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Sample records for human coronary collateral

  1. The human coronary collateral circulation: development and clinical importance.

    Seiler, Christian; Stoller, Michael; Pitt, Bertram; Meier, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    Coronary collaterals are an alternative source of blood supply to myocardium jeopardized by ischaemia. In comparison with other species, the human coronary collateral circulation is very well developed. Among individuals without coronary artery disease (CAD), there are preformed collateral arteries preventing myocardial ischaemia during a brief vascular occlusion in 20-25%. Determinants of such anastomoses are low heart rate and the absence of systemic arterial hypertension. In patients with CAD, collateral arteries preventing myocardial ischaemia during a brief occlusion are present in every third individual. Collateral flow sufficient to prevent myocardial ischaemia during coronary occlusion amounts to one-fifth to one-fourth the normal flow through the open vessel. Myocardial infarct size, the most important prognostic determinant after such an event, is the product of coronary artery occlusion time, area at risk for infarction, and the inverse of collateral supply. Well-developed coronary collateral arteries in patients with CAD mitigate myocardial infarcts and improve survival. Approximately one-fifth of patients with CAD cannot be revascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Therapeutic promotion of collateral growth is a valuable treatment strategy in those patients. It should aim at growth of large conductive collateral arteries (arteriogenesis). Potential arteriogenic approaches include the treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, physical exercise training, and external counterpulsation.

  2. Historical aspects and relevance of the human coronary collateral circulation.

    Seiler, Christian; Meier, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    In 1669, anastomoses between the right and left coronary artery were first documented by Richard Lower of Amsterdam. Using post-mortem imaging, a debate followed on the existence of structural inter-coronary anastomoses, which was not resolved before the first half of the 20 ieth century in case of the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and not before the early 1960 ies in case of the normal human coronary circulation by William Fulton. Functional coronary collateral measurements during coronary interventions were first performed only in the 1970 ies, respectively in the early 1980 ies. In humans, the existence of functional coronary collaterals in the absence of CAD has not been documented before 2003. Though the coronary collateral circulation has been recognized as an alternative source of blood supply to ischemic myocardium, its prognostic significance for the CAD population as a whole has been controversial until recently. The debate was due to different populations examined (acute versus chronic CAD, varying severity of CAD), to variable definitions of the term "prognosis", to insufficient statistical power of the investigation with rare occurrence of prognostic endpoints, to short duration of follow-up and to blunt instruments employed for collateral assessment. Individually, it has been acknowledged that a well functioning collateral supply to a myocardial area at risk for necrosis reduces infarct size, preserves ventricular function, prevents ventricular remodelling and aneurysm formation. Collectively, evidence has accumulated only recently that an extensive coronary collateral circulation is a beneficial prognosticator quoad vitam. In a recent meta-analysis on the topic, the risk ratio to die from any cause for high vs low or absent collateralization in patients with subacute myocardial infarction was 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.15-1.92; p=0.335), and for patients with acute myocardial infarction, it was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0

  3. Clinical, angiographic and hemodynamic predictors of recruitable collateral flow assessed during balloon angioplasty coronary occlusion

    Piek, J. J.; van Liebergen, R. A.; Koch, K. T.; Peters, R. J.; David, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    We sought to determine the predictive value of factors influencing coronary collateral vascular responses in humans. There is limited information on the factors responsible for coronary collateral vascular development, despite the protective effect of collateral vessels in ischemic syndromes.

  4. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  5. Pleiotrophin levels are associated with improved coronary collateral circulation.

    Türker Duyuler, Pinar; Duyuler, Serkan; Gök, Murat; Kundi, Harun; Topçuoğlu, Canan; Güray, Ümit

    2018-01-01

    Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in coronary collateral formation is necessary for new therapies. Pleiotrophin is a secreted multifunctional cytokine and associated with the formation of functional cardiovascular neovascularization in a series of experimental animal models. We aimed to evaluate the serum levels of pleiotrophin in patients with chronic total coronary artery occlusion and poor or good collateral development. We included 88 consecutive patients (mean age of the entire population: 63.7±12.1 years, 68 male patients) with stable angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography and had chronic total occlusion in at least one major coronary artery. Collateral grading was performed according to the Rentrop classification. After grading, patients were divided into poor collateral circulation (Rentrop grade 0 and 1) and good collateral circulation (Rentrop grades 2 and 3) groups. Serum pleiotrophin levels were measured using a commercial human ELISA kit. Fifty-eight patients had good and 30 patients had poor coronary collaterals. The good collateral group had higher serum pleiotrophin levels than the poor collateral group (690.1±187.9 vs. 415.3±165.9 ng/ml, Pcollateral development (odds ratio: 1.007; confidence interval: 1.003-1.012; P=0.002). This study showed that increased serum pleiotrophin levels are associated with better developed coronary collateral circulation. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationship.

  6. The dynamics of the coronary collateral circulation.

    Zimarino, Marco; D'Andreamatteo, Mariangela; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen E; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2014-04-01

    Coronary collaterals are present at birth, with wide interindividual variation in their functional capacity. These vessels protect jeopardized myocardium, and the number of collaterals and the extent of their coverage are associated with improved survival in patients with coronary heart disease. The collateral circulation is not a permanent set of structures, but undergoes dynamic changes with important consequences for cardioprotection. If a severe atherosclerotic lesion develops in an artery supplying tissue downstream of a total occlusion through collateral blood flow, pressure gradients across the collateral bed change. The result is that some of the collateral flow previously supplying the perfusion territory of the totally occluded artery is redirected to the perfusion territory of the donor artery, thus producing a 'collateral steal'. The collateral circulation can regress once antegrade flow in the main dependent artery is re-established, as occurs following the recanalization of a chronic total occlusion. The clinical benefits of coronary revascularization must be cautiously weighed against the risk of reducing the protective support derived from coronary collaterals. Consequently, pharmacological, gene-based, and cell-based therapeutic attempts have been made to enhance collateral function. Although such approaches have so far yielded no, or modest, beneficial results, the rapidly accruing data on coronary collateral circulation will hopefully lead to new effective therapeutic strategies.

  7. Association between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulation

    Mustafa Oylumlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate relation between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral flow.Material and methods: Eighty-two patients admittedDicle University Medical Faculty Hospital Cardiology Departmentwith diagnosis of coronary artery disease anddetected significant stenosis or occlusion at least one ofthe coronary arteries, were included to study. Age, sex,presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, acute/stable coronary disease, body mass index, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, white blood count, Rentrop scores andnumber of diseased vessel were recorded.Results: Well-developed coronary collateral circulationwas found in 33 of the patients. Forty-nine patients hadpoor coronary collateral circulation. Mean age, sex, bodymass index, presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertensionwere similar in two groups. Mean neutrophil/lymphocyteratio was lower in well-developed coronary collateralcirculation group than poor coronary collateral circulationgroup, but there was no significant differences (2.78 vs2.89, p=0.12.Conclusions: There was no association between neutron/hil lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulationaccording to our data. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1:29-32

  8. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  9. Why is coronary collateral growth impaired in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome?

    Rocic, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are strong predictors of severity of occlusive coronary disease and poorer outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies. Coronary collateral growth can provide an alternative or accessory pathway of revascularization. However, collateral growth is impaired in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Although many factors necessary for collateral growth are known and many interventions have shown promising results in animal studies, not a single attempt to induce coronary collateral growth in human clinical trials has led to satisfactory results. Accordingly, the first part of this review outlines the known deleterious effects of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on factors necessary for collateral growth, including pro-angiogenic growth factors, endothelial function, the redox state of the coronary circulation, intracellular signaling, leukocytes and bone marrow-derived progenitors cells. The second section highlights the gaps in our current knowledge of how these factors interact with the radically altered environment of the coronary circulation in diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The interplay between these pathologies and inadequately explored areas related to the temporal regulation of collateral remodeling and the roles of the extracellular matrix, vascular cell phenotype and pro-inflammatory cytokines are emphasized with implications to development of efficient therapies. PMID:22342811

  10. Retrograde approach for the recanalization of coronary chronic total occlusion: collateral selection and collateral related complication.

    Ma, Jian-Ying; Qian, Ju-Ying; Ge, Lei; Fan, Bing; Wang, Qi-Bing; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Yao, Kang; Huang, Dong; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2013-03-01

    The retrograde approach through collaterals has been applied in the treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions during percutaneous recanalization of coronary arteries. This study was to investigate the success rate of recanalization and collateral related complications in patients when using the retrograde approach. Eighty-four cases subjected to retrograde approach identified from July 2005 to July 2012 were included in this study. Patient characteristics, procedural outcomes and in-hospital clinical events were evaluated. Mean age of the patient was (59.6 ± 11.2) years old and 91.7% were men. The target CTO lesions were distributed among the left anterior descending artery in 45 cases (53.5%), left circumflex artery in one case (1.2%), right coronary artery in 34 cases (40.5%), and left main in four cases (4.8%). The overall success rate of recanalization was 79.8%. The septal collateral was three times more frequently used for retrograde access than the epicardial collateral, 68/84 (81%) vs. 16/84 (19%). Successful wire passage through the collateral channel was achieved in 58 (72.6%) patients. The success rate of recanalization was 93.1% (54/58) in patients with and 50% (13/26) in patients without successful retrograde wire passage of the collateral channel (P collaterals was achieved in 49 of 68 septal collaterals (72.1%) and in 9 of 16 epicardial collaterals (56.3%) (P = NS). There was no significant difference between the septal collateral group and the epicardial group in the success rate of recanalization after retrograde wire crossing the collaterals (91.8% vs. 100%, P > 0.05). CART or reverse CART technique was used in 15 patients, and 14 patients (93.3%) were recanalized successfully. Collateral related perforation occurred in three (18.8%) cases with the epicardial collateral as the first choice (compared with the septal collateral group (0), P collaterals. The retrograde approach is an effective technique to recanalize CTO lesions, the septal

  11. Persistence of recruitable coronary collaterals in the absence of coronary vasospasm in a patient with variant angina

    Yamashita, Kazuhito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakashima, Yasuhide

    1998-01-01

    Recruitable coronary collaterals may appear when spasm suddenly occludes the coronary artery. We report a patient with variant angina who had visible collateral vessels on a control coronary angiogram, despite the presence of normally appearing coronary arteries. These collaterals disappeared after intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin. These findings suggest that recruitable collateral vessels can remain patent long after spontaneous attacks of angina have resolved, and become visible when there is a pressure difference between two small coronary arteries.

  12. Persistence of Recruitable Coronary Collaterals in the Absence of Coronary Vasospasm in a Patient with Variant Angina

    Yamashita, Kazuhito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakashima, Yasuhide

    1998-01-01

    Recruitable coronary collaterals may appear when spasm suddenly occludes the coronary artery. We report a patient with variant angina who had visible collateral vessels on a control coronary angiogram, despite the presence of normally appearing coronary arteries. These collaterals disappeared after intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin. These findings suggest that recruitable collateral vessels can remain patent long after spontaneous attacks of angina have resolved, and become visible when there is a pressure difference between two small coronary arteries

  13. Coronary collaterals and risk for restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions: a meta-analysis

    Meier Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefit of the coronary collateral circulation (natural bypass network on survival is well established. However, data derived from smaller studies indicates that coronary collaterals may increase the risk for restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to explore the impact of the collateral circulation on the risk for restenosis. Methods We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science databases (2001 to 15 July 2011. Random effects models were used to calculate summary risk ratios (RR for restenosis. The primary endpoint was angiographic restenosis > 50%. Results A total of 7 studies enrolling 1,425 subjects were integrated in this analysis. On average across studies, the presence of a good collateralization was predictive for restenosis (risk ratio (RR 1.40 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.80; P = 0.009. This risk ratio was consistent in the subgroup analyses where collateralization was assessed with intracoronary pressure measurements (RR 1.37 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.83; P = 0.038 versus visual assessment (RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.99; P = 0.049. For the subgroup of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD, the RR for restenosis with 'good collaterals' was 1.64 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.35 compared to 'poor collaterals' (P = 0.008. For patients with acute myocardial infarction, however, the RR for restenosis with 'good collateralization' was only 1.23 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.69; P = 0.212. Conclusions The risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is increased in patients with good coronary collateralization. Assessment of the coronary collateral circulation before PCI may be useful for risk stratification and for the choice of antiproliferative measures (drug-eluting stent instead bare-metal stent, cilostazol.

  14. Coronary collateral circulation and its effect on myocardial infarction

    Fukuyama, Takaya; Ashihara, Toshiaki; Ogata, Ikuo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of coronary collateral circulation, which grows after acute myocardial infarction (MI), on infarct size and prognosis. Study subjects were 47 patients who had arteriographic evidence of 99-100% constricture of the infarct-related artery approximately one month after the onset of the first MI. Coronary collateral circulation was analyzed by a four-point scoring (grade 0-3). Furthermore, the patients underwent thallium-201 myocardial imaging one month and two years after the onset to evaluate infarct size. Infarct size was analyzed using extent score (ES) and severity score (SS). ES tended to be decreased during chronic MI stage. Coronary collateral circulation was judged as grade 1 (n=9), grade 2 (n=12), and grade 3 (n=26). There was no difference in infarct size among the three groups. In groups of grades 1 and 2, there was no difference in ES and SS between acute and chronic MI stages. In the group of grade 3, however, ES decreased from 41% to 27% and SS decreased from 68% to 38%, showing remarkable decrease during chronic MI stage. Although coronary collateral circulation one month after the onset is not always responsible for infarct size during acute MI stage, it is considered rsponsible for inhibiting the remodeling of infarction through the long term process. (N.K.)

  15. [As cardioprotective and angiogenic biomarker, can ghrelin predict coronary collateral development and severity of coronary atherosclerosis?

    Akboğa, Mehmet Kadri; Taçoy, Gülten; Yılmaz Demirtaş, Canan; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Boyacı, Bülent; Çengel, Atiye

    2017-06-01

    Ghrelin exerts protective effects on cardiovascular system by inhibiting progression of atherosclerosis, supression of vascular inflammation, and stimulating angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of serum ghrelin on coronary collateral development and SYNTAX score in patients with severe coronary artery disease. Total of 91 patients who had ≥90% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery were prospectively included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Collateral degree was graded according to Rentrop-Cohen classification. Patients with grade 2 or 3 collateral degree were allocated to Good Collateral Group and patients with grade 0 or 1 collateral degree were included in Poor Collateral Group. Ghrelin and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) levels were measured using radioimmunoassay and ELISA kits. Serum ghrelin and VEGF-A levels were significantly higher in Good Collateral Group. Furthermore, ghrelin level showed significant inverse correlation with SYNTAX score (r=0.348; p=0.001). In multivariable regression analysis, ghrelin (Odds ratio, 1.013; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.017; p=0.013), VEGF-A, fasting plasma glucose and presence of chronic total occlusion were independent predictors of good collateral development. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, ghrelin value cut-off point of ≥781 pg/mL predicted good collateral development with sensitivity of 73.1% and specificity of 67.7%. Findings suggested that ghrelin has antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties that protect endothelial functions and also stimulate angiogenesis, which results in development of good coronary collateral and inhibition of progression of coronary atherosclerosis.

  16. Coronary Collateral Growth—Back to the Future

    Chilian, William M.; Penn, Marc S.; Pung, Yuh Fen; Dong, Feng; Mayorga, Maritza; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Logan, Suzanna; Yin, Liya

    2012-01-01

    The coronary collateral circulation is critically important as an adaptation of the heart to prevent the damage from ischemic insults. In their native state, collaterals in the heart would be classified as part of the microcirculation, existing as arterial-arterial anastomotic connections in the range of 30 to 100 μM in diameter. However, these vessels also show a propensity to remodel into components of the macrocirculation and can become arteries larger than a 1000 μM in diameter. This process of outward remodelling is critically important in the adaptation of the heart to ischemia because the resistance to blood flow is inversely related to the fourth power of the diameter of the vessel. Thus, an expansion of a vessel from 100 to 1000 μM would reduce resistance (in this part of the circuit) to a negligible amount and enable delivery of flow to the region at risk. Our goal in this review is to highlight the voids in understanding this adaptation to ischemia—the growth of the coronary collateral circulation. In doing so we discuss the controversies and unknown aspects of the causal factors that stimulate growth of the collateral circulation, the role of genetics, and the role of endogenous stem and progenitor cells in the context of the normal, physiological situation and under more pathological conditions of ischemic heart disease or with some of the underlying risk factors, e.g., diabetes. The major conclusion of this review is that there are many gaps in our knowledge of coronary collateral growth and this knowledge is critical before the potential of stimulating collateralization in the hearts of patients can be realized. PMID:22210280

  17. Coronary Collateral Growth—Back to the Future

    Chilian, William M.; Penn, Marc S.; Pung, Yuh Fen; Dong, Feng; Mayorga, Maritza; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Logan, Suzanna; Yin, Liya

    2011-01-01

    The coronary collateral circulation is critically important as an adaptation of the heart to prevent the damage from ischemic insults. In their native state, collaterals in the heart would be classified as part of the microcirculation, existing as arterial-arterial anastomotic connections in the range of 30 to 100 μM in diameter. However, these vessels also show a propensity to remodel into components of the macrocirculation and can become arteries larger than a 1000 μM in diameter. This proc...

  18. Improved evaluation of the coronary collateral circulation measuring the regional blood flow with 133Xe

    Franz, N.; Strangfeld, D.; Romaniuk, P.; Heublein, B.

    1988-01-01

    In 40 patients with angina pectoris catheter diagnostic measurements of the myocardial flow were carried out after intracoronary application of 133 Xe at rest and after oral application of Curantyl in order to obtain a better evaluation of coronary collaterals. The results show relations between angiographically detected coronary collaterals and the reduced coronary reserve. A quantitative measurement of collaterals from the angiogram facilitates a more precise evaluation of the relation between coronary sclerosis and myocardial flow. (author)

  19. Coronary collateral circulation: clinical significance and influence on survival in patients with coronary artery occlusion

    Hansen, J F

    1989-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 96 patients with coronary artery occlusion, 67 had good and 29 had no or poor collateral circulation. Patients with good collaterals had the severest degree of coronary artery disease. Good collaterals are associated with a higher incidence of angina pectoris and normal...... electrocardiogram and with lower incidence of Q-waves, positive exercise tests, heart failure, previous myocardial infarction, and dyskinesia at ventriculography. Survival rates after 10 years were (1) 51.5% with good and 34.5% with poor collaterals (p less than 0.1), (2) 59.4% with angina pectoris and good...... collaterals and 41.2% with angina pectoris and poor collaterals (p less than 0.05), (3) 64.8% without and 24.4% with heart failure and good collaterals (p less than 0.001), and (4) 58.3% without and 16.1% with heart failure and poor collaterals (p less than 0.01). Good collaterals protect the myocardium...

  20. Local Cytokine Concentrations and Oxygen Pressure Are Related to Maturation of the Collateral Circulation in Humans

    Schirmer, Stephan H.; van Royen, Niels; Moerland, Perry D.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Henriques, José P.; van der Schaaf, René J.; Vis, Marije M.; Baan, Jan; Koch, Karel T.; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Piek, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to determine cytokine and oxygen gradients over the collateral circulation in humans. Background The molecular background of the maturation of the collateral circulation in response to coronary narrowing is poorly understood in humans, partly because of difficulties in

  1. Collateral Function in Patients with Coronary Occlusion Evaluated by 201Thallium Scintigraphy

    Aida Hasanović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the impact of the angiographically documented collaterals on regional myocardial perfusion measured by 201thallium scintigraphy in patients with a chronic total occlusion.The study included 60 patients with chronic total occlusion who underwent rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and coronary angiography. All patients had angiographic evidence of coronary collaterals. Patients were divided into two groups: group one had well-developed coronary collateral vessels (n=35 and group II had poor coronary collateral development (n=25.Patients with chronic total occlusion had severe and extensive stress-induced myocardial perfusion defects regardless of the grade of angiographic coronary collaterals. The perfusion defects in the group with good collaterals were predominantly reversible, suggesting that coronary collaterals preserved myocardial viability in the regions subtended by a total coronary occlusion. A significant correlation between good collaterals with complete protection and poor collaterals with no protection was noted.Our results demonstrate a protective effect of collaterals on myocardial perfusion during coronary occlusion. The effective angiographic collaterals may prevent resting regional wall motion abnormalities but do not appear to protect against stress-induced perfusion defect.

  2. Assessment of myocardial collateral circulation by intracoronary injection of radioactive microspheres and selective coronary angiography

    Uhde, W.

    1986-01-01

    In 46 patients selective coronary angiography was performed followed by selective coronary perfusion scintigraphy and a comparative assessment was made of the contralateral coronary collateral circulation. Intracoronary injection of radioactively marked imcrospheres resulted in the detection of microcirculatory processes and made it possible to evaluate the relative efficiency of coronary collaterals. This in turn meant a low-risk supplement and extension of the findings of coronary angiography. This holds particularly true for the area of the left ventricular myocardium. (author)

  3. The association between circulating endothelial progenitor cells and coronary collateral formation.

    Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Yorgun, Hikmet; Gürses, Kadri Murat; Canpolat, Uğur; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Tülümen, Erol; Kaya, Ergün Barış; Aytemir, Kudret; Kabakçı, Giray; Tuncer, Murat; Oto, Ali

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between coronary collateral formation and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Circulating CD133(+)/34(+) and CD34(+)/KDR(+) EPCs were determined in 68 patients (normal coronary vessels in 24 patients and coronary artery disease (CAD) in 44 patients) (age: 58.7 ± 10.1, 64.7% male). Circulating EPCs were higher among patients with normal coronary vessels compared to patients with CAD for CD133(+)/34(+) (p collateral formation (p collateral formation after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors and extent of CAD (p = 0.037). In patients with severe coronary stenosis, those with increased circulating EPCs had better collateral formation compared to those with lower EPC counts. Our findings implicate that in addition to presence of critical stenosis, intact response of bone marrow is necessary for collateral formation in CAD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Noninvasive assessment of coronary collaterals in man by PET perfusion imaging

    Demer, L.L.; Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Kirkeeide, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    At present, coronary collateralization cannot be identified or assessed noninvasively in patients. In animal studies, coronary collaterals are associated with coronary steal, defined as a regional fall in perfusion during coronary arteriolar vasodilation. To determine the effect of coronary arteriolar vasodilation on collateral bed perfusion in man, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed before and after pharmacologic coronary vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Regional myocardial activity of 82 Rb or 13 N ammonia was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) at rest and with intravenous dipyridamole/handgrip stress in 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in 25 control patients with similar CAD severity by quantitative arteriography. Regional myocardial activity decreased after dipyridamole, indicating coronary steal, in 25 of 28 patients with angiographic collaterals and in only 4 of 25 control patients without angiographic collaterals. These findings suggest that developed collaterals are associated with myocardial steal in patients with CAD, allowing potential use of PET for non-invasive identification of coronary collateralization

  5. The relationship between mean platelet volume and coronary collateral vessels in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Gaurav Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated mean platelet volume (MPV has been proposed as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD and is associated with poor clinical outcome in acute coronary syndrome (ACS. However, some studies have contradictory findings. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the association of MPV with the presence of coronary collateral vessel (CCV in patients with ACS. Objective: To find MPV value in ACS patients and to find the predictive value of MPV in the spectrum of CAD and to examine whether levels of MPV predict the presence of CCVs. Methods: A total of 180 patients with first ACS were included in the study. MPV was measured. All patients underwent coronary angiography to know disease severity and CCVs. The CCVs are graded according to the Rentrop scoring system and according to coronary angiography results; patients were divided into two groups as Group 1 (poor CCV and Group 2 (good CCV. Results: The MPV was 10.74 ± 2 fl in poor collateral group patients and 11.01 ± 1.7 fl in good collateral group (P = 0.421. The presence of CCV was not significantly associated with high levels of MPV. MPV value did not show any prediction of the spectrum of CAD. Conclusion: MPV on admission was not associated with the development of CCV positively in patients with ACS. Furthermore, it is not associated with a number of vessel involvements.

  6. Recruitable collateral blood flow index predicts coronary instent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Collateral flow may influence long-term results after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of haemodynamic forces compete with the antegrade flow through the dilated lesion. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of recruitable collateral blood flow on restenosis...... in patients undergoing PCI with bare metal stents and using optimal antithrombotic treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 95 patients, 95 de novo lesions were treated with PCI and a bare metal stent. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) at maximum hyperaemia induced by intravenous adenosine was determined. The pressure.......02-1.12, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Recruitable collateral blood flow measured during balloon inflation predicts angiographic instent restenosis in PCI patients treated with bare metal stents. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  7. Functional significance of coronary collateral circulation during dynamic exercise evaluated by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Wainwright, R.J.; Maisey, M.N.; Edwards, A.C.; Sowton, E.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease were investigated by thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) scintigraphy to determine the role of the collateral circulation during dynamic exercise. Fifty-three patients had complete proximal occlusion of at least one major coronary artery. One patient had total occlusion of all three major coronary arteries. Sixty-four collateral channels were identified, graded, and compared with corresponding regions of the myocardial scintigram. Tracer uptake was also graded and classified as various degrees of protection from ischaemia. A significant correlation between good collaterals with complete protection and poor or absent collaterals with no protection was noted. Seventeen patients (20 occluded vessels) had total coronary occlusion without myocardial infarction. Collaterals conferred protection in 9/15 occlusions whereas no protection was seen in five occlusions without collaterals. There was no difference in the protective role of homocoronary and heterocoronary collateral vessels. Hypertrophy of the first septal left anterior descending perforator conferred significant protection from ischaemia in contrast to bridging collaterals and ghosting. During exercise the right coronary bed is preferentially protected from ischaemia, in contrast to the left anterior descending territory. This probably reflects the direction of a transmural flow gradient between left and right ventricles during exercise. (author)

  8. Insights into coronary collateral formation from a novel porcine semiacute infarction model.

    Krackhardt, Florian; Harnoss, Jonathan M; Waliszewski, Matthias W; Ritter, Zully; Granzow, Susanne; Felsenberg, Dieter; Neumann, Konrad; Lerman, Lilian O; Hillmeister, Philipp; Gebker, Rolf; Paetsch, Ingo; Riediger, Fabian; Bramlage, Peter; Buschmann, Ivo R

    2018-03-01

    For patients with severe ischemic heart disease, complete revascularization by a percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting is often not achieved and may still cause residual angina. In case of progressive coronary artery occlusions, therapeutic arteriogenesis constitutes a promising strategy for increasing blood supply to the ischemic myocardium. Whether the formation of collaterals in the hypofused myocardium is angiogenetic in nature or based on preformed coronary artery anastomoses remains debatable. The objectives of this research were (i) the development of an appropriate research methodology to study a humanoid animal semiacute infarction model with low mortality and (ii) to answer the question of whether collateral revascularization follows a pre-existing 'blueprint'. A porcine model was chosen in which a step-wise vessel occlusion was performed by implantation of a copper stent into the distal left anterior descending artery. Vessel occlusion and collateral development were confirmed in vivo every 14 days up to day 56 by repeated coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion measurement using cardiac MRI. After the completion of the in-vivo imaging studies, animals were euthanized and collateral growth was evaluated using microcomputer tomography. Our porcine model of semiacute noninvasive coronary artery occlusion confirmed the existence of preformed coronary anastomoses and the proliferation of functional vessels in hypoperfused myocardium. Repetitive intra-animal MRIs showed the functional impact of these growing collaterals. The confirmation of preformed coronary anastomoses during the process of collateralization (natural bypasses) offers a preclinical avenue to carry out arteriogenetic pharmaceutical research in patients with ischemic heart disease.

  9. Excimer laser coronary atherectomy in septal collaterals during retrograde recanalization of a chronic total occlusion

    Bernward Lauer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of chronic total occlusions has been refined through the development of a retrograde approach via collateral pathways. We describe the use of Excimer Laser Coronary Atherectomy in the septal collaterals. This appraoch was not yet described in the literature.

  10. Influence of oxidative stress on the development of collateral circulation in total coronary occlusions.

    Demirbag, Recep; Gur, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Remzi; Kunt, Alper Sami; Erel, Ozcan; Andac, M Halit

    2007-03-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total peroxide and oxidative stress index (OSI) are associated with the development of collaterals in total coronary occlusions. Our study group contained 176 consecutive men patients with single-vessel TCO, 94 of whom had poorly developed coronary collateral, while 82 had well-developed coronary collateral. TAC and total peroxide concentration were measured of plasma. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress. The values of total peroxide and OSI in the Group I were significantly lower than that in Group II (ptotal peroxide and OSI levels (ptotal peroxide and OSI were independent predictors of collaterals score (p=0.006 and ptotal coronary occlusion patients.

  11. Conservative Management of an Epicardial Collateral Perforation During Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Ngo, Christian; Christopoulos, George; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation is a highly feared complication of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and can lead to pericardial effusion, tamponade, and, rarely, emergent cardiac surgery. Perforation of epicardial collaterals during retrograde CTO-PCI may be particularly challenging to treat, as embolization from both sides of the perforation may be required to control the bleeding. However, conservative measures can occasionally be effective. We present a case of epicardial collateral vessel perforation that was managed conservatively with anticoagulation reversal.

  12. Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry.Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175. White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017, and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257. Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, β = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127. African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, β = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072.In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.

  13. Collateral blood supply to the myocardium at risk in human myocardial infarction: a quantitative postmortem assessment

    Piek, J. J.; Becker, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The relation between the type and size of myocardial infarcts and collateral development was studied in postmortem human hearts with a new approach that allows quantification of vascular beds. The coronary arteries were perfused with radioactive microspheres and were visualized by injecting a

  14. An elevated level of BNP in plasma is related to the development of good collateral circulation in coronary artery disease.

