WorldWideScience

Sample records for human cremation ashes

  1. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, B.M.H.P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as “important,” as “sacred,” and as a vehicle to

  2. The ambiguity of human ashes: Exploring encounters with cremated remains in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores cremation and disposal practices in the Netherlands, focusing on the attitudes and experiences of bereaved Dutch people in relation to cremated remains. In academic and professional narratives, human ashes are commonly described as "important," as "sacred," and as a vehicle to continue intense and physical relationships with the dead. Based on quantitative and qualitative data this article illustrates the ambiguity of such relationships. It highlights the diverse experiences, unexpected challenges, and moral obligations that can be evoked by the deceased's ashes, where the latter are seen as embedded in material practices and entangled in social relationships.

  3. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  4. [FUNERARY RITUAL OF CREMATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannantonio, Stefania; Iorio, Andrea; Serafino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In the area of Rome object of study, the cremations account for 10% of total burials (522 cremation burials of 4758), unlike the contemporary cemeteries of French and Cispadane areas where they are well over 30%. Detailed analysis of the cemeteries, confirms that the indirect cremations (urns and graves) represent over 85% of the sample, while direct cremations (busta sepulcra) are under-represented. For a selected sample of 69 cremations, demographic analysis was performed and it shows a discrete prevalence of women and an almost equal distribution of males and subadults. Quantitative analysis of burned bones was conducted on cremations found perfectly intact during excavation, it indicates that cremations are generally completed and that they have all the anatomical regions represented.

  5. On the volume of cremated remains - a comparative study of archaeologically recovered cremated bone volume as measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography and by Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, L.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Weight but occasionally also the volume of cremated human remains may often be the primary basis for interpreting the many stages involved in past cremation ceremonies. However, methods used for describing volume for cremated remains are extremely varying and biased by many factors. Here we...... bodies probably are represented more often than discussed in osteoarchaeology. Hence, this contests many suppositions on ritual selection of cremated human remains in prehistoric and early historical archaeology. A simple descriptive Fragmentation Index for cremated remains is further suggested....... evaluate different methods for calculating and describing volume and propose a method for estimating the original prehistoric post-cremation weight. Our data suggests that low cremation weights reported for archaeologically recovered cremated remains are markedly underestimated, and that whole cremated...

  6. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques.

  7. Coal and cremation at the Tschudi burn, Chan Chan, Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.; Galvez, Mora C.; Jackson, J.C.; McGeehin, J.P.; Hood, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of a 20-30 cm thick, completely combusted ash at the 25 ?? 70 m Tschudi burn at Chan Chan, northern Peru??, contain 52-55 wt% SiO2, 180-210 ppm zirconium and are consistent with coal ash. Soil geochemistry across the burn showed elevated calcium and phosphorus content, possible evidence for reported human cremation. A calcined, 5 g, 4.5 cm skull fragment recovered from the burn was confirmed as human by protein radioimmunoassay (pRIA). X-ray diffraction showed that the bone had been heated to 520??C. The burn took place c. ad 1312-1438 based on interpretation of a 14C date on carbonized plant tinder. ?? 2008 University of Oxford.

  8. Sarcophilia, cremation and Sir Henry Thompson (1820-1904).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, E H

    2009-11-01

    Sarcophilia, a neologism for an attachment to human remains, is set in a review of the history of the disposal of the dead. The ancient practice of cremation was relaunched late in the 19th century by the urological surgeon cum social reformer Sir Henry Thompson. He was stimulated by Edwin Chadwick and Charles Dickens, and by Charles Darwin's observations on the earthworm. Sarcophilia is the reason for the controversial Human Tissue Act of 2004.

  9. Effects of Cremation on Fetal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zana, Michela; Magli, Francesca; Mazzucchi, Alessandra; Castoldi, Elisa; Gibelli, Daniele; Caccia, Giulia; Cornacchia, Francesca; Gaudio, Daniel A; Mattia, Mirko; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    The charring process is a weak point of anthropological analysis as it changes bone morphology and reduces information obtainable, specially in fetuses. This experiment aims at verifying the conservation of fetal bones after cremation. A total of 3138 fetuses of unknown sex and age were used, deriving from legal and therapeutic abortions from different hospitals of Milan. Cremations took place in modern crematoria. Nine cremation events were analyzed, each ranging from 57 to 915 simultaneously cremated fetuses. During the cremations, 4356 skeletal remains were recovered, 3756 of which (86.2%) were morphologically distinguishable. All types of fetal skeletal elements were found, with the exception of some cranial bones. Only 3.4% of individuals could be detected after the cremation process, because of the prevalence of abortions under 12 lunar weeks. All fire alterations were observed and the results were statistically analyzed. This pilot study confirmed the possibility of preservation of fetal skeletal elements after cremation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. On the volume of cremated remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722.......Harvig, L., Lynnerup, N. 2013. On the effective volume of prehistoric cremains - a comparative study of cremated bone volume measured manually and assessed by Computed Tomography. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, p. 2713–2722....

  11. [Cremation and the environmental mercury burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivola, J; Krejci, I; Imfeld, T; Lutz, F

    1990-01-01

    The dental status of 130 deceased Zurich people was evaluated from radiographs of their maxillary and mandibular dentitions taken during their autopsies. A mean mass of mercury of 2.49 +/- 0.37 g was calculated per dentate deceased based on the analysis of 134 extracted premolars and molars with amalgam restorations. The mercury contamination due to cremation in 1988 in Switzerland was calculated to vary between 45.8 and 79.0 kg, based on both the data from the sample analyzed and the fact that 55.5% of Swiss funerals were cremations, the average age of death was 73 and that 70% of the people of that age retained some of their teeth. Mercury contamination by cremation, therefore comprised only 0.61 to 1.53% of the total mercury contamination produced by all waste incineration methods. The minimal contribution to the mercury contamination due to cremation can thus not be used as an argument to ban the use of dental amalgams.

  12. Effects of mercury release from amalgam dental restorations during cremation on soil mercury levels of three New Zealand crematoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieschmidt, A.K.; Kim, N.D. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1997-05-01

    A vast amount of research has been undertaken in the last 15-20 years on the corrosion reactions occurring in dental amalgam, release of mercury from amalgam restorations, and the toxic effects of this released mercury on the human body. However, one environmental aspect of amalgam dental restorations that has not received a great deal of attention is the release of mercury during cremation. Mercury is liberated during cremation both because dental amalgams are unstable at cremation temperatures (650-700{degrees}C) and because the free mercury metal is highly volatile. In New Zealand, 58% of deaths are followed by cremation and this figure is likely to rise in the future. This increasing use of cremation as the method of corpse disposal, coupled with the fact that each amalgam restoration is approximately 50% mercury, implies that a significant amount of mercury may be emitted into the environment every year. This study examines mercury released from crematoria in New Zealand. 20 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    that osteological ageing and sexing are more accurate when combining CT-images with excavated remains. Digital volume rendering further enables a compromised estimation of original cremation weight. Microexcavation is clearly a primary cause of bone fragmentation. Cremated remains affected by lower cremation...

  14. "Oganj - association of cremation in Belgrade": Development, ideas and symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available And although the development and spreading of the idea of cremation, as well as mentioned laws, could be seen as the beginning of secularization of death death has remained, for a long time, closely associated with this or that religious beliefs and practice. Still, the development of the idea of cremation during the 20th century testifies on changes related to understanding of death among the contemporary, especially urban population in Serbia. This is particularly true for Belgrade and Novi Sad, although some other areas seem to be accepting new ideas and practices. The paper illustrates the development of the idea, its latent and real content, symbols used during its promotion. The accent is put on an ideological polarization that came about as a result of the development of cremation.

  15. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    To improve methods used to study prehistoric cremation rituals, cremation urns from the Danish late Bronze Age were examined using Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography (Digital X-ray). During microexcavation, the digital images were used as registration tool. Our results suggest...

  16. Analysis of metallic medical devices after cremation: The importance in identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Danilo; Collini, Federica; Muccino, Enrico; Cappella, Annalisa; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzucchi, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of a charred cadaver raises many issues concerning personal identification; the presence of prosthetic materials may provide very important and decisive information. Who is involved in the recovery of a charred body or of burnt human fragments, should therefore be able to recognize medical devices even if modified by fire effects. Metallic residues (585kg) that came from 2785 cremations were studied. Medical devices were then divided by type and material in order to esteem the representativeness of each typology. The study illustrates the great presence of metal medical devices that could be of great help in identifying bodies and underlines that metallic medical devices types and morphology should be known by forensic practitioner involved in identification cases and that this kind of material can still be identified by physician and dentists, even if exposed to very high temperatures. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radioisotopic assays of CoASH and carnitine and their acetylated forms in human skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederblad, G.; Carlin, J.I.; Constantin-Teodosiu, D.; Harper, P.; Hultman, E. (Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital (Sweden))

    1990-03-01

    Radioisotopic assays for the determination of acetyl-CoA, CoASH, and acetylcarnitine have been modified for application to the amount of human muscle tissue that can be obtained by needle biopsy. In the last step common to all three methods, acetyl-CoA is condensed with (14C)oxaloacetate by citrate synthase to give (14C)-citrate. For determination of CoASH, CoASH is reacted with acetylphosphate in a reaction catalyzed by phosphotransacetylase to yield acetyl-CoA. In the assay for acetylcarnitine, acetylcarnitine is reacted with CoASH in a reaction catalyzed by carnitine acetyltransferase to form acetyl-CoA. Inclusion of new simple steps in the acetylcarnitine assay and conditions affecting the reliability of all three methods are also described. Acetylcarnitine and free carnitine levels in human rectus abdominis muscle were 3.0 +/- 1.5 (SD) and 13.5 +/- 4.0 mumol/g dry wt, respectively. Values for acetyl-CoA and CoASH were about 500-fold lower, 6.7 +/- 1.8 and 21 +/- 8.9 nmol/g dry wt, respectively. A strong correlation between acetylcarnitine (y) and short-chain acylcarnitine (x), determined as the difference between total and free carnitine, was found in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle obtained during intense muscular effort, y = 1.0x + 0.5; r = 0.976.

  18. Requirements for cremation architecture in contemporary secularized society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Frolíková Palánová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Burials of the deceased were always part of life of each society and that remain forever. In Middle European culture based mostly on Christian tradition, it was common place, till the end of 19th Century, for burials in a grave. On the beginning of 20s Century gradually began to apply also cremation. Its supporters pointed on its hygienic superiority compared to classical disposal with deceased. This led to established and gradual development of a new building type – the crematorium. Supporters also promote high quality farewell ceremonies and this resulted in quality burial and cemetery culture during whole 20s Century. The aim is to approach this new building type to the professional public and specify organization and typology for promote high ethic, ceremony, aesthetic and respect.

  19. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P; Rohling, Eelco J; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C; Stringer, Chris B; Tomlinson, Emma L; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Boric, Dusan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C

    2012-08-21

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters.

  20. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Barton, Nick; Blockley, Simon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Cullen, Victoria L.; Davies, William; Gamble, Clive; Grant, Katharine; Hardiman, Mark; Housley, Rupert; Lane, Christine S.; Lee, Sharen; Lewis, Mark; MacLeod, Alison; Menzies, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang; Pollard, Mark; Price, Catherine; Roberts, Andrew P.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Satow, Chris; Smith, Victoria C.; Stringer, Chris B.; Tomlinson, Emma L.; White, Dustin; Albert, Paul; Arienzo, Ilenia; Barker, Graeme; Borić, Dušan; Carandente, Antonio; Civetta, Lucia; Ferrier, Catherine; Guadelli, Jean-Luc; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Koumouzelis, Margarita; Müller, Ulrich C.; Orsi, Giovanni; Pross, Jörg; Rosi, Mauro; Shalamanov-Korobar, Ljiljiana; Sirakov, Nikolay; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

    2012-01-01

    Marked changes in human dispersal and development during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition have been attributed to massive volcanic eruption and/or severe climatic deterioration. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. 40,000 y ago (40 ka B.P.). The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits (volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye) in archaeological cave sequences. They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe. Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe. We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. PMID:22826222

  1. Biodetection of potential genotoxic pollutants entering the human food chain through ashes used in livestock diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vicente, Laura; Herraez, Elisa; Briz, Oscar; Nogales, Rogelio; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda; Marin, Jose J G

    2016-08-15

    Ash derived from energy generation is used as a source of minerals in livestock feeds. The microbial biosensor recApr-Luc2 was built to detect genotoxic hazard in recycled ash. Escherichia coli SOS gene (recA, lexA, dinI and umuC) expression in response to cisplatin-induced DNA damage led to the selection of the recA promoter. The biosensor required functional RecA expression to respond to genotoxic heavy metals (Cr>Cd≈Pb), and polluted ash induced a strong recApr-Luc2 response. In human liver and intestinal cells, heavy metals induced acute toxicity (Cr>Cd>Pb) at concentrations sufficient to activate recApr-Luc2. Cytostatic effects, including genotoxicity, were cell- and metal-dependent, apart from Cr. In agreement with the recApr-Luc2 bioassay, Cr had the strongest effect in all cells. In conclusion, recApr-Luc2 could be useful for evaluating the genotoxic risk of pollutants present in ash that might be concentrated in animal products and, thus, entering the human food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of flue gas emission reduction from cremation processes by the "Amalgator"

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    On 1 April 1999 a study, commissioned by Vermeulen Product Engineering, was conducted by the Department of Thermal Conversion Technology of TNO-MEP of the filter efficiency of the Amalgator at the Crematorium Nedermaas in Geleen in the Netherlands. At this crematorium a cremator of the "warm-start"type is in-stalled. The Amalgator is a filter system developed for the reduction of mercury, dust and PCDD/PCDF emissions in the flue gasses of cremators. It consists of a dustfilter, a catalytic be...

  3. A study of flue gas emission reduction from cremation processes by the "Amalgator"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    On 1 April 1999 a study, commissioned by Vermeulen Product Engineering, was conducted by the Department of Thermal Conversion Technology of TNO-MEP of the filter efficiency of the Amalgator at the Crematorium Nedermaas in Geleen in the Netherlands. At this crematorium a cremator of the

  4. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2010-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products.

  5. Paramagnetic and crystallographic effects of low temperature ashing on human bone and tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochon-Danguy, H J; Very, J M; Geoffroy, M; Baud, C A

    1978-02-28

    Low temperature ashing by excited gas (LTA) causes crystallographic and paramagnetic alterations of the human bone and tooth enamel mineral. On the one hand, LTA induces variations of the alpha lattice parameter. These variations depend upon the nature of the gas used, but are little affected by its degree of excitation. Trapping of gas molecules in the crystal structure is demonstrated. On the other hand, LTA produces two preponderant paramagnetic centers in bone and enamel samples at 20 degrees C. Their inorganic origin clearly indicated. One of the two radicals has been identified as O3- (g1 = 2.002, g2 = 2.010, g3 = 2.016) and the other as (CO3-3 (parallel = 1.996, g = perpendicular 2.003). Variations of the alpha lattice parameter and trapping of paramagnetic gas species do not seem to be directly related.

  6. The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); DaBoit, Katia [Department of Environmental Medicine, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Kostova, Irena J. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels, 15, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); and others

    2012-02-01

    Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model Bulgarian power plants which have regulated minerals nanoparticles can contain hazardous elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study changes in the level of information about nanominerals importance and the effect on human health exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing information will increase quality if power plants procedures are similar.

  7. On the Zongri Cremation Tombs and Its Related Problems%论宗日火葬墓及其相关问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦山

    2002-01-01

    Cremation was one of the age-old burial customs and generally consisted in burning corpses in bonfires.In the Neolithic Age,cremation was popular in many ethnic groups of the world.The present paper discusses the form and date of the tombs of cremation excavated in China.Combining the results of this analysis with related ethnographic material,the model of characters in oracle-bone in-scriptions and literary records,the author ascertains that the cremation reflected in the Zongri site was related to that of the Qiang ethnic group and may have been the continuity and variation of the latter.

  8. [Amount of mercury from dental amalgam filling released into the atmosphere by cremation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Kishimoto, T; Yamamura, Y; Tabuse, M; Akama, Y; Satoh, H

    1994-07-01

    Mercury in dental amalgam filling is released into the atmosphere by cremation and is a suspected source of mercury pollution. The amount of mercury released was measured at three crematoriums. First, mercury levels in the atmosphere were measured. Mercury existed mainly in the gaseous form in ambient air. The concentration of atmospheric mercury at the three crematoriums (S, T and M) ranged from 4.3 to 19.7ng/m3, which was nearly identical to levels in our university surveyed as the control area and also to the levels of atmospheric mercury in general in Japan. Secondly, the amount of mercury release from T crematorium was estimated using official published statistical data in Japan and calculated as follows: sigma[(age specific number of dead that were cremated) x (the number of restored teeth by age category) x (mercury content per amalgam filling (0.6 g))] x (prevalence rate of restoration with amalgam). The amount of mercury released from this crematorium was estimated to be approximately 9.4 kg per year, or a daily release of 26 g into the ambient air. These results indicate that mercury release by cremation is similar to that from other man-made sources.

  9. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F

    2012-02-17

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next.

  10. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Porro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822. The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next.

  11. The relationship between trees and human health: evidence from the spread of the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Butry, David T; Michael, Yvonne L; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Liebhold, Andrew M; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mao, Megan Y

    2013-02-01

    Several recent studies have identified a relationship between the natural environment and improved health outcomes. However, for practical reasons, most have been observational, cross-sectional studies. A natural experiment, which provides stronger evidence of causality, was used to test whether a major change to the natural environment-the loss of 100 million trees to the emerald ash borer, an invasive forest pest-has influenced mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory diseases. Two fixed-effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and county-level mortality from 1990 to 2007 in 15 U.S. states, while controlling for a wide range of demographic covariates. Data were collected from 1990 to 2007, and the analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. There was an increase in mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness in counties infested with the emerald ash borer. The magnitude of this effect was greater as infestation progressed and in counties with above-average median household income. Across the 15 states in the study area, the borer was associated with an additional 6113 deaths related to illness of the lower respiratory system, and 15,080 cardiovascular-related deaths. Results suggest that loss of trees to the emerald ash borer increased mortality related to cardiovascular and lower-respiratory-tract illness. This finding adds to the growing evidence that the natural environment provides major public health benefits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Stored human urine supplemented with wood ash as fertilizer in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation and its impacts on fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2009-08-26

    This study evaluates the use of human urine and wood ash as fertilizers for tomato cultivation in a greenhouse. Tomatoes were cultivated in pots and treated with 135 kg of N/ha applied as mineral fertilizer, urine + ash, urine only, and control (no fertilization). The urine fertilized plants produced equal amounts of tomato fruits as mineral fertilized plants and 4.2 times more fruits than nonfertilized plants. The levels of lycopene were similar in tomato fruits from all fertilization treatments, but the amount of soluble sugars was lower and Cl(-) was higher in urine + ash fertilized tomato fruits. The beta-carotene content was greater and the NO(3)(-) content was lower in urine fertilized tomato fruits. No enteric indicator microorganisms were detected in any tomato fruits. The results suggest that urine with/without wood ash can be used as a substitute for mineral fertilizer to increase the yields of tomato without posing any microbial or chemical risks.

  13. Attitudes towards euthanasia in severely ill and dementia patients and cremation in Cyprus: a population-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Population studies on end-of-life decisions have not been conducted in Cyprus. Our study aim was to evaluate the beliefs and attitudes of Greek Cypriots towards end-of-life issues regarding euthanasia and cremation. Methods A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Cyprus. One thousand randomly selected individuals from the population of Cyprus age 20 years or older were invited to participate. Beliefs and attitudes on end-of-life decisions were collected using an anonymous and validated questionnaire. Statistical analyses included cross-tabulations, Pearson’s chi-square tests and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 308 males and 689 females participated in the survey. About 70% of the respondents did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by them and 77% did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by relatives. Regarding cremation, 78% were against and only 14% reported being in favor. Further statistical analyses showed that male gender, being single and having reached higher educational level were factors positively associated with support for euthanasia in a statistically significant fashion. On the contrary, the more religiosity expressed by study participants, the less support they reported for euthanasia or cremation. Conclusions The vast majority of Greek Cypriots does not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia and also do not support cremation. Certain demographic characteristics such as age and education have a positive influence towards attitudes for euthanasia and cremation, while religiosity exerts a strong negative influence on the above. Family bonding as well as social and cultural traditions may also play a role although not comprehensively evaluated in the current study. PMID:24060291

  14. Attitudes towards euthanasia in severely ill and dementia patients and cremation in Cyprus: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Televantos, Anastasios; Talias, Michael A; Charalambous, Marianna; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2013-09-23

    Population studies on end-of-life decisions have not been conducted in Cyprus. Our study aim was to evaluate the beliefs and attitudes of Greek Cypriots towards end-of-life issues regarding euthanasia and cremation. A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Cyprus. One thousand randomly selected individuals from the population of Cyprus age 20 years or older were invited to participate. Beliefs and attitudes on end-of-life decisions were collected using an anonymous and validated questionnaire. Statistical analyses included cross-tabulations, Pearson's chi-square tests and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. A total of 308 males and 689 females participated in the survey. About 70% of the respondents did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by them and 77% did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by relatives. Regarding cremation, 78% were against and only 14% reported being in favor. Further statistical analyses showed that male gender, being single and having reached higher educational level were factors positively associated with support for euthanasia in a statistically significant fashion. On the contrary, the more religiosity expressed by study participants, the less support they reported for euthanasia or cremation. The vast majority of Greek Cypriots does not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia and also do not support cremation. Certain demographic characteristics such as age and education have a positive influence towards attitudes for euthanasia and cremation, while religiosity exerts a strong negative influence on the above. Family bonding as well as social and cultural traditions may also play a role although not comprehensively evaluated in the current study.

  15. 人转录因子hASH4的表达纯化及其DNA结合活性%Expression,Purification and DNA Binding Activity of Human Transcription Factor hASH4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琢磊; 楼田甜; 王远东; 季朝能

    2014-01-01

    hASH4 is a member of Helix-Loop-Helix(HLH)proteins which are an important group of transcription factors that exert such a determinative influence on a variety of cell proliferation, determination and differentiation from yeast to human. hASH4 has been reported closely related to skin differentiation and development, but the exact mechanism is unknown. In this study, the expression plasmid of pET28b-his-hASH4 was restructured and successfully expressed in BL21(DE3). After the optimization of temperature, time, IPTG concentration of expression, we ascertain that 1mmol/L IPTG expressed 4 hours at 37℃can get the best expression. and we got the electrophoretic purity of the target protein by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and ion cation exchange chromatography. The non-radioactive EMSA experiment between DNA and protein showed that the hASH4 protein only has the non-sepcific DNA binding activity without specific DNA binding activity. The play of transcription factors by hASH4 in the body may be need to form a heterodimer or multimer to further specific binding to DNA and act on the downstream genes. This study provided clues for the really function in vivo of hASH4 and laid the foundation for the further crystallization conditions screening, structural analysis and functional studies.%hASH4蛋白所属的HLH转录因子家族在调节基因表达,调控细胞周期,决定细胞分化中起了重要作用。有研究表明hASH4蛋白可能与皮肤的分化发育有着密切的关系,但具体机制不明。成功构建了pET28b-hASH4表达质粒,并在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中诱导表达。经过对温度、时间、IPTG浓度等表达条件的优化,确定在37℃下1 mmol/L IPTG诱导表达4 h可达到最佳表达效果,并通过亲和层析和弱阳离子交换层析纯化蛋白,得到了电泳纯的目的蛋白。通过非放射性凝胶滞留试验发现hASH4蛋白单体只具有非特异性的DNA结合活性,而不具有特异性的DNA结

  16. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10(-3) (CTE) and 6.5 × 10(-2) (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  17. To Die a Living Death: Phantasms of Burial and Cremation in Derrida’s Final Seminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Naas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Third Session of his seminar The Beast and the Sovereign, Volume 2, Jacques Derrida turns from a close reading of Heidegger’s 1929–1930 seminar on The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics and Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe—the two books at the center of the seminar—to the question of what it means for a large and growing number of people in the Western world to have to decide, in a seemingly sovereign fashion, about how their bodies are to be treated after their deaths, that is, whether they are to be buried or cremated. This question marks a rather surprising turn to the present—even the autobiographical—in the seminar. This essay follows Derrida’s treatment of the question in the rest of the seminar. It considers, first, what Derrida calls the phantasms attendant upon all speculations regarding this supposedly binary alternative between inhumation and creation and then what this alternative might tell us about Greco-European modernity and certain modern conceptions of the subject and the subject’s putative autonomy and sovereignty over its life, its body, and its remains.

  18. Laboratory Studies of Ice Nucleation on Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, M. A.; Schill, G. P.; Genareau, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Ice nucleation on volcanic ash controls both ash aggregation and cloud glaciation, which affect human respiratory health, atmospheric transport, and global climate. We have performed laboratory studies of the depositional and immersion freezing efficiency of three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman Microscopy coupled to an environmental cell. Ash from the Fuego (Basaltic Ash, Guatemala), Soufriere Hills (Andesetic Ash, Montserrat), and Taupo (Rhyolitic Ash, New Zealand) volcanoes were chosen to represent different geographical locations and silica content. All ash samples were quantitatively analyzed for both percent crystallinity and mineralogy using X-ray diffraction. We find that all three samples of volcanic ash are excellent depositional ice nuclei, nucleating ice at ice saturation ratios of 1.05 ± 0.1. For immersion freezing, however, only the Taupo ash exhibited efficient heterogeneous ice nucleation activity. Similar to recent studies on mineral dust, we suggest that the mineralogy of volcanic ash may dictate its ice nucleation activity in the immersion mode.

  19. Simple hand-held metal detectors are an effective means of detecting cardiac pacemakers in the deceased prior to cremation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jason Lyle; Williams, John; Fearn, Lesley

    2010-05-01

    The hazard of undetected cardiac pacemakers exploding in crematoria is well described. This short report describes the use of an affordable hand-held metal detector to detect cardiac pacemakers. Over the course of a year, the metal detector located 100% of cardiac pacemakers in a district general hospital mortuary. A simple model using pigskin and fat is also used to demonstrate the effectiveness in vitro. Commercially purchased hand-held metal detectors should be used in all mortuaries responsible for detection and removal of cardiac pacemakers prior to cremation.

  20. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  1. The Campanian Ignimbrite eruption: new data on volcanic ash dispersal and its potential impact on human evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Fitzsimmons

    Full Text Available The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI volcanic eruption was the most explosive in Europe in the last 200,000 years. The event coincided with the onset of an extremely cold climatic phase known as Heinrich Event 4 (HE4 approximately 40,000 years ago. Their combined effect may have exacerbated the severity of the climate through positive feedbacks across Europe and possibly globally. The CI event is of particular interest not only to investigate the role of volcanism on climate forcing and palaeoenvironments, but also because its timing coincides with the arrival into Europe of anatomically modern humans, the demise of Neanderthals, and an associated major shift in lithic technology. At this stage, however, the degree of interaction between these factors is poorly known, based on fragmentary and widely dispersed data points. In this study we provide important new data from Eastern Europe which indicate that the magnitude of the CI eruption and impact of associated distal ash (tephra deposits may have been substantially greater than existing models suggest. The scale of the eruption is modelled by tephra distribution and thickness, supported by local data points. CI ashfall extends as far as the Russian Plain, Eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. However, modelling input is limited by very few data points in Eastern Europe. Here we investigate an unexpectedly thick CI tephra deposit in the southeast Romanian loess steppe, positively identified using geochemical and geochronological analyses. We establish the tephra as a widespread primary deposit, which blanketed the topography both thickly and rapidly, with potentially catastrophic impacts on local ecosystems. Our discovery not only highlights the need to reassess models for the magnitude of the eruption and its role in climatic transition, but also suggests that it may have substantially influenced hominin population and subsistence dynamics in a region strategic for human migration into Europe.

  2. The Campanian Ignimbrite eruption: new data on volcanic ash dispersal and its potential impact on human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Iovita, Radu

    2013-01-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) volcanic eruption was the most explosive in Europe in the last 200,000 years. The event coincided with the onset of an extremely cold climatic phase known as Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) approximately 40,000 years ago. Their combined effect may have exacerbated the severity of the climate through positive feedbacks across Europe and possibly globally. The CI event is of particular interest not only to investigate the role of volcanism on climate forcing and palaeoenvironments, but also because its timing coincides with the arrival into Europe of anatomically modern humans, the demise of Neanderthals, and an associated major shift in lithic technology. At this stage, however, the degree of interaction between these factors is poorly known, based on fragmentary and widely dispersed data points. In this study we provide important new data from Eastern Europe which indicate that the magnitude of the CI eruption and impact of associated distal ash (tephra) deposits may have been substantially greater than existing models suggest. The scale of the eruption is modelled by tephra distribution and thickness, supported by local data points. CI ashfall extends as far as the Russian Plain, Eastern Mediterranean and northern Africa. However, modelling input is limited by very few data points in Eastern Europe. Here we investigate an unexpectedly thick CI tephra deposit in the southeast Romanian loess steppe, positively identified using geochemical and geochronological analyses. We establish the tephra as a widespread primary deposit, which blanketed the topography both thickly and rapidly, with potentially catastrophic impacts on local ecosystems. Our discovery not only highlights the need to reassess models for the magnitude of the eruption and its role in climatic transition, but also suggests that it may have substantially influenced hominin population and subsistence dynamics in a region strategic for human migration into Europe.

  3. The Gallo-Roman cremation cemeteries of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - intial findings of current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Polfer

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper will present the first results of a research project which aims at: ◦the elaboration of a complete corpus of all individual Gallo-Roman graves and cemeteries, including funerary monuments and inscriptions ◦the analysis of the structures and objects (typology, chronology etc. as well as the study of the religious, cultural and social attitudes and their evolution during the Roman period. The geographic area for the study is the modern Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, a major part of the ancient civitas treverorum. The project covers the period from the second half of the first century AD to the fifth century AD. The paper is divided into three main parts: 1.a short history of Gallo-Roman funerary archaeology in Luxembourg 2.a short presentation of some of the first results of the study related to: ◦the geographic distribution of the sites ◦the relationship between rural settlements, cemeteries and funerary monuments ◦the internal organisation of rural cemeteries ◦depositional practice and social differentiation in rural cemeteries ◦cremation types and the relationship between cremation and inhumation 3.a presentation (through maps and a database of the current state of the corpus (which currently has records of 300 different archaeological sites

  4. Why was the writer cremated? Thanato - anthropological aspects of death and funeral of Yugoslav literate Ivo Andrić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discuses the funeral of Yugoslav writer, Ivo Andrić, with a particular focus on his wish to be incinerated. This wish is analyzed from several aspects: through the concept of celebrating great people in the time of socialism and from the standpoint of Andrić’s delicate political position and his consistent attempts to avoid alignment inside offered ideological, intellectual and national frames. On the other hand, his will to be cremated was analyzed from the aspect of Andrić’s attitude towards religion and death, which are visible in his works. Additional light on Andrić’s, already well researched biography, sheds his mason dossier and defining his religiosity and philosophical attitudes as theosophical. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177028

  5. Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong; Wan, Bingbing; Wang, Kevin C.; Cao, Fang; Yang, Yuting; Protacio, Angeline; Dou, Yali; Chang, Howard Y.; Lei, Ming (Michigan-Med); (HHMI)

    2011-09-06

    Ash2L is a core component of the MLL family histone methyltransferases and has an important role in regulating the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Ash2L and reveal a new function of Ash2L. The structure shows that Ash2L contains an atypical PHD finger that does not have histone tail-binding activity. Unexpectedly, the structure shows a previously unrecognized winged-helix motif that directly binds to DNA. The DNA-binding-deficient mutants of Ash2L reduced Ash2L localization to the HOX locus. Strikingly, a single mutation in Ash2L{sub WH} (K131A) breaks the chromatin domain boundary, suggesting that Ash2L also has a role in chromosome demarcation.

  6. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  7. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  9. In search for a compromise between biodiversity conservation and human health protection in restoration of fly ash deposits: effect of anti-dust treatments on five groups of arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropek, Robert; Cerna, Ilona; Straka, Jakub; Kocarek, Petr; Malenovsky, Igor; Tichanek, Filip; Sebek, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Recently, fly ash deposits have been revealed as a secondary refuge of critically endangered arthropods specialised on aeolian sands in Central Europe. Simultaneously, these anthropogenic habitats are well known for their negative impact on human health and the surrounding environment. The overwhelming majority of these risks are caused by wind erosion, the substantial decreasing of which is thus necessary. But, any effects of anti-dust treatments on endangered arthropods have never been studied. We surveyed communities of five arthropod groups (wild bees and wasps, leafhoppers, spiders, hoverflies and orthopteroid insects) colonising three fly ash deposits in the western Czech Republic. We focused on two different anti-dust treatments (~70 and 100 % cover of fly ash by barren soil) and their comparison with a control of bare fly ash. Altogether, we recorded 495 species, including 132 nationally threatened species (eight of them were considered to be extinct in the country) and/or 30 species strictly specialised to drift sands. Bees and wasps and leafhoppers contained the overwhelming majority of species of the highest conservation interest; a few other important records were also in spiders and orthopteroids. Total soil cover depleted the unique environment of fly ash and thus destroyed the high conservation potential of the deposits. On the other hand, partial coverage (with ~30 % of bare fly ash) still offered habitats for many of the most threatened species, as we showed by both regression and multivariate analyses, with a decrease of wind erosion. This topic still needs much more research interest, but we consider mosaic-like preservation of smaller spots of fly ash as one of the possible compromises between biodiversity and human health.

  10. [Ash Meadows Purchase Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A proposal sent to the Richard King Mellon Foundation for a loan to fund the purchase of Ash Meadows by the Nature Conservancy. Ash Meadows, set outside of Las Vegas...

  11. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  12. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Sparks, R.S.J. [University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom); Valdes, Paul J. [University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Supervolcanoes are large caldera systems that can expel vast quantities of ash, volcanic gases in a single eruption, far larger than any recorded in recent history. These super-eruptions have been suggested as possible catalysts for long-term climate change and may be responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Here, we consider the previously neglected climatic effects of a continent-sized ash deposit with a high albedo and show that a decadal climate forcing is expected. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, covering much of North America. Reflectivity measurements of dry volcanic ash show albedo values as high as snow, implying that the effects of an ash blanket would be severe. The modeling results indicate major disturbances to the climate, particularly to oscillatory patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Atmospheric disruptions would continue for decades after the eruption due to extended ash blanket longevity. The climatic response to an ash blanket is not significant enough to investigate a change to stadial periods at present day boundary conditions, though this is one of several impacts associated with a super-eruption which may induce long-term climatic change. (orig.)

