WorldWideScience

Sample records for human corticotropin-releasing-hormone gene

  1. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery

  2. Mapping the human corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein gene (CRHBP) to the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q11.2-q13.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvakopoulos, N.C. [Univ. of Thessaly School of Medicine, Larisa (Greece); Sioutopoulou, T.O. [Univ. of Athens Medical School (Greece); Durkin, S.A. [American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Unexpected stimulation or stress activates the heat shock protein (hsp) system at the cellular level and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the level of the whole organism. At the molecular level, these two systems communicate through the functional interaction between hsp90 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system regulates the mammalian stress response by coordinating the activity of the HPA axis. It consists of the 41-amino-acid-long principal hypothalamic secretagogue for pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CRH, its receptor (CRHR), and its binding protein (CRHBP). Because of its central role in the coordination of stress response and whole body homeostasis, the CRH system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disease. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  3. The interaction of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and early life stress on emotional empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Simone; Wirth, Katharina; Fan, Yan; Weigand, Anne; Gärtner, Matti; Feeser, Melanie; Dziobek, Isabel; Bajbouj, Malek; Aust, Sabine

    2017-06-30

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased vulnerability for depression, changes to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system and structural and functional changes in hippocampus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene interact with ELS to predict depression, cognitive functions and hippocampal activity. Social cognition has been related to hippocampal function and might be crucial for maintaining mental health. However, the interaction of CRHR1 gene variation and ELS on social cognition has not been investigated yet. We assessed social cognition in 502 healthy subjects to test effects of ELS and the CRHR1 gene. Participants were genotyped for rs110402 and rs242924. ELS was assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, social cognition was measured via Multifaceted Empathy Test and Empathy Quotient. Severity of ELS was associated with decreased emotional, but not cognitive empathy. Subjects with the common homozygous GG GG genotype showed decreased implicit emotional empathy after ELS exposure regardless of its severity. The results reveal that specific CRHR1 polymorphisms moderate the effect of ELS on emotional empathy. Exposure to ELS in combination with a vulnerable genotype results in impaired emotional empathy in adulthood, which might represent an early marker of increased vulnerability after ELS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Paraventricular nucleus of the human hypothalamus in primary hypertension: Activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharuk, Valeri D.; van Heerikhuize, Joop; Swaab, Dick F.; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2002-01-01

    By using quantitative immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques, we studied corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-producing neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in patients who suffered from primary hypertension and died due to acute cardiac failure. The control

  5. Characterization of brn1.2 and corticotropin-releasing hormone genes in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekar, Gayathri

    2007-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio), a tropical fresh water fish originally found in the rivers of India and Bangladesh has become a popular vertebrate model system over the last decade. The rapid sequencing of the zebrafish genome together with the latest advances in forward and reverse genetics has made this model organism more fascinating as it can be used to decipher the genetic mechanisms involved in the vertebrate development. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates t...

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 Gene Variants in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazuki Komuro

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH plays an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and regulates the stress response through two CRH receptors (R1 and R2. Previously, we reported that a CRHR1 gene polymorphism (rs110402, rs242924, and rs7209436 and haplotypes were associated with IBS. However, the association between the CRHR2 gene and IBS was not investigated. We tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of CRHR2 are associated with IBS pathophysiology and negative emotion in IBS patients.A total of 142 IBS patients and 142 healthy controls participated in this study. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CRHR2 gene (rs4722999, rs3779250, rs2240403, rs2267710, rs2190242, rs2284217, and rs2284220 were genotyped. Subjects' psychological states were evaluated using the Perceived-Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale.We found that rs4722999 and rs3779250, located in intronic region, were associated with IBS in terms of genotype frequency (rs4722999: P = 0.037; rs3779250: P = 0.017 and that the distribution of the major allele was significantly different between patients and controls. There was a significant group effect (controls vs. IBS, and a CRHR2 genotype effect was observed for three psychological scores, but the interaction was not significant. We found a haplotype of four SNPs (rs4722999, rs3779250, rs2240403, and rs2267710 and two SNPs (rs2284217 and rs2284220 in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' > 0.90. We also found that haplotypes of the CRHR2 gene were significantly different between IBS patients and controls and that they were associated with negative emotion.Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of CRHR2 are related to IBS. In addition, we found associations between CRHR2 genotypes and haplotypes and negative emotion in IBS patients and controls. Further studies on IBS and the CRH

  7. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and mast cells in the regulation of mucosal barrier function in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Söderholm, Johan D

    2009-05-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is an important neuro-endocrine mediator of the stress response. Local effects of CRH in the intestinal mucosa have become evident in recent years. We showed that CRH activates CRH receptor subtypes R1 and R2 on subepithelial mast cells, thereby inducing increased transcellular uptake of protein antigens in human colonic biopsies in Ussing chambers. Ongoing studies also implicate local cholinergic signaling in regulation of macromolecular permeability in the human colon. Since increased uptake of antigenic molecules is associated with mucosal inflammation, our findings may have implications for understanding stress-related intestinal disorders.

  8. Human fear acquisition deficits in relation to genetic variants of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 and the serotonin transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Heitland

    Full Text Available The ability to identify predictors of aversive events allows organisms to appropriately respond to these events, and failure to acquire these fear contingencies can lead to maladaptive contextual anxiety. Recently, preclinical studies demonstrated that the corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin systems are interactively involved in adaptive fear acquisition. Here, 150 healthy medication-free human subjects completed a cue and context fear conditioning procedure in a virtual reality environment. Fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex (FPS was measured to assess both uninstructed fear acquisition and instructed fear expression. All participants were genotyped for polymorphisms located within regulatory regions of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 - rs878886 and the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR. These polymorphisms have previously been linked to panic disorder and anxious symptomology and personality, respectively. G-allele carriers of CRHR1 (rs878886 showed no acquisition of fear conditioned responses (FPS to the threat cue in the uninstructed phase, whereas fear acquisition was present in C/C homozygotes. Moreover, carrying the risk alleles of both rs878886 (G-allele and 5HTTLPR (short allele was associated with increased FPS to the threat context during this phase. After explicit instructions regarding the threat contingency were given, the cue FPS and context FPS normalized in all genotype groups. The present results indicate that genetic variability in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, especially in interaction with the 5HTTLPR, is involved in the acquisition of fear in humans. This translates prior animal findings to the human realm.

  9. Associations between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Related Genes and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Sasaki

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional disorder with distinct features of stress-related pathophysiology. A key mediator of the stress response is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH. Although some candidate genes have been identified in stress-related disorders, few studies have examined CRH-related gene polymorphisms. Therefore, we tested our hypothesis that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CRH-related genes influence the features of IBS.In total, 253 individuals (123 men and 130 women participated in this study. They comprised 111 IBS individuals and 142 healthy controls. The SNP genotypes in CRH (rs28364015 and rs6472258 and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP (rs10474485 were determined by direct sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The emotional states of the subjects were evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Self-rating Depression Scale.Direct sequencing of the rs28364015 SNP of CRH revealed no genetic variation among the study subjects. There was no difference in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of rs6472258 and rs10474485 between IBS individuals and controls. However, IBS subjects with diarrhea symptoms without the rs10474485 A allele showed a significantly higher emotional state score than carriers.These results suggest that the CRH and CRH-BP genes have no direct effect on IBS status. However, the CRH-BP SNP rs10474485 has some effect on IBS-related emotional abnormalities and resistance to psychosocial stress.

  10. Direct measurement of human plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, E.A.; McLean, C.; Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C.; Tilders, F.J.; Van der Veen, E.A.; Lowry, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A ''two-site'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) which allows the direct estimation of human CRH (hCRH) in plasma is described. Using this IRMA, basal levels of CRH in normal subjects ranged from 2-28 pg/mL [mean, 15 +/- 7 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 58]. Values in men and women were similar. Plasma CRH values within this range were also found in patients with Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and Nelson's syndrome, with no correlation between plasma CRH and ACTH levels in these patients. Elevated plasma CRH levels were found in pregnant women near term [1462 +/- 752 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 55], and the dilution curve of this CRH-like immunoreactivity paralleled the IRMA standard curve. After its immunoadsorption from maternal plasma, this CRH-like material eluted on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with a retention time identical to that of synthetic CRH and had equipotent bioactivity with the synthetic peptide in the perfused anterior pituitary cell bioassay. Circulating CRH was not detected in Wistar rats, even after adrenalectomy and subsequent ether stress. Synthetic hCRH was degraded by fresh human plasma relatively slowly; 65% of added CRH remained after 1 h of incubation at 37 C. Degradation was inhibited by heat treatment (54 C; 1 h), cold treatment (4 C; 4 h), or freezing and thawing. Loss of synthetic rat CRH occurred more rapidly when fresh rat plasma was used; only 20% of added CRH remained under the same conditions. The inability to measure CRH in peripheral rat plasma may be due to the presence of active CRH-degrading enzymes which fragment the CRH molecule into forms not recognized by the CRH IRMA

  11. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.

    1995-01-01

    This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic gl...

  12. Association of glucocorticoid and type 1 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors gene variants and risk for depression during pregnancy and post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Neelam; Darwin, Lucy; Nishigandh, Deole; Ngianga-Bakwin, Kandala; Smith, Steve C; Grammatopoulos, Dimitris K

    2013-09-01

    Women with postnatal depression (PND) appear to have abnormal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress, which might involve a genetic variability component. We investigated association of genetic variants in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, NR3C1) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes with increased risk for PND. Two hundred pregnant women were recruited prospectively and PND risk was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy and again 2-8 weeks post-natally (CW-GAPND study). The BclI and ER22/23EK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GR and the haplotype-tagged rs1876828, rs242939 and rs242941 SNPs of the CRHR1 associated with genetic risk to depressive disorders were genotyped. A cut-off score of 10 was used to detect increased risk of PND. Association analysis was carried out in 140 patients that completed the study protocol. The BclI and rs242939 SNPs were over-represented in women with postnatal EPDS score ≥10 with significant allele association (p = 0.011 and depression during pregnancy and postpartum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene by Environment Interaction and Resilience: Effects of Child Maltreatment and Serotonin, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone, Dopamine, and Oxytocin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, gene-environment interaction effects in predicting resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 595) were examined. A multi-component index of resilient functioning was derived and levels of resilient functioning were identified. Variants in four genes, 5-HTTLPR, CRHR1, DRD4 -521C/T, and OXTR, were investigated. In a series of ANCOVAs, child maltreatment demonstrated a strong negative main effect on children’s resilient functioning, whereas no main effects for any of the genotypes of the respective genes were found. However, gene-environment interactions involving genotypes of each of the respective genes and maltreatment status were obtained. For each respective gene, among children with a specific genotype, the relative advantage in resilient functioning of nonmaltreated compared to maltreated children was stronger than was the case for nonmaltreated and maltreated children with other genotypes of the respective gene. Across the four genes, a composite of the genotypes that more strongly differentiated resilient functioning between nonmaltreated and maltreated children provided further evidence of genetic variations influencing resilient functioning in nonmaltreated children, whereas genetic variation had a negligible effect on promoting resilience among maltreated children. Additional effects were observed for children based on the number of subtypes of maltreatment children experienced, as well as for abuse and neglect subgroups. Finally, maltreated and nonmaltreated children with high levels of resilience differed in their average number of differentiating genotypes. These results suggest that differential resilient outcomes are based on the interaction between genes and developmental experiences. PMID:22559122

  14. Receptors for corticotropin-releasing hormone in human pituitary: Binding characteristics and autoradiographic localization to immunocytochemically defined proopiomelanocortin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, G.; Vauquelin, G.; Moons, L.; Smitz, J.; Kloeppel, G. (Department of Experimental Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium))

    1991-08-01

    Using autoradiography combined with immunocytochemistry, the authors demonstrated that the target cells of CRH in the human pituitary were proopiomelanocortin cells. Scatchard analysis of (125I)Tyr0-oCRH saturation binding revealed the presence of one class of saturable, high affinity sites on pituitary tissue homogenate. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (125I)Tyr0-oCRH ranged from 1.1-1.6 nM, and the receptor density was between 200-350 fmol/mg protein. Fixation of cryostat sections with 4% paraformaldehyde before tracer incubation improved both tissue preservation and localization of the CRH receptor at the cellular level. Additional postfixation with 1% glutaraldehyde inhibited tracer diffusion during subsequent immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. (125I)Tyr0-oCRH was found in cytoplasmic inclusions or at the cell periphery of ACTH/beta-endorphin cells in the anterior pituitary. Single cells of the posterior pituitary were also CRH receptor positive. Cells staining for PRL or GH were CRH receptor negative. They conclude that CRH binds only to high affinity receptors on ACTH/{beta}-endorphin cells in the human pituitary.

  15. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Vamvakopoulos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h CRH gene: (1 a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2 a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system.

  16. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  17. Up-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone is associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in psoriasis and ... Methods: Psoriasis and normal skin biopsy samples were obtained from three psoriatic and ... established in literature that stress signals such.

  18. A second corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (CRH2) is conserved across vertebrate classes and expressed in the hindbrain of a basal neopterygian fish, the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grone, Brian P; Maruska, Karen P

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the origins of the vertebrate stress-response system, we searched sequenced vertebrate genomes for genes resembling corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). We found that vertebrate genomes possess, in addition to CRH, another gene that resembles CRH in sequence and syntenic environment. This paralogous gene was previously identified only in the elephant shark (a holocephalan), but we find it also in marsupials, monotremes, lizards, turtles, birds, and fishes. We examined the relationship of this second vertebrate CRH gene, which we name CRH2, to CRH1 (previously known as CRH) and urocortin1/urotensin1 (UCN1/UTS1) in primitive fishes, teleosts, and tetrapods. The paralogs CRH1 and CRH2 likely evolved via duplication of CRH during a whole-genome duplication early in the vertebrate lineage. CRH2 was subsequently lost in both teleost fishes and eutherian mammals but retained in other lineages. To determine where CRH2 is expressed relative to CRH1 and UTS1, we used in situ hybridization on brain tissue from spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), a neopterygian fish closely related to teleosts. In situ hybridization revealed widespread distribution of both crh1 and uts1 in the brain. Expression of crh2 was restricted to the putative secondary gustatory/secondary visceral nucleus, which also expressed calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (calca), a marker of parabrachial nucleus in mammals. Thus, the evolutionary history of CRH2 includes restricted expression in the brain, sequence changes, and gene loss, likely reflecting release of selective constraints following whole-genome duplication. The discovery of CRH2 opens many new possibilities for understanding the diverse functions of the CRH family of peptides across vertebrates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Up-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone is associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in psoriasis and normal skin biopsy samples, and to correlate the expression of CRH with the expression of CRHBP and inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-33. Methods: Psoriasis and normal skin biopsy samples were obtained from three ...

  1. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  2. Endocrinology and the brain: corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Carolina; Armando, Natalia G; Dos Santos Claro, Paula A; Silberstein, Susana

    2017-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key player of basal and stress-activated responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and in extrahypothalamic circuits, where it functions as a neuromodulator to orchestrate humoral and behavioral adaptive responses to stress. This review describes molecular components and cellular mechanisms involved in CRH signaling downstream of its G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) CRHR1 and CRHR2 and summarizes recent findings that challenge the classical view of GPCR signaling and impact on our understanding of CRHRs function. Special emphasis is placed on recent studies of CRH signaling that revealed new mechanistic aspects of cAMP generation and ERK1/2 activation in physiologically relevant contexts of the neurohormone action. In addition, we present an overview of the pathophysiological role of the CRH system, which highlights the need for a precise definition of CRHRs signaling at molecular level to identify novel targets for pharmacological intervention in neuroendocrine tissues and specific brain areas involved in CRH-related disorders. © 2017 The authors.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berga, S L; Loucks-Daniels, T L; Adler, L J; Chrousos, G P; Cameron, J L; Matthews, K A; Marcus, M D

    2000-04-01

    Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea are anovulatory because of reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive. Several studies have documented hypercortisolemia, which suggests that functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is stress-induced. Further, with recovery (resumption of ovulation), cortisol decreased and gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive increased. Corticotropin-releasing hormone can increase cortisol and decrease gonadotropin-releasing hormone. To determine its role in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we measured corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid along with arginine vasopressin, another potent adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagog, and beta-endorphin, which is released by corticotropin-releasing hormone and can inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid from 14 women with eumenorrhea and 15 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and of vasopressin were comparable and beta-endorphin levels were lower in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. In women with established functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, increased cortisol and reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone are not sustained by elevated cerebrospinal-fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or beta-endorphin. These data do not exclude a role for these factors in the initiation of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  4. Corticotropin releasing hormone and imaging, rethinking the stress axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contoreggi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The stress system provides integration of both neurochemical and somatic physiologic functions within organisms as an adaptive mechanism to changing environmental conditions throughout evolution. In mammals and primates the complexity and sophistication of these systems have surpassed other species in triaging neurochemical and physiologic signaling to maximize chances of survival. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and its related peptides and receptors have been identified over the last three decades and are fundamental molecular initiators of the stress response. They are crucial in the top down regulatory cascade over a myriad of neurochemical, neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous system events. From neuroscience, we've seen that stress activation impacts behavior, endocrine and somatic physiology and influences neurochemical events that one can capture in real time with current imaging technologies. To delineate these effects one can demonstrate how the CRH neuronal networks infiltrate critical cognitive, emotive and autonomic regions of the central nervous system (CNS) with somatic effects. Abundant preclinical and clinical studies show inter-regulatory actions of CRH with multiple neurotransmitters/peptides. Stress, both acute and chronic has epigenetic effects which magnify genetic susceptibilities to alter neurochemistry; stress system activation can add critical variables in design and interpretation of basic and clinical neuroscience and related research. This review will attempt to provide an overview of the spectrum of known functions and speculative actions of CRH and stress responses in light of imaging technology and its interpretation. Metabolic and neuroreceptor positron emission/single photon tomography (PET/SPECT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anatomic MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (pMRS) are technologies that can delineate basic mechanisms of neurophysiology and

  5. Colocalization of connexin 36 and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Ana C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junction proteins, connexins, are expressed in most endocrine and exocrine glands in the body and are at least in some glands crucial for the hormonal secretion. To what extent connexins are expressed in neurons releasing hormones or neuropeptides from or within the central nervous system is, however, unknown. Previous studies provide indirect evidence for gap junction coupling between subsets of neuropeptide-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. Here we employ double labeling and retrograde tracing methods to investigate to what extent neuroendocrine and neuropeptide-containing neurons of the hypothalamus and brainstem express the neuronal gap junction protein connexin 36. Results Western blot analysis showed that connexin 36 is expressed in the PVN. In bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, which specifically express the reporter gene Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP under the control of the connexin 36 gene promoter, EGFP expression was detected in magnocellular (neuroendocrine and in parvocellular neurons of the PVN. Although no EGFP/connexin36 expression was seen in neurons containing oxytocin or vasopressin, EGFP/connexin36 was found in subsets of PVN neurons containing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, and in somatostatin neurons located along the third ventricle. Moreover, CRH neurons in brainstem areas, including the lateral parabrachial nucleus, also expressed EGFP/connexin 36. Conclusion Our data indicate that connexin 36 is expressed in subsets of neuroendocrine and CRH neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and brainstem.

  6. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and pituitary-adrenal hormones in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W B; Gurewitsch, E D; Goland, R S

    1995-02-01

    We hypothesized that maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone levels are elevated in chronic hypertension and that elevations modulate maternal and fetal pituitary-adrenal function. Venous blood samples and 24-hour urine specimens were obtained in normal and hypertensive pregnancies at 21 to 40 weeks of gestation. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and total estriol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean hormone levels were compared by unpaired t test or two-way analysis of variance. Plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone levels were elevated early in hypertensive pregnancies but did not increase after 36 weeks. Levels of pituitary and adrenal hormones were not different in normal and hypertensive women. However, maternal plasma estriol levels were lower in hypertensive pregnancies compared with normal pregnancies. Fetal 16-hydroxy dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, the major precursor to placental estriol production, has been reported to be lower than normal in hypertensive pregnancies, possibly explaining the decreased plasma estriol levels reported here. Early stimulation of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone production or secretion may be related to accelerated maturation of placental endocrine function in pregnancies complicated by chronic hypertension.

  7. Loss of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone markedly reduces anxiety behaviors in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Asai, Masato; Mahoney, Carrie E; Joachim, Maria; Shen, Yuan; Gunner, Georgia; Majzoub, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing paradigm posits that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates neuroendocrine functions such as adrenal glucocorticoid release, while extra-hypothalamic CRH plays a key role in stressor-triggered behaviors. Here we report that hypothalamus-specific Crh knockout mice (Sim1CrhKO mice, created by crossing Crhflox with Sim1Cre mice) have absent Crh mRNA and peptide mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) but preserved Crh expression in other brain regions including amygdala and cerebral cortex. As expected, Sim1CrhKO mice exhibit adrenal atrophy as well as decreased basal, diurnal and stressor-stimulated plasma corticosterone secretion and basal plasma ACTH, but surprisingly, have a profound anxiolytic phenotype when evaluated using multiple stressors including open field, elevated plus maze, holeboard, light-dark box, and novel object recognition task. Restoring plasma corticosterone did not reverse the anxiolytic phenotype of Sim1CrhKO mice. Crh-Cre driver mice revealed that PVHCrh fibers project abundantly to cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens shell, and moderately to medial amygdala, locus coeruleus, and solitary tract, consistent with the existence of PVHCrh-dependent behavioral pathways. Although previous, nonselective attenuation of CRH production or action, genetically in mice and pharmacologically in humans, respectively, has not produced the anticipated anxiolytic effects, our data show that targeted interference specifically with hypothalamic Crh expression results in anxiolysis. Our data identify neurons that express both Sim1 and Crh as a cellular entry point into the study of CRH-mediated, anxiety-like behaviors and their therapeutic attenuation. PMID:27595593

  8. 促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素受体1基因多态与抗郁物疗效的关联研究%Association study of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor1 gene polymorphisms and antidepressant response in major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 禹顺英; 沈一峰; 李华芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptorl (CRHR1) gene polymorphisms is associated with the therapeutic response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) in majgr depressive disorder patients. Methods Routine dosage of unitary novel antidepressant (SSRIs or SNRIs) was given by at least six weeks to 271 patients with major depressive disorder diagnosed as by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ). Hamilton Depression Scale 17(HAMD17) was evaluated before and after the treatment. The patients were grouped as responder (decreasing rate of score of HAMD17 ≥50%) and non-responder (decreasing rate of score of HAMD17 0.05). Conclusions The results support that CRHR, gene is involved in the an-tidepressant response of SSRIs and SNRIs in major depressive disorder in the early stage.%目的 探讨促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素受体2(corticotropin-releasing hormone reeeptor1,CRHR1)基因多态性与选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors,SSRIs)、5-羟色胺和去甲肾上腺素再摄取抑制剂(Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors,SNRIs)抗抑郁疗效差异的相关性.方法 对符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Menial Disorders,Fourth Edition,DSM-Ⅳ)抑郁症诊断标准的271例抑郁症患者予以单一新型抗抑郁药(SSRIs或SNRIs)常规剂量治疗至少6周,以治疗前后17项汉密尔顿抑郁量表(Hamilton Depression Scale,HAMD)总分减分率作为评估疗效的指标.采用TaqMan探针法检测CRHR1基因上4个单核苷酸多态性(Single Nucleotide Polymorphism,SNP)的基因型,比较有效组(HAMD-17减分率≥50%)和无效组(HAMD-17减分率<50%)之间4个位点基因型及多位点组成单倍型的不同.结果 治疗4周末:CRHR1基因rs17689966位点A等位基因及AA基因型携带

  9. Corticotropine-releasing hormone and/or corticosterone differentially affect behavior of rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Karel; Řezáčová, Lenka; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 118-118 ISSN 1461-1457. [CINP Congress /26./. 13.07.2008-17.07.2008, Munich] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MZd NR9180; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * corticotropine-releasing hormone * corticosterone * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-29

    Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Schizothorax prenanti corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): molecular cloning, tissue expression, and the function of feeding regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Chaowei; Yuan, Dengyue; Lin, Fangjun; Chen, Hu; Wu, Hongwei; Wei, Rongbin; Xin, Zhiming; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Li, Zhiqiong

    2014-10-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a potent mediator of endocrine, autonomic, behavioral, and immune responses to stress. For a better understanding of the structure and function of the CRH gene and to study its effect on feeding regulation in cyprinid fish, the cDNA of the CRH gene from the brain of Schizothorax prenanti was cloned and sequenced. The full-length CRH cDNA consisted of 1,046 bp with an open reading frame of 489 bp encoding a protein of 162 amino acids. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that CRH was widely expressed in central and peripheral tissues. In particular, high expression level of CRH was detected in brain. Furthermore, CRH mRNA expression was examined in different brain regions, especially high in hypothalamus. In addition, there was no significant change in CRH mRNA expression in fed group compared with the fasted group in the S. prenanti hypothalamus during short-term fasting. However, CRH gene expression presented significant decrease in the hypothalamus in fasted group compared with the fed group (P < 0.05) on day 7; thereafter, re-feeding could lead to a significant increase in CRH mRNA expression in fasted group on day 9. The results suggest that the CRH may play a critical role in feeding regulation in S. prenanti.

  12. Regulation of feeding behavior and psychomotor activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei eMatsuda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor and psychomotor activities. In particular, CRH elicits anxiety-like behavior as an anxiogenic neuropeptide in goldfish, as is the case in rodents. This paper reviews current knowledge of CRH and its related peptides derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative non-mammals, focusing particularly on the role of the CRH system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint.

  13. CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE MICROINFUSION IN THE CENTRAL AMYGDALA DIMINISHES A CARDIAC PARASYMPATHETIC OUTFLOW UNDER STRESS-FREE CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, A; BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1993-01-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is known to be involved in the regulation of autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural responses in stress situations. The CeA contains large numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) cell bodies. Neuroanatomical studies revealed that the majority of

  14. Differential contribution of CBP:CREB binding to corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in the infant and adult hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cope, J.L.; Regev, L.; Chen, Y.; Korosi, A.; Rice, C.J.; Ji, S.; Rogge, G.A.; Wood, M.A.; Baram, T.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) contributes crucially to the regulation of central and peripheral responses to stress. Because of the importance of a finely-tuned stress system, CRH expression is tightly regulated in an organ- and brain region-specific manner. Thus, in hypothalamus, CRH is

  15. Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces depression-like changes of sleep electroencephalogram in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler, P; Kluge, M; Gamringer, W; Wetter, T C; Yassouridis, A; Uhr, M; Rupprecht, R; Steiger, A

    2016-12-01

    We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women. After CRH compared to placebo, intermittent wakefulness increased during the total night and the sleep efficiency index decreased. During the first third of the night, REM sleep and stage 2 sleep increased and sleep stage 3 decreased. Cortisol concentration was elevated throughout the night and during the first and second third of the night. GH secretion remained unchanged. Our data suggest that after CRH some sleep and endocrine activity parameters show also depression-like changes in healthy women. These changes are more distinct in women than in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  17. Effects of electroacupuncture on corticotropin-releasing hormone in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Rong; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Huan-Gan; Wu, Lu-Yi; Li, Jing; Weng, Zhi-Jun; Guo, Xin-Xin; Li, Yu-Guang

    2015-06-21

    To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the colon, spinal cord, and hypothalamus of rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. A rat model of chronic visceral hypersensitivity was generated according to the internationally accepted method of colorectal balloon dilatation. In the 7(th) week after the procedure, rats were randomly divided into a model group (MG), electroacupuncture group (EA), and sham electroacupuncture group (S-EA). After treatment, the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was used to assess the behavioral response of visceral hyperalgesia. Immunohistochemistry (EnVision method), ELISA, and fluorescence quantitative PCR methods were applied to detect the expression of CRH protein and mRNA in the colon, spinal cord, and hypothalamus. The sensitivity of the rats to the colorectal distension stimulus applied at different strengths (20-80 mmHg) increased with increasing stimulus strength, resulting in increasing AWR scores in each group. Compared with NG, the AWR score of MG was significantly increased (P 0.05) compared with normal rats (NG). However, the decrease in EA compared with MG rats was statistically significant (P 0.05). Electroacupuncture at the Shangjuxu acupoint was able to significantly reduce the visceral hypersensitivity in rats, and regulated the expression of CRH protein and mRNA in the colon, spinal cord and hypothalamus at different levels, playing a therapeutic role in this model of irritable bowel syndrome.

  18. Effect of a corticotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist on colonic sensory and motor function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sagami, Y; Shimada, Y; Tayama, J; Nomura, T; Satake, M; Endo, Y; Shoji, T; Karahashi, K; Hongo, M; Fukudo, S

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is presumed to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. We hypothesised that peripheral administration of α-helical CRH (αhCRH), a non-selective CRH receptor antagonist, would improve gastrointestinal motility, visceral perception, and negative mood in response to gut stimulation in IBS patient...

  19. Alterations in the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurocircuitry: Insights into post stroke functional impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra de la Tremblaye, P; Plamondon, H

    2016-07-01

    Although it is well accepted that changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may increase susceptibility to affective disorders in the general population, this link has been less examined in stroke patients. Yet, the bidirectional association between depression and cardiovascular disease is strong, and stress increases vulnerability to stroke. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the central stress hormone of the HPA axis pathway and acts by binding to CRH receptors (CRHR) 1 and 2, which are located in several stress-related brain regions. Evidence from clinical and animal studies suggests a role for CRH in the neurobiological basis of depression and ischemic brain injury. Given its importance in the regulation of the neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral correlates of adaptation and maladaptation to stress, CRH is likely associated in the pathophysiology of post stroke emotional impairments. The goals of this review article are to examine the clinical and experimental data describing (1) that CRH regulates the molecular signaling brain circuit underlying anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, (2) the influence of CRH and other stress markers in the pathophysiology of post stroke emotional and cognitive impairments, and (3) context and site specific interactions of CRH and BDNF as a basis for the development of novel therapeutic targets. This review addresses how the production and release of the neuropeptide CRH within the various regions of the mesocorticolimbic system influences emotional and cognitive behaviors with a look into its role in psychiatric disorders post stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 antagonists and their applications in psychosomatic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contoreggi, Carlo; Rice, Kenner C; Chrousos, George

    2004-01-01

    Overproduction of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and stress system abnormalities are seen in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and addiction. Investigations of CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) nonpeptide antagonists suggest therapeutic potential for treatment of these and other neuropsychiatric diseases. However, overproduction of CRH in the brain and on its periphery and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are also found in 'somatic' disorders. Some rare forms of Cushing's disease and related pituitary/adrenal disorders are obvious applications for CRHR1 antagonists. In addition, however, these antagonists may also be effective in treating more common somatic diseases. Patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome who often have subtle, but chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity, which may reflect central dysregulation of CRH and consequently glucocorticoid hypersecretion, could possibly be treated by administration of CRHR1 antagonists. Hormonal, autonomic, and immune aberrations are also present in chronic inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic diseases, with considerable evidence linking CRH with the observed abnormalities. Furthermore, autonomic dysregulation is a prominent feature of common gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and other gastrointestinal disorders frequently develop altered pain perception and affective symptoms. CRH acts peripherally to modulate bowel activity both directly through the autonomic system and centrally by processing viscerosensory and visceromotor neural signals. This review presents clinical and preclinical evidence for the role of CRH in the pathophysiology of these disorders and for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of CRHR1 antagonists. Recognition of a dysfunctional stress system in these and other diseases will alter the understanding and treatment of

  1. How do the many etiologies of West syndrome lead to excitability and seizures? The corticotropin releasing hormone excess hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, K L; Eghbal-Ahmadi, M; Baram, T Z

    2001-11-01

    West syndrome (WS) is associated with diverse etiological factors. This fact has suggested that there must be a 'final common pathway' for these etiologies, which operates on the immature brain to result in WS only at the maturational state present during infancy. Any theory for the pathogenesis of WS has to account for the unique features of this disorder. For example, how can a single entity have so many etiologies? Why does WS arise only in infancy, even when a known insult had occurred prenatally, and why does it disappear? Why is WS associated with lasting cognitive dysfunction? And, importantly, why do these seizures--unlike most others--respond to treatment by a hormone, ACTH? The established hormonal role of ACTH in human physiology is to function in the neuroendocrine cascade of the responses to all stressful stimuli, including insults to the brain. As part of this function, ACTH is known to suppress the production of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), a peptide that is produced in response to diverse insults and stressors.The many etiologies of WS all lead to activation of the stress response, including increased production and secretion of the stress-neurohormone CRH. CRH has been shown, in infant animal models, to cause severe seizures and death of neurons in areas involved with learning and memory. These effects of CRH are restricted to the infancy period because the receptors for CRH, which mediate its action on neurons, are most abundant during this developmental period. ACTH administration is known to inhibit production and release of CRH via a negative feedback mechanism. Therefore, the efficacy of ACTH for WS may depend on its ability to decrease the levels of the seizure-promoting stress-neurohormone CRH.This CRH-excess theory for the pathophysiology of WS is consistent not only with the profile of ACTH effects, but also with the many different 'causes' of WS, with the abnormal ACTH levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of affected infants and

  2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy after ursodeoxycholic acid treatment: an initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Zhang, Li; He, Mao Mao; Liu, Zheng Fei; Gao, Bing Xin; Wang, Xiao Dong

    2014-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the most potent vasodilatory factors in the human feto-placental circulation. The expression of CRH was significantly down-regulated in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). One hundred pregnant women diagnosed with ICP at 34-34(+6) weeks of gestation agreed to participate in this prospective nested case-control study. Thirty ICP patients were finally recruited in this study, with 16 cases in the ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) group (UDCA 750 mg/d) and 14 cases in the control group (Transmetil 1000 mg/d or Essentiale 1368 mg/d). Maternal serum samples were obtained in diagnosis and at 37-37(+6) weeks of gestation. Placental tissues were obtained from participants after delivery. ELISA, enzymatic colorimetric and Western blotting were used to evaluate the concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bile acid (TBA) and CRH in maternal serum and expression of CRH in placenta tissues. The UDCA group had greater reduction in maternal serum ALT, AST and TBA levels in ICP patients (all p < 0.01). Maternal serum CRH concentrations in the UDCA group after treatment (122.10 ± 44.20) pg/ml was significantly higher than pretreatment (95.45 ± 26.47) pg/ml (p < 0.01). After treatment, maternal serum CRH concentrations of the UDCA group (122.10 ± 44.20) pg/ml was significantly higher than in the control group (80.71 ± 41.10) pg/ml (p < 0.01). Placental CRH expression in the UDCA group (2.79 ± 1.72) was significantly higher than in the control group (0.69 ± 0.36) (p < 0.01). Maternal serum and placental CRH expression in ICP patients were up-regulated after treatment of UDCA. The up-regulation of CRH expression after UDCA treatment may play an important role in the therapeutic mechanism of ICP. All patients recruited in this study had severe cholestasis (TBA ≥ 40 µmol/L). Further studies are warranted in

  3. The relationships among acculturation, biobehavioral risk, stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and poor birth outcomes in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, R Jeanne; Dolbier, Christyn L; Fleschler, Robin

    2006-01-01

    To determine the predictive ability of acculturation as an antecedent of stress, biobehavioral risk, corticotropin-releasing hormone levels, and poor birth outcomes in pregnant Hispanic women. A prospective, observational design with data collected at 22-25 weeks of gestation and at birth through medical record review. Public prenatal health clinics in south Texas serving low-income women. Self-identified Hispanic women who had singleton pregnancies, no major medical risk complications, and consented to answer questionnaires as well as a venipuncture and review of their prenatal and birth medical records. Gestational age, Apgar scores, length, weight, percentile size, and head circumference of the infant at birth. Significant differences were seen in infant birth weight, head circumference, and percentile size by acculturation. English acculturation predicted stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, biobehavioral risk, and decreased gestational age at birth. Investigation must continue to understand the circumstances that give rise to the decline in birth outcomes observed in Hispanics with acculturation to the dominant English culture in the United States.

  4. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH Promotes Macrophage Foam Cell Formation via Reduced Expression of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter-1 (ABCA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkyoung Cho

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the major pathology of cardiovascular disease, is caused by multiple factors involving psychological stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, which is released by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, peripheral nerve terminals and epithelial cells, regulates various stress-related responses. Our current study aimed to verify the role of CRH in macrophage foam cell formation, the initial critical stage of atherosclerosis. Our quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and Western blot results indicate that CRH down-regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1 and liver X receptor (LXR-α, a transcription factor for ABCA1, in murine peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Oil-red O (ORO staining and intracellular cholesterol measurement of macrophages treated with or without oxidized LDL (oxLDL and with or without CRH (10 nM in the presence of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1 revealed that CRH treatment promotes macrophage foam cell formation. The boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-conjugated cholesterol efflux assay showed that CRH treatment reduces macrophage cholesterol efflux. Western blot analysis showed that CRH-induced down-regulation of ABCA1 is dependent on phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 induced by interaction between CRH and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1. We conclude that activation of this pathway by CRH accelerates macrophage foam cell formation and may promote stress-related atherosclerosis.

  5. Colocalization of corticotropin-releasing hormone and oestrogen receptor-alpha in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Hestiantoro, Andon; van Someren, Eus J. W.; Swaab, Dick F.; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2005-01-01

    Oestrogens may modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study was to investigate whether the activity of the HPA axis in mood disorders might be directly modulated by oestrogens via oestrogen receptors (ORs) in the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

  6. Effect of in ovo injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone on the timing of hatching in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2017-09-01

    In chicken embryos, intravenous injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) causes the release of both corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. These hormones initiate and enhance the hatching process, raising the possibility that CRH treatment of the late chicken embryo could accelerate hatching and/or decrease the spread of hatching. We performed a series of exploratory tests to investigate whether in ovo delivery methods of CRH other than intravenous injection that are more practical in a commercial setting, affect hatching time in broilers. Corticotropin-releasing hormone was injected into the air cell, albumen, or amniotic fluid of broiler breeder eggs, in the last week of embryonic development. Average incubation duration was significantly decreased by 22 h when 2 μg of CRH was injected into the air cell on embryonic day 18 (E18) of Cobb eggs. Acceleration of hatching (but only by 8 h) was also seen for Ross chicks when CRH was injected daily into the albumen between E10 and E18. However, repeats of both experiments did not show consistent effects of CRH on hatching time; in most experiments performed, CRH did not affect hatching time. We speculate that the effectiveness of CRH uptake via these delivery methods and/or the duration and magnitude of the thyroxine and corticosterone response to CRH is not sufficient to have a substantial effect on hatching time. We therefore conclude that in ovo CRH treatment does not seem a feasible option as a practical tool to increase hatchery productivity or to investigate the effects of CRH agonists and antagonists on hatching. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Differential Activation in Amygdala and Plasma Noradrenaline during Colorectal Distention by Administration of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone between Healthy Individuals and Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Tanaka

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation. Either CRH (2 μg/kg or saline (1:1 was then injected intravenously and the same distention protocol was repeated. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, serum cortisol and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured at each stimulation. At baseline, CRH without colorectal distention induced more activation in the right amygdala in IBS patients than in controls. During intense distention after CRH injection, controls showed significantly greater activation than IBS patients in the right amygdala. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion showed a significant interaction between drug (CRH, saline and distention. Plasma noradrenaline at baseline significantly increased after CRH injection compared to before injection in IBS. Further, plasma noradrenaline showed a significant group (IBS, controls by drug by distention interaction. Exogenous CRH differentially sensitizes brain regions of the emotional-arousal circuitry within the visceral pain matrix to colorectal distention and synergetic activation of noradrenergic function in IBS patients and healthy individuals.

  8. The corticotropin-releasing hormone network and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: molecular and cellular mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Juan José; Inda, Carolina; Refojo, Damián; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Silberstein, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a key role in adjusting the basal and stress-activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). CRH is also widely distributed in extrahypothalamic circuits, where it acts as a neuroregulator to integrate the complex neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral adaptive response to stress. Hyperactive and/or dysregulated CRH circuits are involved in neuroendocrinological disturbances and stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. This review describes the main physiological features of the CRH network and summarizes recent relevant information concerning the molecular mechanism of CRH action obtained from signal transduction studies using cells and wild-type and transgenic mice lines. Special focus is placed on the MAPK signaling pathways triggered by CRH through the CRH receptor 1 that plays an essential role in CRH action in pituitary corticotrophs and in specific brain structures. Recent findings underpin the concept of specific CRH-signaling pathways restricted to specific anatomical areas. Understanding CRH action at molecular levels will not only provide insight into the precise CRH mechanism of action, but will also be instrumental in identifying novel targets for pharmacological intervention in neuroendocrine tissues and specific brain areas involved in CRH-related disorders. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Effect of a corticotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist on colonic sensory and motor function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagami, Y; Shimada, Y; Tayama, J; Nomura, T; Satake, M; Endo, Y; Shoji, T; Karahashi, K; Hongo, M; Fukudo, S

    2004-07-01

    Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is presumed to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. We hypothesised that peripheral administration of alpha-helical CRH (alphahCRH), a non-selective CRH receptor antagonist, would improve gastrointestinal motility, visceral perception, and negative mood in response to gut stimulation in IBS patients. Ten normal healthy subjects and 10 IBS patients, diagnosed according to the Rome II criteria, were studied. The tone of the descending colon and intraluminal pressure of the sigmoid colon were measured at baseline, during rectal electrical stimulation (ES), and at recovery after administration of saline. Visceral perception after colonic distension or rectal ES was evaluated as threshold values on an ordinate scale. The same measurements were repeated after administration of alphahCRH (10 micro g/kg). ES induced significantly higher motility indices of the colon in IBS patients compared with controls. This response was significantly suppressed in IBS patients but not in controls after administration of alphahCRH. Administration of alphahCRH induced a significant increase in the barostat bag volume of controls but not in that of IBS patients. alphahCRH significantly reduced the ordinate scale of abdominal pain and anxiety evoked by ES in IBS patients. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and serum cortisol levels were generally not suppressed by alphahCRH. Peripheral administration of alphahCRH improves gastrointestinal motility, visceral perception, and negative mood in response to gut stimulation, without affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in IBS patients.

  10. Ectopic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH syndrome from metastatic small cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahani Sadeka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cushing's Syndrome (CS which is caused by isolated Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH production, rather than adrenocorticotropin (ACTH production, is extremely rare. Methods We describe the clinical presentation, course, laboratory values and pathologic findings of a patient with isolated ectopic CRH causing CS. We review the literature of the types of tumors associated with this unusual syndrome and the behavior of these tumors by endocrine testing. Results A 56 year old woman presented with clinical and laboratory features consistent with ACTH-dependent CS. Pituitary imaging was normal and cortisol did not suppress with a high dose dexamethasone test, consistent with a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH. CT imaging did not reveal any discrete lung lesions but there were mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and multiple liver lesions suspicious for metastatic disease. Laboratory testing was positive for elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen and the neuroendocrine marker chromogranin A. Serum markers of carcinoid, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma were in the normal range. Because the primary tumor could not be identified by imaging, biopsy of the presumed metastatic liver lesions was performed. Immunohistochemistry was consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor, specifically small cell carcinoma. Immunostaining for ACTH was negative but was strongly positive for CRH and laboratory testing revealed a plasma CRH of 10 pg/ml (normal 0 to 10 pg/ml which should have been suppressed in the presence of high cortisol. Conclusions This case illustrates the importance of considering the ectopic production of CRH in the differential diagnosis for presentations of ACTH-dependent Cushing's Syndrome.

  11. Hypothalamic amenorrhea with normal body weight: ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, B; Tonetti, A; Monteleone, P; Bernardi, F; Luisi, S; Stomati, M; Luisi, M; Petraglia, F; Genazzani, A R

    2000-03-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is a functional disorder caused by disturbances in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility. The mechanism by which stress alters GnRH release is not well known. Recently, the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and neurosteroids in the pathophysiology of HA has been considered. The aim of the present study was to explore further the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in HA. We included 8 patients (aged 23.16+/-1.72 years) suffering from hypothalamic stress-related amenorrhea with normal body weight and 8 age-matched healthy controls in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We measured basal serum levels of FSH, LH, and estradiol and evaluated ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to CRH test in both HA patients and healthy women. Serum basal levels of FSH, LH, and estradiol as well as basal levels of allopregnanolone were significantly lower in HA patients than in controls (P<0.001) while basal ACTH and cortisol levels were significantly higher in amenorrheic patients with respect to controls (P<0.001). The response (area under the curve) of ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol to CRH was significantly lower in amenorrheic women compared with controls (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.05 respectively). In conclusion, women with HA, despite the high ACTH and cortisol levels and, therefore, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, are characterized by low allopregnanolone basal levels, deriving from an impairment of both adrenal and ovarian synthesis. The blunted ACTH, allopregnanolone and cortisol responses to CRH indicate that, in hypothalamic amenorrhea, there is a reduced sensitivity and expression of CRH receptor. These results open new perspectives on the role of neurosteroids in the pathogenesis of hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  12. Alcohol dysregulates corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH promoter activity by interfering with the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available EtOH exposure in male rats increases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, a brain region responsible for coordinating stress and anxiety responses. In this study we identified the molecular mechanisms involved in mediating these effects by examining the direct effects of EtOH on CRH promoter activity in a neuronal cell line derived from the PVN (IVB. In addition, we investigated the potential interactions of EtOH and glucocorticoids on the CRH promoter by concomitantly treating cells with EtOH and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR antagonist RU486, and by sequentially deleting GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response element (GRE on the CRH promoter. Cells were transiently transfected with a firefly luciferase reporter construct containing 2.5 kb of the rat wild type (WT or mutated CRH promoter. Our results showed that EtOH treatment induced a biphasic response in CRH promoter activity. EtOH exposure for 0.5 h significantly decreased promoter activity compared to vehicle treated controls, whereas promoter activity was significantly increased after 2.0 h of EtOH exposure. Treatment with RU486, or deletion of the GR binding sites 1 and 2 within the GRE, abolished the EtOH-induced increase in the promoter activity, however did not affect EtOH-induced decrease in CRH promoter activity at an earlier time point. Overall, our data suggest that alcohol exposure directly regulates CRH promoter activity by interfering with the normal feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoids mediated by GR signaling at the GRE site of the CRH promoter.

  13. Neuroendocrine circuitry and endometriosis: progesterone derivative dampens corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced inflammation by peritoneal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariverdian, Nadja; Rücke, Mirjam; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Blois, Sandra M; Karpf, Eva F; Sedlmayr, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F; Kentenich, Heribert; Siedentopf, Friederike; Arck, Petra C

    2010-03-01

    Clinical symptoms of endometriosis, such as pain and infertility, can be described as persistent stressors. Such continuous exposure to stress may severely affect the equilibrium and bidirectional communication of the endocrine and immune system, hereby further aggravating the progression of endometriosis. In the present study, we aimed to tease apart mediators that are involved in the stress response as well as in the progression of endometriosis. Women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy due to infertility were recruited (n = 69). Within this cohort, early stage of endometriosis were diagnosed in n = 30 and advanced stage of endometriosis in n = 8. Levels of progesterone in serum were determined. Frequency of progesterone receptor (PR) expression on CD56(+) and CD8(+) peritoneal lymphocytes was analysed by flow cytometry. The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-10 by peritoneal leukocytes upon stimulation with the potent stress mediator corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the progesterone derivative dydrogesterone, or both, were evaluated. Furthermore, the production of progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) by peritoneal leukocytes and the expression of PR in endometriotic tissue were investigated. Levels of progesterone in serum were decreased in women with endometriosis and inversely correlated to pain scores. Furthermore, an increased frequency of CD56(+)PR(+) and CD8(+)PR(+) peritoneal lymphocytes was present in advanced endometriosis. The TNF/IL-10 ratio, reflecting cytokine secretion by peritoneal cells, was higher in cells derived from endometriosis patients and could be further heightened by CRH stimulation, whereas stimulation with dydrogesterone abrogated the CRH-mediated inflammation. Finally, the expression of PIBF by peritoneal leukocytes was increased in endometriosis. Low levels of progesterone in the follicular phase could be responsible for the progression of endometriosis and related pain. Peripheral CRH

  14. Serum blood metabolite response and evaluation of select organ weight, histology and cardiac morphology of beef heifers exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge following supplementation of

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to: 1) determine if supplementation of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride (ZH) altered select organ weights, histology and cardiac anatomical features at harvest and 2) determine if administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) challenge followi...

  15. Corticotropin-releasing hormone-mediated metamorphosis in the neotenic axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum: synergistic involvement of thyroxine and corticoids on brain type II deiodinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Eduard R; De Groef, Bert; Van der Geyten, Serge; Darras, Veerle M

    2005-08-01

    In the present study, morphological changes leading to complete metamorphosis have been induced in the neotenic axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum using a submetamorphic dose of T(4) together with an injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). An injection of CRH alone is ineffective in this regard presumably due to a lack of thyrotropic stimulation. Using this low hormone profile for induction of metamorphosis, the deiodinating enzymes D2 and D3 known to be present in amphibians were measured in liver and brain 24h following an intraperitoneal injection. An injection of T(4) alone did not influence liver nor brain D2 and D3, but dexamethasone (DEX) or CRH alone or in combination with T(4) decreased liver D2 and D3. Brain D2 activity was slightly increased with a higher dose of DEX, though CRH did not have this effect. A profound synergistic effect occurred when T(4) and DEX or CRH were injected together, in the dose range leading to metamorphosis, increasing brain D2 activity more than fivefold. This synergistic effect was not found in the liver. It is concluded that brain T(3) availability may play an important role for the onset of metamorphosis in the neotenic axolotl.