    Xi, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Gang; Lv, Shumin; Gao, Qinqin; Bu, Gang; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Geng

    2011-12-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was recently demonstrated to be a potential stimulator of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. The correlation between BNP level and collateral formation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been reported. The study included 311 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography were divided into three groups according to coronary angiography and collateral formation: normal group (100 patients with normal coronary angiographic findings); poor collateral group (116 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% without visible collateral circulation); and good collateral group (95 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% with well-developed collateral circulation). Collateral score was analyzed using the Cohen-Rentrop classification. Plasma BNP levels were 45.77 ± 4.66 pg/ml, 116.40 ± 28.15 pg/ml, and 254.20 ± 42.85 pg/ml for patients in normal, poor collateral, and good collateral groups, respectively. Plasma BNP levels in the latter were significantly higher than in the normal group (p collateral group (p collateral group and poor collateral group when compared with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dimensions at end diastole (LVEDd), age, severity of angiographic disease, and other cardiovascular risk factors. After adjustment in the multiple ordinal logistic regression model, plasma BNP levels showed a strong independent association with collateral Cohen-Rentrop score (χ(2 )= 5.636, OR = 1.002, 95% CI 1.000-1.004, p = 0.018). An elevated level of BNP in plasma is independently associated with collateral development; patients with good collaterals tend to have a higher BNP level.

  15. Monocytic microRNA profile associated with coronary collateral artery function in chronic total occlusion patients.

    Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; Elias, Joëlle; Wijntjens, Gilbert W M; Theunissen, Ruud; van Weert, Angela; Smulders, Martijn W; van den Akker, Nynke; Moerland, Perry D; Verberne, Hein J; Hoebers, Loes P; Henriques, Jose P S; van der Laan, Anja M; Ilhan, Mustafa; Post, Mark; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; Piek, Jan J

    2017-05-08

    An expansive collateral artery network is correlated with improved survival in case of adverse cardiac episodes. We aimed to identify cellular microRNAs (miRNA; miR) important for collateral artery growth. Chronic total occlusion (CTO) patients (n = 26) were dichotomized using pressure-derived collateral flow index (CFI p ) measurements; high collateral capacity (CFI p  > 0.39; n = 14) and low collateral (CFI p  collateral capacity patients. Validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated significantly decreased expression of miR339-5p in all stimulated monocyte phenotypes of low collateral capacity patients. MiR339-5p showed significant correlation with CFI p values in stimulated monocytes. Ingenuity pathway analysis of predicted gene targets of miR339-5p and differential gene expression data from high versus low CFI p patients (n = 20), revealed significant association with STAT3 pathway, and also suggested a possible regulatory role for this signaling pathway. These results identify a novel association between miR339-5p and coronary collateral function. Future work examining modulation of miR339-5p and downstream effects on the STAT3 pathway and subsequent collateral vessel growth are warranted.

  16. Assessment of the significance of coronary collateral vessel by using thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    Kanoh, Yasushi; Shiotani, Hideyuki; Fukuzaki, Hisashi; Maeda, Kazumi.

    1988-01-01

    For functional assessment of coronary collateral vessels, twenty-three patients with effort angina pectoris who had total coronary obstruction were studied. The patients were divided depending on the degree of development of collateral vessels into two groups, i.e. good collateral group I (n = 13) and poor collateral group II (n = 10). Thallium-201 scan was performed immediately (Ex-1 image), 20 minutes (Ex-2 image) after exercise and after nitroglycerin administration (NTG image) respectively. In all images, the relative percent activity of thallium-201 in the collateral-dependent ischemic area to the normal myocardium were calculated and were compaired between two groups. Relative percent activities in group I and II were as follows : Ex-1 image ; 75.8 ± 3.5 % vs. 77.2 ± 2.9 % (NS), Ex-2 images ; 85.3 ± 4.5 % vs. 79.3 ± 3.9 % (p < 0.005), NTG image ; 97.3 ± 3.1 % vs. 96.4 ± 5.2 % (NS). From these results, it was elucidated that good collateral induced early partial redistribution in its perfusion area, suggesting that good collateral circulation may provide rapid recovery from myocardial ischemia. (author)

  17. A common variant of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Glu298Asp) is associated with collateral development in patients with chronic coronary occlusions

    Lamblin, Nicolas; Cuilleret, François J; Helbecque, Nicole; Dallongeville, Jean; Lablanche, Jean-Marc; Amouyel, Philippe; Bauters, Christophe; Van Belle, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Experimental studies support an important role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the regulation of angiogenesis. In humans, a common polymorphism exists in the eNOS gene that results in the conversion of glutamate to aspartate for codon 298. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested a decreased NOS activity in patients with the Asp 298 variant. We hypothesized that a genetic-mediated decreased eNOS activity may limit collateral development in patients with chronic coronary occlusions. We selected 291 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and who had at least one chronic (>15 days) total coronary occlusion. Collateral development was graded angiographically using two different methods: the collateral flow grade and the recipient filling grade. Genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells and genotyping was performed using previously published techniques. Collateral development was lower in patients carrying the Asp 298 variant than in Glu-Glu homozygotes (collateral flow grade: 2.64 ± 0.08 and 2.89 ± 0.08, respectively, p = 0.04; recipient filling grade: 3.00 ± 0.08 and 3.24 ± 0.07, respectively, p = 0.04). By multivariable analysis, three variables were independently associated with the collateral flow grade: female gender, smoking, and the Asp 298 variant (p = 0.03) while the Asp 298 variant was the sole variable independently associated with the recipient filling grade (p = 0.03). Collateral development is lower in patients with the Asp 298 variant. This may be explained by the decreased NOS activity in patients with the Asp 298 variant. Further studies will have to determine whether increasing eNOS activity in humans is associated with coronary collateral development

  18. Clinical study of the hypothesis of endogenous collateral wind on acute coronary syndrome: a review.

    Wang, Xian; Zhang, Cong; Yang, Ran; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhao, Huaibing; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), is a serious threat to people's health, and life, and in recent years, the incidence has increased yearly. This study was to propose the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" based on the patho-mechanism of thrombogenesis complicated by ruptured plaque on ACS, and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Through successful coronary angiography (CAG), and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), patients with coronary artery disease were made the differential diagnosis such as blood stasis, blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction, and endogenous collateral wind. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were measured to study on the characteristics of "endogenous collateral wind". Luo heng dripping pills with promoting blood circulation to expel wind-evil, and remove wetness were made based on the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on ACS. Patients with unstable angina were randomly divided into 3, groups based on therapeutic methods: conventional therapy group, Luo Heng dripping pills group and Tongxinluo caps. Differences among groups were compared. There were great changes in number and degree of coronary arteriostenosis confirmed by CAG, the types of ACC/AHA lesion and Levin lesion confirmed by CAG, remodeling index, positive or negative remodeling percentage measured by IVUS, the plasma levels of plasma inflammatory marker measured by ELLSA in the patients with endogenous collateral wind, compared with patients with blood stasis and blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction. The total effective rate of improved angina in Luo Heng dripping pills group was significantly higher than those in other two groups. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were significantly lower in Luo Heng dripping pills group. There were some pathological basis which were found about the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on acute coronary syndrome. It provided evidences for patients with coronary artery disease treated by medicines with

  19. The relationship between fasting blood glucose variability and coronary artery collateral formation in type 2 diabetes patients with coronary artery disease.

    Cheng, Gang; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Chokshi, Binna; Fernandez, Marlena; Kazemi, Vahid; Lamaa, Nader

    2017-09-01

    Coronary collaterals are an alternative source of blood supply to ischemic myocardium. Well-developed coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) limit the size of acute myocardial infarction and improves survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between glycemic variability and coronary collateral formation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD. Consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting procedures were studied. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between coronary artery collateral formation graded by Rentrope classification and glycemic variability, measured by coefficient variation of fasting blood glucose. In our study, we retrospectively enrolled 300 patients, of whom 239 were diabetic (age: 70.1±11.9, 56% men) and 61 were nondiabetic (age: 71.5±11.5, 72% men). Diabetic patients were further stratified as follows: those with poor coronary collateral artery development (n=171, age: 69.7±12.4, 55% men) and those with good coronary collateral artery development (n=68, age 71.1±10.8, 59% men) according to the Rentrope classification. Our findings did not show association between glycemic variability and coronary collateral vessels development after controlling for potential confounders (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-11.03; P=0.22). The culprit lesion (≥75% stenosis) in the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery was more frequent in the good collateral group compared with the poor collateral group (66 vs. 50%, P=0.02; 63 vs. 45%, P=0.01 respectively). Glycemic variability is not associated with coronary collateral artery formation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and CAD.

  20. Use of corrosion casting techniques to evaluate coronary collateral vessels and anastomoses in hearts of canine cadavers.

    Noestelthaller, Arne; Probst, Alexander; Koenig, Horst E

    2005-10-01

    To study and investigate branching patterns of the canine coronary arteries and collateral circulation by use of corrosion casting techniques. 31 hearts obtained from cadavers of clinically normal dogs of various ages and breeds and of either sex. 3-dimensional reproduction of coronary arteries was achieved by postmortem injection and perfusion with casting materials into the aortic sinus via the ascending aorta. Perfused hearts were macerated and carefully irrigated; the air-dried specimens were examined macroscopically and with a magnifying headset. Collateral arteries and inter- and intra-arterial anastomoses were successfully detected in 8 corrosion cast specimens. In total, 9 coronary collateral arteries and 3 interarterial anastomoses were found. Our finding of coronary collateral arteries in canine hearts is in agreement with recent findings in coronary flow study. On the basis of our results, vasodilation treatment to improve collateral vessel remodeling in dogs with myocardial dysfunction may be warranted.

  1. Quantification of collateral flow in humans: a comparison of angiographic, electrocardiographic and hemodynamic variables

    van Liebergen, R. A.; Piek, J. J.; Koch, K. T.; de Winter, R. J.; Schotborgh, C. E.; Lie, K. I.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of collateral vascular circulation according to hemodynamic variables and its relation to myocardial ischemia. There is limited information regarding the hemodynamic quantification of recruitable collateral vessels. Angiography of the donor coronary artery was performed before and during

  2. The relationship of plasma decoy receptor 3 and coronary collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Yan, Youyou; Song, Dandan; Liu, Lulu; Meng, Xiuping; Qi, Chao; Wang, Junnan

    2017-11-15

    Previously, decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) was found to be a potential angiogenetic factor, while the relationship of DcR3 with coronary collateral circulation formation has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether plasma decoy receptor 3 levels was associated with CCC formation and evaluate its predictive power for CCC status in patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients who underwent coronary angiography with coronary artery disease and had a stenosis of ≥90% were included in our study. Collateral degree was graded according to Rentrope Cohen classification. Patients with grade 2 or 3 collateral degree were enrolled in good CCC group and patients with grade 0 or 1 collateral degree were enrolled in poor CCC group. Plasma DcR3 level was significantly higher in good CCC group (328.00±230.82 vs 194.84±130.63ng/l, p<0.01) and positively correlated with Rentrope grade (p<0.01). In addition, plasma DcR3 was also positively correlated with VEGF-A. Both ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) and multinomial logistical regression analysis showed that plasma DcR3 displayed potent predictive power for CCC status. Higher plasma DcR3 level was related to better CCC formation and displayed potent predictive power for CCC status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effects of nicorandil on coronary collateral circulation depend on the donor arteries

    Umezawa, Shigeo; Ogawara, Shigeko; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Igawa, Masayuki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Inada, Mihoe; Korenaga, Masayoshi; Hiroe, Michiaki; Marumo, Fumiaki.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of nicorandil on coronary collateral circulation during exercise-induced ischemia were compared between the different donor arteries in 13 patients with effort angina, 7 with complete obstruction of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with well-developed collateral vessels from the right coronary artery (RCA) (LAD group), and 6 with complete occlusion of the RCA (segment 2-3) with well-developed collateral vessels from the LAD (RCA group). Initial percentage thallium (%Tl) uptake (thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography) and washout rate were measured in the anterior, septal and posterior regions during ergometer exercise. The submaximal treadmill exercise test was also performed using a cardiopulmonary monitoring system to measure Vo 2 at anaerobic threshold (AT). After the controls were obtained, nicorandil (15 mg/day) was administered for 4 weeks, during which ergometer exercise and treadmill exercise tests were carried out repeatedly. A significant improvement of initial %Tl uptake on exercise was observed in the LAD group with nicorandil therapy, but no improvement was shown in the RCA group. The AT significantly increased after nicorandil treatment in the LAD group (13.9±0.38 → 16.8±1.18 ml/min/kg), reflecting the improvement of cardiac function through the increased collateral flow. However, in the RCA group, it remained unchanged, suggesting no improvement of cardiac function. Nicorandil was effective to increase collateral flow from the RCA, but ineffective on that from the LAD. Nicorandil is an effective coronary dilator and is reported to affect both large and small coronary arteries. The effect on the collateral circulation is dependent on the donor artery supplying different areas. The vasodilator effect of nicorandil is mainly on the LAD, which is large enough to supply blood to a wider area of the heart, rather than the RCA. (author)

  4. Impact of Admission Blood Glucose on Coronary Collateral Flow in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Kurmus, Ozge; Aslan, Turgay; Ekici, Berkay; Baglan Uzunget, Sezen; Karaarslan, Sukru; Tanindi, Asli; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Akgul Ercan, Ebru; Kervancıoglu, Celal

    2018-01-01

    In patients with acute myocardial infarction, glucose metabolism is altered and acute hyperglycemia on admission is common regardless of diabetes status. The development of coronary collateral is heterogeneous among individuals with coronary artery disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether glucose value on admission is associated with collateral flow in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. We retrospectively evaluated 190 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of first STEMI within 12 hours of onset of chest pain. Coronary collateral development was graded according to Rentrop classification. Rentrop 0-1 was graded as poor collateral development, and Rentrop 2-3 was graded as good collateral development. Admission glucose was measured and compared between two groups. Mean admission glucose level was 173.0 ± 80.1 mg/dl in study population. Forty-five (23.7%) patients had good collateral development, and 145 (76.3%) patients had poor collateral development. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics between two groups. Three-vessel disease was more common in patients with good collateral development ( p =0.026). Mean admission glucose level was higher in patients with poor collateral than good collateral (180.6 ± 84.9 mg/dl versus 148.7 ± 56.6 mg/dl, resp., p =0.008). In univariate analysis, higher admission glucose was associated with poor collateral development, but multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a borderline result (odds ratio 0.994, 95% CI 0.989-1.000, p =0.049). Our results suggest that elevated glucose on admission may have a role in the attenuation of coronary collateral blood flow in acute myocardial infarction. Further studies are needed to validate our results.

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme DD polymorphism is associated with poor coronary collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Ceyhan, Koksal; Kadi, Hasan; Celik, Atac; Burucu, Turgay; Koc, Fatih; Sogut, Erkan; Sahin, Semsettin; Onalan, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Although association between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and cardiovascular diseases was reported by many studies, the relation between ACE I/D polymorphism and coronary collateral circulation (CCC) has not been studied yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible relationship between ACE I/D polymorphism and CCC. Patients who were subjected to coronary angiography in the 2006 to 2009 period and had at least a completely occluded major artery were included in this study. To classify collateral circulation, we used the Rentrop classification. Patients were classified as having poor CCC (Rentrop grades 0 to 1) or good CCC (Rentrop grades 2 to 3). Gene polymorphism was detected through the detailed melting curve analysis of polymerase chain reaction products after amplification using real-time polymerase chain reaction method and LightCycler 1.5 apparatus. We prospectively studied 113 patients who had at least 1 totally occluded major epicardial coronary artery. Forty-seven patients had poor CCC and 67 patients had good CCC. There were no differences among groups in age, sex, risk factors, lipid profile, uses of cardiovascular drugs, and number of diseased vessels. Plasma ACE levels were significantly higher in poor CCC group (P DD polymorphism was higher in the poor CCC group (P DD genotype (95% CI, 2.55-12.79; P = 0.001), presence of diabetes (95% CI, 1.03-3.16; P = 0.005), and pulse pressure (95% CI, 1.04-1.56; P = 0.045) were independent determinants of poor coronary collateral development. This study showed that ACE DD polymorphism is associated with poor CCC. Poor collateral circulation in patients carrying the D allele may be associated with endothelial dysfunction and elevated blood ACE levels in these patients.

  6. Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Is Less Common in Patients with Good Coronary Collateral Circulation.

    Avci, Eyup; Yildirim, Tarik; Kadi, Hasan

    2017-10-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a typically reversible type of acute renal failure that develops after exposure to contrast agents; underlying endothelial dysfunction is thought to be an important risk factor for CIN. Although the mechanism of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) is not fully understood, a pivotal role of the endothelium has been reported in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between CCC and CIN. Patients with at least one occluded major coronary artery and blood creatinine analyses performed before and on the second day after angiography were included in the study. CIN was defined as a 25% or greater elevation of creatinine on the second day after exposure to the contrast agent. Collateral grading was performed according to the Rentrop classification. Patients were grouped according to whether they developed CIN or not, i.e., CIN(-) and CIN(+) group. A total of 214 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. CIN was diagnosed in 43 patients (20.1%) in the study population. Good CCC was identified in 112 patients (65.5%) in the CIN(-) group, whereas it was identified in 13 patients (30.2%) in the CIN(+) group. In the CIN(-) group, good CCC was significantly more frequent ( p Good collateral circulation was associated with a lower frequency of CIN, and poor collateral circulation was an independent predictor of CIN.

  7. Role of collateral circulation in the course of coronary heat disease (10-year clinical and angiographic follow-up)

    Tsapaeva, N.L.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the 10-year prospective follow-up of 59 ischemia patients with stenocardia are presented. Coronarography was made in all the patients whose coronary arteries and collateral blood flow were assessed. The experimental group comprised 37 patients with ischemia and collateral circulatory insufficiency. The control group included 22 patients with effective collateral circulation. The experimental group showed a worse prognosis than did the control one. Myocardial infarction developed in 54 and 27 % of cases, ischemia mortality was 29.7 and 9 % in the experimental and control groups, respectively. Effective collateral circulation is prerequisite of successful surgical myocardial revascularization [ru

  8. The PLAU P141L single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Duran, Joan; Sánchez-Olavarría, Pilar; Mola, Marina; Götzens, Víctor; Carballo, Julio; Martín-Pelegrina, Eva; Petit, Màrius; García Del Blanco, Bruno; García-Dorado, David; de Anta, Josep M

    2014-07-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which is encoded by the PLAU gene, plays a prominent role during collateral arterial growth. We investigated whether the PLAU P141L (C > T) polymorphism, which causes a mutation in the kringle domain of the protein, is associated with coronary collateral circulation in a cohort of 676 patients with coronary artery disease. The polymorphism was genotyped in blood samples using a TaqMan-based genotyping assay, and collateral circulation was assessed by the Rentrop method. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted by clinically relevant variables to estimate odds ratios were used to examine associations of PLAU P141L allelic variants and genotypes with collateral circulation. Patients with poor collateral circulation (Rentrop 0-1; n = 547) showed a higher frequency of the TT genotype than those with good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2-3; n = 129; P = .020). The T allele variant was also more common in patients with poor collateral circulation (P = .006). The odds ratio of having poorly developed collaterals in patients bearing the T allele (adjusted for clinically relevant variables) was statistically significant under the dominant model (odds ratio = 1.83 [95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.90]; P = .010) and the additive model (odds ratio = 1.73 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.62]; P = .009). An association was found between coronary collateral circulation and the PLAU P141L polymorphism. Patients with the 141L variant are at greater risk of developing poor coronary collateral circulation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated 20-HETE impairs coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome via endothelial dysfunction.

    Joseph, Gregory; Soler, Amanda; Hutcheson, Rebecca; Hunter, Ian; Bradford, Chastity; Hutcheson, Brenda; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Jiang, Houli; Falck, John R; Proctor, Spencer; Schwartzman, Michal Laniado; Rocic, Petra

    2017-03-01

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetS). microRNA-145 (miR-145-Adv) delivery to our rat model of MetS (JCR) completely restored and neutrophil depletion significantly improved CCG. We determined whether low endogenous levels of miR-145 in MetS allowed for elevated production of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which, in turn, resulted in excessive neutrophil accumulation and endothelial dysfunction leading to impaired CCG. Rats underwent 0-9 days of repetitive ischemia (RI). RI-induced cardiac CYP4F (neutrophil-specific 20-HETE synthase) expression and 20-HETE levels were increased (4-fold) in JCR vs. normal rats. miR-145-Adv and 20-HETE antagonists abolished and neutrophil depletion (blocking antibodies) reduced (~60%) RI-induced increases in CYP4F expression and 20-HETE production in JCR rats. Impaired CCG in JCR rats (collateral-dependent blood flow using microspheres) was completely restored by 20-HETE antagonists [collateral-dependent zone (CZ)/normal zone (NZ) flow ratio was 0.76 ± 0.07 in JCR + 20-SOLA, 0.84 ± 0.05 in JCR + 20-HEDGE vs. 0.11 ± 0.02 in JCR vs. 0.84 ± 0.03 in normal rats]. In JCR rats, elevated 20-HETE was associated with excessive expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and neutrophil infiltration, which were reversed by miR-145-Adv. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of coronary arteries, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Ser1179 phosphorylation, eNOS-dependent NO ·- production and endothelial cell survival were compromised in JCR rats. These parameters of endothelial dysfunction were completely reversed by 20-HETE antagonism or miR-145-Adv delivery, whereas neutrophil depletion resulted in partial reversal (~70%). We conclude that low miR-145 in MetS allows for increased 20-HETE, mainly from neutrophils, which compromises endothelial cell survival and function leading to impaired CCG. 20-HETE antagonists could provide viable therapy for restoration of CCG in MetS. NEW & NOTEWORTHY

  10. Coronary collateral circulation in patients with chronic coronary total occlusion; its relationship with cardiac risk markers and SYNTAX score.

    Börekçi, A; Gür, M; Şeker, T; Baykan, A O; Özaltun, B; Karakoyun, S; Karakurt, A; Türkoğlu, C; Makça, I; Çaylı, M

    2015-09-01

    Compared to patients without a collateral supply, long-term cardiac mortality is reduced in patients with well-developed coronary collateral circulation (CCC). Cardiovascular risk markers, such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) are independent predictors for cardiovascular mortality. The main goal of this study was to examine the relationship between CCC and cardiovascular risk markers. We prospectively enrolled 427 stable coronary artery disease patients with chronic total occlusion (mean age: 57.5±11.1 years). The patients were divided into two groups, according to their Rentrop scores: (a) poorly developed CCC group (Rentrop 0 and 1) and (b) well-developed CCC group (Rentrop 2 and 3). NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hs-cTnT, uric acid and other biochemical markers were also measured. The SYNTAX score was calculated for all patients. The patients in the poorly developed CCC group had higher frequencies of diabetes and hypertension (prisk markers, such as NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT and hs-CRP are independently associated with CCC in stable coronary artery disease with chronic total occlusion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Angiographically demonstrated coronary collaterals predict residual viable myocardium in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. A regional metabolic study

    Fukai, Masumi; Ii, Masaaki; Nakakoji, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Angiographical demonstration of coronary collateral circulation may suggest the presence of residual viable myocardium. The development of coronary collaterals was judged according to Rentrop's classification in 37 patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction and 13 control patients with chest pain syndrome. The subjects with myocardial infarction were divided into 2 groups: 17 patients with the main branch of the left coronary artery clearly identified by collateral blood flow from the contralateral coronary artery [Coll (+) group, male/female 10/7, mean age 56.6 years] and 20 patients with obscure coronary trunk [Coll (-) group, male/female 16/4, mean age 54.9 years]. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and examination of local myocardial metabolism were carried out by measuring the flux of lactic acid under dipyridamole infusion load. Coronary stenosis of 99% or total occlusion was found in only 5 of 20 patients (25%) in the Coll (-) group but in 16 of 17 patients (94%) in the Coll (+) group (p<0.001). Redistribution of myocardial scintigraphy was found in 11 of 15 patients (73%) in the Coll (+) group, but only 3 of 18 patients (17%) in the Coll (-) group (p<0.01). The myocardial lactic acid extraction rate was -13.2±17.0% in the Coll (+) group, but 9.1±13.2% in the Coll (-) group (p<0.001). These results suggest that coronary collateral may contribute to minimizing the infarct area and to prediction of the presence of viable myocardium. (author)

  12. Biomarkers of coronary endothelial health: correlation with invasive measures of collateral function, flow and resistance in chronically occluded coronary arteries and the effect of recanalization.

    Ladwiniec, Andrew; Ettelaie, Camille; Cunnington, Michael S; Rossington, Jennifer; Thackray, Simon; Alamgir, Farquad; Hoye, Angela

    2016-06-01

    In the presence of a chronically occluded coronary artery, the collateral circulation matures by a process of arteriogenesis; however, there is considerable variation between individuals in the functional capacity of that collateral network. This could be explained by differences in endothelial health and function. We aimed to examine the relationship between the functional extent of collateralization and levels of biomarkers that have been shown to relate to endothelial health. We measured four potential biomarkers of endothelial health in 34 patients with mature collateral networks who underwent a successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for a chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) before PCI and 6-8 weeks after PCI, and examined the relationship of biomarker levels with physiological measures of collateralization. We did not find a significant change in the systemic levels of sICAM-1, sE-selectin, microparticles or tissue factor 6-8 weeks after PCI. We did find an association between estimated retrograde collateral flow before CTO recanalization and lower levels of sICAM-1 (r=0.39, P=0.026), sE-selectin (r=0.48, P=0.005) and microparticles (r=0.38, P=0.03). Recanalization of a CTO and resultant regression of a mature collateral circulation do not alter systemic levels of sICAM-1, sE-selectin, microparticles or tissue factor. The identified relationship of retrograde collateral flow with sICAM-1, sE-selectin and microparticles is likely to represent an association with an ability to develop collaterals rather than their presence and extent.

  13. Collateral Circulation in Chronic Total Occlusions - An Interventional Perspective

    Choo, Gim-Hooi

    2015-01-01

    Human coronary collaterals are inter-coronary communications that are believed to be present from birth. In the presence of chronic total occlusions, recruitment of flow via these collateral anastomoses to the arterial segment distal to occlusion provide an alternative source of blood flow to the myocardial segment at risk. This mitigates the ischemic injury. Clinical outcome of coronary occlusion ie. severity of myocardial infarction/ischemia, impairment of cardiac function and possibly survival depends not only on the acuity of the occlusion, extent of jeopardized myocardium, duration of ischemia but also to the adequacy of collateral circulation. Adequacy of collateral circulation can be assessed by various methods. These coronary collateral channels have been used successfully as a retrograde access route for percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusions. Factors that promote angiogenesis and further collateral remodeling ie. arteriogenesis have been identified. Promotion of collateral growth as a therapeutic target in patients with no suitable revascularization option is an exciting proposal.

  14. Collateral Circulation in Chronic Total Occlusions - an interventional perspective.

    Choo, Gim-Hooi

    2015-09-09

    Human coronary collaterals are inter-coronary communications that are believed to be present from birth. In the presence of chronic total occlusions, recruitment of flow via these collateral anastomoses to the arterial segment distal to occlusion provide an alternative source of blood flow to the myocardial segment at risk. This mitigates the ischemic injury. Clinical outcome of coronary occlusion ie. severity of myocardial infarction/ischemia, impairment of cardiac function and possibly survival depends not only on the acuity of the occlusion, extent of jeopardized myocardium, duration of ischemia but also to the adequacy of collateral circulation. Adequacy of collateral circulation can be assessed by various methods. These coronary collateral channels have been used successfully as a retrograde access route for percutaneous recanalization of chronic total occlusions. Factors that promote angiogenesis and further collateral remodeling ie. arteriogenesis have been identified. Promotion of collateral growth as a therapeutic target in patients with no suitable revascularization option is an exciting proposal.

  15. Coronary collateral circulation during exercise assessed with stress Tl-201 SPECT

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Aizawa, Tadanori

    1995-01-01

    Stree Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was undertaken in 25 patients with complete occlusion of the left anterior descending artery in which the major collateral circulation was septal segment supplied by the right posterior descending artery with no significant occlusion. The ratio of blood flow in ischemic area to that in normal area was quantitatively determined on Tl-201 images, and the degree of ischemia was expressed by Tl uptake ratio. Ischemia was found in 22 of the 25 patients. Of the 22 patients, 9 showed Tl uptake ratio of less than 50%. Tl uptake ratio in the inferior segment was 76.8±10.3%. In 11 patients, it was less than 75%. Redistribution images were acquired in 19 patients. Changes in Tl uptake ratio on the 90 degrees projection of the septum were less than 20%, with a lowest value of 59.1±11.3% in 14 patients; and these were 20% or more, with a lowest value of 45.2±11.1% in 8 patients. When coronary collateral circulation is not supplied by exercise, septal perfusion may be decreased. In cases of complete occlusion of the anteiror descending artery, ischemia may not uniform over the whole ischemic area and may be noticeable around the anterior descending artery. In cases of lesions in the anteior descending artery, however, collateral circulation supplied by the right coronary artery may occur by exercise when ischemia in the anterior segment was severer than in the septal segment. (N.K.)