  13. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  14. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  15. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction...... of melt in the investigated ashes has been determined as a function of temperature. Ash fusion results have been correlated to the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ashes, to results from a standard ash fusion test and to results from sintering experiments. Furthermore, the ash fusion results......-firing, the model only had a qualitative agreement with the measured ash deposit formation rates.Sintering measurements were carried out by means of compression strength testing of ash pellets. This method showed to not be applicable for the salt rich fly ash derived from straw combustion. For the fly ashes...

  16. Occupational exposure and DNA strand breakage of workers in bottom ash recovery and fly ash treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chen, I-Ju; Chia, Tai-Pao

    2010-02-15

    Various environmental hazards and metals are liberated either into bottom ash or carried away with gases and subsequently trapped in fly ash. Many studies have reported an increase of DNA damage is related to hazardous exposure of municipal waste incinerators. By detecting DNA damage, we compared the DNA migration imposed in workers potentially exposed to hazardous substances, including PCDD/Fs, metals, and silica particles, at a bottom ash recovery plant and fly ash treatment plants in Taiwan. Higher tail moment (TMOM) was found in workers at fly ash treatment plants (7.55) than in the workers in bottom ash plants (2.64), as well as those in blue collar was higher than in white collar workers (5.72 vs. 3.95). Meanwhile, the significantly higher DNA damage was also shown in workers with high integrated exposure score than those with low. The air samplings for particle mass, Cr, and Al concentrations also showed the higher levels in fly ash treatment plants than in the workers in bottom ash plants. Meanwhile, the air samplings inside the two plants suggested that the particle size might be important to affect the workers inhaling the metal into the human body and finally caused to their DNA damage. The data concluded that an elevated DNA damage may be expected in workers at fly ash treatment plants than those at bottom ash plants; however, the occupational hazards in both types of plants, especially at different particle size interval, need more thorough assessment in future studies.

  17. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  18. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  19. Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

    Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

  20. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  1. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012

  2. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  3. MAT 126 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    stylia

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MAT 126 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 1 Written Assignment (Arithmetic and geometric sequence) (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Assignment Is It Fat Free (Ash) MAT 126 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 1 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 DQ 2 (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Assignment Quadratic Equations (Ash) MAT 126 Week 3 Quiz (Ash) MAT 126...

  4. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  5. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Song, Wenli [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Weigang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • A novel method is proposed to analyze fusion characteristics of biomass ash. • T{sub m} can represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. • Compared with AFT, TMA is the better choice to analyze the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. - Abstract: The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, T{sub m}, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates.

  6. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...

  7. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  8. Estimating the frequency of volcanic ash clouds over northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. J.; Swindles, G. T.; Savov, I. P.; Lawson, I. T.; Connor, C. B.; Wilson, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Fine ash produced during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over a vast area, where it poses a threat to aviation, human health and infrastructure. Here, we focus on northern Europe, which lies in the principal transport direction for volcanic ash from Iceland, one of the most active volcanic regions in the world. We interrogate existing and newly produced geological and written records of past ash fallout over northern Europe in the last 1000 years and estimate the mean return (repose) interval of a volcanic ash cloud over the region to be 44 ± 7 years. We compare tephra records from mainland northern Europe, Great Britain, Ireland and the Faroe Islands, with records of proximal Icelandic volcanism and suggest that an Icelandic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating (VEI) ≥ 4 and a silicic magma composition presents the greatest risk of producing volcanic ash that can reach northern Europe. None of the ash clouds in the European record which have a known source eruption are linked to a source eruption with VEI < 4. Our results suggest that ash clouds are more common over northern Europe than previously proposed and indicate the continued threat of ash deposition across northern Europe from eruptions of both Icelandic and North American volcanoes.

  9. MGT 330 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    alfoniz

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 330 Week 1 Individual Assignment Functions of Management Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 3 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 1 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Team Assignment External Internal Factors Paper (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Individual Assignment Delegation (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 Summary (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 330 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 330 W...

  10. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-03-02

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  11. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Based Coal Ash Impoundments Safety Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E. J.; Nieto, A.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-01-01

    Coal ash impoundments are inevitable production of the coal-fired power plants. All coal ash impoundments in North Carolina USA that tested for groundwater contamination are leaking toxic heavy metals and other pollutants. Coal ash impoundments are toxic sources of dangerous pollutants that pose a danger to human and environmental health if the toxins spread to adjacent surface waters and drinking water wells. Coal ash impoundments failures accidents resulted in serious water contamination along with toxic heavy metals. To improve the design and stability of coal ash impoundments, the Development of a Coal Ash Impoundment Safety Monitoring System (CAISM) was proposed based on the implementation of a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the ability to monitor the stability of coal ash impoundments, water level, and saturation levels on-demand and remotely. The monitoring system based on a robust Ad-hoc network could be adapted to different safety conditions.

  12. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  13. MGT 401 ASH Course Tutorial / Tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    kennith

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   MGT 401 Week 1 Individual Assignment Strategic Management Process Paper (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 Class Activity Week 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 1 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Learning Team Business Model Comparison Example (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 1 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 DQ 2 (Ash) MGT 401 Week 2 Class Activity (Ash) MGT 401 Week 3 Individual Assignment Business Plan Evaluation (Ash) ...

  14. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  15. Ash in the Soil System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  16. The cumulative ash curve: a best tool to evaluate complete mill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2014-04-01

    Slick test is carried out by a flour miller to qualitatively segregate the flour from different streams in a roller flour mill. This test is done manually by pressing flour samples on tray using thin bladed paddle (the slick) and inspecting color or dress of the sample. However, the test is subjective and totally depends on human judgment. Cumulative ash curve relates to cumulative flour ash content and cumulative flour yield, which could help a flour miller to be more precise while selecting flour streams for different needs. In this study, cleaning and conditioning of wheat was carried out in the pilot plant of International School of Milling Technology (ISMT). Further, roller flour milling of wheat was done. Flour from different streams (four breaks, five reductions) was collected. Each flour stream was analyzed for ash content using standard AACC methods. The analytical values of ash content were used to plot the cumulative ash curve. It was found that ash content increased in the break passages from first to last break, with exception of first break (ash content 0.71%). An increase in percentage of ash was observed in the reduction passages (C1 to C5), however, C3 ash (0.76%) was slightly higher than that of C4 (0.65%). Higher yield of flour with minimum ash content was obtained from the front reduction passages C1 and C2; whereas, the break passages and the tail end reduction passages produce less flour with higher ash content.

  17. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (sustained plume attended by concomitant production of pyroclastic density currents. The size and internal structure of the armoured lapilli provide constraints on the nature of the initial explosive phase of eruption at Kima'Kho. Their proximity to the vent also indicates rapid aggregation within the eruption plume. Within both sequences rapid aggregation of ash particles occurred in proximity to the vent. However, the conditions were substantially different leading to the production of armoured

  18. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  19. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kylling

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry are calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres are found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates will underestimate the mass loading by several tens of percent compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles.

  20. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2013-10-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry are calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres are found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates will underestimate the mass loading by several tens of percent compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles.

  1. Influence of Bed Ash and Fly Ash Replacement in Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Summoogum-Utchanah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the influence of fly ash and bottom ash as partial cement substitutes in mortars by studying the particle size distribution, consistency, flow, fresh density, air content, compressive strength and flexural strength characteristics. The results revealed that fly ash and cement had relatively the same particle size distribution unlike bottom ash. In the fresh state, as the amount of pozzolans increased in the mixtures, the mortars showed an enhancement in workability, were susceptible to water loss by bleeding, and exhibited a decline in fresh density. The early strength gains of the fly ash samples were low but reached higher than the control after 28 days of curing. The flexural strength increased as the fly ash content rose to reach a maximum at 20 % replacement. However, the 2-day compressive strength of bottom ash samples was higher than the control but decreased after 28 days of curing while the flexural strength declined with addition of bottom ash except at 5 % substitution.

  2. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  3. Controls on the surface chemical reactivity of volcanic ash investigated with probe gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, Elena C.; Delmelle, Pierre; Rossi, Michel J.; Ayris, Paul M.; Bernard, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Increasing recognition that volcanic ash emissions can have significant impacts on the natural and human environment calls for a better understanding of ash chemical reactivity as mediated by its surface characteristics. However, previous studies of ash surface properties have relied on techniques that lack the sensitivity required to adequately investigate them. Here we characterise at the molecular monolayer scale the surfaces of ash erupted from Eyjafjallajökull, Tungurahua, Pinatubo and Chaitén volcanoes. Interrogation of the ash with four probe gases, trimethylamine (TMA; N(CH3)3), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA; CF3COOH), hydroxylamine (HA; NH2OH) and ozone (O3), reveals the abundances of acid-base and redox sites on ash surfaces. Measurements on aluminosilicate glass powders, as compositional proxies for the primary constituent of volcanic ash, are also conducted. We attribute the greater proportion of acidic and oxidised sites on ash relative to glass surfaces, evidenced by comparison of TMA/TFA and HA/O3 uptake ratios, in part to ash interaction with volcanic gases and condensates (e.g., H2O, SO2, H2SO4, HCl, HF) during the eruption. The strong influence of ash surface processing in the eruption plume and/or cloud is further supported by particular abundances of oxidised and reduced sites on the ash samples resulting from specific characteristics of their eruptions of origin. Intense interaction with water vapour may result in a higher fraction of oxidised sites on ash produced by phreatomagmatic than by magmatic activity. This study constitutes the first quantification of ash chemical properties at the molecular monolayer scale, and is an important step towards better understanding the factors that govern the role of ash as a chemical agent within atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic or biotic systems.

  4. HIS 103 ASH course tutorial/tutorialoutlet

    OpenAIRE

    NARESH 1

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialoutlet.com   HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 1 (Transition to Agriculture) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 DQ 2 (Early Complex Societies) (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 1 Assignment (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Assignment Greco Roman Influence Paper (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 1 Chinese Social and Political Order Systems (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 DQ 2 Caste System (Ash) HIS 103 Week 2 Quiz (Ash) HIS 103 Week 3 Assignment Black Death Dra...

  5. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  6. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  7. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  8. Multifrequency radar imaging of ash plumes: an experiment at Stromboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Franck; Freret-Lorgeril, Valentin; Delanoë, Julien; Vinson, Jean-Paul; Peyrin, Frédéric; Hervier, Claude; Caudoux, Christophe; Van Baelen, Joël; Latchimy, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic ash emissions in the atmosphere are hazardous to aviation while ash fallout affects people and human activities and may cause damage to infrastructures and economic losses. In the framework of the French Government Laboratory of Excellence ClerVolc initiative, an experiment was carried out on Stromboli volcano (Italy), between 28 September and 4 October 2015. The aim was to retrieve various physical properties of the ash plumes, especially the mass loading parameters which are critical for the modelling of ash dispersal. We used a complementary set of cutting edge techniques recording in different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The innovative instrument setup consisted in three radars, hyperspectral thermal infrared and dual-band UV cameras, a mini DOAS-Flyspec and a multigas sensor. A drone equipped with differential GPS was flown near the ash plumes with several sensors including SO2, CO2 and particle counter. We mainly focus on radar measurements of over 200 ash plumes and present some preliminary comparisons at three frequencies. The BASTA Doppler radar at 95 GHz, originally designed for atmospheric studies, was deployed at about 2.2 km in slant distance from the eruptive craters. It was configured to observe volumes above one of the active craters with a spatio-temporal resolution of 12.5 m and 1 s. From the same location, a 1.2 GHz volcano Doppler radar (VOLDORAD) was recording the signature of ballistics and small lapilli at 0.15 s in 60 m-deep volumes. In addition, a commercial 24 GHz micro rain Doppler radar (MRR) simultaneously recorded activity from the Rochette station, at 400 to 650 m from the active craters with a sampling rate of 10 s and a resolution of 25 m. The latter was pointing almost perpendicularly to the other radar beams. Reflectivity factors were measured inside the ash plume above the source vent by the BASTA radar (3 mm wavelength) spanning -9 to +21 dBZ. Fallout could sometimes be tracked during several minutes within

  9. Ash storms: impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, southern Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. M.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.; Cronin, S. J.; Johnston, D. M.

    2011-04-01

    Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or `ash storms'. The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week study tour of the diverse environments of southern Patagonia affected by ash storms, with an emphasis on determining the impacts of repeated ash storms on agriculture and local practices that were developed in an attempt to mitigate these impacts. Ash storms produce similar effects to initial tephra eruptions, prolonged for considerable periods. These have included the burial of farmland under dune deposits, abrasion of vegetation and contamination of feed supplies with fine ash. These impacts can then cause problems for grazing animals such as starvation, severe tooth abrasion, gastrointestinal problems, corneal abrasion and blindness, and exhaustion if sheep fleeces become laden with ash. In addition, ash storms have led to exacerbated soil erosion, human health impacts, increased cleanup requirements, sedimentation in irrigation canals, and disruption of aviation and land transport. Ash deposits were naturally stabilised most rapidly in areas with high rainfall (>1,500 mm/year) through compaction and enhanced vegetation growth. Stabilisation was slowest in windy, semi-arid regions. Destruction of vegetation and suppression of regrowth by heavy tephra fall (>100 mm) hindered the stabilisation of deposits for years, and reduced the surface friction which increased wind erosivity. Stabilisation of tephra deposits was improved by intensive tillage, use of windbreaks and where there was dense and taller vegetative cover. Long-term drought and the impracticality of mixing ash deposits with soil by tillage on large farms was a barrier to stabilising deposits and, in turn

  10. An assessment of the relationship between emerald ash borer presence and landscape pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2009-01-01

    Six years after its 2002 detection near Detroit, MI, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) has spread hundreds of miles across the Upper Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Human-assisted transportation of infested ash materials is the primary mechanism of EAB dispersal over long distances. Natural spread...

  11. AshMeadowsNaucorid_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Naucorid (Ambrysus amargosus) occur. "Nevada, Nye County. Point of Rocks Springs and...

  12. AshMeadowsNaucorid_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Naucorid (Ambrysus amargosus) occur. "Nevada, Nye County. Point of Rocks Springs and...

  13. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  14. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  15. ITER helium ash accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the 16-17 September 2013 resuspended ash event in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, Arve; Beckett, Frances; Sigurdardottir, Gudmunda Maria; von Loewis, Sibylle; Witham, Claire

    2015-04-01

    In Iceland more than 20,000 km2 of sandy deserts are active with aeolian processes. Annually on average 34-135 days are dusty making it one of the dustiest areas of the world. Substantial amounts of dust are transported southward and deposited in the North-Atlantic possibly providing significant iron fertilization to regions deficient in iron. Volcanic ash including resuspended ash may have an adverse effect on ecosystems and human health, and resuspended ash levels may be high enough to cause problems to aviation. A strong gale force northerly wind prevailed over south east Iceland on 16-17 September, 2013. During this period ash from the recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajokull (2010) and Grimsvotn (2011) was resuspended into the air and blown southwards. The event was captured by surface based optical particle counters (OPC) in Iceland, and cloudless skies south of Iceland made it possible to observe the resuspended ash by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as the ash was transported more than 320 km over the ocean. The aim of this study is to quantify the amount of ash that was resuspended during the event. Simulations of the event using the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modeling Environment (NAME) agree well with the location of the resuspended ash cloud observed by MODIS. By comparing the simulated height of the resuspended ash cloud to meteorological data we show that the maximum height of the cloud coincides with a temperature inversion at about 1300 m asl. The total mass column loading was retrieved from infrared MODIS channels using the ash cloud height identified from the dispersion model output. The OPC data provide surface ash concentrations. Using the satellite and OPC measurements the NAME dispersion model output was calibrated and the total resuspended ash amount for the whole event estimated.

  17. Volcanic ash infrared signature: realistic ash particle shapes compared to spherical ash particles

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kylling; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; T. Nousiainen

    2013-01-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements particle size and mass loading may also be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculate thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compare these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furtherm...

  18. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  19. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  20. Hazards posed by distal ash transport and sedimentation from extreme volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Proussevitch, A. A.; White, C. M.; Klewicki, J.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic ash injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere poses a significant hazard to aviation and human security as a result of extreme, explosive eruptions. These have occurred in the recent geologic past, and are expected to occur again, now that modern society and its infrastructure is far more vulnerable than ever before. Atmospheric transport, dispersion, and sedimentation of Ash particles is controlled by fundamentally different processes than control other particles normally transported in the atmosphere due to their complex internal and external morphology. It is thus necessary to elucidate the fundamental processes of particle-fluid interactions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, where most air traffic resides, and thereby enhance the capability of volcanic ash transport models to predict the ash concentration in distal regions that pose aviation and other hazards. Current Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion (VATD) models use simplistic stokes settling velocities for larger ash particles, and treat smaller ash particles (that are a large part of the hazard) merely as passive tracers. By incorporating the dynamics of fine ash particle-atmosphere interactions into existing VATD models provides the foundation for a much more accurate assessment framework applied to the hazard posed by specific future extreme eruptions, and thus dramatically reduce both the risk to air traffic and the cost of airport and flight closures, in addition to human health, water quality, agricultural, infrastructure hazards, as well as ice cap albedo and short term climate impacts.

  1. Volcanic ash and meteorological clouds detection by neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchiani, Matteo; Del Frate, Fabio; Stefano, Corradini; Piscini, Alessandro; Merucci, Luca; Chini, Marco

    2014-05-01

    interpreted considering the information of the visible and infrared channels. The comparison shows that the proposed methodology achieves very promising performances, indeed an overall accuracy greater than 87% can be iteratively obtained classifying new images without human interactions. References: Corradini, S., Spinetti, C., Carboni, E., Tirelli, C., Buongiorno, M. F., Pugnaghi, S., and Gangale, G..; "Mt. Etna tropospheric ash retrieval and sensitivity analysis using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements". J, Atmosph. Rem. Sens., 2, 023550, DOI:10.1117/12.823215, 2008. Prata A. J., "Infrared radiative transfer calculations for volcanic ash clouds", Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 16, No. 11, pp. 1293-1296, 1989. Picchiani, M., Chini, M., Corradini, S., Merucci, L., Sellitto, P., Del Frate, F. and Stramondo, S., "Volcanic ash detection and retrievals from MODIS data by means of Neural Networks", Atmos. Meas. Tech., 4, 2619-2631, doi:10.5194/amt-4-2619-2011, 2011.

  2. Atmospheric and environmental impacts of volcanic ash particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Globally, at any one time, there may be 20 volcanoes erupting that collectively emit a constant flux of gases and aerosol, including silicate particles (tephra), to the atmosphere which influences processes including cloud microphysics, heterogeneous chemistry and radiative balance. The nature and impact of atmospheric volcanic particle fluxes depend on total mass erupted, emission rate, emission source location, physical and chemical properties of the particles, and the location and residence time of the particles in the atmosphere. Removal of ash particles from the atmosphere through sedimentation is strongly influenced by particle aggregation through hydrometeor formation, and convective instabilities such as mammatus. I will address the following questions: What are the atmospheric impacts of volcanic ash emissions? What controls the residence time of volcanic particles in the atmosphere? What affects particle accumulation at the surface? And what are the human and environmental impacts of ash fallout?

  3. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  4. Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Merche B.; Martin, Deborah; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    material present after a wildland fire, ash can have profound effects on ecosystems. It affects biogeochemical cycles, including the C cycle, not only within the burned area, but also globally. Ash incorporated into the soil increases temporarily soil pH and nutrient pools and changes physical properties such as albedo, soil texture and hydraulic properties including water repellency. Ash modifies soil hydrologic behavior by creating a two-layer system: the soil and the ash layer, which can function in different ways depending on (1) ash depth and type, (2) soil type and (3) rainfall characteristics. Key parameters are the ash's water holding capacity, hydraulic conductivity and its potential to clog soil pores. Runoff from burned areas carries soluble nutrients contained in ash, which can lead to problems for potable water supplies. Ash deposition also stimulates soil microbial activity and vegetation growth.Further work is needed to (1) standardize methods for investigating ash and its effects on the ecosystem, (2) characterize ash properties for specific ecosystems and wildland fire types, (3) determine the effects of ash on human and ecosystem health, especially when transported by wind or water, (4) investigate ash's controls on water and soil losses at slope and catchment scales, (5) examine its role in the C cycle, and (6) study its redistribution and fate in the environment.

  5. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  6. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  7. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  9. Investigation of the possibility of binding fly ash particles by elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojković V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants in Serbia use lignite for electrical power production The secondary product of coal combustion is fly ash in the amount of 17%. Fly ash causes the pollution of air, water and soil, and also cause many human, especially lung diseases. Secondary sulphur is a product of crude oil refining. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of sulphur as a bonding material in ultra fine particle agglomeration (smaller than 63 μm in fly ash. The agglomeration should make the ash particles larger and heavy enough to fall without flying fractions. The experiments showed that during the homogenization of the ashes and sulphur from 150 to 170 °C in a reactor with intensive mixing, an amount of 15% sulphur was sufficient to bond particles and cause agglomeration without visible flying fractions.

  10. Variability over time in the mutagenicity of ashes from municipal solid-waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, B S; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1993-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste as an alternative to its disposal in landfills has advantages such as volume reduction and generation of energy. However, both air emissions and the residual ash may pose environmental and human health hazards. The Ames mutagenicity assay was used to determine the mutagenicity of fly and bottom ash from two incinerators over time. This assay is an alternative to costly and time-consuming chemical analyses and is more realistic for the assessment of the best disposition of the ash i.e. whether it could pose a risk to handlers of the ash, whether it can be used in cement or as a fertilizer or whether it should be relegated to a landfill. The mutagenic potency of fly and bottom ash on a per g weight basis of material is similar. Furthermore, the variability over time in mutagenicity indicates that constant monitoring of incineration products and byproducts is essential.

  11. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  12. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  13. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Of the five classical factors of soil formation, climate, parent material, topography, time, organisms, and recently recognized human activity, it is the latter factor which discretely includes fire and post-burn impact. However, it is considered that soil undergoing fire just experience a temporary removal of the top organic horizon, thus slightly modified and often labeled as 'temporarily disturbed' soil or soil 'under restoration/rehabilitation'. In fact the suggested seventh factor, post-burned produced ash, can act both dependently and independently of the other soil forming factors (Levin et al., 2013; Certini 2013). They are interdependent in cases where ash influences occur on time scales similar to 'natural' soil formation (Keesstra et ai., 2014) such as changes in vegetation. On the other hand, in post-fire areas a strong dependency is expected between soil-water retention mechanism, climate and topography. Wild-land fires exert many changes on the physical, chemical, mineralogical, biological, and morphological properties of soil that, in turn, affect the soil's hydrology and nutrient flux, modifying its ability to support vegetation and resist erosion. The ash produced by forest fires is a complex mixture composed of organic and inorganic particles characterized by vary physical-chemical and morphological properties. The importance of this study is straightforwardly related to the frequency and large-scales wildfires in Mediterranean region. In fact, wildfires are major environmental and land management concern in the world, where the number and severity of wildfires has increased during the past decades (Bodi, 2013). Certini (2013) assumed that cumulatively all of the vegetated land is burned in about 31 years annually affecting 330-430 Mha (over 3% of the Earth's surface) and wide range of land cover types worldwide including forests, peatlands, shrublands and grasslands. Whereas, the fire is identified as an important factor in soil formation, the

  14. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  15. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously determi

  16. Atmospheric fate and transport of fine volcanic ash: Does particle shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. M.; Allard, M. P.; Klewicki, J.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Mulukutla, G.; Genareau, K.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash presents hazards to infrastructure, agriculture, and human and animal health. In particular, given the economic importance of intercontinental aviation, understanding how long ash is suspended in the atmosphere, and how far it is transported has taken on greater importance. Airborne ash abrades the exteriors of aircraft, enters modern jet engines and melts while coating interior engine parts causing damage and potential failure. The time fine ash stays in the atmosphere depends on its terminal velocity. Existing models of ash terminal velocities are based on smooth, quasi-spherical particles characterized by Stokes velocity. Ash particles, however, violate the various assumptions upon which Stokes flow and associated models are based. Ash particles are non-spherical and can have complex surface and internal structure. This suggests that particle shape may be one reason that models fail to accurately predict removal rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. The present research seeks to better parameterize predictive models for ash particle terminal velocities, diffusivity, and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer. The fundamental hypothesis being tested is that particle shape irreducibly impacts the fate and transport properties of fine volcanic ash. Pilot studies, incorporating modeling and experiments, are being conducted to test this hypothesis. Specifically, a statistical model has been developed that can account for actual volcanic ash size distributions, complex ash particle geometry, and geometry variability. Experimental results are used to systematically validate and improve the model. The experiments are being conducted at the Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH. Terminal velocities and dispersion properties of fine ash are characterized using still air drop experiments in an unconstrained open space using a homogenized mix of source particles. Dispersion and sedimentation dynamics are quantified using particle image

  17. Sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal and its potential for sex estimation of burned human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Thompson, Tim J U; Cunha, Eugénia

    2015-09-01

    The potential of the petrous bone for sex estimation has been recurrently investigated in the past because it is very resilient and therefore tends to preserve rather well. The sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal was investigated in two samples of cremated Portuguese individuals in order to assess its usefulness for sex estimation in burned remains. These comprised the cremated petrous bones from fleshed cadavers (N = 54) and from dry and disarticulated bones (N = 36). Although differences between males and females were more patent in the sample of skeletons, none presented a very significant sexual dimorphism, thus precluding any attempt of sex estimation. This may have been the result of a difficult application of the method and of a differential impact of heat-induced warping which is known to be less frequent in cremains from dry skeletons. Results suggest that the lateral angle method cannot be applied to burned human skeletal remains.

  18. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  19. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  20. 1999 international ash utilization symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    112 papers were presented covering various aspects of the utilization of coal and other combustion products. Topics included fundamental chemistry and mineralogy, new products, health and environmental aspects, economic development issues, agricultural and mine reclamation applications, concrete and cement, and fly ash beneficiation technologies. Selected papers will be published in the journal 'Fuel'.

  1. The Role of Authigenic Volcanic Ash in Marine Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, R.; McKinley, C. C.; Thomas, D. J.; Murray, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediments are a fundamental archive of the history of weathering and erosion, biological productivity, volcanic activity, patterns of deep-water formation and circulation, and a multitude of other earth, ocean, and atmosphere processes. In particular, the record and consequences of volcanic eruptions have long fascinated humanity. Volcanic ash layers are often visually stunning, and can have thicknesses of 10s of cm or more. While the ash layer records are of great importance by themselves, we are missing a key piece of information-that of the very fined grained size fractions. Dispersed ash is the very fine grained-component that has either been mixed into the bulk sediment by bioturbation, or is deposited from subaqueous eruptions, erosion of terrestrial deposits, general input during time periods of elevated global volcanism, or other mechanisms, plays an important role in the marine sediment. The presence of dispersed ash in the marine record has previously been relatively over-looked as it is difficult to identify petrographically due to its commonly extremely fine grain size and/or alteration to authigenic clay. The dispersed ash, either altered or unaltered, is extremely difficult to differentiate from detrital/terrigenous/authigenic clay, as they are all "aluminosilicates". Here we apply a combined geochemical, isotopic, and statistical technique that enables us to resolve volcanic from detrital terrigenous inputs at DSDP/ODP/IODP sites from both the Brazil Margin and the Northwest Pacific Oceans. Incorporating the combined geochemical/statistical techniques with radiogenic isotope records allows us to address paleoceanographic questions in addition to studies of the effect of sediment fluxes on carbon cycling, the relationship between volcanic ash and biological productivity of the open ocean and nutrient availability for subseafloor microbial life.

  2. Use of Incineration MSW Ash: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. K. Lam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI ashes, with a main focus on the chemical properties of the ashes. Furthermore, the possible treatment methods for the utilization of ash, namely, separation processes, solidification/stabilization and thermal processes, are also discussed. Seven types of MSWI ash utilization are reviewed, namely, cement and concrete production, road pavement, glasses and ceramics, agriculture, stabilizing agent, adsorbents and zeolite production. The practical use of MSWI ash shows a great contribution to waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  3. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.j [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  4. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  5. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  6. Interspecific variation in resistance to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) among North American and Asian ash (Fraxinus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebek, Eric J; Herms, Daniel A; Smitley, David R

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study to compare the susceptibility of selected North American ash and an Asian ash species to emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive wood-boring beetle introduced to North America from Asia. Because of a coevolutionary relationship between Asian ashes and emerald ash borer, we hypothesized an Asian ash species, Manchurian ash, is more resistant to the beetle than its North American congeners. Consistent with our hypothesis, Manchurian ash experienced far less mortality and yielded far fewer adult beetles than several cultivars of North American green and white ash. Surprisingly, a black ash (North American) x Manchurian ash hybrid was highly susceptible to emerald ash borer, indicating this cultivar did not inherit emerald ash borer resistance from its Asian parent. A corollary study investigated the efficacy of soil-applied imidacloprid, a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide, for controlling emerald ash borer in each of the five cultivars. Imidacloprid had no effect on emerald ash borer colonization of Manchurian ash, which was low in untreated and treated trees. In contrast, imidacloprid did enhance survival of the North American and hybrid cultivars and significantly reduced the number of emerald ash borer adults emerging from green and white ash cultivars. We identify a possible mechanism of resistance of Manchurian ash to emerald ash borer, which may prove useful for screening, selecting, and breeding emerald ash borer-resistant ash trees.

  7. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Kathleen; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2014-08-15

    The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories-batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743-818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox(®) was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610-1930PAFm(3)/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14-0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093-0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E-04 to 3.64E-04PAFm(3)/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E-09 to 2.28E-08 and 8.96E-10 and 2.52E-09 cases/kg of ash, respectively. The results reveal hazards of burning discarded cellphones to recover precious metals, and pinpoints opportunities for manufacturers to reduce toxic materials used in specific electronic components marketed globally.

  8. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  9. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  10. The Ashes of Marci Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kopeć

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Marci Shore’s social and historical thought, as presented in her books: Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw Generation’s Life and Death in Marxism, 1918-1968 (2006, The Taste of Ashes (2013, and her essays recently published in Polish translation. The author follows the American historian, presenting her concept of modernity, but focuses on the main theme of her research: the contribution of Jewish writers, poets, artists, and intellectuals to the creation of Marxism. The author acknowledges the great value of Marci Shore’s writings, but argues that her panorama of the 20th century would be fuller if her discussion included a reflection on the religious attitude of many Jewish thinkers to Marxism and the USSR. This topic was discussed by Nikolai Berdyaev and Polish thinkers who published in pre-war social journals.

  11. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  12. False deformation temperatures for ash fusibility associated with the conditions for ash preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Sanders, R.H.; Creelman, R.A.; Bryant, G.W. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A study was made to investigate the fusibility behaviour of coal ashes of high ash fusion temperatures. Coals and ashes formed in the boiler were sampled in several Australian power stations, with laboratory ashes being prepared from the coals. The laboratory ashes gave lower values for the deformation temperature (DT) than the combustion ashes when the ash had low levels of basic oxide components. Thermo-mechanical analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to establish the mechanisms responsible for the difference. Laboratory ash is finer than combustion ash and it includes unreacted minerals (such as quartz, kaolinite and illite) and anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}). Fusion events which appear to be characteristic of reacting illite, at temperatures from 900 to 1200{degree}C, were observed for the laboratory ashes, these being associated with the formation of melt phase and substantial shrinkage. The combustion ashes did not contain this mineral and their fusion events were observed at temperatures exceeding 1300{degree}C. The low DTs of coal ashes with low levels of basic oxides are therefore a characteristic of laboratory ash rather than that found in practical combustion systems. These low temperatures are not expected to be associated with slagging in pulverised coal fired systems. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kylling; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; T. Nousiainen

    2014-01-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent sp...

  14. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2014-04-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry were calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres were found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates was found to underestimate mass loading compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles. The underestimate increases with the mass loading. For an ash cloud recorded during the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption, the mass-equivalent spheres underestimate the total mass of the ash cloud by approximately 30% compared to the morphologically complex inhomogeneous particles.

  15. The dispersal of ash during explosive eruptions from central volcanoes and calderas: an underestimated hazard for the central Mediterranean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulpizio, Roberto [CIRISIVU, c/o Dipartimento Geomineralogico, via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari (Italy); Caron, Benoit; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Santacroce, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, via S. Maria 53, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Giaccio, Biagio [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, CNR, Via Bolognola 7, 00138 Rome (Italy); Paterne, Martine [LSCE, Laboratoire Mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Siani, Giuseppe [IDES-UMR 8148, Universite Paris-XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: r.sulpizio@geomin.uniba.it

    2008-10-01

    The central Mediterranean area comprises some of the most active volcanoes of the northern hemisphere. Some of their names recall myths or events in human history: Somma-Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano, Ischia and Campi Flegrei. These volcanoes are still active today, and produce both effusive and explosive eruptions. In particular, explosive eruptions can produce and disperse large amount of volcanic ash, which pose a threat to environment, economy and human health over a large part of the Mediterranean area. We present and discuss data of ash dispersal from some explosive eruptions of southern Italy volcanoes, which dispersed centimetre -thick ash blankets hundred of kilometres from the source, irrespective of the more limited dispersal of the respective coarse grained fallout and PDC deposits. The collected data also highlight the major role played by lower atmosphere winds in dispersal of ash from weak plumes and ash clouds that accompany PDC emplacement.

  16. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  17. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  18. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  20. Characterization and valorization of biomass ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nikhilesh S; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Mehetre, Sayaji; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-10-01

    In India, farming is the primary source of income for many families. Following each harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. These are generally discarded as "agrowaste," but recent reports have indicated several beneficial uses for these biomasses and their ashes. However, before the utilization of biomass ashes (BMAs), their chemical and physical properties need to be investigated (characterized) so as to utilize their potential benefit to the fullest. In this paper, eight different biomass ashes (soybean plant ash, mustard plant ash, maize ash, groundnut plant ash, cotton plant ash, wheat plant ash, pigeon peas ash, and groundnut shell ash) were characterized, and their chemical properties are discussed. Surface chemical composition analysis, proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis were performed on all BMA samples, and properties such as porosity, particle density, bulk density, point of zero charge, BET surface area, water-absorption capacity, and bulk parameters such as surface pH and surface charges were determined. BMAs were characterized by SEM and FTIR. The surface areas of biomass ashes vary from 1.9 to 46 m(2)/g, and point of zero charge for all BMAs exceed 9.8, which confirmed the alkaline nature of these samples. Based on the chemical composition, BMAs are categorized into four types (S, C, K, and CK), and their utilization is proposed based on the type. BMAs find applications in agriculture and construction industries; glass, rubber, and zeolite manufacturing; and in adsorption (as a source of silica/zeolites). The paper also discusses the research challenges and opportunities in utilization of BMAs.