  16. Minimal alteration in the ratio of circulatory fetal DNA to fetal corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Gupta, Anurag Kumar; Huppertz, Berthold; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2006-01-01

    We have recently observed that fetal DNA and fetal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA are associated with in vitro generated syncytiotrophoblast-derived microparticles, and that the ratio of fetal DNA to mRNA (CRH) varied according to whether the particles were derived by predominantly apoptotic, apo-necrotic or necrotic pathways. Hence, we examined whether these ratios varied in maternal plasma samples taken from normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies in vivo. Maternal plasma samples were collected from 18 cases with preeclampsia and 29 normotensive term controls. Circulatory fetal CRH mRNA and DNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR and RT-PCR. Circulatory fetal mRNA and fetal DNA levels were significantly elevated in the preeclampsia study group when compared to normotensive controls. Alterations in the fetal mRNA to DNA ratio between the study and control groups were minimal, even when stratified into early (34 weeks of gestation) onset preeclampsia. Our data suggest that although circulatory fetal DNA and mRNA levels are significantly elevated in preeclampsia, the ratios in maternal plasma are not dramatically altered. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Noise stress changes mRNA expressions of corticotropin-releasing hormone, its receptors in amygdala, and anxiety-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Eraslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is a psychological, environmental stressor that activates limbic sites in the brain. Limbic sites such as the amygdala and the amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH system play an important role in integrating stress response. We investigated the association between noise exposures, CRH-related molecules in the amygdala, and behavioral alterations. In total 54 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following three groups: Control (CON, acute noise exposure (ANE, and chronic noise exposure (CNE. The ANE group was exposed to 100 dB white noise only once in 4 h and the CNE group was exposed to the same for 4 h per day for 30 days. Expression profiles of CRH and its receptors CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. The same stress procedure was applied to the ANE and CNE groups for behavior testing. The anxiety responses of the animals after acute and chronic stress exposure were measured in the defensive withdrawal test. CNE upregulated CRH and CRH-R1 mRNA levels but downregulated CRH-R2 mRNA levels. ANE led to a decrease in both CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 expression. In the defensive withdrawal test, while the ANE increased, CNE reduced anxiety-like behaviors. The present study shows that the exposure of rats to white noise (100 dB leads to behavioral alterations and molecule-specific changes in the CRH system. Behavioral alterations can be related to these molecular changes in the amygdala.

  18. Noise stress changes mRNA expressions of corticotropin-releasing hormone, its receptors in amygdala, and anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Evren; Akyazi, Ibrahim; Erg L-Ekiz, Elif; Matur, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    Noise is a psychological, environmental stressor that activates limbic sites in the brain. Limbic sites such as the amygdala and the amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system play an important role in integrating stress response. We investigated the association between noise exposures, CRH-related molecules in the amygdala, and behavioral alterations. In total 54 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following three groups: Control (CON), acute noise exposure (ANE), and chronic noise exposure (CNE). The ANE group was exposed to 100 dB white noise only once in 4 h and the CNE group was exposed to the same for 4 h per day for 30 days. Expression profiles of CRH and its receptors CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The same stress procedure was applied to the ANE and CNE groups for behavior testing. The anxiety responses of the animals after acute and chronic stress exposure were measured in the defensive withdrawal test. CNE upregulated CRH and CRH-R1 mRNA levels but downregulated CRH-R2 mRNA levels. ANE led to a decrease in both CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 expression. In the defensive withdrawal test, while the ANE increased, CNE reduced anxiety-like behaviors. The present study shows that the exposure of rats to white noise (100 dB) leads to behavioral alterations and molecule-specific changes in the CRH system. Behavioral alterations can be related to these molecular changes in the amygdala.

  19. Estradiol-Dependent Stimulation and Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Firing Activity by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phumsatitpong, Chayarndorn; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. Stress typically inhibits reproduction but can be stimulatory; stress effects can also be modulated by steroid milieu. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. We hypothesized CRH suppresses fertility by decreasing GnRH neuron firing activity. To test this, mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and either implanted with an estradiol capsule (OVX+E) or not treated further to examine the influence of estradiol on GnRH neuron response to CRH. Targeted extracellular recordings were used to record firing activity from green fluorescent protein-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices before and during CRH treatment; recordings were done in the afternoon when estradiol has a positive feedback effect to increase GnRH neuron firing. In OVX mice, CRH did not affect the firing rate of GnRH neurons. In contrast, CRH exhibited dose-dependent stimulatory (30 nM) or inhibitory (100 nM) effects on GnRH neuron firing activity in OVX+E mice; both effects were reversible. The dose-dependent effects of CRH appear to result from activation of different receptor populations; a CRH receptor type-1 agonist increased firing activity in GnRH neurons, whereas a CRH receptor type-2 agonist decreased firing activity. CRH and specific agonists also differentially regulated short-term burst frequency and burst properties, including burst duration, spikes/burst, and/or intraburst interval. These results indicate that CRH alters GnRH neuron activity and that estradiol is required for CRH to exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  20. Plasma adiponectin levels are increased despite insulin resistance in corticotropin-releasing hormone transgenic mice, an animal model of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinahara, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Mitsuru; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Shuichi; Noguchi, Toru; Kambayashi, Machiko; Okada, Yasushi; Tsuda, Masayuki; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdN), an adipokine derived from the adipose tissue, has an insulin-sensitizing effect, and plasma AdN is shown to be decreased in obesity and/or insulin resistant state. To clarify whether changes in AdN are also responsible for the development of glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance, we examined AdN concentration in plasma and AdN expression in the adipose tissue, using corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) transgenic mouse (CRH-Tg), an animal model of Cushing syndrome. We found, unexpectedly, that plasma AdN levels in CRHTg were significantly higher than those in wild-type littermates (wild-type: 19.7+/-2.5, CRH-Tg: 32.4+/-3.1 microg/mL, pAdN mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in the adipose tissue of CRH-Tg. Bilateral adrenalectomy in CRH-Tg eliminated both their Cushing's phenotype and their increase in plasma AdN levels (wild-type/sham: 9.4+/-0.5, CRH-Tg/sham: 15.7+/-2.0, CRH-Tg/ADX: 8.5+/-0.4 microg/mL). These results strongly suggest that AdN is not a major factor responsible for the development of insulin resistance in Cushing syndrome. Our data also suggest that glucocorticoid increases plasma AdN levels but decreases AdN expression in adipocytes, the latter being explained possibly by the decrease in AdN metabolism in the Cushing state.

  1. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone As the Homeostatic Rheostat of Feto-Maternal Symbiosis and Developmental Programming In Utero and Neonatal Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate. This may lead to development of pathological phenotypes arising from developmental reprogramming involving interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental-driven pathways, sometimes with acute consequences (e.g., growth impairment and sometimes delayed (e.g., enhanced susceptibility to disease that last well into adulthood. Most of these adaptive mechanisms are activated and controlled by hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis under the influence of placental steroid and peptide hormones. In particular, the hypothalamic peptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH plays a key role in feto-maternal communication by orchestrating and integrating a series of neuroendocrine, immune, metabolic, and behavioral responses. CRH also regulates neural networks involved in maternal behavior and this determines efficiency of maternal care and neonate interactions. This review will summarize our current understanding of CRH actions during the perinatal period, focusing on the physiological roles for both mother and offspring and also how external challenges can alter CRH actions and potentially impact on fetus/neonate health.

  2. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Type 1 (CRHR1 Clustering with MAGUKs Is Mediated via Its C-Terminal PDZ Binding Motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bender

    Full Text Available The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1 plays an important role in orchestrating neuroendocrine, behavioral, and autonomic responses to stress. To identify molecules capable of directly modulating CRHR1 signaling, we performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen using the C-terminal intracellular tail of the receptor as bait. We identified several members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK family: postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95, synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97, SAP102 and membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2 (MAGI2. CRHR1 is co-expressed with the identified MAGUKs and with the additionally investigated PSD93 in neurons of the adult mouse brain and in primary hippocampal neurons, supporting the probability of a physiological interaction in vivo. The C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95, discs large, zona occludens 1 binding motif of CRHR1 is essential for its physical interaction with MAGUKs, as revealed by the CRHR1-STAVA mutant, which harbors a functionally impaired PDZ binding motif. The imitation of a phosphorylation at Thr413 within the PDZ binding motif also disrupted the interaction with MAGUKs. In contrast, distinct PDZ domains within the identified MAGUKs are involved in the interactions. Expression of CRHR1 in primary neurons demonstrated its localization throughout the neuronal plasma membrane, including the excitatory post synapse, where the receptor co-localized with PSD95 and SAP97. The co-expression of CRHR1 and respective interacting MAGUKs in HEK293 cells resulted in a clustered subcellular co-localization which required an intact PDZ binding motif. In conclusion, our study characterized the PDZ binding motif-mediated interaction of CRHR1 with multiple MAGUKs, which directly affects receptor function.

  3. Dendritic cell nuclear protein-1, a novel depression-related protein, upregulates corticotropin-releasing hormone expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Tian; Wang, Shanshan; Ren, Haigang; Qi, Xin-Rui; Luchetti, Sabina; Kamphuis, Willem; Zhou, Jiang-Ning; Wang, Guanghui; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    The recently discovered dendritic cell nuclear protein-1 is the product of a novel candidate gene for major depression. The A allele encodes full-length dendritic cell nuclear protein-1, while the T allele encodes a premature termination of translation at codon number 117 on chromosome 5. In the

  4. Distribution of MT1 melatonin receptor immunoreactivity in the human hypothalamus and pituitary gland: colocalization of MT1 with vasopressin, oxytocin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.-H.; Zhou, J.-N.; Balesar, R.; Unmehopa, U.; Bao, A.; Jockers, R.; Heerikhuize, J.; Swaab, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Melatonin is implicated in numerous physiological processes, including circadian rhythms, stress, and reproduction, many of which are mediated by the hypothalamus and pituitary. The physiological actions of melatonin are mainly mediated by melatonin receptors. We here describe the distribution of

  5. Generation of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Florian T; Maroof, Asif; Wataya, Takafumi; Sasai, Yoshiki; Studer, Lorenz; Eggan, Kevin; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-02-15

    Hypothalamic neurons orchestrate many essential physiological and behavioral processes via secreted neuropeptides, and are relevant to human diseases such as obesity, narcolepsy and infertility. We report the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into many of the major types of neuropeptidergic hypothalamic neurons, including those producing pro-opiolemelanocortin, agouti-related peptide, hypocretin/orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Hypothalamic neurons can be generated using a 'self-patterning' strategy that yields a broad array of cell types, or via a more reproducible directed differentiation approach. Stem cell-derived human hypothalamic neurons share characteristic morphological properties and gene expression patterns with their counterparts in vivo, and are able to integrate into the mouse brain. These neurons could form the basis of cellular models, chemical screens or cellular therapies to study and treat common human diseases. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Up-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone is associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    established in literature that stress signals such as psoriasis prompts the release of CRH from the hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (PVN). CRH in turn triggers ACTH release from anterior pituitary [8] which ultimately controls the glucocorticoid discharge from adrenal cortex. Several of the glucocorticoids, which include ...

  7. Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Promotes Pro-Labor Gene Expression in the Human Placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximi K Wang

    Full Text Available Women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy are at increased risk for delivering preterm, but the mechanism behind this relationship is unknown. Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 are key mediators of parturition and are regulated by the non-canonical NF-kB (RelB/p52 signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that one of the major phthalate metabolites, mono-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP, increased CRH and COX-2 mRNA and protein abundance in a dose-dependent manner in primary cultures of cytotrophoblast. This was coupled with an increase in nuclear import of RelB/p52 and its association with the CRH and COX-2 promoters. Silencing of NF-kB inducing kinase, a central signaling component of the non-canonical NF-kB pathway, blocked MEHP-induced upregulation of CRH and COX-2. These results suggest a potential mechanism mediated by RelB/p52 by which phthalates could prematurely induce pro-labor gene activity and lead to preterm birth.

  8. Blunted cortisol response after administration of corticotropin releasing hormone in endotoxemic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeniralam, H. S.; Endert, E.; van Lanschot, J. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a standard inflammatory challenge on the dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we studied the effects of low-dose endotoxin (1.0 microgram/kg) on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations in a saline-controlled study in five

  9. Elevated corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression (PPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stuebe, Alison; Dole, Nancy; Savitz, David; Rubinow, David; Thorp, John

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal depression has a prevalence of 10% with devastating consequences for mother and baby. The prospective identification of those at risk for postpartum (PPD) or prenatal (PND) depression has led to biomarker searches in pregnancy. There are conflicting reports of associations between midpregnancy placental CRH (pCRH) and PPD or PND. The objective of the study was to quantify the association of maternal pCRH with PPD and PND. This was a prospective cohort study (the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study). The study was conducted at a prenatal clinics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Patients included 1230 pregnant women. The relationship between pCRH at less than 20 wk and 24-29 wk and maternal depression assessed in pregnancy [Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)] and postpartum (12 wk and 1 yr) with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 24-29 wk, 24.8% of women had CES-D score of 17 or greater, and 9.7% had a CES-D score of 25 or greater. At 12 wk postpartum, 18.2% of women had an EPDS score of 10 or greater and 7.6% had an EPDS score of 13 or greater. CRH measures at less than 20 wk and 24-29 wk were inversely correlated with a CES-D score at 24-29 wk (n = 1080, P PPD (covariate-adjusted odds ratio per sd 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.69-1.42). Higher midpregnancy pCRH was not associated with an increased risk of PND or PPD.

  10. Elevated Midpregnancy Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Is Associated with Prenatal, But Not Postpartum, Maternal Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Rich-Edwards, J. W.; Mohllajee, A. P.; Kleinman, K.; Hacker, M. R.; Majzoub, J.; Wright, R. J.; Gillman, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Elevated hypothalamic CRH has been implicated in melancholic major depression in nonpregnant individuals, but the role of placental CRH in maternal prenatal and postpartum depression is largely unexplored.

  11. Effects of 2G on Gene Expression of Stress-Related Hormones in Rat Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S.; Talyansky, Y.; Moyer, E. L.; Lowe, M.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of spaceflight on mammalian reproductive and developmental physiology is important to future human space exploration and permanent settlement beyond Earth orbit. Fetal developmental programming, including modulation of the HPA axis, is thought to originate at the placental-uterine interface, where both transfer of maternal hormones to the fetus and synthesis of endogenous hormones occurs. In healthy rats, fetal corticosterone levels are kept significantly lower by 11BetaHSD-2, which inactivates corticosterone by conversion into cortisone. Placental tissues express endogenous HPA axis-associated hormones including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), pre-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and vasopressin, which may contribute to fetal programming alongside maternal hormones. DNA methylase 3A, 11BetaHSD-2, and 11BetaHSD-1, which are involved in the regulation of maternal cortisol transfer and modulation of the HPA axis, are also expressed in placental tissues along with glucocorticoid receptor and may be affected by differential gravity exposure during pregnancy. Fetuses may respond differently to maternal glucocorticoid exposure during gestation through sexually dimorphic expression of corticosterone-modulating hormones. To elucidate effects of altered gravity on placental gene expression, here we present a ground-based analogue study involving continuous centrifugation to produce 2g hypergravity. We hypothesized that exposure to 2g would induce a decrease in 11BetaHSD-2 expression through the downregulation of DNA methylase 3a and GC receptor, along with concurrent upregulation in endogenous CRH, POMC, and vasopressin expression. Timed pregnant female rats were exposed to 2G from Gestational day 6 to Gestational day 20, and comparisons made with Stationary Control (SC) and Vivarium Control (VC) dams at 1G. Dams were euthanized and placentas harvested on G20. We homogenized placental tissues, extracted and purified RNA, synthesized cDNA, and

  12. Gene-environment interaction affects substance P and neurokinin A in the entorhinal cortex and periaqueductal grey in a genetic animal model of depression: implications for the pathophysiology of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husum, Henriette; Wörtwein, Gitta; Andersson, Weronika

    2008-01-01

    Evidence implies a role for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and tachykinins, e.g. substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in the pathophysiology of depression. We have previously shown that SP- and NKA-like immunoreactivity (-LI) concentrations were altered in the frontal cortex and striatum...... of the congenitally 'depressed' Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) compared to the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) control rats. It is also known that environmental stress may affect brain levels of tachykinins. In view of these results we decided to superimpose maternal deprivation, an early life environmental stressor......, onto the genetically predisposed 'depressed' FSL rats and the FRL control rats and use this paradigm as a model of gene-environment interaction. The adult animals were sacrificed, adrenal glands and brains dissected out and SP-, NKA- and CRH-LI levels were determined in ten discrete brain regions...

  13. Differential effects of stable elevated levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone and systemic corticosterone on various types of rat learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Lenka; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2011), s. 64-76 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9180; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : corticosterone * CRH * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2011

  14. Stress and Female Reproductive System: Disruption of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/Opiate Balance by Sympathetic Nerve Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays stress is an integral part of everyday living and the physiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to stressful situations have been extensively studied for decades. The stress response is a necessary mechanism but disrupts homeostatic process and it is sub served by a complex system located in both the central nervous system (CNS and the periphery. Stressor-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Normal activation of the HPA axis is essential for reproduction, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and responses to stress and they are critical for adapting to changes in the external environment. The regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classical feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The present overview focuses on the neuroendocrine infrastructure of the adaptive response to stress and its effects on the female reproductive system. 

  15. Glucocorticoids and relapse of major depression (dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test in relation to relapse of major depression)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelhof, Bente C.; Huyser, Jochanan; Verweij, Mijke; Brouwer, Jantien P.; van Dyck, Richard; Fliers, Eric; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Schene, Aart H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of pathogenic mechanisms and predictors of relapse in major depressive disorder is still limited. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis dysregulation is thought to be related to the development and course of depression. METHODS: We investigated whether

  16. Sex- and brain region-specific patterns of gene expression associated with socially-mediated puberty in a eusocial mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Faykoo-Martinez

    Full Text Available The social environment can alter pubertal timing through neuroendocrine mechanisms that are not fully understood; it is thought that stress hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to inhibit puberty. Here, we use the eusocial naked mole-rat, a unique species in which social interactions in a colony (i.e. dominance of a breeding female suppress puberty in subordinate animals. Removing subordinate naked mole-rats from this social context initiates puberty, allowing for experimental control of pubertal timing. The present study quantified gene expression for reproduction- and stress-relevant genes acting upstream of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in brain regions with reproductive and social functions in pre-pubertal, post-pubertal, and opposite sex-paired animals (which are in various stages of pubertal transition. Results indicate sex differences in patterns of neural gene expression. Known functions of genes in brain suggest stress as a key contributing factor in regulating male pubertal delay. Network analysis implicates neurokinin B (Tac3 in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus as a key node in this pathway. Results also suggest an unappreciated role for the nucleus accumbens in regulating puberty.

  17. Hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in group-housed C57BL/6 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yasuyuki; Nagasawa, Tatsuhiro; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Tanave, Akira; Matsumoto, Yuki; Nagayama, Hiromichi; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Yasuda, Michiko T; Shimoi, Kayoko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Group-housed male mice exhibit aggressive behaviour towards their cage mates and form a social hierarchy. Here, we describe how social hierarchy in standard group-housed conditions affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice. Four male C57BL/6 mice were kept in each cage used in the study, and the social hierarchy was determined from observation of video recordings of aggressive behaviour. After formation of a social hierarchy, the behaviour and hippocampal gene expression were analysed in the mice. Higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviours and elevated gene expression of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and hippocampal serotonin receptor subtypes were observed in subordinate mice compared with those of dominant mice. These differences were alleviated by orally administering fluoxetine, which is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. We concluded that hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice, resulting in anxiety- and depression-like behaviours being regulated differently in dominant and subordinate mice.

  18. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  19. Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Song, Zhigang; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (Phens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (Pfeeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese Ay mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A y mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A y mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A y mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels

  1. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring. PMID:26082698

  2. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  3. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology cell response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON):...

  4. Hyperresponsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in female borderline personality disorder subjects with a history of sustained childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, Thomas; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Wouters, Luuk; Goekoop, Jaap G.; DeRijk, Roel H.; van den Brink, Wim

    2002-01-01

    Background: High coincidence of childhood abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Animals exposed to early trauma show increased stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  5. The stress system in the human brain in depression and neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, Dick F.; Bao, Ai-Min; Lucassen, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in the regulation of the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, i.e., the final common pathway in the stress response. The action of CRH on ACTH release is strongly potentiated by vasopressin, that is co-produced in increasing amounts

  6. The stress system in the human brain in depression and neurodegeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D.F.; Bao, A.-M.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, i.e., the final common pathway in the stress response. The action of CRH on ACTH release is strongly potentiated by vasopressin, that is co-produced in increasing amounts

  7. The stress system in the human brain in depression and neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D.F.; Bao, A.M; Lucassen, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, i.e., the final common pathway in the stress response. The action of CRH on ACTH release is strongly potentiated by vasopressin, that is co-produced in increasing amounts

  8. The stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: Focus on the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, A.-M.; Meynen, G.; Swaab, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Activity of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) forms the basis of the activity of the HPA-axis. The CRH neurons induce adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)

  9. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    2015-09-01

    Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an important role in both suicide and depression. We have employed qPCR to study 124 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) brain samples, obtained from two brain banks, from: i) young depressed patients (average age 43 years) who committed suicide (MDD-S) and depressed patients who died from causes other than suicide (MDD-NS) and from ii) elderly depressed patients (average age 75 years) who did not commit suicide (DEP). Both cohorts were individually matched with non-psychiatric non-suicide control subjects. We determined the transcript levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-regulating molecules (corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors, CRH binding protein, mineralocorticoid receptor/glucocorticoid receptor), transcription factors that regulate CRH expression, CRH-stimulating cytokines, chaperone proteins, retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B, cytochrome proteins, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and monoamines. In the MDD-S group, expression levels of CRH and neuronal NOS-interacting DHHC domain-containing protein with dendritic mRNA (NIDD) were increased. Other changes were only present in the DEP group, i.e. decreased NIDD, and increased and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) expression levels. Changes were found to be more pronounced in the anterior cingulate cortex than in the dorsolateral PFC. Depressed patients who committed suicide have different gene expression patterns than depressed patients who died of causes other than suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction between CRHR1 and BDNF genes increases the risk of recurrent major depressive disorder in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheman Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important etiological hypothesis about depression is stress has neurotoxic effects that damage the hippocampal cells. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression through influencing cAMP and Ca2+ signaling pathways during the course. The aim of this study is to examine the single and combined effects of CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1 and BDNF genes in recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The sample consists of 181 patients with recurrent MDD and 186 healthy controls. Whether genetic variations interaction between CRHR1 and BDNF genes might be associated with increased susceptibility to recurrent MDD was studied by using a gene-based association analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. CRHR1 gene (rs1876828, rs242939 and rs242941 and BDNF gene (rs6265 were identified in the samples of patients diagnosed with recurrent MDD and matched controls. Allelic association between CRHR1 rs242939 and recurrent MDD was found in our sample (allelic: p = 0.018, genotypic: p = 0.022 with an Odds Ratio 0.454 (95% CI 0.266-0.775. A global test of these four haplotypes showed a significant difference between recurrent MDD group and control group (chi-2 = 13.117, df = 3, P = 0.016. Furthermore, BDNF and CRHR1 interactions were found in the significant 2-locus, gene-gene interaction models (p = 0.05 using a generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR method. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an interaction between CRHR1 and BDNF genes constitutes susceptibility to recurrent MDD.

  11. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  12. Effect of childhood trauma on adult depression and neuroendocrine function: sex-specific moderation by CRH receptor 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Heim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. Methods: We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensional rating scales. Subjects were genotyped for rs110402 within the CRHR1 gene. An independent sample of 78 subjects underwent clinical assessment, genotyping, and a dexamethasone/CRH test. The age range at recruitment was 18-77 years and 18-45, for the two studies respectively. Results: In the hospital sample, the protective effect of the rs110402 A-allele against developing depression after childhood trauma was observed in men (N=424, but not in women (N=635. In the second sample, the rs110402 A-allele was associated with decreased cortisol response in the dexamethasone/CRH test only in men. In A-allele carriers with childhood trauma exposure women exhibited increased cortisol response compared men; there were no sex differences in A-allele carriers without trauma exposure. This effect may, however, not be related to gender-differences per se, but to differences in the type of experienced abuse between men and women. CRHR x environment interactions in the hospital sample were observed with exposure to physical, but not sexual or emotional abuse. Physical abuse was the most common type of abuse in men in this cohort, while sexual abuse was most commonly suffered by women. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the CRHR1 gene may only moderate the effects of specific types of childhood trauma on depression. Gender differences in environmental exposures could thus be reflected in sex-specific CRHR1 x child abuse interactions.

  13. Effect of Childhood Trauma on Adult Depression and Neuroendocrine Function: Sex-Specific Moderation by CRH Receptor 1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Christine; Bradley, Bekh; Mletzko, Tanja C; Deveau, Todd C; Musselman, Dominique L; Nemeroff, Charles B; Ressler, Kerry J; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2009-01-01

    Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensional rating scales. Subjects were genotyped for rs110402 within the CRHR1 gene. An independent sample of 78 subjects underwent clinical assessment, genotyping, and a dexamethasone/CRH test. The age range at recruitment was 18-77 years and 18-45, for the two studies respectively. In the hospital sample, the protective effect of the rs110402 A-allele against developing depression after childhood trauma was observed in men (N = 424), but not in women (N = 635). In the second sample, the rs110402 A-allele was associated with decreased cortisol response in the dexamethasone/CRH test only in men. In A-allele carriers with childhood trauma exposure women exhibited increased cortisol response compared men; there were no sex differences in A-allele carriers without trauma exposure. This effect may, however, not be related to gender differences per se, but to differences in the type of experienced abuse between men and women. CRHR x environment interactions in the hospital sample were observed with exposure to physical, but not sexual or emotional abuse. Physical abuse was the most common type of abuse in men in this cohort, while sexual abuse was most commonly suffered by women. Our results suggest that the CRHR1 gene may only moderate the effects of specific types of childhood trauma on depression. Gender differences in environmental exposures could thus be reflected in sex-specific CRHR1 x child abuse interactions.

  14. Modulation of cortisol responses to the DEX/CRH test by polymorphisms of the interleukin-1beta gene in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Daimei; Hori, Hiroaki; Iijima, Yoshimi; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Ota, Miho; Fujii, Takashi; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Amano, Naoji; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2011-07-05

    Recently, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function assessed with the combined dexamethasone (DEX)/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) test has been shown to be associated with response to antidepressant treatment. A polymorphism (rs16944) in the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) gene has also been reported to be associated with the medication response in depression. These findings prompted us to examine the possible association between IL-1β gene polymorphisms and HPA axis function assessed with the DEX/CRH test. DEX/CRH test was performed in 179 healthy volunteers (45 males: mean age 40.5 ± 15.8 years; 134 females: mean age 47.1 ± 13.2 years). Five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944) were selected at an r2 threshold of 0.80 with a minor allele frequency > 0.1. Genotyping was performed by the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with the DEX/CRH test results as the dependent variable and genotype and gender as independent variables. To account for multiple testing, P values rs16944 (P = 0.00049) and rs1143633 (P = 0.0060), with no significant gender effect or genotype × gender interaction. On the other hand, cortisol levels after CRH administration (DEX/CRH-Cortisol) were affected by gender but were not significantly influenced by the genotype of the examined SNPs, with no significant genotype × gender interaction. Our results suggest that genetic variations in the IL-1β gene contribute to the HPA axis alteration assessed by DST-Cortisol in healthy subjects. On the other hand, no significant associations of the IL-1β gene polymorphisms with the DEX/CRH-Cortisol were observed. Confirmation of our findings in futures studies may add new insight into the communication between the immune system and the HPA axis.

  15. Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, A R; Parade, S H; Welch, E S; Ridout, K K; Price, L H; Marsit, C; Philip, N S; Carpenter, L L

    2016-07-05

    Early adversity increases risk for developing psychopathology. Epigenetic modification of stress reactivity genes is a likely mechanism contributing to this risk. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene is of particular interest because of the regulatory role of the GR in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Mounting evidence suggests that early adversity is associated with GR promoter methylation and gene expression. Few studies have examined links between GR promoter methylation and psychopathology, and findings to date have been mixed. Healthy adult participants (N=340) who were free of psychotropic medications reported on their childhood experiences of maltreatment and parental death and desertion. Lifetime depressive and anxiety disorders and past substance-use disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Methylation of exon 1F of the GR gene (NR3C1) was examined in leukocyte DNA via pyrosequencing. On a separate day, a subset of the participants (n=231) completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Childhood adversity and a history of past substance-use disorder and current or past depressive or anxiety disorders were associated with lower levels of NR3C1 promoter methylation across the region as a whole and at individual CpG sites (Pdisorder. GR promoter methylation was linked to altered cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (Pdepressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders in adults. This finding stands in contrast to our prior work, but is consistent with emerging findings, suggesting complexity in the regulation of this gene.

  16. Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li

    2018-04-24

    The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China. 57.2% of articles were written by law professors, but scholars from health sciences, liberal arts, and ethics also participated in discussions on gene patent issues. While discussions of benefits and risks were relatively balanced in the articles, 63.5% of the articles favored gene patenting in general and, of the articles (n = 41) that explored gene patents in the Chinese context, 90.2% supported patent protections for human genes in China. The patentability of human genes was discussed in 33 articles, and 75.8% of these articles reached the conclusion that human genes are patentable. Chinese scholars view the patent regime as an important legal tool to protect the interests of inventors and inventions as well as the genetic resources of China. As such, many scholars support a gene patent system in China. These attitudes towards gene patents remain unchanged following the court ruling in the Myriad case in 2013, but arguments have been raised about the scope of gene patents, in particular that the increasing numbers of gene patents may negatively impact public health in China.

  17. Integrative mining of traditional Chinese medicine literature and MEDLINE for functional gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Zhaohui; Feng, Yi

    2007-10-01

    The amount of biomedical data in different disciplines is growing at an exponential rate. Integrating these significant knowledge sources to generate novel hypotheses for systems biology research is difficult. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a completely different discipline, and is a complementary knowledge system to modern biomedical science. This paper uses a significant TCM bibliographic literature database in China, together with MEDLINE, to help discover novel gene functional knowledge. We present an integrative mining approach to uncover the functional gene relationships from MEDLINE and TCM bibliographic literature. This paper introduces TCM literature (about 50,000 records) as one knowledge source for constructing literature-based gene networks. We use the TCM diagnosis, TCM syndrome, to automatically congregate the related genes. The syndrome-gene relationships are discovered based on the syndrome-disease relationships extracted from TCM literature and the disease-gene relationships in MEDLINE. Based on the bubble-bootstrapping and relation weight computing methods, we have developed a prototype system called MeDisco/3S, which has name entity and relation extraction, and online analytical processing (OLAP) capabilities, to perform the integrative mining process. We have got about 200,000 syndrome-gene relations, which could help generate syndrome-based gene networks, and help analyze the functional knowledge of genes from syndrome perspective. We take the gene network of Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYD syndrome) and the functional analysis of some genes, such as CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone), PTH (parathyroid hormone), PRL (prolactin), BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) and BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), to demonstrate the preliminary results. The underlying hypothesis is that the related genes of the same syndrome will have some biological functional relationships, and will constitute a functional network. This paper presents

  18. Cross species association examination of UCN3 and CRHR2 as potential pharmacological targets for antiobesity drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity now constitutes a leading global public health problem. Studies have shown that insulin resistance affiliated with obesity is associated with intramyocellular lipid (IMCL accumulation. Therefore, identification of genes associated with the phenotype would provide a clear target for pharmaceutical intervention and care for the condition. We hypothesized that urocortin 3 (UCN3 and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2 are associated with IMCL and subcutaneous fat depth (SFD, because the corticotropin-releasing hormone family of peptides are capable of strong anorectic and thermogenic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We annotated both bovine UCN3 and CRHR2 genes and identified 12 genetic mutations in the former gene and 5 genetic markers in the promoter region of the latter gene. Genotyping of these 17 markers on Wagyu times Limousin F(2 progeny revealed significant associations between promoter polymorphisms and SFD (P = 0.0203-0.0685 and between missense mutations of exon 2 and IMCL (P = 0.0055-0.0369 in the bovine UCN3 gene. The SFD associated promoter SNPs caused a gain/loss of 12 potential transcription regulatory binding sites, while the IMCL associated coding SNPs affected the secondary structure of UCN3 mRNA. However, none of five polymorphisms in CRHR2 gene clearly co-segregated with either trait in the population (P>0.6000. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because UCN3 is located on human chromosome 10p15.1 where quantitative trait loci for obesity have been reported, our cross species study provides further evidence that it could be proposed as a potential target for developing antiobesity drugs. None of the markers in CRHR2 was associated with obesity-type traits in cattle, which is consistent with findings in human. Therefore, CRHR2 does not lend itself to the development of antiobesity drugs.

  19. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Christina S; Driscoll, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior can have adaptive value in certain environmental contexts, but when extreme or executed inappropriately, can also lead to maladaptive outcomes. Neurogenetic studies performed in nonhuman primates have shown that genetic variation that impacts reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and anxiety can contribute to individual differences in aggressive behavior. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding or promoter regions of the Mu-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4), and Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4) genes have been shown to be functionally similar in humans and rhesus macaques and have been demonstrated to contribute to individual differences in aggression. This body of literature suggests mechanisms by which genetic variation that promotes aggressivity could simultaneously increase evolutionary success while making modern humans more vulnerable to psychopathology.

  20. Human proton/oligopeptide transporter (POT) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botka, C. W.; Wittig, T. W.; Graul, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    The proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POT) gene family currently consists of approximately 70 cloned cDNAs derived from diverse organisms. In mammals, two genes encoding peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2 have been cloned in several species including humans, in addition to a rat...... histidine/peptide transporter (rPHT1). Because the Candida elegans genome contains five putative POT genes, we searched the available protein and nucleic acid databases for additional mammalian/human POT genes, using iterative BLAST runs and the human expressed sequence tags (EST) database. The apparent...... and introns of the likely human orthologue (termed hPHT2). Northern analyses with EST clones indicated that hPHT1 is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and spleen, whereas hPHT2 is found in spleen, placenta, lung, leukocytes, and heart. These results suggest considerable complexity of the human POT gene...

  1. The secretion, synthesis, and metabolism of cortisol and its downstream genes in the H-P-I axis of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) are disrupted by acute waterborne cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xie, Bi-Wen; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis plays a critical role in the fish stress response and is regulated by several factors. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the world, but its effects on the H-P-I axis of teleosts are largely unknown. Using rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) as an experimental animal, we found that Cd only disrupted the secretion and synthesis of cortisol. Neither hormones at the H or P level nor the expressions of their receptor genes (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) and melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R)) were affected. Steroidogenic acute regulator (StAR), CYP11A1 and CYP11B1, which encode the key enzymes in the cortisol synthesis pathway, were significantly up-regulated in the kidney (including the head kidney). The level of 11β-HSD2, which is required for the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, was increased in the kidney, intestine, brain, and hepatopancreas, whereas the expression of 11β-HSD1, which encodes the reverse conversion enzyme, was increased in the gill, kidney and almost unchanged in other tissues. The enzyme activity concentration of 11β-HSD2 was increased in the kidney as well. The level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) decreased in the intestine, gill and muscle, and the key GR regulator FK506 binding protein5 (FKBP5) was up-regulated in the GR-decreased tissues, whereas the level of nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 (NCoR1), another GR regulator remained almost unchanged. Thus, GR, FKBP5 and 11β-HSD2 may be involved in Cd-induced cortisol disruption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of imprinted genes in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Miho; Moore, Gudrun E.

    2013-01-01

    Detailed comprehensive molecular analysis using families and multiple matched tissues is essential to determine whether imprinted genes have a functional role in humans. See research article: http://genomebiology.com/2011/12/3/R25

  3. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pérez-Bercoff, Asa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. RESULTS: We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD) or small-scale duplication (SSD), and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  4. Human DNA repair and recombination genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Jones, N.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several genes involved in mammalian DNA repair pathways were identified by complementation analysis and chromosomal mapping based on hybrid cells. Eight complementation groups of rodent mutants defective in the repair of uv radiation damage are now identified. At least seven of these genes are probably essential for repair and at least six of them control the incision step. The many genes required for repair of DNA cross-linking damage show overlap with those involved in the repair of uv damage, but some of these genes appear to be unique for cross-link repair. Two genes residing on human chromosome 19 were cloned from genomic transformants using a cosmid vector, and near full-length cDNA clones of each gene were isolated and sequenced. Gene ERCC2 efficiently corrects the defect in CHO UV5, a nucleotide excision repair mutant. Gene XRCC1 normalizes repair of strand breaks and the excessive sister chromatid exchange in CHO mutant EM9. ERCC2 shows a remarkable /approximately/52% overall homology at both the amino acid and nucleotide levels with the yeast RAD3 gene. Evidence based on mutation induction frequencies suggests that ERCC2, like RAD3, might also be an essential gene for viability. 100 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Human gene therapy and imaging: cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Joseph C.; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    This review discusses the basics of cardiovascular gene therapy, the results of recent human clinical trials, and the rapid progress in imaging techniques in cardiology. Improved understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of coronary heart disease has made gene therapy a potential new alternative for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Experimental studies have established the proof-of-principle that gene transfer to the cardiovascular system can achieve therapeutic effects. First human clinical trials provided initial evidence of feasibility and safety of cardiovascular gene therapy. However, phase II/III clinical trials have so far been rather disappointing and one of the major problems in cardiovascular gene therapy has been the inability to verify gene expression in the target tissue. New imaging techniques could significantly contribute to the development of better gene therapeutic approaches. Although the exact choice of imaging modality will depend on the biological question asked, further improvement in image resolution and detection sensitivity will be needed for all modalities as we move from imaging of organs and tissues to imaging of cells and genes. (orig.)

  6. Patenting Human Genes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of the book and the assigned scope of the contribution, this chapter describes the European law with respect to the patent-eligibility of isolated DNA sequences. This chapter will further include a brief comparison with recent developments from the US and Australia....... It will, however, not focus on the important debates regarding the patent-eligibility of other biological material, diagnostic methods patents (as data aggregators) or abstract ideas which will be addressed by other contributions. Moreover, the analysis will merely concentrate on patent-eligibility. Other...... patentability requirement will only be briefly touched upon in the discussion part. The paper starts out in section 1.5.2 by discussing the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA sequences on the European national level and under the Biotechnology Directive. Then the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA...

  7. Expression of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in murine fetal lungs in late gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côté Mélissa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung maturation is modulated by several factors, including glucocorticoids. Expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis-related components, with proposed or described local regulatory systems analogous to the HPA axis, was reported in peripheral tissues. Here, HPA axis-related genes were studied in the mouse developing lung during a period overlapping the surge of surfactant production. Methods Expression of genes encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, CRH receptors (CRHR 1 and 2beta, CRH-binding protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC, melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R, and glucocorticoid receptor was quantified by real-time PCR and localized by in situ hydridization in fetal lungs at gestational days (GD 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, and was also quantified in primary mesenchymal- and epithelial cell-enriched cultures. In addition, the capability of CRH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH to stimulate pulmonary expression of enzymes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis was addressed, as well as the glucocorticoid production by fetal lung explants. Results We report that all the studied genes are expressed in fetal lungs according to different patterns. On GD 15.5, Mc2r showed peaks in expression in samples that have previously presented high mRNA levels for glucocorticoid synthesizing enzymes, including 11beta-hydroxylase (Cyp11b1. Crhr1 mRNA co-localized with Pomc mRNA in cells surrounding the proximal epithelium on GD 15.5 and 16.5. A transition in expression sites toward distal epithelial cells was observed between GD 15.5 and 17.5 for all the studied genes. CRH or ACTH stimulation of genes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis was not observed in lung explants on GD 15.5, whereas CRH significantly increased expression of 21-hydroxylase (Cyp21a1 on GD 17.5. A deoxycorticosterone production by fetal lung explants was observed. Conclusions Temporal and spatial

  8. Good genes, complementary genes and human mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C

    2008-09-01

    The past decade has witnessed a rapidly growing interest in the biological basis of human mate choice. Here we review recent studies that demonstrate preferences for traits which might reveal genetic quality to prospective mates, with potential but still largely unknown influence on offspring fitness. These include studies assessing visual, olfactory and auditory preferences for potential good-gene indicator traits, such as dominance or bilateral symmetry. Individual differences in these robust preferences mainly arise through within and between individual variation in condition and reproductive status. Another set of studies have revealed preferences for traits indicating complementary genes, focussing on discrimination of dissimilarity at genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). As in animal studies, we are only just beginning to understand how preferences for specific traits vary and inter-relate, how consideration of good and compatible genes can lead to substantial variability in individual mate choice decisions and how preferences expressed in one sensory modality may reflect those in another. Humans may be an ideal model species in which to explore these interesting complexities.

  9. Ethical issues of perinatal human gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J C; Richter, G

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines some key ethical issues raised by trials of human gene therapy in the perinatal period--i.e., in infants, young children, and the human fetus. It describes five resources in ethics for researchers' considerations prior to such trials: (1) the history of ethical debate about gene therapy, (2) a literature on the relevance of major ethical principles for clinical research, (3) a body of widely accepted norms and practices, (4) knowledge of paradigm cases, and (5) researchers' own professional integrity. The paper also examines ethical concerns that must be met prior to any trial: benefits to and safety of subjects, informed assent of children and informed parental permission, informed consent of pregnant women in fetal gene therapy, protection of privacy, and concerns about fairness in the selection of subjects. The paper criticizes the position that cases of fetal gene therapy should be restricted only to those where the pregnant woman has explicitly refused abortion. Additional topics include concerns about genetic enhancement and germ-line gene therapy.

  10. The remarkable conservation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) dates the CRH system to a common ancestor of insects and vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) is a key factor in the regulation of CRH signaling; it modulates the bioactivity and bioavailability of CRH and its related peptides. The conservation of CRH-BP throughout vertebrates was only recently demonstrated. Here we report the presence of CRH-BP in the honeybee

  11. Human serum amyloid genes--molecular characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sack, G.H.; Lease, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three clones containing human genes for serum amyloid A protein (SAA) have been isolated and characterized. Each of two clones, GSAA 1 and 2 (of 12.8 and 15.9 kilobases, respectively), contains two exons, accouting for amino acids 12-58 and 58-103 of mature SAA; the extreme 5' termini and 5' untranslated regions have not yet been defined but are anticipated to be close based on studies of murine SAA genes. Initial amino acid sequence comparisons show 78/89 identical residues. At 4 of the 11 discrepant residues, the amino acid specified by the codon is the same as the corresponding residue in murine SAA. Identification of regions containing coding regions has permitted use of selected subclones for blot hybridization studies of larger human SAA chromosomal gene organization. The third clone, GSAA 3 also contains SAA coding information by DNA sequence analysis but has a different organization which has not yet been fully described. We have reported the isolation of clones of human DNA hybridizing with pRS48 - a plasmid containing a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone for murine serum amyloid A (SAA; 1, 2). We now present more detailed data confirming the identity and defining some of the organizational features of these clones

  12. Modulation of cortisol responses to the DEX/CRH test by polymorphisms of the interleukin-1beta gene in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ota Miho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function assessed with the combined dexamethasone (DEX/corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH test has been shown to be associated with response to antidepressant treatment. A polymorphism (rs16944 in the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β gene has also been reported to be associated with the medication response in depression. These findings prompted us to examine the possible association between IL-1β gene polymorphisms and HPA axis function assessed with the DEX/CRH test. Methods DEX/CRH test was performed in 179 healthy volunteers (45 males: mean age 40.5 ± 15.8 years; 134 females: mean age 47.1 ± 13.2 years. Five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of IL-1β gene (rs2853550, rs1143634, rs1143633, rs1143630, rs16944 were selected at an r2 threshold of 0.80 with a minor allele frequency > 0.1. Genotyping was performed by the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed with the DEX/CRH test results as the dependent variable and genotype and gender as independent variables. To account for multiple testing, P values Results The cortisol levels after DEX administration (DST-Cortisol showed significant associations with the genotypes of rs16944 (P = 0.00049 and rs1143633 (P = 0.0060, with no significant gender effect or genotype × gender interaction. On the other hand, cortisol levels after CRH administration (DEX/CRH-Cortisol were affected by gender but were not significantly influenced by the genotype of the examined SNPs, with no significant genotype × gender interaction. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic variations in the IL-1β gene contribute to the HPA axis alteration assessed by DST-Cortisol in healthy subjects. On the other hand, no significant associations of the IL-1β gene polymorphisms with the DEX/CRH-Cortisol were observed. Confirmation of our findings in futures studies may add new insight into

  13. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R

    1986-01-01

    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  14. Localization of neuropeptide gene expression in larvae of an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana D Mayorova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e.g. the annelid Platynereis dumerilii and deuterostomian (e.g. the urochordate Ciona intestinalis invertebrates. Accordingly, here we report the first multi-gene investigation of larval neuropeptide precursor expression in a species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata - the starfish Asterias rubens. Whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization was used to visualize in bipinnaria and brachiolaria stage larvae the expression of eight neuropeptide precursors: L-type SALMFamide (S1, F-type SALMFamide (S2, vasopressin/oxytocin-type, NGFFYamide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type. Expression of only three of the precursors (S1, S2, NGFFYamide was observed in bipinnaria larvae but by the brachiolaria stage expression of all eight precursors was detected. An evolutionarily conserved feature of larval nervous systems is the apical organ and in starfish larvae this comprises the bilaterally symmetrical lateral ganglia, but only the S1 and S2 precursors were found to be expressed in these ganglia. A prominent feature of brachiolaria larvae is the attachment complex, comprising the brachia and adhesive disk, which mediates larval attachment to a substratum prior to metamorphosis. Interestingly, all of the neuropeptide precursors examined here are expressed in the attachment complex, with

  15. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  16. Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaitovich, Philipp; Tang, Kun; Franz, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the expression levels of genes transcribed in the brains of humans and chimpanzees have changed less than those of genes transcribed in other tissues [1] . However, when gene expression changes are mapped onto the evolutionary lineage in which they occurred, the brain...... shows more changes than other tissues in the human lineage compared to the chimpanzee lineage [1] , [2] and [3] . There are two possible explanations for this: either positive selection drove more gene expression changes to fixation in the human brain than in the chimpanzee brain, or genes expressed...... in the brain experienced less purifying selection in humans than in chimpanzees, i.e. gene expression in the human brain is functionally less constrained. The first scenario would be supported if genes that changed their expression in the brain in the human lineage showed more selective sweeps than other genes...

  17. Targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1- casein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Targeting an exogenous gene into a favorable gene locus and for expression under endogenous regulators is an ideal method in mammary gland bioreactor research. For this purpose, a gene targeting vector was constructed to targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1-casein gene locus. In this case, the ...

  18. Injury, inflammation and the emergence of human specific genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    genes in circulating and resident human immune cells can be studied in mice after the transplantation and engraft- ment of human hemato- lymphoid immune...Martinek J, Strowig T, Gearty SV, Teichmann LL, et al. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model. Nat Bio...normal wound repair and regeneration, we hypothesize that the preponderance of human-specific genes expressed in human inflammatory cells is commensurate

  19. Immune Aspects and Myometrial Actions of Progesterone and CRH in Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Malamas, Fotodotis M.; Sifakis, Stavros; Tsikouras, Panayiotis; Iliodromiti, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have a critical role in pregnancy and labor, as changes related to these hormones are crucial for the transition from myometrial quiescence to contractility. The mechanisms related to their effect differ between humans and other species, thus, despite extensive research, many questions remain to be answered regarding their mediation in human labor. Immune responses to progesterone and CRH are important for labor. Progesterone acts as an i...

  20. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human lymphotoxin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedwin, G.E.; Jarrett-Nedwin, J.; Smith, D.H.; Naylor, S.L.; Sakaguchi, A.Y.; Goeddel, D.V.; Gray, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated, sequenced, and determined the chromosomal localization of the gene encoding human lymphotoxin (LT). The single copy gene was isolated from a human genomic library using a /sup 32/P-labeled 116 bp synthetic DNA fragment whose sequence was based on the NH/sub 2/-terminal amino acid sequence of LT. The gene spans 3 kb of DNA and is interrupted by three intervening sequences. The LT gene is located on human chromosome 6, as determined by Southern blot analysis of human-murine hybrid DNA. Putative transcriptional control regions and areas of homology with the promoters of interferon and other genes are identified

  1. Gene expression studies on human keratinocytes transduced with human growth hormone gene for a possible utilization in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathor, Monica Beatriz.