  16. A new risk scoring model for prediction of poor coronary collateral circulation in acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    İleri, Mehmet; Güray, Ümit; Yetkin, Ertan; Gürsoy, Havva Tuğba; Bayır, Pınar Türker; Şahin, Deniz; Elalmış, Özgül Uçar; Büyükaşık, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the clinical features associated with development of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to develop a scoring model for predicting poor collateralization at hospital admission. The study enrolled 224 consecutive patients with NSTEMI admitted to our coronary care unit. Patients were divided into poor (grade 0 and 1) and good (grade 2 and 3) CCC groups. In logistic regression analysis, presence of diabetes mellitus, total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were found as independent positive predictors of poor CCC, whereas older age (≥ 70 years) emerged as a negative indicator. The final scoring model was based on 5 variables which were significant at p risk score ≤ 1, 29 had good CCC (with a 97% negative predictive value). On the other hand, 139 patients had risk score ≥ 4; out of whom, 130 (with a 93.5% positive predictive value) had poor collateralization. Sensitivity and specificity of the model in predicting poor collateralization in patients with scores ≤ 1 and ≥ 4 were 99.2% (130/131) and +76.3 (29/38), respectively. This study represents the first prediction model for degree of coronary collateralization in patients with acute NSTEMI.

  17. Increased myocardial infarct size because of reduced coronary collateral blood flow in beagles

    Uemura, N.; Knight, D.R.; Shen, Y.T.; Nejima, J.; Cohen, M.V.; Thomas, J.X. Jr.; Vatner, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of permanent left circumflex coronary artery occlusion (CAO) were examined in conscious purebred beagles and mongrel dogs, instrumented with miniature left ventricular (LV) pressure gauges, wall thickness gauges in the ischemic zone, catheters in left atrium and aorta, and snares around the left circumflex coronary artery. Blood flow was measured using the radioactive microsphere technique before CAO and at 5 min, 1, 3, and 24 h after CAO. Although CAO reduced myocardial blood flow similarly in beagles and mongrels, significantly less (P less than 0.05) recovery of myocardial blood flow was observed over the following 24-h period in beagles. Infarct size, as determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and expressed as percentage of area at risk, was larger (P less than 0.05) in beagles (62.0 ± 5.1%) than mongrels (42.5 ± 4.2%). Thus beagles do not tolerate ischemia as well as mongrel dogs and possess fewer functional coronary collaterals resulting in larger infarcts after CAO

  18. Diabetes mellitus and female gender are the strongest predictors of poor collateral vessel development in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis.

    Yetkin, Ertan; Topal, Ergun; Erguzel, Nuri; Senen, Kubilay; Heper, Gulumser; Waltenberger, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Coronary collateral vessel development (CVD), i.e., arteriogenesis, is regarded as one of the most important mechanisms—along with angiogenesis—to result in protection of the myocardium. Coronary CVD is associated with a reduction in infarct size, future cardiovascular events and improved survival in patients with occlusive coronary artery disease by enhancing regional perfusion in the chronically ischemic myocardium. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relation of cardiovascular risk factors and hematological parameters with collateral development in patients with severely stenotic (≥95%) and totally occluded coronary artery disease including at least one major coronary artery. The study population was selected from the patients who underwent coronary angiography between January 2008 and March 2009. Five hundred and two patients who had at least one coronary artery stenosis ≥95% (368 men; mean age 59 ± 10 years) comprised the study population. Of the 502 patients, 228 had total occlusion in at least one major epicardial coronary artery. Collateral artery grading was performed by using Cohen-Rentrop method to the vessel with coronary artery stenosis of ≥95% and patients with chronic total occlusions (CTO). Patients with grade 0-1 collateral development were regarded as the poor collateral group, and patients with grade 2-3 collateral development were regarded as the good collateral group. Two hundred and fifty-eight (51%) of 502 patients had poor collateral development, and 244 (49%) had good collateral development. Logistic regression analysis revealed that DM was independently associated with poor CVD in patients with ≥95% stenosis (p risk factor for poor CVD in addition to DM in patients with CTO.

  19. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and coronary collateral circulation: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Xing, Zhenhua; Pei, Junyu; Tang, Liang; Hu, Xinqun

    2018-04-01

    Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer mortality. Traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and smoking) have some effects on coronary collateral circulation. However, the association between these risk factors and coronary collateral circulation are controversial. Given the confusing evidences regarding traditional cardiovascular risk factors on coronary collateral circulation, we performed this meta-analysis protocol to investigate the relationship between traditional risk factors of coronary artery disease and coronary collateral circulation. MEDINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index will be searched to identify relevant studies. The primary outcomes of this meta-analysis are well-developed coronary collateral circulation. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, smoking, hypertriton). Pooled ORs were computed as the Mantel-Haenszel-weighted average of the ORs for all included studies. Sensitivity analysis, quality assessment, publication bias analysis, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach (GRADE) will be performed to ensure the reliability of our results. This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence of traditional risk factors on collateral circulation. This conclusion of our systematic review and meta-analysis will provide evidence to judge whether traditional risk factors affects coronary collateral circulation.Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval is not required because our systematic review and meta-analysis will be based on published data without interventions on patients. The findings of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

  20. [Value of evaluating the coronary collateral circulation by transluminal attenuation gradient in patients with chronic total occlusion and related influencing factors].

    Chen, Y L; Wang, R; He, Y; Li, J N; Yuan, F; Tian, R; Ge, C J; Zhou, Y; Huang, R C; Cui, S; Song, X T

    2017-10-24

    Objective: To observe the value of evaluating the coronary collateral circulation of chronic total occlusion (CTO) by transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) and Rentrop grading, and analyze the influencing factors for coronary collateral circulation. Methods: A total of 179 CTO patients admitted to Beijing Anzhen hospital during June 2013 to August 2016 were included in this study.All patients received coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) examination before coronary angiography.Finally, 75 patients (79 vessels) were enrolled.Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of Rentrop classification.The Rentrop 3 was defined as a well-developed coronary collateral circulation group, including 50 CTO vessels, Rentrop 2 or below was defined as poorly-developed collateral circulation group, including 29 vessels.TAG values in patients with various Rentrop grades were analyzed.Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the predictors of collateral circulation. Results: TAG increased consistently in proportion to the angiographic extent of collateral flow (TAG was (-33.6±24.4), (-16.5±15.7) and (-12.8±15.8) HU/10 mm in patients with Rentrop grade 0 or 1, 2 and 3, respectively, P =0.007). Number of good collateral circulation vessels predicted by TAG≥15.6 HU/10 mm was 45(57.0%, 45/79), and 50 (63.3%, 50/79) by Rentrop grade ( P =0.383). Prevalence of diabetes was significantly lower (20.8%(10/48) vs. 48.1%(13/27), P =0.01), while history of previous myocardial infarction (MI) was significantly higher (35.4%(17/48) vs. 11.1%(3/27), P =0.02) in patients with good collateral circulation than in patients with poor collateral circulation.The TAG of the good collateral circulation group was significantly higher than in poorly collateral circulation group ((-12.8±15.8) HU/10 mm vs. (-21.2±19.6) HU/10mm, P =0.041). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that history of MI ( OR =0.196, 95% CI 0.041-0.936, P =0.041) and diabetes( OR =6

  1. Multidetector CT and MRI of ostial atresia of the coronary sinus, associated collateral venous pathways and cardiac anomalies

    Shum, J.S.F.; Kim, S.M.; Choe, Y.H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with atresia of the coronary sinus orifice (CSA). Materials and methods: MDCT findings of 15 consecutive adult patients with CSAs were retrospectively analysed. The patients underwent contrast-enhanced electrocardiography-gated MDCT (n = 13) or both CT and MRI (n = 2). Results: The mean size of the coronary sinus (CS) was 14.2 mm (range 5.5–24 mm) and 11 patients (73.3%) showed CS dilatation (diameter ≥12 mm). The mean length of the atretic CS segment was 2.9 mm (range 0–8 mm). Different forms of venous collateral pathways were observed in the CSA patients. Nine (60%) of the 15 CSA patients had communication between the right atrium (RA; n = 6) or LA (n = 5) and CS via intraseptal veins; six patients (40%) had persistent left superior caval veins; communications were also observed between the CS and RA (n = 4) or LA (n = 4); two patients had collateral venous pathways between dilated cardiac veins with RA; two patients had unroofing of the CS as outlet channels. Nine patients (60%) had cardiac anomalies: coronary artery fistula to the pulmonary artery (n = 6) or left ventricular base and CS (n = 1), atrial septal defects (n = 2), and a ventricular septal defect (n = 1). Conclusion: CSA patients have venous collateral pathways and a high incidence of associated cardiovascular anomalies such as coronary artery fistulae and atrial septal defects.

  2. Detection of human collateral circulation by vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography

    Nienaber, C.A.; Salge, D.; Spielmann, R.P.; Montz, R.; Bleifeld, W.

    1990-01-01

    Coronary arteriolar vasodilation may provoke redistribution of flow to collateral-dependent jeopardized myocardium. To assess the physiologic significance of collaterals, 80 consecutive post-infarction patients (age 58 +/- 8 years) underwent vasodilation-redistribution thallium-201 tomographic imaging after administration of 0.56 mg of intravenous dipyridamole/kg body weight. Circumferential profile analysis of thallium-201 uptake and redistribution in representative left ventricular tomograms provided quantitative assessment of transient and fixed defects and separation between periinfarctional and distant inducible hypoperfusion. Tomographic perfusion data were correlated to wall motion and collateral circulation between distinct anatomic perfusion territories. Patients were grouped according to presence (59%) or absence (41%) of angiographically visible collateral channels to jeopardized myocardium. In the presence of collaterals, distant reversible defects were larger than in absence of collaterals (p less than 0.05); the extent of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution was also larger in collateralized patients (p less than 0.025), whereas the size of the persistent perfusion defect was similar in both groups. By prospective analysis the tomographic perfusion pattern of combined periinfarctional and distant redistribution revealed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 78% for the detection of significant collateral circulation in this group of patients. Thus, using the exhausted flow reserve as a diagnostic tool, vasodilation-thallium-201 tomography has the potential to identify and quantitate collateralized myocardium in post-infarction patients and may guide diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making

  3. Relationship of myocardial hibernation, scar, and angiographic collateral flow in ischemic cardiomyopathy with coronary chronic total occlusion.

    Wang, Li; Lu, Min-Jie; Feng, Lei; Wang, Juan; Fang, Wei; He, Zuo-Xiang; Dou, Ke-Fei; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Yang, Min-Fu

    2018-03-07

    The relationship between myocardial viability and angiographic collateral flow is not fully elucidated in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) with coronary artery chronic total occlusion (CTO). We aimed to clarify the relationship between myocardial hibernation, myocardial scar, and angiographic collateral flow in these patients. Seventy-one consecutive ICM patients with 122 CTOs and 652 dysfunctional segments within CTO territories were retrospectively analyzed. Myocardial hibernation (perfusion-metabolism mismatch) and the extent of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) abnormalities were assessed using 99m Tc-sestamibi and 18 F-FDG imaging. Myocardial scar was evaluated by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Collateral flow observed on coronary angiography was assessed using Rentrop classification. In these patients, neither the extent nor frequency of myocardial hibernation or scar was related to the status of collateral flow. Moreover, the matching rate in determining myocardial viability was poor between any 2 imaging indices. The extent of 18 F-FDG abnormalities was linearly related to the extent of LGE rather than myocardial hibernation. Of note, nearly one-third (30.4%) of segments with transmural scar still had hibernating tissue. Hibernation and non-transmural scar had higher sensitivity (63.0% and 66.7%) than collateral flow (37.0%) in predicting global functional improvement. Angiographic collateral cannot accurately predict myocardial viability, and has lower sensitivity in prediction of functional improvement in CTO territories in ICM patients. Hence, assessment of myocardial viability with non-invasive imaging modalities is of importance. Moreover, due to the lack of correlation between myocardial hibernation and scar, these two indices are complementary but not interchangeable.

  4. Transient myocardial ischemia during nifedipine therapy in stable angina pectoris, and its relation to coronary collateral flow and comparison with metoprolol

    Egstrup, K; Andersen, P E

    1993-01-01

    There are conflicting results concerning the anti-ischemic effect of nifedipine in patients with chronic stable angina. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the anti-ischemic effect of nifedipine may be related to coronary collateral circulation. Forty-one patients with stable...... of collateral circulation. In 17 patients, angiographically poor or no collateral flow was observed (group 1), and 24 had good collateral flow (group 2). Nifedipine was administered to 20 patients (8 in group 1, and 12 in group 2). In group 1, nifedipine reduced the frequency of total and asymptomatic ischemic...

  5. Coronary Collateral Circulation and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Is There a Paradox?

    Bhatt, Hemal; Kochar, Suzi; Htun, Wah Wah; Julliard, Kell; Fernaine, George

    2015-07-01

    We sought to determine the association of major cardiovascular risk factors and other comorbidities with the presence or absence of coronary collateral (CC) circulation. All electronic medical records from 2010 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 563 patients were divided into 2 groups: CC present (180) and CC absent (383). Smoking (P = .012, odds ratio [OR] 1.58), hypercholesterolemia (P = .001, OR 2.21), and hypertension (P = .034, OR 1.75) were associated with the presence of CC. Increasing body mass index (BMI, P = .001) and decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, P = .042) were associated with the absence of CC. On multivariable linear regression analysis, hypercholesterolemia (P = .001, OR 2.28), BMI (P = .012, OR 0.77), and eGFR (P = .001, OR 0.70) were found to be independently associated with CC. Our findings will help predict patient populations more likely to have presence or absence of CC circulation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Relationship between collateral circulation and myocardial viability of 18F-FDG PET/CT subtended by chronic total occluded coronary arteries.

    Dong, Wei; Li, Jianan; Mi, Hongzhi; Song, Xiantao; Jiao, Jian; Li, Quan

    2018-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between the collateral flow of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) and myocardial viability detected by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. A prospective analysis of 104 patients diagnosed by coronary angiography. All patients underwent resting myocardial perfusion imaging and PET/CT within 1 week. The collateral circulation was graded with Rentrop classification as no or poor collateral circulation in 16 CTO vessels, moderate collateral circulation in 34 CTO vessels, and good collateral circulation in 69 CTO vessels. Myocardial viability was determined with myocardial perfusion imaging and PET. The patterns were interpreted as mismatch, match and normal perfusion and 18 F-FDG uptake. There was no significant correlation between the severity and extent of perfusion defect, myocardial viability and collateral circulation grade. The myocardial viability was normal in mild and moderate hypokinetic regions and decreased in severe hypokinetic and akinesis-dyskinesis regions. The presence of collateral circulation was a sensitive (89%) but not a specific (31%) sign of myocardial viability. In patients with CTO, collateral circulation does not seem to be an effective way for predicting myocardial viability. Further analysis of PET patterns of viable myocardium is needed to guide further revascularization and predict functional improvement and survival benefit.

  7. Influence of angiographic collateral circulation on myocardial perfusion in patients with chronic total occlusion of a single coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction.

    Aboul-Enein, Fatma; Kar, Saibal; Hayes, Sean W; Sciammarella, Maria; Abidov, Aiden; Makkar, Raj; Friedman, John D; Eigler, Neal; Berman, Daniel S

    2004-06-01

    The functional role of various angiographic grades for coronary collaterals remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the Rentrop angiographic grading of coronary collaterals on myocardial perfusion in patients with single-vessel chronic total occlusion (CTO) and no prior myocardial infarction (MI). The study included 56 patients with single-vessel CTO and no prior MI who underwent rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 6 mo. All patients had angiographic evidence of coronary collaterals. Patients were divided according to the Rentrop classification: Group I had grade 1 or 2 (n = 25) and group II had grade 3 collaterals (n = 31). Group I had a higher frequency of resting regional wall motion abnormalities on left ventriculography (52.6% vs. 19.2% [P = 0.019]). The mean perfusion scores of the overall population showed severe and extensive stress perfusion defects (summed stress score of 14.1 +/- 7.1 and summed difference score of 12.9 +/- 6.9) but minimal resting perfusion defects (summed rest score of 1.0 +/- 2.7). No perfusion scores differed between the 2 groups. The perfusion findings suggested that chronic stunning rather than hibernation is the principal cause of regional wall motion abnormalities in these patients. In the setting of single-vessel CTO and no prior MI, coronary collaterals appear to protect against resting perfusion defects. Excellent angiographic collaterals may prevent resting regional wall motion abnormalities but do not appear to protect against stress-induced perfusion defects.

  8. De-novo Collateral Formation Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Dependence on CCR2+ Bone Marrow Cells

    Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E

    2015-01-01

    Wide variation exists in the extent (number and diameter) of native pre-existing collaterals in tissues of different strains of mice, with supportive indirect evidence recently appearing for humans. This variation is a major determinant of the wide variation in severity of tissue injury in occlusive vascular disease. Whether such genetic-dependent variation also exists in the heart is unknown because no model exists for study of mouse coronary collaterals. Also owing to methodological limitations, it is not known if ischemia can induce new coronary collaterals to form (“neo-collaterals”) versus remodeling of pre-existing ones. The present study sought to develop a model to study coronary collaterals in mice, determine whether neo-collateral formation occurs, and investigate the responsible mechanisms. Four strains with known rank-ordered differences in collateral extent in brain and skeletal muscle were studied: C57BLKS>C57BL/6>A/J>BALB/c. Unexpectedly, these and 5 additional strains lacked native coronary collaterals. However after ligation, neo-collaterals formed rapidly within 1-to-2 days, reaching their maximum extent in ≤ 7 days. Rank-order for neo-collateral formation differed from the above: C57BL/6>BALB/c>C57BLKS>A/J. Collateral network conductance, infarct volume−1, and contractile function followed this same rank-order. Neo-collateral formation and collateral conductance were reduced and infarct volume increased in MCP1−/− and CCR2−/− mice. Bone-marrow transplant rescued collateral formation in CCR2−/− mice. Involvement of fractalkine→CX3CR1 signaling and endothelial cell proliferation were also identified. This study introduces a model for investigating the coronary collateral circulation in mice, demonstrates that neocollaterals form rapidly after coronary occlusion, and finds that MCP→CCR2-mediated recruitment of myeloid cells is required for this process. PMID:26254180

  9. De-novo collateral formation following acute myocardial infarction: Dependence on CCR2⁺ bone marrow cells.

    Zhang, Hua; Faber, James E

    2015-10-01

    Wide variation exists in the extent (number and diameter) of native pre-existing collaterals in tissues of different strains of mice, with supportive indirect evidence recently appearing for humans. This variation is a major determinant of the wide variation in severity of tissue injury in occlusive vascular disease. Whether such genetic-dependent variation also exists in the heart is unknown because no model exists for study of mouse coronary collaterals. Also owing to methodological limitations, it is not known if ischemia can induce new coronary collaterals to form ("neo-collaterals") versus remodeling of pre-existing ones. The present study sought to develop a model to study coronary collaterals in mice, determine whether neo-collateral formation occurs, and investigate the responsible mechanisms. Four strains with known rank-ordered differences in collateral extent in brain and skeletal muscle were studied: C57BLKS>C57BL/6>A/J>BALB/c. Unexpectedly, these and 5 additional strains lacked native coronary collaterals. However after ligation, neo-collaterals formed rapidly within 1-to-2 days, reaching their maximum extent in ≤7 days. Rank-order for neo-collateral formation differed from the above: C57BL/6>BALB/c>C57BLKS>A/J. Collateral network conductance, infarct volume(-1), and contractile function followed this same rank-order. Neo-collateral formation and collateral conductance were reduced and infarct volume increased in MCP1(-/-) and CCR2(-/-) mice. Bone-marrow transplant rescued collateral formation in CCR2(-/-) mice. Involvement of fractalkine➔CX3CR1 signaling and endothelial cell proliferation were also identified. This study introduces a model for investigating the coronary collateral circulation in mice, demonstrates that neo-collaterals form rapidly after coronary occlusion, and finds that MCP➔CCR2-mediated recruitment of myeloid cells is required for this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of coronary collaterals on in-hospital and 5-year mortality after ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era: a prospective observational study

    Hara, Masahiko; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Nakatani, Daisaku; Suna, Shinichiro; Nishino, Masami; Sato, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nanto, Shinsuke; Hori, Masatsugu; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term and long-term prognostic impacts of acute phase coronary collaterals to occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. Design A prospective observational study. Setting Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study (OACIS) in Japan. Participants 3340 patients with STEMI from the OACIS database who were admitted to hospitals within 24 hours from the onset and who had a completely occluded IRA. Interventions Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the Rentrop collateral score (RCS) by angiography on admission (RCS-0, no visible collaterals; RCS-1, collaterals without IRA filling; RCS-2, collaterals with partial IRA filling; and RCS-3, collaterals with complete IRA filling). Primary outcome measures In-hospital and 5-year mortality. Results Patients with RCS-0/3 were older than patients with RCS-1/2, and the prevalence of previous myocardial infarction was highest in patients with RCS-3. Median peak creatinine phosphokinase levels decreased as RCS increases (p<0.001), suggesting the acute cardioprotective effects of collaterals. Although RCS-1 and RCS-2 collaterals were associated with better in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.48, p=0.046 and 0.38, p=0.010 for RCS-1 and RCS-2, respectively) and 5-year mortality (adjusted HR 0.53, p=0.004 and 0.46, p<0.001 for RCS-1 and RCS-2, respectively) as compared with R-0, presence of RCS-3 collaterals was not associated with improved in-hospital (adjusted OR 1.35, p=0.331) and 5-year mortality (adjusted HR 0.98, p=0.920), possibly because worse clinical profiles in patients with RCS-3 may mask mortality benefit of coronary collaterals. Conclusions Presence of acute phase coronary collaterals such as RCS-1 and RCS-2 were associated with better in-hospital and 5-year mortality after STEMI in the contemporary PCI era. PMID:27412101

  11. [Association between collateral circulation and myocardial viability evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with coronary artery chronic total occlusion].

    Li, J N; Zhang, L J; He, Y; Chen, Y L; Huang, R C; Lyu, S Z; Song, X T

    2017-07-24

    Objective: Late gadolinium enhancement(LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging(CMR) was used to evaluate the myocardial viability of chronic total occlusion(CTO) in patients with coronary heart disease and to observe the relationship between collateral circulation and myocardium viability in these patients. Methods: This retrospective study included 40 patients with CTO diagnosed by invasive coronary angiography (CAG) from September 2015 to June 2016 in our department, all patients performed CMR examination within one week after CAG.The collateral circulation of CTO was graded with Rentrop classification as follows: poor or no collateral circulation group, moderate collateral circulation group and good collateral circulation group.According to CMR images, the delayed enhancement transmural extent of myocardial segments were scored, the ventricular wall motion of the myocardial segment were graded, and the wall motion score index (WMSI) was calculated.Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the delayed enhancement transmural extent of myocardial segments and WMSI. Results: In the no or poor collateral group of 6 myocardial regions, 1 myocardial region had viable myocardium and 3 myocardial regions had no viable myocardium; in the moderate collateral group of 16 myocardial regions, 11 myocardial regions had viable myocardium and 5 myocardial regions had no viable myocardium; in the good collateral group of 24 myocardial regions, 21 myocardial regions had viable myocardium and 3 myocardial regions had no viable myocardium, there was significant difference between the groups ( P =0.002). The WMSI of poor or no collateral circulation group, moderate collateral circulation group and good collateral circulation group were 1.54±0.50, 1.21±0.34 and 1.26±0.40, respectively, there was no significant difference between the groups ( P =0.063). Spearman correlation analysis showed that the extent of delayed enhancement transmural extent of

  12. Lipoprotein(a as a predictor of poor collateral circulation in patients with chronic stable coronary heart disease

    Y. Fan

    Full Text Available As a mechanism compensating for obstructive coronary artery disease, coronary collateral circulation (CCC has attracted cardiologists for a long time to explore its potential impact. In the present study, Chinese patients suffering from ≥95% coronary stenosis, as diagnosed by angiography, have been investigated for the correlation between CCC and lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels. A cohort of 654 patients was divided into four categories according to Rentrop grades 0, 1, 2, and 3. Lp(a levels were divided into model 1, discretized with critical values of 33 and 66%, and model 2, discretized with a cutoff value of 30.0 mg/dL. Furthermore, we evaluated the correlation between CCC and serum Lp(a levels. The four groups had significantly different Lp(a levels (25.80±24.72, 18.99±17.83, 15.39±15.80, and 8.40±7.75 mg/dL; P30.0 group (OR=6.77, 95%CI=4.44-10.4 was greater than that of Lp(a <30.0 mg/dL. The worst condition of CCC can be predicted independently by Lp(a levels. In addition to clinical usage, Lp(a levels can also be utilized as biological markers.

  13. Long-term survival benefit of revascularization compared with medical therapy in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion and well-developed collateral circulation.

    Jang, Woo Jin; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Young Tak; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) and well-developed collateral circulation treated with revascularization versus medical therapy. Little is known about the clinical outcomes and optimal treatment strategies of CTO with well-developed collateral circulation. We screened 2,024 consecutive patients with at least 1 CTO detected on coronary angiogram. Of these, we analyzed data from 738 patients with Rentrop 3 grade collateral circulation who were treated with medical therapy alone (n = 236), coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 170) or percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 332; 80.1% successful). Patients who underwent revascularization and medical therapy (revascularization group, n = 502) were compared with those who underwent medical therapy alone (medication group, n = 236) in terms of cardiac death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization. During a median follow-up duration of 42 months, multivariate analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of cardiac death (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15 to 0.58; p collateral circulation, aggressive revascularization may reduce the risk of cardiac mortality and MACE. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Corruption of coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome: Role of oxidative stress.

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Chilian, William M

    2010-12-26

    The myocardium adapts to ischemic insults in a variety of ways. One adaptation is the phenomenon of acute preconditioning, which can greatly ameliorate ischemic damage. However, this effect wanes within a few hours and does not confer chronic protection. A more chronic adaptation is the so-called second window of preconditioning, which enables protection for a few days. The most potent adaptation invoked by the myocardium to minimize the effects of ischemia is the growth of blood vessels in the heart, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis (collateral growth), which prevent the development of ischemia by enabling flow to a jeopardized region of the heart. This brief review examines the mechanisms underlying angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in the heart. The concept of a redox window, which is an optimal redox state for vascular growth, is discussed along with signaling mechanisms invoked by reactive oxygen species that are stimulated during ischemia-reperfusion. Finally, the review discusses of some of the pathologies, especially the metabolic syndrome, that negatively affect collateral growth through the corruption of redox signaling processes.

  15. Interferon-beta signaling is enhanced in patients with insufficient coronary collateral artery development and inhibits arteriogenesis in mice

    Schirmer, Stephan H.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Moerland, Perry D.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Henriques, Jose P. S.; van der Schaaf, Rene J.; Vis, Marije M.; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Piek, Jan J.; van Royen, Niels; Baan, J.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulation of collateral artery growth in patients has been hitherto unsuccessful, despite promising experimental approaches. Circulating monocytes are involved in the growth of collateral arteries, a process also referred to as arteriogenesis. Patients show a large heterogeneity in their natural

  16. The effect of collateral flow and myocardial viability on the distribution of technetium-99m sestamibi in a closed-chest model of coronary occlusion and reperfusion

    Chareonthaitawee, P.; O'Connor, M.K.; Gibbons, R.J.; Christian, T.F.; Ritman, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of myocardial viability and the degree of collateral blood flow on the uptake and retention of 99m Tc-sestamibi by examining three animal models of coronary occlusion and reperfusion, each reflecting a different state of viability and collateral blood flow. Three closed-chest animal models were studied: canine (high collateral flow, preserved viability), porcine (low collateral flow, absent viability) and porcine with slowly occlusive coronary stents producing infarction and enhanced collateral blood flow (high collateral flow, absent viability). There were seven dogs, seven pigs and six pigs, respectively, in each animal model. Animals from all three models were subjected to a 40-min total left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. 99m Tc-sestamibi and radiolabelled microspheres were injected during LAD occlusion 10 min prior to reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 2 h of reperfusion flow. Ex situ heart slice imaging to determine risk area was followed by viability staining to determine infarct size. Slices were subsequently sectioned into equally sized radial segments and placed in a gamma well counter. Risk area as determined by ex situ 99m Tc-sestamibi imaging was not significantly different by model. Pathological infarct size differed significantly by model [canine = 1%±1% of the left ventricle (LV); porcine = 13%±8% LV; porcine with stent = 14%±7% LV; P=0.002]. Collateral blood flow by microspheres during occlusion tended to differ among models (overall P=0.08), with the canine and porcine with stent models having relatively high flow rates compared with the acute porcine model. 99m Tc-sestamibi activity correlated with microsphere blood flow in all three models, with r values for individual animals (n=20) ranging from 0.86 to 0.96 (all P 99m Tc-sestamibi uptake with myocardial blood flow. 99m Tc-sestamibi uptake overestimated blood flow to a greater extent

  17. Dynamic knee alignment and collateral knee laxity and its variations in normal humans

    Kamal eDeep

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alignment of normal, arthritic and replaced human knees is a much debated subject as is the collateral ligamentous laxity. Traditional quantitative values have been challenged. Methods used to measure these are also not without flaws. Authors review the recent literature and a novel method of measurement of these values has been included. This method includes use of computer navigation technique in clinic setting for assessment of the normal or affected knee before the surgery. Computer navigation has been known for achievement of alignment accuracy during knee surgery. Now its use in clinic setting has added to the inventory of measurement methods. Authors dispel the common myth of straight mechanical axis in normal knees and also look at quantification of amount of collateral knee laxity. Based on the scientific studies it has been shown that the mean alignment is in varus in normal knees. It changes from lying non weight bearing position to standing weight bearing position in both coronal and the sagittal planes. It also varies with gender and race. The collateral laxity is also different for males and females. Further studies are needed to define the ideal alignment and collateral laxity which the surgeon should aim for individual knees.

