the strength of RSC-MTL theta band phase locking. We observed significant phase locking in the 3-4 Hz theta range between the RSC and the MTL during autobiographical retrieval. This theta band phase coupling was transient and peaked at a consistent latency before the peak of RSC HFB power across subjects. Control analyses confirmed that theta phase coupling between the RSC and MTL was not seen for other conditions studied, other sites of recording, or other frequency ranges of interest (1-20 Hz). Our findings provide the first evidence of theta band interaction between the human RSC and MTL during conditions of autobiographical retrieval.

  20. Audiovisual classification of vocal outbursts in human conversation using long-short-term memory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2011-01-01

    We investigate classification of non-linguistic vocalisations with a novel audiovisual approach and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks as highly successful dynamic sequence classifiers. As database of evaluation serves this year's Paralinguistic Challenge's Audiovisual Interest

  1. Rapid Encoding of New Memories by Individual Neurons in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Matias J; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Fried, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    The creation of memories about real-life episodes requires rapid neuronal changes that may appear after a single occurrence of an event. How is such demand met by neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), which plays a fundamental role in episodic memory formation? We recorded the activity of MTL neurons in neurosurgical patients while they learned new associations. Pairs of unrelated pictures, one of a person and another of a place, were used to construct a meaningful association modeling the episodic memory of meeting a person in a particular place. We found that a large proportion of responsive MTL neurons expanded their selectivity to encode these specific associations within a few trials: cells initially responsive to one picture started firing to the associated one but not to others. Our results provide a plausible neural substrate for the inception of associations, which are crucial for the formation of episodic memories.

  2. Working memory capacity predicts dopamine synthesis capacity in the human striatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R.; Gibbs, S.E.; Miyakawa, A.; Jagust, W.; D'Esposito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from psychopharmacological research has revealed that dopamine receptor agents have opposite effects on cognitive function depending on baseline levels of working memory capacity. These contrasting effects have been interpreted to reflect differential baseline levels of dopamine. Here we de

  3. Working memory capacity predicts dopamine synthesis capacity in the human striatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, R.; Gibbs, S.E.; Miyakawa, A.; Jagust, W.; D'Esposito, M.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from psychopharmacological research has revealed that dopamine receptor agents have opposite effects on cognitive function depending on baseline levels of working memory capacity. These contrasting effects have been interpreted to reflect differential baseline levels of dopamine. Here we

  4. Reasoning about passive declarations in CHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    The programming language of Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is gaining more and more popularity and this has motivated the development of new optimization techniques to be applied in implementations of CHR. As for other logic programming languages, a program written CHR can be understood declarat...... give different classifications of the effect of some passive declarations that do not affect the logical semantics. This may be used for reasoning about manual optimizations as well as proposals for automatic strategies to be applied by a compiler for adding passive declarations....

  5. Compiling ER Specifications into Declarative Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Braßel, Bernd; Muller, Marion

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an environment to support high-level database programming in a declarative programming language. In order to ensure safe database updates, all access and update operations related to the database are generated from high-level descriptions in the entity- relationship (ER) model. We propose a representation of ER diagrams in the declarative language Curry so that they can be constructed by various tools and then translated into this representation. Furthermore, we have implemented a compiler from this representation into a Curry program that provides access and update operations based on a high-level API for database programming.

  6. Evidence for sleep-dependent memory consolidation in human and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Denise Jade

    2010-01-01

    Sleep has been implicated as playing an important role in memory consolidation. Considerable indirect evidence suggests a role for sleep in hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents. Hippocampal "place cells" that were active during maze running were more likely to be activated during subsequent sleep, a phenomenon known as neural replay. In addition to hippocampal neural replay, it has been asserted that the hippocampus and cortex communicate during sleep by means of hippocampal generated high...

  7. A dendritic cell-based assay for measuring memory T cells specific to dengue envelope proteins in human peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peifang; Beckett, Charmagne; Danko, Janine; Burgess, Timothy; Liang, Zhaodong; Kochel, Tadeusz; Porter, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Dengue envelope (E) protein is a dominant immune inducer and E protein-based vaccines elicited partial to complete protection in non-human primates. To study the immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans, an enzyme linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for measuring interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production was developed. Cells from two subject groups, based on dengue-exposure, were selected for assay development. The unique feature of the IFN-γ ELISPOT assay is the utilization of dendritic cells pulsed with E proteins as antigen presenting cells. IFN-γ production, ranging from 53-513 spot forming units per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), was observed in dengue-exposed subjects as compared to 0-45 IFN-γ spot forming units in dengue-unexposed subjects. Further, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and cells bearing CD45RO memory marker, were the major sources of IFN-γ production. The assay allowed quantification of E-specific IFN-γ-secreting memory T cells in subjects 9 years after exposure to a live-attenuated virus vaccine and live-virus challenge. Results suggested that the dendritic cell-based IFN-γ assay is a useful tool for assessing immunological memory for clinical research.