    1994-01-01

    Taking advantage of the recent progress in the DNA-recombinant techniques and of the potentiality of normal human keratinocytes primary culture to reconstitute the epidermis, it was decided to genetically transform these keratinocytes to produce human growth hormone under controllable conditions that would be used in gene therapy at this hormone deficient patients. The first step to achieve this goal was to standardize infection of keratinocytes with retrovirus producer cells containing a construct which included the gene of bacterial b-galactosidase. The best result was obtained cultivating the keratinocytes for 3 days in a 2:1 mixture of retrovirus producer cells and 3T3-J2 fibroblasts irradiated with 60 Gy, and splitting these infected keratinocytes on 3T3-J2 fibroblasts feeder layer. Another preliminary experiment was to infect normal human keratinocytes with interleukin-6 gene (hIL-6) that, in pathologic conditions, could be reproduced by keratinocytes and secreted to the blood stream. Thus, we verify that infected keratinocytes secrete an average amount of 500 ng/10 6 cell/day of cytokin during the in vitro life time, that certify the stable character of the injection. These keratinocytes, when grafted in mice, secrete hIL-6 to the blood stream reaching levels of 40 pg/ml of serum. After these preliminary experiments, we construct a retroviral vector with the human growth hormone gene (h GH) driven by human metallothionein promoter (h PMT), designated DChPMTGH. Normal human keratinocytes were infected with DChPMTGH producer cells, following previously standardized protocol, obtaining infected keratinocytes secreting to the culture media 340 ng h GH/10 6 cell/day without promoter activation. This is the highest level of h GH secreted in human keratinocytes primary culture described in literature. The h GH value increases approximately 10 times after activation with 100 μM Zn +2 for 8-12 hours. (author). 158 refs., 42 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Widespread of horizontal gene transfer in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenze; Tsai, Lillian; Li, Yulong; Hua, Nan; Sun, Chen; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-04-04

    A fundamental concept in biology is that heritable material is passed from parents to offspring, a process called vertical gene transfer. An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. In this paper, we investigate horizontal gene transfer in the human genome. From the pair-wise alignments between human genome and 53 vertebrate genomes, 1,467 human genome regions (2.6 M bases) from all chromosomes were found to be more conserved with non-mammals than with most mammals. These human genome regions involve 642 known genes, which are enriched with ion binding. Compared to known horizontal gene transfer regions in the human genome, there were few overlapping regions, which indicated horizontal gene transfer is more common than we expected in the human genome. Horizontal gene transfer impacts hundreds of human genes and this study provided insight into potential mechanisms of HGT in the human genome.

  3. Widespread of horizontal gene transfer in the human genome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenze; Tsai, Lillian; Li, Yulong; Hua, Nan; Sun, Chen; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-01

    Background A fundamental concept in biology is that heritable material is passed from parents to offspring, a process called vertical gene transfer. An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. In this paper, we investigate horizontal gene transfer in the human genome. Results From the pa...

  4. Mutation analysis of the MCHR1 gene in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Reichwald, Kathrin; Büch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The importance of the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system for regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight has been demonstrated in rodents. We analysed the human MCH receptor 1 gene (MCHR1) with respect to human obesity....

  5. Bioinformatic prediction and functional characterization of human KIAA0100 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cui

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study demonstrated that human KIAA0100 gene was a novel acute monocytic leukemia-associated antigen (MLAA gene. But the functional characterization of human KIAA0100 gene has remained unknown to date. Here, firstly, bioinformatic prediction of human KIAA0100 gene was carried out using online softwares; Secondly, Human KIAA0100 gene expression was downregulated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas 9 system in U937 cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were next evaluated in KIAA0100-knockdown U937 cells. The bioinformatic prediction showed that human KIAA0100 gene was located on 17q11.2, and human KIAA0100 protein was located in the secretory pathway. Besides, human KIAA0100 protein contained a signalpeptide, a transmembrane region, three types of secondary structures (alpha helix, extended strand, and random coil , and four domains from mitochondrial protein 27 (FMP27. The observation on functional characterization of human KIAA0100 gene revealed that its downregulation inhibited cell proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis in U937 cells. To summarize, these results suggest human KIAA0100 gene possibly comes within mitochondrial genome; moreover, it is a novel anti-apoptotic factor related to carcinogenesis or progression in acute monocytic leukemia, and may be a potential target for immunotherapy against acute monocytic leukemia.

  6. Identification and characterization of human GUKH2 gene in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2004-04-01

    Drosophila Guanylate-kinase holder (Gukh) is an adaptor molecule bridging Discs large (Dlg) and Scribble (Scrib), which are implicated in the establishment and maintenance of epithelial polarity. Here, we searched for human homologs of Drosophila gukh by using bioinformatics, and identified GUKH1 and GUKH2 genes. GUKH1 was identical to Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) gene, while GUKH2 was a novel gene. FLJ35425 (AK092744.1), DKFZp686P1949 (BX647246.1) and KIAA1357 (AB037778.1) cDNAs were derived from human GUKH2 gene. Nucleotide sequence of GUKH2 cDNA was determined by assembling 5'-part of FLJ35425 cDNA and entire region of DKFZp686P1949 cDNA. Human GUKH2 gene consists of 8 exons. Exon 5 (132 bp) of GUKH2 gene was spliced out in GUKH2 cDNA due to alternative splicing. GUKH2-REPS1 locus at human chromosome 6q24.1 and GUKH1-REPS2 locus at human chromosome Xp22.22-p22.13 are paralogous regions within the human genome. Mouse Gukh2 and zebrafish gukh2 genes were also identified. N-terminal part of human GUKH2, mouse Gukh2 and zebrafish gukh2 proteins were completely divergent from human GUKH1 protein. Human GUKH2 and GUKH1, consisting of eight GUKH homology (GKH1-GKH8) domains and Proline-rich domain, showed 28.5% total-amino-acid identity. GKH1, GKH4, GKH5, GKH7 and GKH8 domains were conserved among human GUKH1, human GUKH2 and Drosophila Gukh. Because human homologs of Drosophila dlg (DLG1-DLG7) as well as human homologs of Drosophila scrib (SCRIB, ERBB2IP and Densin-180) are cancer-associated genes, human homologs of Drosophila gukh (GUKH1 and GUKH2) are predicted cancer-associated genes.

  7. In-silico human genomics with GeneCards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzer Gil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 1998, the bioinformatics, systems biology, genomics and medical communities have enjoyed a synergistic relationship with the GeneCards database of human genes (http://www.genecards.org. This human gene compendium was created to help to introduce order into the increasing chaos of information flow. As a consequence of viewing details and deep links related to specific genes, users have often requested enhanced capabilities, such that, over time, GeneCards has blossomed into a suite of tools (including GeneDecks, GeneALaCart, GeneLoc, GeneNote and GeneAnnot for a variety of analyses of both single human genes and sets thereof. In this paper, we focus on inhouse and external research activities which have been enabled, enhanced, complemented and, in some cases, motivated by GeneCards. In turn, such interactions have often inspired and propelled improvements in GeneCards. We describe here the evolution and architecture of this project, including examples of synergistic applications in diverse areas such as synthetic lethality in cancer, the annotation of genetic variations in disease, omics integration in a systems biology approach to kidney disease, and bioinformatics tools.

  8. Human reporter genes: potential use in clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serganova, Inna [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Ponomarev, Vladimir [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Blasberg, Ronald [Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States)], E-mail: blasberg@neuro1.mskcc.org

    2007-10-15

    The clinical application of positron-emission-tomography-based reporter gene imaging will expand over the next several years. The translation of reporter gene imaging technology into clinical applications is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the development and use of human reporter genes. Human reporter genes will play an increasingly more important role in this development, and it is likely that one or more reporter systems (human gene and complimentary radiopharmaceutical) will take leading roles. Three classes of human reporter genes are discussed and compared: receptors, transporters and enzymes. Examples of highly expressed cell membrane receptors include specific membrane somatostatin receptors (hSSTrs). The transporter group includes the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The endogenous enzyme classification includes human mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (hTK2). In addition, we also discuss the nonhuman dopamine 2 receptor and two viral reporter genes, the wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene and the HSV1-tk mutant (HSV1-sr39tk). Initial applications of reporter gene imaging in patients will be developed within two different clinical disciplines: (a) gene therapy and (b) adoptive cell-based therapies. These studies will benefit from the availability of efficient human reporter systems that can provide critical monitoring information for adenoviral-based, retroviral-based and lenteviral-based gene therapies, oncolytic bacterial and viral therapies, and adoptive cell-based therapies. Translational applications of noninvasive in vivo reporter gene imaging are likely to include: (a) quantitative monitoring of gene therapy vectors for targeting and transduction efficacy in clinical protocols by imaging the location, extent and duration of transgene expression; (b) monitoring of cell trafficking, targeting, replication and activation in adoptive T-cell and stem/progenitor cell therapies

  9. Human reporter genes: potential use in clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serganova, Inna; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Blasberg, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The clinical application of positron-emission-tomography-based reporter gene imaging will expand over the next several years. The translation of reporter gene imaging technology into clinical applications is the focus of this review, with emphasis on the development and use of human reporter genes. Human reporter genes will play an increasingly more important role in this development, and it is likely that one or more reporter systems (human gene and complimentary radiopharmaceutical) will take leading roles. Three classes of human reporter genes are discussed and compared: receptors, transporters and enzymes. Examples of highly expressed cell membrane receptors include specific membrane somatostatin receptors (hSSTrs). The transporter group includes the sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). The endogenous enzyme classification includes human mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (hTK2). In addition, we also discuss the nonhuman dopamine 2 receptor and two viral reporter genes, the wild-type herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene and the HSV1-tk mutant (HSV1-sr39tk). Initial applications of reporter gene imaging in patients will be developed within two different clinical disciplines: (a) gene therapy and (b) adoptive cell-based therapies. These studies will benefit from the availability of efficient human reporter systems that can provide critical monitoring information for adenoviral-based, retroviral-based and lenteviral-based gene therapies, oncolytic bacterial and viral therapies, and adoptive cell-based therapies. Translational applications of noninvasive in vivo reporter gene imaging are likely to include: (a) quantitative monitoring of gene therapy vectors for targeting and transduction efficacy in clinical protocols by imaging the location, extent and duration of transgene expression; (b) monitoring of cell trafficking, targeting, replication and activation in adoptive T-cell and stem/progenitor cell therapies

  10. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José

    2012-01-01

    weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong...... interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index...... on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently...

  11. Targeting the human lysozyme gene on bovine αs1- casein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Targeting an exogenous gene into a favorable gene locus and for expression under endogenous regulators is ... case, the expression of human lysozyme could be regulated by the endogenous cis-element of αs1- casein gene in .... Mouse mammary epithelial C127 cells (Cell Bank, Chinese. Academy of ...

  12. Human gene therapy: novel approaches to improve the current gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-06-01

    Even though gene therapy made its way through the clinics to treat a number of human pathologies since the early years of experimental research and despite the recent approval of the first gene-based product (Glybera) in Europe, the safe and effective use of gene transfer vectors remains a challenge in human gene therapy due to the existence of barriers in the host organism. While work is under active investigation to improve the gene transfer systems themselves, the use of controlled release approaches may offer alternative, convenient tools of vector delivery to achieve a performant gene transfer in vivo while overcoming the various physiological barriers that preclude its wide use in patients. This article provides an overview of the most significant contributions showing how the principles of controlled release strategies may be adapted for human gene therapy.

  13. Different level of population differentiation among human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Results Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  14. Different level of population differentiation among human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-14

    During the colonization of the world, after dispersal out of African, modern humans encountered changeable environments and substantial phenotypic variations that involve diverse behaviors, lifestyles and cultures, were generated among the different modern human populations. Here, we study the level of population differentiation among different populations of human genes. Intriguingly, genes involved in osteoblast development were identified as being enriched with higher FST SNPs, a result consistent with the proposed role of the skeletal system in accounting for variation among human populations. Genes involved in the development of hair follicles, where hair is produced, were also found to have higher levels of population differentiation, consistent with hair morphology being a distinctive trait among human populations. Other genes that showed higher levels of population differentiation include those involved in pigmentation, spermatid, nervous system and organ development, and some metabolic pathways, but few involved with the immune system. Disease-related genes demonstrate excessive SNPs with lower levels of population differentiation, probably due to purifying selection. Surprisingly, we find that Mendelian-disease genes appear to have a significant excessive of SNPs with high levels of population differentiation, possibly because the incidence and susceptibility of these diseases show differences among populations. As expected, microRNA regulated genes show lower levels of population differentiation due to purifying selection. Our analysis demonstrates different level of population differentiation among human populations for different gene groups.

  15. De novo origin of human protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Dong Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA-seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes.

  16. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human renal kallikrein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, B.A.; Yun, Z.X.; Close, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glandular kallikreins are a family of proteases encoded by a variable number of genes in different mammalian species. In all species examined, however, one particular kallikrein is functionally conserved in its capacity to release the vasoactive peptide, Lys-bradykinin, from low molecular weight kininogen. This kallikrein is found in the kidney, pancreas, and salivary gland, showing a unique pattern of tissue-specific expression relative to other members of the family. The authors have isolated a genomic clone carrying the human renal kallikrein gene and compared the nucleotide sequence of its promoter region with those of the mouse renal kallikrein gene and another mouse kallikrein gene expressed in a distinct cell type. They find four sequence elements conserved between renal kallikrein genes from the two species. They have also shown that the human gene is localized to 19q13, a position analogous to that of the kallikrein gene family on mouse chromosome 7

  17. De Novo Origin of Human Protein-Coding Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA–seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes. PMID:22102831

  18. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Seldin, M.F. [Univ. of California Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Renee J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Methods Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT, 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Results Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder. Conclusion The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  20. Chromosomal localization of the human diazepam binding inhibitor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBernardi, M.A.; Crowe, R.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Shows, T.B.; Eddy, R.L.; Costa, E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have used in situ chromosome hybridization and human-mouse somatic cell hybrids to map the gene(s) for human diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), an endogenous putative modulator of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor acting at the allosteric regulatory center of this receptor that includes the benzodiazepine recognition site. In 784 chromosome spreads hybridized with human DBI cDNA, the distribution of 1,476 labeled sites revealed a significant clustering of autoradiographic grains (11.3% of total label) on the long arm of chromosome 2 (2q). Furthermore, 63.5% of the grains found on 2q were located on 2q12-21, suggesting regional mapping of DBI gene(s) to this segment. Secondary hybridization signals were frequently observed on other chromosomes and they were statistically significant mainly for chromosomes 5, 6, 11, and 14. In addition, DNA from 32 human-mouse cell hybrids was digested with BamHI and probed with human DBI cDNA. A 3.5-kilobase band, which probably represents the human DBI gene, was assigned to chromosome 2. Four higher molecular weight bands, also detected in BamHI digests, could not be unequivocally assigned. A chromosome 2 location was excluded for the 27-, 13-, and 10-kilobase bands. These results assign a human DBI gene to chromosome 2 (2q12-21) and indicate that three of the four homologous sequences detected by the human DBI probe are located on three other chromosomes

  1. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  2. The mechanism of gene targeting in human somatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Kan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting in human somatic cells is of importance because it can be used to either delineate the loss-of-function phenotype of a gene or correct a mutated gene back to wild-type. Both of these outcomes require a form of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair known as homologous recombination (HR. The mechanism of HR leading to gene targeting, however, is not well understood in human cells. Here, we demonstrate that a two-end, ends-out HR intermediate is valid for human gene targeting. Furthermore, the resolution step of this intermediate occurs via the classic DSB repair model of HR while synthesis-dependent strand annealing and Holliday Junction dissolution are, at best, minor pathways. Moreover, and in contrast to other systems, the positions of Holliday Junction resolution are evenly distributed along the homology arms of the targeting vector. Most unexpectedly, we demonstrate that when a meganuclease is used to introduce a chromosomal DSB to augment gene targeting, the mechanism of gene targeting is inverted to an ends-in process. Finally, we demonstrate that the anti-recombination activity of mismatch repair is a significant impediment to gene targeting. These observations significantly advance our understanding of HR and gene targeting in human cells.

  3. Radioactive probes for human gene localisation by in situ hybridisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, S.J.

    1980-07-01

    Radioactive probes of high specific activity have been used for human gene localisation on metaphase chromosome preparations. Human 5S ribosomal RNA was used as a model system, as a probe for the localisation of human 5S ribosomal genes. 125 I-labelled mouse 5S ribosomal RNA was used to study the 5S ribosomal gene content and arrangement in families with translocations on the long arm of chromosome 1 close to or containing the 5S ribosomal RNA locus, by in situ hybridisation to human metaphase chromosomes from peripheral blood cultures. This confirmed the chromosomal assignment of 5S ribosomal genes to 1q 42-43. In situ hybridisation probes were also prepared from recombinant plasmids containing Xenopus laevis oocyte 5S or 28S/18S gene sequences to give [ 3 H]-labelled cRNA and [ 3 H]-labelled nick-translated plasmid DNA. Studies on the kinetics of hybridisation of plasmid probes with and without ribosomal gene sequences questioned the role of plasmid DNA for amplification of signal during gene localisation. Gene localisation was obtained with nick-translated plasmid DNA containing the 28S/18S ribosomal DNA insert after short exposure times, but poor results were obtained using a [ 3 H]-labelled cRNA probe transcribed from the plasmid with the 5S gene insert. (author)

  4. Exertional Heat Illness and Human Gene Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonna, L.A; Sawka, M. N; Lilly, C. M

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness...

  5. More than 9,000,000 unique genes in human gut bacterial community: estimating gene numbers inside a human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Xie, Lu; Li, Yixue; Wei, Chaochun

    2009-06-29

    Estimating the number of genes in human genome has been long an important problem in computational biology. With the new conception of considering human as a super-organism, it is also interesting to estimate the number of genes in this human super-organism. We presented our estimation of gene numbers in the human gut bacterial community, the largest microbial community inside the human super-organism. We got 552,700 unique genes from 202 complete human gut bacteria genomes. Then, a novel gene counting model was built to check the total number of genes by combining culture-independent sequence data and those complete genomes. 16S rRNAs were used to construct a three-level tree and different counting methods were introduced for the three levels: strain-to-species, species-to-genus, and genus-and-up. The model estimates that the total number of genes is about 9,000,000 after those with identity percentage of 97% or up were merged. By combining completed genomes currently available and culture-independent sequencing data, we built a model to estimate the number of genes in human gut bacterial community. The total number of genes is estimated to be about 9 million. Although this number is huge, we believe it is underestimated. This is an initial step to tackle this gene counting problem for the human super-organism. It will still be an open problem in the near future. The list of genomes used in this paper can be found in the supplementary table.

  6. Production of Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Human Interlukin-4 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarrad, Majid; Abdolazimi, Yassan; Hajati, Jamshid; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Recombinant adenoviruses are currently used for a variety of purposes, including in vitro gene transfer, in vivo vaccination, and gene therapy. Ability to infect many cell types, high efficiency in gene transfer, entering both dividing and non dividing cells, and growing to high titers make this virus a good choice for using in various experiments. In the present experiment, a recombinant adenovirus containing human IL-4 coding sequence was made. IL-4 has several characteristics ...

  7. Characteristics of functional enrichment and gene expression level of human putative transcriptional target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Naoki

    2018-01-19

    Transcriptional target genes show functional enrichment of genes. However, how many and how significantly transcriptional target genes include functional enrichments are still unclear. To address these issues, I predicted human transcriptional target genes using open chromatin regions, ChIP-seq data and DNA binding sequences of transcription factors in databases, and examined functional enrichment and gene expression level of putative transcriptional target genes. Gene Ontology annotations showed four times larger numbers of functional enrichments in putative transcriptional target genes than gene expression information alone, independent of transcriptional target genes. To compare the number of functional enrichments of putative transcriptional target genes between cells or search conditions, I normalized the number of functional enrichment by calculating its ratios in the total number of transcriptional target genes. With this analysis, native putative transcriptional target genes showed the largest normalized number of functional enrichments, compared with target genes including 5-60% of randomly selected genes. The normalized number of functional enrichments was changed according to the criteria of enhancer-promoter interactions such as distance from transcriptional start sites and orientation of CTCF-binding sites. Forward-reverse orientation of CTCF-binding sites showed significantly higher normalized number of functional enrichments than the other orientations. Journal papers showed that the top five frequent functional enrichments were related to the cellular functions in the three cell types. The median expression level of transcriptional target genes changed according to the criteria of enhancer-promoter assignments (i.e. interactions) and was correlated with the changes of the normalized number of functional enrichments of transcriptional target genes. Human putative transcriptional target genes showed significant functional enrichments. Functional

  8. Are mice pigmentary genes throwing light on humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose S

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the rapid advances made in the molecular genetics of inherited disorders of hypo and hyperpigmentation during the past three years are reviewed. The main focus is on studies in mice as compared to homologues in humans. The main hypomelanotic diseases included are, piebaldism (white spotting due to mutations of c-KIT, PDGF and MGF genes; vitiligo (microphathalmia mice mutations of c-Kit and c-fms genes; Waardenburg syndrome (splotch locus mutations of mice PAX-3 or human Hup-2 genes; albinism (mutations of tyrosinase genes, Menkes disease (Mottled mouse, premature graying (mutations in light/brown locus/gp75/ TRP-1; Griscelli disease (mutations in TRP-1 and steel; Prader-willi and Angelman syndromes, tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism and hypomelanosis of lto (mutations of pink-eyed dilution gene/mapping to human chromosomes 15 q 11.2 - q12; and human platelet storage pool deficiency diseases due to defects in pallidin, an erythrocyte membrane protein (pallid mouse / mapping to 4.2 pallidin gene. The genetic characterization of hypermelanosis includes, neurofibromatosis 1 (Café-au-lait spots and McCune-Albright Syndrome. Rapid evolving knowledge about pigmentary genes will increase further the knowledge about these hypo and hyperpigmentary disorders.

  9. Translational selection in human: More pronounced in housekeeping genes

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Lina

    2014-07-10

    Background: Translational selection is a ubiquitous and significant mechanism to regulate protein expression in prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes. Recent evidence has shown that translational selection is weakly operative in highly expressed genes in human and other vertebrates. However, it remains unclear whether translational selection acts differentially on human genes depending on their expression patterns.Results: Here we report that human housekeeping (HK) genes that are strictly defined as genes that are expressed ubiquitously and consistently in most or all tissues, are under stronger translational selection.Conclusions: These observations clearly show that translational selection is also closely associated with expression pattern. Our results suggest that human HK genes are more efficiently and/or accurately translated into proteins, which will inevitably open up a new understanding of HK genes and the regulation of gene expression.Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Yuan Yuan, Baylor College of Medicine; Han Liang, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (nominated by Dr Laura Landweber) Eugene Koonin, NCBI, NLM, NIH, United States of America Sandor Pongor, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and biotechnology (ICGEB), Italy. © 2014 Ma et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Cloning and characterization of human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Weber, C.A.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Carrano, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The isolation of two addition human genes that give efficient restoration of the repair defects in other CHO mutant lines is reported. The gene designated ERCC2 (Excision Repair Complementing Chinese hamster) corrects mutant UV5 from complementation group 1. They recently cloned this gene by first constructing a secondary transformant in which the human gene was shown to have become physically linked to the bacterial gpt dominant-marker gene by cotransfer in calcium phosphate precipitates in the primary transfection. Transformants expressing both genes were recovered by selecting for resistance to both UV radiation and mycophenolic acid. Using similar methods, the human gene that corrects CHO mutant EM9 was isolated in cosmids and named XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Complementing Chinese hamster). In this case, transformants were recovered by selecting for resistance to CldUrd, which kills EM9 very efficiently. In both genomic and cosmid transformants, the XRCC1 gene restored resistance to the normal range. DNA repair was studied using the kinetics of strand-break rejoining, which was measured after exposure to 137 Cs γ-rays

  11. Identification of DNA repair genes in the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeijmakers, J.H.J.; van Duin, M.; Westerveld, A.; Yasui, A.; Bootsma, D.

    1986-01-01

    To identify human DNA repair genes we have transfected human genomic DNA ligated to a dominant marker to excision repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and CHO cells. This resulted in the cloning of a human gene, ERCC-1, that complements the defect of a UV- and mitomycin-C sensitive CHO mutant 43-3B. The ERCC-1 gene has a size of 15 kb, consists of 10 exons and is located in the region 19q13.2-q13.3. Its primary transcript is processed into two mRNAs by alternative splicing of an internal coding exon. One of these transcripts encodes a polypeptide of 297 aminoacids. A putative DNA binding protein domain and nuclear location signal could be identified. Significant AA-homology is found between ERCC-1 and the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. 58 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  12. Automated discovery of functional generality of human gene expression programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K Gerber

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-kappaB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal

  13. Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battle, Alexis; Brown, Christopher D.; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Aguet, François; Ardlie, Kristin G.; Cummings, Beryl B.; Gelfand, Ellen T.; Getz, Gad; Hadley, Kane; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Katherine H.; Kashin, Seva; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Lek, Monkol; Li, Xiao; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Nedzel, Jared L.; Nguyen, Duyen T.; Noble, Michael S.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Trowbridge, Casandra A.; Tukiainen, Taru; Abell, Nathan S.; Balliu, Brunilda; Barshir, Ruth; Basha, Omer; Bogu, Gireesh K.; Brown, Andrew; Castel, Stephane E.; Chen, Lin S.; Chiang, Colby; Conrad, Donald F.; Cox, Nancy J.; Damani, Farhan N.; Davis, Joe R.; Delaneau, Olivier; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Eskin, Eleazar; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Frésard, Laure; Gamazon, Eric R.; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Gewirtz, Ariel D. H.; Gliner, Genna; Gloudemans, Michael J.; Guigo, Roderic; Hall, Ira M.; Han, Buhm; He, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression

  14. Human γ-globin genes silenced independently of other genes in the β-globin locus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.O. Dillon (Niall); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractErythropoiesis during human development is characterized by switches in expression of beta-like globin genes during the transition from the embryonic through fetal to adult stages. Activation and high-level expression of the genes is directed by the locus control region (LCR), located 5'

  15. Gene × Smoking Interactions on Human Brain Gene Expression: Finding Common Mechanisms in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolock, Samuel L.; Yates, Andrew; Petrill, Stephen A.; Bohland, Jason W.; Blair, Clancy; Li, Ning; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have examined gene × environment interactions (G × E) in cognitive and behavioral domains. However, these studies have been limited in that they have not been able to directly assess differential patterns of gene expression in the human brain. Here, we assessed G × E interactions using two publically available datasets…

  16. LINE FUSION GENES: a database of LINE expression in human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hong-Seog

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs are the most abundant retrotransposons in humans. About 79% of human genes are estimated to contain at least one segment of LINE per transcription unit. Recent studies have shown that LINE elements can affect protein sequences, splicing patterns and expression of human genes. Description We have developed a database, LINE FUSION GENES, for elucidating LINE expression throughout the human gene database. We searched the 28,171 genes listed in the NCBI database for LINE elements and analyzed their structures and expression patterns. The results show that the mRNA sequences of 1,329 genes were affected by LINE expression. The LINE expression types were classified on the basis of LINEs in the 5' UTR, exon or 3' UTR sequences of the mRNAs. Our database provides further information, such as the tissue distribution and chromosomal location of the genes, and the domain structure that is changed by LINE integration. We have linked all the accession numbers to the NCBI data bank to provide mRNA sequences for subsequent users. Conclusion We believe that our work will interest genome scientists and might help them to gain insight into the implications of LINE expression for human evolution and disease. Availability http://www.primate.or.kr/line

  17. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Eco RI RFLP in the human IGF II gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocozza, S; Garofalo, S; Robledo, R; Monticelli, A; Conti, A; Chiarotti, L; Frunzio, R; Bruni, C B; Varrone, S

    1988-03-25

    The probe was a 500 bp cDNA containing exons 2-3 and 4 of the human IGF II gene. The clone was isolated by screening a human liver cDNA library with synthetic oligonucleotides. Eco RI digestion of genomic DNA and hybridization with the IGF II probe detects a two allele polymorphism with allelic fragments of 13.5 kb and 10.5 kb. The frequency was studied 38 unrelated Caucasians: Human IGF II gene was localized on the short arm of chromosome 11 (p15) by in situ hybridization. Codominant segregation was observed in 2 Caucasian families (10 individuals).

  19. The progress of radiosensitive genes of human brain glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xi; Liu Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Human gliomas are one of the most aggressive tumors in brain which grow infiltrativly. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. But as the tumor could not be entirely cut off, it is easy to relapse. Radiotherapy plays an important role for patients with gliomas after surgery. The efficacy of radiotherapy is associated with radio sensitivity of human gliomas. This paper makes a summary of current situation and progress for radiosensitive genes of human brain gliomas. (authors)

  20. Isolation and characterization of the human uracil DNA glycosylase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollberg, T.M.; Siegler, K.M.; Cool, B.L.; Sirover, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A series of anti-human placental uracil DNA glycosylase monoclonal antibodies was used to screen a human placental cDNA library in phage λgt11. Twenty-seven immunopositive plaques were detected and purified. One clone containing a 1.2-kilobase (kb) human cDNA insert was chosen for further study by insertion into pUC8. The resultant recombinant plasmid selected by hybridization a human placental mRNA that encoded a 37-kDa polypeptide. This protein was immunoprecipitated specifically by an anti-human placenta uracil DNA glycosylase monoclonal antibody. RNA blot-hybridization (Northern) analysis using placental poly(A) + RNA or total RNA from four different human fibroblast cell strains revealed a single 1.6-kb transcript. Genomic blots using DNA from each cell strain digested with either EcoRI or PstI revealed a complex pattern of cDNA-hydridizing restriction fragments. The genomic analysis for each enzyme was highly similar in all four human cell strains. In contrast, a single band was observed when genomic analysis was performed with the identical DNA digests with an actin gene probe. During cell proliferation there was an increase in the level of glycosylase mRNA that paralleled the increase in uracil DNA glycosylase enzyme activity. The isolation of the human uracil DNA glycosylase gene permits an examination of the structure, organization, and expression of a human DNA repair gene

  1. ANALYSES ON DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xu-li; DING Xiao-wen; XU Xiao-hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular etiology of breast cancer by way of studying the differential expression and initial function of the related genes in the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight human tumor related genes were chosen for preparation of the oligochips probe. mRNA was extracted from 16 breast cancer tissues and the corresponding normal breast tissues, and cDNA probe was prepared through reverse-transcription and hybridized with the gene chip. A laser focused fluorescent scanner was used to scan the chip. The different gene expressions were thereafter automatically compared and analyzed between the two sample groups. Cy3/Cy5>3.5 meant significant up-regulation. Cy3/Cy5<0.25 meant significant down-regulation. Results: The comparison between the breast cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues showed that 84 genes had differential expression in the Chip. Among the differently expressed genes, there were 4 genes with significant down-regulation and 6 with significant up-regulation. Compared with normal breast tissues, differentially expressed genes did partially exist in the breast cancer tissues. Conclusion: Changes in multi-gene expression regulations take place during the occurrence and development of breast cancer; and the research on related genes can help understanding the mechanism of tumor occurrence.

  2. Gene therapy, human nature and the churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, G R

    1991-12-01

    Moral analysis must begin with respect for the empirical features, the "facts of the case". Major advances in genetic knowledge and technology -- as in other sciences -- inevitably change mental attitudes. But they could not change human nature, a product of the distinctively human cerebral cortex. Human capacities like compassion and justice are our own and for us to guard. To ask (as some do) about a "right" to inherit a non-manipulated genome is to ask an unanswerable question: the language of rights is inappropriate in this context. Parents have a duty to safeguard and to serve the interests of their potential child. The medical duty is to help in that task in ways which they have limited freedom to choose. The role of churches is to be faithful to their deposit of faith and their theological principles, including that of freedom of conscience. Churches are too easily led in practice to over-rule conscience on grounds of authority, ecclesiastical or biblical, not sustained by convincing reason. This is most evident in some declarations concerning human reproduction. Better were it for them to help their faithful in moral reasoning, the ethics of choice; to keep consciences tender.

  3. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover com...

  4. Gene Expression in the Human Endolymphatic Sac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Kirkeby, Svend; Vikeså, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    a1 sodium-bicarbonate transporter, SLC9a2 sodium-hydrogen transporter, SLC12a3 thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl transporter, and SLC34a2 sodium-phosphate transporter. CONCLUSIONS: Several important ion transporters of the SLC family are expressed in the human endolymphatic sac, including Pendrin...

  5. Systematic identification of human housekeeping genes possibly useful as references in gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracausi, Maria; Piovesan, Allison; Antonaros, Francesca; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara

    2017-09-01

    The ideal reference, or control, gene for the study of gene expression in a given organism should be expressed at a medium‑high level for easy detection, should be expressed at a constant/stable level throughout different cell types and within the same cell type undergoing different treatments, and should maintain these features through as many different tissues of the organism. From a biological point of view, these theoretical requirements of an ideal reference gene appear to be best suited to housekeeping (HK) genes. Recent advancements in the quality and completeness of human expression microarray data and in their statistical analysis may provide new clues toward the quantitative standardization of human gene expression studies in biology and medicine, both cross‑ and within‑tissue. The systematic approach used by the present study is based on the Transcriptome Mapper tool and exploits the automated reassignment of probes to corresponding genes, intra‑ and inter‑sample normalization, elaboration and representation of gene expression values in linear form within an indexed and searchable database with a graphical interface recording quantitative levels of expression, expression variability and cross‑tissue width of expression for more than 31,000 transcripts. The present study conducted a meta‑analysis of a pool of 646 expression profile data sets from 54 different human tissues and identified actin γ 1 as the HK gene that best fits the combination of all the traditional criteria to be used as a reference gene for general use; two ribosomal protein genes, RPS18 and RPS27, and one aquaporin gene, POM121 transmembrane nucleporin C, were also identified. The present study provided a list of tissue‑ and organ‑specific genes that may be most suited for the following individual tissues/organs: Adipose tissue, bone marrow, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, skeletal muscle and testis; and also provides in these cases a representative

  6. Characterization of human cardiac myosin heavy chain genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi-Takihara, K.; Sole, M.J.; Liew, J.; Ing, D.; Liew, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated and analyzed the structure of the genes coding for the α and β forms of the human cardiac myosin heavy chain (MYHC). Detailed analysis of four overlapping MYHC genomic clones shows that the α-MYHC and β-MYHC genes constitute a total length of 51 kilobases and are tandemly linked. The β-MYHC-encoding gene, predominantly expressed in the normal human ventricle and also in slow-twitch skeletal muscle, is located 4.5 kilobases upstream of the α-MYHC-encoding gene, which is predominantly expressed in normal human atrium. The authors have determined the nucleotide sequences of the β form of the MYHC gene, which is 100% homologous to the cardiac MYHC cDNA clone (pHMC3). It is unlikely that the divergence of a few nucleotide sequences from the cardiac β-MYHC cDNA clone (pHMC3) reported in a MYHC cDNA clone (PSMHCZ) from skeletal muscle is due to a splicing mechanism. This finding suggests that the same β form of the cardiac MYHC gene is expressed in both ventricular and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. The promoter regions of both α- and β-MYHC genes, as well as the first four coding regions in the respective genes, have also been sequenced. The sequences in the 5'-flanking region of the α- and β-MYHC-encoding genes diverge extensively from one another, suggesting that expression of the α- and β-MYHC genes is independently regulated

  7. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  8. Human Intellectual Disability Genes Form Conserved Functional Modules in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Oti, Martin; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fernandes, Ana Clara; Kochinke, Korinna; Castells-Nobau, Anna; van Engelen, Eva; Ellenkamp, Thijs; Eshuis, Lilian; Galy, Anne; van Bokhoven, Hans; Habermann, Bianca; Brunner, Han G.; Zweier, Christiane; Verstreken, Patrik; Huynen, Martijn A.; Schenck, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual Disability (ID) disorders, defined by an IQ below 70, are genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Identification of common molecular pathways underlying these disorders is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of cognition and for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. To systematically establish their functional connectivity, we used transgenic RNAi to target 270 ID gene orthologs in the Drosophila eye. Assessment of neuronal function in behavioral and electrophysiological assays and multiparametric morphological analysis identified phenotypes associated with knockdown of 180 ID gene orthologs. Most of these genotype-phenotype associations were novel. For example, we uncovered 16 genes that are required for basal neurotransmission and have not previously been implicated in this process in any system or organism. ID gene orthologs with morphological eye phenotypes, in contrast to genes without phenotypes, are relatively highly expressed in the human nervous system and are enriched for neuronal functions, suggesting that eye phenotyping can distinguish different classes of ID genes. Indeed, grouping genes by Drosophila phenotype uncovered 26 connected functional modules. Novel links between ID genes successfully predicted that MYCN, PIGV and UPF3B regulate synapse development. Drosophila phenotype groups show, in addition to ID, significant phenotypic similarity also in humans, indicating that functional modules are conserved. The combined data indicate that ID disorders, despite their extreme genetic diversity, are caused by disruption of a limited number of highly connected functional modules. PMID:24204314

  9. Nucleotide sequence of a human tRNA gene heterocluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.N.; Pirtle, I.L.; Pirtle, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Leucine tRNA from bovine liver was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human gene library harbored in Charon-4A of bacteriophage lambda. The human DNA inserts from plaque-pure clones were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and Southern hybridization techniques, using both [3'- 32 P]-labeled bovine liver leucine tRNA and total tRNA as hybridization probes. An 8-kb Hind III fragment of one of these γ-clones was subcloned into the Hind III site of pBR322. Subsequent fine restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis of this plasmid DNA indicated the presence of four tRNA genes within the 8-kb DNA fragment. A leucine tRNA gene with an anticodon of AAG and a proline tRNA gene with an anticodon of AGG are in a 1.6-kb subfragment. A threonine tRNA gene with an anticodon of UGU and an as yet unidentified tRNA gene are located in a 1.1-kb subfragment. These two different subfragments are separated by 2.8 kb. The coding regions of the three sequenced genes contain characteristic internal split promoter sequences and do not have intervening sequences. The 3'-flanking region of these three genes have typical RNA polymerase III termination sites of at least four consecutive T residues

  10. Origins of De Novo Genes in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Orera, Jorge; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald; Marqués-Bonet, Tomàs; Albà, M Mar

    2015-12-01

    The birth of new genes is an important motor of evolutionary innovation. Whereas many new genes arise by gene duplication, others originate at genomic regions that did not contain any genes or gene copies. Some of these newly expressed genes may acquire coding or non-coding functions and be preserved by natural selection. However, it is yet unclear which is the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of de novo gene emergence. In order to obtain a comprehensive view of this process, we have performed in-depth sequencing of the transcriptomes of four mammalian species--human, chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse--and subsequently compared the assembled transcripts and the corresponding syntenic genomic regions. This has resulted in the identification of over five thousand new multiexonic transcriptional events in human and/or chimpanzee that are not observed in the rest of species. Using comparative genomics, we show that the expression of these transcripts is associated with the gain of regulatory motifs upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) and of U1 snRNP sites downstream of the TSS. In general, these transcripts show little evidence of purifying selection, suggesting that many of them are not functional. However, we find signatures of selection in a subset of de novo genes which have evidence of protein translation. Taken together, the data support a model in which frequently-occurring new transcriptional events in the genome provide the raw material for the evolution of new proteins.

  11. Automated Identification of Core Regulatory Genes in Human Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Narang

    Full Text Available Human gene regulatory networks (GRN can be difficult to interpret due to a tangle of edges interconnecting thousands of genes. We constructed a general human GRN from extensive transcription factor and microRNA target data obtained from public databases. In a subnetwork of this GRN that is active during estrogen stimulation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, we benchmarked automated algorithms for identifying core regulatory genes (transcription factors and microRNAs. Among these algorithms, we identified K-core decomposition, pagerank and betweenness centrality algorithms as the most effective for discovering core regulatory genes in the network evaluated based on previously known roles of these genes in MCF-7 biology as well as in their ability to explain the up or down expression status of up to 70% of the remaining genes. Finally, we validated the use of K-core algorithm for organizing the GRN in an easier to interpret layered hierarchy where more influential regulatory genes percolate towards the inner layers. The integrated human gene and miRNA network and software used in this study are provided as supplementary materials (S1 Data accompanying this manuscript.

  12. Characterization of the human gene (TBXAS1) encoding thromboxane synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, A; Yokoyama, C; Ihara, H; Bandoh, S; Takeda, O; Takahashi, E; Tanabe, T

    1994-09-01

    The gene encoding human thromboxane synthase (TBXAS1) was isolated from a human EMBL3 genomic library using human platelet thromboxane synthase cDNA as a probe. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the human thromboxane synthase gene spans more than 75 kb and consists of 13 exons and 12 introns, of which the splice donor and acceptor sites conform to the GT/AG rule. The exon-intron boundaries of the thromboxane synthase gene were similar to those of the human cytochrome P450 nifedipine oxidase gene (CYP3A4) except for introns 9 and 10, although the primary sequences of these enzymes exhibited 35.8% identity each other. The 1.2-kb of the 5'-flanking region sequence contained potential binding sites for several transcription factors (AP-1, AP-2, GATA-1, CCAAT box, xenobiotic-response element, PEA-3, LF-A1, myb, basic transcription element and cAMP-response element). Primer-extension analysis indicated the multiple transcription-start sites, and the major start site was identified as an adenine residue located 142 bases upstream of the translation-initiation site. However, neither a typical TATA box nor a typical CAAT box is found within the 100-b upstream of the translation-initiation site. Southern-blot analysis revealed the presence of one copy of the thromboxane synthase gene per haploid genome. Furthermore, a fluorescence in situ hybridization study revealed that the human gene for thromboxane synthase is localized to band q33-q34 of the long arm of chromosome 7. A tissue-distribution study demonstrated that thromboxane synthase mRNA is widely expressed in human tissues and is particularly abundant in peripheral blood leukocyte, spleen, lung and liver. The low but significant levels of mRNA were observed in kidney, placenta and thymus.

  13. Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

    1986-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

  14. Sex-Dependent Gene Expression in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ronen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Males and females have a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, most of which result from hormonal differences. However, differences between male and female embryos initiate very early in development, before hormonal influence begins, suggesting the presence of genetically driven sexual dimorphisms. By comparing the gene expression profiles of male and X-inactivated female human pluripotent stem cells, we detected Y-chromosome-driven effects. We discovered that the sex-determining gene SRY is expressed in human male pluripotent stem cells and is induced by reprogramming. In addition, we detected more than 200 differentially expressed autosomal genes in male and female embryonic stem cells. Some of these genes are involved in steroid metabolism pathways and lead to sex-dependent differentiation in response to the estrogen precursor estrone. Thus, we propose that the presence of the Y chromosome and specifically SRY may drive sex-specific differences in the growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

  15. Chromosomal localization of the human vesicular amine transporter genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, D.; Finn, P.; Liu, Y.; Roghani, A.; Edwards, R.H.; Klisak, I.; Kojis, T.; Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    The physiologic and behavioral effects of pharmacologic agents that interfere with the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters into vesicles suggest that vesicular amine transport may contribute to human neuropsychiatric disease. To determine whether an alteration in the genes that encode vesicular amine transport contributes to the inherited component of these disorders, the authors have isolated a human cDNA for the brain transporter and localized the human vesciular amine transporter genes. The human brain synaptic vesicle amine transporter (SVAT) shows unexpected conservation with rat SVAT in the regions that diverge extensively between rat SVAT and the rat adrenal chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT). Using the cloned sequences with a panel of mouse-human hybrids and in situ hybridization for regional localization, the adrenal CGAT gene (or VAT1) maps to human chromosome 8p21.3 and the brain SVAT gene (or VAT2) maps to chromosome 10q25. Both of these sites occur very close to if not within previously described deletions that produce severe but viable phenotypes. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterization of human septic sera induced gene expression modulation in human myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shaimaa; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Omri, Abdelwahab; Narain, Ravin; Passi, Kalpdrum; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Kumar, Anand; Parissenti, Amadeo; Kumar, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the gene expression changes that occurs during sepsis, we have performed a cDNA microarray study utilizing a tissue culture model that mimics human sepsis. This study utilized an in vitro model of cultured human fetal cardiac myocytes treated with 10% sera from septic patients or 10% sera from healthy volunteers. A 1700 cDNA expression microarray was used to compare the transcription profile from human cardiac myocytes treated with septic sera vs normal sera. Septic sera treatment of myocytes resulted in the down-regulation of 178 genes and the up-regulation of 4 genes. Our data indicate that septic sera induced cell cycle, metabolic, transcription factor and apoptotic gene expression changes in human myocytes. Identification and characterization of gene expression changes that occur during sepsis may lead to the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:19684886

  17. The human cumulus--oocyte complex gene-expression profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assou, Said; Anahory, Tal; Pantesco, Véronique; Le Carrour, Tanguy; Pellestor, Franck; Klein, Bernard; Reyftmann, Lionel; Dechaud, Hervé; De Vos, John; Hamamah, Samir

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The understanding of the mechanisms regulating human oocyte maturation is still rudimentary. We have identified transcripts differentially expressed between immature and mature oocytes, and cumulus cells. METHODS Using oligonucleotides microarrays, genome wide gene expression was studied in pooled immature and mature oocytes or cumulus cells from patients who underwent IVF. RESULTS In addition to known genes such as DAZL, BMP15 or GDF9, oocytes upregulated 1514 genes. We show that PTTG3 and AURKC are respectively the securin and the Aurora kinase preferentially expressed during oocyte meiosis. Strikingly, oocytes overexpressed previously unreported growth factors such as TNFSF13/APRIL, FGF9, FGF14, and IL4, and transcription factors including OTX2, SOX15 and SOX30. Conversely, cumulus cells, in addition to known genes such as LHCGR or BMPR2, overexpressed cell-tocell signaling genes including TNFSF11/RANKL, numerous complement components, semaphorins (SEMA3A, SEMA6A, SEMA6D) and CD genes such as CD200. We also identified 52 genes progressively increasing during oocyte maturation, comprising CDC25A and SOCS7. CONCLUSION The identification of genes up and down regulated during oocyte maturation greatly improves our understanding of oocyte biology and will provide new markers that signal viable and competent oocytes. Furthermore, genes found expressed in cumulus cells are potential markers of granulosa cell tumors. PMID:16571642

  18. Nomenclature for alleles of the human carboxylesterase 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Madsen, Majbritt B.; Bjerre, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) in humans encodes a hydrolase, which is implicated in the metabolism of several commonly used drugs 1. This gene is located on chromosome 16 with a highly homologous pseudogene, CES1P1, in its proximity. A duplicated segment of CES1 replaces most of CES1P1 in some...... appears to be low 8,13. The formation of hybrids consisting of a gene and a related pseudogene has been reported for other genes than CES1. This includes the hybrids of the gene encoding cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and pseudogene CYP2D7, that is, the so-called CYP2D7/D6 hybrids 14......,15. These are categorized as CYP2D6 variants and not as variants of pseudogene CYP2D716....

  19. Gene expression in the aging human brain: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Adith; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Baune, Bernhard T; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-03-01

    The review aims to provide a summary of recent developments in the study of gene expression in the aging human brain. Profiling differentially expressed genes or 'transcripts' in the human brain over the course of normal aging has provided valuable insights into the biological pathways that appear activated or suppressed in late life. Genes mediating neuroinflammation and immune system activation in particular, show significant age-related upregulation creating a state of vulnerability to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disease in the aging brain. Cellular ionic dyshomeostasis and age-related decline in a host of molecular influences on synaptic efficacy may underlie neurocognitive decline in later life. Critically, these investigations have also shed light on the mobilization of protective genetic responses within the aging human brain that help determine health and disease trajectories in older age. There is growing interest in the study of pre and posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, and the role of noncoding RNAs in particular, as mediators of the phenotypic diversity that characterizes human brain aging. Gene expression studies in healthy brain aging offer an opportunity to unravel the intricately regulated cellular underpinnings of neurocognitive aging as well as disease risk and resiliency in late life. In doing so, new avenues for early intervention in age-related neurodegenerative disease could be investigated with potentially significant implications for the development of disease-modifying therapies.

  20. Mechanosensitive promoter region in the human HB-GAM gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kassem, Moustapha; Claes, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical loading is essential for maintaining bone mass in the adult skeleton. However, the underlying process of the transfer of the physical stimulus into a biochemical response, which is termed mechanotransduction is poorly understood. Mechanotransduction results in the modulation of gene...... cells. Analysis of the human HB-GAM gene upstream regulatory region with luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the upregulation of HB-GAM expression occurred at the transcriptional level and was mainly dependent on the HB-GAM promoter region most upstream containing three potential AP-1 binding...

  1. Relation between HLA genes, human skin volatiles and attractiveness of humans to malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Qiu, Y.T.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Verduyn, W.; Haasnoot, G.W.; Claas, F.H.J.; Mumm, R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Takken, W.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues are considered to be the most important cues for mosquitoes to find their hosts and humans can be ranked for attractiveness to mosquitoes based on the chemical cues they emit. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are considered to be involved in the regulation of human body odor and may

  2. Roles of the Y chromosome genes in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male and female differ genetically by their respective sex chromosome composition, that is, XY as male and XX as female. Although both X and Y chromosomes evolved from the same ancestor pair of autosomes, the Y chromosome harbors male-specific genes, which play pivotal roles in male sex determination, germ cell differentiation, and masculinization of various tissues. Deletions or translocation of the sex-determining gene, SRY, from the Y chromosome causes disorders of sex development (previously termed as an intersex condition with dysgenic gonads. Failure of gonadal development results not only in infertility, but also in increased risks of germ cell tumor (GCT, such as gonadoblastoma and various types of testicular GCT. Recent studies demonstrate that either loss of Y chromosome or ectopic expression of Y chromosome genes is closely associated with various male-biased diseases, including selected somatic cancers. These observations suggest that the Y-linked genes are involved in male health and diseases in more frequently than expected. Although only a small number of protein-coding genes are present in the male-specific region of Y chromosome, the impacts of Y chromosome genes on human diseases are still largely unknown, due to lack of in vivo models and differences between the Y chromosomes of human and rodents. In this review, we highlight the involvement of selected Y chromosome genes in cancer development in men.