  18. Estimating Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease for Small Areas Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity

    Peter Congdon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different indicators of morbidity for chronic disease may not necessarily be available at a disaggregated spatial scale (e.g., for small areas with populations under 10 thousand. Instead certain indicators may only be available at a more highly aggregated spatial scale; for example, deaths may be recorded for small areas, but disease prevalence only at a considerably higher spatial scale. Nevertheless prevalence estimates at small area level are important for assessing health need. An instance is provided by England where deaths and hospital admissions for coronary heart disease are available for small areas known as wards, but prevalence is only available for relatively large health authority areas. To estimate CHD prevalence at small area level in such a situation, a shared random effect method is proposed that pools information regarding spatial morbidity contrasts over different indicators (deaths, hospitalizations, prevalence. The shared random effect approach also incorporates differences between small areas in known risk factors (e.g., income, ethnic structure. A Poisson-multinomial equivalence may be used to ensure small area prevalence estimates sum to the known higher area total. An illustration is provided by data for London using hospital admissions and CHD deaths at ward level, together with CHD prevalence totals for considerably larger local health authority areas. The shared random effect involved a spatially correlated common factor, that accounts for clustering in latent risk factors, and also provides a summary measure of small area CHD morbidity.

  19. Observed Influence of Nitroglycerine on Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Patients with Multiple Vessel Coronary Artery Disease and Well-Developed Collaterals

    Rasulova, Nigora; Nazirova, Lyudmila; Akhmedov, Khasan; Akhmedova, Dilyafruz; Djalalov, Farrukh; Seydaliev, Amet; Iskandarov, Farkhod; Kok, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this scientific work was to evaluate the extent and severity of perfusion abnormalities on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) at rest and with sublingual nitroglycerine, in relation to the presence and anatomical location of collaterals demonstrated by selective coronary angiography (SCA). Twenty-eight patients with unstable angina underwent selective coronary angiography. Eighteen of them were diagnosed with myocardial infarction (MI) 2–15 days prior to examination. Presence or absence of collaterals was noted, with anatomical depiction of donor and recipient arteries as well as evaluation of degree of collateral flow. As an inclusion criterion, collateral flow had to be grade 2 (partial epicardial filling of the occluded artery) or 3 (complete epicardial filling of the occluded artery) in accordance with the Rentrop collateral flow classification. Flow was noted as follows: Complete antegrade (CA), complete retrograde (CR), partial antegrade (PA), and partial retrograde (PR). Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using Tc-99m Sestamibi at rest and after sublingual administration of nitroglycerine was performed according to a 2-day protocol. Perfusion abnormalities, which were quantified using the 20-segments model and visual 5-point system (0, normal perfusion; 4, absent perfusion), were analyzed according to donor's and recipient's territories, as well as territories with limited or without collateral flow (PA/PR, grade 0–1 flow). A total of 84 arteries were analyzed, with stenosis in 79 of them. Arteries were divided into three groups: Donors (group I), recipients (group II), and arteries with limited or without collaterals (group III). In group I, there were 28 donor arteries, with mean severity of stenosis 71.3 ± 0.65%. In group II, there were 36 recipient arteries and mean severity of stenosis was 94.8 ± 0.26%. In group III, there were 20 arteries, and all of them had either no or poorly developed collaterals (mean severity

  20. Correlation of angina pectoris and perfusion decrease by collateral circulation in single-vessel coronary chronic total occlusion using myocardial perfusion single-photon emssion computed tomography

    Cho, Sang Geon; Park, Ki Seong; Kang, Sae Ryung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the perfusion decrease in donor myocardium by collateral circulation and its correlation with angina pectoris in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) using myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS). Thirty-six patients with single-vessel CTO without any other stenosis were included. All patients underwent MPS and coronary angiography (CAG) within 2 months. Total 72 donor arteries were evaluated for the grades of collaterals to the CTO artery using the Rentrop grading system on CAG. Perfusion defects and perfusion scores in donor and CTO territories were analyzed on MPS. Myocardial perfusion of donor and CTO territories were evaluated according to the presence of angina pectoris and the grades of collateral circulation. When the CTO territory was ischemic, symptomatic patients showed higher summed difference scores in the CTO territory compared to asymptomatic patients (3.5 ± 2.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.8 for symptomatic and asymptomatic groups respectively; p = 0.034). However, when the CTO territory was nonischemic, symptomatic patients showed higher summed stress scores (SSS, 4.3 ± 2.9 vs. 1.6 ± 1.2; p = 0.032) and summed rest scores (SRS, 4.2 ± 2.5 vs. 1.5 ± 1.1; p = 0.003) in the donor territories. On the per-vessel analysis, perfusion defects in donor territories were more frequent (0 % vs. 53 % vs. 86 % for Rentrop 0, Rentrop 1–2 and Rentrop 3, respectively; p < 0.001) and showed higher SSS (0.0 ± 0.0, 1.3 ± 1.6 and 2.1 ± 1.1 for Rentrop 0, Rentrop 1–2 and Rentrop 3, respectively; p = 0.001) and SRS (0.0 ± 0.0, 1.0 ± 1.4 and 1.7 ± 1.2; p = 0.003) at higher Rentrop grades, but their patterns were variable. Angina pectoris was related to either ischemia of the myocardium beyond CTO or a perfusion decrease in the donor myocardium. The perfusion decrease in donor myocardium positively correlated with the collateral grades.

  1. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis

    Jansen, Krista; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Springeling, Geert; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; van Soest, Gijs

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. We specifically imaged lipid content, a key factor in vulnerable plaques that may lead to myocardial infarction. An integrated intravascular photoacoustics (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) catheter with an outer diameter of 1.25 mm was developed. The catheter comprises an angle-polished optical fiber adjacent to a 30 MHz single-element transducer. The ultrasonic transducer was optically isolated to eliminate artifacts in the PA image. We performed measurements on a cylindrical vessel phantom and isolated point targets to demonstrate its imaging performance. Axial and lateral point spread function widths were 110 μm and 550 μm, respectively, for PA and 89 μm and 420 μm for US. We imaged two fresh human coronary arteries, showing different stages of disease, ex vivo. Specific photoacoustic imaging of lipid content, is achieved by spectroscopic imaging at different wavelengths between 1180 and 1230 nm.

  2. The Pathogenesis of Human Myocardial Infarction

    Rona, George

    1966-01-01

    Coronary arteriography, dissection of the coronary arteries and histopathological examination of the heart were carried out in 150 autopsies to study the effect of coronary narrowing and occlusion, of the presence of collaterals, and of coronary artery predominance on the development of myocardial infarction. The thrombosis rate was related to the severity of coronary sclerosis. The development of collaterals was not enhanced by coronary sclerosis and occlusion, and collaterals did not protect the myocardium against reinfarction. Coronary occlusion was regularly demonstrable in recent myocardial infarct cases. The association of atrial and posterior ventricular infarcts was explained by occlusion of their common arterial branch. The interdependence between coronary sclerosis, thrombosis and myocardial infarction in human autopsy material emphasizes the importance of mural coronary artery disease in the genesis of coronary occlusion and myocardial infarction, and it is at variance with statistical data and experimental results. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5924947

  3. Effect of collateral circulation on myocardial protection in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial single photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography

    Yoshida, Michi; Kondo, Makoto; Abe, Yoshiteru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Matsuoka, Ryota; Araki, Makoto; Tanio, Hitoshi; Doyama, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of myocardial blood flow from collateral vessels into the infarct area has been estimated by coronary angiography. In patients with acute myocardial infarction with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 0 flow, myocardial tracer uptake on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images can predict the collateral blood flow in the infarct area if technetium (Tc)-99m-tetrofosmin was administered before recanalization. The present study investigated whether collateral blood flow evaluated by myocardial scintigraphy is a good predictor of myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The study group consisted of 30 patients (mean age 65±14 years, 23 males, 7 females) with first acute myocardial infarction and coronary angiography evidence of total occlusion (TIMI 0) within 12 hr after the onset. All patients had one vessel disease related to infarction and TIMI 3 flow after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Tc-99m-tetrofosmin was injected intravenously before the PCI. The regional severity score index (RSSI) was obtained from SPECT using the 17 segment method with the four-point scoring system. Myocardial viability was evaluated by the RSSI obtained from thallium-glucose-insulin infusion SPECT after 1 week and regional wall motion score index obtained from echocardiography during the chronic phase. The patients were divided into two groups according to the angiographic collateral finding. There were no differences in RSSI on thallium-glucose-insulin SPECT and regional wall motion score between the good collateral group (n=8) and poor collateral group (n=22). Myocardial Tc-99m-tetrofosmin RSSI was similar in these groups. On the other hand, the patients were divided according to Tc-99m-tetrofosmin scintigraphic evaluation before PCI. RSSI on thallium-glucose-insulin SPECT was significantly greater (0.7±0.5 vs 1.5±0.4, p<0.01) and regional wall motion score was significantly less (1.46±0.50 vs 2.08±0.78, p<0

  4. The collateral circulation of the heart

    2013-01-01

    The coronary arteries have been regarded as end arteries for decades. However, there are functionally relevant anastomotic vessels, known as collateral arteries, which interconnect epicardial coronary arteries. These vessels provide an alternative source of blood supply to the myocardium in cases of occlusive coronary artery disease. The relevance of these collateral arteries is a matter of ongoing debate, but increasing evidence indicates a relevant protective role in patients with coronary artery disease. The collateral circulation can be assessed by different methods; the gold standard involves intracoronary pressure measurements. While the first clinical trials to therapeutically induce growth of collateral arteries have been unavailing, recent pilot studies using external counterpulsation or growth factors such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) have shown promising results. PMID:23735225

  5. The Changing Collateral Space

    Manmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the changing collateral landscape and how it may shape the global demand/supply for collateral. We first identify the key collateral pools (relative to the “old” collateral space) and associated collateral velocities. Post-Lehman and continuing into the European crisis, some aspects of unconventional monetary policies pursued by central banks are significantly altering the collateral space. Moreover, regulatory demands stemming from Basel III, Dodd Frank, EMIR etc., new ...

  6. Effect of nitroglycerin on myocardial collateral conductance in awake dogs

    Brazzamano, S.; Rembert, J.C.; Greenfield, J.C. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Conductance of the coronary collateral circulation during the course of two abrupt circumflex coronary occlusions was measured in awake dogs ∼ 2 wk after collateral vessels were stimulated to develop. The pressure gradient from the central aorta to the distal circumflex coronary artery was measured, and myocardial blood flow was determined by 9-μm radioactive microspheres at 30 s and 4 min after coronary occlusions. Collateral conductance was calculated as mean collateral blood flow divided by the mean aorta-coronary pressure gradient. Before nitroglycerin, collateral conductance increased in all eight dogs from 30 s to 4 min. After nitroglycerin administration, the conductance at 30 s increased from the prenitroglycerin control value to 0.014 ± 0.012 ml·min -1 ·g -1 ·mmHg -1 . The mean change in conductance from 30 s to 4 min postnitroglycerin was significantly less than during prenitroglycerin. These data indicate that an increase in conductance during coronary occlusion occurs even in the immature collateral circulation. This effect presumably takes place in the arterial smooth muscle at the origin of the collateral vasculature

  7. The Future of Collateral Artery Research

    Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; Verberne, Hein J.; Siebes, Maria; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of obstructive coronary artery disease, collateral arteries have been deemed an alternative blood source to preserve myocardial tissue perfusion and function. Monocytes play an important role in modulating this process, by local secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix degrading enzymes. Extensive efforts have focused on developing compounds for augmenting the growth of collateral vessels (arteriogenesis). Nonetheless, clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of these compounds resulted in disappointing outcomes. Previous studies focused on developing compounds that stimulated collateral vessel growth by enhancing monocyte survival and activity. The limited success of these compounds in clinical studies, led to a paradigm shift in arteriogenesis research. Recent studies have shown genetic heterogeneity between CAD patients with sufficient and insufficient collateral vessels. The genetic predispositions in patients with poorly developed collateral vessels include overexpression of arteriogenesis inhibiting signaling pathways. New directions of arteriogenesis research focus on attempting to block such inhibitory pathways to ultimately promote arteriogenesis. Methods to detect collateral vessel growth are also critical in realizing the therapeutic potential of newly developed compounds. Traditional invasive measurements of intracoronary derived collateral flow index remain the gold standard in quantifying functional capacity of collateral vessels. However, advancements made in hybrid diagnostic imaging modalities will also prove to be advantageous in detecting the effects of pro-arteriogenic compounds. PMID:23638829

  8. Innate collateral segments are predominantly present in the subendocardium without preferential connectivity within the left ventricular wall

    van Horssen, Pepijn; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A. E.; Hoefer, Imo E.; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Functional collateral vessels often stem from outward remodelling of pre-existing connections between perfusion territories. Knowledge of the distribution and morphology of innate collateral connections may help in identifying myocardial areas with protection against risk for ischaemia. The coronary

  9. The Collateral Trap

    Frédéric Boissay; Russell Cooper

    2014-01-01

    Active wholesale financial markets help reallocate deposits across heterogeneous banks. Because of incentive problems these flows are constrained and collateral is needed. The composition of collateral matters. The use of inside assets (loans) creates a “collateral pyramid” in that cash flows from one loan can be pledged to secure another. Through collateral pyramids the financial sector creates safe assets, but at the cost of exposing the economy to systemic panics. Outside collateral (treas...

  10. The future of collateral artery research

    Hakimzadeh, Nazanin; Verberne, Hein J.; Siebes, Maria; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of obstructive coronary artery disease, collateral arteries have been deemed an alternative blood source to preserve myocardial tissue perfusion and function. Monocytes play an important role in modulating this process, by local secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix

  11. 42 CFR 3.532 - Collateral estoppel.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral estoppel. 3.532 Section 3.532 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.532 Collateral estoppel. When a final...

  12. 42 CFR 402.15 - Collateral estoppel.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral estoppel. 402.15 Section 402.15 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS General Provisions § 402.15 Collateral estoppel...

  13. 45 CFR 160.532 - Collateral estoppel.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral estoppel. 160.532 Section 160.532 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.532 Collateral estoppel. When a...

  14. 42 CFR 1003.114 - Collateral estoppel.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral estoppel. 1003.114 Section 1003.114 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.114 Collateral estoppel. (a) Where a...

  15. HUMAN CORONARY ARTERIES- A STUDY BASED ON GROSS ANATOMY AND CORONARY CAST

    Vijayamma K. N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Present study is an attempt to throw light upon the coronary arterial pattern, variations in arterial distribution and extent of intercoronary anastomosis and arterial preponderance in different age groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total of 115 hearts were made use for this study. Ninety hearts were dissected for the gross anatomical study of coronary arteries and 25 hearts including three fetal hearts were used for the coronary cast study. The right and left coronary arteries were traced from aortic sinus along the atrioventricular groove to the area of its termination. The atrial ventricular and septal branches were traced and looked for anastomosis. Coronary casts were prepared by injecting coloured liquid latex through the coronary ostia and the branching pattern and anastomosis were studied. The coronary arterial pattern, extent of distribution of its branches, arterial preponderance and variations were observed. RESULTS It was found that 73 % cases of SA nodal branch arise from right coronary artery and 27 % from circumflex branch of left coronary artery. SA node has dual blood supply from both coronary arteries in 4% cases. Right coronary preponderance was observed in 83% of cases and left coronary preponderance in 11 % cases, and balanced supply in 6% cases. Coronary cast was helpful to understand the branching pattern of vessels, and the anastomosis of small capillaries. It was also seen that all 11 % of left preponderance were seen in male hearts and all of the 31 female hearts dissected were right preponderant. CONCLUSION Coronary arteries are called end arteries functionally. Right coronary artery originates from anterior aortic sinus in all cases except one which takes origin from posterior left aortic sinus along with left coronary artery. Right coronary preponderance is observed in 83% cases. Left coronary artery branching pattern shows variability. Left coronary preponderance was observed in 11% and all cases are male

  16. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  17. Discounting with Imperfect Collateral

    Lou, Wujiang

    2017-01-01

    Cash collateral is perfect in that it provides simultaneous counterparty credit risk protection and derivatives funding. Securities are imperfect collateral, because of collateral segregation or differences in CSA haircuts and repo haircuts. Moreover, the collateral rate term structure is not observable in the repo market, for derivatives netting sets are perpetual while repo tenors are typically in months. This article synthesizes these effects into a derivative financing rate that replaces ...

  18. Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy.

    Brennan, J F; Römer, T J; Lees, R S; Tercyak, A M; Kramer, J R; Feld, M S

    1997-07-01

    We present a method for in situ chemical analysis of human coronary artery using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. It is rapid and accurate and does not require tissue removal; small volumes, approximately 1 mm3, can be sampled. This methodology is likely to be useful as a tool for intravascular diagnosis of artery disease. Human coronary artery segments were obtained from nine explanted recipient hearts within 1 hour of heart transplantation. Minces from one or more segments were obtained through grinding in a mortar and pestle containing liquid nitrogen. Artery segments and minces were excited with 830 nm near-infrared light, and Raman spectra were collected with a specially designed spectrometer. A model was developed to analyze the spectra and quantify the amounts of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids, and calcium salts present. The model provided excellent fits to spectra from the artery segments, indicating its applicability to intact tissue. In addition, the minces were assayed chemically for lipid and calcium salt content, and the results were compared. The relative weights obtained using the Raman technique agreed with those of the standard assays within a few percentage points. The chemical composition of coronary artery can be quantified accurately with Raman spectroscopy. This opens the possibility of using histochemical analysis to predict acute events such as plaque rupture, to follow the progression of disease, and to select appropriate therapeutic interventions.

  19. The human coronary vasodilatory response to acute mental stress is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Khan, Sitara G; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O'Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Shah, Ajay M

    2017-09-01

    Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion ( P stress increased coronary artery diameter by 6.9 ± 3.7% ( P = 0.02) and 0.5 ± 2.8% ( P = 0.51) in the presence of S -methyl-l-thiocitrulline. The response to substance P did not predict the response to mental stress ( r 2 = -0.22, P = 0.83). nNOS mediates the human coronary vasodilator response to mental stress, predominantly through actions at the level of coronary resistance vessels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute mental stress induces vasodilation of the coronary microvasculature. Here, we show that this response involves neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The human coronary vasodilatory response to acute mental stress is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    Khan, Sitara G.; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R.; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O’Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion (P coronary artery diameter by 6.9 ± 3.7% (P = 0.02) and 0.5 ± 2.8% (P = 0.51) in the presence of S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline. The response to substance P did not predict the response to mental stress (r2 = −0.22, P = 0.83). nNOS mediates the human coronary vasodilator response to mental stress, predominantly through actions at the level of coronary resistance vessels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute mental stress induces vasodilation of the coronary microvasculature. Here, we show that this response involves neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation. Listen to this article’s corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. PMID:28646032

  1. Genetic Dissection of the Canq1 Locus Governing Variation in Extent of the Collateral Circulation

    Wang, Shiliang; Zhang, Hua; Wiltshire, Tim; Sealock, Robert; Faber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Native (pre-existing) collaterals are arteriole-to-arteriole anastomoses that interconnect adjacent arterial trees and serve as endogenous bypass vessels that limit tissue injury in ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary and peripheral artery disease. Their extent (number and diameter) varies widely among mouse strains and healthy humans. We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 (Canq1, LOD = 29) responsible for 37% of the heritable variation in collateral extent between C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. We sought to identify candidate genes in Canq1 responsible for collateral variation in the cerebral pial circulation, a tissue whose strain-dependent variation is shared by similar variation in other tissues. Methods and Findings Collateral extent was intermediate in a recombinant inbred line that splits Canq1 between the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains. Phenotyping and SNP-mapping of an expanded panel of twenty-one informative inbred strains narrowed the Canq1 locus, and genome-wide linkage analysis of a SWRxSJL-F2 cross confirmed its haplotype structure. Collateral extent, infarct volume after cerebral artery occlusion, bleeding time, and re-bleeding time did not differ in knockout mice for two vascular-related genes located in Canq1, IL4ra and Itgal. Transcript abundance of 6 out of 116 genes within the 95% confidence interval of Canq1 were differentially expressed >2-fold (p-valuecollateral formation. Conclusions These findings refine the Canq1 locus and identify several genes as high-priority candidates important in specifying native collateral formation and its wide variation. PMID:22412848

  2. Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review ...

    Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review. ... have difficulties in obtaining loans from banks and other financial institutions because ... The limited availability of conventional collaterals in rural financial markets has led ...

  3. Anatomical-clinical investigations of variations of the human coronary arteries

    Aida Hasanović; Faruk Dilberović; Fehim Ovčina

    2003-01-01

    Variations of the human coronary arteries have always attracted the attention of many researchers. A review of the literature shows that variations can cause ischemic heart disease or sudden cardiac death. The aim of the investigations was to examine the existence and clinical significance of variations of the human coronary arteries. Special attention has been focused on myocardial bridging of the coronary arteries and coronary arteriovenous fistula. Our investigations were carried out on th...

  4. Redistribution of thallium-201 into right ventricle through collateral circulation

    Kataoka, Hajime; Ohkubo, Toshitaka; Takaoka, Shigeru; Ohshige, Tamao; Miyahara, Kenkichi.

    1984-01-01

    The cases of reversible right ventricular ischemia, which demonstrated redistribution of thallium (Tl)-201 into the right ventricular free wall (RVFW) through collateral channels, were reported. Two cases with complete obstruction in the proximal right coronary artery accompanied by collateral channels (left coronary artery to distal right coronary artery) underwent submaximal exercise stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging. Although the RVFW was not visualized on immediate myocardial images in one or both of the 30 0 and 60 0 left anterior oblique views in each case, three-hour delayed myocardial images showed redistribution of Tl-201 into the RVFW. It was concluded that collateral circulation affects the occurrence of redistribution of Tl-201 into the RVFW. (author)

  5. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    Thomlinson, W.

    1994-10-01

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images.

  6. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    Thomlinson, W.

    1994-01-01

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images

  7. Using collateral to secure loans

    Yaron Leitner

    2006-01-01

    In “Using Collateral to Secure Loans,” Yaron Leitner asks: Why is collateral used to secure some loans, but not others? And why does collateral potentially involve more risk? He considers these questions, looking at some of the explanations for using collateral, focusing on its benefits and drawbacks.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of VIP and PACAP receptors in the human meningeal and coronary artery

    Chan, Kayi Y; Baun, Michael; de Vries, René

    2011-01-01

    We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries.......We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries....

  9. Decreased perfusion in myocardial region of normal donor artery secondary to collateral development

    Koga, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Kojima, A.; Takaki, Y.; Tomiguchi, S.; Hirota, Y.; Kugiyama, K.; Yasue, H.; Hayasaki, K.; Kumamoto Saiseikai Hospital

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-one patients suffering from single vessel exertional angina with collaterals (Group A) were evaluated by stress 201 Tl myocardial emission CT (Tl-SPECT) with 16 controls of severely stenotic single vessel exertional angina without collaterals (Group B). Group A included 21 patients (68%) who showed an extensive perfusion defect in double artery myocardial regions, including the normal donor artery myocardial region (DMR). However, there were no such cases in Group B, giving a significant difference between these 2 groups (p < 0.001). Four patients in Group A, having a perfusion defect both in DMR and in the collateral dependent myocardial region (CMR) underwent a successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with disappearance of collaterals. Tl-SPECT findings after PTCA showed no perfusion defect either in CMR or in DMR. This has been explained on the basis that the coronary collaterals stole blood and produced perfusion defect in DMR. (orig.)

  10. Risk of coronary artery disease in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Vilela, Felippe Dantas; Lorenzo, Andrea Rocha de; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini; Hadlich, Marcelo; Barros, Marcelo Viana de Lima; Lima, Ana Beatriz Ribeiro; Meirelles, Vanderson

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved survival and allowed infected patients to develop atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Specific strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in the infected population have not been developed. It is necessary to know the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in this population. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess cardiovascular risk using a well-known clinical score and to investigate coronary artery calcium s...

  11. Usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in liver cirrhosis

    Tsukune, Yoshihiko

    1984-01-01

    This study assesses the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in liver cirrhosis. Seventy-eight patients with liver cirrhosis underwent both CT and angiography. Comparison was made between CT and angiography on eleven types of collaterals, and many of them were demonstrated on CT scans better than angio. Especially, esophageal varices, paraesophageal varices, umbilical pathway and caput medusa were diagnostic on CT scans. Gastrorenal collaterals, splenorenal collaterals, retroperitoneal pathway are also well demonstrated. Dilatation of azygos systems and small veins in the liver surface are only observed on CT scans. However, coronary varices and short gastric varices are well diagnostic in angiography. But considering all types of collaterals, it was stressed that angiography can be eliminated by CT in evaluation of collaterals in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  12. Military Robotics and Collateral Damage

    Kott, Robert Douglass ;Alexander

    2004-01-01

    .... Such concepts raise important questions in terms of their impact on collateral damage. In a broader context, western warfare in general places a continuously growing emphasis on issues of collateral damage...

  13. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  14. The impact of splenectomy on human coronary artery atherosclerosis and vascular macrophage distribution.

    Li, Yu; Stone, James R

    Splenectomy can potentially impact atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms including altered lipid homeostasis, increased coagulation, and altered macrophage recruitment to the plaque. In patients, splenectomy has been associated with increased rates of coronary artery events, while in experimental mice, splenectomy causes increased atherosclerosis but reduces systemic monocyte supply. In this study, the direct impact of splenectomy on human coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque severity and macrophage content was investigated. Coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque severity was determined at autopsy in 18 long-term (≥10 years) splenectomy patients and 90 matched control patients. Coronary artery macrophage content was evaluated in mild atherosclerotic plaques of 11 mid- to long-term (≥1 year) splenectomy patients and 11 matched control patients. Splenectomy was associated with reduced coronary artery atherosclerosis (P=.03). The association was most pronounced for the subgroup of patients who had undergone splenectomy 20 years or more prior to death (P=.02). There was no difference in the density of macrophages in the plaque, media, or adventitia upon comparing splenectomy and control patients. In the control group, there was no correlation between the macrophage densities in the three arterial layers. However, in the splenectomy patients, there was a strong correlation in the macrophage densities across the plaque, media, and adventitia (P≤.0002), with resulting slopes that were significantly greater than seen in the control patients (P=.0007-.011). These findings indicate that, in humans, splenectomy is associated with lower coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque severity and altered coronary artery macrophage distribution. These results suggest that the spleen can modulate the recruitment of macrophages into human coronary arteries and the progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of risk area size and location on native collateral resistance and ischemic zone perfusion

    Gumm, D.C.; Cooper, S.M.; Thompson, S.B.; Marcus, M.L.; Harrison, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    To examine the effect of risk area size on collateral resistance and ichemic region perfusion, the authors produced different sized risk areas by occluding either the left anterior descending (LAD) or the circumflex (Cx) coronary artery at different sites. The most proximal occlusion of the LAD and Cx produced risk areas of 43 ± 5 and 36 ± 2% of left ventricular (LV) mass, respectively, whereas distal LAD and Cx occlusions produced risk areas of 13 ± 2 and 17 ± 2% of LV weight, respectively. Although total collateral flow was highest to the largest risk areas, collateral flow per 100 g of ischemic myocardium was 80% higher to the small LAD risk area compared with the large LAD risk area and 43% higher to the small Cx risk area compared with the large Cx risk area. Collateral resistance, calculated from the transcollateral pressure and perfusion per 100 g of myocardium was significantly lower in the small risk areas than in the large ones. They examined the effect of risk area location on collateral perfusion and resistance. These experiments show that collateral resistance is influenced both by ischemic region size and location. Small risk areas receive more collateral flow per mass of tissue than large risk areas, and apical risk areas receive greater quantities of collateral flow than those located at the base. These data may explain why small risk areas often do not develop infarction after coronary occlusion

  16. Exercise promotes collateral artery growth mediated by monocytic nitric oxide.

    Schirmer, Stephan H; Millenaar, Dominic N; Werner, Christian; Schuh, Lisa; Degen, Achim; Bettink, Stephanie I; Lipp, Peter; van Rooijen, Nico; Meyer, Tim; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) is an important adaptive response to hampered arterial perfusion. It is unknown whether preventive physical exercise before limb ischemia can improve arteriogenesis and modulate mononuclear cell function. This study aimed at investigating the effects of endurance exercise before arterial occlusion on MNC function and collateral artery growth. After 3 weeks of voluntary treadmill exercise, ligation of the right femoral artery was performed in mice. Hindlimb perfusion immediately after surgery did not differ from sedentary mice. However, previous exercise improved perfusion restoration ≤7 days after femoral artery ligation, also when exercise was stopped at ligation. This was accompanied by an accumulation of peri-collateral macrophages and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hindlimb collateral and in MNC of blood and spleen. Systemic monocyte and macrophage depletion by liposomal clodronate but not splenectomy attenuated exercise-induced perfusion restoration, collateral artery growth, peri-collateral macrophage accumulation, and upregulation of iNOS. iNOS-deficient mice did not show exercise-induced perfusion restoration. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived MNC from iNOS-deficient mice into wild-type animals inhibited exercise-induced collateral artery growth. In contrast to sedentary controls, thrice weekly aerobic exercise training for 6 months in humans increased peripheral blood MNC iNOS expression. Circulating mononuclear cell-derived inducible nitric oxide is an important mediator of exercise-induced collateral artery growth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VI. Detection of coronary artery disease in human beings with intravenous N-13 ammonia and positron computed tomography

    Schelbert, H.R.; Wisenberg, G.; Phelps, M.E.; Gould, K.L.; Henze, E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Gomes, A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of detecting mild coronary stenoses with positron computed tomography and nitrogen (N-13) ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation was previously demonstrated in chronically instrumented dogs. The feasibility of using this technique in human beings and its sensitivity in determining the degree and extent of coronary artery disease were examined in 13 young normal healthy volunteers and 32 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and its distribution in the left ventricular myocardium recorded at rest and during dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia. In the 13 volunteers, N-13 activity was homogeneous at rest and during hyperemia, whereas 31 of the 32 patients had regional defects on the hyperemic images not present during rest. All six patients with double, all 10 with triple and 15 of 16 patients with single vessel disease (97 percent) were correctly identified with the technique. Two vessel involvement was correctly identified in five of the six patients with double vessel disease and three vessel disease in six of 10 patients. Of all 58 coronary stenoses, 52 (90 percent) were correctly identified. In a subgroup of 11 patients, the technique was compared with exercise thallium-201 planar images, which were abnormal in 10 (91 percent) whereas N-13 images were abnormal in all 11. Of the 19 stenosed coronary arteries in this subgroup, 11 (58 percent) were correctly identified with thallium-201 and 17 (89 percent) with tomography (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that cross-sectional imaging of the myocardial distribution of N-13 ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation is a highly sensitive and accurate means for noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses in human beings and for estimating the extent of coronary artery disease

  18. Evaluation of computed tomography on diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in portal hypertension

    Ohe, Takashi; Kuronuma, Yukio; Fujiwara, Hiromichi; Ibuki, Yoshikazu; Maehara, Misao; Sugaya, Hitoshi; Harada, Takashi; Iwasaki, Naoya; Hyodo, Haruo

    1987-01-01

    We analyzed the diagnostic capability of CT to demonstrate the eight types of portosystemic collaterals in patient with portal hypertension. A total of 62 patients with portal hypertension underwent both CT and conventional angiography. All of these eight types of collaterals, such as esophageal varices, paraesophageal varices, coronary and short gastric pathway, dilated vein in splenic hilus, splenorenal and splenoretroperitoneal pathway, paraumbilical pathway and small veins on liver surface, caput medusa, azygos system, were demonstrated on CT better than angiography, except coronary and short gastric pathyway. And we also made comparative study of CT with per-rectal portal scintigraphy in 9 patients who underwent both studies. In 7 of these 9 patients, portosystemic collaterals were recognized on scintigram less than CT. In conclusion, CT provides much qualified images than conventional angiography or per-rectal portal scintigraphy in evaluating portosystemic collaterals. (author)

  19. Evaluation of computed tomography on diagnosis of portosystemic collaterals in portal hypertension

    Ohe, T; Kuronuma, Y; Fujiwara, H; Ibuki, Y; Maehara, M; Sugaya, H; Harada, T; Iwasaki, N; Hyodo, H

    1987-04-01

    We analyzed the diagnostic capability of CT to demonstrate the eight types of portosystemic collaterals in patient with portal hypertension. A total of 62 patients with portal hypertension underwent both CT and conventional angiography. All of these eight types of collaterals, such as esophageal varices, paraesophageal varices, coronary and short gastric pathway, dilated vein in splenic hilus, splenorenal and splenoretroperitoneal pathway, paraumbilical pathway and small veins on liver surface, caput medusa, azygos system, were demonstrated on CT better than angiography, except coronary and short gastric pathyway. And we also made comparative study of CT with per-rectal portal scintigraphy in 9 patients who underwent both studies. In 7 of these 9 patients, portosystemic collaterals were recognized on scintigram less than CT. In conclusion, CT provides much qualified images than conventional angiography or per-rectal portal scintigraphy in evaluating portosystemic collaterals.