  8. TGF-β1 Attenuates the Acquisition and Expression of Effector Function by Tumor Antigen-Specific Human Memory CD8 T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Mojgan; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    TGF-β1 is a potent immunoregulatory cytokine. However, its impact on the generation and effector function of Ag-specific human effector memory CD8 T cells had not been evaluated. Using Ag-specific CD8 T cells derived from melanoma patients immunized with the gp100 melanoma Ag, we demonstrate that the addition of TGF-β1 to the initial Ag activation cultures attenuated the gain of effector function by Ag-specific memory CD8 T cells while the phenotypic changes associated with activation and differentiation into effector memory were comparable to control cultures. These activated memory CD8 T cells consistently expressed lower mRNA levels for T-bet, suggesting a mechanism for TGF-β1-mediated suppression of gain of effector function in memory T cells. Moreover, TGF-β1 induced a modest expression of CCR7 on Ag-activated memory CD8 T cells. TGF-β1 also suppressed cytokine secretion by Ag-specific effector memory CD8 T cells, as well as melanoma-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8 T cell clones. These results demonstrate that TGF-β1 suppresses not only the acquisition but also expression of effector function on human memory CD8 T cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive against melanoma, suggesting that TGF-β1-mediated suppression can hinder the therapeutic benefits of vaccination, as well as immunotherapy in cancer patients. PMID:15843517

  9. [Repeated measurement of memory with valenced test items: verbal memory, working memory and autobiographic memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffel, A; Terfehr, K; Uhlmann, C; Schreiner, J; Löwe, B; Spitzer, C; Wingenfeld, K

    2013-07-01

    A large number of questions in clinical and/or experimental neuropsychology require the multiple repetition of memory tests at relatively short intervals. Studies on the impact of the associated exercise and interference effects on the validity of the test results are rare. Moreover, hardly any neuropsychological instruments exist to date to record the memory performance with several parallel versions in which the emotional valence of the test material is also taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to test whether a working memory test (WST, a digit-span task with neutral or negative distraction stimuli) devised by our workgroup can be used with repeated measurements. This question was also examined in parallel versions of a wordlist learning paradigm and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Both tests contained stimuli with neutral, positive and negative valence. Twenty-four participants completed the memory testing including the working memory test and three versions of a wordlist and the AMT at intervals of a week apiece (measuring points 1. - 3.). The results reveal consistent performances across the three measuring points in the working and autobiographical memory test. The valence of the stimulus material did not influence the memory performance. In the delayed recall of the wordlist an improvement in memory performance over time was seen. The tests on working memory presented and the parallel versions for the declarative and autobiographical memory constitute informal economic instruments within the scope of the measurement repeatability designs. While the WST and AMT are appropriate for study designs with repeated measurements at relatively short intervals, longer intervals might seem more favourable for the use of wordlist learning paradigms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Fast entrainment of human electroencephalogram to a theta-band photic flicker during successful memory encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki eSato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Theta band power (4-8Hz in the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG is thought to be stronger during memory encoding for subsequently remembered items than for forgotten items. According to simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measurements, the memory-dependent EEG theta is associated with multiple regions of the brain. This suggests that the multiple regions cooperate with EEG theta synchronization during successful memory encoding. However, a question still remains: What kind of neural dynamic organizes such a memory-dependent global network? In this study, the modulation of the EEG theta entrainment property during successful encoding was hypothesized to lead to EEG theta synchronization among a distributed network. Then, a transient response of EEG theta to a theta-band photic flicker with a short duration was evaluated during memory encoding. In the results, flicker-induced EEG power increased and decreased with a time constant of several hundred milliseconds following the onset and the offset of the flicker, respectively. Importantly, the offset response of EEG power was found to be significantly decreased during successful encoding. Moreover, the offset response of the phase locking index was also found to associate with memory performance. According to computational simulations, the results are interpreted as a smaller time constant (i.e., faster response of a driven harmonic oscillator rather than a change in the spontaneous oscillatory input. This suggests that the fast response of EEG theta forms a global EEG theta network among memory-related regions during successful encoding, and it contributes to a flexible formation of the network along the time course.

  11. The development of brain systems associated with successful memory retrieval of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofen, Noa; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Schuil, Karen D I; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-07-18

    Neuroanatomical and psychological evidence suggests prolonged maturation of declarative memory systems in the human brain from childhood into young adulthood. Here, we examine functional brain development during successful memory retrieval of scenes in children, adolescents, and young adults ages 8-21 via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recognition memory improved with age, specifically for accurate identification of studied scenes (hits). Successful retrieval (correct old-new decisions for studied vs unstudied scenes) was associated with activations in frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. Activations associated with successful retrieval increased with age in left parietal cortex (BA7), bilateral prefrontal, and bilateral caudate regions. In contrast, activations associated with successful retrieval did not change with age in the MTL. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that there were, however, age-relate changes in differential connectivity for successful retrieval between MTL and prefrontal regions. These results suggest that neocortical regions related to attentional or strategic control show the greatest developmental changes for memory retrieval of scenes. Furthermore, these results suggest that functional interactions between MTL and prefrontal regions during memory retrieval also develop into young adulthood. The developmental increase of memory-related activations in frontal and parietal regions for retrieval of scenes and the absence of such an increase in MTL regions parallels what has been observed for memory encoding of scenes.