  3. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Nucleotide sequence of the human N-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, L.W.; Schwab, M.; Bishop, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Human neuroblastomas frequently display amplification and augmented expression of a gene known as N-myc because of its similarity to the protooncogene c-myc. It has therefore been proposed that N-myc is itself a protooncogene, and subsequent tests have shown that N-myc and c-myc have similar biological activities in cell culture. The authors have now detailed the kinship between N-myc and c-myc by determining the nucleotide sequence of human N-myc and deducing the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene. The topography of N-myc is strikingly similar to that of c-myc: both genes contain three exons of similar lengths; the coding elements of both genes are located in the second and third exons; and both genes have unusually long 5' untranslated regions in their mRNAs, with features that raise the possibility that expression of the genes may be subject to similar controls of translation. The resemblance between the proteins encoded by N-myc and c-myc sustains previous suspicions that the genes encode related functions

  5. A scale invariant clustering of genes on human chromosome 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal Wayne S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate genes often appear to cluster within the background of nontranscribed genomic DNA. Here an analysis of the physical distribution of gene structures on human chromosome 7 was performed to confirm the presence of clustering, and to elucidate possible underlying statistical and biological mechanisms. Results Clustering of genes was confirmed by virtue of a variance of the number of genes per unit physical length that exceeded the respective mean. Further evidence for clustering came from a power function relationship between the variance and mean that possessed an exponent of 1.51. This power function implied that the spatial distribution of genes on chromosome 7 was scale invariant, and that the underlying statistical distribution had a Poisson-gamma (PG form. A PG distribution for the spatial scattering of genes was validated by stringent comparisons of both the predicted variance to mean power function and its cumulative distribution function to data derived from chromosome 7. Conclusion The PG distribution was consistent with at least two different biological models: In the microrearrangement model, the number of genes per unit length of chromosome represented the contribution of a random number of smaller chromosomal segments that had originated by random breakage and reconstruction of more primitive chromosomes. Each of these smaller segments would have necessarily contained (on average a gamma distributed number of genes. In the gene cluster model, genes would be scattered randomly to begin with. Over evolutionary timescales, tandem duplication, mutation, insertion, deletion and rearrangement could act at these gene sites through a stochastic birth death and immigration process to yield a PG distribution. On the basis of the gene position data alone it was not possible to identify the biological model which best explained the observed clustering. However, the underlying PG statistical model implicated neutral

  6. Genetic Variants Contribute to Gene Expression Variability in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Amanda M.; Cai, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have established convincing relationships between genetic variants and gene expression. Most of these studies focused on the mean of gene expression level, but not the variance of gene expression level (i.e., gene expression variability). In the present study, we systematically explore genome-wide association between genetic variants and gene expression variability in humans. We adapt the double generalized linear model (dglm) to simultaneously fit the means and the variances of gene expression among the three possible genotypes of a biallelic SNP. The genomic loci showing significant association between the variances of gene expression and the genotypes are termed expression variability QTL (evQTL). Using a data set of gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 210 HapMap individuals, we identify cis-acting evQTL involving 218 distinct genes, among which 8 genes, ADCY1, CTNNA2, DAAM2, FERMT2, IL6, PLOD2, SNX7, and TNFRSF11B, are cross-validated using an extra expression data set of the same LCLs. We also identify ∼300 trans-acting evQTL between >13,000 common SNPs and 500 randomly selected representative genes. We employ two distinct scenarios, emphasizing single-SNP and multiple-SNP effects on expression variability, to explain the formation of evQTL. We argue that detecting evQTL may represent a novel method for effectively screening for genetic interactions, especially when the multiple-SNP influence on expression variability is implied. The implication of our results for revealing genetic mechanisms of gene expression variability is discussed. PMID:23150607

  7. Evolutionary Conservation in Genes Underlying Human Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Michelle Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago and thirty one non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in primates supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia and autism are a cost of higher brain function. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained.

  8. Chronic traumatic stress impairs memory in mice: Potential roles of acetylcholine, neuroinflammation and corticotropin releasing factor expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Ami; Gavini, Kartheek; Yang, Euitaek; Lyman-Henley, Lani; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran

    2017-09-29

    Chronic stress in humans can result in multiple adverse psychiatric and neurobiological outcomes, including memory deficits. These adverse outcomes can be more severe if each episode of stress is very traumatic. When compared to acute or short term stress relatively little is known about the effects of chronic traumatic stress on memory and molecular changes in hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory processing. Here we studied the effects of chronic traumatic stress in mice by exposing them to adult Long Evan rats for 28 consecutive days and subsequently analyzing behavioral outcomes and the changes in the hippocampus. Results show that stressed mice developed memory deficits when assayed with radial arm maze tasks. However, chronic traumatic stress did not induce anxiety, locomotor hyperactivity or anhedonia. In the hippocampus of stressed mice interleukin-1β protein expression was increased along with decreased corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression. Furthermore, there was a reduction in acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. There were no changes in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the hippocampus of stressed mice. Gene expression of immediate early genes (Zif268, Arc, C-Fos) as well as glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors were also not affected by chronic stress. These data demonstrate that chronic traumatic stress followed by a recovery period might lead to development of resilience resulting in the development of selected, most vulnerable behavioral alterations and molecular changes in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The human oxytocin gene promoter is regulated by estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S; Zingg, H H

    1990-04-15

    Gonadal steroids affect brain function primarily by altering the expression of specific genes, yet the specific mechanisms by which neuronal target genes undergo such regulation are unknown. Recent evidence suggests that the expression of the neuropeptide gene for oxytocin (OT) is modulated by estrogens. We therefore examined the possibility that this regulation occurred via a direct interaction of the estrogen-receptor complex with cis-acting elements flanking the OT gene. DNA-mediated gene transfer experiments were performed using Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells and chimeric plasmids containing portions of the human OT gene 5'-glanking region linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. We identified a 19-base pair region located at -164 to -146 upstream of the transcription start site which is capable of conferring estrogen responsiveness to the homologous as well as to a heterologous promoter. The hormonal response is strictly dependent on the presence of intracellular estrogen receptors, since estrogen induced stimulation occurred only in Neuro-2a cells co-transfected with an expression vector for the human estrogen receptor. The identified region contains a novel imperfect palindrome (GGTGACCTTGACC) with sequence similarity to other estrogen response elements (EREs). To define cis-acting elements that function in synergism with the ERE, sequences 3' to the ERE were deleted, including the CCAAT box, two additional motifs corresponding to the right half of the ERE palindrome (TGACC), as well as a CTGCTAA heptamer similar to the "elegans box" found in Caenorhabditis elegans. Interestingly, optimal function of the identified ERE was fully independent of these elements and only required a short promoter region (-49 to +36). Our studies define a molecular mechanism by which estrogens can directly modulate OT gene expression. However, only a subset of OT neurons are capable of binding estrogens, therefore, direct action of estrogens on the OT gene may be

  10. Identifying human disease genes through cross-species gene mapping of evolutionary conserved processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Poot

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding complex networks that modulate development in humans is hampered by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity within and between populations. Here we present a method that exploits natural variation in highly diverse mouse genetic reference panels in which genetic and environmental factors can be tightly controlled. The aim of our study is to test a cross-species genetic mapping strategy, which compares data of gene mapping in human patients with functional data obtained by QTL mapping in recombinant inbred mouse strains in order to prioritize human disease candidate genes.We exploit evolutionary conservation of developmental phenotypes to discover gene variants that influence brain development in humans. We studied corpus callosum volume in a recombinant inbred mouse panel (C57BL/6J×DBA/2J, BXD strains using high-field strength MRI technology. We aligned mouse mapping results for this neuro-anatomical phenotype with genetic data from patients with abnormal corpus callosum (ACC development.From the 61 syndromes which involve an ACC, 51 human candidate genes have been identified. Through interval mapping, we identified a single significant QTL on mouse chromosome 7 for corpus callosum volume with a QTL peak located between 25.5 and 26.7 Mb. Comparing the genes in this mouse QTL region with those associated with human syndromes (involving ACC and those covered by copy number variations (CNV yielded a single overlap, namely HNRPU in humans and Hnrpul1 in mice. Further analysis of corpus callosum volume in BXD strains revealed that the corpus callosum was significantly larger in BXD mice with a B genotype at the Hnrpul1 locus than in BXD mice with a D genotype at Hnrpul1 (F = 22.48, p<9.87*10(-5.This approach that exploits highly diverse mouse strains provides an efficient and effective translational bridge to study the etiology of human developmental disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia.

  11. Cognitive genomics: Linking genes to behavior in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Konopka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of genetic variation in DNA with functional brain activity have already provided a starting point for delving into human cognitive mechanisms. However, these analyses do not provide the specific genes driving the associations, which are complicated by intergenic localization as well as tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. The use of brain-derived expression datasets could build upon the foundation of these initial genetic insights and yield genes and molecular pathways for testing new hypotheses regarding the molecular bases of human brain development, cognition, and disease. Thus, coupling these human brain gene expression data with measurements of brain activity may provide genes with critical roles in brain function. However, these brain gene expression datasets have their own set of caveats, most notably a reliance on postmortem tissue. In this perspective, I summarize and examine the progress that has been made in this realm to date, and discuss the various frontiers remaining, such as the inclusion of cell-type-specific information, additional physiological measurements, and genomic data from patient cohorts.

  12. Law-medicine interfacing: patenting of human genes and mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Arsenio M; Chakrabarty, Ananda M

    2011-08-01

    Mutations, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), deletions and genetic rearrangements in specific genes in the human genome account for not only our physical characteristics and behavior, but can lead to many in-born and acquired diseases. Such changes in the genome can also predispose people to cancers, as well as significantly affect the metabolism and efficacy of many drugs, resulting in some cases in acute toxicity to the drug. The testing of the presence of such genetic mutations and rearrangements is of great practical and commercial value, leading many of these genes and their mutations/deletions and genetic rearrangements to be patented. A recent decision by a judge in the Federal District Court in the Southern District of New York, has created major uncertainties, based on the revocation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene patents, in the eligibility of all human and presumably other gene patents. This article argues that while patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes could be challenged based on a lack of utility, the patenting of the mutations and genetic rearrangements is of great importance to further development and commercialization of genetic tests that can save human lives and prevent suffering, and should be allowed.

  13. Gene expression and adaptive noncoding changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Haygood, Ralph; Nielsen, William J; Wray, Gregory A

    2017-06-05

    Despite evidence for adaptive changes in both gene expression and non-protein-coding, putatively regulatory regions of the genome during human evolution, the relationship between gene expression and adaptive changes in cis-regulatory regions remains unclear. Here we present new measurements of gene expression in five tissues of humans and chimpanzees, and use them to assess this relationship. We then compare our results with previous studies of adaptive noncoding changes, analyzing correlations at the level of gene ontology groups, in order to gain statistical power to detect correlations. Consistent with previous studies, we find little correlation between gene expression and adaptive noncoding changes at the level of individual genes; however, we do find significant correlations at the level of biological function ontology groups. The types of function include processes regulated by specific transcription factors, responses to genetic or chemical perturbations, and differentiation of cell types within the immune system. Among functional categories co-enriched with both differential expression and noncoding adaptation, prominent themes include cancer, particularly epithelial cancers, and neural development and function.

  14. Death and resurrection of the human IRGM gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemalettin Bekpen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunity-related GTPases (IRG play an important role in defense against intracellular pathogens. One member of this gene family in humans, IRGM, has been recently implicated as a risk factor for Crohn's disease. We analyzed the detailed structure of this gene family among primates and showed that most of the IRG gene cluster was deleted early in primate evolution, after the divergence of the anthropoids from prosimians ( about 50 million years ago. Comparative sequence analysis of New World and Old World monkey species shows that the single-copy IRGM gene became pseudogenized as a result of an Alu retrotransposition event in the anthropoid common ancestor that disrupted the open reading frame (ORF. We find that the ORF was reestablished as a part of a polymorphic stop codon in the common ancestor of humans and great apes. Expression analysis suggests that this change occurred in conjunction with the insertion of an endogenous retrovirus, which altered the transcription initiation, splicing, and expression profile of IRGM. These data argue that the gene became pseudogenized and was then resurrected through a series of complex structural events and suggest remarkable functional plasticity where alleles experience diverse evolutionary pressures over time. Such dynamism in structure and evolution may be critical for a gene family locked in an arms race with an ever-changing repertoire of intracellular parasites.

  15. Structure of gene and pseudogenes of human apoferritin H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costanzo, F; Colombo, M; Staempfli, S; Santoro, C; Marone, M; Frank, K; Delius, H; Cortese, R

    1986-01-24

    Ferritin is composed of two subunits, H and L. cDNA's coding for these proteins from human liver, lymphocytes and from the monocyte-like cell line U937 have been cloned and sequenced. Southern blot analysis on total human DNA reveals that there are many DNA segments hybridizing to the apoferritin H and L cDNA probes. In view of the tissue heterogeneity of ferritin molecules, it appeared possible that apoferritin molecules could be coded by a family of genes differentially expressed in various tissues. In this paper, the authors describe the cloning and sequencing of the gene coding for human apoferritin H. This gene has three introns; the exon sequence is identical to that of cDNAs isolated from human liver, lymphocytes, HeLa cells and endothelial cells. In addition they show that at least 15 intronless pseudogenes exist, with features suggesting that there were originated by reverse transcription and insertion. On the basis of these results they conclude that only one gene is responsible for the synthesis of the majority of apoferritin H mRNA in various tissues examined, and that probably all the other DNA segments hybridizing with apoferritin cDNA are pseudogenes.

  16. Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells. ... SW Kang, JE Jeong, CH Kim, SH Choi, SH Chae, SA Jun, HJ Cha, JH Kim, YM Lee, YS ... beta 4, ring finger protein, high-mobility group, calmodulin 2, RAN binding protein, ...

  17. Ethical perception of human gene in transgenic banana | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic banana has been developed to prevent hepatitis B through vaccination. Its production seems to be an ideal alternative for cheaper vaccines. The objective of this paper is to assess the ethical perception of transgenic banana which involved the transfer of human albumin gene, and to compare their ethical ...

  18. Global patterns of diversity and selection in human tyrosinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudjashov, Georgi; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    Global variation in skin pigmentation is one of the most striking examples of environmental adaptation in humans. More than two hundred loci have been identified as candidate genes in model organisms and a few tens of these have been found to be significantly associated with human skin pigmentation in genome-wide association studies. However, the evolutionary history of different pigmentation genes is rather complex: some loci have been subjected to strong positive selection, while others evolved under the relaxation of functional constraints in low UV environment. Here we report the results of a global study of the human tyrosinase gene, which is one of the key enzymes in melanin production, to assess the role of its variation in the evolution of skin pigmentation differences among human populations. We observe a higher rate of non-synonymous polymorphisms in the European sample consistent with the relaxation of selective constraints. A similar pattern was previously observed in the MC1R gene and concurs with UV radiation-driven model of skin color evolution by which mutations leading to lower melanin levels and decreased photoprotection are subject to purifying selection at low latitudes while being tolerated or even favored at higher latitudes because they facilitate UV-dependent vitamin D production. Our coalescent date estimates suggest that the non-synonymous variants, which are frequent in Europe and North Africa, are recent and have emerged after the separation of East and West Eurasian populations.

  19. Designer Babies? Teacher Views on Gene Technology and Human Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the views of a sample of primary and high school teachers on the application of gene technology to human medicine. In general, high school teachers are more positive about these developments than primary teachers, and both groups of teachers are more positive than interested lay publics. Highlights ways in which this topic can be…

  20. A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence...

  1. Gene therapy in nonhuman primate models of human autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t'Hart, B. A.; Vervoordeldonk, M.; Heeney, J. L.; Tak, P. P.

    2003-01-01

    Before autoimmune diseases in humans can be treated with gene therapy, the safety and efficacy of the used vectors must be tested in valid experimental models. Monkeys, such as the rhesus macaque or the common marmoset, provide such models. This publication reviews the state of the art in monkey

  2. Mutational landscape of the human Y chromosome-linked genes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mutational landscape of the human Y chromosome-linked genes and loci in patients with hypogonadism. Deepali Pathak, Sandeep Kumar Yadav, Leena Rawal and Sher Ali. J. Genet. 94, 677–687. Table 1. Details showing age, sex, karyotype, clinical features and diagnosis results of the patients with H. Hormone profile.

  3. Contemporary Animal Models For Human Gene Therapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Chitra; Nathar, Trupti Job; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hickstein, Dennis Durand; Nelson, Everette Jacob Remington

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, gene therapy has been making considerable progress as an alternative strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Since 2009, several studies have been reported in humans on the successful treatment of various diseases. Animal models mimicking human disease conditions are very essential at the preclinical stage before embarking on a clinical trial. In gene therapy, for instance, they are useful in the assessment of variables related to the use of viral vectors such as safety, efficacy, dosage and localization of transgene expression. However, choosing a suitable disease-specific model is of paramount importance for successful clinical translation. This review focuses on the animal models that are most commonly used in gene therapy studies, such as murine, canine, non-human primates, rabbits, porcine, and a more recently developed humanized mice. Though small and large animals both have their own pros and cons as disease-specific models, the choice is made largely based on the type and length of study performed. While small animals with a shorter life span could be well-suited for degenerative/aging studies, large animals with longer life span could suit longitudinal studies and also help with dosage adjustments to maximize therapeutic benefit. Recently, humanized mice or mouse-human chimaeras have gained interest in the study of human tissues or cells, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of therapeutic interventions. Thus, animal models are of great importance with regard to testing new vector technologies in vivo for assessing safety and efficacy prior to a gene therapy clinical trial.

  4. A human-specific de novo protein-coding gene associated with human brain functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yun Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether any human-specific new genes may be associated with human brain functions, we computationally screened the genetic vulnerable factors identified through Genome-Wide Association Studies and linkage analyses of nicotine addiction and found one human-specific de novo protein-coding gene, FLJ33706 (alternative gene symbol C20orf203. Cross-species analysis revealed interesting evolutionary paths of how this gene had originated from noncoding DNA sequences: insertion of repeat elements especially Alu contributed to the formation of the first coding exon and six standard splice junctions on the branch leading to humans and chimpanzees, and two subsequent substitutions in the human lineage escaped two stop codons and created an open reading frame of 194 amino acids. We experimentally verified FLJ33706's mRNA and protein expression in the brain. Real-Time PCR in multiple tissues demonstrated that FLJ33706 was most abundantly expressed in brain. Human polymorphism data suggested that FLJ33706 encodes a protein under purifying selection. A specifically designed antibody detected its protein expression across human cortex, cerebellum and midbrain. Immunohistochemistry study in normal human brain cortex revealed the localization of FLJ33706 protein in neurons. Elevated expressions of FLJ33706 were detected in Alzheimer's brain samples, suggesting the role of this novel gene in human-specific pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. FLJ33706 provided the strongest evidence so far that human-specific de novo genes can have protein-coding potential and differential protein expression, and be involved in human brain functions.

  5. Recent advances in human gene-longevity association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Benedictis, G; Tan, Q; Jeune, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on genes and longevity. The influence of genes on human life span has been confirmed in studies of life span correlation between related individuals based on family and twin data. Results from major twin studies indicate that approximately 25......% of the variation in life span is genetically determined. Taking advantage of recent developments in molecular biology, researchers are now searching for candidate genes that might have an influence on life span. The data on unrelated individuals emerging from an ever-increasing number of centenarian studies makes...... this possible. This paper summarizes the rich literature dealing with the various aspects of the influence of genes on individual survival. Common phenomena affecting the development of disease and longevity are discussed. The major methodological difficulty one is confronted with when studying the epidemiology...

  6. Human gene therapy and imaging in neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Andreas H.; Winkler, Alexandra; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to assess non-invasively disease-specific biological and molecular processes in animal models and humans in vivo. Apart from precise anatomical localisation and quantification, the most intriguing advantage of such imaging is the opportunity it provides to investigate the time course (dynamics) of disease-specific molecular events in the intact organism. Further, molecular imaging can be used to address basic scientific questions, e.g. transcriptional regulation, signal transduction or protein/protein interaction, and will be essential in developing treatment strategies based on gene therapy. Most importantly, molecular imaging is a key technology in translational research, helping to develop experimental protocols which may later be applied to human patients. Over the past 20 years, imaging based on positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been employed for the assessment and ''phenotyping'' of various neurological diseases, including cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and brain gliomas. While in the past neuro-anatomical studies had to be performed post mortem, molecular imaging has ushered in the era of in vivo functional neuro-anatomy by allowing neuroscience to image structure, function, metabolism and molecular processes of the central nervous system in vivo in both health and disease. Recently, PET and MRI have been successfully utilised together in the non-invasive assessment of gene transfer and gene therapy in humans. To assess the efficiency of gene transfer, the same markers are being used in animals and humans, and have been applied for phenotyping human disease. Here, we review the imaging hallmarks of focal and disseminated neurological diseases, such as cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and glioblastoma multiforme, as well as the attempts to translate gene therapy's experimental knowledge into clinical applications and the way in which this process is being promoted through the use of

  7. Polycythemia in transgenic mice expressing the human erythropoietin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenza, G.L.; Traystman, M.D.; Gearhart, J.D.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates mammalian erythropoiesis. To study the expression of the human erythropoietin gene, EPO, 4 kilobases of DNA encompassing the gene with 0.4 kilobase of 5' flanking sequence and 0.7 kilobase of 3' flanking sequence was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs. Transgenic mice were generated that are polycythemic, with increased erythrocytic indices in peripheral blood, increased numbers of erythroid precursors in hematopoietic tissue, and increased serum erythropoietin levels. Transgenic homozygotes show a greater degree of polycythemia than do heterozygotes as well as striking extramedullary erythropoiesis. Human erythropoietin RNA was found not only in fetal liver, adult liver, and kidney but also in all other transgenic tissues analyzed. Anemia induced increased human erythropoietin RNA levels in liver but not kidney. These transgenic mice represent a unique model of polycythemia due to increased erythropoietin levels

  8. Homology of yeast photoreactivating gene fragment with human genomic digests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meechan, P.J.; Milam, K.M.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Enzymatic photoreactivation of UV-induced DNA lesions has been demonstrated for a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Its presence in placental mammals, however, has not been clearly established. The authors attempted to resolve this question by assaying for the presence (or absence) of sequences in human DNA complimentary to a fragment of the photoreactivating gene from S. cerevisiae that has recently been cloned. In another study, DNA from human, chick E. coli and yeast cells was digested with either HindIII of BglII, electrophoresed on a 0.5% agarose gel, transferred (Southern blot) to a nylon membrane and probed for homology against a Sau3A restriction fragment from S. cerevisiae that compliments phr/sup -/ cells. Hybridization to human DNA digests was observed only under relatively non-stringent conditions indicating the gene is not conserved in placental mammals. These results are correlated with current literature data concerning photoreactivating enzymes

  9. A Gene Implicated in Activation of Retinoic Acid Receptor Targets Is a Novel Renal Agenesis Gene in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brophy, Patrick D.; Rasmussen, Maria; Parida, Mrutyunjaya

    2017-01-01

    investigations have identified several gene variants that cause RA, including EYA1, LHX1, and WT1 However, whereas compound null mutations of genes encoding α and γ retinoic acid receptors (RARs) cause RA in mice, to date there have been no reports of variants in RAR genes causing RA in humans. In this study, we...... in humans....

  10. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Ettie M.; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Strong, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects. PMID:26751573

  11. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression: Applications in Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuteja Renu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE is a powerful tool, which provides quantitative and comprehensive expression profile of genes in a given cell population. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The frequency of each SAGE tag in the cloned multimers directly reflects the transcript abundance. Therefore, SAGE results in an accurate picture of gene expression at both the qualitative and the quantitative levels. It does not require a hybridization probe for each transcript and allows new genes to be discovered. This technique has been applied widely in human studies and various SAGE tags/SAGE libraries have been generated from different cells/tissues such as dendritic cells, lung fibroblast cells, oocytes, thyroid tissue, B-cell lymphoma, cultured keratinocytes, muscles, brain tissues, sciatic nerve, cultured Schwann cells, cord blood-derived mast cells, retina, macula, retinal pigment epithelial cells, skin cells, and so forth. In this review we present the updated information on the applications of SAGE technology mainly to human studies.

  12. Exploring the potential relevance of human-specific genes to complex disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper David N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although human disease genes generally tend to be evolutionarily more ancient than non-disease genes, complex disease genes appear to be represented more frequently than Mendelian disease genes among genes of more recent evolutionary origin. It is therefore proposed that the analysis of human-specific genes might provide new insights into the genetics of complex disease. Cross-comparison with the Human Gene Mutation Database (http://www.hgmd.org revealed a number of examples of disease-causing and disease-associated mutations in putatively human-specific genes. A sizeable proportion of these were missense polymorphisms associated with complex disease. Since both human-specific genes and genes associated with complex disease have often experienced particularly rapid rates of evolutionary change, either due to weaker purifying selection or positive selection, it is proposed that a significant number of human-specific genes may play a role in complex disease.

  13. Clone and expression of human transferrin receptor gene: a marker gene for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Liu Lizhi; Lv Yanchun; Liu Xuewen; Cui Chunyan; Wu Peihong; Liu Qicai; Ou Shanxing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To clone human transferrin receptor (hTfR) gene and construct expression vector producing recombination protein. Methods: Human transferrin receptor gene cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR from human embryonic liver and lung tissue. Recombinant pcDNA3-hTfR and pEGFP-Cl-hTfR plasmids were constructed and confirmed by DNA sequencing. These plasmids were stably transfected into the HEK293 cells. The protein expression in vitro was confirmed by Western Blot. The efficiency of expression and the location of hTfR were also investigated by fluorescence microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results: The full length cDNA of hTfR gene (2332 bp) was cloned and sequenced. The hTfR (190 000) was overexpressed in transfected HEK293 cells by Western blot analysis. Fluorescence micrographs displayed that the hTfR was expressed at high level and located predominantly in the cell surface. Conclusions: Human transferrin receptor (hTfR) gene has been successfully cloned and obtained high-level expression in HEK293 cells, and the recombination protein of hTfR distributed predominantly in the cell membrane. (authors)

  14. Characterization of human septic sera induced gene expression modulation in human myocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Shaimaa; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Omri, Abdelwahab; Narain, Ravin; Passi, Kalpdrum; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Kumar, Anand; Parissenti, Amadeo; Kumar, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the gene expression changes that occurs during sepsis, we have performed a cDNA microarray study utilizing a tissue culture model that mimics human sepsis. This study utilized an in vitro model of cultured human fetal cardiac myocytes treated with 10% sera from septic patients or 10% sera from healthy volunteers. A 1700 cDNA expression microarray was used to compare the transcription profile from human cardiac myocytes treated with septic sera vs normal sera....

  15. Developmental gene expression profiles of the human pathogen Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Donald P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The schistosome blood flukes are complex trematodes and cause a chronic parasitic disease of significant public health importance worldwide, schistosomiasis. Their life cycle is characterised by distinct parasitic and free-living phases involving mammalian and snail hosts and freshwater. Microarray analysis was used to profile developmental gene expression in the Asian species, Schistosoma japonicum. Total RNAs were isolated from the three distinct environmental phases of the lifecycle – aquatic/snail (eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae, juvenile (lung schistosomula and paired but pre-egg laying adults and adult (paired, mature males and egg-producing females, both examined separately. Advanced analyses including ANOVA, principal component analysis, and hierarchal clustering provided a global synopsis of gene expression relationships among the different developmental stages of the schistosome parasite. Results Gene expression profiles were linked to the major environmental settings through which the developmental stages of the fluke have to adapt during the course of its life cycle. Gene ontologies of the differentially expressed genes revealed a wide range of functions and processes. In addition, stage-specific, differentially expressed genes were identified that were involved in numerous biological pathways and functions including calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism and parasite defence. Conclusion The findings provide a comprehensive database of gene expression in an important human pathogen, including transcriptional changes in genes involved in evasion of the host immune response, nutrient acquisition, energy production, calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism, egg production and tegumental function during development. This resource should help facilitate the identification and prioritization of new anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets for the control of schistosomiasis.

  16. Human amyloid beta protein gene locus: HaeIII RFLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J E; Gonzalez-DeWhitt, P A; Fuller, F; Cordell, B; Frossard, P M [California Biotechnology Inc., Mountain View (USA); Tinklenberg, J R; Davies, H D; Eng, L F; Yesavage, J A [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (USA)

    1988-07-25

    A 2.2 kb EcoRI-EcoRI fragment from the 5{prime} end of the human amyloid beta protein cDNA was isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library and subcloned into pGEM3. HaeIII (GGCC) detects 6 invariant bands at 0.5 kb, 1.0 kb, 1.1 kb, 1.3 kb, 1.4 kb and 1.6 kb and a two-allele polymorphism with bands at either 1.9 kb or 2.1 kb. Its frequency was studied in 50 North Americans. Human amyloid beta protein gene mapped to the long arm of chromosome 21 (21q11.2-21q21) by Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Co-dominant segregation was observed in two families (15 individuals).

  17. Cloning and chromosomal localization of the three human syntrophin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feener, C.A.; Anderson, M.D.S.; Selig, S. [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Dystrophin, the protein product the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus, is normally found to be associated with a complex of proteins. Among these dystrophin-associated proteins are the syntrophins, a group of 59 kDa membrane-associated proteins. When the syntrophins are purified based upon their association with dystrophin, they have been shown previously to form two distinct groups, the acidic ({alpha}) and basic ({beta}) forms. Based on peptide and rodent cDNA sequences, three separate syntrophin genes have been cloned and characterized from human tissues. The predicted amino acid sequences from these cDNA reveal that these proteins are related but are distinct with respect to charge, as predicted from their biochemistry. The family consists of one acidic ({alpha}-syntrophin, analogous to mouse syntrophin-1) and two basic ({beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin; and {beta}{sub 2}-syntrophin, analogous to mouse syntrophin-2) genes. Each of the three genes are widely expressed in a variety of human tissues, but the relative abundance of the three are unique with respect to each other. {alpha}-syntrophin is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle and heart as a single transcript. {beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin is expressed widely in up to five distinct transcript sizes, and is most abundant in brain. The human chromosomal locations of the three syntrophins are currently being mapped. {beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin maps to chromosome 8q23-24 and {beta}{sub 2}-syntrophin to chromosome 16. The {alpha}-syntrophin gene will be mapped accordingly. Although all three genes are candidates for neuromuscular diseases, the predominant expression of {alpha}-syntrophin in skeletal muscle and heart makes it a strong candidate to be involved in a neuromuscular disease.

  18. RNA-Guided Activation of Pluripotency Genes in Human Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Kai; Zhou, Yan; Blichfeld, Kristian Aabo

    2017-01-01

    -associated protein 9 (dCas9)-VP64 (CRISPRa) alone, or a combination of dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65-HSF1 [synergistic activation mediator (SAM) system] mediated activation of five pluripotency genes: KLF4 (K), LIN28 (L), MYC (M), OCT4 (O), and SOX2 (S) in human cells (HEK293T, HeLa, HepG2, and primary fibroblasts...... could be obtained from these SAM fibroblasts. In conclusion, our study showed that CRISPR/Cas9-based ATFs are potent to activate and maintain transcription of endogenous human pluripotent genes. However, future improvements of the system are still required to improve activation efficiency and cellular...

  19. A holistic review on the autoimmune disease vitiligo with emphasis on the causal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Haroon; Meher, Biswa Ranjan; Hassan, Syed Shams Ul

    2017-08-01

    Vitiligo is an idiopathic systemic autoimmune disease affecting skin, hair and oral mucosa. This genetic yet acquired disease characterized by melanin loss is a cause of morbidity across all races. Though thyroid disturbance has been recognized as a key trigger of this pathology, an array of other factors plays critical role in its manifestation. Multiple hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melatonin, calcitriol, testosterone, estrogen), genes (Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), Cluster of differentiation 117 (CD117), Estrogen receptor (ESR) 1, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), Vitiligo-associated protein 1 (VIT1)), and lifestyle choices (stress, diet, cosmetic products, and medications) have been suspected as drivers of this disorder. The pathological mechanisms have been understood in recent times, with the aid of genomic studies; however a universally-effective therapy is yet to be achieved. This review discusses these under-investigated facets of vitiligo onset and progression; hence, it is expected to enrich vitiligo research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. BcII RFLP for the human vimentin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, E M; Smith, B A; Telenius, H; Ponder, B A.J.; Mathew, C G.P. [Haddow Laboratories, Surrey (England); Landsvater, R M; Buys, C H.C.M. [State Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands); Ferrari, S [Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, PA (USA)

    1988-09-26

    A 1.1 kb cDNA clone (hp4F1) encoding the human vimentin gene was identified in a human library by screening with 4F1, a hamster vimentin cDNA. BcII (TGATCA) recognizes a two allele polymorphism: bands A1 at 8.1 kb, and A2 at 3.6 kb. The allele frequency was determined in 47 unrelated Caucasian individuals. The RFLP was mapped to chromosome 10pter-10q23 using somatic cell hybrids and to 10p13 by in situ hybridization. Co-dominant segregation was observed in 2 informative families.

  1. Potential Effects of Horizontal Gene Exchange in the Human Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten; Aminov, Rustam

    2017-01-01

    Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange. Thus, the gut microbial system genetically is very dynamic and capable of rapid response, at the genetic level, to selection, for example, by antibiotics. There are many other factors to which the microbiota may dynamically respond including lifestyle, therapy, diet, refined food, food additives, consumption of pre- and probiotics, and many others. The impact of the changing selective pressures on gut microbiota, however, is poorly understood. Presumably, the gut microbiome responds to these changes by genetic restructuring of gut populations, driven mainly via horizontal gene exchange. Thus, our main goal is to reveal the role played by horizontal gene exchange in the changing landscape of the gastrointestinal microbiome and potential effect of these changes on human health in general and autoimmune diseases in particular.

  2. Potential Effects of Horizontal Gene Exchange in the Human Gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Lerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host–microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange. Thus, the gut microbial system genetically is very dynamic and capable of rapid response, at the genetic level, to selection, for example, by antibiotics. There are many other factors to which the microbiota may dynamically respond including lifestyle, therapy, diet, refined food, food additives, consumption of pre- and probiotics, and many others. The impact of the changing selective pressures on gut microbiota, however, is poorly understood. Presumably, the gut microbiome responds to these changes by genetic restructuring of gut populations, driven mainly via horizontal gene exchange. Thus, our main goal is to reveal the role played by horizontal gene exchange in the changing landscape of the gastrointestinal microbiome and potential effect of these changes on human health in general and autoimmune diseases in particular.

  3. Gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in human glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi S. Hardiany

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study analyze the MnSOD gene expression as endogenous antioxidant in human glioma cells compared with leucocyte cells as control.Methods MnSOD gene expression of 20 glioma patients was analyzed by measuring the relative expression of mRNA and enzyme activity of MnSOD in brain and leucocyte cells. The relative expression of mRNA MnSOD was determined by using quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and the enzyme activity of MnSOD using biochemical kit assay (xantine oxidase inhibition. Statistic analysis for mRNA and enzyme activity of MnSOD was performed using Kruskal Wallis test.Results mRNA of MnSOD in glioma cells of 70% sample was 0.015–0.627 lower, 10% was 1.002-1.059 and 20% was 1.409-6.915 higher than in leucocyte cells. Also the specific activity of MnSOD enzyme in glioma cells of 80% sample showed 0,064-0,506 lower and 20% sample was 1.249-2.718 higher than in leucocyte cells.Conclusion MnSOD gene expression in human glioma cells are significantly lower than its expression in leucocytes cells. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:21-5Keywords : MnSOD, glioma, gene expression

  4. Muscle gene expression patterns in human rotator cuff pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Alexander; McCarthy, Meagan; Pichika, Rajeswari; Sato, Eugene J; Lieber, Richard L; Schenk, Simon; Lane, John G; Ward, Samuel R

    2014-09-17

    Rotator cuff pathology is a common source of shoulder pain with variable etiology and pathoanatomical characteristics. Pathological processes of fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis have all been invoked as causes for poor outcomes after rotator cuff tear repair. The aims of this study were to measure the expression of key genes associated with adipogenesis, myogenesis, and fibrosis in human rotator cuff muscle after injury and to compare the expression among groups of patients with varied severities of rotator cuff pathology. Biopsies of the supraspinatus muscle were obtained arthroscopically from twenty-seven patients in the following operative groups: bursitis (n = 10), tendinopathy (n = 7), full-thickness rotator cuff tear (n = 8), and massive rotator cuff tear (n = 2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to characterize gene expression pathways involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Patients with a massive tear demonstrated downregulation of the fibrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle was not in a state of active change and may have difficulty responding to stimuli. Patients with a full-thickness tear showed upregulation of fibrotic and adipogenic genes; at the tissue level, these correspond to the pathologies most detrimental to outcomes of surgical repair. Patients with bursitis or tendinopathy still expressed myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle may be attempting to accommodate the mechanical deficiencies induced by the tendon tear. Gene expression in human rotator cuff muscles varied according to tendon injury severity. Patients with bursitis and tendinopathy appeared to be expressing pro-myogenic genes, whereas patients with a full-thickness tear were expressing genes associated with fatty atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, patients with a massive tear appeared to have downregulation of all gene programs except inhibition of myogenesis. These data highlight the

  5. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  6. Genome-wide associations of gene expression variation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of quantitative variation in human populations has become one of the major priorities for medical genetics. The successful identification of variants that contribute to complex traits is highly dependent on reliable assays and genetic maps. We have performed a genome-wide quantitative trait analysis of 630 genes in 60 unrelated Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe using the publicly available phase I data of the International HapMap project. The genes are located in regions of the human genome with elevated functional annotation and disease interest including the ENCODE regions spanning 1% of the genome, Chromosome 21 and Chromosome 20q12-13.2. We apply three different methods of multiple test correction, including Bonferroni, false discovery rate, and permutations. For the 374 expressed genes, we find many regions with statistically significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with expression variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines after correcting for multiple tests. Based on our analyses, the signal proximal (cis- to the genes of interest is more abundant and more stable than distal and trans across statistical methodologies. Our results suggest that regulatory polymorphism is widespread in the human genome and show that the 5-kb (phase I HapMap has sufficient density to enable linkage disequilibrium mapping in humans. Such studies will significantly enhance our ability to annotate the non-coding part of the genome and interpret functional variation. In addition, we demonstrate that the HapMap cell lines themselves may serve as a useful resource for quantitative measurements at the cellular level.

  7. Genome-Wide Associations of Gene Expression Variation in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of quantitative variation in human populations has become one of the major priorities for medical genetics. The successful identification of variants that contribute to complex traits is highly dependent on reliable assays and genetic maps. We have performed a genome-wide quantitative trait analysis of 630 genes in 60 unrelated Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe using the publicly available phase I data of the International HapMap project. The genes are located in regions of the human genome with elevated functional annotation and disease interest including the ENCODE regions spanning 1% of the genome, Chromosome 21 and Chromosome 20q12-13.2. We apply three different methods of multiple test correction, including Bonferroni, false discovery rate, and permutations. For the 374 expressed genes, we find many regions with statistically significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with expression variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines after correcting for multiple tests. Based on our analyses, the signal proximal (cis- to the genes of interest is more abundant and more stable than distal and trans across statistical methodologies. Our results suggest that regulatory polymorphism is widespread in the human genome and show that the 5-kb (phase I HapMap has sufficient density to enable linkage disequilibrium mapping in humans. Such studies will significantly enhance our ability to annotate the non-coding part of the genome and interpret functional variation. In addition, we demonstrate that the HapMap cell lines themselves may serve as a useful resource for quantitative measurements at the cellular level.

  8. Gene expression, nucleotide composition and codon usage bias of genes associated with human Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of genomes. We have used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of the genes located in human Y chromosome. Codon bias index (CBI) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias was low. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis suggested that approximately half of the codons out of 59 synonymous codons were most frequently used, and possessed a T or G at the third codon position. The codon usage pattern was different in different genes as revealed from correspondence analysis (COA). A significant correlation between effective number of codons (ENC) and various GC contents suggests that both mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern of genes located in human Y chromosome. In addition, Y-linked genes have significant difference in GC contents at the second and third codon positions, expression level, and codon usage pattern of some codons like the SPANX genes in X chromosome.

  9. Spina Bifida: Pathogenesis, Mechanisms, and Genes in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti W. Mohd-Zin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida is among the phenotypes of the larger condition known as neural tube defects (NTDs. It is the most common central nervous system malformation compatible with life and the second leading cause of birth defects after congenital heart defects. In this review paper, we define spina bifida and discuss the phenotypes seen in humans as described by both surgeons and embryologists in order to compare and ultimately contrast it to the leading animal model, the mouse. Our understanding of spina bifida is currently limited to the observations we make in mouse models, which reflect complete or targeted knockouts of genes, which perturb the whole gene(s without taking into account the issue of haploinsufficiency, which is most prominent in the human spina bifida condition. We thus conclude that the need to study spina bifida in all its forms, both aperta and occulta, is more indicative of the spina bifida in surviving humans and that the measure of deterioration arising from caudal neural tube defects, more commonly known as spina bifida, must be determined by the level of the lesion both in mouse and in man.

  10. Promoter Methylation Analysis of IDH Genes in Human Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Simon; Lee, Maggie; Li, Cheryl C. Y.; Suter, Catherine M.; Buckland, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 or -2 are found in the majority of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, and secondary glioblastomas. Almost all described mutations are heterozygous missense mutations affecting a conserved arginine residue in the substrate binding site of IDH1 (R132) or IDH2 (R172). But the exact mechanism of IDH mutations in neoplasia is not understood. It has been proposed that IDH mutations impart a “toxic gain-of-function” to the mutant protein, however a dominant-negative effect of mutant IDH has also been described, implying that IDH may function as a tumor suppressor gene. As most, if not all, tumor suppressor genes are inactivated by epigenetic silencing, in a wide variety of tumors, we asked if IDH1 or IDH2 carry the epigenetic signature of a tumor suppressor by assessing cytosine methylation at their promoters. Methylation was quantified in 68 human brain tumors, including both IDH-mutant and IDH wildtype, by bisulfite pyrosequencing. In all tumors examined, CpG methylation levels were less than 8%. Our data demonstrate that inactivation of IDH function through promoter hypermethylation is not common in human gliomas and other brain tumors. These findings do not support a tumor suppressor role for IDH genes in human gliomas.

  11. STAT3 Target Genes Relevant to Human Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery, the STAT3 transcription factor has been extensively studied for its function as a transcriptional regulator and its role as a mediator of development, normal physiology, and pathology of many diseases, including cancers. These efforts have uncovered an array of genes that can be positively and negatively regulated by STAT3, alone and in cooperation with other transcription factors. Through regulating gene expression, STAT3 has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in many cellular processes including oncogenesis, tumor growth and progression, and stemness. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that STAT3 may behave as a tumor suppressor by activating expression of genes known to inhibit tumorigenesis. Additional evidence suggested that STAT3 may elicit opposing effects depending on cellular context and tumor types. These mixed results signify the need for a deeper understanding of STAT3, including its upstream regulators, parallel transcription co-regulators, and downstream target genes. To help facilitate fulfilling this unmet need, this review will be primarily focused on STAT3 downstream target genes that have been validated to associate with tumorigenesis and/or malignant biology of human cancers

  12. Update of the human and mouse Fanconi anemia genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongbin; Nebert, Daniel W; Bruford, Elspeth A; Thompson, David C; Joenje, Hans; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-11-24

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessively inherited disease manifesting developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk of malignancies. Whereas FA has been studied for nearly 90 years, only in the last 20 years have increasing numbers of genes been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with this genetic disease. To date, 19 genes have been identified that encode Fanconi anemia complementation group proteins, all of which are named or aliased, using the root symbol "FANC." Fanconi anemia subtype (FANC) proteins function in a common DNA repair pathway called "the FA pathway," which is essential for maintaining genomic integrity. The various FANC mutant proteins contribute to distinct steps associated with FA pathogenesis. Herein, we provide a review update of the 19 human FANC and their mouse orthologs, an evolutionary perspective on the FANC genes, and the functional significance of the FA DNA repair pathway in association with clinical disorders. This is an example of a set of genes--known to exist in vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and yeast--that are grouped together on the basis of shared biochemical and physiological functions, rather than evolutionary phylogeny, and have been named on this basis by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC).

  13. Sarcoptes scabiei mites modulate gene expression in human skin equivalents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.

  14. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  15. Gene expression profiling in the inductive human hematopoietic microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongjun; Chen, Edwin; Li Liheng; Gong Baiwei; Xie Wei; Nanji, Shaherose; Dube, Ian D.; Hough, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progenitors can be maintained in vitro in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs) in which constituent HSCs can persist within the adherent layers for up to 2 months. Media replenishment of LTBMCs has been shown to induce transition of HSCs from a quiescent state to an active cycling state. We hypothesize that the media replenishment of the LTBMCs leads to the activation of important regulatory genes uniquely involved in HSC proliferation and differentiation. To profile the gene expression changes associated with HSC activation, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) on day 14 human LTBMCs following 1-h media replenishment and on unmanipulated controls. The generated SSH library contained 191 differentially up-regulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs), the majority corresponding to known genes related to various intracellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, protein synthesis, and cell cycle regulation. Nineteen ESTs represented previously undescribed sequences encoding proteins of unknown function. Differential up-regulation of representative genes, including IL-8, IL-1, putative cytokine 21/HC21, MAD3, and a novel EST was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Levels of fibronectin, G-CSF, and stem cell factor also increased in the conditioned media of LTBMCs as assessed by ELISA, indicating increased synthesis and secretion of these factors. Analysis of our library provides insights into some of the immediate early gene changes underlying the mechanisms by which the stromal elements within the LTBMCs contribute to the induction of HSC activation and provides the opportunity to identify as yet unrecognized factors regulating HSC activation in the LTBMC milieu

  16. Human estrogen receptor (ESR) gene locus: PssI dimorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R T; Taylor, J E; Frossard, P M [California Biotechnology Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA); Shine, J J [Garvan Institute, Darlinghurst (Australia)

    1988-07-25

    pESR-2, a 2.1 kb partial cDNA containing the entire translated sequence of the human estrogen receptor mRNA isolated from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, was subcloned in the Eco RI site of pBR322. PssI (PuGGNCCPy) identifies a single two-allele polymorphism with bands at either 1.7 or 1.4 kb, as well as invariant bands at 12.6, 9.3, 4.1, 3.7, 2.4, 2.2, and 1.2 kb. Its frequency was studied in 77 unrelated North American Caucasians. The human estrogen receptor gene has been localized to 6q24 -- q27 by in situ hybridization. Co-dominant segregation is demonstrated in one family (8 individuals).

  17. Complete genes may pass from food to human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spisák, Sándor; Solymosi, Norbert; Ittzés, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded...... into small constituents, amino acids and nucleic acids, respectively, and then absorbed by a complex active process and distributed to various parts of the body through the circulation system. Here, based on the analysis of over 1000 human samples from four independent studies, we report evidence that meal......-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid degradation and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. In one of the blood samples the relative concentration of plant DNA is higher than the human DNA. The plant DNA concentration shows a surprisingly...

  18. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Munozledo, Federico [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. {yields} Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. {yields} Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. {yields} Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  19. DMPD: LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11257452 LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Guha M, Mackman N. Ce...ll Signal. 2001 Feb;13(2):85-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS induction of gene expression in human... monocytes. PubmedID 11257452 Title LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Authors Guha M, Ma

  20. Isolation and characterization of the human CDX1 gene: A candidate gene for diastrophic dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, C.; Loftus, S.; Wasmuth, J.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, dislocation of the joints, spinal deformities and malformation of the hands and feet. Multipoint linkage analysis places the diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) locus in 5q31-5q34. Linkage disequilibrium mapping places the DTD locus near CSFIR in the direction of PDGFRB (which is tandem to CSFIR). This same study tentatively placed PDGFRB and DTD proximal to CSFIR. Our results, as well as recently reported work from other laboratories, suggest that PDGFRB (and possibly DTD) is distal rather than proximal to CSFIR. We have constructed a cosmid contig covering approximately 200 kb of the region containing CSFIR. Several exons have been {open_quotes}trapped{close_quotes} from these cosmids using exon amplification. One of these exons was trapped from a cosmid isolated from a walk from PDGFRB, approximately 80 kb from CSFIR. This exon was sequenced and was determined to be 89% identical to the nucleotide sequence of exon two of the murine CDX1 gene (100% amino acid identity). The exon was used to isolate the human CDX gene. Sequence analysis of the human CDX1 gene indicates a very high degree of homology to the murine gene. CDX1 is a caudal type homeobox gene expressed during gastrulation. In the mouse, expression during gastrulation begins in the primitive streak and subsequently localizes to the ectodermal and mesodermal cells of the primitive streak, neural tube, somites, and limb buds. Later in gastrulation, CDX1 expression becomes most prominent in the mesoderm of the forelimbs, and, to a lesser extent, the hindlimbs. CDX1 is an intriguing candidate gene for diastrophic dysplasia. We are currently screening DNA from affected individuals and hope to shortly determine whether CDX1 is involved in this disorder.