  20. Significance of collateral circulation on peri-infarct zone: assessment with stress thallium-201 scintigraphy

    Imamura, T.; Araki, H.; Fukuyama, T.; Maruoka, Y.; Ootsubo, H.; Nakamura, M.; Koiwaya, Y.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of collateral circulation on peri-infarct zone, stress myocardial scintigraphy and contrast left ventriculography (LVG) were performed in 38 patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI). All patients had at least one completely occluded coronary artery corresponding to the infarct area. In patients with good collaterals, stress induced transient enlargement of the perfusion defect, however, in those with poor or no collaterals the enlargement did not occur (p less than 0.05). Wall motion abnormality on LVG was significantly milder in the former patients than in the latter (p less than 0.001). Transient enlargement of the perfusion defect after stress and milder left ventricular asynergy were more frequently observed in patients with anterior MI and good collaterals. These observations indicate that good collaterals may keep some myocardium in the peri-infarct zone viable

  1. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  2. Morphological study on coronary ostial and clinicoangiographic analysis of isolated coronary ostial stenosis

    Kanoh, Tatsuji

    2007-01-01

    A morphological study of coronary ostia was performed in 70 autopsied human hearts, with particular attention being focused on the funnel-shaped structure, aging changes, and relation to atherosclerosis. The following results were obtained: The ostium is particularly well-defined and forms a funnel-shaped structure. The structure is predominantly a double circular shape on the right and comet-shaped on the left. The funnel-shaped structure of coronary ostia is characterized by a longitudinal smooth muscle arrangement in the inner layer and circular one in the outer layer. Including overhang formation, coronary sclerosis of the ostium appears mainly on the upper margin of the funnel-shaped structure of the right ostium and at the upper right margin of the left. In ischemic heart disease, along with changes in coronary arteries themselves, changes in the ostia of these arteries should be paid close attention. Ostial stenosis of the coronary artery in the absence of distal vessel obstructions, isolated ostial stenosis, is a rare form of coronary artery disease. In a previous review of the international literature, the incidence of coronary ostial stenosis varied between 0.13% and 2.7%. Among 7,500 patients undergoing selective coronary cineangiography at Juntendo University Hospital and Juntendo Urayasu Hospital from 1975 to 1990, five women (0.07%) were diagnosed as having ''isolated coronary ostial stenosis'', of which the cause is unknown. Atherosclerosis, particularly early premature atherome, congenital coronary anomaly, fibro-muscular dysplasia, Takayasu's aortitis, humoral factors, spasm, and iatrogenic events have been considered as its causes. In contrast to usual atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, patients with isolated coronary ostial stenosis of unknown etiology were characterized as being middle-aged, premenopausal, slender females having few coronary risk factors, experiencing severe angina pector is with marked ischemic electrocardiogram changes

  3. Topographic association of angioscopic yellow plaques with coronary atherosclerotic plaque: assessment with quantitative colorimetry in human coronary artery autopsy specimens.

    Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Lisauskas, Jennifer B; Kawamura, Akio; Waxman, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Yellow plaques seen during coronary angioscopy are thought to be the surrogates for superficial intimal lipids in coronary plaque. Given diffuse and heterogeneous nature of atherosclerosis, yellow plaques in coronaries may be seen as several yellow spots on diffuse coronary plaque. We examined the topographic association of yellow plaques with coronary plaque. In 40 non-severely stenotic ex-vivo coronary segments (average length: 52.2 +/- 3.1 mm), yellow plaques were examined by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry. The segments were cut perpendicular to the long axis of the vessel at 2 mm intervals, and 1045 slides with 5 microm thick tissue for whole segments were prepared. To construct the plaque surface, each tissue slice was considered to be representative of the adjacent 2 mm. The circumference of the lumen and the lumen border of plaque were measured in each slide, and the plaque surface region was constructed. Coronary plaque was in 37 (93%) of 40 segments, and consisted of a single mass [39.9 +/- 3.9 (0-100) mm, 311.3 +/- 47.4 (0.0-1336.2) mm2]. In 30 (75%) segments, multiple (2-9) yellow plaques were detected on a mass of coronary plaque. The number of yellow plaques correlated positively with coronary plaque surface area (r = 0.77, P colorimetry, some of them are associated with lipid cores underneath thin fibrous caps, may be used to assess the extent of coronary plaque. Further research using angioscopy could be of value to study the association of high-risk coronaries with acute coronary syndromes.

  4. Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs

    Dragosavac Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs were issued in 1987 by bankers at Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. A decade later, CDOs became the leading power on the credit derivative markets, on which the value of derivative assets was derived from the value of other assets. However, unlike options and credit swamps, CDOs are not real, which means that they are constructed, and sometimes even the construction of their construction. CDOs were made to satisfy different types of investors, at one end, there is low-risk with low-income, and at the other, high-risk with high-income. By 2007, following the bubble burst on the US real estate market, losses on the CDO market started to expand. By 2008, the crisis on the CDO market turned into what we call today 'the global financial crisis.' CDOs are 'in the heart' of the crisis, and even wider. Our attempt is to reveal the mechanism of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs and the way in which CDOs expanded the negative effects of the present global financial crisis.

  5. Coronary and muscle blood flow during physical exercise in humans; heterogenic alliance.

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Majerczak, Joanna; Duda, Krzysztof; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we present the relation between power generation capabilities and pulmonary oxygen uptake during incremental cycling exercise in humans and the effect of exercise intensity on the oxygen cost of work. We also discuss the importance of oxygen delivery to the working muscles as a factor determining maximal oxygen uptake in humans. Subsequently, we outline the importance of coronary blood flow, myocardial oxygen uptake and myocardial metabolic stability for exercise tolerance. Finally, we describe mechanisms of endothelium-dependent regulation of coronary and skeletal muscle blood flow, dysregulation of which may impair exercise capacity and increase the cardiovascular risk of exercise. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  6. The Relation between Collateral Circulation and 99mTc-MIBI Heart SPECT

    Kim, Jae Man; Na, Deug Young; Park, Eun Kyung

    1994-01-01

    The coronary collateral vessels have revealed their significance in terms of reduction of infarct size, preservation left ventricular function, and prevention of left ventricular aneurysm in patients with myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study were to evaluated the relation between collateral circulation and 99m Tc-MIBI Heart SPECT in patient with acute myocardial infarction and their clinical significance. The fifty six MI patients with antegrade TIMI perfusion grade 0 and 1 were studied. The patients were classified into two groups; Group I included 30 patients with grade 2, 3 Collateral flow. Group II included 26 patients with grade 0, 1 Collateral flow. Collateral filling were graded from 0 to 3; 0- none, 1- Filling of side branch only, 2- Partial filling of the epicardial segment, 3- Complete filling of epicardial segment. Clinical variables, left ventricular function, 99m Tc-MIBI Heart SPECT were analyzed with angiographic finding. Results were following: 1) Collateral visualization was found to be greater in patient with involvement of right coronary artery (RCA). The collateral development site of infarct related artery was RCA 15 cases, left anterior descending artery (LAD) 10 cases, left circumflex artery (LCX) 5 cases, and the collateral circulation from LAD to RCA was 13 cases (40.6%). 2) There was a tendency to be decreased in peak CK activity with group I . 3) The presence of good collateral channels was more frequently 99m Tc-MIBI reversible perfusion defect (83.4% vs 15.3%, p 99m Tc-MlBI reversible perfusion defect.

  7. 2-Chlorohexadecanal and 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    Messner, Maria C.; Albert, Carolyn J.; Ford, David A.

    2008-01-01

    2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), a 16-carbon chain chlorinated fatty aldehyde that is produced by reactive chlorinating species attack of plasmalogens, is elevated in atherosclerotic plaques, infarcted myocardium, and activated leukocytes. We tested the hypothesis that 2-ClHDA and its metabolites, 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid (2-ClHA) and 2-chlorohexadecanol (2-ClHOH), induce COX-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). COX-2 protein expression increased in response to 2-Cl...

  8. Kinematics of Different Components of the Posterolateral Corner of the Knee in the Lateral Collateral Ligament-intact State: A Human Cadaveric Study.

    Domnick, Christoph; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Raschke, Michael J; Vogel, Nils; Schulze, Martin; von Glahn, Mathias; Drenck, Tobias C; Herbort, Mirco

    2017-10-01

    To determine the static stabilizing effects of different anatomical structures of the posterolateral corner (PLC) of the knee in the lateral collateral ligament (LCL)-intact state. Thirteen fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were dissected and tested using an industrial robot with an optical tracking system. Kinematics were determined for 134 N anterior/posterior loads, 10 N m valgus/varus loads, and 5 N m internal/external rotatory loads in 0°, 20°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The PLC structures were dissected and consecutively released: (I) intact knee joint, (II) with released posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), (III) popliteomeniscal fibers, (IV) popliteofibular ligament, (V) arcuat and popliteotibial fibers, (VI) popliteus tendon (PLT), and (VII) LCL. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed with significance set at P < .05. After releasing the PCL, posterior tibial translation increased by 5.2 mm at 20° to 9.4 mm at 90° of joint flexion (P < .0001). A mild 1.8° varus instability was measured in 0° of flexion (P = .0017). After releasing the PLC structures, posterior tibial translation further increased by 2.9 mm at 20° to 5.9 mm at 90° of flexion (P < .05) and external rotation angle increased by 2.6° at 0° to 7.9° at 90° of flexion (P < .05, vs II). Varus stability did not decrease. Mild differences between states V and VI were found in 60° and 90° external rotation tests (2.1° and 3.1°; P < .05). The connecting ligaments/fibers to the PLT act as a primary static stabilizer against external rotatory loads and a secondary stabilizer against posterior tibial loads (when PCL is injured). After releasing these structures, most static stabilizing function of the intact PLT is lost. The PLC has no varus-stabilizing function in the LCL-intact knee. Anatomy and function of these structures for primary and secondary joint stability should be considered for clinical diagnostics and when performing surgery in

  9. Quantitative Measurement of Dissection Resistance in Intimal and Medial Layers of Human Coronary Arteries

    Wang, Ying; Johnson, John A.; Spinale, Francis G.; Sutton, Michael A.; Lessner, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery is the most frequently involved vessel in coronary artery dissection, a cause of acute coronary syndrome or sudden cardiac death. The biomechanical mechanisms underlying arterial dissection are not well understood. This study investigated the dissection properties of LAD specimens harvested from explanted hearts at the time of cardiac transplantation, from patients with primary dilated cardiomyopathy (n=12). Using a previously validated approach uniquely modified for these human LAD specimens, we quantified the local energy release rate, G, within different arterial layers during experimental dissection events (tissue tearing). Results show that the mean values of G during arterial dissection within the intima and within the media in human LADs are 20.7±16.5 J/m2 and 10.3±5.0 J/m2, respectively. The difference in dissection resistance between tearing events occurring within the intima and within the media is statistically significant. Our data fall in the same order of magnitude as most previous measurements of adhesive strength in other human arteries, with the differences in measured values of G within the layers most likely due to histologically observed differences in the structure and composition of arterial layers. PMID:24729631

  10. 24 CFR 330.10 - Eligible collateral.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible collateral. 330.10 Section... SECURITIES § 330.10 Eligible collateral. The Association, in its discretion, shall determine what collateral is eligible for inclusion in the Multiclass Securities program. Eligible collateral may include GNMA...

  11. 7 CFR 1980.331 - Collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Collateral. 1980.331 Section 1980.331 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.331 Collateral. (a) General. The entire loan must... borrower. (c) All collateral must secure the entire loan. The Lender will not take separate collateral...

  12. Innate collateral segments are predominantly present in the subendocardium without preferential connectivity within the left ventricular wall

    van Horssen, Pepijn; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A E; Hoefer, Imo E; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M

    2014-01-01

    Functional collateral vessels often stem from outward remodelling of pre-existing connections between perfusion territories. Knowledge of the distribution and morphology of innate collateral connections may help in identifying myocardial areas with protection against risk for ischaemia. The coronary network of six healthy canine hearts was investigated with an imaging cryomicrotome. Innate collateral connections ranged from 286 to 1015 μm in diameter. Left ventricular collateral density (number per gram of tissue) was about five in the subendocardium vs. 2.5 in the mid-myocardium (P collateral connections were oriented parallel to the long axis of the heart. For the major coronary arteries, five times more intracoronary than intercoronary connections were found, while their median diameter and interquartile range were not significantly different, at 96.1 (16.9) vs. 94.7 (18.9) μm. Collateral vessels connecting crowns from sister branches from a stem are denoted intercrown connections and those within crowns intracrown connections. The number of intercrown connections was related to the mean tissue weight of the crowns (y = 0.73x − 0.33, r2 = 0.85, P collateral diameter and length were independent of the tissue volumes bridged. We conclude that connectivity and morphology of the innate collateral network are distributed with no preference for intra-or intercrown connections, independent of stem diameter, including epicardial arteries. This renders all sites of the myocardium equally protected in case of coronary artery disease. The orientation of subendocardial collateral vessels indicates the longitudinal direction of subendocardial collateral flow. PMID:24366260

  13. Innate collateral segments are predominantly present in the subendocardium without preferential connectivity within the left ventricular wall.

    van Horssen, Pepijn; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A E; Hoefer, Imo E; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M

    2014-03-01

    Functional collateral vessels often stem from outward remodelling of pre-existing connections between perfusion territories. Knowledge of the distribution and morphology of innate collateral connections may help in identifying myocardial areas with protection against risk for ischaemia. The coronary network of six healthy canine hearts was investigated with an imaging cryomicrotome. Innate collateral connections ranged from 286 to 1015 μm in diameter. Left ventricular collateral density (number per gram of tissue) was about five in the subendocardium vs. 2.5 in the mid-myocardium (P collateral connections were oriented parallel to the long axis of the heart. For the major coronary arteries, five times more intracoronary than intercoronary connections were found, while their median diameter and interquartile range were not significantly different, at 96.1 (16.9) vs. 94.7 (18.9) μm. Collateral vessels connecting crowns from sister branches from a stem are denoted intercrown connections and those within crowns intracrown connections. The number of intercrown connections was related to the mean tissue weight of the crowns (y = 0.73x - 0.33, r2 = 0.85, P collateral diameter and length were independent of the tissue volumes bridged. We conclude that connectivity and morphology of the innate collateral network are distributed with no preference for intra- or intercrown connections, independent of stem diameter, including epicardial arteries. This renders all sites of the myocardium equally protected in case of coronary artery disease. The orientation of subendocardial collateral vessels indicates the longitudinal direction of subendocardial collateral flow.

  14. Morphologic expression of the left coronary artery in pigs. An approach in relation to human heart

    Fabian Alejandro Gómez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In spite of its importance as an experimental model, the information on the left coronary artery in pigs is sparse. Objective: To determine the morphologic features of the left coronary artery in pigs. Methods: We evaluated 158 pig hearts. The left coronary artery was perfused with synthetic resin after their ostia had been catheterized. Diameters and courses of the vascular beds were measured with an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo(r. Results: The diameter of left coronary artery was 6.98 ± 1.56 mm and its length was 3.51±0.99 mm. It was found to end up by bifurcating itself into the anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery in 79% of the cases, and by trifurcating in 21% of the cases, with the presence of the diagonal artery. The anterior interventricular artery ended up at the apex in 79.7% of the cases, and the circumflex artery at the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 64% of the case, this artery never reached the posterior interventricular sulcus. An anastomosis between the terminal branches of the anterior interventricular artery and the posterior interventricular artery was found in 7.6% of the specimens. The antero-superior branch of the anterior interventricular artery occurred in 89.9% of the hearts. A left marginal branch was observed in 87.9% of the cases with a diameter of 2.25±0.55 mm. Conclusion: Compared with humans, pigs have shorter left coronary artery trunks and branches; even the circumflex artery never reaches the posterior interventricular sulcus. Our findings are useful for the design of experimental hemodynamic and procedural models.

  15. Evaluation of noncoronary sources of left ventricular perfusion to intercoronary collateral-dependent myocardium due to chronic major vessel occlusion: absent contribution of luminal and extracardiac channels

    Crystal, G.J.; Downey, H.F.; Bashour, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    Liminal contribution to perfusion of collateral-dependent left ventricular (LV) myocardium was evaluated in six dogs. A portion of LV free wall was rendered collateral-dependent by gradual occlusion of left circumflex artery with Ameroid constrictor. Eight to 10 weeks after implantation of constrictor, measurements of LV myocardial flow were made by left atrial injections of 9-10 micro radioactive microspheres. To measure total collateral flow, microspheres were injected under control conditions, and to measure luminal contribution to collateral flow, microspheres were injected after ligation of right coronary artery during extracorporeal perfusion of left common coronary artery (LCCA) with microsphere-free arterial blood, and during stoppage of flow through LCCA. Under control conditions, myocardial blood flow in collateral-dependent region, 1.01 +/- 0.31 ml/min/gm, was not significantly different from that in normal region, 1.06 +/- 0.32 ml/min/gm. Flow from luminal collateral vessels was negligible (less than 0.005 ml/min/gm) in both collateral-dependent and normal myocardium, and was not affected by stoppage of flow through LCCA. These results indicate that luminal collateral vessels, as well as collateral vessels originating from other noncoronary sources, do not contribute significantly to perfusion of normal or collateral-dependent LV myocardium

  16. A Framework for Collateral Risk Control Determination

    Didier Cossin; Zhijiang Huang; Daniel Aunon-Nerin; Fer nando González

    2002-01-01

    This paper derives a general framework for collateral risk control determination in repurchase transactions or repos. The objective is to treat consistently heterogeneous collateral so that the collateral taker has a similar risk exposure whatever the collateral pledged. The framework measures the level of risk with the probability of incurring a loss higher than a pre-specified level given two well-known parameters used to manage the intrinsic risk of collateral: marking to market and haircu...

  17. A novel flow-based parameter of collateral function assessed by intracoronary thermodilution.

    Lindner, Markus; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus; Reffelmann, Thorsten

    2014-04-01

    Currently, many methods for quantitation of coronary collateral function are based on intracoronary pressure measurements distal of an occluded balloon, which do not fully account for the dynamic nature of collateral flow. Therefore, a flow-based parameter of coronary collateral function based upon principles of thermodilution was evaluated. In 26 patients with a high-grade coronary artery stenosis, intracoronary hemodynamics were analyzed by the RadiAnalyzer system (St Jude Medical), including fractional flow reserve (FFR), index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), and the pressure-based collateral flow index (CFI) during balloon occlusion and hyperemia (intravenous adenosine). Moreover, immediately after an intracoronary bolus of room-temperature saline, the balloon was occluded and the intracoronary temperature distal to the balloon was analyzed over time. The slope of the temperature-time curve was calculated after logarithmic transformation as an index of collateral blood flow (CBFI). The coefficient of variation between two measurements of CBFI amounted to 11 ± 2%. In patients with CFI ≥0.25, CBFI amounted to 0.55 ± 0.09, whereas in those with CFI function, and should be evaluated in further studies.

  18. Feasibility of recanalization of human coronary arteries using high-intensity ultrasound.

    Ernst, A; Schenk, E A; Woodlock, T J; Alliger, H; Gottlieb, S; Child, S Z; Meltzer, R S

    1994-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of ultrasonic recanalization of obstructed human coronary arteries in vitro, high-intensity ultrasound was applied to 16 coronary arteries obtained at autopsy, using a prototype instrument enabling insonification through a catheter tip. It was a 119 cm long, 0.95 mm thick wire in an 8Fr catheter connected to an external ultrasonic transformer and power generator. A 5 MHz phased-array 2-dimensional echocardiography instrument was used to determine minimal luminal diameter and percent diameter narrowing before and after ultrasound application. The ultrasonic energy was delivered at 21.5 kHz and with a 52 +/- 19 micrometer average amplitude of tip displacement. The mean percent luminal diameter narrowing, flow rate and mean pressure gradient before ultrasound exposure were 74 +/- 11%, 97 +/- 61 ml/min, and 92 +/- 18 mm Hg, respectively. After recanalization, the mean percent luminal diameter narrowing decreased to 45 +/- 17% (p ultrasound application. Mechanical fracture of the wire occurred in 8 cases (50%). No signs of thermal injury were found on histology. Thus, ultrasonic recanalization of human coronary arteries in vitro is feasible. It may reduce obstruction and improve blood flow. Debris sizes are sufficiently small to minimize the hazard of peripheral embolization.

  19. Clinical study of the hypothesis of “endogenous collateral wind” on ...

    This study was to propose the hypothesis of “endogenous collateral wind” based on the patho-mechanism of thrombogenesis complicated by ruptured plaque on ACS, and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Materials and Methods: Through successful coronary angiography (CAG), and intravascular ultrasound ...

  20. A protective role of early collateral blood flow in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Choi, Jin-Ho; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Chang, Sung-A; Park, Sung-Ji; Lee, Sang-Chol; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Conflict persists regarding whether the presence of early collateral blood flow to the infarct-related artery has an effective role in reducing infarct size and improving myocardial salvage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to investigate the impact of the collateral circulation on myocardial salvage and infarct size in STEMI patients. In 306 patients who were diagnosed with STEMI and underwent cardiac magnetic resonance within 1 week after revascularization, initial collateral flow to the infarct-related artery was assessed by coronary angiography. Using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, myocardial infarct size and salvage were measured. Among 247 patients with preprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow 0/1, 54 (22%) patients had good collaterals (Rentrop grade ≥ 2, Collateral Connection Score ≥ 2). Infarct size and area at risk were significantly smaller in patients with good collaterals than those with poor collaterals (infarct size: 17.1 ± 10.1 %LV vs 21.8 ± 10.5 %LV, P = .003, area at risk: 33.8 ± 16.8 %LV vs 38.8 ± 15.5 %LV, P = .039). There was a significant difference of myocardial salvage index between 2 groups (50.9% ± 15.0% vs 43.8% ± 18.5%, P = .005). Poor collateralization was an independent predictor for large infarct size (odd ratio 2.48 [1.28-4.80], P = .007). In patients with STEMI, the presence of well-developed collaterals to occluded coronary artery from the noninfarct vessel and its extent were independently associated with reduced infarct burden and improved myocardial salvage. Our results help explain why MI patients with well-developed collateralization have reduced mortality and morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus in Coronary Atherosclerotic Tissue

    Imbronito, Ana Vitória; Marcelino, Silvia Linardi; Grande, Sabrina Rosa; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that patients with atherosclerosis are predominantly infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), but rarely infected by type 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-1). In this study, atheromas of 30 patients who underwent aortocoronary bypass surgery with coronary endartherectomy were tested for the presence of these two viruses. HCMV occurred in 93.3% of the samples and EBV-1 was present in 50% of them. Concurrent presence of both pathogens was detected in 43.3% of the samples. PMID:24031529

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors cause premature rarefaction of the collateral circulation and greater ischemic tissue injury.

    Moore, Scott M; Zhang, Hua; Maeda, Nobuyo; Doerschuk, Claire M; Faber, James E

    2015-07-01

    Collaterals lessen tissue injury in occlusive disease. However, aging causes progressive decline in their number and smaller diameters in those that remain (collateral rarefaction), beginning at 16 months of age in mice (i.e., middle age), and worse ischemic injury-effects that are accelerated in even 3-month-old eNOS(-/-) mice. These findings have found indirect support in recent human studies. We sought to determine whether other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) associated with endothelial dysfunction cause collateral rarefaction, investigate possible mechanisms, and test strategies for prevention. Mice with nine different models of CVRFs of 4-12 months of age were assessed for number and diameter of native collaterals in skeletal muscle and brain and for collateral-dependent perfusion and ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Hypertension caused collateral rarefaction whose severity increased with duration and level of hypertension, accompanied by greater hindlimb ischemia and cerebral infarct volume. Chronic treatment of wild-type mice with L-N (G)-nitro-arginine methylester caused similar rarefaction and worse ischemic injury which were not prevented by lowering arterial pressure with hydralazine. Metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity also caused collateral rarefaction. Neither chronic statin treatment nor exercise training lessened hypertension-induced rarefaction. Chronic CVRF presence caused collateral rarefaction and worse ischemic injury, even at relatively young ages. Rarefaction was associated with increased proliferation rate of collateral endothelial cells, effects that may promote accelerated endothelial cell senescence.

  3. Dynamics of the Collateral Encyclopedia

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach

    2015-01-01

    Both Umberto Eco and Charles S. Peirce have been concerned with the notion of background knowledge. Eco refers to background knowledge as the encyclopedia; Peirce’s term of reference is collateral experience. The aim of this article is to investigate the degree to which these two concepts...... are comparable. We focus on one major metaphysical issue, viz. the fact that Eco defines collateral experience, which is the first step in any process of cognition, as private, whereas Peirce, as a realist, would never accept the concept of private thoughts, feelings, etc. We suggest that freeing collateral...... experience from its nominalistic nomenclature makes possible a comparison and synthesis of Eco’s and Peirce’s conceptions when seen from the perspectives of their cognitive type, nuclear type, and molar content....

  4. Aspartame Intake Relates to Coronary Plaque Burden and Inflammatory Indices in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Hall, Leangelo N; Sanchez, Laura R; Hubbard, Jane; Lee, Hang; Looby, Sara E; Srinivasa, Suman; Zanni, Markella V; Stanley, Takara L; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K; Fitch, Kathleen V

    2017-01-01

    Dietary sweeteners may contribute to metabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but this has not been assessed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One hundred twenty-four HIV-infected and 56 non-HIV-infected participants, without history of known coronary artery disease were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a 4-day food record. Coronary plaque was determined using cardiac computed tomography angiography. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants had significantly greater intake of dietary sweeteners, including total sugar ( P = .03) and added sugar ( P = .009); intake of aspartame (artificial sweetener) was greater among aspartame consumers with HIV versus non-HIV consumers ( P = .03). Among HIV-infected participants, aspartame intake was significantly associated with coronary plaque ( P = .002) and noncalcified plaque ( P = .007) segments, as well as markers of inflammation/immune activation (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 ), which may contribute to increased atherogenesis. In multivariable regression modeling, aspartame remained an independent predictor of plaque in HIV. In contrast, among non-HIV-infected participants, no sweetener type was shown to relate to plaque characteristics. We demonstrate increased intake of dietary sweeteners and a potential novel association between aspartame intake, plaque burden, and inflammation in HIV. Our data suggest that aspartame may contribute to CVD risk in HIV. Further studies should address potential mechanisms by which aspartame may contribute to increased plaque burden and cardiovascular benefits of dietary strategies targeting aspartame intake in HIV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. X-ray micro computed tomography for the visualization of an atherosclerotic human coronary artery

    Matviykiv, Sofiya; Buscema, Marzia; Deyhle, Hans; Pfohl, Thomas; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Saxer, Till; Müller, Bert

    2017-06-01

    Atherosclerosis refers to narrowing or blocking of blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain or stroke. Constricted segments of diseased arteries exhibit considerably increased wall shear stress, compared to the healthy ones. One of the possibilities to improve patient’s treatment is the application of nano-therapeutic approaches, based on shear stress sensitive nano-containers. In order to tailor the chemical composition and subsequent physical properties of such liposomes, one has to know precisely the morphology of critically stenosed arteries at micrometre resolution. It is often obtained by means of histology, which has the drawback of offering only two-dimensional information. Additionally, it requires the artery to be decalcified before sectioning, which might lead to deformations within the tissue. Micro computed tomography (μCT) enables the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of soft and hard tissues at micrometre level. μCT allows lumen segmentation that is crucial for subsequent flow simulation analysis. In this communication, tomographic images of a human coronary artery before and after decalcification are qualitatively and quantitatively compared. We analyse the cross section of the diseased human coronary artery before and after decalcification, and calculate the lumen area of both samples.