  12. EyeFrame: Real-time memory aid improves human multitasking via domain-general eye tracking procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. eTaylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed an extensively general closed-loop system to improve human interaction in various multitasking scenarios, with semi-autonomous agents, processes, and robots. BACKGROUND: Much technology is converging toward semi-independent processes with intermittent human supervision distributed over multiple computerized agents. Human operators multitask notoriously poorly, in part due to cognitive load and limited working memory. To multitask optimally, users must remember task order, e.g., the most neglected task, since longer times not monitoring an element indicates greater probability of need for user input. The secondary task of monitoring attention history over multiple spatial tasks requires similar cognitive resources as primary tasks themselves. Humans can not reliably make more than ~2 decisions/s. METHODS: Participants managed a range of 4-10 semi-autonomous agents performing rescue tasks. To optimize monitoring and controlling multiple agents, we created an automated short term memory aid, providing visual cues from users' gaze history. Cues indicated when and where to look next, and were derived from an inverse of eye fixation recency. RESULTS: Contingent eye tracking algorithms drastically improved operator performance, increasing multitasking capacity. The gaze aid reduced biases, and reduced cognitive load, measured by smaller pupil dilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our eye aid likely helped by delegating short-term memory to the computer, and by reducing decision making load. Past studies used eye position for gaze-aware control and interactive updating of displays in application-specific scenarios, but ours is the first to successfully implement domain-general algorithms. Procedures should generalize well to: process control, factory operations, robot control, surveillance, aviation, air traffic control, driving, military, mobile search and rescue, and many tasks where probability of utility is predicted by duration since last

  13. 19 CFR 122.43 - General declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General declaration. 122.43 Section 122.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  14. Declarative interpretations of session-based concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Mauricio; Rueda, Camilo; López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés;

    2015-01-01

    Session-based concurrency is a type-based approach to the analysis of communication-intensive systems. Correct behavior in these systems may be specified in an operational or declarative style: the former defines how interactions are structured; the latter defines governing conditions. In this pa...

  15. Sudan Genocide Declaration Stirs the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    One week after Secretary of State Colin Powell declared that the killings, rapes and other atrocities committed in Darfur amount to "genocide," in mid-September the United Nations' World Health Organization issued new figures saying 6,000 to 10,000 people are dying per month there in one of Africa's worst humanitarian crises. Powell had…

  16. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  17. 19 CFR 10.764 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.764 Declaration. (a) Contents. An importer who claims preferential tariff... tariff treatment specified for those goods in the United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement; and...

  18. 19 CFR 10.804 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.804 Declaration. (a) Contents. An importer who claims preferential tariff... tariff treatment specified for those goods in the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement; and...

  19. 19 CFR 10.704 - Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.704 Declaration. (a) Contents. An importer who claims preferential tariff... goods in the United States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement; and This document consists of __...

  20. Product declaration for cars; Warendeklaration fuer Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-07-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO{sub 2}-emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed.

  1. State of emergency declared for Gran Sasso

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "On June 27th the Council of Ministers has declared the state of socioeconomic and environmental emergency in the territory of L'Aquila and Teramo, the provinces involved in the safety of the Gran Sasso system. The measure includes the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratories, the high-way tunnels, the environment in general and water in particular" (1 page).

  2. Second World Materials Summit Suzhou Declaration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Suzhou 2009 Declaration Clean energy and sustainability are global issues that require international collaboration.Materials play a critical role in addressing these challenges.The Second World Materials Summit in Suzhou provides an avenue to create international cooperation to address energy related materials solutions.Our priorities track the relevant sections of the Kyoto resolution.

  3. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  4. The Larnaca Declaration on Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, James; Conole, Grainne; Wills, Sandra; Walker, Simon; Bennett, Sue; Dobozy, Eva; Cameron, Leanne; Badilescu-Buga, Emil; Bower, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The Larnaca Declaration on Learning Design arose from a 2012 meeting of experts in Larnaca, Cyprus who sought to provide a new theoretical foundation for the field of Learning Design, based on a synthesis of research and practice in the field to date. It begins by acknowledging the vast benefits that would arise from wider sharing of effective…

  5. Prefrontal and parietal cortex in human episodic memory: an interference study by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Simone; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Zito, Giancarlo; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Cappa, Stefano F; Miniussi, Carlo; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo M