  1. Combustion of stoker ash in a CFBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, L.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2002-07-01

    The ash generated from petroleum coke fired stokers at Georgia Pacific in Wisconsin has an elevated carbon content and a higher fuel value. This paper presents results of a study in which the stoker ash was test fired at the CANMET Energy Technology Centre in a bench scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The objective was to determine if firing the stoker ash in its 'as received' state (with a 40 per cent moisture content) is a viable fuel option for Georgia Pacific's FBC boiler to save fuel costs, or if it should be co-fired with petroleum coke. Mixtures of the stoker ash and petroleum coke were also test fired. Results indicate that the stoker ash alone cannot sustain combustion. However, good ignition and even bed temperature is possible with premixed coke and 10 per cent less moisture content. Emissions of sulphur dioxides, nitrogen oxides carbon monoxide were the same as for firing petroleum coke alone. In addition, the co-firing of stoker ash and petroleum coke did not negatively affect the tendency to foul, compared to firing coke alone. The amount of ash generated from the FBC boiler was high due to the high ash content. An economic evaluation showed that firing a 20/80 coke/stoker ash mixture can save approximately 22 per cent of the limestone usage compared to coke firing alone, if the Ca/S molar ratio remain the same. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Volcanic ash at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; von Aulock, Felix; Rhodes, Emma; Kennedy, Ben; Wadsworth, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Dome-building volcanoes often suffer episodic explosions. Examination of eruptive activity at Santiaguito dome complex (Guatemala) reveals that gas-and-ash explosions are concordant with rapid inflation/ deflation cycles of the active dome. During these explosions strain is accommodated along marginal faults, where tensional fracture mechanisms and friction dominate, complicating the model of ash generation by bubble rupture in magma. Here, we describe textural features, morphology and petrology of ash collected before, during and after a dome collapse event at Santiaguito dome complex on the 28th November 2012. We use QEM-scan (on more than 35000 grains), laser diffraction granulometry and optical and scanning microscopy to characterise the samples. The ash samples show a bimodal size distribution and a range of textures, crystal content and morphologies. The ash particles are angular to sub-angular and are relatively dense, so do not appear to comprise of pore walls. Instead the ash is generally blocky (>70%), similar to the products of shear magma failure. The ash samples show minor variation before, during and after dome collapse, specifically having a smaller grain size and a higher fraction of phenocrysts fragments before collapse. Textural analysis shows vestiges of chemically heterogeneous glass (melt) filaments originating from the crystals and crosscut by fragmentation during volcanic ash formation. High-velocity friction can induce melting of dome lavas, producing similar disequilibrium melting textures. This work shows the importance of deformation mechanisms in ash generation at lava domes and during Vulcanian activity.

  3. Solidification on fly ash, Yugoslav experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D. [Mining Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Popov, S.; Salatic, D. [Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    A study was performed on ashes produced in the combustion process of coal from the Kosovo coal basin, in order to determine the potential and conditions of ash self-solidification. Investigations showed that the ash properties allows for the transformation into a solid mass through a controlled mixing with water. The optimal concentration of ash is 50 percent and the hydro-mixture is behaving as a Bingham plastic fluid. Solidification is obtained in a relatively short period (within 3 to 5 days) without additives. The resulting solidified mass is very consistent and stable

  4. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, Kathleen [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A., E-mail: Oladele.Ogunseitan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox{sup ®} was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m{sup 3}/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m{sup 3}/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E

  5. Monitoring the species of arsenic, chromium and nickel in milled coal, bottom ash and fly ash from a pulverized coal-fired power plant in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, F; Huggins, F E

    2001-02-01

    The concentration of As, Cr and Ni and their speciation (As3+;5+, Cr3+;6+ and Ni0;2+) in milled coal, bottom ash and ash collected by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) from a coal fired-power plant in western Canada were determined using HGAAS, ICP-AES and XANES. The chemical fractionation of these elements was also determined by a sequential leaching procedure, using deionized water, NH4OAC and HCI as extracting agents. The leachate was analyzed by ICP-AES. Arsenic in the milled coal is mostly associated with organic matter, and 67% of this arsenic is removed by ammonium acetate. This element is totally removed from milled coal after extraction with HCI. Arsenic occurs in both the As3+ and the As5+ oxidation states in the milled coal, while virtually all (>90%) of the arsenic in bottom ash and fly ash appears to be in the less toxic arsenate (As5+) form. Both Ni and Cr in the milled coal are extracted by HCI, indicating that water can mobilize Ni and Cr in an acidic environment. The chromium is leached by water from fly ash as a result of the high pH of the water, which is induced during the leaching. Ammonium acetate removes Ni from bottom ash through an ion exchange process. Chromium in milled coal is present entirely as Cr3+, which is an essential human trace nutrient. The Cr speciation in bottom ash is a more accentuated version of the milled coal and consists mostly of the Cr3+ species. Chromium in fly ash is mostly Cr3+, with significant contamination by stainless-steel from the installation itself.

  6. Comparison of leachable trace element levels in coal gasifier ash with levels in power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaugh, K.J.; Milosavljevic, M.; Janes, T.K.

    1984-04-01

    The levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal were compared. The study was conducted over a one year period at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant using lignite from the Dobro Solo mine. Results obtained indicate that levels of Sb, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni and Zn in gasifier ash leachate were similar to those in fly ash leachate. Barium levels in gasifier ash leachate averaged 2.7 times that in fly ash and selenium levels averaged 0.33 times. The average ratio for the total set was 0.99. The set average, relative to bottom ash, was 2.1 with the nickel ratio differing significantly from the average. Metal oxides, CaO, MgO, Na/SUB/2O, K/SUB/2O and MgO; in the Kosovo gasifier ash were found at levels similar to those in Kosovo fly ash, and except for K/SUB/2O, were approximately twice those in bottom ash. Concentration levels of all components showed relatively small variations averaging 50% of their mean annual concentration over the test period. (14 refs.)

  7. Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash | Sahu | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self hardening property of Botswana fly ash. ... In the present investigation, an effort has been made to study the self hardening property of Botswana fly ash by ... This will encourage the use of fly ash economically as a construction material.

  8. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  9. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  10. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: The potential for early stage recovery of North American ash trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of North America, ash (Fraxinus) stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees, saplings, basal sprouts, and seedlings. Without a soil seed bank for Fraxinus spp., tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these...

  11. Environmental and anthropogenic factors affecting the respiratory toxicity of volcanic ash in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašek, Ines; Horwell, Claire J.; Damby, David E.; Ayris, Paul M.; Barošová, Hana; Geers, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2016-04-01

    Human exposure to inhalable volcanic ash particles following an eruption is a health concern, as respirable-sized particles can potentially contribute towards adverse respiratory health effects, such as the onset or exacerbation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Although there is substantial information on the mineralogical properties of volcanic ash that may influence its biological reactivity, knowledge as to how external factors, such as air pollution, contribute to and augment the potential reactivity is limited. To determine the respiratory effects of volcanic particle interactions with anthropogenic pollution and volcanic gases we will experimentally assess: (i) physicochemical characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to respiratory toxicity; (ii) the effects of simultaneously inhaling anthropogenic pollution (i.e. diesel exhaust particles (DEP)) and volcanic ash (of different origins); (iii) alteration of volcanic ash toxicity following interaction with volcanic gases. In order to gain a first understanding of the biological impact of the respirable fraction of volcanic ash when inhaled with DEP in vitro, we used a sophisticated 3D triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar epithelial tissue barrier. The multi-cellular system was exposed to DEP [0.02 mg/mL] and then exposed to either a single or repeated dose of well-characterised respirable volcanic ash (0.26 ± 0.09 or 0.89 ± 0.29 μg/cm2, respectively) from the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat for a period of 24 hours using a pseudo-air liquid interface approach. Cultures were subsequently assessed for adverse biological endpoints including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and (pro)-inflammatory responses. Results indicated that the combination of DEP and respirable volcanic ash at sub-lethal concentrations incited a significant release of pro-inflammatory markers that was greater than the response for either DEP or volcanic ash, independently. Further work is planned, to determine if

  12. State of volcanic ash dispersion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Jonas; Palsson, Thorgeir; Weber, Konradin

    2017-04-01

    The Eyjafjallajokull 2010 and Grimsvotn 2011 eruptions created great problems for commercial aviation in Western Europe and in the North Atlantic region. Comparison of satellite images of the visible and predicted ash clouds showed the VAAC prediction to be much larger than the actual ash clouds. No official explanation of this discrepancy exists apart from the definition of the ash cloud boundary. Papers on simulation of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud in peer reviewed journals, typically attempted to simulate the VAAC predictions rather than focusing on the satellite pictures. Sporadic measurements made in-situ showed much lower ash concentrations over Europe than the predicted values. Two of the weak points in ash cloud prediction have been studied in airborne measurements of volcanic ash by the Universities in Kyoto Japan, Iceland and Düsseldorf Germany of eruptions in Sakurajima, Japan. It turns out that gravitational deformation of the plume and a streak fallout process make estimated ash content of clouds larger than the actual, both features are not included in the simulation model. Tropospheric plumes tend to ride in stable inversions this causes gravitational flattening (pancaking) of the volcanic plume, while diffusion in the mixing layer is insignificant. New rules from ICAO, effective from November 2014, reiterate that jetliners should avoid visible ash, this makes information on visible ash important. A procedure developed by JMÁs Tokyo VAAC uses satellite images of visible ash to correct the prediction. This and the fact that meteorological data necessary to model gravitational dispersion and streak fallout do not exist in the international database available to the VAAĆs. This shows that close monitoring by airborne measurements and satellite and other photographic surveillance is necessary.

  13. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  14. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from...... potentiality to be valorized. The main conclusion of this paper regards fly ash’s profound dissimilarity, where each ash should be studied separately....

  15. Fly Ash as a Time Marker for Anthropocene Alluvial Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. A., III; Grimley, D. A.; Anders, A. M.; Bates, B.; Hannan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Human land use has transformed the landscapes, ecosystems and hydrology of the North American Midcontinent. One widespread impact of this transformation is increased runoff and accelerated soil erosion, which, along with direct human channel modifications and artificial drainage, have dramatically altered hydrologic and ecological conditions in streams and rivers with far-reaching results. A legacy of this change in streams and rivers is preserved on floodplains throughout the region in sediment known as post-settlement alluvium (PSA). Documenting the spatial and temporal pattern of historic floodplain sedimentation in the drainage network is part of a larger effort to understand decadal and century-scale sediment routing through the drainage system and the role of floodplain sedimentation in carbon sequestration. Fly ash, a product of high-temperature coal combustion, began to accumulate on the landscape in the early historic period (c.a.1840-1850 in Iowa and Illinois) as coal-burning technology such as steam engines came into use after 1850; prior to which no source of fly ash was present. Release of fly ash from coal burning in power plants and steam locomotives likely peaked in the early-mid 20th century. Fly ash particles (~ 1 to 10 % magnetic) are identified by their spheroidal shape and range in size from coarse clay to silt (~1-63µ). By identifying the percentage of fly ash spheroids in the magnetic separate (10 - 60µ size range) of a soil or sediment profile, the pre-fly ash Historic surface could be discerned. Application of this technique in selected localities in eastern Iowa (Clear Creek drainage) and central Illinois (Sangamon River drainage) resulted in successful demarcation of the PSA contact in areas where the boundary was physically evident. Bolstered by this success we were able to confidently demark the PSA contact in other settings where the boundary was not as physically evident. This relatively easy to implement, inexpensive tool will

  16. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF TREATED AND UNTREATED RICH HUSH ASH & FLY ASH FOR METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Pal Singh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice Husk ash and fly ash are agricultural and coal wastes respectively. These are produced in abundance globally and poses risk to health as well as environment. Thus their effective, conducive and eco-friendly utilization has always been a challenge for scientific community. The fly ash has been used as reinforcement for improved mechanical properties of composites (1,3-5,9. Rice husk ash can also be used for similar applications as its composition is almost similar to that of fly ash. This paper mainly deals with identification ofcharacteristics of both the fly ash and rice husk ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. SEM, XRD,XRF and FTIR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of treated and untreated ashes. The results were compared and it was observed that both ashes possesses nearly same chemical phases and otherfunctional groups thus proposing the use of rice husk ash as reinforcement like fly ash in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs specifically for wear resistance applications.

  19. Effects of colemanite waste, coal bottom ash, and fly ash on the properties of cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, I.; Olgun, A.; Erdogan, Y.; Sevinc, V. [Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    The physical and chemical properties of colemanite ore waste from concentrator, coal bottom ash, fly ash, cement+ash mixtures, cement+colemanite ore waste, and their effects on the mechanical properties of concrete were investigated. These materials with different proportion were substituted with Portland cement. Physical properties such as setting time, volume expansion, and compressive strength were determined and compared to reference mixture and Turkish standards (TS). The results showed that cement replacement materials had clear effects on the mechanical properties. The use of fly ash and bottom ash even at the concentration of 25% showed either comparable or better result compared to reference mixture. Although replacement of Portland cement by 9 wt.% of colemanite ore waste causes reduction in the compressive strength, the values obtained are within the limit of TS. As a result, colemanite ore waste, fly ash, and bottom ash may be used as cementitious materials.

  20. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  1. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  2. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  3. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  5. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  6. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  7. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice...

  8. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-07-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  9. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracheil, Brenda M; Marshall Adams, S; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Fortner, Allison M; Greeley, Mark S; Murphy, Cheryl A; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    A 4.1 million m(3) coal ash release into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in east Tennessee, USA, prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on resident biota. Because of the magnitude of the ash spill and the potential for exposure to coal ash-associated contaminants [e.g., selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] which are bioaccumulative and may present human and ecological risks, an integrative, bioindicator approach was used. Three species of fish were monitored-bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (L. microlophus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-at ash-affected and reference sites annually for 5 years following the spill. On the same individual fish, contaminant burdens were measured in various tissues, blood chemistry parameters as metrics of fish health, and various condition and reproduction indices. A multivariate statistical approach was then used to evaluate relationships between contaminant bioaccumulation and fish metrics to assess the chronic, sub-lethal effects of exposure to the complex mixture of coal ash-associated contaminants at and around the ash spill site. This study suggests that while fish tissue concentrations of some ash-associated contaminants are elevated at the spill site, there was no consistent evidence of compromised fish health linked with the spill. Further, although relationships between elevated fillet burdens of ash-associated contaminants and some fish metrics were found, these relationships were not indicative of exposure to coal ash or spill sites. The present study adds to the weight of evidence from prior studies suggesting that fish populations have not incurred significant biological effects from spilled ash at this site: findings that are relevant to the current national discussions on the safe disposal of coal ash waste.

  10. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  11. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  12. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  13. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  14. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones.

  15. Selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia over oil shale ash and fly ash catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changtao Yue; Shuyuan Li [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab of Heavy Oil Processing

    2003-07-01

    Acid rain and urban air pollution, produced mainly by pollutants such as SOX and NOX and other volatile organic compounds, has become the most serious environmental problem. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} in the presence of oxygen is a wellproven method to limit the NOX emissions. The work in this field has been the subject of much research in recent years. In this paper, NO reduction with NH{sub 3} over oil shale ash or fly ash catalysts was studied. Fe, Cu, V or Ni as active elements was loaded by adding aqueous solutions of the metal nitrate over the oil shale ash or fly ash support. The activities of the catalysts for NO removal were measured in a fixed-bed reactor. According to the results, oil shale ash or fly ash, after pre-treatment, can be reasonably used as the SCR catalyst support to remove NO from flue gas. Cu gave the highest catalytic activity and NO conversion for fly ash while V for oil shale ash. As the support, fly ash is more feasible than oil shale ash. Because of their low cost and high efficiency, the catalysts should be used in the SCR process. Further research on this subject is necessary in the future to understand more details of the SCR system and issue of pollution control. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Mobilization of iron from coal fly ash was dependent upon the particle size and the source of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K R; Veranth, J M; Lighty, J S; Aust, A E

    1998-12-01

    Particulate air pollution, including coal fly ash, contains iron, and some of the pathological effects after inhalation may be due to reactive oxygen species produced by iron-catalyzed reactions. The objective of this study was to determine whether iron, present in coal fly ash, was mobilized, leading to ferritin induction in human airway epithelial cells, and whether the size of the particles affected the amount of iron mobilized. Three types of coal were used to generate the three size fractions of fly ash collected. The Utah coal fly ash was generated from a bituminous b coal, the Illinois coal fly ash from a bituminous c coal, and the North Dakota coal fly ash from a lignite a coal. Three size fractions were studied to compare the amount of iron mobilized in human airway epithelial (A549) cells and by citrate in cell-free suspensions. The size fractions selected were fine (airborne particulate matter fraction greater than 10 microm. Coal fly ash samples were incubated with 1 mM citrate to determine if iron associated with coal fly ash could be mobilized. Iron was mobilized by citrate from all three size fractions of all three coal types to levels as high as 56.7 nmol of Fe/mg of coal fly ash after 24 h. With all three coal types, more iron was mobilized by citrate from the fraction than from the >2.5 microm fractions. Further, the mobilized iron was in the Fe(III) form. To determine if iron associated with the coal fly ash could be mobilized by A549 cells, cells were treated with coal fly ash, and the amount of the iron storage protein ferritin was determined after 24 h. Ferritin levels were increased by as much as 11.9-fold in cells treated with coal fly ash. With two of the three types of coal studied, more ferritin was induced in cells treated with the fraction than with the >2.5 microm fractions. Further, inhibition of the endocytosis of the coal fly ash by the cells resulted in ferritin levels that were near that of the untreated cells, suggesting that

  17. Pozzolanic Reaction Kinetics of Coal Ashes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hongwei; WANG Zhijuan; QIAN Jueshi; SONG Yuanming; WANG Zhi

    2009-01-01

    The pozzolanic reactivity was determined by the hydration kinetics of pozzolanic reaction based on the fact that the hydration products of active SiO_2 and Al_2O_3 with lime were soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.The results show that the pozzolanic reaction of active SiO_2 and Al2O3 of coal ashes follows apparent first-order kinetics.The reaction rate constant of FBC ashes is greater than that of PC ashes,while the activation energy of the former is lower than that of the latter.It is confirmed that the pozzolanic activity of fluidized bed combustion(FBC)ashes is significantly higher than that of PC ashes,and the reaction barrier of the former is lower than that of the latter,because the microstructures of FBC ashes,such as mineralogical composition,morphology and polymerization degree of [SiO_4]and[AlO_6]are more favorable to the pozzolanic activity development than those of PC ashes.

  18. Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Tosin Onabanjo; Kolios, Athanasios J; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Fuel blending is a widely used approach in biomass combustion, particularly for feedstocks with low calorific value and high moisture content. In on-site sanitation technologies, fuel blending is proposed as a pre-treatment requirement to reduce moisture levels and improve the physiochemical properties of raw faeces prior to drying. This study investigates the co-combustion performance of wood dust: raw human faeces blends at varying air-to-fuel ratios in a bench-scale combustor test rig. It concludes with ash composition analyses and discusses their potential application and related problems. The study shows that a 50:50 wood dust (WD): raw human faeces (FC) can reduce moisture levels in raw human faeces by ∼40% prior to drying. The minimum acceptable blend for treating moist faeces without prior drying at a combustion air flow rate of 14-18 L/min is 30:70 WD: FC. For self-sustained ignition and flame propagation, the minimum combustion temperature required for conversion of the fuel to ash is ∼400 °C. The most abundant elements in faecal ash are potassium and calcium, while elements such as nickel, aluminium and iron are in trace quantities. This suggests the potential use of faecal ash as a soil conditioner, but increases the tendency for fly ash formation and sintering problems.

  19. Marine mesocosm bacterial colonisation of volcanic ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Verena; Cimarelli, Corrado; Ayris, Paul; Kueppers, Ulrich; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald; Woerheide, Gert

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, wind-delivered volcanic ash may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation remain unknown. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. The effect of substrate properties on bacterial colonisation was tested by exposing five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash (Sakurajima, Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size, in controlled marine coral reef aquaria under low light conditions for six months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis of Similarity supported significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community with the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community composition during colonisation of volcanic ash in a coral reef-like environment is controlled by the

  20. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  1. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-07-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  2. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  3. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  4. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Rice Husk Ash Derived Zeolite Blended with Water Hyacinth Ash for Enhanced Adsorption of Cadmium Ions

    OpenAIRE

    G. W. Mbugua; H. M. Mbuvi; J. W. Muthengia

    2014-01-01

    In order to helpcurtail or imposesustained control to the offensive water hyacinth plant,it is essential to explore ways of generatingwater remediation materials from it. In the current study, the capacity and efficacy of water hyacinth ash (WHA),its insoluble residue (WHAR) and rice husk ash (RHA)to remove cadmium ionsand methylene blue from contaminated water was investigated. Mixtures of the two ashes were used to formulatezeolitic materialsby hydrothermal reactions. Material A, ZMA was pr...

  6. Outlook for ash in your forest: results of emerald ash borer research and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction near Detroit, Michigan, in the mid-1990s, emerald ash borer (EAB) has rapidly spread through much of the U.S. and adjacent Canada, leaving millions of dead ash trees in Midwestern states (4,11). Unfortunately, EAB attacks trees as small as an inch in stem diameter and it attacks all five ash species native to the region - white, green...

  7. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...

  8. Effect of lime and wood ash on the nixtamalization of maize and tortilla chemical and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, María Renée; de Palomo, Patricia Palacios; Bressani, Ricardo

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the study was to obtain information on the chemical composition, functional properties, sensory quality and protein value of tortillas made from the nixtamalization of maize using either lime or wood ashes. The Ca, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn content of lime and wood ashes showed lime to be high in Ca content while wood ash contained more K and about 71% of the Ca content of lime. Both contained relatively high levels of Mg, Fe and Zn, but more so in the wood ashes. The level of reagent for nixtamalization was set at 0.8% of the maize weight. All other processing conditions were kept constant. The pH of the cooking solution was 12.0 for lime and 10.9 for wood ash. The moisture content of maize at 60 min of cooking was 45.8% for both treatments, however after 12 h of soaking, moisture level was 51.0% for the lime treatment and only 46.8% for the ash treatment. Solids (2.4%) in the lime cooking liquor were higher than in the wood ash liquor (1.0%). Chemical composition changes were similar between treatments in masa and tortilla; however, both masa and tortillas absorbed relatively high levels of all minerals including Fe and Zn from the wood ash treatment. The different treatment influenced functional properties particularly hardness and color. Tortilla characteristics were also similar. Protein quality of both alkali cooked products was lower than that of raw corn, more so the product from the wood ash treatment. Although some differences were observed in the sensory studies, human subjects did not dislike the wood ash made tortillas.

  9. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  11. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  12. AshMeadowsSpeckledDace_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  13. AshMeadowsAmargosaPupfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  14. Cementing Properties of Oil Shale Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oil crisis has prompted renewed interest in direct burning of oil shale as an alternative energy source.A major problem in this process is the large portion of ash produced.The cementing properties of this ash were investigated to determine its applicability as a building material.By means of XRD, IR, NMR and ICP, we have studied the effects of burning temperature on the reactivity of ash.Maximum reactivity was obtained with ash samples produced at 700 °C to 900 °C.In this range, the strength of oil-shale-based material, with properties similar to cement, which is composed of oil shale and several other kinds of solid wastes, can achieve the standard of 42.5# cement.Our study has provided an experimental foundation and theoretical base for a massive utilization of oil shale.

  15. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  16. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  17. AshMeadowsSpeckledDace_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  18. AshMeadowsAmargosaPupfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  19. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkan Mutman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

  20. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using

  1. Stabilization/solidification of TSCA incinerator ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Trotter, D.R.; Francis, C.L.; Morgan, I.L.

    1994-06-01

    Stabilization/solidification is a well-known waste treatment technique that utilizes different additives and processes. The Phoenix Ash Technology of the Technical Innovation Development Engineering Company is such a technique that uses Cass C fly ash and mechanical pressure to make brick waste forms out of solid wastes, such as the bottom ash from the Toxic Substances Control Act incinerator at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. One advantage of this technique is that no volume increase over the bulk volume of the bottom ash occurs. This technique should have the same high pH stabilization for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals as similar techniques. Also, consolidation of the bottom ash minimizes the potential problems of material dispersion and container corrosion. The bottom ash was spiked with {sup 99}{Tc} to test the effectiveness of the bricks as a physical barrier. The {sup 99}{Tc} leachability index measured for these bricks was 6.8, typical for the pertechnetate anion in cementitious waste forms, indicating that these bricks have accessible porosity as high as that of other cementitious waste forms, despite the mechanical compression, higher waste form density, and water resistant polymer coating.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  3. Despre mormântul de incineraţie în situlă de bronz de la Sipoteni (sec. II-I a. Chr. / Cremated remains in bronze situla from Sipoteni (2nd-1st centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Tentiuc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the work on the materials of a cremation burial in bronze situla of the 2nd-1st centuries BC, which was found in Mana village (Orhei district, we have taken for comparative and anthropological analysis remains of calcined bones from the burial in situla from Sipoteni (Călăraşi district published in 1950s. Osteological research of the contents of the bronze vessel from Sipoteni showed that the remains belonged to a man 20-30 years old. In the burial urn a fragment of a black-burnished vessel, a silver fi bula of the Middle La Tene type, an iron ring, and an amorphous iron object were found. The grave goods also contain a bronze situla, identical in shape and size, which was found near the funeral urn. Researches attributed the Sipoteni burial to the 2nd-1st centuries BC, a period of domination of Bastarnae tribes in the central and northern part of the Carpathian-Dniester region. Our own comparative analysis of this type of bronze vessels showed that they are similar with identical containers from the Middle Danube sites, as well as from northern Italy, southern France and Spain, which were used by Celtic tribes as funeral urns. To the east of the Carpathians identical bronze vessels were found in the village of Mana, at the site of Bădeni (Iaşi, and as part of the so-called odd hoards from Bădragii Noi, Vesela Dolina, and Maryevka (in the region from the Eastern Carpathians to the Dnieper and the Don at least 50 so-called hoards were found, including ones in the bronze vessels, which we have mentioned. Some researchers’ attempts to attribute the situlae from Sipoteni, Bădragii Noi, Vesela Dolina, Maryevka, etc. to the type of Eggers 18-23 or the type of Bargfeld seem to us to fail, because these bronze vessels have slender shape, riveted bronze or iron attaches and the maximum diameter of the vessels is at the height of the fourth part. The East Carpathian situlae are of less slender proportions, and the largest diameter is located

  4. Sulphation characteristics of paper sludge ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S.A. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.D. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2007-04-15

    Landfills are no longer a viable solution for the disposal of sludge produced from waste water treatment plants because of the decrease in available space, rising fees and growing environmental concerns. However, thermal utilization of this waste may be an economic and sustainable disposal solution. Co-combustion of low heating value sludge with fossil fuels has a positive effect for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions due to the low sulphur content of biomass fuels and increased sulphur retention in the ash. The sulphur retention is attributed to the formation of sulphates, such as CaSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The amount of fuel-ash-related sulphur sorption increases during co-combustion. Therefore, sorbents for sulphur reduction may not be required if proper control of the biomass feed is maintained. This paper presented a study in which the sulphation characteristics of calcium-rich paper sludge ash were determined for the use of co-combustion of biomass and coal. The calcium in the paper sludge ash came from the limestone filler used in the manufacturing process to increase the density and whiteness of the paper at 2 paper mills in Korea. A thermobalance reactor along with XRD and SEM-EDX were used for the analysis of sulphated ash to determine the effects of sulphation temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} concentration on sulphation conversion. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of sulphation reaction of sludge ash were determined based on the uniform-reaction model. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that most of the sulphation compounds were CaSO{sub 4}. The sulphation occurred uniformly throughout the ash and the CaSO{sub 4} did not block the outer pore of the sludge ash. The uniform distributions of CaO and other inert minerals in the ash resulted in uniform sulphation with good penetration of SO{sub 2} into pores of the sludge ash without pore blocking during sulphation of CaO. 13 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  5. The bioreactivity of the sub-10 μm component of volcanic ash: Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy; Bérubé, Kelly

    2011-10-30

    With the recent eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyafallajökull and resulting ash cloud over much of Europe there was considerable concern about possible respiratory hazards. Volcanic ash can contain minerals that are known human respiratory health hazards such as cristobalite. Short-term ash exposures can cause skin sores, respiratory and ocular irritations and exacerbation of pre-existing lung conditions such as asthma. Long-term occupational level exposures to crystalline silicon dioxide can cause lung inflammation, oedema, fibrosis and cancer. The potential health effects would be dependent on factors including mineralogy, surface chemistry, size, and levels and duration of exposure. Bulk ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano was sourced and inhalable (<2.5 μm) ash samples prepared and physicochemically characterised. The fine ash samples were tested for bioreactivity by SDS-PAGE which determined the strength of binding between mineral grains and lung proteins. Selected proteins bound tightly to cristobalite, and bound loosely to other ash components. A positive correlation was seen between the amount of SiO(2) in the sample and the strength of the binding. The strength of binding is a function of the mineral's bioreactivity, and therefore, a potential geo-biomarker of respiratory risk.

  6. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  7. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... importantly, by reaction with Al and Si in the fly ash. About 70-80% K in the fly ash appears as alumina silicates while the remainder K is mainly present as sulphate. Lignite/straw co-firing produces fly ash with relatively high Cl content. This is probably because of the high content of calcium...

  8. Effect of ash components on the ignition and burnout of high ash coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, B.; Yan, R.; Zheng, C.G. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). National Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    1998-11-01

    The effect of the ash components on the ignition and burnout of four Chinese high ash coals were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. To investigate the influence of the ash components, comparative experiments were carried out with original, deashed and impregnated coals. Eleven types of ash components, such as SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, MgO, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeS{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O and FeSO{sub 4},(NH{sub 4}){center_dot}6H{sub 2}O were used in the present study. It was found that most of the ash components have negative effects. The strong influence of some ash components suggests that the combustion characteristics of high ash coal may be determined by the ash composition. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Modeling calcium dissolution from oil shale ash: Part 2.. Continuous washing of the ash layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O.; Kallas, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Hautaniemi, M.; Kuosa, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Kuusik, R. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2010-05-15

    In the present work a possible approach to the utilization of oil shale ash containing free lime in precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production is elucidated. This paper investigates the Ca (calcium) dissolution process during continuous washing of pulverized firing (PF) and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) oil shale ash layers in a packed-bed leaching column. The main characteristics of the Ca dissolution process from ash are established. The effect of water flow rate is investigated by conducting leaching experiments of oil shale ashes formed in boilers operating with different combustion technologies. The values of the overall and liquid phase mass transfer coefficients are evaluated based on experiments using the developed ash layer washing model. The model is a set of partial differential equations that describe the changes in Ca content in the stagnant layer of ash and in the water flowing through the ash layer. An example in which the model is applied to environmental assessment and estimation of Ca leaching from industrial oil shale ash fields is provided. (author)

  10. Influence of Fly Ash, Bottom Ash, and Light Expanded Clay Aggregate on Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invention of new methods in strengthening concrete is under work for decades. Developing countries like India use the extensive reinforced construction works materials such as fly ash and bottom ash and other ingredients in RCC construction. In the construction industry, major attention has been devoted to the use of fly ash and bottom ash as cement and fine aggregate replacements. In addition, light expanded clay aggregate has been introduced instead of coarse aggregate to make concrete have light weight. This paper presents the results of a real-time work carried out to form light weight concrete made with fly ash, bottom ash, and light expanded clay aggregate as mineral admixtures. Experimental investigation on concrete mix M20 is done by replacement of cement with fly ash, fine aggregate with bottom ash, and coarse aggregate with light expanded clay aggregate at the rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% in each mix and their compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete were discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days and flexural strength has been discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days depending on the optimum dosage of replacement in compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete.

  11. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  12. Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chalee, Wichian; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2009-02-01

    This research was conducted to compare geopolymers made from fly ash and ground bottom ash. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) solutions were used as activators. A mass ratio of 1.5 Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH and three concentrations of NaOH (5, 10, and 15M) were used; the geopolymers were cured at 65 degrees C for 48 h. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used on the geopolymer pastes. Geopolymer mortars were also prepared in order to investigate compressive strength. The results show that both fly ash and bottom ash can be utilized as source materials for the production of geopolymers. The properties of the geopolymers are dependent on source materials and the NaOH concentration. Fly ash is more reactive and produces a higher degree of geopolymerization in comparison with bottom ash. The moderate NaOH concentration of 10 M is found to be suitable and gives fly ash and bottom ash geopolymer mortars with compressive strengths of 35 and 18 MPa.

  13. Insight of the fusion behavior of volcanic ash: Implications for Volcanic ash Hazards to Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Küppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Lavallée, Yan; Sohyun, Park; Gattermann, Ulf; Müller, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of volcanic ash with jet turbines during via ingestion of ash into engines operating at supra-volcanic temperatures is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for jet aircraft. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The fusibility of volcanic ash is believed to impact strongly its deposition in the hotter parts of jet engines. Despite this, explicit investigation of ash sintering using standardized techniques is in its infancy. Volcanic ash may vary widely in its physical state and chemical composition between and even within explosive volcanic eruptions. Thus a comparative study of the fusibility of ash which involves a standard recognized techniques would be highly desirable. In this work, nine samples of fine ash, deposited from co-pyroclastic offrom nine different volcanoes which cover a broad range of chemical composition, were investigated. Eight of them were collected from 2001-2009 eruptions. Because of the currently elevated level of eruptive activity and its potential hazards to aircraft safety and the remaining one sample was collected from a 12,121 ± 114 yr B.P. eruption. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by defining four characteristic temperatures (shrinkage temperature, deformation temperature, hemispherical temperature, and flow temperature) by means of heating microscope instrument and different thermal analysis methods. Here, we find that there are similar sticking ability and flow behavior of

  14. Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Eggshell Ash and Rice Husk Ash As Partial Replacement Of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afizah Asman Nurul Shahadahtul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the optimum percentage of eggshell ash and rice husk ash (RHA as partial cement replacement. The samples were tested for its mechanical properties by using concrete grade G30 with cube mould (100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm and prisms (100 mm × 100 mm × 500 mm. The samples were mixed with eggshell ash and RHA admixture with different proportions (2%:8%, 4%:6%, 6%:4%. Several types of test were conducted towards the samples, which are the slump test, compressive and flexural test. Based on previous researches, the strength of concrete reduced as replaced with eggshells. Most of the researches show the similar trend when partial cement is replaced using eggshell ash. Thus, to increase the strength, an admixture which has pozzolanic reactivity called rice husk ash (RHA is introduced into mix design which has been proved can help to improve the strength of concrete.