  1. Signals of historical interlocus gene conversion in human segmental duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L Dumont

    Full Text Available Standard methods of DNA sequence analysis assume that sequences evolve independently, yet this assumption may not be appropriate for segmental duplications that exchange variants via interlocus gene conversion (IGC. Here, we use high quality multiple sequence alignments from well-annotated segmental duplications to systematically identify IGC signals in the human reference genome. Our analysis combines two complementary methods: (i a paralog quartet method that uses DNA sequence simulations to identify a statistical excess of sites consistent with inter-paralog exchange, and (ii the alignment-based method implemented in the GENECONV program. One-quarter (25.4% of the paralog families in our analysis harbor clear IGC signals by the quartet approach. Using GENECONV, we identify 1477 gene conversion tracks that cumulatively span 1.54 Mb of the genome. Our analyses confirm the previously reported high rates of IGC in subtelomeric regions and Y-chromosome palindromes, and identify multiple novel IGC hotspots, including the pregnancy specific glycoproteins and the neuroblastoma breakpoint gene families. Although the duplication history of a paralog family is described by a single tree, we show that IGC has introduced incredible site-to-site variation in the evolutionary relationships among paralogs in the human genome. Our findings indicate that IGC has left significant footprints in patterns of sequence diversity across segmental duplications in the human genome, out-pacing the contributions of single base mutation by orders of magnitude. Collectively, the IGC signals we report comprise a catalog that will provide a critical reference for interpreting observed patterns of DNA sequence variation across duplicated genomic regions, including targets of recent adaptive evolution in humans.

  2. Structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shengjian; Wong, D.M.; Chen, Sanhwan; Chan, L.

    1989-01-01

    The structure of the human hepatic triglyceride lipase gene was determined from multiple cosmid clones. All the exons, exon-intron junctions, and 845 bp of the 5' and 254 bp of the 3' flanking DNA were sequenced. Comparison of the exon sequences to three previously published cDNA sequences revealed differences in the sequence of the codons for residue 133, 193, 202, and 234 that may represent sequence polymorphisms. By primer extension, hepatic lipase mRNA initiates at an adenine 77 bases upstream of the translation initiation site. The hepatic lipase gene spans over 60 kb containing 9 exons and 8 introns, the latter being all located within the region encoding the mature protein. The exons are all of average size (118-234 bp). Exon 1 encodes the signal peptide, exon 4, a region that binds to the lipoprotein substrate, and exon 5, an evolutionarily highly conserved region of potential catalytic function, and exons 6 and 9 encode sequences rich in basic amino acids thought to be important in anchoring the enzyme to the endothelial surface by interacting with acidic domains of the surface glycosaminoglycans. The human lipoprotein lipase gene has been recently reported to have an identical exon-intron organization containing the analogous structural domains. The observations strongly support the common evolutionary origin of these two lipolytic enzymes

  3. Cloning and sequence of the human adrenodoxin reductase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Dong; Shi, Y.; Miller, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Adrenodoxin reductase is a flavoprotein mediating electron transport to all mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P450. The authors cloned the human adrenodoxin reductase gene and characterized it by restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing. The entire gene is approximately 12 kilobases long and consists of 12 exons. The first exon encodes the first 26 of the 32 amino acids of the signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the remainder of signal peptide and the apparent FAD binding site. The remaining 10 exons are clustered in a region of only 4.3 kilobases, separated from the first two exons by a large intron of about 5.6 kilobases. Two forms of human adrenodoxin reductase mRNA, differing by the presence or absence of 18 bases in the middle of the sequence, arise from alternate splicing at the 5' end of exon 7. This alternately spliced region is directly adjacent to the NADPH binding site, which is entirely contained in exon 6. The immediate 5' flanking region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes; however, this region is rich in G+C and contains six copies of the sequence GGGCGGG, resembling promoter sequences of housekeeping genes. RNase protection experiments show that transcription is initiated from multiple sites in the 5' flanking region, located about 21-91 base pairs upstream from the AUG translational initiation codon

  4. Gene expression profiling gut microbiota in different races of humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-03-01

    The gut microbiome is shaped and modified by the polymorphisms of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Its composition shows strong individual specificity and may play a crucial role in the human digestive system and metabolism. Several factors can affect the composition of the gut microbiome, such as eating habits, living environment, and antibiotic usage. Thus, various races are characterized by different gut microbiome characteristics. In this present study, we studied the gut microbiomes of three different races, including individuals of Asian, European and American races. The gut microbiome and the expression levels of gut microbiome genes were analyzed in these individuals. Advanced feature selection methods (minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection) and four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, nearest neighbor algorithm, sequential minimal optimization, Dagging) were employed to capture key differentially expressed genes. As a result, sequential minimal optimization was found to yield the best performance using the 454 genes, which could effectively distinguish the gut microbiomes of different races. Our analyses of extracted genes support the widely accepted hypotheses that eating habits, living environments and metabolic levels in different races can influence the characteristics of the gut microbiome.

  5. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  6. Radiation-induced gene amplification in rodent and human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Gloss, B.; Herrlich, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ionizing and UV radiations induce amplification of SV40 DNA sequences integrated in the genome of Chinese hamster cells and increase amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene during methotrexate selection in human skin fibroblasts of a patient with ataxia telangiectasia. Various types of external (60-Co-γ-rays, 241-Am-α-particles, UV) or internal radiation (caused by the decay of 125 I incorporated into DNA in form of I-UdR) were applied. By cell fusion experiments it could be shown that SV40 gene amplification is mediated by one or several diffusible trans-acting factors induced or activated in a dose dependent manner by all types of radiation. One of these factors binds to a 10 bp sequence within the minimal origin of replication of SV40. In vivo competition with an excess of a synthetic oligonucleotide comprising this sequence blocks radiation-induced amplification. (author) 25 refs.; 8 figs

  7. Cloning an expressed gene shared by the human sex chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, S.M.; Banting, G.S.; Pym, B.; Wolfe, J.; Goodfellow, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of genes shared by mammalian sex chromosomes has been predicted on both evolutionary and functional grounds. However, the only experimental evidence for such genes in humans is the cell-surface antigen encoded by loci on the X and Y chromosomes (MIC2X and MIC2Y, respectively), which is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 12E7. Using the bacteriophage λgt11 expression system in Escherichia coli and immunoscreening techniques, the authors have isolated a cDNA clone whose primary product is recognized by 12E7. Southern blot analysis using somatic cell hybrids containing only the human X or Y chromosomes shows that the sequences reacting with the cDNA clone are localized to the sex chromosomes. In addition, the clone hybridizes to DNAs isolated from mouse cells that have been transfected with human DNA and selected for 12E7 expression on the fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The authors conclude that the cDNA clone encodes the 12E7 antigen, which is the primary product of the MIC2 loci. The clone was used to explore sequence homology between MIC2X and MIC2Y; these loci are closely related, if not identical

  8. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lunxu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304 and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2 were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI. The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC. The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful

  9. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I tax regulates the expression of the human lymphotoxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschachler, E; Böhnlein, E; Felzmann, S; Reitz, M S

    1993-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected T-cell lines constitutively produce high levels of lymphotoxin (LT). To analyze the mechanisms that lead to the expression of LT in HTLV-I-infected cell lines, we studied regulatory regions of the human LT promoter involved in the activation of the human LT gene. As determined by deletional analysis, sequences between +137 and -116 (relative to the transcription initiation site) are sufficient to direct expression of a reporter gene in the HTLV-I-infected cell line MT-2. Site-directed mutation of a of the single kappa B-like motif present in the LT promoter region (positions -99 to -89) completely abrogated LT promoter activity in MT-2 cells, suggesting that this site plays a critical role in the activation of the human LT gene. Transfection of LT constructs into HTLV-I-uninfected and -unstimulated Jurkat and U937 cell lines showed little to no activity of the LT promoter. Cotransfection of the same constructs with a tax expression plasmid into Jurkat cells led to detectable promoter activity, which could be significantly increased by stimulation of the cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Similarly, cotransfection of the LT promoter constructs and the tax expression plasmid into U937 cells led to significant promoter activity upon stimulation with PMA. These data suggest that HTLV-I tax is involved in the upregulation of LT gene expression in HTLV-I-infected cells.

  10. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Y Ye

    Full Text Available Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn. Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  11. RFLP for the human retinoic acid receptor gene RAR-. beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datson, N A; Oostra, B A [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); van der Saag, P T [Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1989-11-11

    1.4 kb Mae I fragment containing the entire RAR-{beta} ORF was cloned into the Sma I site of pTZ18U, yielding the plasmid pCOD20. Msp I digestion of genomic DNA and hybridization with the pCOD20 probe detects a two allele polymorphism with allelic fragments of 8.1 and 7.7 kb. The human RAR-{beta} gene has been localized to the p24 band of chromosome 3. Co-dominant segregation of the alleles was observed in 4 Caucasian families.

  12. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  13. Large scale gene expression meta-analysis reveals tissue-specific, sex-biased gene expression in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mayne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analysed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes, followed by the heart (375 genes, kidney (224 genes, colon (218 genes and thyroid (163 genes. More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  14. The stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: focus on the human hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, A-M; Meynen, G; Swaab, D F

    2008-03-01

    The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. Activity of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) forms the basis of the activity of the HPA-axis. The CRH neurons induce adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release from the pituitary, which subsequently causes cortisol release from the adrenal cortex. The CRH neurons co-express vasopressin (AVP) which potentiates the CRH effects. CRH neurons project not only to the median eminence but also into brain areas where they, e.g., regulate the adrenal innervation of the autonomic system and affect mood. The hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system is also involved in stress response. It releases AVP from the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and oxytocin (OXT) from the PVN via the neurohypophysis into the bloodstream. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the hypothalamic clock, is responsible for the rhythmic changes of the stress system. Both centrally released CRH and increased levels of cortisol contribute to the signs and symptoms of depression. Symptoms of depression can be induced in experimental animals by intracerebroventricular injection of CRH. Depression is also a frequent side effect of glucocorticoid treatment and of the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome. The AVP neurons in the hypothalamic PVN and SON are also activated in depression, which contributes to the increased release of ACTH from the pituitary. Increased levels of circulating AVP are also associated with the risk for suicide. The prevalence, incidence and morbidity risk for depression are higher in females than in males and fluctuations in sex hormone levels are considered to be involved in the etiology. About 40% of the activated CRH neurons in mood disorders co-express nuclear estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha in the PVN, while estrogen-responsive elements have been found in the CRH gene promoter region, and estrogens stimulate CRH production. An androgen

  15. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel RORα target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Ulrika; Nilsson, Tina; McPheat, Jane; Stroemstedt, Per-Erik; Bamberg, Krister; Balendran, Clare; Kang, Daiwu

    2005-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-α (RORα) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that RORα regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that RORα also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of RORα increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and RORα also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate RORα transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPARα. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby RORα modulates lipid metabolism and implies RORα as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis

  16. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel ROR{alpha} target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Ulrika [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Nilsson, Tina [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); McPheat, Jane [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Stroemstedt, Per-Erik [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Bamberg, Krister [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Balendran, Clare [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden); Kang, Daiwu [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal (Sweden)

    2005-04-29

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-{alpha} (ROR{alpha}) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that ROR{alpha} regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that ROR{alpha} also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ROR{alpha} increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and ROR{alpha} also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate ROR{alpha} transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPAR{alpha}. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby ROR{alpha} modulates lipid metabolism and implies ROR{alpha} as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  17. Topology of genes and nontranscribed sequences in human interphase nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, Markus O.; Tajbakhsh, Jian; Kurz, Anette; Saracoglu, Kaan; Eils, Roland; Lichter, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge about the functional impact of the topological organization of DNA sequences within interphase chromosome territories is still sparse. Of the few analyzed single copy genomic DNA sequences, the majority had been found to localize preferentially at the chromosome periphery or to loop out from chromosome territories. By means of dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunolabeling, confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D) image analysis, we analyzed the intraterritorial and nuclear localization of 10 genomic fragments of different sequence classes in four different human cell types. The localization of three muscle-specific genes FLNA, NEB, and TTN, the oncogene BCL2, the tumor suppressor gene MADH4, and five putatively nontranscribed genomic sequences was predominantly in the periphery of the respective chromosome territories, independent from transcriptional status and from GC content. In interphase nuclei, the noncoding sequences were only rarely found associated with heterochromatic sites marked by the satellite III DNA D1Z1 or clusters of mammalian heterochromatin proteins (HP1α, HP1β, HP1γ). However, the nontranscribed sequences were found predominantly at the nuclear periphery or at the nucleoli, whereas genes tended to localize on chromosome surfaces exposed to the nuclear interior

  18. Distribution of the DAZ gene transcripts in human testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Warchoł

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of variety of genes, especially located on Y chromosome, is critical for the regulation of spermatogenesis. In particular, fertility candidate genes such as deleted in azoospermia (DAZ are believed to have important function in sperm production, since DAZ is frequently deleted in azoospermic and severy oligozoospermic men. The role of the DAZ gene is supported by its exclusive expression in the testis and by its deletion in about 10% of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic patients. The distribution of DAZ transcripts in seminiferous epithelium of human testis is reported in the present study. The use of Adobe Photoshop and Scion Image softwares allowed for semi-quantitative analysis of in situ RT-PCR (ISRT-PCR results. The intensity of ISRT-PCR product's fluorescence was different within individual seminiferous tubules. It was clearly shown by using the pseudocolour scale and transforming the intensity of the fluorescence into levels of greyscale images. The more intense fluorescence characterised single spermatogonia and those organized in small groups inside separate tubules. The most intense accumulation of DAZ mRNA was observed in spermatogonia.

  19. Chromosomal location of the human gene for DNA polymerase β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, O.W.; Zmudzka, B.Z.; Wilson, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Inhibition studies indicate that DNA polymerase β has a synthetic role in DNA repair after exposure of mammalian cells to some types of DNA-damaging agents. The primary structure of the enzyme is highly conserved in vertebrates, and nearly full-length cDNAs for the enzyme were recently cloned from mammalian cDNA libraries. Southern blot analysis of DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, using portions of the cDNA as probe, indicates that the gene for human DNA polymerase β is single copy and located on the short arm or proximal long arm of chromosome 8 (8pter-8q22). A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was detected in normal individuals by using a probe from the 5' end of the cDNA, and this RFLP probably is due to an insertion or duplication of DNA in 20-25% of the population. This restriction site can be used as one marker for chromosome 8 genetic linkage studies and for family studies of traits potentially involving this DNA repair gene

  20. [Experimental study on human periodontal ligament cells transfected with human amelogenin gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang; Shu, Rong; Sun, Ying; Cheng, Lan; Song, Zhong-Chen; Zhang, Xiu-Li

    2008-02-01

    To construct the recombinant lentiviral vector of human amelogenin gene, infect human periodontal ligament cells with the recombinant lentivirus, and evaluate the feasibility of applying modified PDLCs as seeds for a further periodontal reconstruction. The mature peptide of hAm cDNA was cloned and linked into the vector plasmid, the recombinant plasmid FUAmW was confirmed by double enzyme digestion and sequence analysis. Recombinant lentivirus was prepared from 293T cells by polytheylenimine (PEI)-mediated transient cotransfection. The hPDLCs and 293T cells were infected with the generated lentivirus. The infection efficiency was analysed by detection of green fluorescence protein (GFP) with fluorescent microscope and flow cytometer 72 hours later. The expression of hAm gene was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sequence of inserted fragment in recombinant plasmid was identical to the hAm sequence reported in Genebank. Green fluorescence was visible under fluorescent microscope, FCM assay showed that positive percentage was 69.46% and 33.99% in 293T and hPDLCs, respectively. The targeted gene was obtained in the experimental groups by RT-PCR. The recombinan lentiviral vector of hAm gene is constructed successfully and it could be transfected into cultured hPDLCs. hAm gene and seed cells may be used for further study in the fields periodontal tissue engineering. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 30672315).

  1. Assignment of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) gene(s) to human chromosome 2 in rodent-human somatic cell hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbschleb-Voogt, E; Grzeschik, K H; Pearson, P L; Meera Khan, P

    1981-01-01

    The experiments reported in this paper indicate that the expression of human adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in the human-rodent somatic cell hybrids is influenced by the state of confluency of the cells and the background rodent genome. Thus, the complement of the L-cell derived A9 or B82 mouse parent apparently prevents the expression of human ADCP in the interspecific somatic cell hybrids. In the a3, E36, or RAG hybrids the human ADCP expression was not prevented by the rodent genome and was found to be proportional to the degree of confluency of the cell in the culture as in the case of primary human fibroblasts. An analysis of human chromosomes, chromosome specific enzyme markers, and ADCP in a panel of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids optimally maintained and harvested at full confluency has shown that the expression of human ADCP in the mouse (RAG)-human as well as in the hamster (E36 or a3)-human hybrids is determined by a gene(s) in human chromosome 2 and that neither chromosome 6 nor any other of the chromosomes of man carry any gene(s) involved in the formation of human ADCP at least in the Chinese hamster-human hybrids. A series of rodent-human hybrid clones exhibiting a mitotic separation of IDH1 and MDH1 indicated that ADCP is most probably situated between corresponding loci in human chromosome 2.

  2. Immunoglobulin gene usage in the human anti-pathogen response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, M M; Rioux, J D

    1995-09-01

    The human antibody response to foreign pathogens is generated to a relatively small number of target surface proteins and carbohydrates that nonetheless have an extensive array of epitopes. The study of human monoclonal antibodies to different pathogens shows that there are a diversity of mechanisms used to generate a sufficient repertoire of antibodies to combat the invading pathogens. Although many different immunoglobulin gene elements are used to construct the anti-pathogen response, some elements are used more often than would be expected if all elements were used randomly. For example, the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae polysaccharide appears to be quite narrow, being restricted primarily to a specific heavy-chain gene, 3-15, and a lambda light-chain family II member, 4A. In contrast, for the immune response to cytomegalovirus proteins, a wider group of gene elements is needed. It is also surprising that despite an investigator bias for IgG- rather than IgM-secreting immortal B cells (because of their high affinity and neutralizing abilities), 26% of light chains and 13% of heavy chains showed a very low level of somatic mutation, equivalent to an IgM molecule that has not undergone affinity maturation. Although some highly mutated IgG molecules are present in the anti-pathogen response, most of the monoclonal antibodies specific for viruses or bacteria have a level of somatic hypermutation similar to that of the adult IgM repertoire. A number of studies have shown that there are similarities in the antibody responses to pathogens and to self (autoantibodies).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Altered gene expression in human placentas after IVF/ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Ewka C M; Dumoulin, John C M; Busato, Florence; Ponger, Loïc; Eijssen, Lars M; Evers, Johannes L H; Tost, Jörg; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2014-12-01

    Is gene expression in placental tissue of IVF/ICSI patients altered when compared with a spontaneously conceived group, and are these alterations due to loss of imprinting (LOI) in the case of imprinted genes? An altered imprinted gene expression of H19 and Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (PHLDA2), which was not due to LOI, was observed in human placentas after IVF/ICSI and several biological pathways were significantly overrepresented and mostly up-regulated. Genomic imprinting plays an important role in placental biology and in placental adaptive responses triggered by external stimuli. Changes in placental development and function can have dramatic effects on the fetus and its ability to cope with the intrauterine environment. An increased frequency of placenta-related problems as well as an adverse perinatal outcome is seen in IVF/ICSI derived pregnancies, but the role of placental epigenetic deregulation is not clear yet. In this prospective cohort study, a total of 115 IVF/ICSI and 138 control couples were included during pregnancy. After applying several exclusion criteria (i.e. preterm birth or stillbirth, no placental samples, pregnancy complications or birth defects), respectively, 81 and 105 placentas from IVF/ICSI and control pregnancies remained for analysis. Saliva samples were collected from both parents. We quantitatively analysed the mRNA expression of several growth-related imprinted genes [H19, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), PHLDA2, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), mesoderm-specific transcript homolog (MEST) isoform α and β by quantitative PCR] after standardization against three housekeeping genes [Succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), YWHAZ and TATA-binding protein (TBP)]. A quantitative allele-specific expression analysis of the differentially expressed imprinted genes was performed to investigate LOI, independent of the mechanism of imprinting. Furthermore, a microarray analysis was carried out (n = 10 in

  4. MUTATIONS OF THE SMARCB1 GENE IN HUMAN CANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mikhaylenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the full exome sequencing helped to reveal a  set of mutations in the genes that are not oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes by definition, but play an important role in carcinogenesis and encode proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. Among chromatin remodeling systems, which operate through the ATP-dependent mechanism, the complex SWI/ SNF attracts the great attention. The complex consists of the catalytic ATPase (SMARCA2/4, a group of conservative core subunits (SMARCB1, SMARCC1/2, and variant subunits. Abnormalities in the genes coding for each of these components have been identified as driver mutations in various human tumors. The SMARCB1 gene is of interest for practical oncogenetics, with its typical genotype-phenotype correlations. Germinal inactivating mutations (frameshift insertions/deletions, full deletions of the gene, nonsense mutations lead to development of rhabdoid tumors in the kidneys and the brain in children in their first years of life, or even in utero. These tumors are highly malignant (Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome 1 – RTPS1. If a mutation carrier survives his/hers four years of life without manifestation RTPS1 with a missense mutation or has the mutation in the "hot spot" of the first or the last exon, then he/she will not develop rhabdoid tumors, but after 20 years of life, shwannomatosis may develop as multiple benign tumors of peripheral nerves. Finally, some point mutations in the exons 8–9 can result in Coffin-Siris syndrome characterized by mental retardation and developmental disorders, but no neoplasms. In this regard, rational referral of patients for direct DNA diagnostics of each of the described disease entities plays an important role, based on respective minimal criteria, as well as necessity of further development of NGS technologies (full genome and full exome sequencing that are able to sequence not only individual exons, but all candidate genes of the

  5. Gene expression variability in human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Yang

    Full Text Available Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications.

  6. Alterations in tumour suppressor gene p53 in human gliomas from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Alterations in the tumour suppressor p53 gene are among the most common defects seen in a variety of human cancers. ..... rangement of the EGF receptor gene in primary human brain tumors ... the INK4A gene in superficial bladder tumors.

  7. High-throughput analysis of candidate imprinted genes and allele-specific gene expression in the human term placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Taane G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imprinted genes show expression from one parental allele only and are important for development and behaviour. This extreme mode of allelic imbalance has been described for approximately 56 human genes. Imprinting status is often disrupted in cancer and dysmorphic syndromes. More subtle variation of gene expression, that is not parent-of-origin specific, termed 'allele-specific gene expression' (ASE is more common and may give rise to milder phenotypic differences. Using two allele-specific high-throughput technologies alongside bioinformatics predictions, normal term human placenta was screened to find new imprinted genes and to ascertain the extent of ASE in this tissue. Results Twenty-three family trios of placental cDNA, placental genomic DNA (gDNA and gDNA from both parents were tested for 130 candidate genes with the Sequenom MassArray system. Six genes were found differentially expressed but none imprinted. The Illumina ASE BeadArray platform was then used to test 1536 SNPs in 932 genes. The array was enriched for the human orthologues of 124 mouse candidate genes from bioinformatics predictions and 10 human candidate imprinted genes from EST database mining. After quality control pruning, a total of 261 informative SNPs (214 genes remained for analysis. Imprinting with maternal expression was demonstrated for the lymphocyte imprinted gene ZNF331 in human placenta. Two potential differentially methylated regions (DMRs were found in the vicinity of ZNF331. None of the bioinformatically predicted candidates tested showed imprinting except for a skewed allelic expression in a parent-specific manner observed for PHACTR2, a neighbour of the imprinted PLAGL1 gene. ASE was detected for two or more individuals in 39 candidate genes (18%. Conclusions Both Sequenom and Illumina assays were sensitive enough to study imprinting and strong allelic bias. Previous bioinformatics approaches were not predictive of new imprinted genes

  8. Accurate Gene Expression-Based Biodosimetry Using a Minimal Set of Human Gene Transcripts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, James D., E-mail: jtucker@biology.biosci.wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Joiner, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Thomas, Robert A.; Grever, William E.; Bakhmutsky, Marina V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chinkhota, Chantelle N.; Smolinski, Joseph M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Divine, George W. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Auner, Gregory W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Rapid and reliable methods for conducting biological dosimetry are a necessity in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Conventional biodosimetry methods lack the speed, portability, ease of use, and low cost required for triaging numerous victims. Here we address this need by showing that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a small number of gene transcripts can provide accurate and rapid dosimetry. The low cost and relative ease of PCR compared with existing dosimetry methods suggest that this approach may be useful in mass-casualty triage situations. Methods and Materials: Human peripheral blood from 60 adult donors was acutely exposed to cobalt-60 gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. mRNA expression levels of 121 selected genes were obtained 0.5, 1, and 2 days after exposure by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Optimal dosimetry at each time point was obtained by stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels. Results: Only 3 to 4 different gene transcripts, ASTN2, CDKN1A, GDF15, and ATM, are needed to explain ≥0.87 of the variance (R{sup 2}). Receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of 0.98 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. Conclusions: The actual and predicted radiation doses agree very closely up to 6 Gy. Dosimetry at 8 and 10 Gy shows some effect of saturation, thereby slightly diminishing the ability to quantify higher exposures. Analyses of these gene transcripts may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations or in clinical radiation emergencies.

  9. Mechanisms and genes in human strial presbycusis from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlemiller, Kevin K

    2009-06-24

    Schuknecht proposed a discrete form of presbycusis in which hearing loss results principally from degeneration of cochlear stria vascularis and decline of the endocochlear potential (EP). This form was asserted to be genetically linked, and to arise independently from age-related pathology of either the organ of Corti or cochlear neurons. Although extensive strial degeneration in humans coincides with hearing loss, EPs have never been measured in humans, and age-related EP reduction has never been verified. No human genes that promote strial presbycusis have been identified, nor is its pathophysiology well understood. Effective application of animal models to this issue requires models demonstrating EP decline, and preferably, genetically distinct strains that vary in patterns of EP decline and its cellular correlates. Until recently, only two models, Mongolian gerbils and Tyrp1(B-lt) mice, were known to undergo age-associated EP reduction. Detailed studies of seven inbred mouse strains have now revealed three strains (C57BL/6J, B6.CAST-Cdh23(CAST), CBA/J) showing essentially no EP decline with age, and four strains ranging from modest to severe EP reduction (C57BL/6-Tyr(c-2J), BALB/cJ, CBA/CaJ, NOD.NON-H2(nbl)/LtJ). Collectively, animal models support five basic principles regarding a strial form of presbycusis: 1) Progressive EP decline from initially normal levels as a defining characteristic; 2) Non-universality, not all age-associated hearing loss involves EP decline; 3) A clear genetic basis; 4) Modulation by environment or stochastic events; and 5) Independent strial, organ of Corti, and neural pathology. Shared features between human strial presbycusis, gerbils, and BALB/cJ and C57BL/6-Tyr(c-2J) mice further suggest this condition frequently begins with strial marginal cell dysfunction and loss. By contrast, NOD.NON-H2(nbl) mice may model a sequence more closely associated with strial microvascular disease. Additional studies of these and other inbred mouse

  10. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  11. Genetic recombination as a major cause of mutagenesis in the human globin gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Joseph; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki; Kollia, Panagoula; Patrinos, George P

    2009-12-01

    Homologous recombination is a frequent phenomenon in multigene families and as such it occurs several times in both the alpha- and beta-like globin gene families. In numerous occasions, genetic recombination has been previously implicated as a major mechanism that drives mutagenesis in the human globin gene clusters, either in the form of unequal crossover or gene conversion. Unequal crossover results in the increase or decrease of the human globin gene copies, accompanied in the majority of cases with minor phenotypic consequences, while gene conversion contributes either to maintaining sequence homogeneity or generating sequence diversity. The role of genetic recombination, particularly gene conversion in the evolution of the human globin gene families has been discussed elsewhere. Here, we summarize our current knowledge and review existing experimental evidence outlining the role of genetic recombination in the mutagenic process in the human globin gene families.

  12. Activation of the human beta interferon gene by the adenovirus type 12 E1B gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroki, K.; Toth, M.

    1988-01-01

    The transcription of endogenous beta interferon mRNA was activated in human embryo kidney (HEK) cells infected with adenovirus 12 (Ad12) but was activated only inefficiently or not at all in HEK cells infected with Ad5 and rc-1 (Ad5 dl312 containing the Ad12 E1A region). The analysis with Ad12 mutants showed that Ad12 E1B products, especially the 19K protein, were important for the expression of the endogenous beta interferon gene and Ad12 E1A products were not involved in the expression. The expression of exogeneously transfected pIFN-CAT (a hybrid plasmid having the human beta interferon promoter fused with the CAT gene) was activated in HEK and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells infected with either Ad12 or Ad5. The analysis of cotransfection of CEF cells with pIFN-CAT and plasmids containing fragments of Ad12 or Ad5 DNA showed that Ad12 or Ad5 E1B (possibly the 19K protein) was and E1A was not involved in the expression of the exogenous pIFN-CAT

  13. Study of differential gene expression in human hepatocyte exposed to 50 cGy γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianhua; Li Jianguo; Tian Huancheng; Li Yanling; Wang Xiaoli; Zuo Yanhui

    2008-01-01

    The study analyzed the differential transcriptional profile of the normal human hepatic cell and the human hepatic cell radiated with 50 cGy γ ray by gene chip technique. The results showed that there were 614 differentially expressed genes among 14 112 human genes analyzed, in which 521 genes were up-regulated and 93 genes down-regulated. These genes are associated with mitochondrial regulation, homo sapiens hepatitis A virus cellular receptor, tumor necrosis factor, cell cycle regulation, kinase and zinc finger protein etc. RT-PCR results indicated that up-regulated expression of gene HAVcr-1, HAVcr-2, MFTC, MOAP1 and down-regulated expression of gene TRIP12, DCN were consistent with gene chip data. (authors)

  14. RFLP for the human pepsinogen C gene (PGC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, T; Pals, G; Taggart, R T

    1988-10-11

    PGC 301 is a 1224 bp cDNA clone containing exons 2-9 of the human pepsinogen C (progastericsin) coding sequence. 100 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism is observed with five restriction endonucleases; BamHI, EcoRI, MstII, PstI, and SacI. The same RFLP is observed with these enzymes. The polymorphic region is located between exons 7 and 8. The frequency was estimated from 40 unrelated Caucasians, with the large fragment allele 82.5% and the small fragment allele 17.5%. PGC gene has been assigned to 6p21.1-pter by somatic cell hybrids. Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated in two families.

  15. Confirmation of RAX gene involvement in human anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, L; Rio, M; Vigouroux, A; Titeux, M; Etchevers, H; Malecaze, F; Chassaing, N; Calvas, P

    2008-10-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. Mutations in several genes have been involved in syndromic and non-syndromic anophthalmia. Previously, RAX recessive mutations were implicated in a single patient with right anophthalmia, left microphthalmia and sclerocornea. In this study, we report the findings of novel compound heterozygous RAX mutations in a child with bilateral anophthalmia. Both mutations are located in exon 3. c.664delT is a frameshifting deletion predicted to introduce a premature stop codon (p.Ser222ArgfsX62), and c.909C>G is a nonsense mutation with similar consequences (p.Tyr303X). This is the second report of a patient with anophthalmia caused by RAX mutations. These findings confirm that RAX plays a major role in the early stages of eye development and is involved in human anophthalmia.

  16. Precise and in situ genetic humanization of 6 Mb of mouse immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lynn E; Karow, Margaret; Stevens, Sean; Auerbach, Wojtek; Poueymirou, William T; Yasenchak, Jason; Frendewey, David; Valenzuela, David M; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Alt, Frederick W; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J

    2014-04-08

    Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. However, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which they were genetically humanized. Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome-based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. We applied this method to genetically humanize 3-Mb segments of both the mouse heavy and κ light chain Ig loci, by far the largest genetic humanizations ever described. This paper provides a detailed description of our genetic humanization approach, and the companion paper reports that the humoral immune systems of mice bearing these genetically humanized loci function as efficiently as those of WT mice.

  17. Identification of a novel gene family that includes the interferon-inducible human genes 6–16 and ISG12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Nadeene

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human 6–16 and ISG12 genes are transcriptionally upregulated in a variety of cell types in response to type I interferon (IFN. The predicted products of these genes are small (12.9 and 11.5 kDa respectively, hydrophobic proteins that share 36% overall amino acid identity. Gene disruption and over-expression studies have so far failed to reveal any biochemical or cellular roles for these proteins. Results We have used in silico analyses to identify a novel family of genes (the ISG12 gene family related to both the human 6–16 and ISG12 genes. Each ISG12 family member codes for a small hydrophobic protein containing a conserved ~80 amino-acid motif (the ISG12 motif. So far we have detected 46 family members in 25 organisms, ranging from unicellular eukaryotes to humans. Humans have four ISG12 genes: the 6–16 gene at chromosome 1p35 and three genes (ISG12(a, ISG12(b and ISG12(c clustered at chromosome 14q32. Mice have three family members (ISG12(a, ISG12(b1 and ISG12(b2 clustered at chromosome 12F1 (syntenic with human chromosome 14q32. There does not appear to be a murine 6–16 gene. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, genomic organisation and intron-alignments we suggest that this family has arisen through divergent inter- and intra-chromosomal gene duplication events. The transcripts from human and mouse genes are detectable, all but two (human ISG12(b and ISG12(c being upregulated in response to type I IFN in the cell lines tested. Conclusions Members of the eukaryotic ISG12 gene family encode a small hydrophobic protein with at least one copy of a newly defined motif of ~80 amino-acids (the ISG12 motif. In higher eukaryotes, many of the genes have acquired a responsiveness to type I IFN during evolution suggesting that a role in resisting cellular or environmental stress may be a unifying property of all family members. Analysis of gene-function in higher eukaryotes is complicated by the possibility of

  18. Correlation between Gene Expression and Osteoarthritis Progression in Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Leilei; Huang, Xiaobin; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N

    2016-07-14

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by gradual degradation of joint cartilage. This study aimed to quantify major pathogenetic factors during OA progression in human cartilage. Cartilage specimens were isolated from OA patients and scored 0-5 according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) guidelines. Protein and gene expressions were measured by immunohistochemistry and qPCR, respectively. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to detect apoptotic cells. Cartilage degeneration in OA is a gradual progress accompanied with gradual loss of collagen type II and a gradual decrease in mRNA expression of SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1. Expression of WNT antagonists DKK1 and FRZB was lost, while hypertrophic markers (RUNX2, COL10A1 and IHH) increased during OA progression. Moreover, DKK1 and FRZB negatively correlated with OA grading, while RUNX2 and IHH showed a significantly positive correlation with OA grading. The number of apoptotic cells was increased with the severity of OA. Taken together, our results suggested that genetic profiling of the gene expression could be used as markers for staging OA at the molecular level. This helps to understand the molecular pathology of OA and may lead to the development of therapies based on OA stage.

  19. Correlation between Gene Expression and Osteoarthritis Progression in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease characterized by gradual degradation of joint cartilage. This study aimed to quantify major pathogenetic factors during OA progression in human cartilage. Cartilage specimens were isolated from OA patients and scored 0–5 according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI guidelines. Protein and gene expressions were measured by immunohistochemistry and qPCR, respectively. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were used to detect apoptotic cells. Cartilage degeneration in OA is a gradual progress accompanied with gradual loss of collagen type II and a gradual decrease in mRNA expression of SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1. Expression of WNT antagonists DKK1 and FRZB was lost, while hypertrophic markers (RUNX2, COL10A1 and IHH increased during OA progression. Moreover, DKK1 and FRZB negatively correlated with OA grading, while RUNX2 and IHH showed a significantly positive correlation with OA grading. The number of apoptotic cells was increased with the severity of OA. Taken together, our results suggested that genetic profiling of the gene expression could be used as markers for staging OA at the molecular level. This helps to understand the molecular pathology of OA and may lead to the development of therapies based on OA stage.

  20. Human nucleolus organizers on nonhomologous chromosomes can share the same ribosomal gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, M; D'Eustachio, P; Ruddle, F H; Arnheim, N

    1981-01-01

    The distributions of three human ribosomal gene polymorphisms among individual chromosomes containing nucleolus organizers were analyzed by using mouse--human hybrid cells. Different nucleolus organizers can contain the same variant, suggesting the occurrence of genetic exchanges among ribosomal gene clusters on nonhomologous chromosomes. Such exchanges appear to occur less frequently in mice. This difference is discussed in terms of the nucleolar organization and chromosomal location of ribosomal gene clusters in humans and mice. Images PMID:6272316

  1. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes ( TAS2Rs ) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  2. The ACE gene and human performance: 12 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthucheary, Zudin; Skipworth, James R A; Rawal, Jai; Loosemore, Mike; Van Someren, Ken; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2011-06-01

    Some 12 years ago, a polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene became the first genetic element shown to impact substantially on human physical performance. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists not just as an endocrine regulator, but also within local tissue and cells, where it serves a variety of functions. Functional genetic polymorphic variants have been identified for most components of RAS, of which the best known and studied is a polymorphism of the ACE gene. The ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been associated with improvements in performance and exercise duration in a variety of populations. The I allele has been consistently demonstrated to be associated with endurance-orientated events, notably, in triathlons. Meanwhile, the D allele is associated with strength- and power-orientated performance, and has been found in significant excess among elite swimmers. Exceptions to these associations do exist, and are discussed. In theory, associations with ACE genotype may be due to functional variants in nearby loci, and/or related genetic polymorphism such as the angiotensin receptor, growth hormone and bradykinin genes. Studies of growth hormone gene variants have not shown significant associations with performance in studies involving both triathletes and military recruits. The angiotensin type-1 receptor has two functional polymorphisms that have not been shown to be associated with performance, although studies of hypoxic ascent have yielded conflicting results. ACE genotype influences bradykinin levels, and a common gene variant in the bradykinin 2 receptor exists. The high kinin activity haplotye has been associated with increased endurance performance at an Olympic level, and similar results of metabolic efficiency have been demonstrated in triathletes. Whilst the ACE genotype is associated with overall performance ability, at a single organ level, the ACE genotype and related polymorphism have significant

  3. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  4. Immunohistochemical and DNA sequencing analysis on human mismatch repair gene MLH1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma with LOH of this gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Guo, Z.; Pang, T.; Li, Q.; Afink, G.; Pontén, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human MLH1 gene (hMLH1) is one of the DNA mismatch repair genes. Defects in these genes are believed to be the underlying cause of microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI has been demonstrated in many human cancers such as colon cancer and some female-specific tumors. The hMLH1 gene

  5. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M.J.; Wong, K.M.; van Montfoort, A.P.A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation

  6. Responsible innovation in human germline gene editing: Background document to the recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wert, Guido; Heindryckx, Björn; Pennings, Guido; Clarke, Angus; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; van El, Carla G.; Forzano, Francesca; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Howard, Heidi C.; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Dondorp, Wybo; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Cornel, Martina C.

    2018-01-01

    Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, including editing of the germline. The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) together developed a Background document and

  7. Annotating the Function of the Human Genome with Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhou, Wenyang; Ren, Jun; Dong, Lixiang; Wang, Yadong; Jin, Shuilin; Cheng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences indicated that function annotation of human genome in molecular level and phenotype level is very important for systematic analysis of genes. In this study, we presented a framework named Gene2Function to annotate Gene Reference into Functions (GeneRIFs), in which each functional description of GeneRIFs could be annotated by a text mining tool Open Biomedical Annotator (OBA), and each Entrez gene could be mapped to Human Genome Organisation Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) gene symbol. After annotating all the records about human genes of GeneRIFs, 288,869 associations between 13,148 mRNAs and 7,182 terms, 9,496 associations between 948 microRNAs and 533 terms, and 901 associations between 139 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 297 terms were obtained as a comprehensive annotation resource of human genome. High consistency of term frequency of individual gene (Pearson correlation = 0.6401, p = 2.2e - 16) and gene frequency of individual term (Pearson correlation = 0.1298, p = 3.686e - 14) in GeneRIFs and GOA shows our annotation resource is very reliable.

  8. Retroviral-mediated transfer and expression of human β-globin genes in cultured murine and human erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber-Benarous, A.; Cone, R.D.; London, I.M.; Mulligan, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors cloned human β-globin DNA sequences from a genomic library prepared from DNA isolated from the human leukemia cell line K562 and have used the retroviral vector pZip-NeoSV(X)1 to introduce a 3.0-kilobase segment encompassing the globin gene into mouse erythroleukemia cells. Whereas the endogenous K562 β-globin gene is repressed in K562 cells, when introduced into mouse erythroleukemia cells by retroviral-mediated gene transfer, the β-globin gene from K562 cells was transcribed and induced 5-20-fold after treatment of the cells with dimethyl sulfoxide. The transcripts were correctly initiated, and expression and regulation of the K562 gene were identical to the expression of a normal human β-globin gene transferred into mouse erythroleukemia cells in the same way. They have also introduced the normal human β-globin gene into K562 cells using the same retrovirus vector. SP6 analysis of the RNA isolated from the transduced cells showed that the normal β-globin gene was transcribed at a moderately high level, before or after treatment with hemin. Based on these data, they suggest that the lack of expression of the endogenous β-globin gene in K562 cells does not result from an alteration in the gene itself and may not result from a lack of factor(s) necessary for β-lobin gene transcription. Retroviral-mediated transfer of the human β-globin gene may, however, uniquely influence expression of the gene K562 cells

  9. PET/CT imaging of human somatostatin receptor 2 (hsstr2) as reporter gene for gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, M.; Gazdhar, A.; Weitzel, T.; Schmid, R.; Krause, T.

    2006-01-01

    Localized information on region-selective gene expression in small animals is widely obtained by use of reporter genes inducing light emission. Using these reporter genes for imaging deep inside the human body fluorescent probes are hindered by attenuation, scattering and possible fluorescence quenching. This can be overcome by use of radio-peptide receptors as reporter genes. Therefore, the feasibility of the somatostatin receptor 2 expression vector system for expression imaging was checked against a control vector containing luciferase gene. For in vivo transduction of vector DNA into the rat forelimb muscles the in vivo electroporation technique was chosen because of its high regio-selectivity. The gene expression was imaged by high-sensitive CCD camera (luciferase activity) and by PET/CT using a Ga-68-DOTATOC as radio peptide probe. The relative sstr2 expression was enhanced by gene transduction at maximum to a factor of 15. The PET/CT images could be fully quantified. The above demonstrated feasibility of radio-peptide PET/CT reporter gene imaging may serve in the future as a tool for full quantitative understanding of regional gene expression, especially in large animals and humans

  10. PET/CT imaging of human somatostatin receptor 2 (hsstr2) as reporter gene for gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, M. [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Group (MIT-Bern), Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Medical School Bern (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Michael.Hofmann@insel.ch; Gazdhar, A. [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital Bern (Switzerland); Weitzel, T. [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Group (MIT-Bern), Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Medical School Bern (Switzerland); Schmid, R. [Division of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital Bern (Switzerland); Krause, T. [Molecular Imaging and Therapy Group (MIT-Bern), Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Medical School Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-12-20

    Localized information on region-selective gene expression in small animals is widely obtained by use of reporter genes inducing light emission. Using these reporter genes for imaging deep inside the human body fluorescent probes are hindered by attenuation, scattering and possible fluorescence quenching. This can be overcome by use of radio-peptide receptors as reporter genes. Therefore, the feasibility of the somatostatin receptor 2 expression vector system for expression imaging was checked against a control vector containing luciferase gene. For in vivo transduction of vector DNA into the rat forelimb muscles the in vivo electroporation technique was chosen because of its high regio-selectivity. The gene expression was imaged by high-sensitive CCD camera (luciferase activity) and by PET/CT using a Ga-68-DOTATOC as radio peptide probe. The relative sstr2 expression was enhanced by gene transduction at maximum to a factor of 15. The PET/CT images could be fully quantified. The above demonstrated feasibility of radio-peptide PET/CT reporter gene imaging may serve in the future as a tool for full quantitative understanding of regional gene expression, especially in large animals and human000.

  11. Gene Expression Analysis to Assess the Relevance of Rodent Models to Human Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Lofgren, Shane; Khatri, Purvesh; Rogers, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. We sought comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rodents compared with humans. We performed two separate gene expression multicohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury. We used correlational and pathway analyses combined with external in vitro gene expression data to identify both potential drivers of underlying inflammation and therapeutic drug candidates. We identified 21 animal lung tissue datasets and three human lung injury bronchoalveolar lavage datasets. We show that the metasignatures of animal and human experimental ALI are significantly correlated despite these widely varying experimental conditions. The gene expression changes among mice and rats across diverse injury models (ozone, ventilator-induced lung injury, LPS) are significantly correlated with human models of lung injury (Pearson r = 0.33-0.45, P human lung injury. Predicted therapeutic targets, peptide ligand signatures, and pathway analyses are also all highly overlapping. Gene expression changes are similar in animal and human experimental ALI, and provide several physiologic and therapeutic insights to the disease.

  12. The mapping of novel genes to human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenaventura, J.M. [Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The principle goal of our laboratory is the discovery of new genes on human chromosome 19. One of the strategies to achieve this goal is through the use of cDNA clones known as {open_quotes}expressed sequence tags{close_quotes} (ESTs). ESTs, short segments of sequence from a cDNA clone that correspond to the mRNA, occur as unique regions in the genome and, therefore, can be used as markers for specific positions. In collaboration with researchers from Genethon in France, fifteen cDNA clones from a normalized human infant brain cDNA library were tested and determined to map to chromosome 19. A verification procedure is then followed to confirm assignment to chromosome 19. First, primers for each cDNA clone are developed and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA. Next, a {sup 32}P-radiolabeled probe is made by polymerase chain reaction for each clone and then hybridized against filters containing an LLNL chromosome 19-specific cosmid library to find putative locations on the chromosome. The location is then verified by running a polymerase chain reactions from the positive cosmids. With the Browser database at LLNL, additional information about the positive cosmids can be found. Through use of the BLAST database at the National Library of Medicine, homologous sequences to the clones can be found. Among the fifteen cDNA clones received from Genethon, all have been amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Three have turned out as repetitive elements in the genome. Ten have been mapped to specific locations on chromosome 19. Putative locations have been found for the remaining two clones and thus verification testing will proceed.

  13. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  14. A systems genetics approach identifies genes and pathways for type 2 diabetes in human islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taneera, Jalal; Lang, Stefan; Sharma, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    Close to 50 genetic loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but they explain only 15% of the heritability. In an attempt to identify additional T2D genes, we analyzed global gene expression in human islets from 63 donors. Using 48 genes located near T2D risk variants, we identified ...

  15. Human germline gene editing: Recommendations of ESHG and ESHRE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wert, Guido; Pennings, Guido; Clarke, Angus; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; van El, Carla G.; Forzano, Francesca; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Heindryckx, Björn; Howard, Heidi C.; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Cornel, Martina C.

    2018-01-01

    Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, first of all for somatic gene editing but in theory also for germline gene editing (GLGE). GLGE is currently not allowed in many countries. This makes clinical applications in these countries impossible

  16. Using reporter gene assays to identify cis regulatory differences between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Adrien; Shrit, Ralla A; Blekhman, Ran; Gilad, Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Most phenotypic differences between human and chimpanzee are likely to result from differences in gene regulation, rather than changes to protein-coding regions. To date, however, only a handful of human-chimpanzee nucleotide differences leading to changes in gene regulation have been identified. To hone in on differences in regulatory elements between human and chimpanzee, we focused on 10 genes that were previously found to be differentially expressed between the two species. We then designed reporter gene assays for the putative human and chimpanzee promoters of the 10 genes. Of seven promoters that we found to be active in human liver cell lines, human and chimpanzee promoters had significantly different activity in four cases, three of which recapitulated the gene expression difference seen in the microarray experiment. For these three genes, we were therefore able to demonstrate that a change in cis influences expression differences between humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, using site-directed mutagenesis on one construct, the promoter for the DDA3 gene, we were able to identify three nucleotides that together lead to a cis regulatory difference between the species. High-throughput application of this approach can provide a map of regulatory element differences between humans and our close evolutionary relatives.

  17. Imaging gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells: from small to large animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning.......To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning....

  18. Effect of 5'-flanking sequence deletions on expression of the human insulin gene in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromont-Racine, M; Bucchini, D; Madsen, O

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the human insulin gene was examined in transgenic mouse lines carrying the gene with various lengths of DNA sequences 5' to the transcription start site (+1). Expression of the transgene was demonstrated by 1) the presence of human C-peptide in urine, 2) the presence of specific...... of the transgene was observed in cell types other than beta-islet cells....

  19. Transcriptional regulation of human IL-5 gene expression by ionizing radiation in jurkat T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu-Hesselmann, J.; Messer, G.; Kind, P.; Peter, R.U. [Munich Univ., Ludwig-Maximilians (Germany). Dept. of Dermatology; Lu-Hesselmann, J.; Van Beuningen, D.; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Institute of Radiobiology

    1997-03-01

    In this study, is performed the functional characterization of the human IL-5 gene promoter in response to ionizing radiation and demonstrated the negative regulatory effects of NF-ATp DNA-binding at position from -117 to -97 bp within the human IL-5 gene promoter. (N.C.)

  20. Dominant control region of the human β- like globin gene cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom van Assendelft, Margaretha van

    1989-01-01

    The structure and regulation of the human β -like globin gene cluster has been studied extensively. Genetic disorders connected with this gene cluster are responsible for human diseases associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, such as β-thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia. The work

  1. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...