    2006-02-01

    Neuroimaging findings, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) interference, point to an engagement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in learning and memory. Whether parietal cortex (PC) activity is causally linked to successful episodic encoding and retrieval is still uncertain. We compared the effects of event-related active or sham rTMS (a rapid-rate train coincident to the very first phases of memoranda presentation) to the left or right intraparietal sulcus, during a standardized episodic memory task of visual scenes, with those obtained in a fully matched sample of subjects who received rTMS on left or right dorsolateral PFC during the same task. In these subjects, specific hemispheric effects of rTMS included interference with encoding after left stimulation and disruption of retrieval after right stimulation. The interference of PC-rTMS on encoding/retrieval performance was negligible, lacking specificity even when higher intensities of stimulation were applied. However, right PC-rTMS of the same intensity lengthened reaction times in the context of a purely attentive visuospatial task. These results suggest that the activity of intraparietal sulci shown in several functional magnetic resonance studies on memory, unlike that of the dorsolateral PFC, is not causally engaged to a useful degree in memory encoding and retrieval of visual scenes. The parietal activations accompanying the memorization processes could reflect the engagement of a widespread brain attentional network, in which interference on a single 'node' is insufficient for an overt disruption of memory performance.

  6. Fake or fantasy: rapid dissociation between strategic content monitoring and reality filtering in human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlen, Aurélie; Nahum, Louis; Gabriel, Damien; Schnider, Armin

    2011-11-01

    Memory verification is crucial for meaningful behavior. Orbitofrontal damage may impair verification and induce confabulation and inappropriate acts. The strategic retrieval account explains this state by deficient monitoring of memories' precise content, whereas the reality filter hypothesis explains it by a failure of an orbitofrontal mechanism suppressing the interference of memories that do not pertain to reality. The distinctiveness of these mechanisms has recently been questioned. Here, we juxtaposed these 2 mechanisms using high-resolution evoked potentials in healthy subjects who performed 2 runs of a continuous recognition task which contained pictures that precisely matched or only resembled previous pictures. We found behavioral and electrophysiological dissociation: Strategic content monitoring was maximally challenged by stimuli resembling previous ones, whereas reality filtering was maximally challenged by identical stimuli. Evoked potentials dissociated at 200-300 ms: Strategic monitoring induced a strong frontal negativity and a distinct cortical map configuration, which were particularly weakly expressed in reality filtering. Recognition of real repetitions was expressed at 300-400 ms, associated with ventromedial prefrontal activation. Thus, verification of a memory's concordance with the past (its content) dissociates from the verification of its concordance with the present. The role of these memory control mechanisms in the generation of confabulations and disorientation is discussed.

  7. Non-linear laws of echoic memory and auditory change detection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshima Yasuyuki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of any abrupt change in the environment is important to survival. Since memory of preceding sensory conditions is necessary for detecting changes, such a change-detection system relates closely to the memory system. Here we used an auditory change-related N1 subcomponent (change-N1 of event-related brain potentials to investigate cortical mechanisms underlying change detection and echoic memory. Results Change-N1 was elicited by a simple paradigm with two tones, a standard followed by a deviant, while subjects watched a silent movie. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a fixed sound pressure deviance (70 dB vs. 75 dB was negatively correlated with the logarithm of the interval between the standard sound and deviant sound (1, 10, 100, or 1000 ms, while positively correlated with the logarithm of the duration of the standard sound (25, 100, 500, or 1000 ms. The amplitude of change-N1 elicited by a deviance in sound pressure, sound frequency, and sound location was correlated with the logarithm of the magnitude of physical differences between the standard and deviant sounds. Conclusions The present findings suggest that temporal representation of echoic memory is non-linear and Weber-Fechner law holds for the automatic cortical response to sound changes within a suprathreshold range. Since the present results show that the behavior of echoic memory can be understood through change-N1, change-N1 would be a useful tool to investigate memory systems.

  8. Reinforcement Learning and Episodic Memory in Humans and Animals: An Integrative Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2017-01-03

    We review the psychology and neuroscience of reinforcement learning (RL), which has experienced significant progress in the past two decades, enabled by the comprehensive experimental study of simple learning and decision-making tasks. However, one challenge in the study of RL is computational: The simplicity of these tasks ignores important aspects of reinforcement learning in the real world: (a) State spaces are high-dimensional, continuous, and partially observable; this implies that (b) data are relatively sparse and, indeed, precisely the same situation may never be encountered twice; furthermore, (c) rewards depend on the long-term consequences of actions in ways that violate the classical assumptions that make RL tractable. A seemingly distinct challenge is that, cognitively, theories of RL have largely involved procedural and semantic memory, the way in which knowledge about action values or world models extracted gradually from many experiences can drive choice. This focus on semantic memory leaves out many aspects of memory, such as episodic memory, related to the traces of individual events. We suggest that these two challenges are related. The computational challenge can be dealt with, in part, by endowing RL systems with episodic memory, allowing them to (a) efficiently approximate value functions over complex state spaces, (b) learn with very little data, and (c) bridge long-term dependencies between actions and rewards. We review the computational theory underlying this proposal and the empirical evidence to support it. Our proposal suggests that the ubiquitous and diverse roles of memory in RL may function as part of an integrated learning system.