  6. 12 CFR 950.7 - Collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral. 950.7 Section 950.7 Banks and... Advances to Members § 950.7 Collateral. (a) Eligible security for advances to all members. At the time of... interest in collateral that meets the requirements of one or more of the following categories: (1) Mortgage...

  7. 28 CFR 94.25 - Collateral sources.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral sources. 94.25 Section 94.25... Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.25 Collateral sources. (a) The amount of expenses... collateral source in connection with the same act of international terrorism. In cases in which a claimant...

  8. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral bonds. 800.21 Section 800.21 Mineral... FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral bonds. (a) Collateral bonds, except for letters of credit, cash accounts, and real property, shall be...

  9. 25 CFR 502.5 - Collateral agreement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collateral agreement. 502.5 Section 502.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.5 Collateral agreement. Collateral agreement means any contract, whether or not in writing...

  10. 7 CFR 1779.48 - Collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral. 1779.48 Section 1779.48 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.48 Collateral. (a) Lender responsibility. The lender is responsible for obtaining and maintaining proper and adequate collateral to protect...

  11. 13 CFR 120.934 - Collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.934 Collateral. The CDC usually takes a second lien position on the Project Property to secure the 504 loan. Sometimes additional collateral is required. (In... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral. 120.934 Section 120...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5050 - Collateral requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in this paragraph, the collateral value of notes and other obligations representing loans made... allowance for loan losses (except as provided for in § 615.5090). (2) The collateral value of loans in... loans, judgments, and contracts adjusted for any allowance for losses. (3) The collateral value of loans...

  13. A functionally significant polymorphism in ID3 is associated with human coronary pathology.

    Ani Manichaikul

    Full Text Available We previously identified association between the ID3 SNP rs11574 and carotid intima-media thickness in the Diabetes Heart Study, a predominantly White diabetic population. The nonsynonymous SNP rs11574 results in an amino acid substitution in the C-terminal region of ID3, attenuating the dominant negative function of ID3 as an inhibitor of basic HLH factor E12-mediated transcription. In the current investigation, we characterize the association between the functionally significant polymorphism in ID3, rs11574, with human coronary pathology.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA is a longitudinal study of subclinical cardiovascular disease, including non-Hispanic White (n = 2,588, African American (n = 2,560 and Hispanic (n = 2,130 participants with data on coronary artery calcium (CAC. The Coronary Assessment in Virginia cohort (CAVA included 71 patients aged 30-80 years, undergoing a medically necessary cardiac catheterization and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at the University of Virginia. ID3 SNP rs11574 risk allele was associated with the presence of CAC in MESA Whites (P = 0.017. In addition, the risk allele was associated with greater atheroma burden and stenosis in the CAVA cohort (P = 0.003, P = 0.04 respectively. The risk allele remained predictive of atheroma burden in multivariate analysis (Model 1: covariates age, gender, and LDL, regression coefficient = 9.578, SE = 3.657, p = 0.0110; Model 2: covariates Model 1, presence of hypertension, presence of diabetes, regression coefficient = 8.389, SE = 4.788, p = 0.0163.We present additional cohorts that demonstrate association of ID3 SNP rs11574 directly with human coronary artery pathology as measured by CAC and IVUS: one a multiethnic, relatively healthy population with low levels of diabetes and the second a predominantly White population with a higher incidence of T2DM referred for cardiac catheterization.

  14. Catheter-Based Measurements of Absolute Coronary Blood Flow and Microvascular Resistance: Feasibility, Safety, and Reproducibility in Humans.

    Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Fournier, Stephane; Keulards, Daniëlle C J; Adjedj, Julien; Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Milkas, Anastasios; Pellicano, Mariano; Van't Veer, Marcel; Barbato, Emanuele; Pijls, Nico H J; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2018-03-01

    The principle of continuous thermodilution can be used to calculate absolute coronary blood flow and microvascular resistance (R). The aim of the study is to explore the safety, feasibility, and reproducibility of coronary blood flow and R measurements as measured by continuous thermodilution in humans. Absolute coronary flow and R can be calculated by thermodilution by infusing saline at room temperature through a dedicated monorail catheter. The temperature of saline as it enters the vessel, the temperature of blood and saline mixed in the distal part of the vessel, and the distal coronary pressure were measured by a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire. The feasibility and safety of the method were tested in 135 patients who were referred for coronary angiography. No significant adverse events were observed; in 11 (8.1%) patients, bradycardia and concomitant atrioventricular block appeared transiently and were reversed immediately on interruption of the infusion. The reproducibility of measurements was tested in a subgroup of 80 patients (129 arteries). Duplicate measurements had a strong correlation both for coronary blood flow (ρ=0.841, P <0.001; intraclass correlation coefficient=0.89, P <0.001) and R (ρ=0.780, P <0.001; intraclass correlation coefficient=0.89, P <0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, there was no significant bias or asymmetry. Absolute coronary blood flow (in L/min) and R (in mm Hg/L/min or Wood units) can be safely and reproducibly measured with continuous thermodilution. This approach constitutes a new opportunity for the study of the coronary microcirculation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Computed tomographic characteristics of collateral venous pathways in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction.

    Specchi, Swan; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Carmel, Eric Norman; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Collateral venous pathways develop in dogs with obstruction or increased blood flow resistance at any level of the caudal vena cava in order to maintain venous drainage to the right atrium. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the sites, causes of obstruction, and configurations of venous collateral pathways for a group of dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. Computed tomography databases from two veterinary hospitals were searched for dogs with a diagnosis of caudal vena cava obstruction and multidetector row computed tomographic angiographic (CTA) scans that included the entire caudal vena cava. Images for each included dog were retrieved and collateral venous pathways were characterized using image postprocessing and a classification system previously reported for humans. A total of nine dogs met inclusion criteria and four major collateral venous pathways were identified: deep (n = 2), portal (n = 2), intermediate (n = 7), and superficial (n = 5). More than one collateral venous pathway was present in 5 dogs. An alternative pathway consisting of renal subcapsular collateral veins, arising mainly from the caudal pole of both kidneys, was found in three dogs. In conclusion, findings indicated that collateral venous pathway patterns similar to those described in humans are also present in dogs with caudal vena cava obstruction. These collateral pathways need to be distinguished from other vascular anomalies in dogs. Postprocessing of multidetector-row CTA images allowed delineation of the course of these complicated venous pathways and may be a helpful adjunct for treatment planning in future cases. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Tissue-engineered collateral ligament composite allografts for scapholunate ligament reconstruction: an experimental study.

    Endress, Ryan; Woon, Colin Y L; Farnebo, Simon J; Behn, Anthony; Bronstein, Joel; Pham, Hung; Yan, Xinrui; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Chang, James

    2012-08-01

    In patients with chronic scapholunate (SL) dissociation or dynamic instability, ligament repair is often not possible, and surgical reconstruction is indicated. The ideal graft ligament would recreate both anatomical and biomechanical properties of the dorsal scapholunate ligament (dorsal SLIL). The finger proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP joint) collateral ligament could possibly be a substitute ligament. We harvested human PIP joint collateral ligaments and SL ligaments from 15 cadaveric limbs. We recorded ligament length, width, and thickness, and measured the biomechanical properties (ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure) of native dorsal SLIL, untreated collateral ligaments, decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with bone-collateral ligament-bone composite collateral ligament grafts. As proof of concept, we then reseeded decellularized bone-collateral ligament-bone composite grafts with green fluorescent protein-labeled adipo-derived mesenchymal stem cells and evaluated them histologically. There was no difference in ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure among native dorsal SLIL, untreated and decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with tissue-engineered collateral ligament grafts. With pair-matched untreated and decellularized scaffolds, there was no difference in ultimate load or stiffness. However, decellularized ligaments revealed lower displacement to failure compared with untreated ligaments. There was no difference in displacement between decellularized ligaments and native dorsal SLIL. We successfully decellularized grafts with recently described techniques, and they could be similarly reseeded. Proximal interphalangeal joint collateral ligament-based bone-collateral ligament-bone composite allografts had biomechanical properties similar to those of native dorsal SLIL. Decellularization did not adversely affect material properties. These tissue-engineered grafts may offer surgeons another

  17. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  18. Proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis of smooth muscle cells cultured from human coronary atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions

    D.C. MacLeod (Donald); B.H. Strauss (Bradley); J. Escaned (Javier); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); R-J. van Suylen (Robert-Jan); A. Verkerk (Anton); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. de Jong (Marcel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine the proliferative capacity and extracellular matrix synthesis of human coronary plaque cells in vitro. BACKGROUND. Common to both primary atherosclerosis and restenosis are vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and production of

  19. Beta-1 vs. beta-2 adrenergic control of coronary blood flow during isometric handgrip exercise in humans.

    Maman, Stephan R; Vargas, Alvaro F; Ahmad, Tariq Ali; Miller, Amanda J; Gao, Zhaohui; Leuenberger, Urs A; Proctor, David N; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    During exercise, β-adrenergic receptors are activated throughout the body. In healthy humans, the net effect of β-adrenergic stimulation is an increase in coronary blood flow. However, the role of vascular β1 vs. β2 receptors in coronary exercise hyperemia is not clear. In this study, we simultaneously measured noninvasive indexes of myocardial oxygen supply (i.e., blood velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery; Doppler echocardiography) and demand [i.e., rate pressure product (RPP) = heart rate × systolic blood pressure) and tested the hypothesis that β1 blockade with esmolol improves coronary exercise hyperemia compared with nonselective β-blockade with propranolol. Eight healthy young men received intravenous infusions of esmolol, propranolol, and saline on three separate days in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. During each infusion, subjects performed isometric handgrip exercise until fatigue. Blood pressure, heart rate, and coronary blood velocity (CBV) were measured continuously, and RPP was calculated. Changes in parameters from baseline were compared with paired t -tests. Esmolol (Δ = 3296 ± 1204) and propranolol (Δ = 2997 ± 699) caused similar reductions in peak RPP compared with saline (Δ = 5384 ± 1865). In support of our hypothesis, ΔCBV with esmolol was significantly greater than with propranolol (7.3 ± 2.4 vs. 4.5 ± 1.6 cm/s; P = 0.002). This effect was also evident when normalizing ΔCBV to ΔRPP. In summary, not only does selective β1 blockade reduce myocardial oxygen demand during exercise, but it also unveils β2-receptor-mediated coronary exercise hyperemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we evaluated the role of vascular β1 vs. β2 receptors in coronary exercise hyperemia in a single-blind, randomized, crossover study in healthy men. In response to isometric handgrip exercise, blood flow velocity in the left anterior descending coronary artery was significantly greater with esmolol compared with

  20. Collateral circulation as a marker of the presence of viable myocardium in patients with recent myocardial infarction

    Fujita, M.; Ohno, A.; Wada, O.; Miwa, K.; Nozawa, T.; Yamanishi, K.; Sasayama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between the presence of viable myocardium and the extent of coronary collateral circulation to the infarct area was evaluated in 20 patients with a recent anterior myocardial infarction who had complete obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The viability of myocardial tissue was assessed by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and the collateral circulation was angiographically evaluated by means of a collateral index ranging from 0 to 3. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group 1, n = 10) or absence (group 2, n = 10) of viable myocardium in the perfusion territory of the infarct-related artery. The collateral index in group 1 was 2.5 ± 0.5 (SD), which was significantly higher than the 0.7 ± 0.8 in group 2. These findings indicate that the presence of ischemic but viable myocardium is intimately related to the development of collateral circulation in patients with myocardial infarction, and the existence of well-developed collateral channels predicts the presence of viable myocardium in the infarct area

  1. Relationship between the level of essential metal elements in human hair and coronary heart disease

    Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Ying-Chen Chang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on epidemics have demonstrated the relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD) and mineral substances, such as selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, and vanadium, in human bodies. In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) were applied to evaluate the levels of selenium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in healthy individuals and CHD patients. Hair samples were collected from 42 healthy participants and 28 diagnosed CHD patients. Calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc levels in healthy individuals are significantly higher than the levels found in the patients (p < 0.01). Calcium/selenium ratio is also significantly higher in healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Based on the possible synergies and/or antagonisms of elements and their absorption and metabolism, magnesium/calcium, zinc/copper, and sodium/potassium ratios showed positive relevance (p < 0.01). (author)

  2. Perturbation of human coronary artery endothelial cell redox state and NADPH generation by methylglyoxal.

    Philip E Morgan

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with elevated plasma glucose, increased reactive aldehyde formation, oxidative damage, and glycation/glycoxidation of biomolecules. Cellular detoxification of, or protection against, such modifications commonly requires NADPH-dependent reducing equivalents (e.g. GSH. We hypothesised that reactive aldehydes may modulate cellular redox status via the inhibition of NADPH-generating enzymes, resulting in decreased thiol and NADPH levels. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC were incubated with high glucose (25 mM, 24 h, 37°C, or methylglyoxal (MGO, glyoxal, or glycolaldehyde (100-500 µM, 1 h, 37°C, before quantification of intracellular thiols and NADPH-generating enzyme activities. Exposure to MGO, but not the other species examined, significantly (P<0.05 decreased total thiols (∼35%, further experiments with MGO showed significant losses of GSH (∼40% and NADPH (∼10%; these changes did not result in an immediate loss of cell viability. Significantly decreased (∼10% NADPH-producing enzyme activity was observed for HCAEC when glucose-6-phosphate or 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate were used as substrates. Cell lysate experiments showed significant MGO-dose dependent inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate-dependent enzymes and isocitrate dehydrogenase, but not malic enzyme. Analysis of intact cell or lysate proteins showed that arginine-derived hydroimidazolones were the predominant advanced glycation end-product (AGE formed; lower levels of N(ε-(carboxyethyllysine (CEL and N(ε-(carboxymethyllysine (CML were also detected. These data support a novel mechanism by which MGO exposure results in changes in redox status in human coronary artery endothelial cells, via inhibition of NADPH-generating enzymes, with resultant changes in reduced protein thiol and GSH levels. These changes may contribute to the endothelial cell dysfunction observed in diabetes-associated atherosclerosis.

  3. Bioenergetic profile of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effect of metabolic intervention.

    Mingming Yang

    Full Text Available Bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is critical in cardiovascular health and disease. An acute rise in metabolic demand causes vasodilation in systemic circulation while a chronic shift in bioenergetic profile may lead to vascular diseases. A decrease in intracellular ATP level may trigger physiological responses while dedifferentiation of contractile smooth muscle cells to a proliferative and migratory phenotype is often observed during pathological processes. Although it is now possible to dissect multiple building blocks of bioenergetic components quantitatively, detailed cellular bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is still largely unknown. Thus, we profiled cellular bioenergetics of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and effects of metabolic intervention. Mitochondria and glycolysis stress tests utilizing Seahorse technology revealed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation accounted for 54.5% of ATP production at rest with the remaining 45.5% due to glycolysis. Stress tests also showed that oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis can increase to a maximum of 3.5 fold and 1.25 fold, respectively, indicating that the former has a high reserve capacity. Analysis of bioenergetic profile indicated that aging cells have lower resting oxidative phosphorylation and reduced reserve capacity. Intracellular ATP level of a single cell was estimated to be over 1.1 mM. Application of metabolic modulators caused significant changes in mitochondria membrane potential, intracellular ATP level and ATP:ADP ratio. The detailed breakdown of cellular bioenergetics showed that proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells rely more or less equally on oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis at rest. These cells have high respiratory reserve capacity and low glycolysis reserve capacity. Metabolic intervention influences both intracellular ATP concentration and ATP:ADP ratio, where subtler changes may be detected by the latter.

  4. Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Thumb

    McKeon, Kathleen E.; Gelberman, Richard H.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The clinical diagnosis of thumb ulnar collateral ligament disruption has been based on joint angulation during valgus stress testing. This report describes a definitive method of distinguishing between complete and partial ulnar collateral ligament injuries by quantifying translation of the proximal phalanx on the metacarpal head during valgus stress testing. Methods: Sixty-two cadaveric thumbs underwent standardized valgus stress testing under fluoroscopy with the ulnar collateral ligament intact, following an isolated release of the proper ulnar collateral ligament, and following a combined release of both the proper and the accessory ulnar collateral ligament (complete ulnar collateral ligament release). Following complete ulnar collateral ligament release, the final thirty-seven thumbs were also analyzed after the application of a valgus force sufficient to cause 45° of valgus angulation at the metacarpophalangeal joint to model more severe soft-tissue injury. Two independent reviewers measured coronal plane joint angulation (in degrees), ulnar joint line gap formation (in millimeters), and radial translation of the proximal phalanx on the metacarpal head (in millimeters) on digital fluoroscopic images that had been randomized. Results: Coronal angulation across the stressed metacarpophalangeal joint progressively increased through the stages of the testing protocol: ulnar collateral ligament intact (average [and standard deviation], 20° ± 8.1°), release of the proper ulnar collateral ligament (average, 23° ± 8.3°), and complete ulnar collateral ligament release (average, 30° ± 8.9°) (p collateral ligament release (5.7 ± 1.5 mm), to that following complete ulnar collateral ligament release (7.2 ± 1.5 mm) (p collateral ligament (1.6 ± 0.8 mm vs. 1.5 ± 0.9 mm in the intact state). There was a significant increase in translation following release of the complete ulnar collateral ligament complex (3.0 ± 0.9 mm; p collateral ligament

  5. Collateral circulation alters downstream hemodynamic stress caused by intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Liu, Xin; Dornbos, David; Pu, Yuehua; Leng, Xinyi; Song, Ligang; Jia, Baixue; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, David; Miao, Zhongrong; Wang, Yilong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) accurately predicts the degree of stenosis and is now widely used to identify clinically significant severe coronary artery lesions. In the current study, we utilized a similar indicator, fractional flow (FF), to determine the hemodynamic impact of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and to assess the correlation of FF with the severity of stenosis and collateral circulation. Patients with symptomatic ICAS (70-99% stenosis) confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were consecutively recruited. FF was obtained during DSA examination with the use of pressure sensors and was measured as a ratio, comparing measurements distal to an ICAS lesion (Pd) and within the aorta (Pa). The degree of leptomeningeal collateralization was graded from zero (absent) to four (complete compensatory). The correlation between FF, anatomical stenosis, and collateral status was then analyzed. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 55.6 years were analyzed. The median percentage of stenosis and median FF were 82.3 and 0.68%, respectively. Eleven patients were found to have poor collateralization (grade 0-2), and fourteen patients were identified with good collateral circulation (grade 3-4). Overall, the hemodynamic impact of an atherosclerotic lesions worsened (decreased FF) as the percentage of stenosis increased, although this did not reach statistical significance (r = -0.398, p = 0.06). However, the status of collateralization significantly altered this correlation, worsening the hemodynamic impact in patients with poor collateral circulation (r = -0.677, p = 0.032). There was no difference in patients with good collateral circulation (r = -0.279, p = 0.356). An anatomically severe (70-99%) symptomatic ICAS lesion may generate significant hemodynamic stress downstream as assessed by the indicator FF, particularly in patients with poor collateral circulation. Further, good collateralization may mitigate this

  6. Localization of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its relation to plaque morphology in human coronary artery.

    Yasumi Uchida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL plays a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, its localization in human coronary arterial wall is not well understood. The present study was performed to visualize deposition sites and patterns of native oxLDL and their relation to plaque morphology in human coronary artery. METHODS: Evans blue dye (EB elicits a violet fluorescence by excitation at 345-nm and emission at 420-nm, and a reddish-brown fluorescence by excitation at 470-nm and emission at 515-nm characteristic of oxLDL only. Therefore, native oxLDL in excised human coronary artery were investigated by color fluorescent microscopy (CFM using EB as a biomarker. RESULTS: (1 By luminal surface scan with CFM, the % incidence of oxLDL in 38 normal segments, 41 white plaques and 32 yellow plaques that were classified by conventional angioscopy, was respectively 26, 44 and 94, indicating significantly (p<0.05 higher incidence in the latter than the former two groups. Distribution pattern was classified as patchy, diffuse and web-like. Web-like pattern was observed only in yellow plaques with necrotic core. (2 By transected surface scan, oxLDL deposited within superficial layer in normal segments and diffusely within both superficial and deep layers in white and yellow plaques. In yellow plaques with necrotic core, oxLDL deposited not only in the marginal zone of the necrotic core but also in the fibrous cap. CONCLUSION: Taken into consideration of the well-known process of coronary plaque growth, the results suggest that oxLDL begins to deposit in human coronary artery wall before plaque formation and increasingly deposits with plaque growth, exhibiting different deposition sites and patterns depending on morphological changes.

  7. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  8. PLACENTAL GROWTH FACTOR AND CORONARY NEOANGIOGENESIS IN CORONARY HEART DISEASE

    M. V. Tulikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoangiogenesis in coronary heart disease is a protective reaction aimed to improve ischemic myocardial perfusion, by increasing the number and size of arterial collaterals. Placental growth factor (PlGF is one of the key peptides regulating angiogenic processes in atherosclerosis. In particular, a number of investigators have shown that injection of recombinant PlGF into the system or regional blood flow can stimulate neoangiogenesis. On the other hand, there is evidence confirming the involvement of PlGF in the progression of atherosclerosis and in the development of acute coronary syndrome. In this connection, the problem of investigating the efficiency and safety of possible use of PlGF preparations, as well as its place in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome remains urgent

  9. Quantitative Measurement of Dissection Resistance in Intimal and Medial Layers of Human Coronary Arteries

    Wang, Ying; Johnson, John A.; Spinale, Francis G.; Sutton, Michael A.; Lessner, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery is the most frequently involved vessel in coronary artery dissection, a cause of acute coronary syndrome or sudden cardiac death. The biomechanical mechanisms underlying arterial dissection are not well understood. This study investigated the dissection properties of LAD specimens harvested from explanted hearts at the time of cardiac transplantation, from patients with primary dilated cardiomyopathy (n=12). Using a previously validated appro...

  10. Measuring the collateral network pressure to minimize paraplegia risk in thoracoabdominal aneurysm resection.

    Etz, Christian D; Zoli, Stefano; Bischoff, Moritz S; Bodian, Carol; Di Luozzo, Gabriele; Griepp, Randall B

    2010-12-01

    To minimize paraplegia during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, the concept of the collateral network was developed. That is, spinal cord perfusion is provided by an interconnecting complex of vessels in the intraspinal, paraspinous, and epidural space and in the paravertebral muscles, including intercostal and lumbar segmental as well as subclavian and hypogastric arteries. Collateral network pressure was measured with a catheter in the distal end of a ligated segmental artery in pigs and human beings. In the pig, collateral network pressure was 75% of the simultaneous mean aortic pressure. With complete segmental arterial ligation, it fell to 27% of baseline, recovering to 40% at 24 hours and 90% at 120 hours. Spinal cord injury occurred in approximately 50% of animals. When all segmental arteries were taken in 2 stages a week apart, collateral network pressure fell only to 50% to 70% of baseline, and spinal cord injury was rare. In human beings, baseline collateral network pressure also was 75% of mean aortic pressure, fell in proportion to the number of segmental arteries ligated, and began recovery within 24 hours. Collateral network pressure was lower with nonpulsatile distal bypass than with pulsatile perfusion. After subtraction of a measure of spinal cord outflow pressure (cerebrospinal fluid pressure or central venous pressure), collateral network pressure provides a clinically useful estimate of spinal cord perfusion pressure. Copyright © 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Epicardial adipose tissue volume and adipocytokine imbalance are strongly linked to human coronary atherosclerosis.

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Hirata, Yoichiro; Tabata, Minoru; Dagvasumberel, Munkhbaatar; Sato, Hiromi; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Fukuda, Daiju; Soeki, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Sata, Masataka

    2013-05-01

    The impact of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) over abdominal or overall adiposity on coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently unknown. We compared the association among EAT volume (EATV), cytokine/adipocytokine profiles in EAT and subcutaneous fat, and atherogenic CAD. Paired samples were obtained from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue during elective cardiac surgery for CAD (n=50) or non-CAD (n=50). EATV was the sum of cross-sectional EAT areas, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were determined at the umbilicus level on computed tomography scans. CD68(+), CD11c(+), and CD206(+) cells were counted using immunohistochemical staining. Cytokine/adipocytokine expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate analysis indicated that male sex, age, diabetes mellitus, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and EATV index (EATV/body surface area, cm(3)/m(2)) were significant CAD predictors (corrected R(2)=0.401; PEATV index positively correlated with the CD68(+) and CD11c(+) cell numbers and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3), interleukin-1β, and interleukin-1R expression; and negatively correlated with adiponectin expression in EAT. A multivariate analysis model, including CD68(+) cells and interleukin-1β, and adiponectin expression in EAT strongly predicted CAD (corrected R(2)=0.756; PEATV and macrophage and cytokine/adipocytokine signals in EAT strongly correlated with CAD. Our findings suggest that EATV and adipocytokine imbalance are strongly linked to human coronary atherosclerosis.

  12. Novel monorail infusion catheter for volumetric coronary blood flow measurement in humans: in vitro validation.

    van 't Veer, Marcel; Adjedj, Julien; Wijnbergen, Inge; Tóth, Gabor G; Rutten, Marcel C M; Barbato, Emanuele; van Nunen, Lokien X; Pijls, Nico H J; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this study is to validate a novel monorail infusion catheter for thermodilution-based quantitative coronary flow measurements. Based on the principles of thermodilution, volumetric coronary flow can be determined from the flow rate of a continuous saline infusion, the temperature of saline when it enters the coronary artery, and the temperature of the blood mixed with the saline in the distal part of the coronary artery. In an in vitro set-up of the systemic and coronary circulation at body temperature, coronary flow values were varied from 50-300 ml/min in steps of 50 ml/min. At each coronary flow value, thermodilution-based measurements were performed at infusion rates of 15, 20, and 30 ml/min. Temperatures and pressures were simultaneously measured with a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire. Agreement of the calculated flow and the measured flow as well as repeatability were assessed. A total of five catheters were tested, with a total of 180 measurements. A strong correlation (ρ=0.976, p<0.0001) and a difference of -6.5±15.5 ml/min were found between measured and calculated flow. The difference between two repeated measures was 0.2%±8.0%. This novel infusion catheter used in combination with a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire allows accurate and repeatable absolute coronary flow measurements. This opens a window to a better understanding of the coronary microcirculation.

  13. Integration of multi-modality imaging for accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo

    Giannoglou, George D.; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.; Sianos, George; Tsikaderis, Dimitrios; Matakos, Antonis; Koutkias, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Maglaveras, Nicos; Parcharidis, George E.; Louridas, George E.

    2006-01-01

    In conventional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human coronary arteries, IVUS images are arranged linearly generating a straight vessel volume. However, with this approach real vessel curvature is neglected. To overcome this limitation an imaging method was developed based on integration of IVUS and biplane coronary angiography (BCA). In 17 coronary arteries from nine patients, IVUS and BCA were performed. From each angiographic projection, a single end-diastolic frame was selected and in each frame the IVUS catheter was interactively detected for the extraction of 3D catheter path. Ultrasound data was obtained with a sheath-based catheter and recorded on S-VHS videotape. S-VHS data was digitized and lumen and media-adventitia contours were semi-automatically detected in end-diastolic IVUS images. Each pair of contours was aligned perpendicularly to the catheter path and rotated in space by implementing an algorithm based on Frenet-Serret rules. Lumen and media-adventitia contours were interpolated through generation of intermediate contours creating a real 3D lumen and vessel volume, respectively. The absolute orientation of the reconstructed lumen was determined by back-projecting it onto both angiographic planes and comparing the projected lumen with the actual angiographic lumen. In conclusion, our method is capable of performing rapid and accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo. This technique can be utilized for reliable plaque morphometric, geometrical and hemodynamic analyses

  14. Effects of a 3D segmental prosthetic system for tricuspid valve annulus remodelling on the right coronary artery: a human cadaveric coronary angiography study.