  15. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.P. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilisation

    1998-07-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degree}C. The temperature corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical composition (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenisation, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms. Alternate ash fusion temperatures based on different levels of shrinkage have also been suggested to characterise the ash deposition tendency of the coals. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  16. International Database of Volcanic Ash Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K.; Cameron, C.; Wilson, T. M.; Jenkins, S.; Brown, S.; Leonard, G.; Deligne, N.; Stewart, C.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic ash creates extensive impacts to people and property, yet we lack a global ash impacts catalog to organize, distribute, and archive this important information. Critical impact information is often stored in ephemeral news articles or other isolated resources, which cannot be queried or located easily. A global ash impacts database would improve 1) warning messages, 2) public and lifeline emergency preparation, and 3) eruption response and recovery. Ashfall can have varying consequences, such as disabling critical lifeline infrastructure (e.g. electrical generation and transmission, water supplies, telecommunications, aircraft and airports) or merely creating limited and expensive inconvenience to local communities. Impacts to the aviation sector can be a far-reaching global issue. The international volcanic ash impacts community formed a committee to develop a database to catalog the impacts of volcanic ash. We identify three user populations for this database: 1) research teams, who would use the database to assist in systematic collection, recording, and storage of ash impact data, and to prioritize impact assessment trips and lab experiments 2) volcanic risk assessment scientists who rely on impact data for assessments (especially vulnerability/fragility assessments); a complete dataset would have utility for global, regional, national and local scale risk assessments, and 3) citizen science volcanic hazard reporting. Publication of an international ash impacts database will encourage standardization and development of best practices for collecting and reporting impact information. Data entered will be highly categorized, searchable, and open source. Systematic cataloging of impact data will allow users to query the data and extract valuable information to aid in the development of improved emergency preparedness, response and recovery measures.

  17. Ash salts and bodily affects: Witoto environmental knowledge as sexual education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro Echeverri, Juan; Enokakuiodo Román-Jitdutjaaño, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    This letter addresses the indigenous discourse on a set of plant species used by the Witoto Indians of Northwest Amazonia to extract ash or vegetable salt, obtained from the combustion of the tissues of vegetable species, filtering of the ashes, and desiccation of the resulting brine. It aims to demonstrate how the study of the human condition is carried out through a reading of natural entities. The method employed is the indexical analysis of a discourse uttered by the elder Enokakuiodo in the Witoto language from 1995 to 1998, in a verbal genre called rafue, one of several genres of the ‘language of the yard of coca’. The species used to extract ash salt are conceived of as coming from the body of the Creator and as an image of the human body. The rafue of salt performs, in words and gestures, a narrative of human affects and capacities by reading ecological, biological, cultural and linguistic indices from a set of plant species. This discourse on plant species is a discourse on the control and management of bodily affects and capacities, represented as ash salts, that are lessons about sexual development which the Creator left for humanity as a guide—a ‘sexual education’.

  18. Measurement of low level carbon-14 in biologic specimens by wet ashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucks, D.; Maibach, H.

    1981-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies of animal and human skin are often advantageously performed with low levels of C-14. We detail an efficient wet ashing mehtod capable of detecting 20 dpm per sample, equivalent to twice the background level, thus permitting complete kinetic assays with 1 ..mu..Ci or less of C-14 per subject.

  19. Heat treatment of Firewood for Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire): Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Richard D. Bergman; Brian K. Brashaw; Scott W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    The movement of firewood within emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB)-infested states and into adjoining areas has been a contributor to its spread throughout the United States and Canada. In an effort to prevent further human-aided spread of EAB and to facilitate interstate commerce, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and cooperating...

  20. Chemical characterization of ash from gasification of alfalfa stems: Implications for ash management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Russelle, M.P.; Nater, E.A.

    2000-06-01

    Electricity generation from biomass is an attractive option from an environmental perspective. Pilot studies have indicated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems are suitable feedstock for energy generation via gasification. Detailed information on chemical characteristics of the ash generated from gasification of alfalfa stem is required to develop environmentally and economically sound ash management strategies. Alfalfa fly and bottom ashes were characterized with respect to chemical properties that are important in developing ash management practices with emphasis on beneficial utilization as a soil amendment. Mean concentrations of total C, K, Ca, and Cl were 424, 120, 85, and 26 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively, in fly ash. In bottom ash, the mean concentrations of C, K, and Ca, were 63, 61, and 193 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Concentrations of total Pb, As, Cd, Co, and Se were below detection limits in both ash types. Naphthalene ranged from 6.2 to 74 mg kg{sup {minus}1}, but concentrations of many other polyaromatic hydrocarbons were low or below mg kg{sup {minus}1} detection limits. Available K and P in fly ash were 90 to 120 and 8 to 10 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Mean CaCO{sub 3} equivalent value of fly ash was 400 g kg{sup {minus}1}, its electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were 127 dS m{sup {minus}1} and 11.5, respectively. These results suggest that when managed properly, gasified alfalfa ash could potentially be utilized as a beneficial soil amendment with few potential environmental concerns.

  1. Ash melting behavior by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han-xu; QIU Xiao-sheng; TANG Yong-xin

    2008-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) method involving a Fe2O3 flux was used to learn how China's coal ash melts. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, as well as the effects of Fe2O3 flux on the ash fusion temperature were studied. The relationship between ash fusion temperature and chemical composition, mineralogical phases and functional groups was analyzed with the FTIR method. The results show that the ash fusion temperature is related to the location and transmittance of certain absorption peaks, which is of great significance for the study of ash behavior.

  2. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion...... fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  3. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative status compared in workers at a bottom ash recovery plant and fly ash treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, I-Ju; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Fly ash and ambient emissions of municipal solid waste incinerators contain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other organic compounds, metals, and gases. Hazardous substances such as PCDD/Fs, mercury vapors and other silicates, and the components of bottom ash and fly ash elevate the oxidative damage. We compared oxidative damage in workers exposed to hazardous substances at a bottom ash recovery plant and 3 fly ash treatment plants in Taiwan by measuring their levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Significantly higher MDA levels were found in fly ash treatment plant workers (3.20 microM) than in bottom ash plant workers (0.58 microM). There was a significant association between MDA levels in workers and their working environment, especially in the fly ash treatment plants. Levels of 8-OH-dG varied more widely in bottom ash workers than in fly ash workers. The association between occupational exposure and 8-OH-dG levels may be affected by the life style of the workers. Because more dioxins and metals may leach from fly ash than from bottom ash, fly ash treatment plant workers should, as much as possible, avoid exposing themselves to fly ash.

  4. Fluoride in ash leachates: environmental implications at Popocatépetl volcano, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Armienta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ash emitted by volcanic eruptions, even of moderate magnitude, may affect the environment and the health of humans and animals through different mechanisms at distances significantly larger than those indicated in the volcanic hazard maps. One such mechanism is the high capacity of ash to transport toxic volatiles like fluoride, as soluble condensates on the particles' surface. The mobilization and hazards related to volcanic fluoride are discussed based on the data obtained during the recent activity of Popocatépetl volcano in Central Mexico.

  5. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  6. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  7. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  8. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  9. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  10. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  11. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  12. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including

  13. Leachate Geochemical Results for Ash Samples from the June 2007 Angora Wildfire Near Lake Tahoe in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Martin, Deborah A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.; Todorov, Todor; Anthony, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    This report releases leachate geochemical data for ash samples produced by the Angora wildfire that burned from June 24 to July 2, 2007, near Lake Tahoe in northern California. The leaching studies are part of a larger interdisciplinary study whose goal is to identify geochemical characteristics and properties of the ash that may adversely affect human health, water quality, air quality, animal habitat, endangered species, debris flows, and flooding hazards. The leaching study helps characterize and understand the interactions that occur when the ash comes in contact with rain or snowmelt, and helps identify the constituents that may be mobilized as run-off from these materials. Similar leaching studies were conducted on ash and burned soils from the October 2007 southern California wildfires (Hageman and others, 2008; Plumlee and others, 2007).

  14. The Ashkenazic Jewish Bloom syndrome mutation blmAsh is present in non-Jewish Americans of Spanish ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, N A; Ciocci, S; Proytcheva, M; Lennon, D; Groden, J; German, J

    1998-12-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is more frequent in the Ashkenazic Jewish population than in any other. There the predominant mutation, referred to as "blmAsh," is a 6-bp deletion and 7-bp insertion at nucleotide position 2281 in the BLM cDNA. Using a convenient PCR assay, we have identified blmAsh on 58 of 60 chromosomes transmitted by Ashkenazic parents to persons with BS. In contrast, in 91 unrelated non-Ashkenazic persons with BS whom we examined, blmAsh was identified only in 5, these coming from Spanish-speaking Christian families from the southwestern United States, Mexico, or El Salvador. These data, along with haplotype analyses, show that blmAsh was independently established through a founder effect in Ashkenazic Jews and in immigrants to formerly Spanish colonies. This striking observation underscores the complexity of Jewish history and demonstrates the importance of migration and genetic drift in the formation of human populations.

  15. Lab-scale ash production by abrasion and collision experiments of porous volcanic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S. B.; Lane, S. J.; Kueppers, U.

    2015-09-01

    In the course of explosive eruptions, magma is fragmented into smaller pieces by a plethora of processes before and during deposition. Volcanic ash, fragments smaller than 2 mm, has near-volcano effects (e.g. increasing mobility of PDCs, threat to human infrastructure) but may also cause various problems over long duration and/or far away from the source (human health and aviation matters). We quantify the efficiency of ash generation during experimental fracturing of pumiceous and scoriaceous samples subjected to shear and normal stress fields. Experiments were designed to produce ash by overcoming the yield strength of samples from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), Sicily and Lipari Islands (Italy), with this study having particular interest in the < 355 μm fraction. Fracturing within volcanic conduits, plumes and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) was simulated through a series of abrasion (shear) and collision (normal) experiments. An understanding of these processes is crucial as they are capable of producing very fine ash (< 10 μm). These particles can remain in the atmosphere for several days and may travel large distances (~ 1000s of km). This poses a threat to the aviation industry and human health. From the experiments we establish that abrasion produced the finest-grained material and up to 50% of the generated ash was smaller than 10 μm. In comparison, the collision experiments that applied mainly normal stress fields produced coarser grain sizes. Results were compared to established grain size distributions for natural fall and PDC deposits and good correlation was found. Energies involved in collision and abrasion experiments were calculated and showed an exponential correlation with ash production rate. Projecting these experimental results into the volcanic environment, the greatest amounts of ash are produced in the most energetic and turbulent regions of volcanic flows, which are proximal to the vent. Finest grain sizes are produced in PDCs

  16. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Peter Y. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Bennett, James [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2015-09-27

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. Here, we measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. We made all measurements in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. Finally, an understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  17. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    in agricultural and forest soils focusing on soil microbial communities’ composition and function, particularly mycorrhizal fungi. Two study sites were used for this study, one in an agricultural field where different biomass ashes were evaluated as replacements for P fertilizers in barley, and a second one...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... effects on barley or associated AM fungi. Furthermore, wood ash can also be re-distributed to the forest without representing any risks for ECM fungal communities, N leaching, Cd bioaccumulation in sporocarps or the general activity of the soil microbial community....

  18. Laboratory study of volcanic ash electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alois, Stefano; Merrison, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Electrostatic forces play an important role in the dynamics of volcanic plumes, for example in ash dispersion and aggregation phenomena. Field measurements of ash electrification are often technically challenging due to poor access and there lacks an accepted physical theory to describe the electrical charge exchange which occurs during particle contact. The goal of the study is to investigate single particle electrification under controlled conditions using advanced laboratory facilities. A novel technique is presented, based on the use of a laser based velocimeter. Here an electric field is applied and the field-induced drift velocity of (micron-sized) ash grains is measured as well as the particles fall velocity. This allows the simultaneous determination of a suspended grains size and electrical charge. The experiments are performed in a unique environmental wind tunnel facility under controlled low-pressure conditions. Preliminary results of particle electrification will be presented.

  19. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) and 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 degrees C for 48h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  20. Fusion characteristics of volcanic ash relevant to aviation hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Damby, David E.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-04-01

    The fusion dynamics of volcanic ash strongly impacts deposition in hot parts of jet engines. In this study, we investigate the sintering behavior of volcanic ash using natural ash of intermediate composition, erupted in 2012 at Santiaguito Volcano, Guatemala. A material science procedure was followed in which we monitored the geometrical evolution of cylindrical-shaped volcanic ash compact upon heating from 50 to 1400°C in a heating microscope. Combined morphological, mineralogical, and rheological analyses helped define the evolution of volcanic ash during fusion and sintering and constrain their sticking potential as well as their ability to flow at characteristic temperatures. For the ash investigated, 1240°C marks the onset of adhesion and flowability. The much higher fusibility of ash compared to that of typical test sands demonstrates for the need of a more extensive fusion characterization of volcanic ash in order to mitigate the risk posed on jet engine operation.

  1. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  2. Growth of Larval Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and Fitness of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata) and Green Ash (F. pennsylvanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donnie L; Duan, Jian J; Yaninek, J S; Ginzel, Matthew D; Sadof, Clifford S

    2015-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive primary pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Blue ash (F. quadrangulata) is less susceptible to emerald ash borer infestations in the forest than other species of North American ash. Whereas other studies have examined adult host preferences, we compared the capacity of emerald ash borer larvae reared from emerald ash borer eggs in the field and in the laboratory to survive and grow in blue ash and the more susceptible green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Emerald ash borer larval survivorship was the same on both ash species. Mortality due to wound periderm formation was only observed in living field grown trees, but was low (<4%) in both green and blue ash. No difference in larval mortality in the absence of natural enemies suggests that both green and blue ash can support the development of emerald ash borer. Larvae reared from eggs on blue ash were smaller than on green ash growing in the field and also in bolts that were infested under laboratory conditions. In a laboratory study, parasitism rates of confined Tetrastichus planipennisi were similar on emerald ash borer larvae reared in blue and green ash bolts, as were fitness measures of the parasitoid including brood size, sex ratio, and adult female size. Thus, we postulate that emerald ash borer larvae infesting blue ash could support populations of T. planipennisi and serve as a potential reservoir for this introduced natural enemy after most of the other native ash trees have been killed.

  3. Cleaner phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes for application in building materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Reijnders [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    Application of phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes in building materials has been limited by the presence of minor components that are hazardous, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated dioxins and heavy metals, or have a negative impact on product quality or production economics, such as phosphate, fluoride, carbon and chloride. Source reduction, destruction of persistent organics and separation techniques may reduce the concentrations of such components. With a few exceptions, separation techniques currently lead to significantly higher (private) costs. Higher waste disposal costs, tighter regulations and higher prices for competing virgin minerals could make the use of the purified phosphogypsum and ashes in building materials more attractive.

  4. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  5. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S. [Univ. of Newcastle (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with the shrinkage and electrical resistance measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to rapid rates of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples where therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity are then quantified and related to the shrinkage events and standard ash fusion temperatures.

  6. Ash fusion temperatures and the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.; Wall, T.F.; Creelman, R.A.; Gupta, R. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    A mechanistic study is detailed in which coal ash is heated with its shrinkage measured continuously up to a temperature of 1600{degrees}C. The temperatures corresponding to the rapid rate of shrinkage are shown to correspond to the formation of eutectics identified on phase diagrams. Samples were therefore heated to these temperatures, cooled rapidly and examined with an SEM to identify the associated chemical and physical changes. The progressive changes in the range of chemical analysis (from SEM), the extent of undissolved ash particles and porosity were then quantified and related to homogenization, viscosity and ash fusion mechanisms.

  7. Chemical characterization of ash generated from alfalfa stem gasification: Agricultural and environmental implications. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, C.; Mozaffari, M.; Russelle, M.; Nater, E.

    1997-10-30

    This progress report provides results of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures (TCLP) and Synthetic Leachate Test Procedure (SLTP) for the alfalfa stem ash. The TCLP simulates solute leaching in landfill by using acetic acid as a solvent and SLTP simulates potential for leaching from synthetic acid rain. This report also provides information on detailed chemical characterization of organic and inorganic constituents of the ash. The analysis performed includes information on compounds that may represent a potential risk to human or animal health and those constituents that may have beneficial use as soil amendments and conditioners. A sample of the fly (filter) ash from the test burn conducted in Finland was received in May 1997 and used for initial investigation. Three additional fly ash samples and one sample of bottom ash (reactor bed ash) were received in June 1997. The samples were either tested at the University of Minnesota or sent to a reputable laboratory, and various tests were conducted according to the standard methods. The result of the comprehensive tests conducted in May 1997 (report submitted previously) were used as a screening procedure for conducting tests on June 1997 samples. To provide a more comprehensive representation of ash characteristics the results for fly ash received in May are presented along with results from fly ash samples received in July. The average, range and coefficient of variation (CV) are provided. The TCLP and SLTP tests conducted in the laboratory indicated that the concentration of heavy metals were below or close to the detection limits for fly and bottom ash samples (Tables 1 and 2). The ash was also characterized for a number of classes of organic compounds that may pose potential environmental or health risks. These are polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total and individual dioxin and furan compounds.

  8. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  9. Physical cleaning of high carbon fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Killmeyer, Richard P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, Cochran Mills Roads, 15236 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Andresen, John M. [The Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, 405 Academic Activities Building, 16802-2308 University Park, PA (United States); Ciocco, Michael V.; Zandhuis, Paul H. [Parson Project Services Inc, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P.O. Box 618, 15129 Library, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-04-20

    An industrial fly ash sample was cleaned by three different processes, which were triboelectrostatic separation, ultrasonic column agglomeration, and column flotation. The unburned carbon concentrates were collected at purities ranging up to 62% at recoveries of 62%. In addition, optical microscopy studies were conducted on the final carbon concentrates to determine the carbon forms (inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke) collected from these various physical-cleaning processes. The effects of the various cleaning processes on the production of different carbon forms from high carbon fly ashes will be discussed.

  10. Associative properties of {sup 137}Cs in biofuel ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1999-07-01

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash.

  11. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    the probe temperature did influence the composition of deposits for coals with medium ash deposition propensities. These results may indicate that coals with medium to high ash deposition propensities in existing boilers may cause increasing ash deposit formation in future boilers with higher steam...

  12. Ashes from fluidized bed combustion of residual forest biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, Nuno C.; Rodrigues, Sónia M.; Carvalho, Lina; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Romkens, Paul; Tarelho, Luís A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Although bottom ash (BA) [or mixtures of bottom and fly ash (FA)] from clean biomass fuels is currently used as liming agent, additive for compost, and fertilizer on agricultural and forest soils in certain European countries, in several other countries most of the ashes are currently disposed in la

  13. Oil ash corrosion; A review of utility boiler experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, L.D. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)); Seeley, R.R. (Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    In this paper a review of experience with oil ash corrosion is presented along with current design practices used to avoid excessive tube wastage. Factors influencing oil ash corrosion include fuel chemistry, boiler operation, and boiler design. These factors are interdependent and determine the corrosion behavior in utility boilers. Oil ash corrosion occurs when vanadium-containing ash deposits on boiler tube surfaces become molten. These molten ash deposits dissolve protective oxides and scales causing accelerated tube wastage. Vanadium is the major fuel constituent responsible for oil ash corrosion. Vanadium reacts with sodium, sulfur, and chlorine during combustion to produce lower melting temperature ash compositions, which accelerate tube wastage. Limiting tube metal temperatures will prevent ash deposits from becoming molten, thereby avoiding the onset of oil ash corrosion. Tube metal temperatures are limited by the use of a parallel stream flow and by limiting steam outlet temperatures. Operating a boiler with low excess air has helped avoid oil ash corrosion by altering the corrosive combustion products. Air mixing and distribution are essential to the success of this palliative action. High chromium alloys and coatings form more stable protective scaled on tubing surfaces, which result in lower oil ash corrosion rates. However, there is not material totally resistant to oil ash corrosion.

  14. The Rheology of Vegetative Ash-laden Debris Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Gabet, E.

    2006-12-01

    There is mounting observational evidence that vegetative ash created in a forest fire may play a major role in reducing infiltration and leads to the generation of debris flows on these burned hillslopes. A viscometer was used to measure the viscosity of ash slurries of varying concentrations, as well as slurries containing both fine- grained clastic sediment (sand and silt sized) and vegetative ash at varying concentrations. Initial results from these experiments indicate that increasing the concentration of ash increases effective viscosity of the slurry. Increasing the ash concentration by 5% increases the effective viscosity of the slurry by 10-50% over a range of shear rates. Also, ash-only slurries appear to shear thin with increasing shear rate at all concentrations. For example, with a 60% ash concentration, increasing the shear rate from 5/s to 40/s reduces the effective viscosity by 90%. For the mixed ash and fine-grained sediment slurries, increasing the percentage of ash relative to the percentage of clastic sediment dramatically increases the viscosity of the slurry even though the ash and finest-grained sediment are approximately the same size. A 50% concentration slurry containing only silt-sized clastic particles has a 40-70% lower effective viscosity than a slurry of the same concentration containing only ash particles. Therefore, the ash particles behave differently than clastic sediment particles.

  15. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  16. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  17. Observation of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash over Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, T.; Petelski, T.; Makuch, P.; Kowalczyk, J.; Rozwadowska, A.; Drozdowska, V.; Markowicz, K.; Malinowski, S.; Kardas, A.; Posyniak, M.; Jagodnicka, A. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Piskozub, J.

    2010-05-01

    The plume of Eyjafjallajökull volcano ash has been identified over Poland using three instruments (two lidars and a ceilometer) stationed in two locations: Sopot in northern Poland and Warsaw in central-eastern Poland. The observations made it possible to establish the base of the ash layer. However ash concentration could not be determined.

  18. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    Bottom ash, the solid residue from electric power ... consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). In addition, it helps ... economic sense; they are often less costly than the materials they replace. (American Coal Ash ... and Kim and Lee (2011), observed a decrease in density due to the low specific gravity of the ash.

  19. Emerald ash borer biological control release and recovery guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli S. Gould; Leah S. Bauer; Jian. Duan

    2015-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle from Asia that feeds on ash trees, was discovered as the cause of extensive ash mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Canada in 2002. It is thought that this destructive pest was introduced in the early 1990's in infested solid wood packing material originating in Asia. Shortly after EAB was discovered in North...

  20. Product policies. characterization results ash by burning layer fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Neamtu, Ion; Achim, Marian Lucian

    2009-01-01

    By economical and at the same time ecological reasons, industrial refuses (ashes) are being transported in waste dumps like offal’s .To reduce the storage surfaces these offal’s are incinerated and results a new refuse - the ash.(Ex. paper factories, thermo power stations).It's very important to find solutions to turn to good account the ash.

  1. Evaluation of Pollutant Leaching Potential of Coal Ashes for Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, H.; Yoon, H.; Chung, D.

    2011-12-01

    By 2009, coal ashes produced from coal-based power plants in Korea have been reused as cement supplement materials; however, the rest is mostly disposed in landfills inside the plant properties. Continuous production of coal ashes and limited landfill sites require more recycles of coal ashes as base materials, specifically in constructions of roads and of huge industrial complex. Previous researches showed that coal ashes could contain various metals such as arsenic(As), chromium(Cr), lead(Pb), nickel(Ni), selenium(Se), etc. In this study, we collected four types of bottom ashes and two of fly ashes from four coal-based power plants. These ash samples were tested with distilled water through the column leaching process in oxidized conditions. The column test results were compared with those of total digestion, sequential extraction processes and TCLP. Concentrations of metals in outflows from columns are generally greater in fly ashes than in bottom ashes, specifically for As, Se, B, Sr and SO4. Only one fly ash (J2-F) shows high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in leachate. Sequential extraction results indicate that these metals are in readily soluble forms, such as adsorbed, carbonated, and reducible forms. Results of TCLP analysis indicate no potential contaminants leached from the ashes. In conclusion, recycling of coal combustion ashes could be encouraged with proper tests such as sequential and leaching experiments.

  2. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  3. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  4. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  6. Root secretion stimulating ash growth in larch-ash mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊民; 刘广平; 王晓水; 吴保国

    2000-01-01

    Allelopathic effect of larch (Larix gmelini ) on the ash growth (Fraximus mandshurica) was studied in artificial cultivation tests. The results revealed that the larch root secretion obviously stimulated the ash growth. In order to determine the main stimulation allelochemicals, the chemical composition was analyzed. By contrasting the contents of carbohydrate and aminoacid in root secretion of larch and ash, it was concluded that the carbohydrate and aminoacid were not important stimulation allelochemicals. The organic acid and other components in root secretion of larch and ash were analyzed by GC and GC-MS analysis. The sand culture tests were carried out with selected model compounds. The results showed that benzeneacetic acid, benzenepropionic acid and phenolic acids in root secretion of larch were the main stimulation allelochemicals.

  7. Mössbauer characterization of feed coal, ash and fly ash from a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A., E-mail: s.agustin.martinez@uptc.edu.co; Moreno Gutiérrez, M. [Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC, Grupo de Física Nuclear Aplicada y Simulación (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this work was apply {sup 57}Fe Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy at room temperature in order to study the occurrence of iron-containing mineral phases in: 1) feed coal; 2) coal ash, obtained in different stages of the ASTM D3174 standard method; and 3) fly ash, produced when coal is burned in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant localized in Boyacá, Colombia. According to obtained results, we can conclude the occurrence of pyrite and jarosite in the feed coal; Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} crystalline paramagnetic phases, superparamagnetic hematite and hematite in coal ash; Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} noncrystalline and crystalline phases, magnetite and hematite in fly ash. Precisely, for a basic understanding, this work discusses some the possible transformations that take place during coal combustion.

  8. Source water contributions and hydrologic responses to simulated emerald ash borer infestations in depressional black ash wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Van Grinsven; Joseph P. Shannon; Joshua C. Davis; Nicholas W. Bolton; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Randall K. Kolka; Thomas Grant Pypker

    2017-01-01

    Forested wetlands dominated by black ash (Fraxinus nigra) are currently threatened by the rapid expansion of the exotic emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America, and very little is known about the hydrology and ecology of black ash wetlands. The ecohydrological response of...

  9. Application of polymeric flocculant for enhancing settling of the pond ash particles and water drainage from hydraulically stowed pond ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mishra Devi Prasad; Das Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Delayed settling of the ash particles and poor drainage of water from the pond ash are the major problems faced during the hydraulic stowing of pond ash.In this study the effect of polymeric flocculant on settling of the ash particles and drainage of water during pond ash stowing are investigated.In addition,the parameters,viz.drainage and absorption of water during pond ash stowing are quantified by stowing a mine goaf model with pond ash slurries of five different concentrations added with and without flocculant.The study revealed that addition of only 5 × 10-6 of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Na-CMC)flocculant with the pond ash slurries during stowing offers best result in terms of quicker settling of the ash particles and enhanced water drainage from the hydraulically stowed pond ash.Besides,it resulted in drainage of more than 85% of the total water used in the initial 45 min of stowing.The improvement in drainage is caused due to coagulation and flocculation of the pond ash particles because of charge neutralization and particle-particle bridging.This study may provide a basis for estimating the drainage and absorption of water during the real pond ash stowing operation in underground mines.

  10. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  11. Lixiviation of fly ash. Uitloging van vliegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The lixiviation of a number of elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, V, As, Sb and Hg) from different fly ash products (fired and cement bounded products) is investigated. A theoretical description of diffusion from a fly ash product is given as well as a standard test to determine the lixiviation rate. Lixiviation can be interpreted as a diffusion process. Diffusion of an element X from a fly ash product can be described with the following parameters: the effective diffusion coefficient, the fraction that is available for lixiviation and the tortuosity of the product. The physical meaning of the determined tortuosity is not clear. The behavior of tracers in the product is compared with the behavior of the corresponding element. Often this behavior deviates, sometimes even considerably. From a comparison of fly ash products it appears that cement bounded products are better able to combine with arsenicum and antimony than fired products. None of the investigated products caused concentrations of micro-elements way above the stated norm. Improvement as for lixiviation behavior of the products seems to be possible, in particular for bricks. 8 refs., 17 tabs., 26 figs.

  12. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching con

  13. Climate change and the ash dieback crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberville, Eric; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Kirby, Richard R.; Piquot, Yves; Luczak, Christophe; Beaugrand, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Beyond the direct influence of climate change on species distribution and phenology, indirect effects may also arise from perturbations in species interactions. Infectious diseases are strong biotic forces that can precipitate population declines and lead to biodiversity loss. It has been shown in forest ecosystems worldwide that at least 10% of trees are vulnerable to extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated. In Europe, the emerging ash dieback disease caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, commonly called Chalara fraxinea, is causing a severe mortality of common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior); this is raising concerns for the persistence of this widespread tree, which is both a key component of forest ecosystems and economically important for timber production. Here, we show how the pathogen and climate change may interact to affect the future spatial distribution of the common ash. Using two presence-only models, seven General Circulation Models and four emission scenarios, we show that climate change, by affecting the host and the pathogen separately, may uncouple their spatial distribution to create a mismatch in species interaction and so a lowering of disease transmission. Consequently, as climate change expands the ranges of both species polewards it may alleviate the ash dieback crisis in southern and occidental regions at the same time. PMID:27739483

  14. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Also, fly ash has been found to be an efficient adsorbent for water treatment in the removal of ... properties for the removal of metal ions and organics; the residual sludge produced is used in ... investigate the reuse of the adsorbent for better economy of the process. ..... Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria to complete this article.

  15. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  16. Characterizing uncertainty in the motion, future location and ash concentrations of volcanic plumes and ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P.; Patra, A. K.; Bursik, M. I.; Pitman, E. B.; Dehn, J.; Singh, T.; Singla, P.; Stefanescu, E. R.; Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Jones, M.; Morton, D.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forecasting the location and airborne concentrations of volcanic ash plumes and their dispersing clouds is complex and knowledge of the uncertainty in these forecasts is critical to assess and mitigate the hazards that could exist. We show the results from an interdisciplinary project that brings together scientists drawn from the atmospheric sciences, computer science, engineering, mathematics, and geology. The project provides a novel integration of computational and statistical modeling with a widely-used volcanic particle dispersion code, to provide quantitative measures of confidence in predictions of the motion of ash clouds caused by volcanic eruptions. We combine high performance computing and stochastic analysis, resulting in real time predictions of ash cloud motion that account for varying wind conditions and a range of model variables. We show how coupling a real-time model for ash dispersal, PUFF, with a volcanic eruption model, BENT, allows for the definition of the variability in the dispersal model inputs and hence classify the uncertainty that can then propagate for the ash cloud location and downwind concentrations. We additionally analyze the uncertainty in the numerical weather prediction forecast data used by the dispersal model by using ensemble forecasts and assess how this affects the downwind concentrations. These are all coupled together and by combining polynomical chaos quadrature with stochastic integration techniques, we provide a quantitative measure of the reliability (i.e. error) of those predictions. We show comparisons of the downwind height calculations and mass loadings with observations of ash clouds available from satellite remote sensing data. The aim is to provide a probabilistic forecast of location and ash concentration that can be generated in real-time and used by those end users in the operational ash cloud hazard assessment environment.

  17. Distinguishing defensive characteristics in the phloem of ash species resistant and susceptible to emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, Don; Wang, Qin; Whitehill, Justin G A; Powell, Jeff R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A

    2011-05-01

    We examined the extent to which three Fraxinus cultivars and a wild population that vary in their resistance to Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) could be differentiated on the basis of a suite of constitutive chemical defense traits in phloem extracts. The EAB-resistant Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, cv. Mancana) was characterized by having a rapid rate of wound browning, a high soluble protein concentration, low trypsin inhibitor activities, and intermediate levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentration. The EAB-susceptible white ash (F. americana, cv. Autumn Purple) was characterized by a slow wound browning rate and low levels of peroxidase activity and total soluble phenolic concentrations. An EAB-susceptible green ash cultivar (F. pennsylvanica, cv. Patmore) and a wild accession were similar to each other on the basis of several chemical defense traits, and were characterized by high activities of peroxidase and trypsin inhibitor, a high total soluble phenolic concentration, and an intermediate rate of wound browning. Lignin concentration and polyphenol oxidase activities did not differentiate resistant and susceptible species. Of 33 phenolic compounds separated by HPLC and meeting a minimum criterion for analysis, nine were unique to Manchurian ash, five were shared among all species, and four were found in North American ashes and not in the Manchurian ash. Principal components analysis revealed clear separations between Manchurian, white, and green ashes on the basis of all phenolics, as well as clear separations on the basis of quantities of phenolics that all species shared. Variation in some of these constitutive chemical defense traits may contribute to variation in resistance to EAB in these species.

  18. Ash3d: A finite-volume, conservative numerical model for ash transport and tephra deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Hans F.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Mastin, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a transient, 3-D Eulerian model (Ash3d) to predict airborne volcanic ash concentration and tephra deposition during volcanic eruptions. This model simulates downwind advection, turbulent diffusion, and settling of ash injected into the atmosphere by a volcanic eruption column. Ash advection is calculated using time-varying pre-existing wind data and a robust, high-order, finite-volume method. Our routine is mass-conservative and uses the coordinate system of the wind data, either a Cartesian system local to the volcano or a global spherical system for the Earth. Volcanic ash is specified with an arbitrary number of grain sizes, which affects the fall velocity, distribution and duration of transport. Above the source volcano, the vertical mass distribution with elevation is calculated using a Suzuki distribution for a given plume height, eruptive volume, and eruption duration. Multiple eruptions separated in time may be included in a single simulation. We test the model using analytical solutions for transport. Comparisons of the predicted and observed ash distributions for the 18 August 1992 eruption of Mt. Spurr in Alaska demonstrate to the efficacy and efficiency of the routine.