  2. Mapping and annotating obesity-related genes in pig and human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fontanesi, Luca; Piovesan, Damiano; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is a major health problem in both developed and emerging countries. Obesity is a complex disease whose etiology involves genetic factors in strong interplay with environmental determinants and lifestyle. The discovery of genetic factors and biological pathways underlying human obesity is hampered by the difficulty in controlling the genetic background of human cohorts. Animal models are then necessary to further dissect the genetics of obesity. Pig has emerged as one of the most attractive models, because of the similarity with humans in the mechanisms regulating the fat deposition. Results. We collected the genes related to obesity in humans and to fat deposition traits in pig. We localized them on both human and pig genomes, building a map useful to interpret comparative studies on obesity. We characterized the collected genes structurally and functionally with BAR+ and mapped them on KEGG pathways and on STRING protein interaction network. Conclusions. The collected set consists of 361 obesity related genes in human and pig genomes. All genes were mapped on the human genome, and 54 could not be localized on the pig genome (release 2012). Only for 3 human genes there is no counterpart in pig, confirming that this animal is a good model for human obesity studies. Obesity related genes are mostly involved in regulation and signaling processes/pathways and relevant connection emerges between obesity-related genes and diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases.

  3. Efficient procedure for transferring specific human genes into Chinese hamster cell mutants: interspecific transfer of the human genes encoding leucyl- and asparaginyl-tRNA synthetases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirullo, R.E.; Dana, S.; Wasmuth, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure for transferring specific human genes into mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell recipients has been developed that does not rely on using calcium phosphate-precipitated high-molecular-weight DNA. Interspecific cell hybrids between human leukocytes and temperature-sensitive Chinese hamster cell mutants with either a thermolabile leucyl-tRNA synthetase or a thermolabile asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase were used as the starting material in these experiments. These hybrids contain only one or a few human chromosomes and require expression of the appropriate human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene to grow at 39 degrees C. Hybrids were exposed to very high doses of gamma-irradiation to extensively fragment the chromosomes and re-fused immediately to the original temperature-sensitive Chinese hamster mutant, and secondary hybrids were isolated at 39 degrees C. Secondary hybrids, which had retained small fragments of the human genome containing the selected gene, were subjected to another round of irradiation, refusion, and selection at 39 degrees C to reduce the amount of human DNA even further. Using this procedure, Chinese hamster cell lines have been constructed that express the human genes encoding either asparaginyl- or leucyl-tRNA synthetase, yet less than 0.1% of their DNA is derived from the human genome, as quantitated by a sensitive dot-blot nucleic acid hybridization procedure

  4. Regulated expression of genes inserted at the human chromosomal β-globin locus by homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, A.K.; Roginski, R.S.; Gregg, R.G.; Smithies, O.; Skoultchi, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of the site of integration on the expression of cloned genes introduced into cultured erythroid cells. Smithies et al. reported the targeted integration of DNA into the human β-globin locus on chromosome 11 in a mouse erythroleukemia-human cell hybrid. These hybrid cells can undergo erythroid differentiation leading to greatly increased mouse and human β-globin synthesis. By transfection of these hybrid cells with a plasmid carrying a modified human β-globin gene and a foreign gene composed of the coding sequence of the bacterial neomycin-resistance gene linked to simian virus 40 transcription signals (SVneo), cells were obtained in which the two genes are integrated at the β-globin locus on human chromosome 11 or at random sites. When they examined the response of the integrated genes to cell differentation, they found that the genes inserted at the β-globin locus were induced during differentiation, whereas randomly positioned copies were not induced. Even the foreign SVneo gene was inducible when it had been integrated at the β-globin locus. The results show that genes introduced at the β-globin locus acquire some of the regulatory properties of globin genes during erythroid differentiation

  5. Influenza A Virus with a Human-Like N2 Gene Is Circulating in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    A novel reassortant influenza A virus, H1avN2hu, has been found in Danish swine. The virus contains an H1 gene similar to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses and an N2 gene most closely related to the neuraminidase (NA) gene of human H3N2 viruses from the mid-1990s....

  6. A Catalog of Genes Homozygously Deleted in Human Lung Cancer and the Candidacy of PTPRD as a Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Takashi; Otsuka, Ayaka; Girard, Luc; Sato, Masanori; Iwakawa, Reika; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse; Minna, John D.; Yokota, Jun

    2010-01-01

    A total of 176 genes homozygously deleted in human lung cancer were identified by DNA array-based whole genome scanning of 52 lung cancer cell lines and subsequent genomic PCR in 74 cell lines, including the 52 cell lines scanned. One or more exons of these genes were homozygously deleted in one (1%) to 20 (27%) cell lines. These genes included known tumor suppressor genes, e.g., CDKN2A/p16, RB1, and SMAD4, and candidate tumor suppressor genes whose hemizygous or homozygous deletions were reported in several types of human cancers, such as FHIT, KEAP1, and LRP1B/LRP-DIP. CDKN2A/p16 and p14ARF located in 9p21 were most frequently deleted (20/74, 27%). The PTPRD gene was most frequently deleted (8/74, 11%) among genes mapping to regions other than 9p21. Somatic mutations, including a nonsense mutation, of the PTPRD gene were detected in 8/74 (11%) of cell lines and 4/95 (4%) of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Reduced PTPRD expression was observed in the majority (>80%) of cell lines and surgical specimens of lung cancer. Therefore, PTPRD is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer. Microarray-based expression profiling of 19 lung cancer cell lines also indicated that some of the 176 genes, such as KANK and ADAMTS1, are preferentially inactivated by epigenetic alterations. Genetic/epigenetic as well as functional studies of these 176 genes will increase our understanding of molecular mechanisms behind lung carcinogenesis. PMID:20073072

  7. Genes involved in immunity and apoptosis are associated with human presbycusis based on microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Li, Ming; Liu, Puzhao; Song, Haiyan; Zhao, Yuping; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-06-01

    Genes involved in immunity and apoptosis were associated with human presbycusis. CCR3 and GILZ played an important role in the pathogenesis of presbycusis, probably through regulating chemokine receptor, T-cell apoptosis, or T-cell activation pathways. To identify genes associated with human presbycusis and explore the molecular mechanism of presbycusis. Hearing function was tested by pure-tone audiometry. Microarray analysis was performed to identify presbycusis-correlated genes by Illumina Human-6 BeadChip using the peripheral blood samples of subjects. To identify biological process categories and pathways associated with presbycusis-correlated genes, bioinformatics analysis was carried out by Gene Ontology Tree Machine (GOTM) and database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery (DAVID). Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the microarray data. Microarray analysis identified 469 up-regulated genes and 323 down-regulated genes. Both the dominant biological processes by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and the enriched pathways by Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and BIOCARTA showed that genes involved in immunity and apoptosis were associated with presbycusis. In addition, CCR3, GILZ, CXCL10, and CX3CR1 genes showed consistent difference between groups for both the gene chip and qRT-PCR data. The differences of CCR3 and GILZ between presbycusis patients and controls were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  8. Efficient and safe gene delivery to human corneal endothelium using magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czugala, Marta; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Böhler, Philip; Onderka, Jasmine; Stork, Björn; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Kruse, Friedrich E; Plank, Christian; Singer, Bernhard B; Fuchsluger, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    To develop a safe and efficient method for targeted, anti-apoptotic gene therapy of corneal endothelial cells (CECs). Magnetofection (MF), a combination of lipofection with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs; PEI-Mag2, SO-Mag5, PalD1-Mag1), was tested in human CECs and in explanted human corneas. Effects on cell viability and function were investigated. Immunocompatibility was assessed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Silica iron-oxide MNPs (SO-Mag5) combined with X-tremeGENE-HP achieved high transfection efficiency in human CECs and explanted human corneas, without altering cell viability or function. Magnetofection caused no immunomodulatory effects in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Magnetofection with anti-apoptotic P35 gene effectively blocked apoptosis in CECs. Magnetofection is a promising tool for gene therapy of corneal endothelial cells with potential for targeted on-site delivery.

  9. Enhancement of gene expression under hypoxic conditions using fragments of the human vascular endothelial growth factor and the erythropoietin genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Toru; Akiyama, Nobutake; Noda, Makoto; Sasai, Keisuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Selective gene expression in response to tumor hypoxia may provide new avenues, not only for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but also for gene therapy. In this study, we have assessed the extent of hypoxia responsiveness of various DNA constructs by the luciferase assay to help design vectors suitable for cancer therapy. Materials and Methods: Reporter plasmids were constructed with fragments of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the erythropoietin (Epo) genes encompassing the putative hypoxia-responsive elements (HRE) and the pGL3 promoter vector. Test plasmids and the control pRL-CMV plasmid were cotransfected into tumor cells by the calcium phosphate method. After 6 h hypoxic treatment, the reporter assay was performed. Results: The construct pGL3/VEGF containing the 385 bp fragment of the 5' flanking region in human VEGF gene showed significant increases in luciferase activity in response to hypoxia. The hypoxic/aerobic ratios were about 3-4, and 8-12 for murine and human tumor cells, respectively. Despite the very high degree of conservation among the HREs of mammalian VEGF genes, murine cells showed lower responsiveness than human cells. We next tested the construct pGL3/Epo containing the 150 bp fragment of the 3' flanking region in the Epo gene. Luciferase activity of pGL3/Epo was increased with hypoxia only in human cell lines. The insertion of 5 copies of the 35-bp fragments derived from the VEGF HREs and 32 bp of the E1b minimal promoter resulted in maximal enhancement of hypoxia responsiveness. Conclusions: The constructs with VEGF or Epo fragments containing HRE may be useful for inducing specific gene expression in hypoxic cells. Especially, the application of multiple copies of the HREs and an E1b minimal promoter appears to have the advantage of great improvement in hypoxia responsiveness

  10. Identification of Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1 as a reference gene for quantitative gene expression measurements in human blood RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Elizabeth R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood is a convenient sample and increasingly used for quantitative gene expression measurements with a variety of diseases including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Quantitative gene expression measurements require normalization of target genes to reference genes that are stable and independent from variables being tested in the experiment. Because there are no genes that are useful for all situations, reference gene selection is an essential step to any quantitative reverse transcription-PCR protocol. Many publications have described appropriate genes for a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions, however, reference genes that may be suitable for the analysis of CFS, or human blood RNA derived from whole blood as well as isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, have not been described. Findings Literature review and analyses of our unpublished microarray data were used to narrow down the pool of candidate reference genes to six. We assayed whole blood RNA from Tempus tubes and cell preparation tube (CPT-collected PBMC RNA from 46 subjects, and used the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms to select the most stable reference genes. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1 was one of the optimal normalization genes for both whole blood and PBMC RNA, however, additional genes differed for the two sample types; Ribosomal protein large, P0 (RPLP0 for PBMC RNA and Peptidylprolyl isomerase B (PPIB for whole blood RNA. We also show that the use of a single reference gene is sufficient for normalization when the most stable candidates are used. Conclusions We have identified PGK1 as a stable reference gene for use with whole blood RNA and RNA derived from PBMC. When stable genes are selected it is possible to use a single gene for normalization rather than two or three. Optimal normalization will improve the ability of results from PBMC RNA to be compared with those from whole blood RNA and potentially allows comparison of

  11. Human retinal gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis shows advancing retinal degeneration despite enduring visual improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Beltran, William A.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Iwabe, Simone; Roman, Alejandro J.; Olivares, Melani B.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Komáromy, András M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2013-01-01

    The first retinal gene therapy in human blindness from RPE65 mutations has focused on safety and efficacy, as defined by improved vision. The disease component not studied, however, has been the fate of photoreceptors in this progressive retinal degeneration. We show that gene therapy improves vision for at least 3 y, but photoreceptor degeneration progresses unabated in humans. In the canine model, the same result occurs when treatment is at the disease stage equivalent to humans. The study ...

  12. Differential gene expression in human granulosa cells from recombinant FSH versus human menopausal gonadotropin ovarian stimulation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bietz Mandi G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the hypothesis that granulosa cell (GC gene expression response differs between recombinant FSH and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG stimulation regimens. Methods Females Results After exclusions, 1736 genes exhibited differential expression between groups. Over 400 were categorized as signal transduction genes, ~180 as transcriptional regulators, and ~175 as enzymes/metabolic genes. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. Differentially expressed genes included A kinase anchor protein 11 (AKAP11, bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha. Conclusions Results suggest that major differences exist in the mechanism by which pure FSH alone versus FSH/LH regulate gene expression in preovulatory GC that could impact oocyte maturity and developmental competence.

  13. Temporal expression pattern of genes during the period of sex differentiation in human embryonic gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn S; Ernst, Emil H; Borup, Rehannah

    2017-01-01

    The precise timing and sequence of changes in expression of key genes and proteins during human sex-differentiation and onset of steroidogenesis was evaluated by whole-genome expression in 67 first trimester human embryonic and fetal ovaries and testis and confirmed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry...... (IHC). SRY/SOX9 expression initiated in testis around day 40 pc, followed by initiation of AMH and steroidogenic genes required for androgen production at day 53 pc. In ovaries, gene expression of RSPO1, LIN28, FOXL2, WNT2B, and ETV5, were significantly higher than in testis, whereas GLI1...... was significantly higher in testis than ovaries. Gene expression was confirmed by IHC for GAGE, SOX9, AMH, CYP17A1, LIN28, WNT2B, ETV5 and GLI1. Gene expression was not associated with the maternal smoking habits. Collectively, a precise temporal determination of changes in expression of key genes involved in human...

  14. Genetics of human longevity with emphasis on the relevance of HSP70 as candidate genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvrå, Steen; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2007-01-01

    Human longevity is determined to a certain extent by genetic factors. Several candidate genes have been studied for their association with human longevity, but the data collected so far are inconclusive. One of the reasons is the choice of the candidate genes in addition to the choice...... of an appropriate study design and methodology. Since aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of molecular damage and an attenuation of the cellular defense mechanisms, the focus of studies on human longevity association with genes has now shifted to the pathways of cellular maintenance and repair...... mechanisms. One such pathway includes the battery of stress response genes, especially the heat shock protein HSP70 genes. Three such genes, HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L, are present within the MHC-III region on the short arm of chromosome 6. We and others have found alleles, genotypes and haplotypes which have...

  15. A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Nielsen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved in sensory perception or immune defenses. However, the group of genes that show the strongest evidence for positive selection also includes a surprising number of genes involved in tumor suppression and apoptosis, and of genes involved in spermatogenesis. We hypothesize that positive selection in some of these genes may be driven by genomic conflict due to apoptosis during spermatogenesis. Genes with maximal expression in the brain show little or no evidence for positive selection, while genes with maximal expression in the testis tend to be enriched with positively selected genes. Genes on the X chromosome also tend to show an elevated tendency for positive selection. We also present polymorphism data from 20 Caucasian Americans and 19 African Americans for the 50 annotated genes showing the strongest evidence for positive selection. The polymorphism analysis further supports the presence of positive selection in these genes by showing an excess of high-frequency derived nonsynonymous mutations.

  16. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  17. Dynamic gene expression response to altered gravity in human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Huge, Andreas; Tauber, Svantje; Lauber, Beatrice A; Polzer, Jennifer; Paulsen, Katrin; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Schmitz, Burkhard; Schütte, Andreas; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2017-07-12

    We investigated the dynamics of immediate and initial gene expression response to different gravitational environments in human Jurkat T lymphocytic cells and compared expression profiles to identify potential gravity-regulated genes and adaptation processes. We used the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 containing 44,699 protein coding genes and 22,829 non-protein coding genes and performed the experiments during a parabolic flight and a suborbital ballistic rocket mission to cross-validate gravity-regulated gene expression through independent research platforms and different sets of control experiments to exclude other factors than alteration of gravity. We found that gene expression in human T cells rapidly responded to altered gravity in the time frame of 20 s and 5 min. The initial response to microgravity involved mostly regulatory RNAs. We identified three gravity-regulated genes which could be cross-validated in both completely independent experiment missions: ATP6V1A/D, a vacuolar H + -ATPase (V-ATPase) responsible for acidification during bone resorption, IGHD3-3/IGHD3-10, diversity genes of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus participating in V(D)J recombination, and LINC00837, a long intergenic non-protein coding RNA. Due to the extensive and rapid alteration of gene expression associated with regulatory RNAs, we conclude that human cells are equipped with a robust and efficient adaptation potential when challenged with altered gravitational environments.

  18. Recent adaptive events in human brain revealed by meta-analysis of positively selected genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of positively-selected genes can help us understand how human evolved, especially the evolution of highly developed cognitive functions. However, previous works have reached conflicting conclusions regarding whether human neuronal genes are over-represented among genes under positive selection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We divided positively-selected genes into four groups according to the identification approaches, compiling a comprehensive list from 27 previous studies. We showed that genes that are highly expressed in the central nervous system are enriched in recent positive selection events in human history identified by intra-species genomic scan, especially in brain regions related to cognitive functions. This pattern holds when different datasets, parameters and analysis pipelines were used. Functional category enrichment analysis supported these findings, showing that synapse-related functions are enriched in genes under recent positive selection. In contrast, immune-related functions, for instance, are enriched in genes under ancient positive selection revealed by inter-species coding region comparison. We further demonstrated that most of these patterns still hold even after controlling for genomic characteristics that might bias genome-wide identification of positively-selected genes including gene length, gene density, GC composition, and intensity of negative selection. CONCLUSION: Our rigorous analysis resolved previous conflicting conclusions and revealed recent adaptation of human brain functions.

  19. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    , a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1(NestinCre)) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1...... not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load.......Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression for Convergent Evolution of Camera Eye Between Octopus and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsushi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Although the camera eye of the octopus is very similar to that of humans, phylogenetic and embryological analyses have suggested that their camera eyes have been acquired independently. It has been known as a typical example of convergent evolution. To study the molecular basis of convergent evolution of camera eyes, we conducted a comparative analysis of gene expression in octopus and human camera eyes. We sequenced 16,432 ESTs of the octopus eye, leading to 1052 nonredundant genes that have matches in the protein database. Comparing these 1052 genes with 13,303 already-known ESTs of the human eye, 729 (69.3%) genes were commonly expressed between the human and octopus eyes. On the contrary, when we compared octopus eye ESTs with human connective tissue ESTs, the expression similarity was quite low. To trace the evolutionary changes that are potentially responsible for camera eye formation, we also compared octopus-eye ESTs with the completed genome sequences of other organisms. We found that 1019 out of the 1052 genes had already existed at the common ancestor of bilateria, and 875 genes were conserved between humans and octopuses. It suggests that a larger number of conserved genes and their similar gene expression may be responsible for the convergent evolution of the camera eye. PMID:15289475

  1. A global evolutionary and metabolic analysis of human obesity gene risk variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Joseph J; Hazlett, Zachary S; Orlando, Robert A; Garver, William S

    2017-09-05

    It is generally accepted that the selection of gene variants during human evolution optimized energy metabolism that now interacts with our obesogenic environment to increase the prevalence of obesity. The purpose of this study was to perform a global evolutionary and metabolic analysis of human obesity gene risk variants (110 human obesity genes with 127 nearest gene risk variants) identified using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to enhance our knowledge of early and late genotypes. As a result of determining the mean frequency of these obesity gene risk variants in 13 available populations from around the world our results provide evidence for the early selection of ancestral risk variants (defined as selection before migration from Africa) and late selection of derived risk variants (defined as selection after migration from Africa). Our results also provide novel information for association of these obesity genes or encoded proteins with diverse metabolic pathways and other human diseases. The overall results indicate a significant differential evolutionary pattern for the selection of obesity gene ancestral and derived risk variants proposed to optimize energy metabolism in varying global environments and complex association with metabolic pathways and other human diseases. These results are consistent with obesity genes that encode proteins possessing a fundamental role in maintaining energy metabolism and survival during the course of human evolution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Expression analysis of asthma candidate genes during human and murine lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Erik; Kho, Alvin T; Sharma, Sunita; Gaedigk, Roger; Leeder, J Steven; Mariani, Thomas J; Carey, Vincent J; Weiss, Scott T; Tantisira, Kelan G

    2011-06-23

    Little is known about the role of most asthma susceptibility genes during human lung development. Genetic determinants for normal lung development are not only important early in life, but also for later lung function. To investigate the role of expression patterns of well-defined asthma susceptibility genes during human and murine lung development. We hypothesized that genes influencing normal airways development would be over-represented by genes associated with asthma. Asthma genes were first identified via comprehensive search of the current literature. Next, we analyzed their expression patterns in the developing human lung during the pseudoglandular (gestational age, 7-16 weeks) and canalicular (17-26 weeks) stages of development, and in the complete developing lung time series of 3 mouse strains: A/J, SW, C57BL6. In total, 96 genes with association to asthma in at least two human populations were identified in the literature. Overall, there was no significant over-representation of the asthma genes among genes differentially expressed during lung development, although trends were seen in the human (Odds ratio, OR 1.22, confidence interval, CI 0.90-1.62) and C57BL6 mouse (OR 1.41, CI 0.92-2.11) data. However, differential expression of some asthma genes was consistent in both developing human and murine lung, e.g. NOD1, EDN1, CCL5, RORA and HLA-G. Among the asthma genes identified in genome wide association studies, ROBO1, RORA, HLA-DQB1, IL2RB and PDE10A were differentially expressed during human lung development. Our data provide insight about the role of asthma susceptibility genes during lung development and suggest common mechanisms underlying lung morphogenesis and pathogenesis of respiratory diseases.

  3. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human and mouse choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. METHODS: We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. RESULTS: Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. CONCLUSION: Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE

  4. P63 gene mutations and human developmental syndromes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, H.G.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The P63 gene is a recently discovered member of the p53 family. While P53 is ubiquitously expressed, p63 is expressed specifically in embryonic ectoderm and in the basal regenerative layers of epithelial tissues in the adult. Complete abrogation of P63 gene function in an animal model points to the

  5. Bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of human Tp73 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tp73 gene encoding p73 protein belongs to the Tp53 gene family and it functions in the initiation of cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis and also involves in regulating a series of pathways including breast cancer, neuroblastoma and cholorectal cancer. New discoveries about the control and function of p73 are still in progress ...

  6. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiphei, S. Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Sharan, R.N.; Chaubey, R.C.; Kma, L.

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving 60 Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of 60 Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min -1 at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. (author)

  7. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiphei, S Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Chaubey, R C; Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving (60)Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of (60)Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min(-1) at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  8. Analysis of human reticulocyte genes reveals altered erythropoiesis: potential use to detect recombinant human erythropoietin doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Audran, Michel; Lejeune, Mireille; Bonafoux, Béatrice; Sicart, Marie-Therese; Marti, Jacques; Piquemal, David; Commes, Thérèse

    2004-08-01

    Enhancement of oxygen delivery to tissues is associated with improved sporting performance. One way of enhancing oxygen delivery is to take recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo), which is an unethical and potentially dangerous practice. However, detection of the use of rHuEpo remains difficult in situations such as: i) several days after the end of treatment ii) when a treatment with low doses is conducted iii) if the rHuEpo effect is increased by other substances. In an attempt to detect rHuEpo abuse, we selected erythroid gene markers from a SAGE library and analyzed the effects of rHuEpo administration on expression of the HBB, FTL and OAZ genes. Ten athletes were assigned to the rHuEpo or placebo group. The rHuEpo group received subcutaneous injections of rHuEpo (50 UI/kg three times a week, 4 weeks; 20 UI/kg three times a week, 2 weeks). HBB, FTL and OAZ gene profiles were monitored by real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification during and for 3 weeks after drug administration. The global analysis of these targeted genes detected in whole blood samples showed a characteristic profile of subjects misusing rHuEpo with a increase above the threshold levels. The individual analysis of OAZ mRNA seemed indicative of rHuEpo treatment. The performance-enhancing effect of rHuEpo treatment is greater than the duration of hematologic changes associated with rHuEpo misuse. Although direct electrophoretic methods to detect rHuEpo have been developed, recombinant isoforms of rHuEpo are not detectable some days after the last subcutaneous injection. To overcome these limitations indirect OFF models have been developed. Our data suggest that, in the near future, it will be possible to consolidate results achievable with the OFF models by analyzing selected erythroid gene markers as a supplement to indirect methods.

  9. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  10. Identification and characterization of the human type II collagen gene (COL2A1).

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Kathryn; Stoker, N.G.; Griffin, J.R.; Grosveld, Frank; Solomon, E.

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe gene contained in the human cosmid clone CosHcol1, previously designated an alpha 1(I) collagen-like gene, has now been identified. CosHcol1 hybridizes strongly to a single 5.9-kilobase mRNA species present only in tissue in which type II collagen is expressed. DNA sequence analysis shows that this clone is highly homologous to the chicken alpha 1(II) collagen gene. These data together suggest that CosHcol1 contains the human alpha 1(II) collagen gene COL2A1. The clone appears...

  11. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Rivka

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference genes are generally used to normalize RT qPCR data. Given that expression of some commonly used reference genes is altered in certain conditions, this study aimed to establish which reference genes were stably expressed in post mortem brain tissue from individuals with AD, PD or DLB. Results The present study investigated the expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes, (ubiquitin C [UBC], tyrosine-3-monooxygenase [YWHAZ], RNA polymerase II polypeptide [RP II], hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], TATA box binding protein [TBP], β-2-microglobulin [B2M], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A, [SDHA] in cerebellum and medial temporal gyrus of 6 AD, 6 PD, 6 DLB subjects, along with 5 matched controls using RT qPCR (TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays. Gene expression stability was analysed using geNorm to rank the candidate genes in order of decreasing stability in each disease group. The optimal number of genes recommended for accurate data normalization in each disease state was determined by pairwise variation analysis. Conclusion This study identified validated sets of mRNAs which would be appropriate for the normalization of RT qPCR data when studying gene expression in brain tissue of AD, PD, DLB and control subjects.

  12. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity.

  13. Comparative analysis of chromatin landscape in regulatory regions of human housekeeping and tissue specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Dipayan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global regulatory mechanisms involving chromatin assembly and remodelling in the promoter regions of genes is implicated in eukaryotic transcription control especially for genes subjected to spatial and temporal regulation. The potential to utilise global regulatory mechanisms for controlling gene expression might depend upon the architecture of the chromatin in and around the gene. In-silico analysis can yield important insights into this aspect, facilitating comparison of two or more classes of genes comprising of a large number of genes within each group. Results In the present study, we carried out a comparative analysis of chromatin characteristics in terms of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions, nucleosome formation potential and the occurrence of repetitive sequences, in the upstream regulatory regions of housekeeping and tissue specific genes. Our data show that putative scaffold/matrix attachment regions are more abundant and nucleosome formation potential is higher in the 5' regions of tissue specific genes as compared to the housekeeping genes. Conclusion The differences in the chromatin features between the two groups of genes indicate the involvement of chromatin organisation in the control of gene expression. The presence of global regulatory mechanisms mediated through chromatin organisation can decrease the burden of invoking gene specific regulators for maintenance of the active/silenced state of gene expression. This could partially explain the lower number of genes estimated in the human genome.

  14. Integration of human adipocyte chromosomal interactions with adipose gene expression prioritizes obesity-related genes from GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, David Z; Garske, Kristina M; Alvarez, Marcus; Bhagat, Yash V; Boocock, James; Nikkola, Elina; Miao, Zong; Raulerson, Chelsea K; Cantor, Rita M; Civelek, Mete; Glastonbury, Craig A; Small, Kerrin S; Boehnke, Michael; Lusis, Aldons J; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Mohlke, Karen L; Laakso, Markku; Pajukanta, Päivi; Ko, Arthur

    2018-04-17

    Increased adiposity is a hallmark of obesity and overweight, which affect 2.2 billion people world-wide. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related phenotypes can help to improve treatment options and drug development. Here we perform promoter Capture Hi-C in human adipocytes to investigate interactions between gene promoters and distal elements as a transcription-regulating mechanism contributing to these phenotypes. We find that promoter-interacting elements in human adipocytes are enriched for adipose-related transcription factor motifs, such as PPARG and CEBPB, and contribute to heritability of cis-regulated gene expression. We further intersect these data with published genome-wide association studies for BMI and BMI-related metabolic traits to identify the genes that are under genetic cis regulation in human adipocytes via chromosomal interactions. This integrative genomics approach identifies four cis-eQTL-eGene relationships associated with BMI or obesity-related traits, including rs4776984 and MAP2K5, which we further confirm by EMSA, and highlights 38 additional candidate genes.

  15. Rate of evolution in brain-expressed genes in humans and other primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurng-Yi Wang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain-expressed genes are known to evolve slowly in mammals. Nevertheless, since brains of higher primates have evolved rapidly, one might expect acceleration in DNA sequence evolution in their brain-expressed genes. In this study, we carried out full-length cDNA sequencing on the brain transcriptome of an Old World monkey (OWM and then conducted three-way comparisons among (i mouse, OWM, and human, and (ii OWM, chimpanzee, and human. Although brain-expressed genes indeed appear to evolve more rapidly in species with more advanced brains (apes > OWM > mouse, a similar lineage effect is observable for most other genes. The broad inclusion of genes in the reference set to represent the genomic average is therefore critical to this type of analysis. Calibrated against the genomic average, the rate of evolution among brain-expressed genes is probably lower (or at most equal in humans than in chimpanzee and OWM. Interestingly, the trend of slow evolution in coding sequence is no less pronounced among brain-specific genes, vis-à-vis brain-expressed genes in general. The human brain may thus differ from those of our close relatives in two opposite directions: (i faster evolution in gene expression, and (ii a likely slowdown in the evolution of protein sequences. Possible explanations and hypotheses are discussed.

  16. Precise gene modification mediated by TALEN and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    Full Text Available The development of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs facilitates in vitro studies of human disease mechanisms, speeds up the process of drug screening, and raises the feasibility of using cell replacement therapy in clinics. However, the study of genotype-phenotype relationships in ESCs or iPSCs is hampered by the low efficiency of site-specific gene editing. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs spurred interest due to the ease of assembly, high efficiency and faithful gene targeting. In this study, we optimized the TALEN design to maximize its genomic cutting efficiency. We showed that using optimized TALENs in conjunction with single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN allowed efficient gene editing in human cells. Gene mutations and gene deletions for up to 7.8 kb can be accomplished at high efficiencies. We established human tumor cell lines and H9 ESC lines with homozygous deletion of the microRNA-21 (miR-21 gene and miR-9-2 gene. These cell lines provide a robust platform to dissect the roles these genes play during cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. We also observed that the endogenous homologous chromosome can serve as a donor template for gene editing. Overall, our studies demonstrate the versatility of using ssODN and TALEN to establish genetically modified cells for research and therapeutic application.

  17. Systematic analysis of gene expression patterns associated with postmortem interval in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhang; Wang, Likun; Yin, Yuxin; Yang, Ence

    2017-07-14

    Postmortem mRNA degradation is considered to be the major concern in gene expression research utilizing human postmortem tissues. A key factor in this process is the postmortem interval (PMI), which is defined as the interval between death and sample collection. However, global patterns of postmortem mRNA degradation at individual gene levels across diverse human tissues remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of alteration of gene expression associated with PMI in human tissues. From the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database, we evaluated gene expression levels of 2,016 high-quality postmortem samples from 316 donors of European descent, with PMI ranging from 1 to 27 hours. We found that PMI-related mRNA degradation is tissue-specific, gene-specific, and even genotype-dependent, thus drawing a more comprehensive picture of PMI-associated gene expression across diverse human tissues. Additionally, we also identified 266 differentially variable (DV) genes, such as DEFB4B and IFNG, whose expression is significantly dispersed between short PMI (S-PMI) and long PMI (L-PMI) groups. In summary, our analyses provide a comprehensive profile of PMI-associated gene expression, which will help interpret gene expression patterns in the evaluation of postmortem tissues.

  18. Extensive changes in the expression of the opioid genes between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Gordillo, Peter; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2010-01-01

    The various means by which the body perceives, transmits, and resolves the experiences of pain and nociception are mediated by a host of molecules, including neuropeptides within the opioid gene signaling pathway. The peptide ligands and receptors encoded by this group of genes have been linked to behavioral disorders as well as a number of psychiatric affective disorders. Our aim was to explore the recent evolutionary history of these two gene families by taking a comparative genomics approach, specifically through a comparison between humans and chimpanzees. Our analyses indicate differential expression of these genes between the two species, more than expected based on genome-wide comparisons, indicating that differential expression is pervasive among the opioid genes. Of the 8 family members, three genes showed significant expression differences (PENK, PNOC, and OPRL1), with two others marginally significant (OPRM1 and OPRD1). Accelerated substitution rates along human and chimpanzee lineages within the putative regulatory regions of OPRM1, POMC, and PDYN between the human and chimpanzee branches are consistent with positive selection. Collectively, these results suggest that there may have been a selective advantage to modulating the expression of the opioid genes in humans compared with our closest living relatives. Information about the cognitive roles mediated by these genes in humans may help to elucidate the trait consequences of these putatively adaptive expression changes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics, gene doping, and athleticogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2010-03-01

    Hugh Montgomery's discovery of the first of more than 239 fitness genes together with rapid advances in human gene therapy have created a prospect of using genes, genetic elements, and cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This brief overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and predicts a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of human circadian genes based on time course gene expression profiles by using a deep learning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Zhong, Tingyan; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Hongyu; Liu, Chenglin; Lu, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Circadian genes express periodically in an approximate 24-h period and the identification and study of these genes can provide deep understanding of the circadian control which plays significant roles in human health. Although many circadian gene identification algorithms have been developed, large numbers of false positives and low coverage are still major problems in this field. In this study we constructed a novel computational framework for circadian gene identification using deep neural networks (DNN) - a deep learning algorithm which can represent the raw form of data patterns without imposing assumptions on the expression distribution. Firstly, we transformed time-course gene expression data into categorical-state data to denote the changing trend of gene expression. Two distinct expression patterns emerged after clustering of the state data for circadian genes from our manually created learning dataset. DNN was then applied to discriminate the aperiodic genes and the two subtypes of periodic genes. In order to assess the performance of DNN, four commonly used machine learning methods including k-nearest neighbors, logistic regression, naïve Bayes, and support vector machines were used for comparison. The results show that the DNN model achieves the best balanced precision and recall. Next, we conducted large scale circadian gene detection using the trained DNN model for the remaining transcription profiles. Comparing with JTK_CYCLE and a study performed by Möller-Levet et al. (doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1217154110), we identified 1132 novel periodic genes. Through the functional analysis of these novel circadian genes, we found that the GTPase superfamily exhibits distinct circadian expression patterns and may provide a molecular switch of circadian control of the functioning of the immune system in human blood. Our study provides novel insights into both the circadian gene identification field and the study of complex circadian-driven biological

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of human autoimmune disease genes and malfunctioned immunological genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podder Soumita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main issues of molecular evolution is to divulge the principles in dictating the evolutionary rate differences among various gene classes. Immunological genes have received considerable attention in evolutionary biology as candidates for local adaptation and for studying functionally important polymorphisms. The normal structure and function of immunological genes will be distorted when they experience mutations leading to immunological dysfunctions. Results Here, we examined the fundamental differences between the genes which on mutation give rise to autoimmune or other immune system related diseases and the immunological genes that do not cause any disease phenotypes. Although the disease genes examined are analogous to non-disease genes in product, expression, function, and pathway affiliation, a statistically significant decrease in evolutionary rate has been found in autoimmune disease genes relative to all other immune related diseases and non-disease genes. Possible ways of accumulation of mutation in the three steps of the central dogma (DNA-mRNA-Protein have been studied to trace the mutational effects predisposed to disease consequence and acquiring higher selection pressure. Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Regression Analysis have established the predominant role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in guiding the evolutionary rate of immunological disease and non-disease genes followed by m-RNA abundance, paralogs number, fraction of phosphorylation residue, alternatively spliced exon, protein residue burial and protein disorder. Conclusions Our study provides an empirical insight into the etiology of autoimmune disease genes and other immunological diseases. The immediate utility of our study is to help in disease gene identification and may also help in medicinal improvement of immune related disease.

  2. Transcriptional profiles of supragranular-enriched genes associate with corticocortical network architecture in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienen, Fenna M; Yeo, B T Thomas; Ge, Tian; Buckner, Randy L; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-01-26

    The human brain is patterned with disproportionately large, distributed cerebral networks that connect multiple association zones in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. The expansion of the cortical surface, along with the emergence of long-range connectivity networks, may be reflected in changes to the underlying molecular architecture. Using the Allen Institute's human brain transcriptional atlas, we demonstrate that genes particularly enriched in supragranular layers of the human cerebral cortex relative to mouse distinguish major cortical classes. The topography of transcriptional expression reflects large-scale brain network organization consistent with estimates from functional connectivity MRI and anatomical tracing in nonhuman primates. Microarray expression data for genes preferentially expressed in human upper layers (II/III), but enriched only in lower layers (V/VI) of mouse, were cross-correlated to identify molecular profiles across the cerebral cortex of postmortem human brains (n = 6). Unimodal sensory and motor zones have similar molecular profiles, despite being distributed across the cortical mantle. Sensory/motor profiles were anticorrelated with paralimbic and certain distributed association network profiles. Tests of alternative gene sets did not consistently distinguish sensory and motor regions from paralimbic and association regions: (i) genes enriched in supragranular layers in both humans and mice, (ii) genes cortically enriched in humans relative to nonhuman primates, (iii) genes related to connectivity in rodents, (iv) genes associated with human and mouse connectivity, and (v) 1,454 gene sets curated from known gene ontologies. Molecular innovations of upper cortical layers may be an important component in the evolution of long-range corticocortical projections.

  3. An Evolutionary Genomic Approach to Identify Genes Involved in Human Birth Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabona, Guilherme; Morgan, Thomas; Haataja, Ritva; Hallman, Mikko; Puttonen, Hilkka; Menon, Ramkumar; Kuczynski, Edward; Norwitz, Errol; Snegovskikh, Victoria; Palotie, Aarno; Fellman, Vineta; DeFranco, Emily A.; Chaudhari, Bimal P.; McGregor, Tracy L.; McElroy, Jude J.; Oetjens, Matthew T.; Teramo, Kari; Borecki, Ingrid; Fay, Justin; Muglia, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Coordination of fetal maturation with birth timing is essential for mammalian reproduction. In humans, preterm birth is a disorder of profound global health significance. The signals initiating parturition in humans have remained elusive, due to divergence in physiological mechanisms between humans and model organisms typically studied. Because of relatively large human head size and narrow birth canal cross-sectional area compared to other primates, we hypothesized that genes involved in parturition would display accelerated evolution along the human and/or higher primate phylogenetic lineages to decrease the length of gestation and promote delivery of a smaller fetus that transits the birth canal more readily. Further, we tested whether current variation in such accelerated genes contributes to preterm birth risk. Evidence from allometric scaling of gestational age suggests human gestation has been shortened relative to other primates. Consistent with our hypothesis, many genes involved in reproduction show human acceleration in their coding or adjacent noncoding regions. We screened >8,400 SNPs in 150 human accelerated genes in 165 Finnish preterm and 163 control mothers for association with preterm birth. In this cohort, the most significant association was in FSHR, and 8 of the 10 most significant SNPs were in this gene. Further evidence for association of a linkage disequilibrium block of SNPs in FSHR, rs11686474, rs11680730, rs12473870, and rs1247381 was found in African Americans. By considering human acceleration, we identified a novel gene that may be associated with preterm birth, FSHR. We anticipate other human accelerated genes will similarly be associated with preterm birth risk and elucidate essential pathways for human parturition. PMID:21533219

  4. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M. G. L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E. M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W. G.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Groothuis, G. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be

  5. The role of steroids in the development of post-partum mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskova, Andrea; Jirak, Roman; Mikesova, Michaela; Adamcova, Karolina; Fartakova, Zdenka; Horakova, Vladimira; Koucky, Michal; Hill, Martin; Hruskovicova, Hana; Starka, Luboslav; Duskova, Michaela; Parizek, Antonin

    2014-09-01

    Unfavorable post-partum changes to mental well-being affect more than half of all women, and are a risk to the health of both mother and baby. Their effects place strains on health and social systems. Currently, no generally accepted theory exists of the causes and mechanisms of post-partum mental disorders. Literature search up to 2012, using PubMed and search words: neuroactive steroids, post-partum mental disorders, depression, corticotropin-releasing hormone and estrogens. There are several theories for post-partum depression. One is that autoimmune diseases are involved. Others revolve around genes responsible or that lead to increased disposition to the disorder. It is likely however that the process is associated with the separation of the placenta and the fetal zone of fetal adrenal gland, the main sources of corticotropin-releasing hormone and sexual and neuroactive steroids during pregnancy, and the ability of the receptor system to adapt to these changes. The central nervous system is able to produce neurosteroids, but the drop in levels of peripheral steroids likely leads to a sudden deficit in neuroinhibitory steroids modulating ionotropic receptors in the brain. Post-partum depression is a multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. It is probably associated with sudden changes in the production of hormones influencing the nervous system, and on the other hand the ability of the receptor system to adapt to these changes. When the relative changes in concentrations of hormones, rather than their absolute levels, is likely more important.

  6. Structure and function of the human metallothionein gene family: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karin, M.

    1986-01-01

    The full nucleotide sequence of two additional human metallothionein (hMT) genes has been determined. These genes, hMT-I/sub B/ and hMT-I/sub F/, are located within the MT-I gene cluster we have described originally. The hMT-I/sub F/ gene is the first hMT-I gene whose amino acid sequence is in complete agreement with the published sequence of the human MT-I proteins. Therefore it is likely to be an active gene encoding a functional protein. However, since we have just completed the sequence analysis, we have not characterized this gene further yet. The hMT-I/sub B/ gene is closely linked to the hMT-I/sub A/ gene, and two pseudogenes, hMT-I/sub C/ and hMT-I/sub D/ separate the two. From its nucleotide sequence hMT-I/sub B/ seems to be an active gene, encoding a functional protein even though it differs in four positions from the published sequence of human MT-I proteins. This gene is expressed in a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, and its expression is stimulated by Cd ++ . Using gene fusions to the viral thymidine-kinase gene we find that hMT-I/sub B/, like the hMT-I/sub A/ and hMT-II/sub A/ genes, contains a heavy metal responsive promoterregulatory element within its 5' flanking region. We analyzed the level of hMT-I/sub B/ mRNA in a variety of human cell lines by the S1 nuclease technique, and compared it to the expression of the hMT-II/sub A/ gene. While the hMT-II/sub A/ gene was expressed in all of the cell lines analyzed, the hMT-I/sub B/ gene was expressed in liver and kidney derived cell lines cells. This suggest that the expression of the hMT-I/sub B/ gene is controlled in a tissue specific manner. 13 refs

  7. Update of the human and mouse Fanconi anemia genes

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hongbin; Nebert, Daniel W.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Thompson, David C.; Joenje, Hans; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessively inherited disease manifesting developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk of malignancies. Whereas FA has been studied for nearly 90?years, only in the last 20?years have increasing numbers of genes been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with this genetic disease. To date, 19 genes have been identified that encode Fanconi anemia complementation group proteins, all of which are named or aliased, using the root symbol ?FANC.?...

  8. Update of the human secretoglobin (SCGB gene superfamily and an example of 'evolutionary bloom' of androgen-binding protein genes within the mouse Scgb gene superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Brian C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The secretoglobins (SCGBs comprise a family of small, secreted proteins found in animals exclusively of mammalian lineage. There are 11 human SCGB genes and five pseudogenes. Interestingly, mice have 68 Scgb genes, four of which are highly orthologous to human SCGB genes; the remainder represent an 'evolutionary bloom' and make up a large gene family represented by only six counterparts in humans. SCGBs are found in high concentrations in many mammalian secretions, including fluids of the lung, lacrimal gland, salivary gland, prostate and uterus. Whereas the biological activities of most individual SCGBs have not been fully characterised, what already has been discovered suggests that this family has an important role in the modulation of inflammation, tissue repair and tumorigenesis. In mice, the large Scgb1b and Scgb2b gene families encode the androgen-binding proteins, which have been shown to play a role in mate selection. Although much has been learned about SCGBs in recent years, clearly more research remains to be done to allow a better understanding of the roles of these proteins in human health and disease. Such information is predicted to reveal valuable novel drug targets for the treatment of inflammation, as well as designing biomarkers that might identify tissue damage or cancer.

  9. Genomic Features That Predict Allelic Imbalance in Humans Suggest Patterns of Constraint on Gene Expression Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédrigo, Olivier; Haygood, Ralph; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wray, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important contributor to phenotypic diversity within and between species. Although this variation often has a genetic component, identification of the genetic variants driving this relationship remains challenging. In particular, measurements of gene expression usually do not reveal whether the genetic basis for any observed variation lies in cis or in trans to the gene, a distinction that has direct relevance to the physical location of the underlying genetic variant, and which may also impact its evolutionary trajectory. Allelic imbalance measurements identify cis-acting genetic effects by assaying the relative contribution of the two alleles of a cis-regulatory region to gene expression within individuals. Identification of patterns that predict commonly imbalanced genes could therefore serve as a useful tool and also shed light on the evolution of cis-regulatory variation itself. Here, we show that sequence motifs, polymorphism levels, and divergence levels around a gene can be used to predict commonly imbalanced genes in a human data set. Reduction of this feature set to four factors revealed that only one factor significantly differentiated between commonly imbalanced and nonimbalanced genes. We demonstrate that these results are consistent between the original data set and a second published data set in humans obtained using different technical and statistical methods. Finally, we show that variation in the single allelic imbalance-associated factor is partially explained by the density of genes in the region of a target gene (allelic imbalance is less probable for genes in gene-dense regions), and, to a lesser extent, the evenness of expression of the gene across tissues and the magnitude of negative selection on putative regulatory regions of the gene. These results suggest that the genomic distribution of functional cis-regulatory variants in the human genome is nonrandom, perhaps due to local differences in evolutionary

  10. Bacterial Human Virulence Genes across Diverse Habitats As Assessed by In silico Analysis of Environmental Metagenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Ditte A; Hendriksen, Niels B; Kilian, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    of natural environments in the evolution of bacterial virulence. Twenty four bacterial virulence genes were analyzed in 46 diverse environmental metagenomic datasets, representing various soils, seawater, freshwater, marine sediments, hot springs, the deep-sea, hypersaline mats, microbialites, gutless worms......The occurrence and distribution of clinically relevant bacterial virulence genes across natural (non-human) environments is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the occurrence of homologs to bacterial human virulence genes in a variety of ecological niches to better understand the role...... in non-human environments point to an important ecological role of the genes for the activity and survival of environmental bacteria. Furthermore, the high degree of sequence conservation between several of the environmental and clinical genes suggests common ancestral origins....

  11. Microarray analysis of gene expression alteration in human middle ear epithelial cells induced by micro particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Jee Young; Park, Moo Kyun; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to reveal the effect of particulate matter (PM) on the human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC). The HMEEC was treated with PM (300 μg/ml) for 24 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray analysis. Molecular pathways among differentially expressed genes were further analyzed by using Pathway Studio 9.0 software. For selected genes, the changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time PCR. A total of 611 genes were regulated by PM. Among them, 366 genes were up-regulated, whereas 245 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were mainly involved in cellular processes, including reactive oxygen species generation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell differentiation, inflammatory response and immune response. Down-regulated genes affected several cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis and cell migration. A total of 21 genes were discovered as crucial components in potential signaling networks containing 2-fold up regulated genes. Four genes, VEGFA, IL1B, CSF2 and HMOX1 were revealed as key mediator genes among the up-regulated genes. A total of 25 genes were revealed as key modulators in the signaling pathway associated with 2-fold down regulated genes. Four genes, including IGF1R, TIMP1, IL6 and FN1, were identified as the main modulator genes. We identified the differentially expressed genes in PM-treated HMEEC, whose expression profile may provide a useful clue for the understanding of environmental pathophysiology of otitis media. Our work indicates that air pollution, like PM, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers......, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis...... and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further...

  13. [Cloning and characterization of genes differentially expressed in human dental pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-dong; Wu, Ji-nan; Zhou, Lin; Ling, Jun-qi; Guo, Xi-min; Xiao, Ming-zhen; Zhu, Feng; Pu, Qin; Chai, Yu-bo; Zhao, Zhong-liang

    2007-02-01

    To study the biological properties of human dental pulp cells (HDPC) by cloning and analysis of genes differentially expressed in HDPC in comparison with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HDPC and HGF were cultured and identified by immunocytochemistry. HPDC and HGF subtractive cDNA library was established by PCR-based modified subtractive hybridization, genes differentially expressed by HPDC were cloned, sequenced and compared to find homogeneous sequence in GenBank by BLAST. Cloning and sequencing analysis indicate 12 genes differentially expressed were obtained, in which two were unknown genes. Among the 10 known genes, 4 were related to signal transduction, 2 were related to trans-membrane transportation (both cell membrane and nuclear membrane), and 2 were related to RNA splicing mechanisms. The biological properties of HPDC are determined by the differential expression of some genes and the growth and differentiation of HPDC are associated to the dynamic protein synthesis and secretion activities of the cell.

  14. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  15. Genome-wide prediction and analysis of human tissue-selective genes using microarray expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shaolei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how genes are expressed specifically in particular tissues is a fundamental question in developmental biology. Many tissue-specific genes are involved in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. However, experimental identification of tissue-specific genes is time consuming and difficult. The accurate predictions of tissue-specific gene targets could provide useful information for biomarker development and drug target identification. Results In this study, we have developed a machine learning approach for predicting the human tissue-specific genes using microarray expression data. The lists of known tissue-specific genes for different tissues were collected from UniProt database, and the expression data retrieved from the previously compiled dataset according to the lists were used for input vector encoding. Random Forests (RFs and Support Vector Machines (SVMs were used to construct accurate classifiers. The RF classifiers were found to outperform SVM models for tissue-specific gene prediction. The results suggest that the candidate genes for brain or liver specific expression can provide valuable information for further experimental studies. Our approach was also applied for identifying tissue-selective gene targets for different types of tissues. Conclusions A machine learning approach has been developed for accurately identifying the candidate genes for tissue specific/selective expression. The approach provides an efficient way to select some interesting genes for developing new biomedical markers and improve our knowledge of tissue-specific expression.