    Riki-Marishani, Mohsen; Gholoobi, Arash; Sazegar, Ghasem; Aazami, Mathias H; Hedjazi, Aria; Sajjadian, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Aghaii-Zade Torabi, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    A prosthetic system to repair secondary tricuspid valve regurgitation was developed. The conceptual engineering of the current device is based on 3D segmental remodelling of the tricuspid valve annulus in lieu of reductive annuloplasty. This study was designed to investigate the operational safety of the current prosthetic system with regard to the anatomical integrity of the right coronary artery (RCA) in fresh cadaveric human hearts. During the study period, from January to April 2016, the current prosthetic system was implanted on the tricuspid valve annulus in fresh cadaveric human hearts that met the study's inclusion criteria. The prepared specimens were investigated via selective coronary angiography of the RCA in the catheterization laboratory. The RCA angiographic anatomies were categorized as normal, distorted, kinked or occluded. Sixteen specimens underwent implantation of the current prosthetic system. The mean age of the cadaveric human hearts was 43.24 ± 15.79 years, with vehicle accident being the primary cause of death (59%). A dominant RCA was noticed in 62.5% of the specimens. None of the specimens displayed any injury, distortion, kinking or occlusion in the RCA due to the implantation of the prostheses. In light of the results of the present study, undertaken on fresh cadaveric human heart specimens, the current segmental prosthetic system for 3D remodelling of the tricuspid valve annulus seems to be safe vis-à-vis the anatomical integrity of the RCA. Further in vivo studies are needed to investigate the functional features of the current prosthetic system with a view to addressing the complex pathophysiology of secondary tricuspid valve regurgitation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Collateral in Loan Classification and Provisioning

    In W Song

    2002-01-01

    Adequate loan classification practices are an essential part of a sound and effective credit risk-management process in a bank. Failure to identify deterioration in credit quality in a timely manner can aggravate and prolong the problem. Two key issues arise with regard to the use of collateral in the context of loan classification and provisioning. In particular, the questions arise whether collateral should be taken into account in classifying a collateralized loan, and whether it should be...

  16. Reexamining the empirical relation between loan risk and collateral: The roles of collateral characteristics and types

    Berger, Allen N.; Frame, Scott; Ioannidou, Vasso

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting empirical results in the literature concerning the relation between loan risk and collateral. Specifically, we posit that different economic characteristics or types of collateral pledges may be associated with the empirical dominance of the four different risk-collateral channels implied by economic theory. For our sample, collateral overall is associated with lower loan risk premiums and a higher probability of ex post loan nonper...

  17. Influence of myocardial oxygen demand on the coronary vascular response to arterial blood gas changes in humans.

    Vermeulen, Tyler Dennis; Boulet, Lindsey M; Stembridge, Mike; Williams, Alexandra Mackenzie; Anholm, James D; Subedi, Prajan; Gasho, Chris; Ainslie, Philip N; Feigl, Eric O; Foster, Glen Edward

    2018-03-30

    It remains unclear if the human coronary vasculature is inherently sensitive to changes in arterial PO 2 and PCO 2 or if coronary vascular responses are the result of concomitant increases in myocardial O 2 consumption/demand (MVO 2 ). We hypothesized that the coronary vascular response to PO 2 and PCO 2 would be attenuated in healthy men when MVO 2 was attenuated with β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade. Healthy men (n=11; age: 25 {plus minus} 1 years) received intravenous esmolol (β 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) or volume-matched saline in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, and were exposed to poikilocapnic hypoxia, isocapnic hypoxia, and hypercapnic hypoxia. Measurements made at baseline and following 5-min of steady state at each gas manipulation included left anterior descending coronary blood velocity (LAD V ; Doppler echocardiography), heart rate and arterial blood pressure. LAD V values at the end of each hypoxic condition were compared between esmolol and placebo. Rate pressure product (RPP) and left-ventricular mechanical energy (ME LV ) were calculated as indices of MVO 2 . All gas manipulations augmented RPP, ME LV , and LAD V but only RPP and ME LV were attenuated (4-18%) following β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade (P<0.05). Despite attenuated RPP and MELV responses, β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade did not attenuate the mean LADV vasodilatory response when compared to placebo during poikilocapnic hypoxia (29.4{plus minus}2.2 vs. 27.3{plus minus}1.6 cm/s) and isocapnic hypoxia (29.5{plus minus}1.5 vs. 30.3{plus minus}2.2 cm/s). Hypercapnic hypoxia elicited a feed-forward coronary dilation that was blocked by β 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade. These results indicate a direct influence of arterial PO 2 on coronary vascular regulation that is independent of MVO 2 .

  18. Multiple coil closure of isolated aortopulmonary collateral

    Padhi Sumanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-month-old girl was diagnosed to have large aortopulmonary collateral during evaluation for congestive heart failure. There was no other evidence of cardiopulmonary disease. The collateral was successfully closed with multiple coils delivered sequentially. We describe the issues associated during closure of the aortopulmonary collateral in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of large aortopulmonary collateral presenting with heart failure in an otherwise structurally normal heart that was closed successfully with multiple coils delivered sequentially.

  19. Embolization of Collateral Vessels Using Mechanically Detachable Coils in Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Sato, Y.; Ogino, H.; Hara, M.; Satake, M.; Oshima, H.; Banno, T.; Mizuno, K.; Mishima, A.; Shibamoto, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of embolizing collateral vessels using mechanically detachable coils (MDCs) in children aged 3 years or younger with congenital heart disease. The subjects were 8 children with congenital heart disease featuring collateral vessels (age 18 days-3 years): 3 with a single ventricle, 2 with the tetralogy of Fallot, 2 with pulmonary atresia, and 1 with a ventricular septal defect. The embolized vessels were the major aortopulmonary collateral artery (MAPCA) in 5 patients, the persistent left superior vena cava in 2, and the coronary arteriovenous fistula in 1. A 4 or a 5 F catheter was used as the guiding device, and embolization was performed using MDCs and other conventional coils introduced through the microcatheter. One patient had growth of new MAPCAs after embolization, and these MAPCAs were also embolized with MDCs. Thus, a total of 9 embolization procedures were performed in 8 patients. Complete occlusion of the collateral vessels was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures (89%). Seven of 8 patients (88%) had uneventful courses after embolization, and MDC procedures appeared to play important roles in avoiding coil migration and achievement of safe coil embolization. One patient who underwent MAPCA embolization showed no improvement in heart function and died 2 months and 19 days later. Embolization of collateral vessels using MDCs in young children with congenital heart disease can be an effective procedure and a valuable adjunct to surgical management

  20. Tl myocardial SPECT demonstrates importance of collateral circulation in patients with myocardial infarction

    Hattori, Fukunori

    1997-01-01

    The influence of collateral circulation on the preservation of myocardial viability and the efficacy of drug therapy and PTCA were evaluated by exercise 201 Tl myocardial SPECT before and after treatment. Thirty-five patients with a history of myocardial infarction resulting from total or subtotal obstruction of the responsible coronary artery were divided into four groups, according to the method of the treatment and the degree of collateral blood flow. Patients in groups A and B received drug therapy and displayed developed and undeveloped collateral circulation, respectively. Groups C and D received PTCA and displayed developed and undeveloped collateral circulation, respectively. Tl myocardial SPECT was performed before treatment to record the extent of redistribution to the occluded region, the degree of myocardial viability and the nature and extent of the ischemic lesion. In group A, myocardial perfusion improved, although redistribution remained in all cases, while in group B, 4 of 7 cases improved after drug therapy. In group C, myocardial perfusion improved in all cases, and redistribution disappeared in 7 of 12 cases. 5 of 6 cases improved in group D after PTCA. After drug therapy, the %Tl uptake in the infarcted region improved significantly in initial and delayed images of patients in group A. The differences in initial and delayed images in group B before and after drug therapy were not significant. In contrast, groups C and D both registered significant improvement in initial and delayed images after PTCA. The washout rate improved significantly in groups A, C and D after their respective treatments. These results suggest that developed collateral circulation helps to preserve myocardial viability in cases of myocardial infarction. Myocardial perfusion improved after drug therapy in cases with developed collateral circulation, and in patients with developed and undeveloped collateral circulation receiving PTCA. (K.H.)

  1. Analysis of Drug Effects on Primary Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells Activated by Serum Amyloid A

    K. Lakota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. RA patients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases compared to the general population. Serum amyloid A (SAA is an acute-phase protein, upregulated in sera of RA patients. Aim. To determine the effects of medications on SAA-stimulated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC. Methods. HCAEC were preincubated for 2 h with medications from sterile ampules (dexamethasone, methotrexate, certolizumab pegol, and etanercept, dissolved in medium (captopril or DMSO (etoricoxib, rosiglitazone, meloxicam, fluvastatin, and diclofenac. Human recombinant apo-SAA was used to stimulate HCAEC at a final 1000 nM concentration for 24 hours. IL-6, IL-8, sVCAM-1, and PAI-1 were measured by ELISA. The number of viable cells was determined colorimetrically. Results. SAA-stimulated levels of released IL-6, IL-8, and sVCAM-1 from HCAEC were significantly attenuated by methotrexate, fluvastatin, and etoricoxib. Both certolizumab pegol and etanercept significantly decreased PAI-1 by an average of 43%. Rosiglitazone significantly inhibited sVCAM-1 by 58%. Conclusion. We observed marked influence of fluvastatin on lowering cytokine production in SAA-activated HCAEC. Methotrexate showed strong beneficial effects for lowering released Il-6, IL-8, and sVCAM-1. Interesting duality was observed for NSAIDs, with meloxicam exhibiting opposite-trend effects from diclofenac and etoricoxib. This represents unique insight into specific responsiveness of inflammatory-driven HCAEC relevant to atherosclerosis.

  2. Novel monorail infusion catheter for volumetric coronary blood flow measurement in humans: in vitro validation

    van 't Veer, M.; Adjedj, J.; Wijnbergen, I.; Tóth, G.G.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Barbato, E.; van Nunen, L.X.; Pijls, N.H.J.; de Bruyne, B.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study is to validate a novel monorail infusion catheter for thermodilution-based quantitative coronary flow measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the principles of thermodilution, volumetric coronary flow can be determined from the flow rate of a continuous saline

  3. Familial hypercholesterolaemic downsized pig with human-like coronary atherosclerosis: a model for preclinical studies

    Thim, Troels; Hagensen, Mette; Drouet, L.

    2010-01-01

    while preserving their hypercholesterolaemic trait ascribed to a mutation in the low density lipoprotein receptor. We accelerated coronary plaque development by atherogenic diet feeding whereby plasma total cholesterol rose to >20 mmol/l (>800 mg/dl). We further accelerated coronary plaque development...

  4. Impaired Leptomeningeal Collateral Flow Contributes to the Poor Outcome following Experimental Stroke in the Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Nishijima, Yasuo; Lee, Chih Cheng; Yang, Shih Yen; Shi, Lei; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Collateral status is an independent predictor of stroke outcome. However, the spatiotemporal manner in which collateral flow maintains cerebral perfusion during cerebral ischemia is poorly understood. Diabetes exacerbates ischemic brain damage, although the impact of diabetes on collateral dynamics remains to be established. Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, a robust recruitment of leptomeningeal collateral flow was detected immediately after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in C57BL/6 mice, and it continued to grow over the course of 1 week. In contrast, an impairment of collateral recruitment was evident in the Type 2 diabetic db/db mice, which coincided with a worse stroke outcome compared with their normoglycemic counterpart db/+, despite their equally well-collateralized leptomeningeal anastomoses. Similar to the wild-type mice, both db/+ and db/db mice underwent collateral growth 7 d after MCA stroke, although db/db mice still exhibited significantly reduced retrograde flow into the MCA territory chronically. Acutely induced hyperglycemia in the db/+ mice did not impair collateral flow after stroke, suggesting that the state of hyperglycemia alone was not sufficient to impact collateral flow. Human albumin was efficacious in improving collateral flow and outcome after stroke in the db/db mice, enabling perfusion to proximal MCA territory that was usually not reached by retrograde flow from anterior cerebral artery without treatment. Our results suggest that the impaired collateral status contributes to the exacerbated ischemic injury in mice with Type 2 diabetes, and modulation of collateral flow has beneficial effects on stroke outcome among these subjects. PMID:25740515

  5. Sex Differences in the Cerebral Collateral Circulation.

    Faber, James E; Moore, Scott M; Lucitti, Jennifer L; Aghajanian, Amir; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Premenopausal women and intact female rodents sustain smaller cerebral infarctions than males. Several sex-dependent differences have been identified as potential contributors, but many questions remain unanswered. Mice exhibit wide variation in native collateral number and diameter (collateral extent) that is dependent on differences in genetic background, aging, and other comorbidities and that contributes to their also-wide differences in infarct volume. Likewise, variation in infarct volume correlates with differences in collateral-dependent blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We examined whether extent of pial collateral arterioles and posterior communicating collateral arteries (PComAs) differ depending on sex in young, aged, obese, hypertensive, and genetically different mice. We combined new data with meta-analysis of our previously published data. Females of C57BL/6J (B6) and BALB/cByJ (BC) strains sustained smaller infarctions than males after permanent MCA occlusion. This protection was unchanged in BC mice after introgression of the B6 allele of Dce1, the major genetic determinant of variation in pial collaterals among mouse strains. Consistent with this, collateral extent in these and other strains did not differ with sex. Extent of PComAs and primary cerebral arteries also did not vary with sex. No dimorphism was evident for loss of pial collateral number and/or diameter (collateral rarefaction) caused by aging, obesity, and hypertension, nor for collateral remodeling after pMCAO. However, rarefaction was greater in females with long-standing hypertension. We conclude that smaller infarct volume in female mice is not due to greater collateral extent, greater remodeling, or less rarefaction caused by aging, obesity, or hypertension.

  6. Augmented TLR2 Expression on Monocytes in both Human Kawasaki Disease and a Mouse Model of Coronary Arteritis

    Lin, I-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Lin, Ying-Jui; Wang, Feng-Shen; Wang, Lin; Huang, Shun-Chen; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Chien-Fu; Wang, Chih-Lu; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Rong-Fu; Yang, Kuender D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) of unknown immunopathogenesis is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in childhood. To search for a better strategy for the prevention and treatment of KD, this study compared and validated human KD immunopathogenesis in a mouse model of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced coronary arteritis. METHODS: Recruited subjects fulfilled the criteria of KD and were admitted for intravenous gamma globul...

  7. Augmented TLR2 expression on monocytes in both human Kawasaki disease and a mouse model of coronary arteritis.

    I-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD of unknown immunopathogenesis is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in childhood. To search for a better strategy for the prevention and treatment of KD, this study compared and validated human KD immunopathogenesis in a mouse model of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE-induced coronary arteritis. METHODS: Recruited subjects fulfilled the criteria of KD and were admitted for intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG treatment at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2009. Blood samples from KD patients were collected before and after IVIG treatment, and cardiovascular abnormalities were examined by transthoracic echocardiography. Wild-type male BALB/c mice (4-week-old were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1 mg/mL to induce coronary arteritis. The induced immune response in mice was examined on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post injections, and histopathology studies were performed on days 7 and 14. RESULTS: Both human KD patients and LCWE-treated mice developed coronary arteritis, myocarditis, valvulitis, and pericarditis, as well as elevated plasma levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in acute phase. Most of these proinflammatory cytokines declined to normal levels in mice, whereas normal levels were achieved in patients only after IVIG treatment, with a few exceptions. Toll-like receptor (TLR-2, but not TLR4 surface enhancement on circulating CD14+ monocytes, was augmented in KD patients before IVIG treatment and in LCWE-treated mice, which declined in patients after IVIG treatment. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that that not only TLR2 augmentation on CD14+ monocytes might be an inflammatory marker for both human KD patients and LCWE-induced CAL mouse model but also this model is feasible for studying therapeutic strategies of coronary arteritis in human KD by

  8. Augmented TLR2 expression on monocytes in both human Kawasaki disease and a mouse model of coronary arteritis.

    Lin, I-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Lin, Ying-Jui; Wang, Feng-Shen; Wang, Lin; Huang, Shun-Chen; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Chien-Fu; Wang, Chih-Lu; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Rong-Fu; Yang, Kuender D

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) of unknown immunopathogenesis is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in childhood. To search for a better strategy for the prevention and treatment of KD, this study compared and validated human KD immunopathogenesis in a mouse model of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced coronary arteritis. Recruited subjects fulfilled the criteria of KD and were admitted for intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2009. Blood samples from KD patients were collected before and after IVIG treatment, and cardiovascular abnormalities were examined by transthoracic echocardiography. Wild-type male BALB/c mice (4-week-old) were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1 mg/mL) to induce coronary arteritis. The induced immune response in mice was examined on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post injections, and histopathology studies were performed on days 7 and 14. Both human KD patients and LCWE-treated mice developed coronary arteritis, myocarditis, valvulitis, and pericarditis, as well as elevated plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in acute phase. Most of these proinflammatory cytokines declined to normal levels in mice, whereas normal levels were achieved in patients only after IVIG treatment, with a few exceptions. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, but not TLR4 surface enhancement on circulating CD14+ monocytes, was augmented in KD patients before IVIG treatment and in LCWE-treated mice, which declined in patients after IVIG treatment. This result suggests that that not only TLR2 augmentation on CD14+ monocytes might be an inflammatory marker for both human KD patients and LCWE-induced CAL mouse model but also this model is feasible for studying therapeutic strategies of coronary arteritis in human KD by modulating TLR2-mediated immune activation on CD14

  9. Stroke etiology and collaterals: atheroembolic strokes have greater collateral recruitment than cardioembolic strokes.

    Rebello, L C; Bouslama, M; Haussen, D C; Grossberg, J A; Dehkharghani, S; Anderson, A; Belagaje, S R; Bianchi, N A; Grigoryan, M; Frankel, M R; Nogueira, R G

    2017-06-01

    Chronic hypoperfusion from athero-stenotic lesions is thought to lead to better collateral recruitment compared to cardioembolic strokes. It was sought to compare collateral flow in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) versus stroke patients with cervical atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease (CASOD). This was a retrospective review of a prospectively collected endovascular database. Patients with (i) anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke, (ii) pre-treatment computed tomography angiography (CTA) and (iii) intracranial embolism from AF or CASOD were included. CTA collateral patterns were evaluated and categorized into two groups: absent/poor collaterals (CTA collateral score 0-1) versus moderate/good collaterals (CTA collateral score 2-4). CT perfusion was also utilized for baseline core volume and evaluation of infarct growth. A total of 122 patients fitted the inclusion criteria, of whom 88 (72%) had AF and 34 (27%) CASOD. Patients with AF were older (P Collateral scores were lower in the AF group (P = 0.01) with patients having poor collaterals in 28% of cases versus 9% in the CASOD group (P = 0.03). Mortality rates (20% vs. 0%; P = 0.02) were higher in the AF patients whilst rates of any parenchymal hemorrhage (6% vs. 26%; P collaterals (odds ratio 4.70; 95% confidence interval 1.17-18.79; P = 0.03). Atheroembolic strokes seem to be associated with better collateral flow compared to cardioembolic strokes. This may in part explain the worse outcomes of AF-related stroke. © 2017 EAN.

  10. 13 CFR 120.343 - Collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral. 120.343 Section 120.343 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Export Working Capital Program (ewcp) § 120.343 Collateral. A Borrower must give SBA a first security...

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  12. 20 CFR 498.114 - Collateral estoppel.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collateral estoppel. 498.114 Section 498.114 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.114 Collateral estoppel. In a proceeding under section 1129 of the Social Security Act that...

  13. Alternative Evolutionary Paths to Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Cause Distinct Collateral Effects.

    Barbosa, Camilo; Trebosc, Vincent; Kemmer, Christian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Beardmore, Robert; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Jansen, Gunther

    2017-09-01

    When bacteria evolve resistance against a particular antibiotic, they may simultaneously gain increased sensitivity against a second one. Such collateral sensitivity may be exploited to develop novel, sustainable antibiotic treatment strategies aimed at containing the current, dramatic spread of drug resistance. To date, the presence and molecular basis of collateral sensitivity has only been studied in few bacterial species and is unknown for opportunistic human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we assessed patterns of collateral effects by experimentally evolving 160 independent populations of P. aeruginosa to high levels of resistance against eight commonly used antibiotics. The bacteria evolved resistance rapidly and expressed both collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance. The pattern of such collateral effects differed to those previously reported for other bacterial species, suggesting interspecific differences in the underlying evolutionary trade-offs. Intriguingly, we also identified contrasting patterns of collateral sensitivity and cross-resistance among the replicate populations adapted to the same drug. Whole-genome sequencing of 81 independently evolved populations revealed distinct evolutionary paths of resistance to the selective drug, which determined whether bacteria became cross-resistant or collaterally sensitive towards others. Based on genomic and functional genetic analysis, we demonstrate that collateral sensitivity can result from resistance mutations in regulatory genes such as nalC or mexZ, which mediate aminoglycoside sensitivity in β-lactam-adapted populations, or the two-component regulatory system gene pmrB, which enhances penicillin sensitivity in gentamicin-resistant populations. Our findings highlight substantial variation in the evolved collateral effects among replicates, which in turn determine their potential in antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on

  14. Biological Atomic Force Microscopy for Imaging Gold-Labeled Liposomes on Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    Ana-María Zaske

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although atomic force microscopy (AFM has been used extensively to characterize cell membrane structure and cellular processes such as endocytosis and exocytosis, the corrugated surface of the cell membrane hinders the visualization of extracellular entities, such as liposomes, that may interact with the cell. To overcome this barrier, we used 90 nm nanogold particles to label FITC liposomes and monitor their endocytosis on human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs in vitro. We were able to study the internalization process of gold-coupled liposomes on endothelial cells, by using AFM. We found that the gold-liposomes attached to the HCAEC cell membrane during the first 15–30 min of incubation, liposome cell internalization occurred from 30 to 60 min, and most of the gold-labeled liposomes had invaginated after 2 hr of incubation. Liposomal uptake took place most commonly at the periphery of the nuclear zone. Dynasore monohydrate, an inhibitor of endocytosis, obstructed the internalization of the gold-liposomes. This study showed the versatility of the AFM technique, combined with fluorescent microscopy, for investigating liposome uptake by endothelial cells. The 90 nm colloidal gold nanoparticles proved to be a noninvasive contrast agent that efficiently improves AFM imaging during the investigation of biological nanoprocesses.

  15. Thallium-201 single photon emission tomography of myocardium. Additional information in reinjection studies is dependent on collateral circulation

    Bartenstein, P.; Schober, O.; Schaefers, M.; Matheja, P.; Hasfeld, M.; Breithardt, G.

    1992-01-01

    A second thallium-201 injection under resting conditions is able to improve the differentiation between myocardial scar and ischaemia when compared with simple redistribution imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of this improvement on the degree of stenosis and the presence of collaterals. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) studies under exercise, redistribution and reinjection conditions were performed on 84 patients with 181 stenotic vessels (70 left anterior descending, 47 left circumflex, 64 right coronary artery) and compared with angiography. An improvement of the 201 Tl uptake in the reinjection image was observed in 53% of the myocardial areas served by a coronary artery with a stenosis of over 90%. This is compared with 13% of the areas served by a vessel with a stenosis between 50% and 90%. Some 90% of the collateralized areas showed a fill-in effect, but only 7 of the 118 without angiographically visible collateralization (6%). The dependence of the fill-in effect, collateralization and >90% stenosis was highly significant (χ 2 test, P 90% narrowing. The fill-in effect was closely correlated to the presence of collaterals. In these cases, the fill-in may be an indication for hibernating myocardium. (orig.)

  16. Collateral circulations in inferior vena cava obstruction

    Lee, Jong Beum; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Park, Soo Soung

    1985-01-01

    Obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an uncommon condition, and the collateral pathway varies according to the level, extent, duration and the cause of obstruction. Membranous obstruction of IVC in its hepatic portion might be one of the principle cause among Korean, though not reported till now. Analytical study was performed in 26 cases of IVC obstruction with various cause. 1. The level of the obstruction showed relatively even distribution as follows, upper caval in 11 cases, middle caval in 6 cases and infrarenal in 9 cases. 2. The main cause of upper caval obstruction was membranous obstruction. 3. As a whole, the main collateral pathway was the central route (22 cases: 85%). 4. Characteristic collateral pathway unique to upper caval obstruction was transhepatic venous collateral, developed between the obstructed segment and unobstructed segment of IVC. 5. Scalloping of left cardiac border produced by pericardiophrenic venous collateral was characteristic simple chest x-ray finding in IVC obstruction

  17. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1996-01-01

    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular....... Division of the posterolateral capsule caused no further laxity. Cutting the lateral collateral ligament induced a maximum laxity of 11.8 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced varus and a maximum laxity of 20.6 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced external rotation. The corresponding maximal...... posterior radial head translation was observed at 80 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion and was 5.7 mm in forced varus and 8.1 mm in forced external rotation. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be an important stabilizer of the humeroulnar joint and the radial head in forced varus...

  18. Risk of coronary artery disease in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Vilela, Felippe Dantas; Lorenzo, Andrea Rocha de; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini; Hadlich, Marcelo; Barros, Marcelo Viana de Lima; Lima, Ana Beatriz Ribeiro; Meirelles, Vanderson

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved survival and allowed infected patients to develop atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Specific strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in the infected population have not been developed. It is necessary to know the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in this population. This study aimed to assess cardiovascular risk using a well-known clinical score and to investigate coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) in this population. This was a cross-sectional study. Adults with HIV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data, serum glucose and lipids were obtained. Cardiovascular risk was calculated through Framingham risk score (FRS) and CACS. Categorical variables were compared by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Student t test or Mann-Whitney test. An analysis of concordance between FRS and CACS was performed using kappa statistic. Forty patients, aged 45.9 ± 8.1 years, were studied. Age of risk for CAD were found in 30.0%, hypertension in 55.0%, diabetes in 10.0%, smoking in 35.0%, dyslipidemia in 67.5% and family history of CAD in 57.5%. Altered levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were found in 30.0%, 25.0% and 82.5%, respectively. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were altered more frequently among protease inhibitors users. The FRS classified the risk as low for 72.5%, moderate for 25.0%, and high for 2.5%. CACS > 0 was found in 32.5% of the patients, in 67.5% the score was low, in 17.5% moderate, and in 15.0% high. Concordance between FRS and CACS showed a kappa = 0.435. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for CAD in the studied population, with dyslipidemia being the most frequent. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were the most frequently altered factors and were associated with the use of protease inhibitors. Risk assessed by the FRS was low in most

  19. Risk of coronary artery disease in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Felippe Dantas Vilela

    Full Text Available Current treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection has improved survival and allowed infected patients to develop atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD. Specific strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in the infected population have not been developed. It is necessary to know the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in this population. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess cardiovascular risk using a well-known clinical score and to investigate coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS in this population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Adults with HIV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data, serum glucose and lipids were obtained. Cardiovascular risk was calculated through Framingham risk score (FRS and CACS. Categorical variables were compared by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Student t test or Mann-Whitney test. An analysis of concordance between FRS and CACS was performed using kappa statistic. RESULTS: Forty patients, aged 45.9 ± 8.1 years, were studied. Age of risk for CAD were found in 30.0%, hypertension in 55.0%, diabetes in 10.0%, smoking in 35.0%, dyslipidemia in 67.5% and family history of CAD in 57.5%. Altered levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were found in 30.0%, 25.0% and 82.5%, respectively. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were altered more frequently among protease inhibitors users. The FRS classified the risk as low for 72.5%, moderate for 25.0%, and high for 2.5%. CACS > 0 was found in 32.5% of the patients, in 67.5% the score was low, in 17.5% moderate, and in 15.0% high. Concordance between FRS and CACS showed a kappa = 0.435. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of risk factors for CAD in the studied population, with dyslipidemia being the most frequent. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were the most frequently altered factors and were associated with the use of

  20. Correlation between GDF-15 gene polymorphism and the formation of collateral circulation in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Shang, Xiao-Sen; Wang, Yan-Bin; Fu, Zhi-Hua; Gao, Yu; Feng, Tao

    2017-12-01

    To explore the correlation between growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) -3148C/G polymorphism and the formation of collateral circulation in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Han population of Taiyuan area. The present study included 92 STEMI patients and 56 normal controls based on coronary angiography; STEMI group was divided into collateral group and non-collateral group according to Rentrop's grading method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect and analyze the GDF-15 -3148C/G polymorphism in all participants. There was significant difference in GDF-15 -3148C/G CC and GC distribution between STEMI group and control group (p=0.009); the allele frequencies between these two groups were also significant different (p=0.016); and the risk genotype for STEMI was CC with increased OR=2.660. For STEMI group, GDF-15 -3148C/G CC and GC distribution was also significantly different between patients with and without collateral (p=0.048), and CC genotype significantly promote the formation of collateral circulation. However, there were no significant differences in allele frequencies between these two subgroups of STEMI. There was correlation between GDF-15-3148C/G polymorphism and the formation of collateral circulation in patients with acute STEMI.

  1. Correlation between GDF-15 gene polymorphism and the formation of collateral circulation in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Xiao-ping Chen

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To explore the correlation between growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15 -3148C/G polymorphism and the formation of collateral circulation in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in Han population of Taiyuan area. Method: The present study included 92 STEMI patients and 56 normal controls based on coronary angiography; STEMI group was divided into collateral group and non-collateral group according to Rentrop's grading method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing methods were used to detect and analyze the GDF-15 -3148C/G polymorphism in all participants. Results: There was significant difference in GDF-15 -3148C/G CC and GC distribution between STEMI group and control group (p=0.009; the allele frequencies between these two groups were also significant different (p=0.016; and the risk genotype for STEMI was CC with increased OR=2.660. For STEMI group, GDF-15 -3148C/G CC and GC distribution was also significantly different between patients with and without collateral (p=0.048, and CC genotype significantly promote the formation of collateral circulation. However, there were no significant differences in allele frequencies between these two subgroups of STEMI. Conclusion: There was correlation between GDF-15-3148C/G polymorphism and the formation of collateral circulation in patients with acute STEMI.

  2. 12 CFR 263.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in... shall be excused based on the pendency before any court of any interlocutory appeal or collateral attack. ...

  3. 12 CFR 1780.16 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... Rules § 1780.16 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral... subpart shall be excused based on the pendency before any court of any interlocutory appeal or collateral...

  4. 12 CFR 509.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding....17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is... shall be excused based on the pendency before any court of any interlocutory appeal or collateral attack. ...

  5. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral valuation. Each Bank shall determine the value of collateral securing the Bank's advances in accordance with...