  19. Ash fusion temperatures and their association with the transformations of coal ash particles to slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilisation, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Creelman, R.A. [Creelman (R.A.) and Associates, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1997-04-01

    Ash deposition on furnace walls in PF (pulverized fuel) furnaces is called slagging when it occurs in the high temperature areas of furnaces directly exposed to flame radiation and fouling in other regions such as tubes in the convection section of the boiler. There are well documented shortcomings of certain approaches relating to their uncertainties as predictive tools for plant performance such as poor repeatability and re-producibility of ash fusion measurements. The nature of physical and chemical changes occurring during melting of coal ash has been investigated in the current study to provide an alternative procedure to the ash fusion test. Shrinkage measurements are frequently used in metallurgy and ceramic science to study the physical properties of materials at high temperatures. The output of this experiment provides three to four `peaks` (maximum rate of shrinkage with temperature) of different intensity and at different temperatures which are related to melting characteristics of the sample. It was concluded that shrinkage extents exceeding 50 percent indicated that the effect of the ash particle size is of secondary importance compared to ash chemistry in determining shrinkage levels, with fine particles giving rapid shrinkage events 10 degrees C lower in temperature. (author). 7 figs., refs.

  20. Analysis list: ash1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ash1 Cell line + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash1.1.t...sv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash...1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ash1.Cell_line.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml ...

  1. Analysis list: ash2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ash2 Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash2.1.tsv ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/ash...2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/ash2.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  2. Analysis list: Ash2l [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ash2l Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash2l.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash2l.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ash...2l.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ash2l.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  3. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  4. Retrieval of volcanic ash particle size, mass and optical depth from a ground-based thermal infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A. J.; Bernardo, C.

    2009-09-01

    Volcanoes can emit fine-sized ash particles (1-10 μm radii) into the atmosphere and if they reach the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere, these particles can have deleterious effects on the atmosphere and climate. If they remain within the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere, the particles can lead to health effects in humans and animals and also affect vegetation. It is therefore of some interest to be able to measure the particle size distribution, mass and other optical properties of fine ash once suspended in the atmosphere. A new imaging camera working in the infrared region between 7-14 μm has been developed to detect and quantify volcanic ash. The camera uses passive infrared radiation measured in up to five spectral channels to discriminate ash from other atmospheric absorbers (e.g. water molecules) and a microphysical ash model is used to invert the measurements into three retrievable quantities: the particle size distribution, the infrared optical depth and the total mass of fine particles. In this study we describe the salient characteristics of the thermal infrared imaging camera and present the first retrievals from field studies at an erupting volcano. An automated ash alarm algorithm has been devised and tested and a quantitative ash retrieval scheme developed to infer particle sizes, infrared optical depths and mass in a developing ash column. The results suggest that the camera is a useful quantitative tool for monitoring volcanic particulates in the size range 1-10 μm and because it can operate during the night, it may be a very useful complement to other instruments (e.g. ultra-violet spectrometers) that only operate during daylight.

  5. Leachability of municipal solid waste ashes in simulated landfill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta Y; Ohtsubo, Masami; Higashi, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Shinya; Morishita, Tomotaka

    2007-01-01

    In Japan the volume of municipal solid waste is reduced by incineration, with fly ash and bottom ash disposed in controlled landfills. The leachability of anions and heavy metal cations, Zn, Cu and Pb, from MSW fly ash and bottom ash at different pHs was examined using batch- and column-leaching tests. The MSW ashes had a high capacity for neutralizing acids. Behaviour during leaching depended on the pH of the solution. For the volumes applied, the leachabilities of MSW fly ash were very similar at pHs from 3 to 6. Due to its amphoteric nature, Pb is leachable at pHs of approximately 10 or more, with leachate concentrations of about 3 and 3-10mg/L for the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively, much higher than for Zn and Cu. Pb concentrations for most leaching solutions were 1 and 3mg/L for the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. Zn, and Cu leached at low concentrations for solutions of pH 3-6. Na and K ions leached at high concentrations of approximately 5000 mg/L in the first batch leaching test, decreasing to 10mg/L by the fourth leach. Ca and Mg ions leached more gradually than Na and K. Cl(-) and SO(4)(2+) ions were the major anions in the MSW ash. The high pH and cation leaching are expected to have negative impacts on the performance of clay liners.

  6. The behavior of ash species in suspension fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt

    of advanced deposit probe measurements have been conducted on biomass powerplants. The measurements have provided insight into the relations between the chemical composition of fuel ash, fly ash and deposits. Furthermore the measurements have provided quantitative data on deposit formation rates as a function...... the interface to the steam tube metal surface. Especially an increased tube temperature makes it more demanding to remove the ash deposit. Modelling of the deposit formation process have been developed by combining sub-models of the ash formation process, the condensation of ash species on tube surfaces, ash...... particle deposition, heat transfer in the deposit and deposit sintering. The model mainly providesinformation on how changes in fuel ash composition and local conditions influences depositformation rate and deposit chemistry. Comparison of the modeling results with laboratory andfull scale data shows...

  7. Residual Ash Formation during Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Through 50+ years, high quality research has been conducted in order to characterize ash and deposit formation in utility boilers fired with coal, biomass and waste fractions. The basic mechanism of fly ash formation in suspension fired coal boilers is well described, documented and may even...... be modeled relatively precisely. Concerning fly ash formation from biomass or waste fractions, the situation is not nearly as good. Lots of data are available from campaigns where different ash fractions, including sometimes also in-situ ash, have been collected and analyzed chemically and for particle size...... distribution. Thus, there is a good flair of the chemistry of fly ash formed in plants fired with biomass or waste fractions, either alone, or in conjunction with coal. But data on dedicated studies of the physical size development of fly ash, are almost non-existing for biomasses and waste fractions...

  8. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  9. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  10. Volcanic Ash fall Impact on Vegetation, Colima 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. G.; Martin, A.; Fonseca, R.; Nieto, A.; Radillo, R.; Armienta, M.

    2007-05-01

    An ash sampling network was established arround Colima Volcano in 2005. Ash fall was sampled on the North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest and West of the volcano. Samples were analyzed for ash components, geochemistry and leachates. Ash fall ocurred on April (12), May (10, 23), June (2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 14), July (27), September (27), October (23) and November (24). Most of the ash is made of andesitic dome-lithics but shows diferences in crystal, juvenile material and lithic content. In May, some samples contained grey and dark pumice (scoria). Texture varies from phi >4 to phi 0. Leachate concentration were low: SO4 (7.33-54.19) Cl- (2.29-4.97) and F- (0.16-0.37). During 2005, Colima Volcano's ash fall rotted some of the guava and peach fruits and had a drying effect on spearment and epazote plants. Even these small ash amounts could have hindered sugar cane and agave growth.

  11. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): An introduction of occupational health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Development Department of Touristic Opportunities, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Saikia, Binoy K. [Coal Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006 (India); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); DaBoit, Kátia [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Baruah, Bimala P. [Coal Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006 (India); and others

    2014-01-01

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. - Highlights: • We research changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles about coal–ash quality. • Increasing dates will increase human health quality in this Indian coal area. • Welfare effects depend on ex-ante or ex-post assumptions about

  12. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Modeling calcium dissolution from oil shale ash: Part 1. Ca dissolution during ash washing in a batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O.; Kallas, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Hautaniemi, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Kuusik, R. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2010-05-15

    Batch dissolution experiments were carried out to investigate Ca leachability from oil shale ashes formed in boilers operating with different combustion technologies. The main characteristics of Ca dissolution equilibrium and dynamics, including Ca internal mass transfer through effective diffusion coefficients inside the ash particle were evaluated. Based on the collected data, models allowing simulation of the Ca dissolution process from oil shale ashes during ash washing in a batch reactor were developed. The models are a set of differential equations that describe the changes in Ca content in the solid and liquid phase of the ash-water suspension. (author)

  14. Comparison of emerald ash borer preference for ash of different species, sun exposure, age, and stress treatments in relation to foliar volatiles and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deepa S. Pureswaran; Yigen Chen

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the host selection behavior and feeding preference of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) on six different species of ash including Manchurian ash (F...

  15. Mapping ash properties using principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Ubeda, Xavier; Novara, Agata; Francos, Marcos; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesus; Bogunovic, Igor; Khaledian, Yones

    2017-04-01

    In post-fire environments ash has important benefits for soils, such as protection and source of nutrients, crucial for vegetation recuperation (Jordan et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2015a; 2016a,b). The thickness and distribution of ash are fundamental aspects for soil protection (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015b) and the severity at which was produced is important for the type and amount of elements that is released in soil solution (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash is very mobile material, and it is important were it will be deposited. Until the first rainfalls are is very mobile. After it, bind in the soil surface and is harder to erode. Mapping ash properties in the immediate period after fire is complex, since it is constantly moving (Pereira et al., 2015b). However, is an important task, since according the amount and type of ash produced we can identify the degree of soil protection and the nutrients that will be dissolved. The objective of this work is to apply to map ash properties (CaCO3, pH, and select extractable elements) using a principal component analysis (PCA) in the immediate period after the fire. Four days after the fire we established a grid in a 9x27 m area and took ash samples every 3 meters for a total of 40 sampling points (Pereira et al., 2017). The PCA identified 5 different factors. Factor 1 identified high loadings in electrical conductivity, calcium, and magnesium and negative with aluminum and iron, while Factor 3 had high positive loadings in total phosphorous and silica. Factor 3 showed high positive loadings in sodium and potassium, factor 4 high negative loadings in CaCO3 and pH, and factor 5 high loadings in sodium and potassium. The experimental variograms of the extracted factors showed that the Gaussian model was the most precise to model factor 1, the linear to model factor 2 and the wave hole effect to model factor 3, 4 and 5. The maps produced confirm the patternd observed in the experimental variograms. Factor 1 and 2

  16. X-ray scattering evaluation of ultrastructural changes in human dental tissues with thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholzer, Michael A; Sui, Tan; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Walmsley, Anthony Damien; Lumley, Philip J; Landini, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Micro- and ultrastructural analysis of burned skeletal remains is crucial for obtaining a reliable estimation of cremation temperature. Earlier studies mainly focused on heat-induced changes in bone tissue, while this study extends this research to human dental tissues using a novel quantitative analytical approach. Twelve tooth sections were burned at 400-900°C (30-min exposure, increments of 100°C). Subsequent combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) experiments were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron facility, where 28 scattering patterns were collected within each tooth section. In comparison with the control sample, an increase in mean crystal thickness was found in burned dentine (2.8-fold) and enamel (1.4-fold), however at a smaller rate than reported earlier for bone tissue (5-10.7-fold). The results provide a structural reference for traditional X-ray scattering methods and emphasize the need to investigate bone and dental tissues separately to obtain a reliable estimation of cremation temperature.

  17. Effects of nano-SiO(2) and different ash particle sizes on sludge ash-cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K L; Chang, W C; Lin, D F; Luo, H L; Tsai, M C

    2008-09-01

    The effects of nano-SiO(2) on three ash particle sizes in mortar were studied by replacing a portion of the cement with incinerated sewage sludge ash. Results indicate that the amount of water needed at standard consistency increased as more nano-SiO(2) was added. Moreover, a reduction in setting time became noticeable for smaller ash particle sizes. The compressive strength of the ash-cement mortar increased as more nano-SiO(2) was added. Additionally, with 2% nano-SiO(2) added and a cure length of 7 days, the compressive strength of the ash-cement mortar with 1 microm ash particle size was about 1.5 times better that of 75microm particle size. Further, nano-SiO(2) functioned to fill pores for ash-cement mortar with different ash particle sizes. However, the effects of this pore-filling varied with ash particle size. Higher amounts of nano-SiO(2) better influenced the ash-cement mortar with larger ash particle sizes.

  18. FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF LOW-NOx COMBUSTION FLY ASH UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERIC M. SUUBERG; ROBERT H. HURT

    1998-10-19

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  19. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman [National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar (India). Department of Chemistry

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NOx, SOx, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. 428 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. A review on the utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar-788010, Assam (India)

    2010-06-15

    Fly ash, generated during the combustion of coal for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Because of the environmental problems presented by the fly ash, considerable research has been undertaken on the subject worldwide. In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. A considerable amount of research has been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, organic compounds, and mercury in air, dyes and other organic compounds in waters. It is found that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for the removal of various pollutants. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. It was also found that fly ash has good potential for use in the construction industry. The conversion of fly ash into zeolites has many applications such as ion exchange, molecular sieves, and adsorbents. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity. Future research in these areas is also discussed. (author)

  1. Generation of volcanic ash: a textural study of ash produced in various laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Kueppers, Ulrich; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2010-05-01

    In volcanology, ash is commonly understood as a fragment of a bubble wall that gets disrupted during explosive eruptions. Most volcanic ashes are indeed the product of explosive eruptions, but the true definition is however that of a particle size being inferior to 2 mm. The term does not hold any information about its genesis. During fragmentation, particles of all sizes in various amounts are generated. In nature, fragmentation is a brittle response of the material (whether a rock or magma) caused by changes in 1) strain rate and 2) temperature, and/or 3) chemical composition. Here we used different experimental techniques to produce ash and study their physical characteristics. The effects of strain rate were investigated by deforming volcanic rocks and magma (pure silicate melt and crystal-bearing magma) at different temperatures and stresses in a uniaxial compression apparatus. Failure of pure silicate melts is spontaneous and generates more ash particles than fragmentation of crystal-bearing melts. In the latter, the abundance of generated ash correlates positively with the strain rate. We complemented this investigation with a study of particles generated during rapid decompression of porous rocks, using a fragmentation apparatus. Products of decompression experiments at different initial applied pore pressure show that the amount of ash generated by bubble burst increase with the initial applied pressure and the open porosity. The effects of temperature were investigated by dropping pure silicate melts and crystal-bearing magma at 900 and 1100°C in water at room temperature. Quenching of the material is accompanied by rapid contraction and near instantaneous fragmentation. Pure silicate melts respond more violently to the interaction with water and completely fragmented into small particles, including a variety of ash morphologies and surface textures. Crystal-bearing magmas however fragmented only very partially when in contact with water and produced a

  2. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application.

  3. The evaluation of chosen properties of ashes created by thermal utilization of hazardous and communal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Krawczykowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of methods of the waste neutralization is their thermal transformation in suitable installations or devices in order to achieve the state, which is no longer dangerous for the human health and life or for the environment. In effect of the thermal transformation the “new” wastes are created, which, by law are suppose a to be utilized first. These wastes may be utilized if their properties are suitable. In the paper, the process of thermal utilization of hazardous and municipal wastes is presented, together with the investigation results of the grain composition, surface area, density and of the initial chemical analysis of the created ashes. The research of the grain composition was conducted by using the “Fritsch” apparatus. On the base of the grain composition, the surface area of ashes under investigation was determined, whereas the density was determined by using the helium pycnometer. The purpose of the research was to determine how the properties of ashes are changed and if the differences allow to use these ashes in future.

  4. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  5. Sustainable use of biofuel by recycling ash to forests: treatment of biofuel ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudkhani, Maryam; Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans

    2007-06-01

    The influence of treatment techniques on leaching properties of alkaline species from biofuel ash is investigated in this paper. Ash samples from combustion of biofuels in a circulating fluidized bed and grate-firing combustion plants are studied. The samples are treated using three different treatment techniques; self-hardening, thermal treatment, and hardening bythe addition of binding materials. Nontreated and treated samples are evaluated for the leaching properties of the alkaline compounds and, furthermore, are characterized with respect to both physical and chemical characteristics. The results show the influence of treatment techniques on the physical structure and leaching characteristics of alkaline species. Results also indicate that ash samples show different behavior when treated with different methods, i.e., the influence of treatment technique on controlling the leaching properties is highly dependent on the initial chemical composition of ash. It was also found that there is an interaction between leaching of limited and easily soluble species, e.g., calcium and potassium leaching. Therefore, to control the leaching rate of alkaline species from ash, the characteristics that correlate the leaching properties of both easily and limited soluble species need to be adjusted.

  6. Evaluation of the leaching characteristics of wood ash and the influence of ash agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, B.-M.; Lindqvist, O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Karlsson, L.G. [Kemakta Consulting AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    The release of mineral nutrients and other species from untreated and stabilised wood ash has been investigated. Stabilisation is applied with the aim to modify the solubility of ash components and the ash particle size, i.e. to form dense ash particle agglomerates. This process induces the formation of several secondary minerals. The most important reaction is the transformation of Ca(OH){sub 2} into CaCO{sub 3} which lowers the calcium leaching rate significantly. A significant fraction of the alkali metals, K and Na, is present in salts which are rapidly released. The short-term release of these salts, as simulated in laboratory experiments, was not reduced by the stabilisation methods applied. Generally, low leaching rates were observed for the important plant nutrients P and Mg as well as for Fe and other metals from both untreated and agglomerated ashes. Thermodynamics equilibrium modelling of the hardening process showed that in addition to the transformation of Ca(OH){sub 2} to CaCO{sub 3}, formation of the mineral ettringite is possible at a high pH. Experimental results have confirmed this. As the pH in the pore solution decreases during long-term leaching ettringite will be transformed into calcium carbonate and gypsum. In accordance with the experimental results, no formation of secondary solubility controlling potassium or sodium minerals was indicated by the modelling results. (author)

  7. Simualting the Phase Separated rp-ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Donald

    2017-01-01

    The composition and phase separation of rp-ash on accreting neutron stars determine the thermal properties of the crust which must be understood to interpret observations of crust cooling in X-ray bursts. In this work, we report on recent large scale molecular dynamics simulations of the outer crust. Using the crust compositions calculated by Mckinven et al. 2016, we study the structure of the crystal that forms, as well as diffusion and thermal properties of the crust.

  8. FTIR analysis of ash in wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jug Tjaša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a modern oenological laboratory determination of ash is a limiting factor regarding the speed of analysis, since functional FTIR analysis of ash are not common yet. Therefore 324 samples were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy on TDI Bacchus 3 as well as ISO 17025 accredited reference method (OIV–MA–AS2–04: R2009 in two duplicates. FTIR spectra and reference data were uploaded into software for the calibration development and validation performed. Already the original TDI calibration was ready to use, showing satisfying results. However, we tried to improve it. On 324 spectra, we have looked for optimal wavelengths and mathematical models, which gave the best results. The developed calibration was then confirmed by method validation: repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy. The expanded measurement uncertainty calculated was 0.3 g/L, which I slightly higher than of the reference method used. We have found another advantage over classical method: there is no influence of the air pressure or moisture. Nevertheless, we were able to confirm that our reference method was free of systematic error induced by the influence of the weather. Anyway, we can conclude that analysis of ash in wine by FTIR spectroscopy is a promising, fast and reliable new method.

  9. Market assessment of PFBC ash use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01

    Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is undergoing demonstration in the United States, as well as throughout the world. American Electric Power`s (AEP`s) bubbling PFBC 70 MWe Tidd demonstration program in Ohio and pilot-scale development at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MWth circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, have demonstrated the advantages of PFBC technology. Further technology development in the US is planned with the deployment of the technology at the MacIntosh Clean Coal project in Lakeland, Florida. Development of uses for solid wastes from PFBC coal-fired power systems is being actively pursued as part of the demonstration of PFBC technologies. Ashes collected from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low sulfur subbituminous and (2) high sulfur bituminous coal; and ash from the AEP`s high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at Western Research Institute (WRI).

  10. Coal and cremation in ancient Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2004-01-01

    After my visit to the adobe-walled archaeological site of Chan Chan, near Trujillo in northern Peru in the summer of 2000 (Geotimes, August 2003), my guide asked if I would like to see the metallurgical furnaces used by the Chimú, ancient residents and master metalsmiths of the region. Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú Empire (A.D. 1100-1400) and the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. These furnaces, my guide explained, were where Andean gold, silver and copper ores were smelted and fabricated into jewelry, masks and plates sought by the Spaniards. We left the main part of the complex, followed a dusty trail, and arrived at a site marked by fresh-looking, redbrown, clinker-like debris.

  11. Crowdsourcing genomic analyses of ash and ash dieback – power to the people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Dan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ash dieback is a devastating fungal disease of ash trees that has swept across Europe and recently reached the UK. This emergent pathogen has received little study in the past and its effect threatens to overwhelm the ash population. In response to this we have produced some initial genomics datasets and taken the unusual step of releasing them to the scientific community for analysis without first performing our own. In this manner we hope to ‘crowdsource’ analyses and bring the expertise of the community to bear on this problem as quickly as possible. Our data has been released through our website at oadb.tsl.ac.uk and a public GitHub repository.

  12. Dynamics of volcanic ash remobilisation by wind through the Patagonian steppe after the eruption of Cordón Caulle, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Juan E; Mendez, Mariano J; Buschiazzo, Daniel E; Bran, Donaldo; Gaitán, Juan J

    2017-03-28

    Wind erosion of freshly-deposited volcanic ash causes persistent storms, strongly affecting ecosystems and human activity. Wind erosion of the volcanic ash was measured up to 17 months after the ash deposition, at 7 sites located within the ash-deposition area. The mass flux was measured up to 1.5 m above ground level. Mass transport rates were over 125 times the soil wind-erosion rates observed before the ash deposition, reaching up to 6.3 kg m(-1) day(-1). Total mass transport of ash during the 17 months ranged between 113.6 and 969.9 kg m(-1) depending on topographic location and wind exposure. The vertical distribution of the mass flux at sites with higher vegetation cover was generally inverted as compared to sites with lower vegetation cover. This situation lasted 7 months and then a shift towards a more uniform vertical distribution was observed, in coincidence with the beginning of the decline of the mass transport rates. Decay rates differed between sites. Despite changes over time, an inverse linear correlation between the mass transports and the mass-flux gradients was found. Both the mass-flux gradients and the average mass-transport rates were not linked with shear-stress partition parameters, but with the ratio: ash-fall thickness to total vegetation cover.

  13. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  14. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte H.;

    2017-01-01

    Reutilizing biomass ashes in agriculture can substitute inputs of P from finite primary sources. However, recycling of ashes is disputed due to their content of toxic substances such as heavy metals. This study evaluates the potential risk of replacing easily soluble inorganic P fertilizer with P...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P......-uptake and mycorrhizal status were slightly enhanced with high ash applications. Changes to the mycorrhizal community composition were evident with high ash doses. Cadmium uptake in aboveground plant tissue was unaffected by ash treatments, but increased in roots with increasing doses. Consequently, we conclude...

  15. Environmental impact of using fly ash in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    An attempt was made to estimate the chemical composition of fly ash using the known chemical composition of coals from numerous regions of the country and the known behavior of elements in a limited number of coal and fly-ash samples. This technique assumes that each element in every piece of coal in the United States partitions itself into fly ash to the same extent and leaches from fly ash at the same rate. Using these limited data, enrichment factors were then calculated by dividing the composition in the fly ash by the composition in the corresponding coal samples. These enrichment factors were then applied to all of the coal samples for which chemical compositions were available to estimate the chemical composition of the fly ash.

  16. Volcanic ash as an oceanic iron source and sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Nicholas; Achterberg, Eric P.; Le Moigne, Frédéric A. C.; Marsay, Chris M.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Williams, Richard G.

    2016-03-01

    Volcanic ash deposition to the ocean forms a natural source of iron (Fe) to surface water microbial communities. Inputs of lithogenic material may also facilitate Fe removal through scavenging. Combining dissolved Fe (dFe) and thorium-234 observations alongside modeling, we investigate scavenging of Fe in the North Atlantic following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. Under typical conditions biogenic particles dominate scavenging, whereas ash particles dominate during the eruption. The size of particles is important as smaller scavenging particles can become saturated with surface-associated ions. Model simulations indicate that ash deposition associated with Eyjafjallajökull likely led to net Fe removal. Our model suggests a threefold greater stimulation of biological activity if ash deposition had occurred later in the growing season when the region was Fe limited. The implications of ash particle scavenging, eruption timing, and particle saturation need to be considered when assessing the impact of ash deposition on the ocean Fe cycle and productivity.

  17. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-β-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-α-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were α-aminobutyric acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed.

  18. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). In one part of study the melting behavior was calculated for ten biomass ashes and compared with lab measurements of sintering tendencies. The comparison showed that the T{sub 15} temperatures, i.e. those temperatures at which the ashes contained 15 % molten phase, correlated fairly well with the temperature at which the sintering measurements detected sintering. This suggests that partial melting can be predicted fairly accurate for some ashes already with the today existing thermodynamic calculation routines. In some cases, however the melting calculations did not correlate with the detected sintering temperatures. In a second part detailed measurements on ash behavior was conducted both in a semi full scale CFB and a lab scale FBC. Ashes and deposits were collected and analyzed in several different ways. These analyses show that the ash chemistry shifts radically when the fuel is shifted. Fuels with silicate based ashes behaved totally different than those with an oxide or salt based ash. The chemistry was also affected by fuel blending. The ultimate goal has been to be able to predict the ash thermal behavior during biomass thermal conversion, using the fuel and ash elemental analyses and a few operational key parameters as the only input data. This goal has not yet today been achieved. (author)

  19. Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: A global review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manisha Basu; Manish Pande; P.B.S. Bhadoria; S.C. Mahapatra

    2009-01-01

    Though in last four decades various alternate energy sources have come into the limelight, the hyperbolic use of coal as a prime energy source cannot be counterbalanced. Disposal of high amount of fly-ash from thermal power plants absorbs huge amount of water, energy and land area by ash ponds. In order to meet the growing energy demand, various environmental, economic and social problems associated with the disposal of fly-ash would continue to increase. Therefore, fly-ash management would remain a great concern of the century. Fly-ash has great potentiality in agriculture due to its efficacy in modification of soil health and crop performance. The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in fly-ash increases the yield of many agricultural crops. But compared to other sectors, the use of fly-ash in agriculture is limited. An exhaustive review of numerous studies of last four decades took place in this paper, which systematically covers the importance, scope and apprehension regarding utilization of fly-ash in agriculture. The authors concluded that though studies have established some solutions to handle the problems of radioactivity and heavy metal content in flyash, long-term confirmatory research and demonstration are necessary. This paper also identified some areas, like proper handling of dry ash in plants as well as in fields, ash pond management (i.e., faster decantation, recycling of water, vertical expansion rather than horizontal), monitoring of soil health, crop quality, and fate of fly-ash in time domain, where research thrust is required. Agricultural lime application contributes to global warming as Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumes that all the carbon in agricultural lime is finally released as CO2to the atmosphere. It is expected that use of fly-ash instead of lime in agriculture can reduce net CO2emission, thus reduce global warming also.

  20. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  1. Reuse of Woody Biomass Ash Waste in Cementitious Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Vrbos, N.; Koenders, E.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the reuse of ash waste from biomass combustion, being a sustainable source of energy. This paper investigates the partial replacement of cement and sand in building materials with fly ash waste generated from combustion of woody biomass waste. The results show that the ash widens the particle size distribution of cement and has minerals complementary to portland cement, thus justifying its application as cement replacement, but with a relatively high amoun...

  2. Improved prediction and tracking of volcanic ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P.; Mastin, L.

    2009-01-01

    During the past 30??years, more than 100 airplanes have inadvertently flown through clouds of volcanic ash from erupting volcanoes. Such encounters have caused millions of dollars in damage to the aircraft and have endangered the lives of tens of thousands of passengers. In a few severe cases, total engine failure resulted when ash was ingested into turbines and coating turbine blades. These incidents have prompted the establishment of cooperative efforts by the International Civil Aviation Organization and the volcanological community to provide rapid notification of eruptive activity, and to monitor and forecast the trajectories of ash clouds so that they can be avoided by air traffic. Ash-cloud properties such as plume height, ash concentration, and three-dimensional ash distribution have been monitored through non-conventional remote sensing techniques that are under active development. Forecasting the trajectories of ash clouds has required the development of volcanic ash transport and dispersion models that can calculate the path of an ash cloud over the scale of a continent or a hemisphere. Volcanological inputs to these models, such as plume height, mass eruption rate, eruption duration, ash distribution with altitude, and grain-size distribution, must be assigned in real time during an event, often with limited observations. Databases and protocols are currently being developed that allow for rapid assignment of such source parameters. In this paper, we summarize how an interdisciplinary working group on eruption source parameters has been instigating research to improve upon the current understanding of volcanic ash cloud characterization and predictions. Improved predictions of ash cloud movement and air fall will aid in making better hazard assessments for aviation and for public health and air quality. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Geological behavior of wet outflow deposition fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德泉; 赵明华; 刘宏利; 周毅; 严聪

    2008-01-01

    The geological behaviors of wet outflow deposition fly ash were investigated, including the feature of in-situ single and even bridge cone penetration test (CPT) curves, the change of the penetration parameters and vane strength with the increase of depth and the difference of the penetration resistance on and down the water level. Drilling, CPT and vane shear test were carried out in silty clay, fine sand, and fly ash of the ash-dam. The CPT curves of the fly ash do not show a critical depth. The cone resistance (qc) of the fly ash is smaller than that of silty clay or sand; the friction resistance is smaller than that of filling silty clay, similar to that of deposition silty clay or more than that of fine sand; the friction ratio is smaller than that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay or much more than that of fine sand. The specific penetration resistance (ps) is similar to that of filling silty clay, or more than that of deposition silty clay. There is a clear interface effect between the deposition fly ash and the clay. Interface effect of ps-h curve at the groundwater table is clear, and ps of the fly ash reduces significantly under the table. The vane strength of the fly ash increases as the depth increases. The deposition fly ash with wet outflow is similar to silt in the geological behavior.

  4. Effect of refractory agent on ash fusibility temperatures of briquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-xing CUI; Kui HUANG; Ming-sui LIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problem of the low ash fusion point of briquette,this paper reported that the ash fusibility temperatures can be elevated by changing ash ingredients through blending refractory agents in briquette ash,which will create favorable conditions for moving bed continuous gasification of briquette with oxygen-rich air.The effects of Al2O3,SiO2,kaolin,dry powder and bentonite on ash fusibility temperatures were studied,based upon the relationship between briquette ash components and ash fusibility.The results show that the increasing of ash fusibility temperatures by adding the same amount (11%,w)of refractory agents follows the sequence of SiO2,bentonite,dry powder,kaolin,Al2O3,with the softening temperatures beingelevated by 37.2,57.6,60.4,82.6 and 104.4 ℃.With the same ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 in briquette,adding the Al2O3 component is more effective than SiO2 for raising ash fusibility temperatures.In this paper,inexpensive kaolin and bentonite rich in Al2O3 are found to be better refractory agents,and the suitable adding quantities are 9% and 11%,respectively.

  5. Surface Modification of Fly Ash for Active Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash based effective solid base catalyst (KF/Al2O3/fly ash473, KF/Al2O3/fly ash673, and KF/Al2O3/fly ash873 was synthesized by loading KF over chemically and thermally activated fly ash. The chemical activation was done by treating fly ash with aluminum nitrate via precipitation method followed by thermal activation at 650°C to increase the alumina content in fly ash. The increased alumina content was confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. The alumina enriched fly ash was then loaded with KF (10 wt% and calcined at three different temperatures 473 K, 673 K and 873 K. The amount of loaded KF was monitored by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, TEM and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were tested in the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of benzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde with 2′-hydroxyacetophenone to produce 2′-hydroxychalcone and 4-methoxy-2′-hydroxychalcone respectively. Higher conversion (83% of benzaldehyde and (89% of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde reveals that among these heterogeneous catalysts KF/Al2O3/fly ash673 is very active.

  6. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  7. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, adding aggregate with reasonable ratio and additives with reasonable dosage and do the experimental research on manufacture products for properties, production technology and selection about technology parameter of production equipment. Index of strength grade and freezing-thawing resisting etc and the high doping fly ash brick building which we are working on can achieve the national standard on building materials industry. Based on the tests, this achievement of research has a very wide practical prospect in using fly ash, industrial waste residue, environmental protection and reducing the cost of enterprises. The efficient reuse of fly ash from coal boiler and power plants has very vital significance of protecting the environment, benefiting descendants and developing of circular economy.

  8. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Cement Solidification of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Haobo; HE Xinghua; ZHU Shujing; ZHANG Dajie

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition, the content and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration ( MSWI) fly ash were tested and analyzed. It is shown that the leachability of Pb and Cr exceeds the leaching toxicity standard, and so the MSWI fly ash is considered as hazardous waste and must be solidifled. The effect of solidifying the MSWI fly ash by cement was studied, and it is indicated that the heavy metals can be well immobilized if the mass fraction of the fly ash is appropriate. The heavy metals were immobilized within cement hydration products through either physical fixation, substitution, deposition or adsorption mechanisms.

  11. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected.

  12. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The te...

  13. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes was invest......Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes...

  14. Biodegradable organic matter in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Herbell, Jan-Dirk; Gaye-Haake, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    For investigation of the behavior of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in landfill, we have analysed bottom ash samples taken after the quench tank as well as after five months of storage in the laboratory for elements and organic constituents. Water extractable organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, amino acids, hexosamines and carbohydrates considerably decreased during the five months of storage and their spectra revealed microbial reworking. This shows that the organic matter present in the bottom ash after incineration can provide a substrate for microbial activity. The resulting changes of the physico-chemical environment may effect the short-term behavior of the bottom ash in landfill. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  16. Utilisation of coal ash to improve acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Kato

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The study on utilization of coal ash to improve acid soil was carried out in a greenhouse at the Land Development Regional Office 1, Pathum Thani Province, Central Thailand, from January-May 2003. Fly ash mixture (fly ash plus gypsum and lime at the proportion 5:4:1 and clinker ash mixture (clinker ash plus gypsum and lime at the proportion 5:4:1 were used as soil amendments at varying rates i.e., 0, 6.25,12.5, 18.75 and 25 t/ha to improve the soil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of application of coal ash on acid soil and the growth of a vegetable (Chinese kale. Chinese kale cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Pak Chong soil series (Ultisols was used as the growth medium. Twenty-day-old seedlings were transplanted in 270 pots (two plants per pot containing acid soil with different treatments of coal ash mixture which were as follows: 1 control, 2 fly ash mixture 6.25 t/ha, 3 fly ash mixture 12.5 t/ha, 4 fly ash mixture 18.75 t/ha, 5 fly ash mixture 25 t/ha, 6 clinker ash mixture 6.25 t/ha, 7 clinker ash mixture 12.5 t/ha, 8 clinker ash mixture 18.75 t/ha and 9 clinker ash mixture 25 t/ha. Chemical fertilizers were applied at the rate of 250 kg/ha using a grade of 15-15-15 of N, P and K, respectively. Plants were harvested 40 days after transplanting. Among the treatments, application of fly ashmixture at a rate of 25t/ha (4t/rai substantially increased soil pH up to 5.7. Fly ash was found more effective than clinker ash in increasing soil pH. The highest yield of Chinese kale was also obtained when fly ash mixture was applied at a rate of 25 t/ha followed by fly ash mixture at 18.75 t/ha and clinker ash mixture at 18.75 t/ha with an average yield per plant of 4.980, 3.743 and 3.447 grams, respectively. It can be concluded that the application of coal ash mixture, either fly- or clinker ash, at 18.75-25 t/ha (3-4 t/rai was the most effective in terms of plant yield. The use of

  17. Attempt at determining selected parameters of gravitational transport of ash and water or ash-brine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postawa, J.