  9. The attentional blink reveals serial working memory encoding: evidence from virtual and human event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craston, Patrick; Wyble, Brad; Chennu, Srivas; Bowman, Howard

    2009-03-01

    Observers often miss a second target (T2) if it follows an identified first target item (T1) within half a second in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), a finding termed the attentional blink. If two targets are presented in immediate succession, however, accuracy is excellent (Lag 1 sparing). The resource sharing hypothesis proposes a dynamic distribution of resources over a time span of up to 600 msec during the attentional blink. In contrast, the ST(2) model argues that working memory encoding is serial during the attentional blink and that, due to joint consolidation, Lag 1 is the only case where resources are shared. Experiment 1 investigates the P3 ERP component evoked by targets in RSVP. The results suggest that, in this context, P3 amplitude is an indication of bottom-up strength rather than a measure of cognitive resource allocation. Experiment 2, employing a two-target paradigm, suggests that T1 consolidation is not affected by the presentation of T2 during the attentional blink. However, if targets are presented in immediate succession (Lag 1 sparing), they are jointly encoded into working memory. We use the ST(2) model's neural network implementation, which replicates a range of behavioral results related to the attentional blink, to generate "virtual ERPs" by summing across activation traces. We compare virtual to human ERPs and show how the results suggest a serial nature of working memory encoding as implied by the ST(2) model.

  10. Adaptation in human somatosensory cortex as a model of sensory memory construction: a study using high-density EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Claire; Joyce, Niamh; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation in sensory cortices has been seen as a mechanism allowing the creation of transient memory representations. Here we tested the adapting properties of early responses in human somatosensory areas SI and SII by analysing somatosensory-evoked potentials over the very first repetitions of a stimulus. SI and SII generators were identified by well-defined scalp potentials and source localisation from high-density 128-channel EEG. Earliest responses (~20 ms) from area 3b in the depth of the post-central gyrus did not show significant adaptation to stimuli repeated at 300 ms intervals. In contrast, responses around 45 ms from the crown of the gyrus (areas 1 and 2) rapidly lessened to a plateau and abated at the 20th stimulation, and activities from SII in the parietal operculum at ~100 ms displayed strong adaptation with a steady amplitude decrease from the first repetition. Although responses in both SI (1-2) and SII areas showed adapting properties and hence sensory memory capacities, evidence of sensory mismatch detection has been demonstrated only for responses reflecting SII activation. This may index the passage from an early form of sensory storage in SI to more operational memory codes in SII, allowing the prediction of forthcoming input and the triggering of a specific signal when such input differs from the previous sequence. This is consistent with a model whereby the length of temporal receptive windows increases with progression in the cortical hierarchy, in parallel with the complexity and abstraction of neural representations.

  11. The effect of exogenous cortisol during sleep on the behavioral and neural correlates of emotional memory consolidation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, H.J.F. van; Hermans, E.J.; Qin, S.; Overeem, S.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    A host of animal work demonstrates that the retention benefit for emotionally aversive over neutral memories is regulated by glucocorticoid action during memory consolidation. Particularly, glucocorticoids may affect systems-level processes that promote the gradual reorganization of emotional memory

  12. "The Chennai declaration" - Indian doctors' fight against antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.; Ghafur, A.

    2013-01-01

    "The Chennai Declaration" is the result of the first ever joint meeting of medical societies in India addressing antibiotic resistance. The declaration is not a policy by itself, but a call for a national policy. The Declaration has looked into all major aspects of the problem of antimicrobial resis

  13. 37 CFR 1.68 - Declaration in lieu of oath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration in lieu of oath. 1.68 Section 1.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... Declaration § 1.68 Declaration in lieu of oath. Any document to be filed in the Patent and Trademark...

  14. 24 CFR 203.434 - Declaration of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.434... Mortgage § 203.434 Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured mortgages... interest in a specific mortgage shall be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has...

  15. 24 CFR 203.493 - Declaration of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of trust. 203.493... Declaration of trust. A sale of a beneficial interest in a group of insured loans, where the interest to be... be made only pursuant to a declaration of trust, which has been approved by the Commissioner prior...

  16. 24 CFR 41.3 - Assurance and declaration required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... require a declaration as to project drawings, specifications, and other construction documents. The... responsible official as designated by HUD, who has prepared such construction documents. The declaration shall affirm that the proposed project, to the best knowledge and belief of the declarer, conforms...

  17. "The Chennai declaration" - Indian doctors' fight against antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.; Ghafur, A.