  16. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.; Rizzu, Patrizia; Francescatto, Margherita; Vitezic, Morana; Leday, Gwenaë l G.R.; Sanchez, Javier Simon; Khamis, Abdullah M.; Takahashi, Hazuki; van de Berg, Wilma D.J.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; van de Wiel, Mark A.; Daub, Carsten O.; Carninci, Piero; Heutink, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites

  17. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Expression in Normal and Diseased Human Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronzi Scott, M.; Sylvester, J. E.; Heiman-Patterson, T.; Shi, Y.-J.; Fieles, W.; Stedman, H.; Burghes, A.; Ray, P.; Worton, R.; Fischbeck, K. H.

    1988-03-01

    A probe for the 5' end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene was used to study expression of the gene in normal human muscle, myogenic cell cultures, and muscle from patients with DMD. Expression was found in RNA from normal fetal muscle, adult cardiac and skeletal muscle, and cultured muscle after myoblast fusion. In DMD muscle, expression of this portion of the gene was also revealed by in situ RNA hybridization, particularly in regenerating muscle fibers.

  18. Defining the Human Macula Transcriptome and Candidate Retinal Disease Genes UsingEyeSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Ebright, Jessica N.; Zavodni, Zachary J.; Yu, Ling; Wang, Tianyuan; Daiger, Stephen P.; Wistow, Graeme; Boon, Kathy; Hauser, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop large-scale, high-throughput annotation of the human macula transcriptome and to identify and prioritize candidate genes for inherited retinal dystrophies, based on ocular-expression profiles using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Methods Two human retina and two retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid SAGE libraries made from matched macula or midperipheral retina and adjacent RPE/choroid of morphologically normal 28- to 66-year-old donors and a human central retina longSAGE library made from 41- to 66-year-old donors were generated. Their transcription profiles were entered into a relational database, EyeSAGE, including microarray expression profiles of retina and publicly available normal human tissue SAGE libraries. EyeSAGE was used to identify retina- and RPE-specific and -associated genes, and candidate genes for retina and RPE disease loci. Differential and/or cell-type specific expression was validated by quantitative and single-cell RT-PCR. Results Cone photoreceptor-associated gene expression was elevated in the macula transcription profiles. Analysis of the longSAGE retina tags enhanced tag-to-gene mapping and revealed alternatively spliced genes. Analysis of candidate gene expression tables for the identified Bardet-Biedl syndrome disease gene (BBS5) in the BBS5 disease region table yielded BBS5 as the top candidate. Compelling candidates for inherited retina diseases were identified. Conclusions The EyeSAGE database, combining three different gene-profiling platforms including the authors’ multidonor-derived retina/RPE SAGE libraries and existing single-donor retina/RPE libraries, is a powerful resource for definition of the retina and RPE transcriptomes. It can be used to identify retina-specific genes, including alternatively spliced transcripts and to prioritize candidate genes within mapped retinal disease regions. PMID:16723438

  19. Assessment of orthologous splicing isoforms in human and mouse orthologous genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horner David S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent discoveries have highlighted the fact that alternative splicing and alternative transcripts are the rule, rather than the exception, in metazoan genes. Since multiple transcript and protein variants expressed by the same gene are, by definition, structurally distinct and need not to be functionally equivalent, the concept of gene orthology should be extended to the transcript level in order to describe evolutionary relationships between structurally similar transcript variants. In other words, the identification of true orthology relationships between gene products now should progress beyond primary sequence and "splicing orthology", consisting in ancestrally shared exon-intron structures, is required to define orthologous isoforms at transcript level. Results As a starting step in this direction, in this work we performed a large scale human- mouse gene comparison with a twofold goal: first, to assess if and to which extent traditional gene annotations such as RefSeq capture genuine splicing orthology; second, to provide a more detailed annotation and quantification of true human-mouse orthologous transcripts defined as transcripts of orthologous genes exhibiting the same splicing patterns. Conclusions We observed an identical exon/intron structure for 32% of human and mouse orthologous genes. This figure increases to 87% using less stringent criteria for gene structure similarity, thus implying that for about 13% of the human RefSeq annotated genes (and about 25% of the corresponding transcripts we could not identify any mouse transcript showing sufficient similarity to be confidently assigned as a splicing ortholog. Our data suggest that current gene and transcript data may still be rather incomplete - with several splicing variants still unknown. The observation that alternative splicing produces large numbers of alternative transcripts and proteins, some of them conserved across species and others truly species

  20. Identification and characterization of the human type II collagen gene (COL2A1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.S.E. Cheah (Kathryn); N.G. Stoker; J.R. Griffin; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); E. Solomon

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe gene contained in the human cosmid clone CosHcol1, previously designated an alpha 1(I) collagen-like gene, has now been identified. CosHcol1 hybridizes strongly to a single 5.9-kilobase mRNA species present only in tissue in which type II collagen is expressed. DNA sequence analysis

  1. Associating transcription factors and conserved RNA structures with gene regulation in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Seemann, Stefan E.; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical subdivisions of the human brain can be associated with different neuronal functions. This functional diversification is reflected by differences in gene expression. By analyzing post-mortem gene expression data from the Allen Brain Atlas, we investigated the impact of transcription fac...

  2. TUB gene expression in hypothalamus and adipose tissue and its association with obesity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nies, V J M; Struik, D; Wolfs, M G M; Rensen, S S; Szalowska, E; Unmehopa, U A; Fluiter, K.; van der Meer, T P; Hajmousa, G; Buurman, W A; Greve, J W; Rezaee, F; Shiri-Sverdlov, R; Vonk, R.J.; Swaab, D F; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; Jonker, J W; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J V

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the Tubby gene (TUB) cause late-onset obesity and insulin resistance in mice and syndromic obesity in humans. Although TUB gene function has not yet been fully elucidated, studies in rodents indicate that TUB is involved in the hypothalamic pathways regulating

  3. TUB gene expression in hypothalamus and adipose tissue and its association with obesity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nies, V. J. M.; Struik, D.; Wolfs, M. G. M.; Rensen, S. S.; Szalowska, E.; Unmehopa, U. A.; Fluiter, K.; van der Meer, T. P.; Hajmousa, G.; Buurman, W. A.; Greve, J. W.; Rezaee, F.; Shiri-Sverdlov, R.; Vonk, R. J.; Swaab, D. F.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Jonker, J. W.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the Tubby gene (TUB) cause late-onset obesity and insulin resistance in mice and syndromic obesity in humans. Although TUB gene function has not yet been fully elucidated, studies in rodents indicate that TUB is involved in the hypothalamic pathways regulating food intake and adiposity.

  4. TUB gene expression in hypothalamus and adipose tissue and its association with obesity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nies, V J M; Struik, D; Wolfs, M G M; Rensen, S S; Szalowska, E; Unmehopa, U A; Fluiter, K; van der Meer, T P; Hajmousa, G; Buurman, W A; Greve, J W; Rezaee, F; Shiri-Sverdlov, R; Vonk, R J; Swaab, D F; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; Jonker, J W; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J V

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the Tubby gene (TUB) cause late-onset obesity and insulin resistance in mice and syndromic obesity in humans. Although TUB gene function has not yet been fully elucidated, studies in rodents indicate that TUB is involved in the hypothalamic pathways regulating

  5. Expression and functional assessment of candidate type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes identify four new genes contributing to human insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou K. Ndiaye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified >100 loci independently contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D risk. However, translational implications for precision medicine and for the development of novel treatments have been disappointing, due to poor knowledge of how these loci impact T2D pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to measure the expression of genes located nearby T2D associated signals and to assess their effect on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Methods: The expression of 104 candidate T2D susceptibility genes was measured in a human multi-tissue panel, through PCR-free expression assay. The effects of the knockdown of beta-cell enriched genes were next investigated on insulin secretion from the human EndoC-βH1 beta-cell line. Finally, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq so as to assess the pathways affected by the knockdown of the new genes impacting insulin secretion from EndoC-βH1, and we analyzed the expression of the new genes in mouse models with altered pancreatic beta-cell function. Results: We found that the candidate T2D susceptibility genes' expression is significantly enriched in pancreatic beta cells obtained by laser capture microdissection or sorted by flow cytometry and in EndoC-βH1 cells, but not in insulin sensitive tissues. Furthermore, the knockdown of seven T2D-susceptibility genes (CDKN2A, GCK, HNF4A, KCNK16, SLC30A8, TBC1D4, and TCF19 with already known expression and/or function in beta cells changed insulin secretion, supporting our functional approach. We showed first evidence for a role in insulin secretion of four candidate T2D-susceptibility genes (PRC1, SRR, ZFAND3, and ZFAND6 with no previous knowledge of presence and function in beta cells. RNA-seq in EndoC-βH1 cells with decreased expression of PRC1, SRR, ZFAND6, or ZFAND3 identified specific gene networks related to T2D pathophysiology. Finally, a positive correlation between the expression of Ins2 and the

  6. Tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism at the human prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeropoulos, M H; Xiao, Hong; Rath, D S; Merril, C R [National Inst. of Mental Health Neuroscience Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-09-11

    The polymorphic (AAAT){sub n} repeat begins at base pair 2342 of the human prostatic acid phosphatase gene on chromosome 3q21-qter. The polymorphism can be typed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as described previously. The predicted length of the amplified sequence was 275 bp. Co-dominant segregation was observed in two informative families. The human prostatic acid phosphatase gene has been assigned to chromosome 3q21-qter.

  7. Differential expression gene profiling in human lymphocyte after 6 h irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianguo; Qin Xiujun; Zhang Wei; Xu Chaoqi; Li Weibin; Dang Xuhong; Zuo Yahui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide the evidence of health damage for the staff irradiated from the gene level. Methods: The study analyzed the differential transcriptional profile of normal human lymphocyte and human lymphocyte irradiated with 0.1 Gy, 0.2 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy by whole genome chip after 6 h irradiated. Results: The results showed that there were 1177 differentially expressed genes with 0.1 Gy after 6 h irradiation, and there were 1922 differentially expressed genes with 0.2 Gy after 6 h irradiation, and there were 492 differentially expressed genes with 0.5 Gy after 6 h irradiation, 2615 differentially expressed genes with 1.0 Gy after 6 h irradiation, 114 differentially expressed genes in 4 dose points after 6 h irradiation. RT-PCR results indicated that the relative quantity's result of EGR1, HLA-DMB and TAIAP1 was consistent with gene chip data. Conclusion: The study found many significant different genes in human lymphocyte with different doses after 6 h irradiation, which will provide a basis for the further radiation-different-genes and the mechanism of radiation damage. (authors)

  8. Repair of DNA damage in the human metallothionein gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadon, S.A.; Snowden, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    In order to distinguish enhanced repair of a sequence due to its transcriptional activity from enhanced repair due to chromatin alterations brought about by integration of a sequence into the genome, we have investigated the repair of damage both in endogenous genes and in cell lines that contain an integrated gene with an inducible promoter. The endogenous genes we are studying are the metallothioneins (MTs), a multigene family in man consisting of about 10-12 members. Cultured cells were exposed to 10-J/m 2 uv light and allowed to repair in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine. The DNA was then isolated, digested with Eco RI, and fully hybrid density DNA made by semiconservative synthesis was separated from unreplicated DNA by centrifugation in CsCl density gradients. Unreplicated, parental-density DNA was then reacted with a monoclonal antibody against bromouracil. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Clinically relevant known and candidate genes for obesity and their overlap with human infertility and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern now reaching epidemic status worldwide for children and adults due to multiple problems impacting on energy intake and expenditure with influences on human reproduction and infertility. A positive family history and genetic factors are known to play a role in obesity by influencing eating behavior, weight and level of physical activity and also contributing to human reproduction and infertility. Recent advances in genetic technology have led to discoveries of new susceptibility genes for obesity and causation of infertility. The goal of our study was to provide an update of clinically relevant candidate and known genes for obesity and infertility using high resolution chromosome ideograms with gene symbols and tabular form. We used computer-based internet websites including PubMed to search for combinations of key words such as obesity, body mass index, infertility, reproduction, azoospermia, endometriosis, diminished ovarian reserve, estrogen along with genetics, gene mutations or variants to identify evidence for development of a master list of recognized obesity genes in humans and those involved with infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols for known and candidate genes for obesity were plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms at the 850 band level. Both infertility and obesity genes were listed separately in alphabetical order in tabular form and those highlighted when involved with both conditions. By searching the medical literature and computer generated websites for key words, we found documented evidence for 370 genes playing a role in obesity and 153 genes for human reproduction or infertility. The obesity genes primarily affected common pathways in lipid metabolism, deposition or transport, eating behavior and food selection, physical activity or energy expenditure. Twenty-one of the obesity genes were also associated with human infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols were plotted on high resolution

  10. MC1R gene variants involvement in human OCA phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Saleha Shamim; Khan Taj Ali; Zafar Shaista

    2016-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetic disorder of melanin synthesis that results in hypopigmentation in hair, skin and eyes. OCA has been reported in individuals from all ethnic backgrounds but it is more common among those with Europeans ancestry. OCA is heterogeneous group of disorders and seven types of OCA are caused by mutations in TYR (OCA1), OCA2 (OCA2), TYRP1 (OCA3), SLC45A2 (OCA4), SLC24A5 (OCA6) and C10oRF11 (OCA7) genes. However, MC1R gene variants have been reported that modi...

  11. A large-scale analysis of tissue-specific pathology and gene expression of human disease genes and complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lage; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Karlberg, Erik, Olof, Linnart

    2008-01-01

    to be overexpressed in the normal tissues where defects cause pathology. In contrast, cancer genes and complexes were not overexpressed in the tissues from which the tumors emanate. We specifically identified a complex involved in XY sex reversal that is testis-specific and down-regulated in ovaries. We also......Heritable diseases are caused by germ-line mutations that, despite tissuewide presence, often lead to tissue-specific pathology. Here, we make a systematic analysis of the link between tissue-specific gene expression and pathological manifestations in many human diseases and cancers. Diseases were...

  12. Overexpression screens identify conserved dosage chromosome instability genes in yeast and human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Supipi; Fam, Hok Khim; Wang, Yi Kan; Styles, Erin B.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Ang, J. Sidney; Singh, Tejomayee; Larionov, Vladimir; Shah, Sohrab P.; Andrews, Brenda; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Hieter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Somatic copy number amplification and gene overexpression are common features of many cancers. To determine the role of gene overexpression on chromosome instability (CIN), we performed genome-wide screens in the budding yeast for yeast genes that cause CIN when overexpressed, a phenotype we refer to as dosage CIN (dCIN), and identified 245 dCIN genes. This catalog of genes reveals human orthologs known to be recurrently overexpressed and/or amplified in tumors. We show that two genes, TDP1, a tyrosyl-DNA-phosphdiesterase, and TAF12, an RNA polymerase II TATA-box binding factor, cause CIN when overexpressed in human cells. Rhabdomyosarcoma lines with elevated human Tdp1 levels also exhibit CIN that can be partially rescued by siRNA-mediated knockdown of TDP1. Overexpression of dCIN genes represents a genetic vulnerability that could be leveraged for selective killing of cancer cells through targeting of an unlinked synthetic dosage lethal (SDL) partner. Using SDL screens in yeast, we identified a set of genes that when deleted specifically kill cells with high levels of Tdp1. One gene was the histone deacetylase RPD3, for which there are known inhibitors. Both HT1080 cells overexpressing hTDP1 and rhabdomyosarcoma cells with elevated levels of hTdp1 were more sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) and trichostatin A (TSA), recapitulating the SDL interaction in human cells and suggesting VPA and TSA as potential therapeutic agents for tumors with elevated levels of hTdp1. The catalog of dCIN genes presented here provides a candidate list to identify genes that cause CIN when overexpressed in cancer, which can then be leveraged through SDL to selectively target tumors. PMID:27551064

  13. Regulation of human protein S gene (PROS1) transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Cornelia de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the transcriptional regulation of the gene for anticoagulant plasma Protein S, PROS1. Protein S is a cofactor for Protein C in the Protein C anticoagulant pathway. The coagulation cascade is negatively regulated by this pathway through inactivation of

  14. Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... assignment (Ewing and Green, 1998a; Ewing et al., 1998b). The trace files were trimmed with trim-alt 0.05 (P-score>20). In addition, vector trimming was conducted with cross-match software. Each gene expression pattern was analyzed by clustering. (30 bp or more 94% homology) and assembly.

  15. Polymorphisms in human DNA repair genes and head and neck ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Genetic polymorphisms in some DNA repair proteins are associated with a number of malignant transformations like head and ... Such studies may benefit from analysis of multiple genes or polymorphisms and from the ... low survival and high morbidity when diagnosed in advanced ...... racial and/or ethnic cohort.

  16. Phenotypic effects of genetic variability in human clock genes on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... Circadian rhythm-related sleep disorders have also been ..... cause or an effect of the scant attention that has been paid to the Bmal2 gene, no re- .... When sleep de- prived, PER35 homozygotes exhibited much greater deficit.

  17. Mutational landscape of the human Y chromosome-linked genes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    arsenic pollution (Ali and Ali 2010), cases of prostate can- cer (Pathak et al. ...... of function of the KiSS1-derived peptide receptor GPR54. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. .... genes and loci in prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and LNCaP. BMC Genomics ...

  18. Prediction of human protein function according to Gene Ontology categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    developed a method for prediction of protein function for a subset of classes from the Gene Ontology classification scheme. This subset includes several pharmaceutically interesting categories-transcription factors, receptors, ion channels, stress and immune response proteins, hormones and growth factors...

  19. Genomics of Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis: from Genes to Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Catherine M.; Sausville, Lindsay; Wejse, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains a major public health threat globally. Several lines of evidence support a role for host genetic factors in resistance/susceptibility to TB disease and MTB infection. However, results across candidate gene...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of human Tp53 gene using computational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The TP53 gene encoding p53 protein is involved in regulating a series of pathways. New discoveries about the function and control of p53 are still in progress and it is hoped to develop better therapeutics and diagnostics by exploiting this system. Evolutionary studies are of prime importance in the field of biological ...

  1. Human cytomegalovirus UL145 gene is highly conserved among ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    capable of causing infections that persist lifelong, and normally ... 1 Virus Laboratory, Affiliated ShengJing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, P. R. China. 2Department of .... Elmer, USA), and negative controls were included in each round of .... variability of the UL145 gene in field isolates. To answer this.

  2. A Scan for Positively Selected Genes in the Genomes of Humans and Chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Bustamente, Carlos; Clark, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect...... such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved...

  3. Genomic sequence and organization of two members of a human lectin gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitt, M.A.; Barondes, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA encoding a human dimeric soluble lactose-binding lectin. The gene has four exons, and its upstream region contains sequences that suggest control by glucocorticoids, heat (environmental) shock, metals, and other factors. They have also isolated and sequenced three exons of the gene encoding another human putative lectin, the existence of which was first indicated by isolation of its cDNA. Comparisons suggest a general pattern of genomic organization of members of this lectin gene family

  4. Identification of stable reference genes in differentiating human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Gustav; Ghosheh, Nidal; Zeng, Xianmin; Bogestål, Yalda; Sartipy, Peter; Synnergren, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Reference genes, often referred to as housekeeping genes (HKGs), are frequently used to normalize gene expression data based on the assumption that they are expressed at a constant level in the cells. However, several studies have shown that there may be a large variability in the gene expression levels of HKGs in various cell types. In a previous study, employing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) subjected to spontaneous differentiation, we observed that the expression of commonly used HKG varied to a degree that rendered them inappropriate to use as reference genes under those experimental settings. Here we present a substantially extended study of the HKG signature in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), including nine global gene expression datasets from both hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells, obtained during directed differentiation toward endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm derivatives. Sets of stably expressed genes were compiled, and a handful of genes (e.g., EID2, ZNF324B, CAPN10, and RABEP2) were identified as generally applicable reference genes in hPSCs across all cell lines and experimental conditions. The stability in gene expression profiles was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. Taken together, the current results suggest that differentiating hPSCs have a distinct HKG signature, which in some aspects is different from somatic cell types, and underscore the necessity to validate the stability of reference genes under the actual experimental setup used. In addition, the novel putative HKGs identified in this study can preferentially be used for normalization of gene expression data obtained from differentiating hPSCs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further recommend that such studies should be accompanied by additional assessment of histology and cellularity of each sample. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Dynamic Copy Number Evolution of X- and Y-Linked Ampliconic Genes in Human Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucotte, Elise A; Skov, Laurits; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2018-01-01

    we explore the evolution of human X- and Y-linked ampliconic genes by investigating copy number variation (CNV) and coding variation between populations using the Simons Genome Diversity Project. We develop a method to assess CNVs using the read-depth on modified X and Y chromosome targets containing...... related Y haplogroups, that diversified less than 50,000 years ago. Moreover, X and Y-linked ampliconic genes seem to have a faster amplification dynamic than autosomal multicopy genes. Looking at expression data from another study, we also find that XY-linked ampliconic genes with extensive copy number...

  7. Isolation and characterization of the human parathyroid hormone-like peptide gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, M.; Ikeda, K.; Dreyer, B.E.; Broadus, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    A parathyroid hormone-like peptide (PTH-LP) has recently been identified in human tumors associated with the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. The peptide appears to be encoded by a single-copy gene that gives rise to multiple mRNAs that are heterogeneous at both their 5' and their 3' ends. Alternative RNA splicing is responsible for the 3' heterogeneity and results in mRNAs encoding three different peptides, each with a unique C terminus. The authors have isolated and characterized the human PTHLP gene. The gene is a complex transcriptional unit spanning more than 12 kilobases of DNA and containing six exons. Two 5' exons encode distinct 5' untranslated regions and are separated by a putative promoter element, indicating that the gene either has two promoters or is alternatively spliced from a single promoter upstream of the first exon. The middle portion of the PTHLP gene, comprising exons 2-4, has an organizational pattern of introns and exons identical to that of the parathyroid hormone gene, consistent with a common ancestral origin of these two genes. Exon 4 of the PTHLP gene encodes the region common to all three peptides and the C terminus of the shortest peptide, and exons 5 and 6 encode the unique C termini of the other two peptides. Northern analysis of mRNAs from four human tumors of different histological types reveals the preferential use of 3' splicing patterns of individual tumors

  8. A high density of human communication-associated genes in chromosome 7q31-q36: differential expression in human and non-human primate cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E; Jensen, L R; Farcas, R; Kondova, I; Bontrop, R E; Navarro, B; Fuchs, E; Kuss, A W; Haaf, T

    2012-01-01

    The human brain is distinguished by its remarkable size, high energy consumption, and cognitive abilities compared to all other mammals and non-human primates. However, little is known about what has accelerated brain evolution in the human lineage. One possible explanation is that the appearance of advanced communication skills and language has been a driving force of human brain development. The phenotypic adaptations in brain structure and function which occurred on the way to modern humans may be associated with specific molecular signatures in today's human genome and/or transcriptome. Genes that have been linked to language, reading, and/or autism spectrum disorders are prime candidates when searching for genes for human-specific communication abilities. The database and genome-wide expression analyses we present here revealed a clustering of such communication-associated genes (COAG) on human chromosomes X and 7, in particular chromosome 7q31-q36. Compared to the rest of the genome, we found a high number of COAG to be differentially expressed in the cortices of humans and non-human primates (chimpanzee, baboon, and/or marmoset). The role of X-linked genes for the development of human-specific cognitive abilities is well known. We now propose that chromosome 7q31-q36 also represents a hot spot for the evolution of human-specific communication abilities. Selective pressure on the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7q34, which plays a pivotal role in the immune system, could have led to rapid dissemination of positive gene variants in hitchhiking COAG. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparing the DNA hypermethylome with gene mutations in human colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornel E Schuebel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a transcriptome-wide approach to identify genes affected by promoter CpG island DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing in colorectal cancer. By screening cell lines and validating tumor-specific hypermethylation in a panel of primary human colorectal cancer samples, we estimate that nearly 5% or more of all known genes may be promoter methylated in an individual tumor. When directly compared to gene mutations, we find larger numbers of genes hypermethylated in individual tumors, and a higher frequency of hypermethylation within individual genes harboring either genetic or epigenetic changes. Thus, to enumerate the full spectrum of alterations in the human cancer genome, and to facilitate the most efficacious grouping of tumors to identify cancer biomarkers and tailor therapeutic approaches, both genetic and epigenetic screens should be undertaken.

  10. Meta genome-wide network from functional linkages of genes in human gut microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Shi, Yixiang; Wang, Chuan; Dai, Jianliang; Li, Yixue

    2013-03-01

    The human gut microbial ecosystem (HGME) exerts an important influence on the human health. In recent researches, meta-genomics provided deep insights into the HGME in terms of gene contents, metabolic processes and genome constitutions of meta-genome. Here we present a novel methodology to investigate the HGME on the basis of a set of functionally coupled genes regardless of their genome origins when considering the co-evolution properties of genes. By analyzing these coupled genes, we showed some basic properties of HGME significantly associated with each other, and further constructed a protein interaction map of human gut meta-genome to discover some functional modules that may relate with essential metabolic processes. Compared with other studies, our method provides a new idea to extract basic function elements from meta-genome systems and investigate complex microbial environment by associating its biological traits with co-evolutionary fingerprints encoded in it.

  11. Expression of the human growth hormone variant gene in cultured fibroblasts and transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selden, R.F.; Wagner, T.E.; Blethen, S.; Yun, J.S.; Rowe, M.E.; Goodman, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone variant gene, one of the five members of the growth hormone gene family, predicts that it encodes a growth hormone-like protein. As a first step in determining whether this gene is functional in humans, the authors have expressed a mouse methallothionein I/human growth hormone variant fusion gene in mouse L cells and in transgenic mice. The growth hormone variant protein expressed in transiently transfected L cells is distinct from growth hormone itself with respect to reactivity with anti-growth hormone monoclonal antibodies, behavior during column chromatography, and isoelectric point. Transgenic mice expressing the growth hormone variant protein are 1.4- to 1.9-fold larger than nontransgenic controls, suggesting that the protein has growth-promoting properties

  12. Impact of persistent cytomegalovirus infection on human neuroblastoma cell gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoever, Gerold; Vogel, Jens-Uwe; Lukashenko, Polina; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Komor, Martina; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2005-01-01

    In a model of human neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines persistently infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) we previously showed that persistent HCMV infection is associated with an increased malignant phenotype, enhanced drug resistance, and invasive properties. To gain insights into the mechanisms of increased malignancy we analyzed the global changes in cellular gene expression induced by persistent HCMV infection of human neuroblastoma cells by use of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (HG-U133A, Affymetrix) and RT-PCR. Comparing the gene expression of different NB cell lines with persistently infected cell sub-lines revealed 11 host cell genes regulated in a similar manner throughout all infected samples. Nine of these 11 genes may contribute to the previously observed changes in malignant phenotype of persistently HCMV infected NB cells by influencing invasive growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and proliferation. Thus, this work provides the basis for further functional studies

  13. Characterization of gene expression regulated by human OTK18 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing regulated by interactions with the Tat protein (Carlson et al. 2004a). In contrast, OTK18 is ubiquitously expressed in all normal human tissues, and OTK18 expression in HIV-1 ..... and Social Sciences and the UNK Biology Department.

  14. Factors affecting the gene expression of in vitro cultured human preimplantation embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.; Jonker, M. J.; Wong, K. M.; van Montfoort, A. P. A.; de Jong, M.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; Mastenbroek, S.

    2016-01-01

    What is the relative effect of common environmental and biological factors on transcriptome changes during human preimplantation development? Developmental stage and maternal age had a larger effect on the global gene expression profile of human preimplantation embryos than the culture medium or

  15. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  16. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the gene encoding human eosinophil differentiation factor (interleukin 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.D.; Tucker, W.Q.J.; Hort, Y.; Martinson, M.E.; Mayo, G.; Clutterbuck, E.J.; Sanderson, C.J.; Young, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human eosinophil differentiation factor (EDF) gene was cloned from a genomic library in λ phage EMBL3A by using a murine EDF cDNA clone as a probe. The DNA sequence of a 3.2-kilobase BamHI fragment spanning the gene was determined. The gene contains three introns. The predicted amino acid sequence of 134 amino acids is identical with that recently reported for human interleukin 5 but shows no significant homology with other known hemopoietic growth regulators. The amino acid sequence shows strong homology (∼ 70% identity) with that of murine EDF. Recombinant human EDF, expressed from the human EDF gene after transfection into monkey COS cells, stimulated the production of eosinophils and eosinophil colonies from normal human bone marrow but had no effect on the production of neutrophils or mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphoid cells). The apparent specificity of human EDF for the eosinophil lineage in myeloid hemopoiesis contrasts with the properties of human interleukin 3 and granulocyte/macrophage and granulocyte colony-stimulating factors but is directly analogous to the biological properties of murine EDF. Human EDF therefore represents a distinct hemopoietic growth factor that could play a central role in the regulation of eosinophilia

  17. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Kazuo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeya, Makoto [Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fukuta, Makoto [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Woltjen, Knut [Department of Reprogramming Sciences, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Otsuka, Takanobu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Toguchida, Junya, E-mail: togjun@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly

  18. Effect of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene combined with radiation therapy on human lymphoma cells lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zeyang; Fan Wo; Li Dongqing; Zhu Ran; Wan Jianmei; Wang Yongqing; Wu Jinchang

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the inhibitory effect and radiation sensitization of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) on human lymphoma cell lines. Human lymphoma cell lines were treated with rAd-p53, radiation therapy and combined treatment, respectively. The cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTF. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry, and the p53 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. The results showed that extrinsic p53 gene have expressed to some degree, but not at high level. The role of inhibition and radiation sensitivity of rAd-p53 was not significant to human lymphoma cell lines. (authors)

  19. Transcription factors and stress response gene alterations in human keratinocytes following Solar Simulated Ultra Violet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Thomas L Des; Kluz, Thomas; Xu, Dazhong; Zhang, Xiaoru; Gesumaria, Lisa; Matsui, Mary S; Costa, Max; Sun, Hong

    2017-10-19

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight is the major effector for skin aging and carcinogenesis. However, genes and pathways altered by solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR), a mixture of UVA and UVB, are not well characterized. Here we report global changes in gene expression as well as associated pathways and upstream transcription factors in human keratinocytes exposed to ssUVR. Human HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to either a single dose or 5 repetitive doses of ssUVR. Comprehensive analyses of gene expression profiles as well as functional annotation were performed at 24 hours post irradiation. Our results revealed that ssUVR modulated genes with diverse cellular functions changed in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression in cells exposed to a single dose of ssUVR differed significantly from those that underwent repetitive exposures. While single ssUVR caused a significant inhibition in genes involved in cell cycle progression, especially G2/M checkpoint and mitotic regulation, repetitive ssUVR led to extensive changes in genes related to cell signaling and metabolism. We have also identified a panel of ssUVR target genes that exhibited persistent changes in gene expression even at 1 week after irradiation. These results revealed a complex network of transcriptional regulators and pathways that orchestrate the cellular response to ssUVR.

  20. New genes expressed in human brains: implications for annotating evolving genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Landback, Patrick; Vibranovski, Maria; Long, Manyuan

    2012-11-01

    New genes have frequently formed and spread to fixation in a wide variety of organisms, constituting abundant sets of lineage-specific genes. It was recently reported that an excess of primate-specific and human-specific genes were upregulated in the brains of fetuses and infants, and especially in the prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognition. These findings reveal the prevalent addition of new genetic components to the transcriptome of the human brain. More generally, these findings suggest that genomes are continually evolving in both sequence and content, eroding the conservation endowed by common ancestry. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of new genes, we highlight here that these genes are still seriously under-characterized in functional studies and that new gene annotation is inconsistent in current practice. We propose an integrative approach to annotate new genes, taking advantage of functional and evolutionary genomic methods. We finally discuss how the refinement of new gene annotation will be important for the detection of evolutionary forces governing new gene origination. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a mouse gene with homology to the human von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor suppressor gene: implications for the potential organization of the human von Hippel-Lindau disease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Naglich, J G; Laidlaw, J; Whaley, J M; Seizinger, B R; Kley, N

    1995-02-15

    The human von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) gene has recently been identified and, based on the nucleotide sequence of a partial cDNA clone, has been predicted to encode a novel protein with as yet unknown functions [F. Latif et al., Science (Washington DC), 260: 1317-1320, 1993]. The length of the encoded protein and the characteristics of the cellular expressed protein are as yet unclear. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a mouse gene (mVHLh1) that is widely expressed in different mouse tissues and shares high homology with the human VHL gene. It predicts a protein 181 residues long (and/or 162 amino acids, considering a potential alternative start codon), which across a core region of approximately 140 residues displays a high degree of sequence identity (98%) to the predicted human VHL protein. High stringency DNA and RNA hybridization experiments and protein expression analyses indicate that this gene is the most highly VHL-related mouse gene, suggesting that it represents the mouse VHL gene homologue rather than a related gene sharing a conserved functional domain. These findings provide new insights into the potential organization of the VHL gene and nature of its encoded protein.

  2. Comparative Serum Challenges Show Divergent Patterns of Gene Expression and Open Chromatin in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzollo, Jason; Nielsen, William J; Shibata, Yoichiro; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2018-03-01

    Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer. Here, we explored genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees in a well-defined experimental assay that mimics gene expression changes that happen during cancer progression: A fibroblast serum challenge. We used this assay with fibroblasts isolated from humans and chimpanzees to explore species-specific differences in gene expression and chromatin state with RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. Our data reveal that human fibroblasts increase expression of genes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways; in contrast, chimpanzee gene expression changes are not concentrated around particular functional categories. Chromatin accessibility dramatically increases in human fibroblasts, yet decreases in chimpanzee cells during the serum response. Many regions of opening and closing chromatin are in close proximity to genes encoding transcription factors or genes involved in wound healing processes, further supporting the link between changes in activity of regulatory elements and changes in gene expression. Together, these expression and open chromatin data show that humans and chimpanzees have dramatically different responses to the same physiological stressor, and how a core physiological process can evolve quickly over relatively short evolutionary time scales.

  3. GATM, the human ortholog of the mouse imprinted Gatm gene, escapes genomic imprinting in placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The GATM gene encodes L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, which catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine into guanidinoacetate, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of creatine. Since, deficiencies in creatine synthesis and transport lead to certain forms of mental retardation in human, the human GATM gene appears to be involved in brain development. Recently it has been demonstrated that the mouse Gatm is expressed during development and is imprinted with maternal expression in the placenta and yolk sac, but not in embryonic tissues. We investigated the imprinting status of the human GATM by analyzing its expression in four human placentas. GATM was biallelically expressed, thus suggesting that this gene escapes genomic imprinting in placentas, differently from what has been reported in mouse extra-embryonic tissues.

  4. The antibiotic resistome: gene flow in environments, animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongfei; Gao, George F; Zhu, Baoli

    2017-06-01

    The antibiotic resistance is natural in bacteria and predates the human use of antibiotics. Numerous antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been discovered to confer resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The ARGs in natural environments are highly integrated and tightly regulated in specific bacterial metabolic networks. However, the antibiotic selection pressure conferred by the use of antibiotics in both human medicine and agriculture practice leads to a significant increase of antibiotic resistance and a steady accumulation of ARGs in bacteria. In this review, we summarized, with an emphasis on an ecological point of view, the important research progress regarding the collective ARGs (antibiotic resistome) in bacterial communities of natural environments, human and animals, i.e., in the one health settings.We propose that the resistance gene flow in nature is "from the natural environments" and "to the natural environments"; human and animals, as intermediate recipients and disseminators, contribute greatly to such a resistance gene "circulation."

  5. Regulation of endogenous human gene expression by ligand-inducible TALE transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Andrew C; Gaj, Thomas; Sirk, Shannon J; Lamb, Brian M; Barbas, Carlos F

    2014-10-17

    The construction of increasingly sophisticated synthetic biological circuits is dependent on the development of extensible tools capable of providing specific control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Here, we describe a new class of synthetic transcription factors that activate gene expression in response to extracellular chemical stimuli. These inducible activators consist of customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins combined with steroid hormone receptor ligand-binding domains. We demonstrate that these ligand-responsive TALE transcription factors allow for tunable and conditional control of gene activation and can be used to regulate the expression of endogenous genes in human cells. Since TALEs can be designed to recognize any contiguous DNA sequence, the conditional gene regulatory system described herein will enable the design of advanced synthetic gene networks.

  6. Characterization and distribution of repetitive elements in association with genes in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai-Chiang; Tseng, Joseph T; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Sun, H Sunny

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive elements constitute more than 50% of the human genome. Recent studies implied that the complexity of living organisms is not just a direct outcome of a number of coding sequences; the repetitive elements, which do not encode proteins, may also play a significant role. Though scattered studies showed that repetitive elements in the regulatory regions of a gene control gene expression, no systematic survey has been done to report the characterization and distribution of various types of these repetitive elements in the human genome. Sequences from 5' and 3' untranslated regions and upstream and downstream of a gene were downloaded from the Ensembl database. The repetitive elements in the neighboring of each gene were identified and classified using cross-matching implemented in the RepeatMasker. The annotation and distribution of distinct classes of repetitive elements associated with individual gene were collected to characterize genes in association with different types of repetitive elements using systems biology program. We identified a total of 1,068,400 repetitive elements which belong to 37-class families and 1235 subclasses that are associated with 33,761 genes and 57,365 transcripts. In addition, we found that the tandem repeats preferentially locate proximal to the transcription start site (TSS) of genes and the major function of these genes are involved in developmental processes. On the other hand, interspersed repetitive elements showed a tendency to be accumulated at distal region from the TSS and the function of interspersed repeat-containing genes took part in the catabolic/metabolic processes. Results from the distribution analysis were collected and used to construct a gene-based repetitive element database (GBRED; http://www.binfo.ncku.edu.tw/GBRED/index.html). A user-friendly web interface was designed to provide the information of repetitive elements associated with any particular gene(s). This is the first study focusing on the gene

  7. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Philip L; Lee, Jae W; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at approximately 95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days on collagen-coated dishes with or without DCI for the final 3 days. In freshly isolated cells, highly expressed genes included SFTPA/B/C, SCGB1A, IL8, CXCL2, and SFN in addition to ubiquitously expressed genes. Transcript abundance was correlated between fetal and adult cells (r = 0.88), with a subset of 187 genes primarily related to inflammation and immunity that were expressed >10-fold higher in adult cells. During control culture, expression increased for 8.1% of expressed genes and decreased for approximately 4% including 118 immune response and 10 surfactant-related genes. DCI treatment promoted lamellar body production and increased expression of approximately 3% of probed genes by > or =1.5-fold; 40% of these were also induced in fetal cells. Highly induced genes (> or =10-fold) included PGC, ZBTB16, DUOX1, PLUNC, CIT, and CRTAC1. Twenty-five induced genes, including six genes related to surfactant (SFTPA/B/C, PGC, CEBPD, and ADFP), also had decreased expression during control culture and thus are candidates for hormonal regulation in vivo. Our results further define the adult human type II cell molecular phenotype and demonstrate that a subset of genes remains hormone responsive in cultured adult cells.

  8. Platform dependence of inference on gene-wise and gene-set involvement in human lung development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kho Alvin T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the recent development of microarray technologies, the comparability of gene expression data obtained from different platforms poses an important problem. We evaluated two widely used platforms, Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 and the Illumina HumanRef-8 v2 Expression Bead Chips, for comparability in a biological system in which changes may be subtle, namely fetal lung tissue as a function of gestational age. Results We performed the comparison via sequence-based probe matching between the two platforms. "Significance grouping" was defined as a measure of comparability. Using both expression correlation and significance grouping as measures of comparability, we demonstrated that despite overall cross-platform differences at the single gene level, increased correlation between the two platforms was found in genes with higher expression level, higher probe overlap, and lower p-value. We also demonstrated that biological function as determined via KEGG pathways or GO categories is more consistent across platforms than single gene analysis. Conclusion We conclude that while the comparability of the platforms at the single gene level may be increased by increasing sample size, they are highly comparable ontologically even for subtle differences in a relatively small sample size. Biologically relevant inference should therefore be reproducible across laboratories using different platforms.

  9. Examination of Signatures of Recent Positive Selection on Genes Involved in Human Sialic Acid Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyun M; Aronoff, David M; Capra, John A; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2018-03-28

    Sialic acids are nine carbon sugars ubiquitously found on the surfaces of vertebrate cells and are involved in various immune response-related processes. In humans, at least 58 genes spanning diverse functions, from biosynthesis and activation to recycling and degradation, are involved in sialic acid biology. Because of their role in immunity, sialic acid biology genes have been hypothesized to exhibit elevated rates of evolutionary change. Consistent with this hypothesis, several genes involved in sialic acid biology have experienced higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions in the human lineage than their counterparts in other great apes, perhaps in response to ancient pathogens that infected hominins millions of years ago (paleopathogens). To test whether sialic acid biology genes have also experienced more recent positive selection during the evolution of the modern human lineage, reflecting adaptation to contemporary cosmopolitan or geographically-restricted pathogens, we examined whether their protein-coding regions showed evidence of recent hard and soft selective sweeps. This examination involved the calculation of four measures that quantify changes in allele frequency spectra, extent of population differentiation, and haplotype homozygosity caused by recent hard and soft selective sweeps for 55 sialic acid biology genes using publicly available whole genome sequencing data from 1,668 humans from three ethnic groups. To disentangle evidence for selection from confounding demographic effects, we compared the observed patterns in sialic acid biology genes to simulated sequences of the same length under a model of neutral evolution that takes into account human demographic history. We found that the patterns of genetic variation of most sialic acid biology genes did not significantly deviate from neutral expectations and were not significantly different among genes belonging to different functional categories. Those few sialic acid biology genes that

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for human β-casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.; Bergstroem, S.; Andersson, Y.; Hialmarsson, K.; Sundgyist, A.; Hernell, O.

    1990-01-01

    Human β-casein is a major protein in human milk. This protein is part of the casein micelle and has been suggested to have several physiological functions in the newborn. Since there is limited information on βcasein and the factors that affect its concentration in human milk, the authors have isolated and sequenced the gene for this protein. A human mammary gland cDNA library (Clontech) in gt 11 was screened by plaque hy-hybridization using a 42-mer synthetic 32 p-labelled oligo-nucleotide. Positive clones were identified and isolated, DNA was prepared and the gene isolated by cleavage with EcoR1. Following subcloning (PUC18), restriction mapping and Southern blotting, DNA for sequencing was prepared. The gene was sequenced by the dideoxy method. Human β-casein has 212 amino acids and the amino acid sequence deducted from the nucleotide sequence is to 91% identical to the published sequence for human β-casein show a high degree of conservation at the leader peptide and the highly phosphorylated sequences, but also deletions and divergence at several positions. These results provide insight into the structure of the human β-casein gene and will facilitate studies on factors affecting its expression

  11. Screening of radiation-induced genes in human lymphoblastoid cells irradiated with 20 cGy of γ-ray by gene chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiping; Long Xianhui; Xu Qinzhi; Bai Bei; Sui Jianli; Zhou Pingkun

    2006-01-01

    cDNA gene chip was used to detect the transcriptional profile of human lymphoblasts cells irradiated with 20 cGy of 60 Co γ-ray. The microarray contains 14112 cDNA probing corresponding to 14112 human genes. The results showed that the transcription level of 83 genes changed; among which 21 genes were up-regulated. Most of them were associated with signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cellular immunity, cytoskeleton and movement, etc. It indicated that low-dose irradiation can modulate the expression of a series of functional genes, which is the primary molecular basis of cellular responses to radiation. (authors)

  12. Low cytotoxicity effect of dendrosome as an efficient carrier for rotavirus VP2 gene transferring into a human lung cell line : dendrosome, as a novel intranasally gene porter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Ahmadian, Shahin; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Sarbolouki, Mohammad Nabi; Massumi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of dendrosome (a gene porter) was assessed in transferring recombinant human rotavirus VP2 cDNA into A549, a human lung cell line. After gene transferring, transmission electron microscopy showed core-like particles (CLPs) formation in the transfected cells both with dendrosome and lipofectamine porters. In addition, western blotting analysis showed that the expression of VP2 gene was almost equal in the dendrosome and lipofectamine-transfected cells. Also, the cytotoxicity studies revealed that dendrosome had a lower cytotoxicity than lipofectamine. Therefore, our study may introduce dendrosome as a possible carrier for gene transferring into the human lung cell line, especially, for intranasally administration of DNA vaccines.

  13. Regional mapping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and the phenylketonuria locus in the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidsky, A.S.; Law, M.L.; Morse, H.G.; Kao, F.T.; Rabin, M.; Ruddle, F.H.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1985-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. To define the regional map position of the disease locus and the PAH gene on human chromosome 12, DNA was isolated from human-hamster somatic cell hybrids with various deletions of human chromosome 12 and was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using the human cDNA PAH clone as a hybridization probe. From these results, together with detailed biochemical and cytogenetic characterization of the hybrid cells, the region on chromosome 12 containing the human PAH gene has been defined as 12q14.3..-->..qter. The PAH map position on chromosome 12 was further localized by in situ hybridization of /sup 125/I-labeled human PAH cDNA to chromosomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Results of these experiments demonstrated that the region on chromosome 12 containing the PAH gene and the PKU locus in man is 12q22..-->..12q24.1. These results not only provide a regionalized map position for a major human disease locus but also can serve as a reference point for linkage analysis with other DNA markers on human chromosome 12.

  14. Regional mapping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and the phenylketonuria locus in the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, A.S.; Law, M.L.; Morse, H.G.; Kao, F.T.; Rabin, M.; Ruddle, F.H.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. To define the regional map position of the disease locus and the PAH gene on human chromosome 12, DNA was isolated from human-hamster somatic cell hybrids with various deletions of human chromosome 12 and was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using the human cDNA PAH clone as a hybridization probe. From these results, together with detailed biochemical and cytogenetic characterization of the hybrid cells, the region on chromosome 12 containing the human PAH gene has been defined as 12q14.3→qter. The PAH map position on chromosome 12 was further localized by in situ hybridization of 125 I-labeled human PAH cDNA to chromosomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Results of these experiments demonstrated that the region on chromosome 12 containing the PAH gene and the PKU locus in man is 12q22→12q24.1. These results not only provide a regionalized map position for a major human disease locus but also can serve as a reference point for linkage analysis with other DNA markers on human chromosome 12

  15. Functional Insight From Fruit Flies on Human ADHD Candidate Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder emerging in early childhood with an average prevalence rate of 5% in children and 3.7% in adults. ADHD is characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. This, combined with educational and social dysfunctions...... of developing ADHD. We use Minos mutants, where target genes have been disrupted by the Minos transposable element, to test the effect on locomotor activity. By measuring the distance traveled, we find disparity in locomotor activity between control and Minos mutants. Impaired dopamine system underlies...

  16. Expression of human gamma-globin genes in human erythroleukemia (K562) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Peluso, M; Acuto, S; Swanson, M; Dobkin, C; Bank, A

    1987-12-15

    K562 cells express embryonic (epsilon) and fetal (gamma) globins and hemoglobins but not adult (beta) globin. To define the cis acting regulatory elements involved in the discrimination between gamma and beta genes, we have constructed chimeric genes composed of portions of gamma and beta and evaluated their expression in stable K562 transfectants. A gamma beta fusion gene containing gamma 5' sequences to the EcoRI site in exon 3 and beta sequences 3' is expressed at 10-40% that of the endogenous gamma level. In 50% of the lines, this fusion gene appropriately increases its expression in response to hemin, an inducer of endogenous globin gene expression in K562 cells. In contrast, a beta gamma fusion gene, containing beta sequences 5' to the EcoRI site in exon 3 and gamma sequences 3', is neither expressed nor correctly initiated. A beta gene containing gamma-intervening sequence (IVS) 2 accumulates an mRNA transcript when analyzed with a 3' beta probe. However, no correctly initiated beta mRNA is observed. A gamma gene with beta-IVS 2 is only inducible in one of six expressing clones. All the results are consistent with the presence of stage-specific trans acting factors in K562 cells that stimulate expression of gamma genes and suggest a significant role for gamma-IVS 2 in gamma gene expression.

  17. Evaluation of the biological differences of canine and human factor VIII in gene delivery: Implications in human hemophilia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The canine is the most important large animal model for testing novel hemophilia A(HA) treatment. It is often necessary to use canine factor VIII (cFIII) gene or protein for the evaluation of HA treatment in the canine model. However, the different biological properties between cFVIII and human FVII...

  18. Gene expression of panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells using radioactive cDNA microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Joong Youn; Yu, Su Jin; Soh, Jeong Won; Kim, Meyoung Kon [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Polyacetylenic alcohols derived from Panax ginseng have been studied to be an anticancer reagent previously. One of the Panax ginseng polyacetylenic alcohols, i.e., panaxydol, has been studied to possess an antiproliferative effect on human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-1). In ths study, radioactive cDNA microarrays enabled an efficient approach to analyze the pattern of gene expression (3.194 genes in a total) simultaneously. The bioinformatics selection of human cDNAs, which is specifically designed for immunology, apoptosis and signal transduction, were arrayed on nylon membranes. Using with {sup 33}P labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles of our interest including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and signal transduction. Gene expression profiles were also classified into several categories in accordance with the duration of panaxydol treatment. Consequently, the gene profiles of our interest were significantly up (199 genes, > 2.0 of Z-ratio) or down-(196 genes, < 2.0 of Z-ratio) regulated in panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells.