    1984-03-01

    This paper discusses results of laboratory investigations into hydraulic transport of hardening mixtures which are used for stowing in underground coal mines in Poland. Two types of hardening mixtures are used: fly ash from the Jaworzno I power plant or the Leg power plant and water or fly ash and brine. The following proportions of fly ash and water are used: 1.5:1, 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3.0:1. Proportion of fly ash and brine ranges from 1.5:1 to 2.5:1. Critical transport velocity of mixtures depending on physical properties of fly ash, proportion of fly ash and water or brine and pipeline diameter is determined. Equations for calculating the optimum conditions of hydraulic transport of hardening stowing are derived. Factors which influence range of hydraulic stowing and stowing efficiency are analyzed. The results of analyses are given in 6 diagrams and 4 tables. (4 refs.) (In Polish)

  18. Nutritional attributes of ash (Fraxinus spp.) outer bark and phloem and their relationships to resistance against the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Amy L; Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Phelan, P Larry; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an alien, invasive wood-boring insect that is responsible for killing millions of ash trees since its discovery in North America in 2002. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that EAB has encountered have shown various degrees of susceptibility, while Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Ruprecht), which shares a co-evolutionary history with this insect, is resistant. Recent studies have looked into constitutive resistance mechanisms in Manchurian ash, concentrating on the secondary phloem, which is the feeding substrate for the insect. In addition to specialized metabolism and defense-related components, primary metabolites and nutritional summaries can also be important to understand the feeding behavior of insect herbivores. Here, we have compared the nutritional characteristics (water content, total protein, free amino acids, total soluble sugars and starch, percent carbon and nitrogen, and macro- and micronutrients) of outer bark and phloem from black, green, white and Manchurian ash to determine their relevance to resistance or susceptibility to EAB. Water content and concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, K, Li, tryptophan and an unknown compound were found to separate black and Manchurian ash from green and white ash in a principal component analysis (PCA), confirming their phylogenetic placements into two distinct clades. The traits that distinguished Manchurian ash from black ash in the PCA were water content and concentrations of total soluble sugars, histidine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, proline, sarcosine, tyramine, tyrosol, Al, Fe, K, Na, V and an unknown compound. However, only proline, tyramine and tyrosol were significantly different, and higher, in Manchurian ash than in black ash.

  19. Durability of biomass fly ash concrete: Freezing and thawing and rapid chloride permeability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Emilio Llamazos; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Strict interpretation of ASTM C 618 excludes non-coal fly ashes, such as biomass fly ashes from addition in concrete. Biomass fly ash in this investigation includes (1) cofired fly ash from burning biomass with coal; (2) wood fly ash and (3) blended fly ash (wood fly ash mixing with coal fly ash). A set of experiments conducted on concrete from pure cement and cement with fly ash provide basic data to assess the effects of several biomass fly ashes on the performances of freezing and thawing (F-T) and rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT). The F-T tests indicate that all fly ash concrete has statistically equal or less weight loss than the pure cement concrete (control). The RCPT illustrate that all kinds of fly ash concrete have lower chloride permeability than the pure cement control concrete. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  1. Fly ash for soil amelioration: A review on the influence of ash blending with inorganic and organic amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, L. C.; Masto, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, fly ash (FA), generated in huge quantities from coal fired power plants is a problematic solid waste. Utilization of FA as an ameliorant for improving soil quality has received a great deal of attention over the past four decades, and many studies have been carried out worldwide. The silt-sized particles, low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity (WHC), favorable pH, and significant presence of plant nutrients in FA, make it a potential amendment for soils. The studies suggest enormous potential for the use of FA to improve cultivable, degraded/waste land, mine soil, landfills, and also to reclaim abandoned ash ponds, for agriculture and forestry. FA application improves the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soils to which it is applied. However, in some cases, depending on the characteristics of FA, the release of trace elements and soluble salts from FA to a soil-plant-human system could be a constraint. The effect is minimal in the case of weathered FA. The findings reflected the heterogeneity of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions, thus a generalized conclusion on the impact of FA on plant species and soil quality is difficult. It is very important that the application of FA to soil must be very specific depending on the properties of the FA and soil. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to blend FA with varieties of organic and inorganic materials, like lime, gypsum, red mud, animal manure, poultry manure, sewage sludge, composts, press mud, vermicompost, biochar, bioinoculants, etc. Co-application of FA with these materials has much advantage: enhanced nutrient availability, decreased bioavailability of toxic metals, pH buffering, organic matter addition, microbial stimulation, overall improvement in the general health of the soil, etc. The performance of FA blending with organic and inorganic materials is better than FA alone treatments. Farm manure was found to be the most

  2. Gas generation in incinerator ash; Gasbildning i aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Lindeberg, Johanna; Rodin, Aasa; Oehrstroem, Anna; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan

    2006-02-15

    In recent years, explosions have occurred in certain phases of ash handling in Sweden. Investigations have revealed that hydrogen may have been present in all cases. The hydrogen is believed to be generated by chemical reactions of aluminium and other metals within the ash in the presence of water. The purpose with this study is to increase the knowledge of gas generation of incinerator ash. Thereby, guides for appropriate ash management can be introduced and the risk for further explosions prevented. The study has comprised analyses of the ash properties, such as chemical and physical composition and the pH, of ash from 14 incineration plants (mostly waste incineration plants). Different fractions of ash materials representing different parts of the process in each plant have been analysed. Furthermore, the fuel and the technical differences between the plants have been analysed. A tool for measuring the gas generation in the laboratory has been developed and the gas generation of the different ash materials at natural and increased pH was measured. Gas analyses and thermodynamic calculations have also been performed. The results showed that: bottom ash from fluidised bed boilers generated small amounts of gas at increased pH, much smaller amounts than the idle pass, cyclone and filter ash did, bottom ash from grate fired boilers generated more gas at increased pH than their cyclone ash and filter ash, with exception of the Linkoeping plant, all bio waste incineration plants generated ash with low gas generation potential, all fly ash materials with a gas generation potential of more than 10 l/kg originated from municipal waste incineration plants, filter ash that had been stored in oxygen rich environment generated significant less gas than fresh filter ash of the same origin, hardly any other gases were generated apart from hydrogen (very small amounts of acetone, furane, benzene and most likely methane were detected in some of the ash materials), there were no

  3. Effects of water availability on emerald ash borer larval performance and phloem phenolics of Manchurian and black ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-04-01

    The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability.

  4. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of adrenal gland cortex of sheep grazing on pastures with the ground of electrofilter ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juntes, P.; Pestevsek, U.; Pogacnik, M. [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-07-01

    Electrofilter ash is a side product of power plants using coal as a fuel. Trials for transforming ash covered areas into cultivated landscape are ongoing e.g., efforts to form grasslands that would be usable for animal breeding and production. However the question of how safe grazing is on such surfaces in relation to animal health and the use of animal products, produced on such surfaces, for human consumption has not been truly resolved yet. The main goal of our work is a systematic search for the possible negative effects on animals grazing on such surfaces. In this work we present the results of morphologic and morphometric analyses that were made to evaluate the potential toxic or some other impact of electrofilter ash constituents on the adrenal gland cortex. No conclusive evidence of such effects was determined in this study.

  5. Interspecific comparison of constitutive ash phloem phenolic chemistry reveals compounds unique to manchurian ash, a species resistant to emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Cipollini, Donald F; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-05-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB) is an invasive wood-borer indigenous to Asia and is responsible for widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in the U.S. and Canada. Resistance and susceptibility to EAB varies among Fraxinus spp., which is a result of their co-evolutionary history with the pest. We characterized constitutive phenolic profiles and lignin levels in the phloem of green, white, black, blue, European, and Manchurian ash. Phloem was sampled twice during the growing season, coinciding with phenology of early and late instar EAB. We identified 66 metabolites that displayed a pattern of variation, which corresponded strongly with phylogeny. Previously identified lignans and lignan derivatives were confirmed to be unique to Manchurian ash, and may contribute to its high level of resistance to EAB. Other compounds that had been considered unique to Manchurian ash, including hydroxycoumarins and the phenylethanoids calceolarioside A and B, were detected in closely related, but susceptible species, and thus are unlikely to contribute to EAB resistance of Manchurian ash. The distinct phenolic profile of blue ash may contribute to its relatively high resistance to EAB.

  6. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a reasonably high alkali content, thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was well within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that the aggressive alkali-iron-trisulfate constituent was present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section C, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. The analysis of Test Section C followed much the same protocol that was employed in the assessment of Test Section A. Again, the focus was on determining and documenting the relative corrosion rates of the candidate materials. The detailed results of the investigation are included in this report as a series of twelve appendices. Each appendix is devoted to the performance of one of the candidate alloys. The table below summarizes metal loss rate for the worst case sample of each of the candidate materials for both Test Sections A and C

  7. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...

  8. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  9. Synergic Effect of Wheat Straw Ash and Rice-Husk Ash on Strength Properties of Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ajay; Kunio, Hattori; Ogata, Hidehiko; Garg, Monika; Anwar, A. M.; Ashraf, M.; Mandula

    Pozzolan materials obtained from various sources; when used as partial replacement for Portland cement in cement based applications play an important role not only towards sustainable development but in reducing the construction costs as well. Present study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of Rice-Husk Ash (RHA) and Wheat Straw Ash (WSA) on the strength properties of ash substituted mortar. Ash materials were obtained after burning the wastes at 600°C for 5 h at a control rate of 2°C min. Two binary blends of mortar substituting 15% cement with WSA and RHA and three combinations of ternary blend with (10+5)%, (5+10)% and (7.5+7.5)% mix ratios of WSA and RHA, together with a control specimen were subjected to destructive (compressive and flexural strength) as well as non-destructive (ultrasonic pulse velocity) tests till 180 days of curing. Ternary blend with (7.5 + 7.5)% combination of WSA and RHA showed better strength results than control and other blends and proved to be the optimum combination for achieving maximum synergic effect.

  10. Illinois basin coal fly ashes. 2. Equilibria relationships and qualitative modeling of ash-water reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Alkaline and acidic Illinois Basin coal fly ash samples were each mixed with deionized water and equilibrated for about 140 days to simulate ash ponding environments. Common to both equilibrated solutions, anhydrite solubility dominated Ca2+ activities, and Al3+ activities were in equilibrium with both matrix mullite and insoluble aluminum hydroxide phases. Aqueous silica activities were controlled by both mullite and matrix silicates. The pH of the extract of the acidic fly ash was 4.1 after 24 h but increased to a pH value of 6.4 as the H2SO4, assumed to be adsorbed to the particle surfaces, was exhausted by the dissolution of matrix iron oxides and aluminosilicates. The activities of aqueous Al3+ and iron, initially at high levels during the early stages of equilibration, decreased to below analytical detection limits as the result of the formation of insoluble Fe and Al hydroxide phases. The pH of the extract of the alkaline fly ash remained above a pH value of 10 during the entire equilibration interval as a result of the hydrolysis of matrix oxides. As with the acidic system, Al3+ activities were controlled by amorphous aluminum hydroxide phases that began to form after about 7 days of equilibration. The proposed mechanisms and their interrelations are discussed in addition to the solubility diagrams used to deduce these relationships. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  11. Synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite from lignite fly ash and rice husk ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareonpanich, Metta; Namto, Teerapong; Kongkachuichay, Paisan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Limtrakul, Jumras [Department of Chemistry, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2004-10-15

    The lignite fly ash from the Mae-Moh power plant, Thailand, and rice husk ash were used as raw materials for ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. Factors affecting the yield of ZSM-5 zeolite synthesized from fly ash, i.e., the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio, the presence of tetrapropyl ammonium bromide (TPABr, the structure-directing material for ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis), the holding temperature and time, and the initial pressure were investigated. It was found that without TPABr only zeolite P could be synthesized at SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratios of 2.8-200. In order to synthesize ZSM-5 zeolite, sodium silicate solution was added to adjust the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio in raw ash. The yield of ZSM-5 zeolite was as high as 59 wt.% when following conditions were used: SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mole ratio, 40; the holding temperature, 210 C; the holding time, 4 h and the initial pressure, 4 bar. The catalytic performance for CO{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction of the ZSM-5 zeolite was preliminary tested and compared with that of commercial one. It was observed that there was no significant difference in the catalytic performance between these two catalysts.

  12. Patterns among the ashes: Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...

  13. Optical Properties of Volcanic Ash: Improving Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Colarco, P. R.; Aquila, V.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Young, K. E.; Lima, A. R.; Martins, J. V.; Carn, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Many times each year explosive volcanic eruptions loft ash into the atmosphere. Global travel and trade rely on aircraft vulnerable to encounters with airborne ash. Volcanic ash advisory centers (VAACs) rely on dispersion forecasts and satellite data to issue timely warnings. To improve ash forecasts model developers and satellite data providers need realistic information about volcanic ash microphysical and optical properties. In anticipation of future large eruptions we can study smaller events to improve our remote sensing and modeling skills so when the next Pinatubo 1991 or larger eruption occurs, ash can confidently be tracked in a quantitative way. At distances >100km from their sources, drifting ash plumes, often above meteorological clouds, are not easily detected from conventional remote sensing platforms, save deriving their quantitative characteristics, such as mass density. Quantitative interpretation of these observations depends on a priori knowledge of the spectral optical properties of the ash in UV (>0.3μm) and TIR wavelengths (>10μm). Incorrect assumptions about the optical properties result in large errors in inferred column mass loading and size distribution, which misguide operational ash forecasts. Similarly, simulating ash properties in global climate models also requires some knowledge of optical properties to improve aerosol speciation. Recent research has identified a wide range in volcanic ash optical properties among samples collected from the ground after different eruptions. The database of samples investigated remains relatively small, and measurements of optical properties at the relevant particle sizes and spectral channels are far from complete. Generalizing optical properties remains elusive, as does establishing relationships between ash composition and optical properties, which are essential for satellite retrievals. We are building a library of volcanic ash optical and microphysical properties. In this presentation we show

  14. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  15. Detecting Volcanic Ash Plumes with GNSS Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, N.; Larson, K. M.; Palo, S. E.; Mattia, M.; Rossi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Roesler, C.; Fee, D.

    2016-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers are commonly placed near volcanic sites to measure ground deformation. In addition to the carrier phase data used to measure ground position, these receivers also record Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) data. Larson (2013) showed that attenuations in SNR data strongly correlate with ash emissions at a series of eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. This finding has been confirmed at eruptions for Tongariro, Mt Etna, Mt Shindake, and Sakurajima. In each of these detections, very expensive geodetic quality GNSS receivers were used. If low-cost GNSS instruments could be used instead, a networked array could be deployed and optimized for plume detection and tomography. The outputs of this sensor array could then be used by both local volcanic observatories and Volcano Ash Advisory Centers. Here we will describe progress in developing such an array. The sensors we are working with are intended for navigation use, and thus lack the supporting power and communications equipment necessary for a networked system. Reliably providing those features is major challenge for the overall sensor design. We have built prototypes of our Volcano Ash Plume Receiver (VAPR), with solar panels, lithium-ion batteries and onboard data storage for preliminary testing. We will present results of our field tests of both receivers and antennas. A second critical need for our array is a reliable detection algorithm. We have tested our algorithm on data from recent eruptions and have incorporated the noise characteristics of the low-cost GNSS receiver. We have also developed a simulation capability so that the receivers can be deployed to optimize vent crossing GNSS signals.

  16. Disaster Victim Identification using Orthopedic Implants in the 2011 East-Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Norio; Makinae, Haruka; Yoshida, Wataru; Daimon, Masao; Murakami, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake (magnitude 9.0) devastated Japan's east coast, and the associated tsunami resulted in social and mechanical destruction. Search for the missing people is still ongoing. Surgical implants are common in the general population. Medical implants usually have lot numbers, and their forensic use is common for victim identification. This investigation was conducted mainly in the cities of Kamaishi and Otsuchi, both of which were affected by the tsunami disaster in 2011. We visited 6 mortuaries with the police between March 20 (9 days after the tsunami) and April 20 (40 days after the tsunami) to examine the presence of surgical scars and related information. Unidentified human remains were investigated by visual and tactile examination. We also visited temples where the ashes were preserved. If implants were found, their lot numbers and estimated surgical procedures were recorded to determine positive identification. Ten of 233 sets of unidentified human remains before cremation displayed characteristics of a potential past surgical history. However, only 2 of these 233 sets had orthopedic implants. Instead, non-combustible orthopedic implants were found and recognized in 8 of the 331 sets of unidentified human ashes in the temples after cremation; the lot numbers were fully legible in 2 of the 8 sets. We estimated the surgical procedures, which led to positive identification. In conclusion, lot numbers and the surgical knowledge of orthopedic surgeons could assist with the positive identification of disaster victims. However, the relevant information can be erased after cremation.

  17. Retrieval of ash properties from IASI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventress, Lucy J.; McGarragh, Gregory; Carboni, Elisa; Smith, Andrew J.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2016-11-01

    A new optimal estimation algorithm for the retrieval of volcanic ash properties has been developed for use with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The retrieval method uses the wave number range 680-1200 cm-1, which contains window channels, the CO2 ν2 band (used for the height retrieval), and the O3 ν3 band.Assuming a single infinitely (geometrically) thin ash plume and combining this with the output from the radiative transfer model RTTOV, the retrieval algorithm produces the most probable values for the ash optical depth (AOD), particle effective radius, plume top height, and effective radiating temperature. A comprehensive uncertainty budget is obtained for each pixel. Improvements to the algorithm through the use of different measurement error covariance matrices are explored, comparing the results from a sensitivity study of the retrieval process using covariance matrices trained on either clear-sky or cloudy scenes. The result showed that, due to the smaller variance contained within it, the clear-sky covariance matrix is preferable. However, if the retrieval fails to pass the quality control tests, the cloudy covariance matrix is implemented.The retrieval algorithm is applied to scenes from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010, and the retrieved parameters are compared to ancillary data sources. The ash optical depth gives a root mean square error (RMSE) difference of 0.46 when compared to retrievals from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument for all pixels and an improved RMSE of 0.2 for low optical depths (AOD < 0.1). Measurements from the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) flight campaigns are used to verify the retrieved particle effective radius, with the retrieved distribution of sizes for the scene showing excellent consistency. Further, the plume top altitudes are compared to derived cloud-top altitudes from the Cloud

  18. Age of the Xalnene Ash, Central Mexico: A Rock Magnetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Renne, P. R.; Waters, M. R.; Arroyo-Cabrales, J.; Ochoa-Castillo, P.; Perez-Campo, M.

    2007-05-01

    Features interpreted as human footprints ~40 ka old have been reported from the Toluquilla quarry near Valsequillo Reservoir, 15 km south of the city of Puebla in central Mexico (Gonzalez et al., 2006). The indentations were found in an indurated basaltic lapilli tuff informally known as the Xalnene Ash. The ~40 ka age of the tuff was based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) analysis of baked quartz-rich materials incorporated into the ash during eruption. If true, this ~40 ka age suggests that humans migrated into the Americas at a far earlier time than is currently believed. In contrast to the conclusions of Gonzalez et al. (2006), the age of the Xalnene ash was determined as 1.30 ± 0.03 Ma (2σ) based on highly reproducible 40Ar/39Ar analyses of homogenous basaltic lapilli (Renne et al., 2005). This age is further supported by paleomagnetic data, which shows a reversed polarity for the Xalnene Ash, consistent with deposition during chron C1r.2r (1.77 to 1.07 Ma). The magnetic mineralogy within the Xalnene Ash is not straightforward, and is a reflection of its volcanic origin modified by its subsequent hydrous alteration via prolonged exposure to varying water levels in Lake Valsequillo. Submicron titanomagnetite grains occur within the cores of the lapilli and are characterized by Curie temperatures between 400-500 °C corresponding to unoxidized compositions ranging from Fe2.82Ti0.18O4 to Fe2.68Ti0.32O4. Two components of magnetization were revealed during progressive alternating field (AF) demagnetization of oriented, individual lapilli: a low coercivity, reversed component that is typically removed after 15-20 mT, and a randomly oriented, but well-defined, higher coercivity component. The directions associated with the low coercivity component are consistent with the direction of the bulk rock characteristic remanent magnetization. This low coercivity component may have been acquired immediately after deposition during the final stages of cooling, or

  19. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  20. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Variation in the Volatile Profiles of Black and Manchurian Ash in Relation to Emerald Ash Borer Oviposition Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, Chad M; McCartney, Nathaniel B; Herms, Daniel A; Tumlinson, James H; Cipollini, Don

    2017-07-27

    Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is a devastating pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in its invaded range in North America. Its coevolved Asian hosts are more resistant and less preferred for oviposition than susceptible North American species. We compared EAB oviposition preferences and bark and canopy volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of resistant Manchurian ash and susceptible black ash, and examined relationships between VOC profiles and oviposition. In the field, black ash was highly preferred for oviposition while no eggs were laid on Manchurian ash, and we found clear differences in the VOC profiles of Manchurian and black ash. We detected 78 compounds emitted from these species, including 16 compounds that elicited EAB antennal activity in prior studies. Four compounds were unique to black and 11 to Manchurian ash. Emission rates of 14 canopy and 19 bark volatiles varied among the two species, including four previously reported as antennally active. Specifically, 7-epi-sesquithujene (bark) emissions were greater from black ash, while β-caryophyllene (canopy), linalool (bark), and α-cubebene (bark) were emitted at higher rates by Manchurian ash. No relationships were found between the emission rate of any single compound or group of compounds (e.g. monoterpenes) suggesting that preference may be based on complex profile combinations. This is the first study to directly compare VOCs of black and Manchurian ash as well as the first to examine bark- and canopy-specific VOCs. The unique bark and canopy VOC profiles of these two species implicates potentially important variation in VOCs between a closely related resistant and susceptible species that provides a foundation for future studies of host preferences of EAB.

  2. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  3. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollars, Elizabeth S A; Harper, Andrea L; Kelly, Laura J;

    2016-01-01

    Ash trees (genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae) are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but are being devastated in Europe by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback, and in North America by the herbivorous beetle Agrilus planipennis. Here we sequence the genome of a low...... to an emerging health threat in a non-model organism opens the way for mitigation of the epidemic....

  4. classical optimization of bagasse ash content in cement- stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Optimzation and the use of bagasse ash gave a cost benefit of 9.24% with a better mix. The classical .... more complex in that the minerals present in the soil and the bagasse ash .... unit coefficients, required to make up the left-hand side to the ...

  5. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  6. Management tactics for emerald ash borer: chemical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Daniel A. Herms; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Andrew R. Tluczek

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid native to northeast Asia, has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in infested areas of eastern North America. EAB apparently arrived in infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s near Detroit, MI, but was not identified as...

  7. Screening coal combustion fly ashes for application in geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Sarabér, A.J.; Fischer, H.R.; Nugteren, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Driven by cost and sustainability, secondary resource materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and bottom ash are increasingly used for alternative types of concrete binders, such as geopolymers. Because secondary resources may be highly variable from the perspective of geopolymers, it is ofte

  8. Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher

  9. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO{sub 2} to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO{sub 2} to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms.

  10. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  11. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO{sub 2} to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO{sub 2} to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms.

  12. Hot-Gas Filter Ash Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L.; Hurley, J.P.; Dockter, B.A.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1997-07-01

    Large-scale hot-gas filter testing over the past 10 years has revealed numerous cases of cake buildup on filter elements that has been difficult, if not impossible, to remove. At times, the cake can blind or bridge between candle filters, leading to filter failure. Physical factors, including particle-size distribution, particle shape, the aerodynamics of deposition, and system temperature, contribute to the difficulty in removing the cake, but chemical factors such as surface composition and gas-solid reactions also play roles in helping to bond the ash to the filters or to itself. This project is designed to perform the research necessary to determine the fuel-, sorbent-, and operations-related conditions that lead to blinding or bridging of hot-gas particle filters. The objectives of the project are threefold: (1) Determine the mechanisms by which a difficult-to-clean ash is formed and how it bridges hot-gas filters (2) Develop a method to determine the rate of bridging based on analyses of the feed coal and sorbent, filter properties, and system operating conditions and (3) Suggest and test ways to prevent filter bridging.

  13. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Shelke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica is used as a raw material in several areas: in preparation of catalysts, in inks, as a concrete hardening accelerator, as a component of detergents and soaps, as a refractory constituent etc. Sodium silicate is produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA with aqueous NaOH and silica is precipitated from the sodium silicate by acidification. In the present work, conversion of about 90% of silica contained in RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in an open system at temperatures of about 100 °C. The results showed that silica obtained from RHA is mesoporous, has a large surface area and small particle size. Rice Husk is usually mixed with coal and this mixture is used for firing boilers. The RHA therefore, usually contains carbon particles. Activated carbon embedded on silica has been prepared using the carbon already present in RHA. This carbon shows good adsorption capacity. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 25th April 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010, Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: V.R. Shelke, S.S. Bhagade, S.A. Mandavgane. (2010. Mesoporous Silica from Rice Husk Ash. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5 (2: 63-67. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.793.63-67

  14. Cadmium in insects after ash fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Lodenius; Jussi Josefsson; Kari Heli(o)vaara; Esa Tulisalo; Matti Nummelin

    2009-01-01

    Ash fertilization of forests returns nutrients to forest ecosystems and has a positive effect on soil pH.but it also may elevate Cd concentrations of forest biota.Cadmium concentrations of some forest insects(Formica ants.carabids and Coleopteran larvac from decaying wood)were investigated in southern Finland where two plots were fertilized with wood ash,while two other plots represented anfertilized control plots.In ants,mean Cd concentration was 3.6±1.4 mg/kg.with nest workers having significantly higher concen-trations than workers trapped in pitfall traps.Concentrations at fertilized and unfertilized plots were similar.In carabid beetles,the average Cd concentration of Carabus glabratus was 0.44±0.36 mg/kg.with no significant difference between control plots and fertilized plots.In another carabid beetle,Pterostichus niger,mean Cd concentration was higher at fertilized plots compared to control plots.We conclude that the variation of Cd concentra-tions in the insects studied is more efficiently controlled by species-specific differences than fertilization history of the forest floor.

  15. ASH position paper: hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2009-04-01

    The American Society of Hypertension is publishing a series of Position Papers in their official journals throughout the 2008-2009 years. The following Position Paper originally appeared: JASH. 2008;2(6):484-494. Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension, Inc (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous magnesium sulfate is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  17. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2003-05-20

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  18. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Hindborg; Qin, Jiayi; Cruz-Paredes, Carla

    the consequences of returning wood ash to biofuel producing coniferous forest. We that the change in pH and increased availability of nutrients after ash application to forest floor can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible effects for the soil food by applying ash of different......In 2006, the European Council established a mandatory target of 20 % renewable energy of consumption by 2020. Part of the replacement is burning biomass for heating and electricity. ~ Whole tree biomass harvesting for biofuel combustion intensifies removal of nutrients from the by applying ash from...... the combustion back to the system and thus recycle the besides being rich in inorganic nutrients, ash is also very alkaline and contains heavy metals. The ASHBACK project (www.ashback.dk) is a cooperation between three Danish universities other research institutions and stake-holders that aims to investigate...

  19. Soil food web structure after wood ash application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L. H.; Qin, J.; Krogh, Paul Henning

    of nutrients from the ecosystem. This can be partly mitigated by applying ash from the combustion back to the system and thus recycle the nutrients. However, besides being rich in inorganic nutrients, ash is also very alkaline and contains heavy metals. The ASHBACK project (www.ashback.dk) is a cooperation...... between three Danish universities, other research institutions and stake-holders that aims to investigate the consequences of returning wood ash to biofuel producing coniferous forest. We hypothesize that the change in pH and increased availability of nutrients after ash application to the forest floor...... can facilitate an increase in the bacteria to fungi ratio with possible cascading effects for the soil food web structure. This is tested by applying ash of different concentrations to experimental plots in a coniferous forest. During the course of the project soil samples will be collected...

  20. Analysis list: ash-2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ash-2 Adult,Embryo + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/as...h-2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/ash-2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/ash-2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/ash-2.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/ash-2.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Adult.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  1. Electrical charging of ash in Icelandic volcanic plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen L; Nicoll, Keri A

    2014-01-01

    The existence of volcanic lightning and alteration of the atmospheric potential gradient in the vicinity of near-vent volcanic plumes provides strong evidence for the charging of volcanic ash. More subtle electrical effects are also visible in balloon soundings of distal volcanic plumes. Near the vent, some proposed charging mechanisms are fractoemission, triboelectrification, and the so-called "dirty thunderstorm" mechanism, which is where ash and convective clouds interact electrically to enhance charging. Distant from the vent, a self-charging mechanism, probably triboelectrification, has been suggested to explain the sustained low levels of charge observed on a distal plume. Recent research by Houghton et al. (2013) linked the self-charging of volcanic ash to the properties of the particle size distribution, observing that a highly polydisperse ash distribution would charge more effectively than a monodisperse one. Natural radioactivity in some volcanic ash could also contribute to self-charging of volcan...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm3 of 3 mol · dm−3 NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm3 of 5 mol · dm−3 NaOH + 0.4...

  3. Use of Recycled Aggregate and Fly Ash in Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myle N. James

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recycled materials aggregate from the demolished concrete structures and fly ash from burning coal shows the possible application as structural and non structural components in concrete structures. This research aims to evaluate the feasibility of using concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate and fly ash in concrete pavement. Approach: Two water cement ratio (0.45 and 0.55 the compressive strength, modulus of electricity and flexural strength for concrete with recycled aggregate and fly ash with 0, 25% replacing cement in mass were considered. Results: The material properties of recycled aggregate concrete with fly ash indicate comparable results with that of concrete with natural aggregate and without fly ash. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recycled materials could be used in concrete pavement and it will promote the sustainability of concrete.

  4. Dry coal fly ash cleaning using rotary triboelectrostatic separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Daniel; FAN Mao-ming; JIANG Xin-kai

    2009-01-01

    More than 80 million metric tons of fly ash is produced annually in the U.S. As coal combustion by-product. Coal fly ash can be converted to value-added products if unburned carbon is reduced to less than 2.5%. However, most of fly ash is currently landfilled as waste due to lack of efficient purification technologies to separate unburned carbon from fly ash. A rotary triboelectrostatic separator has been developed and patented recently at the University of Kentucky with unique features. Several fly ash samples have been used to understand the effects of major process parameters on the separation performance. The results show that compared to existing triboelectrostatic separators, the rotary triboelectrostatic separator has significant advantages in particle charging efficiency, solids throughput, separation efficiency, applicable particle size range.

  5. Low temperature magnetic characterisation of fire ash residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.; Thompson, R.; Harrison, A.; Church, M. J.

    Fire ash is ideally suited to mineral magnetic studies. Both modern (generated by controlled burning experiments) and archaeological ash deposits have been studied, with the aim of identifying and quantifying fuel types used in prehistory. Low temperature magnetic measurements were carried out on the ash samples using an MPMS 2 SQUID magnetometer. The low temperature thermo-remanence cooling curves of the modern ash display differences between fuel sources. Wood and well-humified peat ash display an increase in remanence with cooling probably related to a high superparamagnetic component, consistent with room temperature frequency dependent susceptibilities of over 7%. In comparison fibrous-upper peat and peat turf display an unusual decrease in remanence, possibly due to an isotropic point of grains larger than superparamagnetic in size. The differences have been successfully utilised in unmixing calculations to quantify fuel components within four archaeological deposits from the Northern and Western Isles of Scotland.

  6. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  7. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NOx formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash by up to a factor of 25. This was due...... on a carbon black. The reactor was modeled with CFD and a relationship between oxygen concentration in the early stage of combustion and the AEA adsorption properties of the ash was observed. The NOx formation increased by up to three times with more oxidizing conditions and thus, there was a trade....... The AEA requirements of a fly ash can be suppressed by exposing it to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post...

  8. Self-healing ability of fly ash-cement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipat Termkhajornkit; Toyoharu Nawa; Yoichi Yamashiro; Toshiki Saito [Lafarge Research Centre, Quentin Fallavier (France). Reactive Components Department

    2009-03-15

    Concrete is susceptible to cracking due to both autogenous and drying shrinkage. Nevertheless, most of these types of cracks occur before 28 days. Because fly ash continues to hydrate after 28 days, it is likely that hydrated products from fly ash may modify microstructure, seal these cracks, and prolong the service life. This research investigates the self-healing ability of fly ash-cement paste. Compressive strength, porosity, chloride diffusion coefficients, hydration reactions and hydrated products were studied. The research focuses on behavior after 28 days. According to the experimental results, the fly ash-cement system has the self-healing ability for cracks that occur from shrinkage. The self-healing ability increased when the fraction of fly ash increased.

  9. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  10. Leaching of nutrient salts from fly ash from biomass combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated....... The first method was a counter current moving bed process in four stages. The ash was kept in filter bags and leached with water that was introduced into the bags at 40-50°C. In the second method, fly ash and water was brought into contact in a partially fluidized bed. The third method was a counter current...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  11. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  12. Ash and heavy metals in fluidized bed-combustion; Tuhka ja raskasmetallit puuperaeisen jaetteen kerrosleijupoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaessi, T.; Aittoniemi, P. [IVO International, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Combustion ashes and submicron fly ash particles were characterized in two industrial boilers (bubbling vs. circulating fluidized bed) burning paper mill deinking sludge and bark or wood as support fuel. Bulk samples from fly ash, circulating ash and bottom ash were analyzed. Fine particles in fly ash were monitored and sampled for microscopic studies. The mass size distribution of fly ash was measured and the chemical composition according to particle size was analyzed. The results showed that ash consists of large and friable clusters formed by sintering of small mineral particles originating from paper fillers. Very few ash particles were fused and they were found only among the smallest particles. No agglomerates of fused particles were found. If the residence time in furnace is long enough sintering may proceed further and ash structure grows more dense. No indication of ash vaporization was detected. These results were similar for bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers. (author)

  13. Gas/aerosol-ash interaction in volcanic plumes: New insights from surface analyses of fine ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Lambert, Mathieu; Dufrêne, Yves; Gerin, Patrick; Óskarsson, Niels

    2007-07-01

    The reactions occurring between gases/aerosols and silicate ash particles in volcanic eruption plumes remain poorly understood, despite the fact that they are at the origin of a range of volcanic, environmental, atmospheric and health effects. In this study, we apply X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a surface-sensitive technique, to determine the chemical composition of the near-surface region (2-10 nm) of nine ash samples collected from eight volcanoes. In addition, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to image the nanometer-scale surface structure of individual ash particles isolated from three samples. We demonstrate that rapid acid dissolution of ash occurs within eruption plumes. This process is favoured by the presence of fluoride and is believed to supply the cations involved in the deposition of sulphate and halide salts onto ash. AFM imaging also has permitted the detection of extremely thin (< 10 nm) coatings on the surface of ash. This material is probably composed of soluble sulphate and halide salts mixed with sparingly soluble fluoride compounds. The surface approach developed here offers promising aspects for better appraising the role of gas/aerosol-ash interaction in dictating the ability of ash to act as sinks for various volcanic and atmospheric chemical species as well as sources for others.