    2013-01-01

    "The Chennai Declaration" is the result of the first ever joint meeting of medical societies in India addressing antibiotic resistance. The declaration is not a policy by itself, but a call for a national policy. The Declaration has looked into all major aspects of the problem of antimicrobial resis

  18. Dissociations in infant memory: rethinking the development of implicit and explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovee-Collier, C

    1997-07-01

    Extending the Jacksonian principle of the hierarchical development and dissolution of function to the development and dissolution of memory, researchers have concluded that implicit (procedural) memory is a primitive system, functional shortly after birth, that processes information automatically, whereas explicit (declarative) memory matures late in the 1st year and mediates the conscious recollection of a prior event. Support for a developmental hierarchy has only been inferred from the memory performance of adults with amnesia on priming and recognition-recall tests in response to manipulations of different independent variables. This article reviews evidence that very young infants exhibit memory dissociations like those exhibited by adults with normal memory on analogous memory tests in response to manipulations of the same independent variables. These data demonstrate that implicit and explicit memory follow the same developmental timetable and challenge the utility of conscious recollection as the defining characteristic of explicit memory.

  19. Learning and memory changes in rats following exogenous human hepatocyte growth factor gene injection into cerebral ischemic penumbra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun You; Yong Liu; Jianye Yang; Qingping Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Human hepatocyte growth factor can be used to treat cerebral infarction, administered by lateral ventricular, cerebellomedullary cistern or subarachnoid injections. However, the target gene expression product is scarcely found in the ischemic penumbra, but extensively distributes in other regions, increasing the risks of gene therapy. The present study directly transfected hepatocyte growth factor gene into the ischemic penumbra of rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that infarct volume was significantly decreased, hepatocyte growth factor protein expression level and vessel quantity in the ischemic penumbra were significantly increased, and learning and memory were significantly improved.

  20. Memory Without Parties or Parties Without Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario Solís Delgadillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of political parties in Argentina, Chile and Guatemala in relation to the implementation of public policies of memory after the return to democracy in each of these countries. To do this, we discuss the concept of memory and the problems of memorial obsession. We consider the uses and abuses of memory that human rights organizations manifest on the subject, and examine the work of the parties about the level of adaptation that allows claims of human rights movement to become matters of public policy.

  1. Negative Facial Expressions – But Not Visual Scenes – Enhance Human Working Memory in Younger and Older Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Schechtman Belham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the influence of emotion on memory processes across the human lifespan. Some results have shown older adults (OA performing better with positive stimuli, some with negative items, whereas some found no impact of emotional valence. Here we tested, in two independent studies, how younger adults (YA and OA would perform in a visuospatial working memory (VSWM task with positive, negative, and neutral images. The task consisted of identifying the new location of a stimulus in a crescent set of identical stimuli presented in different locations in a touch-screen monitor. In other words, participants should memorize the locations previously occupied to identify the new location. For each trial, the number of occupied locations increased until 8 or until a mistake was made. In study 1, 56 YA and 38 OA completed the task using images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Results showed that, although YA outperformed OA, no effects of emotion were found. In study 2, 26 YA and 25 OA were tested using facial expressions as stimuli. Data from this study showed that negative faces facilitated performance and this effect did not differ between age groups. No differences were found between men and women. Taken together, our findings suggest that YA and OA’s VSWM can be influenced by the emotional valence of the information, though this effect was present only for facial stimuli. Presumably, this may have happened due to the social and biological importance of such stimuli, which are more effective in transmitting emotions than IAPS images. Critically, our results also indicate that the mixed findings in the literature about the influence of aging on the interactions between memory and emotion may be caused by the use of different stimuli and methods. This possibility should be kept in mind in future studies about memory and emotion across the lifespan.

  2. Activator-induced dynamic disorder and molecular memory in human two-pore domain hTREK1 K channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Dana, Saswati; Raha, Soumyendu; Sikdar, Sujit K

    2011-04-01

    Ion channels are fundamental molecules in the nervous system that catalyze the flux of ions across the cell membrane. Ion channel flux activity is comparable to the catalytic activity of enzyme molecules. Saturating concentrations of substrate induce "dynamic disorder" in the kinetic rate processes of single-enzyme molecules and consequently, develop correlative "memory" of the previous history of activities. Similarly, binding of ions as substrate alone or in presence of agonists affects the catalytic turnover of single-ion channels. Here, we investigated the possible existence of dynamic disorder and molecular memory in the single human-TREK1-channel due to binding of substrate/agonist using the excised inside-out patch-clamp technique. Our results suggest that the single-hTREK1-channel behaves as a typical Michaelis-Menten enzyme molecule with a high-affinity binding site for K(+) ion as substrate. But, in contrast to enzyme, dynamic disorder in single-hTREK1-channel was not induced by substrate K(+) binding, but required allosteric modification of the channel molecule by the agonist, trichloroethanol. In addition, interaction of trichloroethanol with hTREK1 induced strong correlation in the waiting time and flux intensity, exemplified by distinct mode-switching between high and low flux activities. This suggested the induction of molecular memory in the channel molecule by the agonist, which persisted for several decades in time. Our mathematical modeling studies identified the kinetic rate processes associated with dynamic disorder. It further revealed the presence of multiple populations of distinct conformations that contributed to the "heterogeneity" and consequently, to the molecular memory phenomenon that we observed. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12154-010-0053-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  3. Memory signals are temporally dissociated in and across human hippocampus and perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Fell, Juergen; Do Lam, Anne T A; Axmacher, Nikolai; Henson, Richard N