  19. Sequence comparison of six human microRNAs genes between tuberculosis patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amila, A; Acosta, A; Sarmiento, M E; Suraiya, Siti; Zafarina, Z; Panneerchelvam, S; Norazmi, M N

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in diseases development. Therefore, human miRNAs may be able to inhibit the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the human host by targeting critical genes of the pathogen. Mutations within miRNAs can alter their target selection, thereby preventing them from inhibiting Mtb genes, thus increasing host susceptibility to the disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic association of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with six human miRNAs genes, namely, hsa-miR-370, hsa-miR-520d, hsa-miR-154, hsa-miR-497, hsa-miR-758, and hsa-miR-593, which have been predicted to interact with Mtb genes. The objective of the study was to determine the possible sequence variation of selected miRNA genes that are potentially associated with the inhibition of critical Mtb genes in TB patients. The study did not show differences in the sequences compared with healthy individuals without antecedents of TB. This result could have been influenced by the sample size and the selection of miRNA genes, which need to be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene expression of panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells using radioactive cDNA microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joong Youn; Yu, Su Jin; Soh, Jeong Won; Kim, Meyoung Kon

    2001-01-01

    Polyacetylenic alcohols derived from Panax ginseng have been studied to be an anticancer reagent previously. One of the Panax ginseng polyacetylenic alcohols, i.e., panaxydol, has been studied to possess an antiproliferative effect on human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-1). In ths study, radioactive cDNA microarrays enabled an efficient approach to analyze the pattern of gene expression (3.194 genes in a total) simultaneously. The bioinformatics selection of human cDNAs, which is specifically designed for immunology, apoptosis and signal transduction, were arrayed on nylon membranes. Using with 33 P labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles of our interest including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and signal transduction. Gene expression profiles were also classified into several categories in accordance with the duration of panaxydol treatment. Consequently, the gene profiles of our interest were significantly up (199 genes, > 2.0 of Z-ratio) or down-(196 genes, < 2.0 of Z-ratio) regulated in panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells

  1. High-throughput gene expression profiling of memory differentiation in primary human T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Kate

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differentiation of naive T and B cells into memory lymphocytes is essential for immunity to pathogens. Therapeutic manipulation of this cellular differentiation program could improve vaccine efficacy and the in vitro expansion of memory cells. However, chemical screens to identify compounds that induce memory differentiation have been limited by 1 the lack of reporter-gene or functional assays that can distinguish naive and memory-phenotype T cells at high throughput and 2 a suitable cell-line representative of naive T cells. Results Here, we describe a method for gene-expression based screening that allows primary naive and memory-phenotype lymphocytes to be discriminated based on complex genes signatures corresponding to these differentiation states. We used ligation-mediated amplification and a fluorescent, bead-based detection system to quantify simultaneously 55 transcripts representing naive and memory-phenotype signatures in purified populations of human T cells. The use of a multi-gene panel allowed better resolution than any constituent single gene. The method was precise, correlated well with Affymetrix microarray data, and could be easily scaled up for high-throughput. Conclusion This method provides a generic solution for high-throughput differentiation screens in primary human T cells where no single-gene or functional assay is available. This screening platform will allow the identification of small molecules, genes or soluble factors that direct memory differentiation in naive human lymphocytes.

  2. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  3. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chang, Chu-Ting; Wang, Guei-Jane; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Yuh-Chi

    2011-03-25

    Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  4. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shwu-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang, a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC, isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  5. Global similarity and local divergence in human and mouse gene co-expression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide comparative analysis of human and mouse gene expression patterns was performed in order to evaluate the evolutionary divergence of mammalian gene expression. Tissue-specific expression profiles were analyzed for 9,105 human-mouse orthologous gene pairs across 28 tissues. Expression profiles were resolved into species-specific coexpression networks, and the topological properties of the networks were compared between species. Results At the global level, the topological properties of the human and mouse gene coexpression networks are, essentially, identical. For instance, both networks have topologies with small-world and scale-free properties as well as closely similar average node degrees, clustering coefficients, and path lengths. However, the human and mouse coexpression networks are highly divergent at the local level: only a small fraction ( Conclusion The dissonance between global versus local network divergence suggests that the interspecies similarity of the global network properties is of limited biological significance, at best, and that the biologically relevant aspects of the architectures of gene coexpression are specific and particular, rather than universal. Nevertheless, there is substantial evolutionary conservation of the local network structure which is compatible with the notion that gene coexpression networks are subject to purifying selection.

  6. Knowledge Enrichment Analysis for Human Tissue- Specific Genes Uncover New Biological Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiu-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression and regulation of genes in different tissues are fundamental questions to be answered in biology. Knowledge enrichment analysis for tissue specific (TS and housekeeping (HK genes may help identify their roles in biological process or diseases and gain new biological insights.In this paper, we performed the knowledge enrichment analysis for 17,343 genes in 84 human tissues using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and Hypergeometric Analysis (HA against three biological ontologies: Gene Ontology (GO, KEGG pathways and Disease Ontology (DO respectively.The analyses results demonstrated that the functions of most gene groups are consistent with their tissue origins. Meanwhile three interesting new associations for HK genes and the skeletal muscle tissuegenes are found. Firstly, Hypergeometric analysis against KEGG database for HK genes disclosed that three disease terms (Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease are intensively enriched.Secondly, Hypergeometric analysis against the KEGG database for Skeletal Muscle tissue genes shows that two cardiac diseases of “Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM” and “Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC” are heavily enriched, which are also considered as no relationship with skeletal functions.Thirdly, “Prostate cancer” is intensively enriched in Hypergeometric analysis against the disease ontology (DO for the Skeletal Muscle tissue genes, which is a much unexpected phenomenon.

  7. Validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of human visceral adipose samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rohini; Birerdinc, Aybike; Hossain, Noreen; Afendy, Arian; Chandhoke, Vikas; Younossi, Zobair; Baranova, Ancha

    2010-05-21

    Given the epidemic proportions of obesity worldwide and the concurrent prevalence of metabolic syndrome, there is an urgent need for better understanding the underlying mechanisms of metabolic syndrome, in particular, the gene expression differences which may participate in obesity, insulin resistance and the associated series of chronic liver conditions. Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is the standard method for studying changes in relative gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions. However, variations in amount of starting material, enzymatic efficiency and presence of inhibitors can lead to quantification errors. Hence the need for accurate data normalization is vital. Among several known strategies for data normalization, the use of reference genes as an internal control is the most common approach. Recent studies have shown that both obesity and presence of insulin resistance influence an expression of commonly used reference genes in omental fat. In this study we validated candidate reference genes suitable for qRT-PCR profiling experiments using visceral adipose samples from obese and lean individuals. Cross-validation of expression stability of eight selected reference genes using three popular algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper found ACTB and RPII as most stable reference genes. We recommend ACTB and RPII as stable reference genes most suitable for gene expression studies of human visceral adipose tissue. The use of these genes as a reference pair may further enhance the robustness of qRT-PCR in this model system.

  8. Validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of human visceral adipose samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afendy Arian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the epidemic proportions of obesity worldwide and the concurrent prevalence of metabolic syndrome, there is an urgent need for better understanding the underlying mechanisms of metabolic syndrome, in particular, the gene expression differences which may participate in obesity, insulin resistance and the associated series of chronic liver conditions. Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is the standard method for studying changes in relative gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions. However, variations in amount of starting material, enzymatic efficiency and presence of inhibitors can lead to quantification errors. Hence the need for accurate data normalization is vital. Among several known strategies for data normalization, the use of reference genes as an internal control is the most common approach. Recent studies have shown that both obesity and presence of insulin resistance influence an expression of commonly used reference genes in omental fat. In this study we validated candidate reference genes suitable for qRT-PCR profiling experiments using visceral adipose samples from obese and lean individuals. Results Cross-validation of expression stability of eight selected reference genes using three popular algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper found ACTB and RPII as most stable reference genes. Conclusions We recommend ACTB and RPII as stable reference genes most suitable for gene expression studies of human visceral adipose tissue. The use of these genes as a reference pair may further enhance the robustness of qRT-PCR in this model system.

  9. Correlation between Gene Expression and Osteoarthritis Progression in Human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Leilei; Huang, Xiaobin; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; Post, Janine Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by gradual degradation of joint cartilage. This study aimed to quantify major pathogenetic factors during OA progression in human cartilage. Cartilage specimens were isolated from OA patients and scored 0–5 according to the Osteoarthritis

  10. Codon usage and expression level of human mitochondrial 13 protein coding genes across six continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Supriyo; Uddin, Arif; Mazumder, Tarikul Huda; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Paul, Prosenjit; Halder, Binata; Deka, Himangshu; Mazumder, Gulshana Akthar; Barbhuiya, Riazul Ahmed; Barbhuiya, Masuk Ahmed; Devi, Warepam Jesmi

    2017-12-02

    The study of codon usage coupled with phylogenetic analysis is an important tool to understand the genetic and evolutionary relationship of a gene. The 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria are involved in electron transport chain for the generation of energy currency (ATP). However, no work has yet been reported on the codon usage of the mitochondrial protein coding genes across six continents. To understand the patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes across six different continents, we used bioinformatic analyses to analyze the protein coding genes. The codon usage bias was low as revealed from high ENC value. Correlation between codon usage and GC3 suggested that all the codons ending with G/C were positively correlated with GC3 but vice versa for A/T ending codons with the exception of ND4L and ND5 genes. Neutrality plot revealed that for the genes ATP6, COI, COIII, CYB, ND4 and ND4L, natural selection might have played a major role while mutation pressure might have played a dominant role in the codon usage bias of ATP8, COII, ND1, ND2, ND3, ND5 and ND6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that evolutionary relationships in each of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria were different across six continents and further suggested that geographical distance was an important factor for the origin and evolution of 13 protein coding genes of human mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA methylation of amino acid transporter genes in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, C; Novakovic, B; Lillycrop, K A; Bell, C G; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Saffery, R; Lewis, R M; Cleal, J K

    2017-12-01

    Placental transfer of amino acids via amino acid transporters is essential for fetal growth. Little is known about the epigenetic regulation of amino acid transporters in placenta. This study investigates the DNA methylation status of amino acid transporters and their expression across gestation in human placenta. BeWo cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to inhibit methylation and assess the effects on amino acid transporter gene expression. The DNA methylation levels of amino acid transporter genes in human placenta were determined across gestation using DNA methylation array data. Placental amino acid transporter gene expression across gestation was also analysed using data from publically available Gene Expression Omnibus data sets. The expression levels of these transporters at term were established using RNA sequencing data. Inhibition of DNA methylation in BeWo cells demonstrated that expression of specific amino acid transporters can be inversely associated with DNA methylation. Amino acid transporters expressed in term placenta generally showed low levels of promoter DNA methylation. Transporters with little or no expression in term placenta tended to be more highly methylated at gene promoter regions. The transporter genes SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A4, SLC7A5, SLC7A11 and SLC7A10 had significant changes in enhancer DNA methylation across gestation, as well as gene expression changes across gestation. This study implicates DNA methylation in the regulation of amino acid transporter gene expression. However, in human placenta, DNA methylation of these genes remains low across gestation and does not always play an obvious role in regulating gene expression, despite clear evidence for differential expression as gestation proceeds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. HuMiChip: Development of a Functional Gene Array for the Study of Human Microbiomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Q.; Deng, Ye; Lin, Lu; Hemme, Chris L.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Microbiomes play very important roles in terms of nutrition, health and disease by interacting with their hosts. Based on sequence data currently available in public domains, we have developed a functional gene array to monitor both organismal and functional gene profiles of normal microbiota in human and mouse hosts, and such an array is called human and mouse microbiota array, HMM-Chip. First, seed sequences were identified from KEGG databases, and used to construct a seed database (seedDB) containing 136 gene families in 19 metabolic pathways closely related to human and mouse microbiomes. Second, a mother database (motherDB) was constructed with 81 genomes of bacterial strains with 54 from gut and 27 from oral environments, and 16 metagenomes, and used for selection of genes and probe design. Gene prediction was performed by Glimmer3 for bacterial genomes, and by the Metagene program for metagenomes. In total, 228,240 and 801,599 genes were identified for bacterial genomes and metagenomes, respectively. Then the motherDB was searched against the seedDB using the HMMer program, and gene sequences in the motherDB that were highly homologous with seed sequences in the seedDB were used for probe design by the CommOligo software. Different degrees of specific probes, including gene-specific, inclusive and exclusive group-specific probes were selected. All candidate probes were checked against the motherDB and NCBI databases for specificity. Finally, 7,763 probes covering 91.2percent (12,601 out of 13,814) HMMer confirmed sequences from 75 bacterial genomes and 16 metagenomes were selected. This developed HMM-Chip is able to detect the diversity and abundance of functional genes, the gene expression of microbial communities, and potentially, the interactions of microorganisms and their hosts.

  13. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of nucleotide excision repair genes in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkofsky, Hailey B. [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veloso, Artur [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bioinformatics Program, Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ljungman, Mats, E-mail: ljungman@umich.edu [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes DNA helix-distorting lesions induced by UV light and various chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. These lesions efficiently block the elongation of transcription and need to be rapidly removed by transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) to avoid the induction of apoptosis. Twenty-nine genes have been classified to code for proteins participating in nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells. Here we explored the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of these NER genes across 13 human cell lines using Bru-seq and BruChase-seq, respectively. Many NER genes are relatively large in size and therefore will be easily inactivated by UV-induced transcription-blocking lesions. Furthermore, many of these genes produce transcripts that are rather unstable. Thus, these genes are expected to rapidly lose expression leading to a diminished function of NER. One such gene is ERCC6 that codes for the CSB protein critical for TC-NER. Due to its large gene size and high RNA turnover rate, the ERCC6 gene may act as dosimeter of DNA damage so that at high levels of damage, ERCC6 RNA levels would be diminished leading to the loss of CSB expression, inhibition of TC-NER and the promotion of cell death.

  14. Human synthetic lethal inference as potential anti-cancer target gene detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solé Ricard V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL if mutation of either alone is not lethal, but mutation of both leads to death or a significant decrease in organism's fitness. The detection of SL gene pairs constitutes a promising alternative for anti-cancer therapy. As cancer cells exhibit a large number of mutations, the identification of these mutated genes' SL partners may provide specific anti-cancer drug candidates, with minor perturbations to the healthy cells. Since existent SL data is mainly restricted to yeast screenings, the road towards human SL candidates is limited to inference methods. Results In the present work, we use phylogenetic analysis and database manipulation (BioGRID for interactions, Ensembl and NCBI for homology, Gene Ontology for GO attributes in order to reconstruct the phylogenetically-inferred SL gene network for human. In addition, available data on cancer mutated genes (COSMIC and Cancer Gene Census databases as well as on existent approved drugs (DrugBank database supports our selection of cancer-therapy candidates. Conclusions Our work provides a complementary alternative to the current methods for drug discovering and gene target identification in anti-cancer research. Novel SL screening analysis and the use of highly curated databases would contribute to improve the results of this methodology.

  15. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  16. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  17. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M.; Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the ∼1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5' regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family

  18. Transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of KIAA1199 gene expression in human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kuscu

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence has demonstrated that upregulated expression of KIAA1199 in human cancer bodes for poor survival. The regulatory mechanism controlling KIAA1199 expression in cancer remains to be characterized. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized the human KIAA1199 promoter in terms of regulation of KIAA1199 gene expression. A 3.3 kb fragment of human genomic DNA containing the 5'-flanking sequence of the KIAA1199 gene possesses both suppressive and activating elements. Employing a deletion mutagenesis approach, a 1.4 kb proximal region was defined as the basic KIAA1199 promoter containing a TATA-box close to the transcription start site. A combination of 5'-primer extension study with 5'RACE DNA sequencing analysis revealed one major transcription start site that is utilized in the human KIAA1199 gene. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the 1.4 kb KIAA1199 promoter contains putative activating regulatory elements, including activator protein-1(AP-1, Twist-1, and NF-κB sites. Sequential deletion and site-direct mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that the AP-1 and distal NF-κB sites are required for KIAA1199 gene expression. Further analyses using an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the requirement of these cis- and trans-acting elements in controlling KIAA1199 gene expression. Finally, we found that upregulated KIAA1199 expression in human breast cancer specimens correlated with hypomethylation of the regulatory region. Involvement of DNA methylation in regulation of KIAA1199 expression was recapitulated in human breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, our study unraveled the regulatory mechanisms controlling KIAA1199 gene expression in human cancer.

  19. GenToS: Use of Orthologous Gene Information to Prioritize Signals from Human GWAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm S Hoppmann

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS evaluate associations between genetic variants and a trait or disease of interest free of prior biological hypotheses. GWAS require stringent correction for multiple testing, with genome-wide significance typically defined as association p-value <5*10-8. This study presents a new tool that uses external information about genes to prioritize SNP associations (GenToS. For a given list of candidate genes, GenToS calculates an appropriate statistical significance threshold and then searches for trait-associated variants in summary statistics from human GWAS. It thereby allows for identifying trait-associated genetic variants that do not meet genome-wide significance. The program additionally tests for enrichment of significant candidate gene associations in the human GWAS data compared to the number expected by chance. As proof of principle, this report used external information from a comprehensive resource of genetically manipulated and systematically phenotyped mice. Based on selected murine phenotypes for which human GWAS data for corresponding traits were publicly available, several candidate gene input lists were derived. Using GenToS for the investigation of candidate genes underlying murine skeletal phenotypes in data from a large human discovery GWAS meta-analysis of bone mineral density resulted in the identification of significantly associated variants in 29 genes. Index variants in 28 of these loci were subsequently replicated in an independent GWAS replication step, highlighting that they are true positive associations. One signal, COL11A1, has not been discovered through GWAS so far and represents a novel human candidate gene for altered bone mineral density. The number of observed genes that contained significant SNP associations in human GWAS based on murine candidate gene input lists was much greater than the number expected by chance across several complex human traits (enrichment p-value as

  20. Molecular Cloning of Human Gene(s) Directing the Synthesis of Nervous System Cholinesterases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    responsible for at least some of the symptoms observed in hyperthyroidism . The location of primary sequences of human ChE showing high homology to bovine...verteLrates both classes exist in the heart. Humans having non- functional BuChE in the serum show no known symptoms of illness (15) and exhibit normal...become a "physiological nuisance" in cases of hyperthyroidism (such as Graves’ ophthalmopathy). In this disorder, there exists an overproduction of the

  1. Comparative Transcriptomic Profiling and Gene Expression for Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease in the Dog and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg R. Markby

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myxomatous mitral valve disease is the single most important mitral valve disease in both dogs and humans. In the case of the dog it is ubiquitous, such that all aged dogs will have some evidence of the disease, and for humans it is known as Barlow’s disease and affects up to 3% of the population, with an expected increase in prevalence as the population ages. Disease in the two species show many similarities and while both have the classic myxomatous degeneration only in humans is there extensive fibrosis. This dual pathology of the human disease markedly affects the valve transcriptome and the difference between the dog and human is dominated by changes in genes associated with fibrosis. This review will briefly examine the comparative valve pathology and then, in more detail, the transcriptomic profiling and gene expression reported so far for both species.

  2. Anti-inflammatory heat shock protein 70 genes are positively associated with human survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter Gerd

    2010-01-01

    A positive relationship between stress tolerance and longevity has been observed in several model systems. That the same correlation is applicable in humans and that it may be open to experimental manipulation for extending human lifespan requires studies on association of stress genes with longe......A positive relationship between stress tolerance and longevity has been observed in several model systems. That the same correlation is applicable in humans and that it may be open to experimental manipulation for extending human lifespan requires studies on association of stress genes...... the opportunity to perform survival analysis on these subjects. Haplotype relative risk, and genotype relative risk were calculated to measure the effects of haplotypes and genotypes on human survival in a sex-specific manner. A significant association of HSPA1A-AA (RR=3.864; p=0.016) and HSPA1B-AA (RR=2.764; p=0...

  3. Global gene analysis of oocytes from early stages in human folliculogenesis shows high expression of novel genes in reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markholt, Sara; Grøndahl, M L; Ernst, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The pool of primordial follicles in humans is laid down during embryonic development and follicles can remain dormant for prolonged intervals, often decades, until individual follicles resume growth. The mechanisms that induce growth and maturation of primordial follicles are poorly understood...... but follicles once activated either continue growth or undergo atresia. We have isolated pure populations of oocytes from human primordial, intermediate and primary follicles using laser capture micro-dissection microscopy and evaluated the global gene expression profiles by whole-genome microarray analysis......) and the mitochondrial-encoded ATPase6 (ATP6). Thus, the present study provides not only a technique to capture and perform transcriptome analysis of the sparse material of human oocytes from the earliest follicle stages but further includes a comprehensive basis for our understanding of the regulatory factors...

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 participates in human apolipoprotein A5 gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kwang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) has been reported to play a crucial role in the modulation of diverse metabolic processes in liver. Here, we reported the identification of human apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), which implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels, as a novel target gene of Nur77. Nur77 induced the human ApoA5 promoter activity. Using 5'-deletion and mutagenesis of human ApoA5 promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, it was shown that Nur77 directly regulated human ApoA5 gene expression by binding to a Nur77 response element (AAAGGTCA) located in the proximal human ApoA5 promoter region. In addition, we demonstrated that blocking of Nur77 transcriptional activity via overexpression of dominant negative Nur77 suppressed human ApoA5 promoter activity and mRNA expression in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Nur77 is a novel regulator of human ApoA5 gene expression and provide a new insight into the role of this orphan nuclear receptor in lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride homeostasis.

  5. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 participates in human apolipoprotein A5 gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kwang-Hoon, E-mail: ksong@kiom.re.kr [Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-29

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) has been reported to play a crucial role in the modulation of diverse metabolic processes in liver. Here, we reported the identification of human apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), which implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels, as a novel target gene of Nur77. Nur77 induced the human ApoA5 promoter activity. Using 5'-deletion and mutagenesis of human ApoA5 promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, it was shown that Nur77 directly regulated human ApoA5 gene expression by binding to a Nur77 response element (AAAGGTCA) located in the proximal human ApoA5 promoter region. In addition, we demonstrated that blocking of Nur77 transcriptional activity via overexpression of dominant negative Nur77 suppressed human ApoA5 promoter activity and mRNA expression in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Nur77 is a novel regulator of human ApoA5 gene expression and provide a new insight into the role of this orphan nuclear receptor in lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride homeostasis.

  6. Candidate genes expressed in human islets and their role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storling, Joachim; Brorsson, Caroline Anna

    2013-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing β cells are destroyed by an immune-mediated process leading to complete insulin deficiency. There is a strong genetic component in T1D. Genes located in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are the most important genetic determinants of disease......, but more than 40 additional loci are known to significantly affect T1D risk. Since most of the currently known genetic candidates have annotated immune cell functions, it is generally considered that most of the genetic susceptibility in T1D is caused by variation in genes affecting immune cell function....... Recent studies, however, indicate that most T1D candidate genes are expressed in human islets suggesting that the functions of the genes are not restricted to immune cells, but also play roles in the islets and possibly the β cells. Several candidates change expression levels within the islets following...

  7. Microarray Analysis on Gene Regulation by Estrogen, Progesterone and Tamoxifen in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-E Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial stromal cells represent a major cellular component of human uterine endometrium that is subject to tight hormonal regulation. Through cell-cell contacts and/or paracrine mechanisms, stromal cells play a significant role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. We isolated stromal cells from normal human endometrium and investigated the morphological and transcriptional changes induced by estrogen, progesterone and tamoxifen. We demonstrated that stromal cells express appreciable levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and undergo different morphological changes upon hormonal stimulation. Microarray analysis indicated that both estrogen and progesterone induced dramatic alterations in a variety of genes associated with cell structure, transcription, cell cycle, and signaling. However, divergent patterns of changes, and in some genes opposite effects, were observed for the two hormones. A large number of genes are identified as novel targets for hormonal regulation. These hormone-responsive genes may be involved in normal uterine function and the development of endometrial malignancies.

  8. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  9. Structural organization of the human and mouse laminin beta2 chain genes, and alternative splicing at the 5' end of the human transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Gautam, M; Loechel, F

    1996-01-01

    We have determined the structural organization of the human and mouse genes that encode the laminin beta2 chain (s-laminin), an essential component of the basement membranes of the neuromuscular synapse and the kidney glomerulus. The human and mouse genes have a nearly identical exon-intron organ......We have determined the structural organization of the human and mouse genes that encode the laminin beta2 chain (s-laminin), an essential component of the basement membranes of the neuromuscular synapse and the kidney glomerulus. The human and mouse genes have a nearly identical exon...

  10. Differences in gene expression profiles between human preimplantation embryos cultured in two different IVF culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; Eijssen, Lars M T; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Mantikou, Eleni; Jonker, Martijs J; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Repping, Sjoerd; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A

    2015-10-01

    Is gene expression in human preimplantation embryos affected by the medium used for embryo culture in vitro during an IVF treatment? Six days of in vitro culture of human preimplantation embryos resulted in medium-dependent differences in expression level of genes involved in apoptosis, protein degradation, metabolism and cell-cycle regulation. Several human studies have shown an effect of culture medium on embryo development, pregnancy outcome and birthweight. However, the underlying mechanisms in human embryos are still unknown. In animal models of human development, it has been demonstrated that culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro affects gene expression. In humans, it has been found that culture medium affects gene expression of cryopreserved embryos that, after thawing, were cultured in two different media for 2 more days. In a multicenter trial, women were randomly assigned to two culture medium groups [G5 and human tubal fluid (HTF)]. Data on embryonic development were collected for all embryos. In one center, embryos originating from two pronuclei (2PN) zygotes that were not selected for transfer or cryopreservation on Day 2 or 3 because of lower morphological quality, were cultured until Day 6 and used in this study, if couples consented. Ten blastocysts each from the G5 and HTF study groups, matched for fertilization method, maternal age and blastocyst quality, were selected and their mRNA was isolated and amplified. Embryos were examined individually for genome-wide gene expression using Agilent microarrays and PathVisio was used to identify the pathways that showed a culture medium-dependent activity. Expression of 951 genes differed significantly (P differences observed between the study groups are caused by factors that we did not investigate. Extrapolation of these results to embryos used for transfer demands caution as in the present study embryos that were not selected for either embryo transfer or cryopreservation have been used for the

  11. Androgen regulated genes in human prostate xenografts in mice: relation to BPH and prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold D Love

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate carcinoma (CaP are linked to aging and the presence of androgens, suggesting that androgen regulated genes play a major role in these common diseases. Androgen regulation of prostate growth and development depends on the presence of intact epithelial-stromal interactions. Further, the prostatic stroma is implicated in BPH. This suggests that epithelial cell lines are inadequate to identify androgen regulated genes that could contribute to BPH and CaP and which could serve as potential clinical biomarkers. In this study, we used a human prostate xenograft model to define a profile of genes regulated in vivo by androgens, with an emphasis on identifying candidate biomarkers. Benign transition zone (TZ human prostate tissue from radical prostatectomies was grafted to the sub-renal capsule site of intact or castrated male immunodeficient mice, followed by the removal or addition of androgens, respectively. Microarray analysis of RNA from these tissues was used to identify genes that were; 1 highly expressed in prostate, 2 had significant expression changes in response to androgens, and, 3 encode extracellular proteins. A total of 95 genes meeting these criteria were selected for analysis and validation of expression in patient prostate tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of these genes were measured in pooled RNAs from human prostate tissues with varying severity of BPH pathologic changes and CaP of varying Gleason score. A number of androgen regulated genes were identified. Additionally, a subset of these genes were over-expressed in RNA from clinical BPH tissues, and the levels of many were found to correlate with disease status. Our results demonstrate the feasibility, and some of the problems, of using a mouse xenograft model to characterize the androgen regulated expression profiles of intact human prostate tissues.

  12. A comparison of 100 human genes using an alu element-based instability model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W Cook

    Full Text Available The human retrotransposon with the highest copy number is the Alu element. The human genome contains over one million Alu elements that collectively account for over ten percent of our DNA. Full-length Alu elements are randomly distributed throughout the genome in both forward and reverse orientations. However, full-length widely spaced Alu pairs having two Alus in the same (direct orientation are statistically more prevalent than Alu pairs having two Alus in the opposite (inverted orientation. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown. It has been hypothesized that this imbalance is the consequence of anomalous inverted Alu pair interactions. One proposed mechanism suggests that inverted Alu pairs can ectopically interact, exposing both ends of each Alu element making up the pair to a potential double-strand break, or "hit". This hypothesized "two-hit" (two double-strand breaks potential per Alu element was used to develop a model for comparing the relative instabilities of human genes. The model incorporates both 1 the two-hit double-strand break potential of Alu elements and 2 the probability of exon-damaging deletions extending from these double-strand breaks. This model was used to compare the relative instabilities of 50 deletion-prone cancer genes and 50 randomly selected genes from the human genome. The output of the Alu element-based genomic instability model developed here is shown to coincide with the observed instability of deletion-prone cancer genes. The 50 cancer genes are collectively estimated to be 58% more unstable than the randomly chosen genes using this model. Seven of the deletion-prone cancer genes, ATM, BRCA1, FANCA, FANCD2, MSH2, NCOR1 and PBRM1, were among the most unstable 10% of the 100 genes analyzed. This algorithm may lay the foundation for comparing genetic risks posed by structural variations that are unique to specific individuals, families and people groups.

  13. A comparison of 100 human genes using an alu element-based instability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, George W; Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Bourgeois, Matthew G; Fullerton, Mitchell L; Fussell, John T; Herbold, Heath D; Batzer, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    The human retrotransposon with the highest copy number is the Alu element. The human genome contains over one million Alu elements that collectively account for over ten percent of our DNA. Full-length Alu elements are randomly distributed throughout the genome in both forward and reverse orientations. However, full-length widely spaced Alu pairs having two Alus in the same (direct) orientation are statistically more prevalent than Alu pairs having two Alus in the opposite (inverted) orientation. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown. It has been hypothesized that this imbalance is the consequence of anomalous inverted Alu pair interactions. One proposed mechanism suggests that inverted Alu pairs can ectopically interact, exposing both ends of each Alu element making up the pair to a potential double-strand break, or "hit". This hypothesized "two-hit" (two double-strand breaks) potential per Alu element was used to develop a model for comparing the relative instabilities of human genes. The model incorporates both 1) the two-hit double-strand break potential of Alu elements and 2) the probability of exon-damaging deletions extending from these double-strand breaks. This model was used to compare the relative instabilities of 50 deletion-prone cancer genes and 50 randomly selected genes from the human genome. The output of the Alu element-based genomic instability model developed here is shown to coincide with the observed instability of deletion-prone cancer genes. The 50 cancer genes are collectively estimated to be 58% more unstable than the randomly chosen genes using this model. Seven of the deletion-prone cancer genes, ATM, BRCA1, FANCA, FANCD2, MSH2, NCOR1 and PBRM1, were among the most unstable 10% of the 100 genes analyzed. This algorithm may lay the foundation for comparing genetic risks posed by structural variations that are unique to specific individuals, families and people groups.

  14. AB126. Association between FOX03A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shanchao; Bao, Jiming; Song, Xianlu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOX03A gene, encoding the forkhead box 03 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOX03A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOX03A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% c...

  15. Association between FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and human longevity: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Ji-Ming; Song, Xian-Lu; Hong, Ying-Qia; Zhu, Hai-Li; Li, Cui; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Shan-Chao; Chen, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown associations between the FOXO3A gene, encoding the forkhead box O3 transcription factor, and human or specifically male longevity. However, the associations of specific FOXO3A polymorphisms with longevity remain inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of existing studies to clarify these potential associations. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies of FOXO3A gene polymorphisms and longevity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval...

  16. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Philip L.; Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days...

  17. Prediction of the Ebola Virus Infection Related Human Genes Using Protein-Protein Interaction Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, HuanHuan; Zhang, YuHang; Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Liucun; Wang, Yi; Li, JiaRui; Feng, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). It is reported that human could be infected by EBOV with a high fatality rate. However, association factors between EBOV and host still tend to be ambiguous. According to the "guilt by association" (GBA) principle, proteins interacting with each other are very likely to function similarly or the same. Based on this assumption, we tried to obtain EBOV infection-related human genes in a protein-protein interaction network using Dijkstra algorithm. We hope it could contribute to the discovery of novel effective treatments. Finally, 15 genes were selected as potential EBOV infection-related human genes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. An integrated catalog of reference genes in the human gut microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Cai, Xianghang

    2014-01-01

    Many analyses of the human gut microbiome depend on a catalog of reference genes. Existing catalogs for the human gut microbiome are based on samples from single cohorts or on reference genomes or protein sequences, which limits coverage of global microbiome diversity. Here we combined 249 newly...... signatures. This expanded catalog should facilitate quantitative characterization of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic data from the gut microbiome to understand its variation across populations in human health and disease.......) comprising 9,879,896 genes. The catalog includes close-to-complete sets of genes for most gut microbes, which are also of considerably higher quality than in previous catalogs. Analyses of a group of samples from Chinese and Danish individuals using the catalog revealed country-specific gut microbial...

  19. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ionizing radiation downregulates ASPM, a gene responsible for microcephaly in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Akira; Yaoi, Takeshi; Ogi, Hiroshi; Wang Bing; Suetomi, Katsutoshi; Sekine, Emiko; Yu Dong; Kato, Takamitsu; Takahashi, Sentaro; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Itoh, Kyoko; Fushiki, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    Microcephaly is a malformation associated with in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors and can be induced in mice by fetal exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The pathogenesis of IR-induced microcephaly, however, has not been fully understood. Our analyses of high-coverage expression profiling (HiCEP) demonstrated that the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated gene (ASPM) was down-regulated in irradiated human diploid fibroblasts. ASPM was recently reported as the causative gene for MCPH-5, the most common type of congenital microcephaly in humans. Here, we show that the expression of the Aspm gene was significantly reduced by IR in various human and murine cells. Additionally, Aspm was found downregulated in the irradiated fetal mouse brain, particularly in the ventricular zones. A similar suppression was observed in the irradiated neurosphere cultures. This is the first report suggesting that the suppression of Aspm by IR could be the initial molecular target leading to the future microcephaly formation

  1. Genes expressed in specific areas of the human fetal cerebral cortex display distinct patterns of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelle Lambert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The developmental mechanisms through which the cerebral cortex increased in size and complexity during primate evolution are essentially unknown. To uncover genetic networks active in the developing cerebral cortex, we combined three-dimensional reconstruction of human fetal brains at midgestation and whole genome expression profiling. This novel approach enabled transcriptional characterization of neurons from accurately defined cortical regions containing presumptive Broca and Wernicke language areas, as well as surrounding associative areas. We identified hundreds of genes displaying differential expression between the two regions, but no significant difference in gene expression between left and right hemispheres. Validation by qRTPCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the robustness of our approach and revealed novel patterns of area- and layer-specific expression throughout the developing cortex. Genes differentially expressed between cortical areas were significantly associated with fast-evolving non-coding sequences harboring human-specific substitutions that could lead to divergence in their repertoires of transcription factor binding sites. Strikingly, while some of these sequences were accelerated in the human lineage only, many others were accelerated in chimpanzee and/or mouse lineages, indicating that genes important for cortical development may be particularly prone to changes in transcriptional regulation across mammals. Genes differentially expressed between cortical regions were also enriched for transcriptional targets of FoxP2, a key gene for the acquisition of language abilities in humans. Our findings point to a subset of genes with a unique combination of cortical areal expression and evolutionary patterns, suggesting that they play important roles in the transcriptional network underlying human-specific neural traits.

  2. Colocalization of coregulated genes: a steered molecular dynamics study of human chromosome 19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Stefano

    Full Text Available The connection between chromatin nuclear organization and gene activity is vividly illustrated by the observation that transcriptional coregulation of certain genes appears to be directly influenced by their spatial proximity. This fact poses the more general question of whether it is at all feasible that the numerous genes that are coregulated on a given chromosome, especially those at large genomic distances, might become proximate inside the nucleus. This problem is studied here using steered molecular dynamics simulations in order to enforce the colocalization of thousands of knowledge-based gene sequences on a model for the gene-rich human chromosome 19. Remarkably, it is found that most (≈ 88% gene pairs can be brought simultaneously into contact. This is made possible by the low degree of intra-chromosome entanglement and the large number of cliques in the gene coregulatory network. A clique is a set of genes coregulated all together as a group. The constrained conformations for the model chromosome 19 are further shown to be organized in spatial macrodomains that are similar to those inferred from recent HiC measurements. The findings indicate that gene coregulation and colocalization are largely compatible and that this relationship can be exploited to draft the overall spatial organization of the chromosome in vivo. The more general validity and implications of these findings could be investigated by applying to other eukaryotic chromosomes the general and transferable computational strategy introduced here.

  3. Altered Gene Transcription in Human Cells Treated with Ludox® Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Fede

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Silica (SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs have found extensive applications in industrial manufacturing, biomedical and biotechnological fields. Therefore, the increasing exposure to such ultrafine particles requires studies to characterize their potential cytotoxic effects in order to provide exhaustive information to assess the impact of nanomaterials on human health. The understanding of the biological processes involved in the development and maintenance of a variety of pathologies is improved by genome-wide approaches, and in this context, gene set analysis has emerged as a fundamental tool for the interpretation of the results. In this work we show how the use of a combination of gene-by-gene and gene set analyses can enhance the interpretation of results of in vitro treatment of A549 cells with Ludox® colloidal amorphous silica nanoparticles. By gene-by-gene and gene set analyses, we evidenced a specific cell response in relation to NPs size and elapsed time after treatment, with the smaller NPs (SM30 having higher impact on inflammatory and apoptosis processes than the bigger ones. Apoptotic process appeared to be activated by the up-regulation of the initiator genes TNFa and IL1b and by ATM. Moreover, our analyses evidenced that cell treatment with LudoxÒ silica nanoparticles activated the matrix metalloproteinase genes MMP1, MMP10 and MMP9. The information derived from this study can be informative about the cytotoxicity of Ludox® and other similar colloidal amorphous silica NPs prepared by solution processes.

  4. Cigarette smoke modulates expression of human rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial host defense genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Proud

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV infections trigger acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. The human airway epithelial cell is the primary site of HRV infection and responds to infection with altered expression of multiple genes, the products of which could regulate the outcome to infection. Cigarette smoking aggravates asthma symptoms, and is also the predominant risk factor for the development and progression of COPD. We, therefore, examined whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE modulates viral responses by altering HRV-induced epithelial gene expression. Primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone, CSE alone, purified HRV-16 alone or to HRV-16+ CSE. After 24 h, supernatants were collected and total cellular RNA was isolated. Gene array analysis was performed to examine mRNA expression. Additional experiments, using real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and/or western blotting, validated altered expression of selected gene products. CSE and HRV-16 each induced groups of genes that were largely independent of each other. When compared to gene expression in response to CSE alone, cells treated with HRV+CSE showed no obvious differences in CSE-induced gene expression. By contrast, compared to gene induction in response to HRV-16 alone, cells exposed to HRV+CSE showed marked suppression of expression of a number of HRV-induced genes associated with various functions, including antiviral defenses, inflammation, viral signaling and airway remodeling. These changes were not associated with altered expression of type I or type III interferons. Thus, CSE alters epithelial responses to HRV infection in a manner that may negatively impact antiviral and host defense outcomes.

  5. Transfer of Chinese hamster DNA repair gene(s) into repair-deficient human cells (Xeroderma pigmentosum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karentz, D.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of repair genes by DNA transfection into repair-deficient Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells has thus far been unsuccessful, presenting an obstacle to cloning XP genes. The authors chose an indirect route to transfer repair genes in chromosome fragments. DNA repair-competent (UV resistant) hybrid cell lines were established by PEG-mediated fusions of DNA repair-deficient (UV sensitive) human fibroblasts (XP12RO) with wild type Chinese hamster (CHO) cells (AA8). CHO cells were exposed to 5 Krad X-rays prior to fusions, predisposing hybrid cells to lose CHO chromosome fragments preferentially. Repair-competent hybrids were selected by periodic exposures to UV light. Secondary and tertiary hybrid cell lines were developed by fusion of X-irradiated hybrids to XP12RO. The hybrid cell lines exhibit resistance to UV that is comparable to that of CHO cells and they are proficient at repair replication after UV exposure. Whole cell DNA-DNA hybridizations indicate that the hybrids have greater homology to CHO DNA than is evident between XP12RO and CHO. These observations indicate that CHO DNA sequences which can function in repair of UV-damaged DNA in human cells have been transferred into the genome of the repair-deficient XP12RO cells

  6. The endogenous retroviral insertion in the human complement C4 gene modulates the expression of homologous genes by antisense inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P M; Witzel-Schlömp, K; Rittner, C; Zhang, L

    2001-02-01

    Intron 9 contains the complete endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(C4) as a 6.4-kb insertion in 60% of human C4 genes. The retroviral insertion is in reverse orientation to the C4 coding sequence. Therefore, expression of C4 could lead to the transcription of an antisense RNA, which might protect against exogenous retroviral infections. To test this hypothesis, open reading frames from the HERV sequence were subcloned in sense orientiation into a vector allowing expression of a beta-galactosidase fusion protein. Mouse L cells which had been stably transfected with either the human C4A or C4B gene both carrying the HERV insertion (LC4 cells), and L(Tk-) cells without the C4 gene were transiently transfected either with a retroviral construct or with the wild-type vector. Expression was monitored using an enzymatic assay. We demonstrated that (1) HERV-K(C4) antisense mRNA transcripts are present in cells constitutively expressing C4, (2) expression of retroviral-like constructs is significantly downregulated in cells expressing C4, and (3) this downregulation is further modulated in a dose-dependent fashion following interferon-gamma stimulation of C4 expression. These results support the hypothesis of a genomic antisense strategy mediated by the HERV-K(C4) insertion as a possible defense mechanism against exogenous retroviral infections.

  7. Coordinated Expression of Phosphoinositide Metabolic Genes during Development and Aging of Human Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley I Rapoport

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositides, lipid-signaling molecules, participate in diverse brain processes within a wide metabolic cascade.Gene transcriptional networks coordinately regulate the phosphoinositide cascade during human brain Development and Aging.We used the public BrainCloud database for human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to examine age-related expression levels of 49 phosphoinositide metabolic genes during Development (0 to 20+ years and Aging (21+ years.We identified three groups of partially overlapping genes in each of the two intervals, with similar intergroup correlations despite marked phenotypic differences between Aging and Development. In each interval, ITPKB, PLCD1, PIK3R3, ISYNA1, IMPA2, INPPL1, PI4KB, and AKT1 are in Group 1, PIK3CB, PTEN, PIK3CA, and IMPA1 in Group 2, and SACM1L, PI3KR4, INPP5A, SYNJ1, and PLCB1 in Group 3. Ten of the genes change expression nonlinearly during Development, suggesting involvement in rapidly changing neuronal, glial and myelination events. Correlated transcription for some gene pairs likely is facilitated by colocalization on the same chromosome band.Stable coordinated gene transcriptional networks regulate brain phosphoinositide metabolic pathways during human Development and Aging.

  8. Multi-kilobase homozygous targeted gene replacement in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Susan M; Ortiz, Luis; Mali, Prashant; Aach, John; Church, George M

    2015-02-18

    Sequence-specific nucleases such as TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 system have so far been used to disrupt, correct or insert transgenes at precise locations in mammalian genomes. We demonstrate efficient 'knock-in' targeted replacement of multi-kilobase genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Using a model system replacing endogenous human genes with their mouse counterpart, we performed a comprehensive study of targeting vector design parameters for homologous recombination. A 2.7 kilobase (kb) homozygous gene replacement was achieved in up to 11% of iPSC without selection. The optimal homology arm length was around 2 kb, with homology length being especially critical on the arm not adjacent to the cut site. Homologous sequence inside the cut sites was detrimental to targeting efficiency, consistent with a synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) mechanism. Using two nuclease sites, we observed a high degree of gene excisions and inversions, which sometimes occurred more frequently than indel mutations. While homozygous deletions of 86 kb were achieved with up to 8% frequency, deletion frequencies were not solely a function of nuclease activity and deletion size. Our results analyzing the optimal parameters for targeting vector design will inform future gene targeting efforts involving multi-kilobase gene segments, particularly in human iPSC. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Asynchronous DNA replication within the human β-globin gene locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epner, E.; Forrester, W.C.; Groudine, M.

    1988-01-01

    The timing of DNA replication of the human β-globin gene locus has been studied by blot hybridization of newly synthesized BrdUrd-substituted DNA from cells in different stages of the S phase. Using probes that span >120 kilobases across the human β-globin gene locus, the authors show that the majority of this domain replicates in early S phase in the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 and in middle-to-late S phase in the lymphoid cell line Manca. However, in K562 cells three small regions display a strikingly different replication pattern than adjacent sequences. These islands, located in the inter-γ-globin gene region and approximately 20 kilobases 5' to the ε-globin gene and 20 kilobases 3' to the β-globin gene, replicate later and throughout S phase. A similar area is also present in the α-globin gene region in K562 cells. They suggest that these regions may represent sites of termination of replication forks

  10. Stunned Silence: Gene Expression Programs in Human Cells Infected with Monkeypox or Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubins, Kathleen H.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Relman, David A.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV), an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC), a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated) MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or poly (I-C) was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C) induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection. PMID:21267444

  11. Stunned silence: gene expression programs in human cells infected with monkeypox or vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Rubins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV, an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC, a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, or poly (I-C was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection.

  12. A human repair gene ERCC5 is involved in group G xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Tadahiro

    1994-01-01

    In E. coli, ultraviolet-induced DNA damage is removed by the coordinated action of UVR A, B, C, and D proteins (1). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, more than ten genes have been reported to be involved in excision repair (2). The nucleotide excision repair pathway has been extensively studied in these organisms. To facilitate studying nucleotide excision repair in mammalian cells. Ultraviolet-sensitive rodent cell mutants have been isolated and classified into 11 complementation groups (9,10). The human nucleotide excision repair genes which complement the defects of the mutants have been designated as the ERCC (excision repair cross-complementing) genes; a number is added to refer to the particular rodent complementation group that is corrected by the gene. Recently, several human DNA repair genes have been cloned using rodent cell lines sensitive to ultraviolet. These include ERCC2 (3), ERCC3 (4), and ERCC6 (5), which correspond to the defective genes in the ultraviolet-sensitive human disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group D (6) and group B (4), and Cockayne's syndrome (CS) group B (7), respectively. The human excision repair gene ERCC5 was cloned after DNA-mediated gene transfer of human HeLa cell genomic DNA into the ultraviolet-sensitive mouse mutant XL216, a member of rodent complementation group 5 (11,12) and the gene was mapped on human chromosome 13q32.3-q33.1 by the replication R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization method (13). The ERCC5 cDNA encodes a predicted 133 kDa nuclear protein that shares some homology with product of the yeast DNA repair gene RAD 2. Transfection with mouse ERCC5 cDNA restored normal levels of ultraviolet-resistance to XL216 cells. Microinjection of ERCC5 cDNA specifically restored the defect of XP group G cells (XP-G) as measured by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), and XP-G cells stably transformed with ERCC5 cDNA showed nearly normal ultraviolet resistance. (J.P.N.)

  13. Ligand-Modified Human Serum Albumin Nanoparticles for Enhanced Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Jennifer; Wilhelm, Nadine; von Briesen, Hagen; Noske, Nadja; Günther, Christine; Langer, Klaus; Gorjup, Erwin

    2015-09-08

    The development of nonviral gene delivery systems is a great challenge to enable safe gene therapy. In this study, ligand-modified nanoparticles based on human serum albumin (HSA) were developed and optimized for an efficient gene therapy. Different glutaraldehyde cross-linking degrees were investigated to optimize the HSA nanoparticles for gene delivery. The peptide sequence arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) and the HIV-1 transactivator of transduction sequence (Tat) are well-known as promising targeting ligands. Plasmid DNA loaded HSA nanoparticles were covalently modified on their surface with these different ligands. The transfection potential of the obtained plasmid DNA loaded RGD- and Tat-modified nanoparticles was investigated in vitro, and optimal incubation conditions for these preparations were studied. It turned out that Tat-modified HSA nanoparticles with the lowest cross-linking degree of 20% showed the highest transfection potential. Taken together, ligand-functionalized HSA nanoparticles represent promising tools for efficient and safe gene therapy.

  14. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-03-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation.

  15. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Enriched Human Spermatogonia after Short- and Long-Term Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a molecular signature for enriched adult human stem/progenitor spermatogonia during short-term (<2 weeks and long-term culture (up to more than 14 months in comparison to human testicular fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cells. Human spermatogonia were isolated by CD49f magnetic activated cell sorting and collagen−/laminin+ matrix binding from primary testis cultures obtained from ten adult men. For transcriptomic analysis, single spermatogonia-like cells were collected based on their morphology and dimensions using a micromanipulation system from the enriched germ cell cultures. Immunocytochemical, RT-PCR and microarray analyses revealed that the analyzed populations of cells were distinct at the molecular level. The germ- and pluripotency-associated genes and