  14. Effects of the emerald ash borer invasion on the community composition of arthropods associated with ash tree boles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire is an invasive non-native wood-boring beetle that has killed hundreds of millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America, and threatens to extirpate the ecological services provided by the genus. Identifying the arthropod community assoc...

  15. Characterization of ash in algae and other materials by determination of wet acid indigestible ash and microscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are known for high ash content. It is important to properly characterize their ash for value added utilization of algae as food, feed, and feedstock for biofuels. In this study, 12 algae of different sources were measured for proximate composition and mineral profile. Results showed that the r...

  16. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, to induced volatiles of Manchurian ash, Fraxinus mandshurica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Therese M. Poland; James R. Miller; Lukasz L. Stelinski; Gary G. Grant; Peter de Groot; Linda Buchan; Linda Mac Donald

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the volatile emissions of Manchurian ash seedlings, Fraxinus mandshurica, in response to feeding by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, and to exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Feeding damage by adult A. planipennis and MeJA treatment increased volatile emissions compared...

  17. Can ash communities and their dependent species be partially protected through biological control of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002 and has been detected in 32 U.S. states and two Canadian pro...

  18. Feasibility study on solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash with circulating fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshi; Hou, Haobo; Zhang, Chuhao; Zhang, Dajie

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash with circulation fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ash, which is unsuitable as a cement replacement due to its high amounts of carbon, lime and anhydrite. The solidification process was conducted on samples prepared from MSWI fly ash, binders (cement clinkers and CFBC fly ash were mixed at two replacement ratios) and water (water/solid weight ratio = 0.4), among which the MSWI fly ash replaced each binder at the ratio of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% by dry weight. The samples were subjected to compressive strength tests and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the results showed that all solidified MSWI fly ash can meet the landfill standard imposed by US EPA after 28 days of curing. Micro-analysis (X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry) revealed that the main hydrate products were C-S-H gel and ettringite, which have a positive effect on heavy metals retention. Therefore, this method provides a possibility to achieve a cheap and effective solution for MSWI fly ash management and use for CFBC fly ash.

  19. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  20. Emerald Ash Borer Threat Reveals Ecohydrologic Feedbacks in Northern U.S. Black Ash Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Slesak, R.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrology is a primary driver of wetland structure and process that can be modified by abiotic and biotic feedbacks, leading to self-organization of wetland systems. Large-scale disturbance to these feedbacks, such as loss of vegetation, can thus be expected to impact wetland hydrology. The Emerald Ash Borer is an invasive beetle that is expected to cause widespread-loss of ash trees throughout the northern U.S. and Canada. To predict ecosystem response to this threat of vegetation loss, we ask if and how Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra), a ubiquitous facultative-wetland ash species, actively controls wetland hydrology to determine if Black Ash creates favorable hydrologic regimes for growth (i.e., evidence for ecohydrologic feedbacks). We do this by taking advantage of plot-level tree removal experiments in Black Ash-dominated (75-100% basal area) wetlands in the Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota. The monospecies dominance in these systems minimizes variation associated with species-specific effects, allowing for clearer interpretation of results regarding ecohydrologic feedbacks. Here, we present an analysis of six years of water table and soil moisture time series in experimental plots with the following treatments: 1) clear cut, 2) girdling, 3) group-selection thinning, and 4) control. We also present evapotranspiration (ET) time series estimates for each experimental plot using analysis of diel water level variation. Results show elevated water tables in treatment plots relative to control plots for all treatments for several years after treatments were applied, with differences as great as 50 cm. Some recovery of water table to pre-treatment levels was observed over time, but only the group-selection thinning treatment showed near-complete recovery to pre-treatment levels, and clear-cut treatments indicate sustained elevated water tables over five years. Differences among treatments are directly attributed to variably reduced ET relative to controls. Results also

  1. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  2. Leaching behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from the fly ash and bottom ash of a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The leaching behavior of dioxins from landfill containing bottom ash and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration has been investigated by leaching tests with pure water, non-ionic surfactant solutions, ethanol solutions, or acetic acid solutions as elution solvents for a large-scale cylindrical column packed with ash. Larger amounts of dioxins were eluted from both bottom ash and fly ash with ethanol solution and acetic acid solution than with pure water. Large quantities of dioxins were leached from fly ash but not bottom ash by non-ionic surfactant solutions. The patterns of distribution of the dioxin congeners in the leachates were very similar to those in the bottom ash or fly ash from which they were derived.

  3. Effect of particle volume fraction on the settling velocity of volcanic ash particles: implications for ash dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Scarlato, P.; Andronico, D.; Scollo, S.; Kueppers, U.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first report of experimental measurements of the enhanced settling velocity of volcanic particles as function of particle volume fraction. In order to investigate the differences in the aerodynamic behavior of ash particles when settling individually or in mass, we performed systematic large-scale ash settling experiments using natural basaltic and phonolitic ash. By releasing ash particles at different, controlled volumetric flow rates, in an unconstrained open space and at minimal air movement, we measured their terminal velocity, size, and particle volume fraction with a high-speed camera at 2000 fps. Enhanced settling velocities of individual particles increase with increasing particle volume fraction. This suggests that particle clustering during fallout may be one reason explaining larger than theoretical depletion rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. We provide a quantitative empirical model that allows to calculate, from a given particle size and density, the enhanced velocity resulting from a given particle volume fraction. The proposed model has the potential to serve as a simple tool for the prediction of the terminal velocity of ash of an hypothetical distribution of ash of known particle size and volume fraction. This is of particular importance for advection-diffusion transport model of ash where generally a one-way coupling is adopted, considering only the flow effects on particles. To better quantify the importance of the enhanced settling velocity in ash dispersal, we finally introduced the new formulation in a Lagrangian model calculating for realistic eruptive conditions the resulting ash concentration in the atmosphere and on the ground.

  4. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  5. Modelling of landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash for utilization of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chen

    2011-10-06

    Energy crisis, environment pollution and climate change are the serious challenges to people worldwide. In the 21st century, human being is trend to research new technology of renewable energy, so as to slow down global warming and develop society in an environmentally sustainable method. Landfill gas, produced by biodegradable municipal solid waste in landfill, is a renewable energy source. In this work, landfill gas utilization for energy generation is introduced. Landfill gas is able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming reactions. There is a steam reformer equipment in the fuel cells system. A sewage plant of Cologne in Germany has run the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells power station with biogas for more than 50,000 hours successfully. Landfill gas thus may be used as fuel for electricity generation via fuel cells system. For the purpose of explaining the possibility of landfill gas utilization via fuel cells, the thermodynamics of landfill gas steam reforming are discussed by simulations. In practice, the methane-riched gas can be obtained by landfill gas purification and upgrading. This work investigate a new method for upgrading-landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash experimentally. Bottom ash is a by-product of municipal solid waste incineration, some of its physical and chemical properties are analysed in this work. The landfill gas adsorption experimental data show bottom ash can be used as a potential adsorbent for landfill gas adsorption to remove CO{sub 2}. In addition, the alkalinity of bottom ash eluate can be reduced in these adsorption processes. Therefore, the interactions between landfill gas and bottom ash can be explained by series reactions accordingly. Furthermore, a conceptual model involving landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash is developed. In this thesis, the parameters of landfill gas adsorption equilibrium equations can be obtained by fitting experimental data. On the other hand, these functions can be deduced with theoretical approach

  6. Estimation of ash recirculation effect upon ash collector efficiency by the example of a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.; Latushkina, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    Problems of the mathematical estimation of the amount of recirculating ash and its effect upon the efficiency of gas treating within ash collectors with the scroll and semiscroll gas supply, which are equipped by a gas and ash recirculation system, are considered. Based on the analysis of various publications and operational experience, a conclusion is drawn regarding the complex and substantial effect of the recirculation system upon the ash collector efficiency. The following research tasks are posed: computational determination of ash weight at the ash collector inlet subject to its recirculation, development of measures for enhancement of the ash collector, and estimation of these measures. A computation procedure for consumption of recirculating ash in the ash collector and its sections with the use of formulas of the geometrical progression is represented. Based on the represented procedure as applied to a TsBR-150U-1280 multicyclone collector collecting ash of coal of an Irsha-Borodinsk coalfield, corresponding ash consumptions are determined, including that at which the effective operation of the ash collector is provided. Various variants of the modernization of the mentioned multicyclone collector are developed and estimated. Conclusions are drawn regarding the necessity for further investigations for improvement of the represented procedure, in particular, the effect of the gas speed (boiler load) upon the efficiency of various ash collector units, recirculating ash consumption, and clogging their cyclone units.

  7. Removal of Lead(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using L. Seed Husk Ash as a Biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bingfang; Zuo, Weiyuan; Zhang, Jinlei; Tong, Haijuan; Zhao, Jinhe

    2016-05-01

    The removal of heavy metals, especially from wastewater, has attracted significant interest because of their toxicity, tendency to bioaccumulate, and the threat they pose to human life and the environment. Many low-cost sorbents have been investigated for their biosorption capacity toward heavy metals. However, there are no reports available on the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by of L. seed husk ash. In this work, use of seed husk ash for the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater was investigated as a function of contact time and the initial pH of the solution. Kinetics and equilibrium constants were obtained from batch experiments. Our study shows that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Moreover, the Langmuir absorption model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of the husk ash was 263.10 mg g at 298 K and pH 5.0, and this is higher than the previously reported data obtained using other sorbents. The results obtained confirm that seed husk ash is an effective sorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Analysis of infrared spectra of the husk ash after absorption of Pb(II) suggested that OH, C=O, C-O, Si-O-Si, and O-Si-O groups were important for the Pb(II) ion removal. Moreover, practical tests on this biosorbent for Pb(II) removal in real wastewater samples successfully demonstrated that seed husk ash constitutes an efficient and cost-effective technology for the elimination of heavy metals from industrial effluent.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEAVY METALS IN BOTTOM ASH FROM INCINERATORS AND OPEN PIT FROM HEALTHCARE FACILITIES IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amfo-Otua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of healthcare waste either by incinerating or open burning in a pit produces bottom ashes which contains heavy metals and other chemicals which are toxic, persistent and accumulate in the food chain resulting in adverse health effects in human and the environment. The study investigated the level of heavy metals in the ashes of thermally treated medical waste from four health care facilities in Ghana. Two batch of the ash samples were collected from two hospital incinerators and the other two from medical waste burnt in an open-pit. The samples were collected on different days but within the same month, stored and transported to Water Research Institute laboratory for heavy metals analysis. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg were assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS. The results proved that the concentrations of heavy metals were higher for the waste treated in the incinerator than those burnt in the open pit. The average concentration of the metals in the ashes were in the following decreasing order Pb>Cr>Hg>Cd. The mean concentration of Pb from the incinerated bottom ash was 147.5mg/kg and Cd was 2.5mg/kg whilst the open pit was (69.67mg/kg and (1.34mg/kg respectively. All the metals investigated exceeded the Dutch and Danish limit values for maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in good soil quality and therefore classified as harmful and toxic and therefore proper attention should be given to the ash disposal at the landfill sites.

  9. Binary Effect of Fly Ash and Palm Oil Fuel Ash on Heat of Hydration Aerated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Mehmannavaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary effect of pulverized fuel ash (PFA and palm oil fuel ash (POFA on heat of hydration of aerated concrete was studied. Three aerated concrete mixes were prepared, namely, concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement (control sample or Type I, binary concrete made from 50% POFA (Type II, and ternary concrete containing 30% POFA and 20% PFA (Type III. It is found that the temperature increases due to heat of hydration through all the concrete specimens especially in the control sample. However, the total temperature rises caused by the heat of hydration through both of the new binary and ternary concrete were significantly lower than the control sample. The obtained results reveal that the replacement of Portland cement with binary and ternary materials is beneficial, particularly for mass concrete where thermal cracking due to extreme heat rise is of great concern.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of geopolymer from bottom ash and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggarini, Ufafa; Sukmana, Ndaru C.

    2016-02-01

    All Geopolymer (GP) has been synthesized from bottom ash and rice husk ash. This research aims to determine the effect of Si/Al ratio on geopolymer synthesis. Geopolymer was synthesized with various Si/Al ratio of 2, 3 and 4. The characterization result using XRD and SEM indicated that by using a different ratio of Si/A, it will produce geopolymer with varied structure and morphology. Diffractogram result shows that polymerization has been done for all samples (GP2, GP3, Gp4) with the presence of hump peak at 2θ = 27-35°. In GP4, no peak at 2θ = 18° indicating sodalite phase forming. Besides that, the morphology of geopolymer with a varied ratio of Si/Al shows that higher ratio will produce geopolymer with higher particle size. The highest compressive strength of geopolymer was obtained at a ratio of Si/Al = 4, with a maximum load of 12866 kgf.

  11. Binary effect of fly ash and palm oil fuel ash on heat of hydration aerated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmannavaz, Taha; Ismail, Mohammad; Radin Sumadi, Salihuddin; Rafique Bhutta, Muhammad Aamer; Samadi, Mostafa; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    The binary effect of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) on heat of hydration of aerated concrete was studied. Three aerated concrete mixes were prepared, namely, concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement (control sample or Type I), binary concrete made from 50% POFA (Type II), and ternary concrete containing 30% POFA and 20% PFA (Type III). It is found that the temperature increases due to heat of hydration through all the concrete specimens especially in the control sample. However, the total temperature rises caused by the heat of hydration through both of the new binary and ternary concrete were significantly lower than the control sample. The obtained results reveal that the replacement of Portland cement with binary and ternary materials is beneficial, particularly for mass concrete where thermal cracking due to extreme heat rise is of great concern.

  12. Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Top Height using AATSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Timo; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    The AATSR Correlation Method (ACM) height estimation algorithm is presented. The algorithm uses Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite data to detect volcanic ash plumes and to estimate the plume top height. The height estimate is based on the stereo-viewing capability of the AATSR instrument, which allows to determine the parallax between the satellite's 55° forward and nadir views, and thus the corresponding height. Besides the stereo view, AATSR provides another advantage compared to other satellite based instruments. With AATSR it is possible to detect ash plumes using brightness temperature difference between thermal infrared (TIR) channels centered at 11 and 12 µm. The automatic ash detection makes the algorithm efficient in processing large quantities of data: the height estimate is calculated only for the ash-flagged pixels. In addition, it is possible to study the effect of using different wavelengths in the height estimate, ranging from visible (555 nm) to thermal infrared (12 µm). The ACM algorithm can be applied to the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR), scheduled for launch at the end of 2015. Accurate information on the volcanic ash position is important for air traffic safety. The ACM algorithm can provide valuable data of both horizontal and vertical ash dispersion. These data may be useful for comparisons with existing volcanic ash dispersion models and retrieval methods. We present ACM plume top height estimate results for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, and comparisons against available ground based and satellite observations.

  13. Modeling transport and aggregation of volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio; Folch, Arnau; Macedonio, Giovanni; Durant, Adam

    2010-05-01

    A complete description of ash aggregation processes in volcanic clouds is an very arduous task and the full coupling of ash transport and ash aggregation models is still computationally prohibitive. A large fraction of fine ash injected in the atmosphere during explosive eruptions aggregate because of complex interactions of surface liquid layers, electrostatic forces, and differences in settling velocities. The formation of aggregates of size and density different from those of the primary particles dramatically changes the sedimentation dynamics and results in lower atmospheric residence times of ash particles and in the formation of secondary maxima of tephra deposit. Volcanic ash transport models should include a full aggregation model accounting for all particle class interaction. However this approach would require prohibitive computational times. Here we present a simplified model for wet aggregation that accounts for both atmospheric and volcanic water transport. The aggregation model assumes a fractal relationship for the number of primary particles in aggregates, average efficiencies factors, and collision frequency functions accounting for Brownian motion, laminar and turbulent fluid shear, and differential settling velocity. We implemented the aggregation model in the WRF+FALL3D coupled modelling system and applied it to different eruptions where aggregation has been recognized to play an important role, such as the August and September 1992 Crater Peak eruptions and the 1980 Mt St Helens eruption. Moreover, understanding aggregation processes in volcanic clouds will contribute to mitigate the risks related with volcanic ash transport and sedimentation.

  14. Temperature Effects on the Ash Colour of Forest Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Dūdaitė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Research was carried out to identify the influence of temperature (150, 250, 350, 450, 550ºC on the ash colour of Acer platanoides L. leaf litter and Pinus sylvestris L. needle litter samples collected from deciduous coniferous mixed forest in Lithuania (54º43‘ N 25º19‘ E in April 2010. To achieve the objective, a laboratory experiment was conducted to determine ash samples using the Munsell Colour Chart. The analysis of colours has demonstrated that considering all litter samples, an increase in the temperature of litter heating was found to increase ash colour values (r = 0.92; p = 0.01. All the samples (n = 50 of both litter species were divided into categories 2.5Y (5 samples, 7.5YR (10 samples and 10YR (35 samples. The total black Munsell colour was observed at a temperature of 350ºC for both litter species. Needle ash started turning bright at a temperature of 550ºC while the complete consumption of leaf litter was visible at a temperature of 450ºC. We conclude that the Munsell Colour Chart used for predicting the colour of ash is an informative feature to have the primary classification of ash. It is imperative to analyse the colour of the litter ash of the selected tree species in order to quickly and easily assess and predict their possible impact on the surrounding environment.

  15. Behaviour of peat ash in high-temperature processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moilanen, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ash-forming constituents are in peat as minerals and bound in the organic framework. The kind of binding is dependent on peat type, plant species composition, acidity of the peatland, etc. Studies carried out with brown coal have indicated that the forms of ash occurrence in the fuel have an influence on the slagging ehaviour of ash in the process. The behaviour is also dependent on the reactor type and conditions in the reactor, for example, on the composition of gas atmosphere, on temperature, and gas flows. For example, the reducing conditions affect especially the occurrence of iron in different oxidation degrees in gasification, and this affects further the melting behaviour of ash. In brown coal gasification, as much as a third of the iron content was found to be reduced to metallic iron in the fluid-bed gasifier. To forecast the slagging behaviour of ash, the melting temperatures of ash are measured. Fouling or partial melting of ash cannot always be monitored with standard measuring methods, as these phenomena may start already at temperatures 200 deg C lower than the lowest melting temperature. THey can be studied for example with thermochemical methods.

  16. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  17. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The test method followed the procedures applied for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC concrete. Test results show that fly ash-based geopolymer concrete undergoes low creep which is generally less than that of OPC concrete. After one year of loading, the results for specific creep of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete in this study ranges from 15 to 29 microstrain for concrete compressive strength 67–40 MPa respectively. From the test results, it is also found out that the creep coefficient of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is about half of that predicted using Gilbert’s Method for OPC concrete.

  18. Insulating brick from fly ash of thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S.N.; Majumdar, A.; Majumdar, S.K.

    1986-04-01

    Disposal of fly ash, a major byproduct of thermal power stations burning high ash pulverized fuel, has posed a serious problem of storage space required on one hand and the cost involved on the other. Fly ash possesses pozzolanic property. R and D work on utilization of fly ash in the form of sand-lime brick or cellular concrete has been already done. Other avenues of utilization are cement and concrete industry. All these are based on pozzolanic property of fly ash which decreases with the increase of unburnt carbon content in the same. The overall present consumption of fly ash is barely 5-7 per cent of the total production. A process has been developed to utilize fly ash with comparatively higher amount of carbonaceous matter in particular, to make insulating/semi-insulating bricks of standard size through use of other normal ingredients like clay (a plastic material), sulphite lye, molasses, etc. as binder along with some propertion of saw dust. The bricks made so far have been tested for their normal properties and these conform to a product of semi-insulating type. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  20. Thermal behaviour of ESP ash from municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Wilson, N; Voncken, J H L

    2009-07-15

    Stricter environmental regulations demand safer treatment and disposal of incinerator fly ashes. So far no sound technology or a process is available for a sustainable and ecological treatment of the waste incineration ashes, and only partial treatment is practised for temporary and short-term solutions. New processes and technology need to be developed for comprehensive utilization and detoxification of the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator residues. To explore the efficiency of thermal stabilisation and controlled vitrification, the thermal behaviour of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash was investigated under controlled conditions. The reaction stages are identified with the initial moisture removal, volatilization, melting and slag formation. At the temperature higher than 1100 degrees C, the ESP ashes have a quicker weight loss, and the total weight loss reaches up to 52%, higher than the boiler ash. At 1400 degrees C a salt layer and a homogeneous glassy slag were formed. The effect of thermal treatment on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ESP ash was evaluated with the availability-leaching test. The leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly lowered than that of the original ash.

  1. Stabilization of Expansive Soil by Lime and Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-ru; CAO Xing

    2002-01-01

    An experimental program was undertaken to study the individual and admixed effects of lime and fly ash on the geotechnical characteristics of expansive soil. Lime and fly ash were added to the expansive soil at 4% -6% and 40% - 50% by dry weight of soil, respectively. Testing specimens were determined and examined in chemical composition, grain size distribution, consistency limits, compaction, CBR ,free swell and swell capacity. The effect of lime and fly ash addition on reducing the swelling potential of an expansive soil is presented.It is revealed that a change of expansive soil texture takes place when lime and fly ash are mixed with expansive soil. Plastic limit increases by mixing lime and liquid limit decreases by mixing fly ash, which decreases plasticity index. As the amount of lime and fly ash is increased, there are an apparent reduction in maximum dry density,free swell and swelling capacity under 50 kPa pressure, and a corresponding increase in the percentage of coarse particles, optimum moisture content and CBR value. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the expansive soil can be successfully stabilized by lime and fly ash.

  2. Carbonatation Influence on Fly Ash and Portland Cement Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Valdez–Tamez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbonation on mortars containing 25% of fly ash instead of the cementitious materials was studied. Mortar cylinder specimens were fabricated for 4 different W/C ratios: 0.35, 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65. Mortars with and without fly ash were subjected to an accelerated carbonation process. Volumetric weight, water absorption, compressive strength, water permeability, pH and mercury intrusion porosimetry of the mortar specimens were determined. Due to the fly ash pozzolanic potential, for all W/C ratios, results of the compressive strength tests at 28 days of the mortars with and without fly ash were similar. Mortars with fly ash presented similar water permeability as mortars without fly ash. PH results showed that alkalinity reduction is lower in mortars with fly ash compared to those containing cement only. In all the mortars, the porosimetric analysis indicated that porosity is reduced due to carbonation. Further more, it is showed the predominance of the macro and mesopores.

  3. Properties of Concrete using Tanjung Bin Power Plant Coal Bottom Ash and Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Umar Abubakar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal combustion by-products (CCPs have been around since man understood that burning coal generates electricity, and its utilization in concrete production for nearly a century. The concept of sustainable development only reawaken our consciousness to the huge amount of CCPs around us and the need for proper reutilization than the current method of disposal which has  severe consequences both to man and the environment. This paper presents the result of utilization of waste from thermal power plants to improve some engineering properties of concrete. Coal bottom ash (CBA and fly ash were utilized in partial replacement for fine aggregates and cement respectively. The results of compressive strength at 7, 28, 56 & 90 days curing are presented because of the pozzolanic reaction. Other properties investigated include physical properties, fresh concrete properties and density. The results showed that for a grade 35 concrete with a combination of CBA and fly ash can produce 28 day strength above 30 MPa.

  4. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keka Ojha; Narayan C Pradhan; Amar Nath Samanta

    2004-12-01

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain highly crystalline zeolite with maximum BET surface area. The maximum surface area of the product was found to be 383 m2/g with high purity. The crystallinity of the prepared zeolite was found to change with fusion temperature and a maximum value was obtained at 823 K. The cost of synthesized zeolite was estimated to be almost one-fifth of that of commercial 13X zeolite available in the market.

  5. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  6. Fly ash for durable concrete construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This is essentially a review paper, bringing together the various studies undertaken at the University of Dundee as well as many others selected from published work. A full range of durability properties have been considered dealing with the effects of fly ash (FA) in concrete. It is shown that the use of FA generally effects improvement in the resistance of concrete to various forms of attack. FA is shown to greatly improve concrete resistance to chloride ingress and to reduce expansion caused by ASR. In the case of sulphate attack the use of FA is recommended. With regard to carbonation, FA can slightly reduce the resistance. It is also shown that FA concrete will benefit more from curing than OPC concrete in developing its resistance to deterioration with age. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Concrete with Highly Active Rice Husk Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Qing-ge; LIN Qing-yu; YU Qi-jun; ZHAO San-ying; YANG Lu-feng; Shuichi Sugita

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate the effect of highly active rice husk ash (RHA) produced by an industrial furnace on some properties of concrete. The strength, pore volume and pore distribution of concrete and the Ca(OH)2 content in concrete were investigated by JIS A 1108 (Method of test for compressive strength of concrete), a mercury instrument porosimeter, and the thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that,with RHA replacement of cement,the compressive strength of concrete is increased evidently;the average pore radius of concrete is greatly decreased, especially the portion of the pores greater than 20nm in radius is decreased while the amount of smaller pores is increased, and the more the RHA replacement, the less the amount of Ca(OH)2 in concrete. The latter two results are the main reasons for the strength enhancement of concrete.

  8. Particle analysis of volcanic ash with Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieke, K. I.; Kristensen, T. B.; Koch, C. B.; Korsholm, U. S.; Sørensen, J. H.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since the airspace closure over Europe due to the Eyjafjalla eruption in 2010, volcanic ash has come more in the focus of atmospheric science. The airspace closure accompanying the Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 clearly indicates that there is still a great need to increase the scientific understanding of the properties and impacts of volcanic ash particles. Determination of particle characteristics, preferably in near real time, serves as an important input to transport models in operational use for decision support and guidance of authorities. We collected particles before and after the Grímsvötn volcanic ash arrived at Copenhagen, Denmark, between 23 May and 31 May 2011, as well as at a number of other locations. The analysis of meteorological conditions shows that the particle collection performed before arrival of the volcanic ash may serve as a good reference sample. We have thus been able to identify significant differences in aerosol chemical composition during a volcanic ash event over Copenhagen. These results are compared to volcanic ash particles collected on Iceland. We provide unique data about single-particle structure, chemical composition, size and morphology of volcanic ash particles. Single-particle analysis by SEM, and mineralogical studies by XRD and TEM prove that the particles are composed of glass of a characteristic composition and small, nm sized minerals attached to the large (up to tens of µm) glass fragments. The derived information about volcanic ash particles can be used by transport models, resulting in improved information to the authorities in case of new volcanic ash events over Scandinavia or Europe.

  9. Ash dispersal dynamics: state of the art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, R.

    2013-05-01

    Volcanic ash, during dispersal and deposition, is among the major hazards from explosive eruptions. Volcanic ash fallout can disrupt communities downwind, interrupt surface transportation networks and lead to closure of airports. Airborne ash seriously threatens modern jet aircraft in flight. In several documented cases, encounters between aircraft and volcanic clouds have resulted in engine flameout and near crashes, so there is a need to accurately predict the trajectory of volcanic ash clouds in order to improve aviation safety and reduce economic losses. The ash clouds affect aviation even in distal regions, as demonstrated by several eruptions with far-range dispersal. Recent examples include Crater Peak 1992, Tungurahua 1999-2001, Mount Cleveland 2001, Chaitén 2008, Eyjafjallajökull 2010, Grimsvötn 2011, and Cordón-Caulle 2011. Amongst these, the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland provoked the largest civil aviation breakdown. Accumulation of tephra can produce roof collapse, interruption of lifelines (roads, railways, etc.), disruption to airport operations, and damage to communications and electrical power lines. Deposition of ash decreases soil permeability, increases surface runoff, and promotes floods. Ash leaching can result in the pollution of water resources, damage to agriculture, pastures, and livestock, impinge on aquatic ecosystems, and alteration of the geochemical environment on the seafloor. Despite the potential big impact, the dispersal dynamics of volcanic ash is still an unsolved problem for volcanologists, which claims for fiture high level research. Here, a critical overview about models (field, experimental and numerical) for inversion of field data to gain insights on physics of dispersal of volcanic ash is proposed. A special focus is devoted to some physical parameters that are far from a satisfactory inversion (e.g. reconstruction of total grain size distribution), and clues for future research are suggested.

  10. Preliminary Strength Measurements of High Temperature Ash Filter Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.S.; Johnson, E.K.; Mallela, R.; Barberio, J.F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate preliminary strength measurement techniques for high temperature candle filter ash deposits. The efficient performance of a high temperature gas filtering system is essential for many of the new thermal cycles being proposed for power plants of the future. These new cycles hold the promise of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of pollutants. Many of these cycles involve the combustion or gasification of coal to produce high temperature gases to eventually be used in gas turbines. These high temperature gases must be relatively free of particulates. Today, the candle filter appears to be the leading candidate for high temperature particulate removal. The performance of a candle filter depends on the ash deposits shattering into relatively large particles during the pulse cleaning (back flushing) of the filters. These relatively large particles fall into the ash hopper and are removed from the system. Therefore, these 1247 particles must be sufficiently large so that they will not be re-entrained by the gas flow. The shattering process is dictated by the strength characteristics of the ash deposits. Consequently, the objective of this research is to develop measurements for the desired strength characteristics of the ash deposits. Experimental procedures were developed to measure Young`s modulus of the ash deposit at room temperature and the failure tensile strain of ash deposits from room temperature to elevated temperatures. Preliminary data has been obtained for both soft and hard ash deposits. The qualifier ``preliminary`` is used to indicate that these measurements are a first for this material, and consequently, the measurement techniques are not perfected. In addition, the ash deposits tested are not necessarily uniform and further tests are needed in order to obtain meaningful average data.

  11. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  12. A High-Resolution Map of Emerald Ash Borer Invasion Risk for Southern Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Valenta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ash species (Fraxinus spp. in Europe are threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis, EAB, an invasive wood boring beetle native to East Asia and currently spreading from European Russia westwards. Based on a high-resolution habitat distribution map (grid cell size: 25 × 25 m and data on distribution and abundance of Common Ash (Fraxinus excelsior, the most widespread and highly susceptive host species of EAB in Europe, we assess the spatial distribution of EAB invasion risks for southern Central Europe (Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, southern Germany, South Tyrol. We found highest F. excelsior abundance and thus invasion risks in extensive lowland floodplain forests, medium risks in zonal lowland forests and low risks in upper montane and subalpine forests. Based on average velocities of spread in Russia (13–31 km/year and North America (2.5–80 km/year from flight and human-assisted transport, EAB is likely to cover the distance (1500 km between its current range edge in western Russia and the eastern border of the study region within few decades. However, secondary spread by infested wood products make earlier introductions likely. The high susceptibility and mortality of F. excelsior leave no doubt that this beetle will become a major forest pest once it reaches Central Europe. Therefore, developing and testing management approaches with the aim to halt or at least slow down the invasion of EAB in Europe have to be pursued with great urgency.

  13. Sewage sludge ash (SSA in high performance concrete: characterization and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Fontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sewage sludge originated from the process of treatment of wastewater has become an environmental issue for three main reasons: contains pathogens, heavy metals and organic compounds that are harmful to the environmental and human health; high volumes are daily generated; and shortage of landfill sites for proper disposal. This research deals with the viability study of sewage sludge utilization, after calcination process, as mineral admixture in the production of concrete. High-performance concretes were produced with replacement content of 5% and 10% by weight of Portland cement with sewage sludge ash (SSA. The influence of this ash was analyzed through physical and mechanical tests. Analysis showed that the mixtures containing SSA have lower values of compressive strength than the reference. The results of absorptivity, porosity and accelerated penetration of chloride ions, presents that mixtures containing ash showed reductions compared to the reference. This indicates that SSA provided refinement of the pore structure, which was confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimetry test.

  14. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianzhong Liu; Jie Wang; Guangxue Zhang; Junhu Zhou; Kefa Cen

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution.The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment.Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration.The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors.The most important and controversial factor is frequency.Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coalfired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency.Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis,experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined.The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash.Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 μm the particles agglomerated to adhere together,and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 μm.The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%,and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased.Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition.According to the results of orthogonal analysis,frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz.

  15. Earthworm populations of highly metal-contaminated soils restored by fly ash-aided phytostabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumiaux, Fabien; Demuynck, Sylvain; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain

    2015-03-01

    Highly metal contaminated soils found in the North of France are the result of intense industrial past. These soils are now unfit for the cultivation of agricultural products for human consumption. Solutions have to be found to improve the quality of these soils, and especially to reduce the availability of trace elements (TEs). Phytostabilisation and ash-aided phytostabilisation applied since 2000 to an experimental site located near a former metallurgical site (Metaleurop-Nord) was shown previously as efficacious in reducing TEs mobility in soils. The aim of the study was to check whether this ten years trial had influenced earthworm communities. This experimental site was compared to plots located in the surroundings and differing by the use of soils. Main results are that: (1) whatever the use of soils, earthworm communities are composed of few species with moderate abundance in comparison with communities found in similar habitats outside the TEs-contaminated area, (2) the highest abundance and specific richness (4-5 species) were observed in afforested plots with various tree species, (3) ash amendments in afforested plots did not increase the species richness and modified the communities favoring anecic worms but disfavoring epigeic ones. These findings raised the questions of when and how to perform the addition of ashes firstly, to avoid negative effects on soil fauna and secondly, to keep positive effects on metal immobilization.

  16. Element budgets of forest biomass combustion and ash fertilisation - a Danish case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Skov, Simon; Sevel, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilise the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertiliser quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four day...

  17. Electrodialytic treatment of sewage sludge ash for the recovery of phosphorous and separation of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbers, Benjamin; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2012-01-01

    in separation from the ash suspension to the anode compartment. Although 96% of the recovered P was mobilized, only 55% was separated from the ash suspension. Less mobilization (m), but better separation (s), from the ash and ash suspension was observed for heavy metals, 78% (m) 69% (s) for Cd; 24% (m) 7% (s...