    2012-07-01

    In the endeavor to understand how our brains enable our multifaceted memories, much controversy surrounds the contributions of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PrC). We recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy controls and intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) in patients during a recognition memory task. Although conventional fMRI analysis showed indistinguishable roles of the hippocampus and PrC in familiarity-based item recognition and recollection-based source retrieval, event-related fMRI and EEG time courses revealed a clear temporal dissociation of memory signals in and across these regions. An early source retrieval effect was followed by a late, post-decision item novelty effect in hippocampus, whereas an early item novelty effect was followed by a sustained source retrieval effect in PrC. Although factors such as memory strength were not experimentally controlled, the temporal pattern across regions suggests that a rapid item recognition signal in PrC triggers a source retrieval process in the hippocampus, which in turn recruits PrC representations and/or mechanisms, evidenced here by increased hippocampal-PrC coupling during source recognition.

  4. Behavioral Specifications of Reward-Associated Long-Term Memory Enhancement in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Duzel, Emrah

    2011-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies link reward-related activation of the midbrain substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), the site of origin of ascending dopaminergic projections, with improved long-term episodic memory. Here, we investigated in two behavioral experiments how (1) the contingency between item properties and reward, (2) the…

  5. Constructing Patriotism: Teaching History and Memories in Global Worlds. Advances in Cultural Psychology: Constructing Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Memory construction and national identity are key issues in our societies, as well as it is patriotism. How can we nowadays believe and give sense to traditional narrations that explain the origins of nations and communities? How do these narrations function in a process of globalization? How should we remember the recent past? In the construction…

  6. Auditory Pattern Memory: Mechanisms of Tonal Sequence Discrimination by Human Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-30

    and Creelman (1977) in a study of categorical perception. Tanner’s model included a short-term decaying memory for the acoustic input to the system plus...auditory pattern components, J. &Coust. Soc. 91 Am., 76, 1037- 1044. Macmillan, N. A., Kaplan H. L., & Creelman , C. D. (1977). The psychophysics of

  7. 78 FR 25273 - Determination and Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of in Vitro Diagnostics for Detection of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Determination and Declaration Regarding Emergency Use of in Vitro Diagnostics for... authorization of emergency use of in vitro diagnostics for detection of the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus... an emergency with respect to in vitro diagnostics as defined under the Public Readiness and...

  8. 75 FR 67145 - Submission for Review: Expiring Information Collection 3206-0182, Declaration for Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Treasury (Treasury), Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Office of Human Resources Management (USDA-HRM), USDA Rural Development, and General Services Administration (GSA) iterated the need... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Expiring Information Collection 3206-0182, Declaration for Federal...

  9. The role of the human hippocampus in familiarity-based and recollection-based recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T; Squire, Larry R

    2010-12-31

    The ability to recognize a previously encountered stimulus is dependent on the structures of the medial temporal lobe and is thought to be supported by two processes, recollection and familiarity. A focus of research in recent years concerns the extent to which these two processes depend on the hippocampus and on the other structures of the medial temporal lobe. One view holds that the hippocampus is important for both processes, whereas a different view holds that the hippocampus supports only the recollection process and the perirhinal cortex supports the familiarity process. One approach has been to study patients with hippocampal lesions and to contrast old/new recognition (which can be supported by familiarity) to free recall (which is supported by recollection). Despite some early case studies suggesting otherwise, several group studies have now shown that hippocampal patients exhibit comparable impairments on old/new recognition and free recall. These findings suggest that the hippocampus is important for both recollection and familiarity. Neuroimaging studies and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses also initially suggested that the hippocampus was specialized for recollection, but these studies involved a strength confound (strong memories have been compared to weak memories). When steps are taken to compare strong recollection-based memories with strong familiarity-based memories, or otherwise control for memory strength, evidence for a familiarity signal (as well as a recollection signal) is evident in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe is probably best understood in terms unrelated to the distinction between recollection and familiarity.

  10. Rhinal-hippocampal connectivity determines memory formation during sleep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Fernandez, G.; Lutz, M.T.; Kockelmann, E.; Burr, W.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.; Helmstaedter, C.

    2006-01-01

    Compared with waking state attention, volition and semantic processing play a minor role during sleep. Thus, investigating declarative memory formation during sleep may allow us to isolate mnemonic core processes. The most feasible approach to memory formation during sleep is the analysis of dream

  11. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.; Jensen, O.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face-location associations is significan

  12. Sleep directly following learning benefits consolidation of spatial associative memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The last decade has brought forth convincing evidence for a role of sleep in non-declarative memory. A similar function of sleep in episodic memory is supported by various correlational studies, but direct evidence is limited. Here we show that cued recall of face–location associations is significan

  13. A Memory-Based Model of Hick's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a memory-based model of Hick's law, the approximately linear increase in choice reaction time with the logarithm of set size (the number of stimulus-response alternatives). According to the model, Hick's law reflects a combination of associative interference during retrieval from declarative memory and occasional savings…

  14. Post-thymic regulation of CD5 levels in human memory T cells is inversely associated with the strength of responsiveness to interleukin-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Brunner, Stefan; Weiskopf, Daniela; van Rijn, Ruth; Landgraf, Katja; Dejaco, Christian; Duftner, Christina; Schirmer, Michael; Kloss, Frank; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2011-08-01

    Immunologic memory is a critical feature of the adaptive immune system to fight recurrent infections. However, the mechanisms that shape the composition and function of the human memory T-cell pool remain incompletely understood. We here demonstrate that post-thymic human T-cell differentiation was associated with the downregulation, but not loss, of the inhibitory molecule CD5. The sensitivity of human CD8(+) and CD4(+) memory T cells to interleukin (IL)-15 was inversely associated with the level of CD5 expression. CD5 expression was downregulated by IL-15-mediated signaling in vitro and CD5(lo) memory T cells accumulated in the bone marrow. Persistent antigenic stimulation, as in the case of cytomegalovirus infection and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), was also associated with an increased number of CD5(lo) memory T cells. In conclusion, CD5 may be a useful marker to identify memory T-cell subsets with distinct responsiveness to the homeostatic cytokine IL-15.

  15. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. Having undergone several amendments, the most recent version was approved on 18 October 2008, by the WMA General Assembly at Seoul, South Korea, replacing all previous versions. This version highlights issues such as, participant safety, the need to include participants from otherwise underrepresented groups, clinical trial registration, post-study access, usage of data and human tissues, compensating participants with research-related injury, and usage of placebo. In this article, we discuss the major aspects of the 2008 version, including the impact of this version on all stakeholders in research, including, investigators, ethics committee members, sponsors, authors, editors, and reviewers.

  16. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: implications for stakeholders in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, K S; Suresh, K R; Gogtay, N J; Thatte, U M

    2009-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. Having undergone several amendments, the most recent version was approved on 18 October 2008, by the WMA General Assembly at Seoul, South Korea, replacing all previous versions. This version highlights issues such as, participant safety, the need to include participants from otherwise underrepresented groups, clinical trial registration, post-study access, usage of data and human tissues, compensating participants with research-related injury, and usage of placebo. In this article, we discuss the major aspects of the 2008 version, including the impact of this version on all stakeholders in research, including, investigators, ethics committee members, sponsors, authors, editors, and reviewers.

  17. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  18. The influence of banner advertisements on attention and memory: Human faces with averted gaze can enhance advertising effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitch eSajjacholapunt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.

  19. A Formal Model For Declarative Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    it as a general formal model for specification and execution of declarative, event-based business processes, as a generalization of a concurrency model, the classic event structures. The model allows for an intuitive operational semantics and mapping of execution state by a notion of markings of the graphs and we...... the declarative nature of the projected graphs (which are also DCR graphs). We have also provided semantics for distributed executions based on synchronous communication among network of projected graphs and proved that global and distributed executions are equivalent. Further, to support modeling of processes......Current business process technology is pretty good in supporting well-structured business processes and aim at achieving a fixed goal by carrying out an exact set of operations. In contrast, those exact operations needed to fulfill a business pro- cess/workflow may not be always possible to foresee...

  20. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsak, Piray; Guenzel, Friederike M; Kantar-Gok, Deniz; Zalachoras, Ioannis; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Meijer, Onno C; Quirarte, Gina L; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2016-05-01

    Acute stress and elevated glucocorticoid hormone levels are well known to impair the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory. Recent findings suggest that stress might also impair the retrieval of non-hippocampal memories. In particular, stress shortly before retention testing was shown to impair the retrieval of striatal stimulus-response associations in humans. However, the mechanism underlying this stress-induced retrieval impairment of non-hippocampal stimulus-response memory remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether an acute elevation in glucocorticoid levels mediates the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of stimulus-response memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a stimulus-response task in an eight-arm radial maze until they learned to associate a stimulus, i.e., cue, with a food reward in one of the arms. Twenty-four hours after successful acquisition, they received a systemic injection of vehicle, corticosterone (1mg/kg), the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (35mg/kg) or were left untreated 1h before retention testing. We found that the corticosterone injection impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. We further found that the systemic injection procedure per se was stressful as the vehicle administration also increased plasma corticosterone levels and impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. However, memory retrieval was not impaired when rats were tested 2min after the systemic vehicle injection, before any stress-induced elevation in corticosterone levels had occurred. Moreover, metyrapone treatment blocked the effect of injection stress on both plasma corticosterone levels and memory retrieval impairment, indicating that the endogenous corticosterone response mediates the stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. None of the treatments affected rats' locomotor activity or motivation to search for the food reward within the maze. These findings show that stress