  18. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ashes in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    The paper presents results from the project: "Electrochemical removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ashes in larger scale and evaluation of the possibilities of reusing the treated ashes in concrete".......The paper presents results from the project: "Electrochemical removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ashes in larger scale and evaluation of the possibilities of reusing the treated ashes in concrete"....

  19. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including

  20. Agricultural uses of alkaline fluidized bed combustion ash: case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, W.L.; Daily, M.R.; Nickeson, T.L.; Svendson, R.L.; Thompson, G.P. [USDA-ARS, University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Successful programmes were developed by Ahlstrom Development Ash Corporation and Air Products and Chemical for using fluidized bed combustion ash as a substitute for agricultural lime on dairy farms in northern New York state and on fruit and nut crops in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The companies developed these programmes by utilizing the methodology developed through USDA-ARS research and working closely with agricultural consultants and regulatory agencies to ensure that the ash applications were both agronomically and environmentally sound. 1 ref.

  1. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time establishes a causal connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  2. Research on municipal solid waste composting with coal ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾光明; 袁兴中; 李彩亭; 黄国和; 李建兵; 尚谦; 陈耀宁

    2003-01-01

    Considering the fact that there is much coal ash in the municipal solid waste (MSW) in some cities of China, the feasibility of composting in this situation was studied and the effect of content of the coal ash on the composting process and some basic relative technological parameters were investigated. The values of the moisture, the total organic matter, the content of coal ash, the C/N ratio and the ventilation were suggested to be 50%-60%, 40%-60%, 40%-60%, (25∶1)-(35∶1) and 0.05-0.20m3/(min*m3), respectively.

  3. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  4. Magmatic and fragmentation controls on volcanic ash surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Diplas, Spyros; Damby, David E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical effects of silicate ash ejected by explosive volcanic eruptions on environmental systems are fundamentally mediated by ash particle surfaces. Ash surfaces are a composite product of magmatic properties and fragmentation mechanisms, as well as in-plume and atmospheric alteration processes acting upon those surfaces during and after the eruption. Recent attention has focused on the capacity of alteration processes to shape ash surfaces; most notably, several studies have utilised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique probing the elemental composition and coordination state of atoms within the top 10 nm of ash surfaces, to identify patterns of elemental depletions and enrichments relative to bulk ash chemical composition. Under the presumption of surface and bulk equivalence, any disparities have been previously attributed to surface alteration processes, but the ubiquity of some depletions (e.g., Ca, Fe) across multiple ash studies, irrespective of eruptive origin, could suggest these to be features of the surface produced at the instant of magma fragmentation. To investigate this possibility further, we conducted rapid decompression experiments at different pressure conditions and at ambient and magmatic temperature on porous andesitic rocks. These experiments produced fragmented ash material untouched by secondary alteration, which were compared to particles produced by crushing of large clasts from the same experiments. We investigated a restricted size fraction (63-90 μm) from both fragmented and crushed materials, determining bulk chemistry and mineralogy via XRF, SEM-BSE and EPMA, and investigated the chemical composition of the ash surface by XPS. Analyses suggest that fragmentation under experimental conditions partitioned a greater fraction of plagioclase-rich particles into the selected size fraction, relative to particles produced by crushing. Trends in surface chemical composition in fragmented and crushed particles mirror that

  5. Usage of fly ash as a coal desulphurization reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-12-31

    This paper covers the direct usage of fly ash to remove sulphur from coal. Experiments were carried out on a high sulphur Turkish lignite. 5 g of fly ash was extracted in 200 ml of water under pressure and the dilute solution containing water extractable parts of fly ash was used as desulphurization reagent. Oxygen pressure was created over desulphurization medium during the extraction period by which dissolved oxygen was concentrated in the solution. Effects of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, and time were investigated in the ranges of 403--498 K, 0.0--1.5 MPa and 15--90 min, respectively.

  6. CO2 uptake capacity of coal fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzella, Alessandro; Errico, Massimiliano; Spiga, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    -solid carbonation treatment on coal fly ash in order to assess the potential of the process in terms of sequestration of CO2 as well as its influence on the leaching behavior of metals and soluble salts. Laboratory tests, performed under different pressure and temperature conditions, showed that in the pressure......% corresponding to a maximum carbonation efficiency of 74%, estimated on the basis of the initial CaO content. The high degree of ash carbonation achieved in the present research, which was conducted under mild conditions, without add of water and without stirring, showed the potential use of coal fly ash in CO2...

  7. Ash behavior and de-fluidization in low temperature circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narayan, Vikas

    . It was observed that of the total fuel ash entering the system, a large fraction (40-50%) of the ash was retained in the secondary cyclone bottoms and a lower amount (8-10%) was released as dust in the exit gas; the residual ash was accumulated within the fluidized bed system. A dominant fraction of alkali...... by the ash particle size and the cut size of the primary and secondary cyclones. A model accounting for the ash collection by the plant cyclones was developed which predicted the product gas ash particle release reasonably well. The present work also aims to understand the effect of biomass fuel ash...

  8. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  9. Trace element geochemistry of feed coal, fly and bottom ashes of Turkish power plants: implications for ash utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayer, R.A.; Karayigit, A.I.; Goldsmith, S.; Onacak, T.; Rose, M. [Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept of Earth Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Recent environmental concern has led to studies of the fate of environmentally sensitive elements (ESEs) during the combustion of coal in power plants. Of particular interest has been the partioning of potentially hazardous trace elements in coal-combustion waste products (fly ash and bottom ash) and in flue gases. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation into the trace element geochemistry of feed coals, bottom ash and fly ash in thirteen power units in Turkey. It concentrates on sixteen trace elements, five of which are of major environmental concern (Be, As, Mo, Pb, and Tl), two of moderate concern (Cu and Zn), three of minor concern (Mn, Co and Ba). Two of the ESEs are radiogenic (Th and U). Ti, Cs, La, and W, which show interesting distributions, are also considered. The approach has been to analyse the feed coals to highlight any significant element enrichment and to carry out mass balance calculations to determine the partioning of elements between bottom and fly ash. Results indicate that solid residues, particularly fly ash may show unusually high concentrations of moderately volatile ESEs such as As, Pb, Tl, Mo, Be and Zn. The use of such enriched fly ash should be treated with caution. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Wood ash used as partly sand and/or cement replacement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2016-01-01

    Wood ash (WA) is the residue generated during incineration of wood and wood products. The WAs in focus of this work are from incineration of virgin wood. Physical and chemical properties of WA vary significantly depending on many factors related to the wood species and the incineration process...... from the differences in ash characteristics to the properties of the mortar samples. The characteristics of the ashes did vary considerably. For example, one ash had very high loss on ignition (LoI) of 14% compared to 3% for the other ashes. Ash solubility in water ranged from 18% to 28%. Two...... of the ashes were dry and sampled just after the incineration, whereas one ash had a water content of 15%, because the ash was sprayed with water to avoid dust during ash handling at the incineration plant. Regardless of replacing cement or sand with WAs, the compressive strength decreased compared...

  11. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.

  12. The normalised wildfire ash index (NWAI): a remote sensing approach for quantifying post-wildfire ash loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris, Chafer; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of wildfire ash, the powdery residue from fuel burning, on post-fire ecosystems are many and diverse. Ash is a source of nutrients and can help the recovery of vegetation. It can also contain substantial amounts of recalcitrant carbon and thus contribute to long-term carbon storage. In its initial state, the ash layer on the ground can protect the bare soil, mitigating post-fire water erosion by runoff. However, when the adsorbent capability of this layer is exceeded, ash can be transported into the hydrological network and be a major contributor to water contamination. Ash can also contribute to post-fire mass movements such as debris flows. The eco-hydro-geomorphic impacts of ash on post-fire ecosystems are therefore important, but remain poorly quantified. A fundamental step in that direction is the understanding of ash production and distribution at the landscape scale, which would allow incorporating ash as a key parameter into post-fire risk models. We have developed a new spectral index (NWAI) using Landsat imagery to model the spatial distribution of ash loads in the post-fire landscape. It was developed based on a severe wildfire that burnt 13,000 ha of dry eucalyptus forest near Sydney and has also been tested for a forested area burnt by the catastrophic 2009 Black Saturday fires near Melbourne. Although ecosystem and fire characteristics differed substantially between the Sydney and Melbourne fires, our NWAI index performs well. In this contribution we will discuss the (i) the principles of the NWAI and (ii) its potential for pollution risk forecasting.

  13. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - phase 2; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola; Elert, Mark; Haakansson, Karsten

    2006-07-15

    exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren, antimony and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Only guidelines for leachability could be calculated for antimony and selen, showing that 90% of the ashes fall below the guidelines and thus constitute an insignificant risk in a construction. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel and zinc show a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Arsenic and lead in ashes fall below the guideline values for leaching, although with small margins in some cases. However, the total content of arsenic in some ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are

  14. Alkali-activation potential of biomass-coal co-fired fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, C.R.; Provis, J.L.; Bernal, S.A.; Kurtis, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Co-fired fly ash, derived from the co-combustion of coal and biomass, is examined as a potential precursor for geopolymers. Compared to a coal fly ash, two co-fired fly ashes have a lower vitreous content and higher carbon content, primarily due to differing combustion processing variables. As a result, binders produced with these co-fired fly ashes have reduced reaction potential. Nevertheless, compressive strengths are generally highest for all ashes activated with solutions with a molar ra...

  15. Production of inorganic pellet binders from fly-ash. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    Fly-ash is produced by all coal-fired utilities, and it must be removed from the plant exhaust gases, collected, and disposed of. While much work has been done in the past to utilize fly-ash rather than disposing of it, we nevertheless do not find widespread examples of successful industrial utilization. This is because past work has tended to find uses only for high-quality, easily-utilized fly-ashes, which account for less than 25% of the fly-ash that is produced. The main factor which makes fly-ashes unusable is a high unburned carbon content. In this project, physical separation technologies are being used to remove this carbon, and to convert these unusable fly-ashes into usable products. The main application being studied for the processed fly-ash is as a binder for inorganic materials, such as iron-ore pellets. In the second quarter, additional fly-ash samples were collected from the E. D. Edwards station (Bartonville, IL). Experimentation was begun to study the removal of carbon from these fly-ashes by froth flotation, and make and test pellets that use fly-ash as binder. During the current quarter, flotation experiments were continued on the fly- ashes. Three types of ashes were studied: 1. Ash from the disposal pond (``wet`` ash); 2. Dry fly-ash collected directly from the standard burners (``low-carbon`` ash); 3. Dry fly-ash collected from the low-NOx burners (``high-carbon`` ash). Each of these was chemically analyzed, and conventional flotation experiments were carried out to determine the optimum reagent dosages for carbon removal. Decarbonized ashes were then made from each ash type, in sufficient quantity to be used in pelletization experiments.

  16. Geoethics implications in volcanic hazards in Argentina: 24 years of uninterrupted ash-fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, Elizabeth I.; Violante, Roberto A.; Uber, Silvia M.; Vázquez Herrera, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The impact of falling ash reaches all human activities, has effects on human and animal health and is subject to climate and ecosystem of the affected regions. From 1991 until 2015 (24 years), more than 5 eruptions with VEI ≥ 4 in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes occurred; pyroclastic, dust and volcanic ash were deposited (mostly) in Argentina. A recurring situation during eruptions of Hudson (1991), Chaiten (2008), Puyehue-Cordon Caulle (2011) and Calbuco (2015) volcanoes was the accumulation, storage and dump of volcanic ash in depressed areas, beaches, lakes, ditches, storm drains, areas of landfills and transfer stations. The issues that this practice has taken are varied: pollution of aquifers, changes in geomorphology and water courses, usually in "inconspicuous" zones, often in places where there are precarious population or high poverty settlements. The consequences are not immediate but the effects in the mid and long term bring serious drawbacks. On the contrary, a good example of intelligent management of the volcanic impact occurred many years before, during the eruption of Descabezado Grande (Quizapu) volcano in 1932. In that case, and as an example, the city of Trenque Lauquen, located nearly 770 km east of the volcano, decided a communitarian task of collection and burial of the ashfall in small areas, this was a very successful performance. The Quizapu ash plumes transported by the Westerlies (winds) covered with a blanket of volcanic ash the city, ashfall also reached the capital cities of Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Uruguay (Montevideo). Also, the bagging process of volcanic ash with reinforced plastics was an example of Good Practice in the management of the emergency. This allowed the entire affected community to take advantage of this "mineral resource" and contributes to achieving collective and participatory work leading to commercialization and sustainability of these products availed as fertilizers, granular base for ceramics and

  17. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that

  18. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  19. Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : A plan for the future

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management plan is to maintain Ash Meadows Refuge as a natural ecosystem. To accomplish this, the area will be restored as much as possible to conditions which...

  20. Improved Sorting Scheme of Microstructure of Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立刚; 彭苏平

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of the existing sorting for microstructure of flyash, an improved scheme was put forward in this paper. First, fly ash particles are divided into four groups as low-calcium, iron, high calcium and char particle acco rding to the substance components of fly ash. Then fly ash particles are divided into 14 sub-groups, for example: cenospheres, plerospheres, solid spheres, porous char and dense char based on their chemical composition, shape and the chara cteristics of inner-structure of fly ash. It has a distinct difference in granu le configuration, inner-structure and substance components. Some disadvantages of the existing scheme such as unilateralism and imprecision have been overcome in the advanced schemes.

  1. Reuse of alkali from bio fly ash; Alkaligenanvendelse fra bioflyveaske

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Jensen, Joergen Peter; Simonsen, Peter; Sander, B.

    2006-03-15

    Experiments to leach potassium salts from fly ash from straw combustion were performed. The fly ash was produced in the bio mass boiler at the Avedoere power plant in south western Copenhagen, Denmark. The fly ash contained approximately 90 mass percent water soluble material. When the fly ash was dissolved at low pH, a slightly higher solubility was found. 100 gram fly ash consisted typically of 9 gram insoluble material, 9 gram calcium phosphate, 29 gram potassium sulfate and 53 gram of potassium chloride. In addition, 100 gram of fly ash contained approximately 1 mg of cadmium, corresponding to a concentration of cadmium of 10 ppm in the fly ash. Fly ash from the bio mass boiler at the Avedoere power plant apparently has a significantly larger content of potassium salts than fly ash from other boilers. The Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model was used for calculating relevant phase diagrams and calculations of the necessary amount of water required for dissolving all the KCl and all KCl + K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of the fly ash. This theoretical minimum amount of water was calculated at a range of temperatures between 10 and 100 deg. C. The amount of water required at 100 deg. C was less than half of that required at 10 deg. C. Experiments were performed in order to find a feasible method for separating the potassium salts of the fly ash from the ash residue and especially from the soluble cadmium salts found in the fly ash. Experiments with counter current leaching of fly ash in a fluid bed gave unsatisfactory results. Apparently there was a lack of contact between the wash water and the ash. In addition, sedimentation was very slow resulting in an incomplete separation of wash water and ash residue. Experiments with ion exchange by adding CaCl{sub 2} to the wash water and successive precipitation of gypsum or anhydrite gave unsatisfactory results. Process simulation had shown that by this method the necessary amount of washing water could be decreased. This is due to

  2. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  3. Fly-ash lobby design to convert the sceptics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bile, P.

    1983-07-14

    New uses for pfa in structural concrete have been pioneered at Didcot power station. Twenty percent cost savings and significant gains in long-term strength are claimed for the new concrete, called high fly-ash content concrete (HFCC).

  4. Volcanic Ash Detection Using Raman LIDAR: "VADER" Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aircraft engine and electronics and has caused damage to unwary aircraft and disrupted air travel for thousands of travelers,...

  5. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollars, Elizabeth S A; Harper, Andrea L; Kelly, Laura J;

    2016-01-01

    Ash trees (genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae) are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but are being devastated in Europe by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback, and in North America by the herbivorous beetle Agrilus planipennis. Here we sequence the genome of a low......-heterozygosity Fraxinus excelsior tree from Gloucestershire, UK, annotating 38,852 protein-coding genes of which 25% appear ash specific when compared with the genomes of ten other plant species. Analyses of paralogous genes suggest a whole-genome duplication shared with olive (Olea europaea, Oleaceae). We also re......-sequence 37 F. excelsior trees from Europe, finding evidence for apparent long-term decline in effective population size. Using our reference sequence, we re-analyse association transcriptomic data, yielding improved markers for reduced susceptibility to ash dieback. Surveys of these markers in British...

  6. Ash after forest fires. Effects on soil hydrology and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.

    2013-04-01

    Hillslopes were though to be most susceptible to enhanced hydro-geomorphological responses immediately following burning, with susceptibility declining during the first months or years depending on the soil and vegetation recovery. However, Cerdà (1998) found some indices in that immediately after the fire, the thin wettable ash layer that typically covers the ground could absorb rainfall and prevent or delay the onset of overland flow and associated erosion. Therefore the time lag while ash remains on the ground become of crucial importance to protect the soil after a wildfire. The effect of this ash layer was rarely been considered in detail because ash has often been reduced or redistributed by wind or water erosion before the onset of monitoring and thus the data collection typically begun some weeks or month after the fire. The first papers focussed only on ash and its hydrological effects were published by Cerdà and Doerr (2008) and by Woods and Balfour (2008). The results showed that the soil covered with ash indeed reduced and delayed surface runoff, reduced soil splash detachment and produced lower sediment yield compared to bare terrain. However, these findings arose more questions, as for instance: Why in other research there were indices that ash reduces infiltration? what is the mechanism by which why ash reduces overland flow? The research went further with Bodí PhD. First of all, it was crucial the agreement on the fact that the material "ash" is very variable depending on the original vegetation and the type and temperature of combustion. Therefore ash properties are different between wildfires even and within a fire. This is the main reason of its different effects and thus ash not always reduces runoff and sediment yield. In this way, depending on the nature of ash, it can increase overland flow if it is crusted (usually it contains a high content of calcium carbonate), it is water repellent (with high contents of organic carbon and specially

  7. The Trail Inventory of Ash Meadows NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  8. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of this material is already causing environmental problems ... shortage in most of concrete making materials especially cement, resulting in an ... This study examined the potential use of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial ...

  9. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  10. Illinois basin coal fly ashes. 1. Chemical characterization and solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.; Dickerson, D.R.; Schuller, R.M.; Martin, S.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve precipitator-collected fly ash samples (nine derived from high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals and three from Western U.S. coals) were found to contain a variety of paraffins, aryl esters, phenols, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons including phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene but all at very low concentrations. Less than 1% of the organic carbon in the samples was extractable into benzene. Solubility studies with a short-term (24-h) extraction procedure and a long-term (20-week) procedure indicate that the inorganic chemical composition of some types of fly ash effluent is time dependent and may be most toxic to aquatic ecosystems when initially mixed with water and pumped to disposal ponds. Some acidic, high-Cd fly ashes would be classified as hazardous wastes if coal ash was included in this waste category by future RCRA revisions. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  11. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu [Amity Institute of Applied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201301 (India)

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  12. Solid State Multiwavelength LIDAR for Volcanic Ash Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to develop a compact, multiwavelength LIDAR with polarization analysis capability that will be able to identify volcanic ash clouds...

  13. The Evolving Higher Education Professoriate: Implications for ASHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, L. Jackson; Morgan, Don A.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the changing characteristics and values of Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) professors, based on a review of the historical record, a recent survey of the membership, and an earlier study is presented. (MLW)

  14. Emerald ash borer dispersal in Maryland: go forth young pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Sargent; Dick Bean; Michael Raupp; Alan J. Sawyer

    2009-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic invasive pest from Asia, was introduced into Maryland in April 2003 via infested nursery stock shipped from Michigan to a nursery in southern...

  15. influence of addition of rice husk ash on porcelain composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porcelain powder was grounded separately in a ball mill. The powder was sieved using ... The mixed powder .... combustion at 7000C produces a very good reactive material. The .... rice husk-berk ash on mechanical properties of of concrete.

  16. Utilization of coal combustion fly ash in terracotta bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, A.; Kurama, S. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey); Kurama, H.; Kara, Y. [Osmangazi Univ., Mining Engineering Dept., Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    In this present work, coal combustion fly ash from a power plant in Turkey was used in combination with a traditional raw material in terracotta production with the aim of having a product with improved physico-mechanical properties and lower production cost. Several compositions were prepared by adding different amounts of fly ash (ranging from 0 to 20%) in a yellow firing terracotta formulation and shaped by wet pressing. Following firing at a suitable temperature, some of the physical properties of the resultant tiles were determined as a function of the fly ash content. A combination of XRD, SEM and EDX techniques were also employed to correlate the properties with the phase composition. The results indicated that fly ash could be utilized easily in certain amounts in such an application. (orig.)

  17. Ash properties of some dominant Greek forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liodakis, S. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)]. E-mail: liodakis@central.ntua.gr; Katsigiannis, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece); Kakali, G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73 (Greece)

    2005-10-15

    The elemental and chemical wood ash compositions of six dominant Greek fuels was investigated using a variety of techniques, including thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the alkalinity of wood ash was determined by titration. The ash was prepared by combustion at low (600 deg. C), middle (800 deg. C) and high temperatures (1000 deg. C). The ash composition is very important because thousands of hectares of wildlands are burned annually in Greece. The resulting deposits affect soil properties (i.e., pH) and provide a source of inorganic constituents (i.e., Ca, K, Na, Mg, etc.), while the most soluble compounds (i.e., sodium and potassium hydroxides and carbonates) do not persist through the wet season. The samples selected were: Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine), Pinus brutia (Calabrian pine), Olea europaea (Olive), Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress), Pistacia lentiscus (Mastic tree), Quercus coccifera (Holly oak)

  18. Ash Meadows Pupfish Preserve: A proposal from The Nature Conservancy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ash Meadows region of southwest Nevada has evolved since the last period of glaciation into a unique alkali desert ecosystem. The remnant springs, pools and...

  19. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  20. Environmental impact of manganese due to its leaching from coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal K R

    2009-01-01

    In India, so far not much efforts have been made to use coal ash as backfill material in underground/ open cast mines and to predict its subsequent effect on ground water quality. One of the main problems in disposing of big quantities of coal ash is the possible leaching of different pollutants, including manganese. A thorough investigation regarding leaching of manganese from different fly ashes is required to know the impact of manganese due to its leaching from fly ash to ground water as well as surface water. In the present study, short term and long term leaching studies have been carried out on fly ash, bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant, Bokaro, Jharkhand and Ramagundam thermal power plant, Ramagundam, Andhra Pradesh. The amount of manganese released in different experiments has been evaluated. The leachate of Chandrapura fly ash has more manganese concentration (0.2001 mg/L) than the leachate of bottom ash, pond ash and weathered ash. A field investigation at Damoda abandoned open cast mine, filled with pond ash of Chandrapura thermal power plant revealed that concentration of manganese in ground water beneath the ash filled mine has been found very high (maximum up to 6.0 mg/L). But its migration to a long distance has not been seen. Remedial measures for coal ash disposal have also been formulated.

  1. Hydraulic transportation of fly ash: a laboratory-scale investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Anna University, Chennai (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Flow behaviour of fly ash slurry is a very complex phenomenon. The present study tries to examine the relation between flow rate and pressure loss of fly ash slurry under laboratory-scale experiment set up in the light of available theoretical background. Pressure loss increases with the increase in flow rate and solid concentration but pressure losses can be saved by the addition of 2200 PPM (parts per million) concentration of polyacrylamide polymer. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. ASH ENG 225 Complete Course NEW.doc

    OpenAIRE

    harrisss, samuel

    2016-01-01

    ASH ENG 225 Complete Course NEW   Check this A+ tutorial guideline at   http://www.assignmentclick.com/eng-225-ash/eng-225-entire-course   ENG 225 Week 1 DQ Effective Use of Aesthetic Choices ENG 225 Week 2 Assignment Genres and Genre Film ENG 225 Week 2 DQ Genre Theory ENG 225 Week 3 Assignment Establishing Theme ENG 225 Week 3 DQ The Impact of Cinematography and Editing Optionsdocx ENG 225 Week 4 Assignment Final Film Critique Prepa...

  3. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  4. Ashes 2013 - A network theory analysis of Cricket strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper the use of tools of complex network theory to describe the strategy of Australia and England in the recently concluded Ashes 2013 Test series. Using partnership data made available by cricinfo during the Ashes 2013 Test series, we generate batting partnership network (BPN) for each team, in which nodes correspond to batsmen and links represent runs scored in partnerships between batsmen. The resulting network display a visual summary of the pattern of run-scoring ...

  5. Comparison of creep of the cement pastes included fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padevět Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to comparison of creep of cement pastes containing fly ash admixture. The size of creep in time depends on the amount of components of the cement paste. Attention is paid to the content of classical fly ash in cement paste and its impact on the size of creep. The moisture of cement pastes is distinguished because it significantly affects the rheological properties of the material.

  6. Experimental research of non-burned fly-ash ceramsite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-shun; ZHANG Chao; GUO Jin-min; ZHOU Shao-tong

    2005-01-01

    Selected non-burned method and took fly-ash as main material, together with lime and gypsum, to inspire the activity of volcanic ash, took a kind of poly-organics to replace the clay as binder, and then made small balls with machine, wrapped slurry twice and autoclaved 8 hours at normal atmosphere, made ceramsite in this way can endure higher compression strength. Comparing with common concrete, the ceramsite concrete is about 25% lighter on weight.

  7. KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

    2000-11-01

    Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from coal fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Kotova, OB; Shabalin, Igor L; Shushkov, DA; Kocheva, LS

    2015-01-01

    The fly ash, from the combustion of coal to produce energy and heat, is an industrial waste, in which large accumulations represent a serious environmental threat. To reduce the environmental burden and improve the economic benefits of energy production, the science and industry focus on the transformation of coal combustion byproducts into new functional materials. The fly ash was studied by modern analytical methods. As a result of the hydrothermal reaction, several types of zeolites were s...

  9. Evaluation of fly ash as a component of potting substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, N.W.; Aitken, R.L. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Agriculture

    1996-11-01

    A series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments were undertaken to assess the potential for incorporating fly ash in soilless potting substrates. Since fly ash is available at low cost and can be successfully substituted for a considerable portion of the expensive peat component in the peat:sand mix, its use at low application rates in potting substrates may be desirable from an economic viewpoint.

  10. Pure zeolite synthesis from silica extracted from coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Andres, J.M.; Janssen, M.; Nugteren, H. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. Earth Science ' Jaume Almera'

    2002-07-01

    Pure zeolites can be synthesised from silica extracted from fly ash by alkaline leaching. If the process is optimised the solid residue arising from this extraction may also contain a relatively high content of zeolitic material mixed with residual fly ash components. Both the pure and the impure zeolitic material have a high potential for application in waste-water and flue gas-cleaning technologies. The silica extraction potential of 23 European coal fly ashes covering most of the possible fly ash types is investigated in this study. Optimisation of leaching processes, by varying temperature, time and alkali/fly ash rates, permitted extraction yields up to 140 g of SiO{sub 2} per kg using a single step process, but the extraction yields may reach up to 210 g kg{sup -1} by applying thermal pre-treatments prior to the extraction. The solid residue arising from the silica extraction experiments shows a high NaP1 zeolite content. A high Si/Al ratio of the glass matrix, the occurrence of easily soluble silica phases in the original fly ash and a high reactive surface area were found to be the major parameters influencing silica extraction. High purity 4A and X zeolitic material was obtained by combining the silica extracts from the Meirama fly ash and a waste solution from the Al-anodising industry. The results allowed conversion of the silica extraction yields to an equivalent 630 g of pure 4A-X zeolite per kg of fly ash with a cation exchange capacity of 4.7 meq g{sup -1}.

  11. Engineering Properties of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experimental research on certain engineering properties of a new (portland cement-free) concrete made with alkali-activated fly ash. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine its (bending and compression) mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, bond strength, and shrinkage. The results show that mortar and concrete made with portland cement-free activated fly ash develop a high mechanical strength in short periods of time, have a moderate modulus of el...

  12. Mswi bottom ash for upgrading of biogas and landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostbauer, P; Lenz, S; Lechner, P

    2008-07-01

    A new upgrading process for biogas and landfill gas (LFG) has been designed recently by the authors' institute. The process uses the alkalinity of the fine fraction of bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) for sorbing CO2 and H2S. Results from process development and optimisation are presented in this paper. It is expected that nearly pure CH4 can be produced for substitution of fossil fuels. Simultaneously, the leachability of MSWI bottom ash is clearly reduced.

  13. Distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the landfill site for solidified monoliths of fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Sung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2006-05-20

    One landfill site, which co-treated solidified monoliths of fly ash and bottom ash, was investigated comprehensively to characterize its PCDD/F distribution. The solidified monoliths, soil, banyan leaves, groundwater in the monitoring wells and the treated landfill leachates in this landfill site for solidified monoliths of fly ash were all sampled to clarify their PCDD/F characteristics. Although the PCDD/F leaching concentrations were extremely lower than the Taiwan PCDD/F TCLP regulation of solidified monoliths, the PCDD/F contents in the surface soils of the landfill site are 460 times higher than that of urban soils and the highest value is 2.8 times higher than the Taiwan soil regulation (1000 ngI-TEQkg(-1)). The elevated PCDD/F contents in the soil reveal their potential for causing adverse health risk for humans, including the pathway of resuspension of soil particles and volatilization of PCDD/Fs from soil. The PCDD/F concentrations in the groundwater and the treated landfill leachates of the landfill site for solidified monoliths were both higher than that in the control samples, suggesting its potential to be a PCDD/F source of nearby water environment. Without proper control and management, landfill sites for solidified monoliths of fly ash can seriously hazard the surrounding environment, therefore, are important to consider.

  14. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated.

  15. Damping properties of fly ash/epoxy composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Gu; Gaohui Wu; Xiao Zhao

    2008-01-01

    An inexpensive fly ash (FA), which is from a waste product, was employed to prepare fly ash/epoxy composites. The purpose of this study is to characterize the contributions of matrix viscoelasticity, hollow structure characteristic (porosity), and filler/matrix interface friction to the high vibration damping capacity of such composites. The damping properties of the composites were investigated in the temperature range of-40 to 150℃C and in the frequency range of 10 to 800 Hz by using a tension-compression mode. The results indicate that the peak value of damping loss factor (tanδ) for the fly ash/epoxy composites can reach 0.70-0.90 in test specification, and the attenuation of damping loss factor is inconspicuous with increasing frequency. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the fly ash as well as its distribution in the matrix, which will help to analyze the effect of fly ash on the damping properties of the fly ash/epoxy composites.

  16. The Mineral Transformation of Huainan Coal Ashes in Reducing Atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han-xu; Yoshihiko Ninomiya; DONG Zhong-bing; ZHANG Ming-xu

    2006-01-01

    By using the advanced instrumentation of a Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscope (CCSEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), the ash composition and the mineral components of six typical Huainan coals of different origins were studied. The transformation of mineral matter at high temperatures was tracked by XRD in reducing conditions. The quartz phase decreased sharply and the anorthite content tended to increase at first and then decreased with increasing temperatures. The formed mullite phase reached a maximum at 1250 ℃ but showed a tendency of slow decline when the temperature was over 1250 ℃. The mullite formed in the heating process was the main reason of the high ash melting temperature of Huainan coals. Differences in peak intensity of mullite and anorthite reflected differences in phase concentration of the quenched slag fractions, which contributed to the differences in ash melting temperatures. The differences in the location of an amorphous hump maximum indicated differences of glass types which may affect ash melting temperatures. For Huainan coal samples with relatively high ash melting temperatures, the intensity of the diffraction lines for mullite under reducing condition is high while for the samples with relatively low ash melting temperature the intensity for anorthite is high.

  17. Effect of interfacial properties on mechanical stability of ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ontiveros-Ortega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the cohesion of volcanic ash particles using surface free energy determination and zeta potential analyses. This is a subject of great interest in physical volcanology, as many researches on volcanic particle aggregation are frequently reported. In this case, special attention is paid to the role of structural or hydration forces between hydrophilic surfaces, which are a consequence of the electron-donor/electron-acceptor character of the interface. From this point of view, the results are potentially interesting as they could give valuable insights into this process. The results are presented in terms of the total energy of interaction between dispersed particles, computed from the extended DLVO theory. Contributions to the total free energy of interaction were determined from the zeta potential and surface free energy of ash, measured under different experimental conditions. Two samples of basaltic volcanic ash (black and white with silica contents of 44% and 63% respectively are studied. The surface free energy and zeta potential were analysed for ashes immersed in different electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl2, FeCl3. The presence of electrolytes changes the surface properties of the solid materials. The analysis of total interaction energy between the ash particles in aqueous medium shows that soil cohesion strongly depends on ash surface properties, chemical nature, the adsorbed cation on the surface, and pH value.

  18. [Study on mercury re-emissions during fly ash utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Shu-Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The amount of fly ash produced during coal combustion is around 400 million tons per year in China. About 65%-68% of fly ash is used in building material production, road construction, architecture and agriculture. Some of these utilization processes include high temperature procedures, which may lead to mercury re-emissions. In this study, experiments were designed to simulate the key process in cement production and steam-cured brick production. A temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method was used to study the mercury transformation in the major utilization processes. Mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization in China was estimated based on the experimental results. It was found that mercury existed as HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2), HgS and HgO in the fly ash. During the cement production process, more than 98% of the mercury in fly ash was re-emitted. In the steam-curing brick manufacturing process, the average mercury re-emission percentage was about 28%, which was dominated by the percentage of HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2). It is estimated that the mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization have increased from 4.07 t in 2002 to 9.18 t in 2008, of which cement industry contributes about 96.6%.

  19. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  20. ZEOLITIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH WITH A FUSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Latosińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study shows the results of zeolitization of municipal sewage sludge ash with the indirect fusion method followed by a hydrothermal method. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash was conducted at the melting temperature of 550°C and the melting time of 60 minutes, crystallization temperatures of 60°C and 90°C, crystallization time of 6 hours and the SSA:NaOH ratio of 1:1.8; 1:1.4. The research of modified sewage sludge ashes included the observation of changes of ash particles surface and the identification of crystalized phases. The zeolitization of sewage sludge ash at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.4 did not cause the formation of zeolite phases. On the other hand, the zeolitization at the ratio of SSA:NaOH 1.0:1.8 resulted in the formation of desired zeolite phases such as zeolite Y (faujasite and hydroxysodalite. The presented method of sewage sludge ash zeolitization allows to obtain highly usable material. Synthesized zeolites may be used as adsorbents and ion exchangers. They can be potentially used to remove heavy metals as well as ammonia from water and wastewater.