  6. 29 CFR 20.32 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Liquidation of collateral. 20.32 Section 20.32 Labor Office... collateral. An agency holding security or collateral which may be liquidated and the proceeds applied on... demand, unless the cost of disposing of the collateral will be disproportionate to its value or special...

  7. 27 CFR 24.159 - Release of collateral security.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of collateral... § 24.159 Release of collateral security. Collateral security pledged and deposited will be released only in accordance with the provisions of 31 CFR part 225. The collateral security will not be released...

  8. 27 CFR 17.104 - Deposit of collateral.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deposit of collateral. 17... PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties § 17.104 Deposit of collateral. Except as otherwise provided by law... as collateral security in lieu of bonds obtained from surety companies. Deposit of collateral...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5060 - Special collateral requirement.

    2010-01-01

    ... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5060 Special collateral... be withdrawn from collateral upon the expiration of 1 year from the date of the loan closing, unless... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special collateral requirement. 615.5060...

  10. 7 CFR 4287.113 - Release of collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... Loans § 4287.113 Release of collateral. (a) All releases of collateral with a value exceeding $100,000... loan. The Agency may, at its discretion, require an appraisal of the remaining collateral in cases... (a) of this section, lenders may, over the life of the loan, release collateral (other than personal...

  11. Stimulatory interactions between human coronary smooth muscle cells and dendritic cells.

    Sara Paccosi

    Full Text Available Despite inflammatory and immune mechanisms participating to atherogenesis and dendritic cells (DCs driving immune and non-immune tissue injury response, the interactions between DCs and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs possibly relevant to vascular pathology including atherogenesis are still unclear. To address this issue, immature DCs (iDCs generated from CD14+ cells isolated from healthy donors were matured either with cytokines (mDCs, or co-cultured (ccDCs with human coronary artery VSMCs (CASMCs using transwell chambers. Co-culture induced DC immunophenotypical and functional maturation similar to cytokines, as demonstrated by flow cytometry and mixed lymphocyte reaction. In turn, factors from mDCs and ccDCs induced CASMC migration. MCP-1 and TNFα, secreted from DCs, and IL-6 and MCP-1, secreted from CASMCs, were primarily involved. mDCs adhesion to CASMCs was enhanced by CASMC pre-treatment with IFNγ and TNFα ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were involved, since the expression of specific mRNAs for these molecules increased and adhesion was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to the counter-receptors CD11c and CD18. Adhesion was also inhibited by CASMC pre-treatment with the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor atorvastatin and the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, which suggests a further mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of these drugs. Adhesion of DCs to VSMCs was shown also in vivo in rat carotid 7 to 21 days after crush and incision injury. The findings indicate that DCs and VSMCs can interact with reciprocal stimulation, possibly leading to perpetuate inflammation and vascular wall remodelling, and that the interaction is enhanced by a cytokine-rich inflammatory environment and down-regulated by HMGCoA-reductase inhibitors and PPARγ agonists.

  12. 3D MRI-based anisotropic FSI models with cyclic bending for human coronary atherosclerotic plaque mechanical analysis.

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Billiar, Kristen; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N

    2009-06-01

    Heart attack and stroke are often caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture, which happens without warning most of the time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based atherosclerotic plaque models with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. For coronary arteries, cyclic bending associated with heart motion and anisotropy of the vessel walls may have significant influence on flow and stress/strain distributions in the plaque. FSI models with cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties for coronary plaques are lacking in the current literature. In this paper, cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties were added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models so that the models would be more realistic for more accurate computational flow and stress/strain predictions. Six computational models using one ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque specimen data were constructed to assess the effects of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel properties, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. Our results indicate that cyclic bending and anisotropic properties may cause 50-800% increase in maximum principal stress (Stress-P1) values at selected locations. The stress increase varies with location and is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, nonsmooth plaque structure, and resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (9.8% decrease in maximum velocity, 2.5% decrease in flow rate, 15% increase in maximum flow shear stress). Inclusion of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel material properties, accurate plaque structure, and axial stretch in computational FSI models should lead to a considerable improvement of accuracy of computational stress/strain predictions for coronary plaque vulnerability

  13. Coronary artery calcification in Kawasaki disease

    Ino, T.; Shimazaki, S.; Akimoto, K.; Park, I.; Nishimoto, K.; Yabuta, K.; Tanaka, A.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the angiographic features of coronary lesions in Kawasaki disease with coronary artery calcification, cinefluoroscopy and cineangiography were retrospectively reviewed in 116 patients who had undergone coronary angiography between 1982 and 1989. Angiographic abnormalities of coronary arteries were demonstrated in 55 of 116 patients. In 5 (9.1%) of the 55 patients, 9 with calcification were identified by cinefluoroscopy and chest X-ray. Eight of the 9 calcified lesions showed a circular or ring-shape configuration. Coronary angiography revealed a total occlusion of the right coronary artery with collateral circulation from the distal left coronary artery in 2 patients and a severe stenosis of the right coronary artery in 2 patients, in whom anticoagulant therapy had not been continued during the follow-up periods. The remaining patient in whom anticoagulant therapy had been continued had bilateral aneurysms but no significant stenosis. These results indicate that a ring-shape calcification on chest X-ray in 2 patients with a history of Kawasaki disease may suggest an involvement by coronary artery stenosis even when anticoagulant drugs had been given. Therefore, coronary angiography should be performed to evaluate the stenotic lesions if this type of calcification is found by routine radiographic examination. (orig.)

  14. How Collateral Laws Shape Lending and Sectoral Activity

    Calomiris, Charles W.; Larrain, Mauricio; Liberti, José; Sturgess, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of cross-country differences in collateral laws regarding movable assets on lending and sectoral allocation of resources. Using micro-level loan data for a sample of emerging market countries we show that loan-to-values of loans collateralized with movable assets are on average 21 percentage points higher in countries with strong-collateral laws relative to immovable assets. Further, stronger collateral laws tilt collateral composition away from immovable to...

  15. Numerical analysis of the effect of turbulence transition on the hemodynamic parameters in human coronary arteries.

    Mahalingam, Arun; Gawandalkar, Udhav Ulhas; Kini, Girish; Buradi, Abdulrajak; Araki, Tadashi; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Nicolaides, Andrew; Laird, John R; Saba, Luca; Suri, Jasjit S

    2016-06-01

    Local hemodynamics plays an important role in atherogenesis and the progression of coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD). The primary biological effect due to blood turbulence is the change in wall shear stress (WSS) on the endothelial cell membrane, while the local oscillatory nature of the blood flow affects the physiological changes in the coronary artery. In coronary arteries, the blood flow Reynolds number ranges from few tens to several hundreds and hence it is generally assumed to be laminar while calculating the WSS calculations. However, the pulsatile blood flow through coronary arteries under stenotic condition could result in transition from laminar to turbulent flow condition. In the present work, the onset of turbulent transition during pulsatile flow through coronary arteries for varying degree of stenosis (i.e., 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%) is quantitatively analyzed by calculating the turbulent parameters distal to the stenosis. Also, the effect of turbulence transition on hemodynamic parameters such as WSS and oscillatory shear index (OSI) for varying degree of stenosis is quantified. The validated transitional shear stress transport (SST) k-ω model used in the present investigation is the best suited Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model to capture the turbulent transition. The arterial wall is assumed to be rigid and the dynamic curvature effect due to myocardial contraction on the blood flow has been neglected. Our observations shows that for stenosis 50% and above, the WSSavg, WSSmax and OSI calculated using turbulence model deviates from laminar by more than 10% and the flow disturbances seems to significantly increase only after 70% stenosis. Our model shows reliability and completely validated. Blood flow through stenosed coronary arteries seems to be turbulent in nature for area stenosis above 70% and the transition to turbulent flow begins from 50% stenosis.

  16. 12 CFR 725.19 - Collateral requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.19 Collateral requirements. (a) Each... applicable Facility advance or Agent loan, or by guarantee of the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund...

  17. Moral hazard in the credit market when the collateral value is stochastic

    Niinimäki, Juha-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    This theoretical paper explores the effects of costly and non-costly collateral on moral hazard, when collateral value may fluctuate. Given that all collateral is costly, stochastic collateral will entail the same positive incentive effects as nonstochastic collateral, provided the variation in collateral value is modest. If it is large, the incentive effects are smaller under stochastic collateral. With non-costly collateral, stochastic collateral entails positive incentive effects or no eff...

  18. Measuring the quality of eligible collateral

    Lehmbecker, Philipp; Missong, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the U. S. subprime crisis has shown that a weak collateralization of credits may have massive economic implications, entailing severe perturbations of the international financial system. We focus on central bank lending and try to pin down the quantitative impact of the collateralization of central banks' credits. A questionnaire on national monetary frameworks was used to collect data from central banks. Drawing on these data we derive an index of the quality of eligible assets mea...

  19. Functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow.

    Hackl, M; Bercher, M; Wegmann, K; Müller, L P; Dargel, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) and the surrounding forearm extensors. Using 81 human cadaveric upper extremities, the anatomy of the forearm extensors-especially the anconeus, supinator and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)-was analyzed. After removal of aforementioned extensors the functional anatomy of the LCLC was analyzed. The origin of the LCLC was evaluated for isometry. The insertion types of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) were analyzed and classified. The ECU runs parallel to the RCL to dynamically preserve varus stability. The supinator and anconeus muscle fibers coalesce with the LCLC and lengthen during pronation. The anconeus fibers run parallel to the LUCL in full flexion. The LCLC consists of the annular ligament (AL) and the isometric radial collateral ligament (RCL). During elbow flexion, its posterior branches (LUCL) tighten while the anterior branches loosen. When performing a pivot shift test, the loosened LUCL fibers do not fully tighten in full extension. The LUCL inserts along with the AL at the supinator crest. Three different insertion types could be observed. The LUCL represents the posterior branch of the RCL rather than a distinct ligament. It is non-isometric and lengthens during elbow flexion. The RCL was found to be of vital importance for neutralization of posterolateral rotatory forces. Pronation of the forearm actively stabilizes the elbow joint as the supinator, anconeus and biceps muscle work in unison to increase posterolateral rotatory stability.

  20. Physiologic capacity of well-developed collaterals in patients with isolated left anterior descending artery disease

    Sakata, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ono, Norihisa; Ohtani, Seiji; Mori, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shoichi; Hoshino, Tsuneo; Kaburagi, Tsuneo; Kurata, Chinori.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the physiologic significance of well-developed collaterals, 34 patients, with isolated left anterior descending artery disease (LAD) and without overt prior myocardial infarction, underwent cardiac catheterization and exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 11 patients with 90% stenosis of the proximal LAD and without collaterals (group 1), 11 with 99% stenosis of the proximal LAD, and without collaterals (group 2) and 12 with a total occlusion of the proximal LAD which was completely filled by well-developed collaterals (group 3). On left ventriculography, shortening fractions of the anterior wall were significantly reduced in group 2 as compared to groups 1 and 3 (group 1 vs group 2: p<0.01, group 2 vs group 3: p<0.05), which reflected the lower ejection fraction of group 2 (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). The perfusion defects of the anterior wall on both the initial and the delayed images were severer in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1 (group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3 on the initial image: p<0.01, for both, group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3 on the delayed image: p<0.05, for both). However, recovery of the perfusion defects from the initial image to the delayed image was better in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3: p<0.05, for both). Therefore, coronary blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be comparable to the flow through a diseased vessel with 90% stenosis at rest. During maximal exercise, blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be comparable to the flow through a diseased vessel with 99% stenosis, although the blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be better than that through 99% stenosis during the recovery period. These findings suggest that patients with well-developed collaterals must be treated like those with severe stenosis. (author)

  1. Independent predictors of retrograde failure in CTO-PCI after successful collateral channel crossing.

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Muto, Makoto; Yamane, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Okamura, Atsunori; Igarashi, Yasumi; Fujita, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Oida, Akitsugu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing is important for the retrograde approach in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 5984 CTO-PCI procedures performed in 45 centers in Japan from 2009 to 2012 were studied. The retrograde approach was used in 1656 CTO-PCIs (27.7%). We investigated these retrograde procedures to evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure even after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral crossing was achieved in 77.1% (n = 1,276) of 1656 retrograde CTO-PCI procedures. Retrograde procedural success after successful collateral crossing was achieved in 89.4% (n = 1,141). Univariate analysis showed that the predictors for retrograde CTO-PCI failure were in-stent occlusion (OR = 1.9829, 95%CI = 1.1783 - 3.3370 P = 0.0088), calcified lesions (OR = 1.9233, 95%CI = 1.2463 - 2.9679, P = 0.0027), and lesion tortuosity (OR = 1.5244, 95%CI = 1.0618 - 2.1883, P = 0.0216). On multivariate analysis, lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing (OR = 1.3472, 95%CI = 1.0614 - 1.7169, P = 0.0141). The success rate of retrograde CTO-PCI following successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing was high in this registry. Lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Devices and techniques to overcome complex CTO lesion morphology, such as lesion calcification, are required to further improve the retrograde CTO-PCI success rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pathology of Human Coronary and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis and Vascular Calcification in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Kolodgie, Frank D; Lutter, Christoph; Mori, Hiroyoshi; Romero, Maria E; Finn, Aloke V; Virmani, Renu

    2017-02-01

    The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus. Moreover, there is a higher incidence of healed plaque ruptures and positive remodeling in hearts from subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus, suggesting a more active atherogenic process. Lesion calcification in the coronary, carotid, and other arterial beds is also more extensive. Although the role of coronary artery calcification in identifying cardiovascular disease and predicting its outcome is undeniable, our understanding of how key hormonal and physiological alterations associated with diabetes mellitus such as insulin resistance and hyperglycemia influence the process of vascular calcification continues to grow. Important drivers of atherosclerotic calcification in diabetes mellitus include oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, alterations in mineral metabolism, increased inflammatory cytokine production, and release of osteoprogenitor cells from the marrow into the circulation. Our review will focus on the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus- and type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated vascular disease with particular focus on coronary and carotid atherosclerotic calcification. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Investigation of CGRP receptors and peptide pharmacology in human coronary arteries. Characterization with a nonpeptide antagonist

    Hasbak, Philip; Saetrum Opgaard, Ole; Eskesen, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (AM), and amylin are structurally related peptides mediating vasorelaxation in the coronary circulation possibly via CGRP receptors (subtypes 1 or 2). Functional CGRP1 receptors appear to consist of at least three different kinds of proteins:...

  4. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  5. The Influence of findings of coronary artery on myocardial salvage in acute myocardial infarction

    Itano, Midoriko; Naruse, Hitoshi; Morita, Masato; Kawamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    201 Tl stress myocardial scintigraphy was performed in convalescent patients with acute myocardial infarction, to evaluate the influence of stenosis and collateral circulation of coronary artery in acute phase, on myocardial salvage in chronic phase. In 14 cases of unsuccessful coronary revascularization (complete occlusion), a complete defect of thallium imaging in chronic phase was seen in only one case of four cases with good collateral circulation, while eight of 10 cases with poor collateral circulation. In 16 cases with collateral circulation, six cases showed a complete defect, although the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. However, in cases of good collateral circulation, no case showed a complete defect when the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. The myocardial salvage is quite possible (p<0.05), when the coronary angiography in acute phase showed the forward flow (99% or 90% of stenosis) before coronary revascularization and/or good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2deg or 3deg). (author)

  6. Axonal collateral-collateral transport of tract tracers in brain neurons: false anterograde labelling and useful tool.

    Chen, S; Aston-Jones, G

    1998-02-01

    It is well established that some neuroanatomical tracers may be taken up by local axonal terminals and transported to distant axonal collaterals (e.g., transganglionic transport in dorsal root ganglion cells). However, such collateral-collateral transport of tracers has not been systematically examined in the central nervous system. We addressed this issue with four neuronal tracers--biocytin, biotinylated dextran amine, cholera toxin B subunit, and Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin--in the cerebellar cortex. Labelling of distant axonal collaterals in the cerebellar cortex (indication of collateral-collateral transport) was seen after focal iontophoretic microinjections of each of the four tracers. However, collateral-collateral transport properties differed among these tracers. Injection of biocytin or Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin in the cerebellar cortex yielded distant collateral labelling only in parallel fibres. In contrast, injection of biotinylated dextran amine or cholera toxin B subunit produced distant collateral labelling of climbing fibres and mossy fibres, as well as parallel fibres. The present study is the first systematic examination of collateral-collateral transport following injection of anterograde tracers in brain. Such collateral-collateral transport may produce false-positive conclusions regarding neural connections when using these tracers for anterograde transport. However, this property may also be used as a tool to determine areas that are innervated by common distant afferents. In addition, these results may indicate a novel mode of chemical communication in the nervous system.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of human liver identifies sex-biased genes associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease.

    Yijing Zhang

    Full Text Available Sex-differences in human liver gene expression were characterized on a genome-wide scale using a large liver sample collection, allowing for detection of small expression differences with high statistical power. 1,249 sex-biased genes were identified, 70% showing higher expression in females. Chromosomal bias was apparent, with female-biased genes enriched on chrX and male-biased genes enriched on chrY and chr19, where 11 male-biased zinc-finger KRAB-repressor domain genes are distributed in six clusters. Top biological functions and diseases significantly enriched in sex-biased genes include transcription, chromatin organization and modification, sexual reproduction, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Notably, sex-biased genes are enriched at loci associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease in genome-wide association studies. Moreover, of the 8 sex-biased genes at these loci, 4 have been directly linked to monogenic disorders of lipid metabolism and show an expression profile in females (elevated expression of ABCA1, APOA5 and LDLR; reduced expression of LIPC that is consistent with the lower female risk of coronary artery disease. Female-biased expression was also observed for CYP7A1, which is activated by drugs used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Several sex-biased drug-metabolizing enzyme genes were identified, including members of the CYP, UGT, GPX and ALDH families. Half of 879 mouse orthologs, including many genes of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, show growth hormone-regulated sex-biased expression in mouse liver, suggesting growth hormone might play a similar regulatory role in human liver. Finally, the evolutionary rate of protein coding regions for human-mouse orthologs, revealed by dN/dS ratio, is significantly higher for genes showing the same sex-bias in both species than for non-sex-biased genes. These findings establish that human hepatic sex differences are widespread and affect diverse cell

  8. Collateral pathways in lumbar epidural venography

    Thijssen, H.O.M.; Ike, B.W.; Chevrot, A.; Bijlsma, R.

    1982-01-01

    Opacification of collateral pathways other than the central channels is very rare in lumbar epidural venography. Two cases of opacification of the inferior mesenteric vein following extravasation of contrast medium at the tip of the lateral sacral vein catheter are reported. One case is presented in which filling of normal parametrial venous plexuses and the left ovarian vein occurred as a consequence of incompetent or absent valves in the internal iliac vein. The literature containing comparable collateral flow patterns in disease is reviewed. The significance of the phlebographic features in our cases is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion.

  10. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion

  11. Comprehensive metabolomics identified lipid peroxidation as a prominent feature in human plasma of patients with coronary heart diseases

    Jianhong Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a complex human disease associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers for the different types of CHD remain poorly defined. Metabolomics has been increasingly recognized as an enabling technique with the potential to identify key metabolomic features in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology and differentiate different stages of CHD. We performed comprehensive metabolomic analysis in human plasma from 28 human subjects with stable angina (SA, myocardial infarction (MI, and healthy control (HC. Subsequent analysis demonstrated a uniquely altered metabolic profile in these CHD: a total of 18, 37 and 36 differential metabolites were identified to distinguish SA from HC, MI from SA, and MI from HC groups respectively. Among these metabolites, glycerophospholipid (GPL metabolism emerged as the most significantly disturbed pathway. Next, we used a targeted metabolomic approach to systematically analyze GPL, oxidized phospholipid (oxPL, and downstream metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. Surprisingly, lipids associated with lipid peroxidation (LPO pathways including oxidized PL and isoprostanes, isomers of prostaglandins, were significantly elevated in plasma of MI patients comparing to HC and SA, consistent with the notion that oxidative stress-induced LPO is a prominent feature in CHD. Our studies using the state-of-the-art metabolomics help to understand the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CHD; LPO metabolites may serve as potential biomarkers to differentiation MI from SA and HC. Keywords: Metabolomics, Lipid peroxidation, Lipidomics, Myocardial infarction, Isoprostanes, Coronary heart disease (CHD

  12. Effects of abciximab on key pattern of human coronary restenosis in vitro: impact of the SI/MPL-ratio

    Baur Regine

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The significant reduction of angiographic restenosis rates in the ISAR-SWEET study (intracoronary stenting and antithrombotic regimen: is abciximab a superior way to eliminate elevated thrombotic risk in diabetes raises the question of whether abciximab acts on clopidogrel-independent mechanisms in suppressing neointimal hyperplasia. The current study investigates the direct effect of abciximab on ICAM-1 expression, migration and proliferation. Methods ICAM-1: Part I of the study investigates in cytoflow studies the effect of abciximab (0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 μg/ml on TNF-α induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1. Migration: Part II of the study explored the effect of abciximab (0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 μg/ml on migration of HCMSMC over a period of 24 h. Proliferation: Part III of the study investigated the effect of abciximab (0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 μg/ml on proliferation of HUVEC, HCAEC, and HCMSMC after an incubation period of 5 days. Results ICAM-1: In human venous endothelial cells (HUVEC, human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC and human coronary medial smooth muscle cells (HCMSMC no inhibitory or stimulatory effect on expression of ICAM-1 was detected. Migration: After incubation of HCMSMC with abciximab in concentrations of 0.0002 – 2 μg/ml a stimulatory effect on cell migration was detected, statistical significance was achieved after incubation with 0.002 μg/ml (p 1. Conclusion Thus, the anti-restenotic effects of systemically administered abciximab reported in the ISAR-SWEET-study were not caused by a direct inhibitory effect on ICAM-1 expression, migration or proliferation.

  13. Collateral and its Substitutes in Emerging Markets' Lending

    Lukas Menkhoff; Doris Neuberger; Ornsiri Rungruxsirivorn

    2011-01-01

    Due to opaque information and weak enforcement in emerging loan markets, the need for collateral is high, whereas borrowers lack adequate assets to pledge as collateral. How is this puzzle solved? We find for a representative sample from Northeast Thailand that indeed most loans do not include any tangible assets as collateral. Instead, lenders enforce collateral-free loans through third-party guarantees and relationship lending, but also through modifying loan terms, such as reducing loan si...

  14. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

    Wang Linjie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous were obtained from CAD (n = 37 and NCAD (n = 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P P P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level.

  15. The collateral venous system in late pregnancy: A systematic review of the literature.

    Humphries, Aimee; Stone, Peter; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2017-11-01

    Recent literature has reported an association between maternal supine sleep position and stillbirth during late pregnancy. In this position the gravid uterus almost completely obstructs the inferior vena cava. A small number of women experience supine hypotension, thought to be due in part to inadequate collateral venous circulation. The aim of this paper is to review the literature describing the anatomy of the collateral venous system and in particular the azygos system, the abdominal portion of which has not been well studied. A systematic review was conducted using the electronic databases: Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Relevant anatomical and radiological literature concerning the azygos system in particular was reviewed. The search was limited to adult human studies only. The collateral venous system can be divided into superficial, intermediate and deep systems. The azygos system in particular provides immediate collateral venous circulation in the event of acute inferior vena caval obstruction. The abdominal portion of this pathway, including the ascending lumbar vein, has not been well studied and there are certain variations that can render it ineffective. In conclusion, the collateral venous system provides an alternative route for blood to flow back to the systemic circulation when acute occlusion of the inferior vena cava occurs in the supine position during late pregnancy. However, certain anatomical variations can render this pathway ineffective, and this could have implications for the development of supine hypotension and stillbirth in late pregnancy. Clin. Anat. 30:1087-1095, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Reexamining the Empirical Relation between Loan Risk and Collateral : The Role of the Economic Characteristics of Collateral

    Berger, A.N.; Frame, W.S.; Ioannidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting results in the literature concerning the empirical relation between collateral and loan risk. We posit that certain economic characteristics of collateral may be associated with the empirical dominance of different

  17. 7 CFR 3.15 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 3.15 Section 3.15... and Compromise of Claims § 3.15 Liquidation of collateral. (a) In accordance with applicable statutes and regulations, agencies may liquidate security or collateral through a sale or a nonjudicial...

  18. 12 CFR 747.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... INVESTIGATIONS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 747.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any court concerning all or any part of an...

  19. 32 CFR 536.51 - Collateral source rule.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Collateral source rule. 536.51 Section 536.51... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.51 Collateral source rule. Where permitted by applicable state or maritime law, damages recovered from collateral sources are payable under...

  20. 12 CFR 308.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any...

  1. 27 CFR 17.114 - Release of collateral.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of collateral. 17... PRODUCTS Bonds and Consents of Sureties Termination of Bonds § 17.114 Release of collateral. The release of collateral security pledged and deposited to satisfy the bond requirement of this part is governed by the...

  2. 46 CFR 308.509 - Collateral deposit fund.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund. 308.509 Section 308.509... Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.509 Collateral deposit fund. (a) Requirements. An assured electing to use a cash collateral deposit fund pursuant to § 308.507 shall comply with...

  3. 12 CFR 19.17 - Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding... OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.17 Collateral attacks on adjudicatory proceeding. If an interlocutory appeal or collateral attack is brought in any court concerning all...

  4. 41 CFR 105-55.014 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-07-01

    ... collateral. 105-55.014 Section 105-55.014 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Administration 55-COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES § 105-55.014 Liquidation of collateral. (a) The General Services Administration (GSA) will liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a...

  5. 48 CFR 48.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing collateral savings... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The Government shares collateral savings with the contractor, unless the head of the contracting activity has...

  6. 24 CFR 1005.107 - What is eligible collateral?

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is eligible collateral? 1005... URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOAN GUARANTEES FOR INDIAN HOUSING § 1005.107 What is eligible collateral? (a) In general. A loan guaranteed under section 184 may be secured by any collateral authorized under and not...

  7. 10 CFR 1015.210 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 1015.210 Section 1015.210... for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.210 Liquidation of collateral. (a) DOE may liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a...

  8. 26 CFR 403.29 - Deposit of collateral.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deposit of collateral. 403.29 Section 403.29... ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Seizures and Forfeitures § 403.29 Deposit of collateral... principal by the United States, may be pledged and deposited by claimants as collateral security in lieu of...

  9. 27 CFR 72.25 - Deposit of collateral.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deposit of collateral. 72... Seizures and Forfeitures § 72.25 Deposit of collateral. (a) Bonds or notes of the United States, or other... be pledged and deposited by claimants as collateral security in lieu of corporate sureties in...

  10. 48 CFR 2448.104-3 - Sharing collateral savings.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Sharing collateral savings... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING 2448.104-3 Sharing collateral savings. (a) The authority of the HCA to determine that the cost of calculating and tracking collateral savings will exceed the...

  11. 40 CFR 13.16 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS Collection § 13.16 Liquidation of collateral. Where the Administrator holds a security instrument with a power of sale or has physical possession of collateral, he may liquidate the security or... businesses, including liquidation of security or collateral, is not a prerequisite to requiring payment by a...

  12. 22 CFR 213.17 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-04-01

    ... Liquidation of collateral. Where the CFO holds a security instrument with a power of sale or has physical possession of collateral, he may liquidate the security or collateral and apply the proceeds to the overdue... circumstances require judicial foreclosure. However, collection from other businesses, including liquidation of...

  13. 28 CFR 104.47 - Collateral sources.

    2010-07-01

    ... determining the appropriate collateral source offset for future benefit payments, the Special Master may employ an appropriate methodology for determining the present value of such future benefits. In... compensation, including life insurance, pension funds, death benefits programs, and payments by Federal, State...

  14. Collateral Learning and Mathematical Education of Teachers

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of collateral learning in the context of classic ideas about the summation of powers of the first "n" counting numbers. Proceeding from the well-known legend about young Gauss, this article demonstrates the value of reflection under the guidance of "the more knowledgeable other" as a pedagogical method of making…

  15. Trade credit, collateral liquidation and borrowing constraints

    Fabbri, D.; Menichini, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a model of collateralized bank and trade credit. Firms use a two-input technology. Assuming that the supplier is better able to extract value from existing assets and has an information advantage over other creditors, the paper derives a series of predictions. (1) Financially

  16. 31 CFR 202.6 - Collateral security.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral security. 202.6 Section 202.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DEPOSITARIES AND FINANCIAL AGENTS OF THE FEDERAL...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4240 - Collateral definitions.

    2010-01-01

    ... following definitions shall apply: (a) Abundance of caution, when used to describe decisions to require... income and/or other collateral, absent the real estate, and the decision to extend credit was, in fact... normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales...

  18. The cristal (right superior septal) coronary artery and its relationship to anomalous left coronary origin

    Partridge, J.B.; Ridley, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The cristal artery is an occasional finding, being visible in around 3% of coronary angiograms, arising from the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and passing downwards and forwards through the muscle of the crista superventricularis. It supplies a variable volume of the superior interventricular septum, and can contribute to collateralization of the other septal vessels. When part or all of the left coronary artery (LCA) arises anomalously from the right coronary sinus, its passage to the left may be in the same pathway as a cristal artery, bearing a tell-tale septal vessel arising from its proximal segment. This helps to differentiate it from one that has a higher pathway, running between the great vessels, and which may have a greater correlation with sudden cardiac death.

  19. Transfection of the Human Heme Oxygenase Gene Into Rabbit Coronary Microvessel Endothelial Cells: Protective Effect Against Heme and Hemoglobin Toxicity

    Abraham, N. G.; Lavrovsky, Y.; Schwartzman, M. L.; Stoltz, R. A.; Levere, R. D.; Gerritsen, M. E.

    1995-07-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress protein and has been suggested to participate in defense mechanisms against agents that may induce oxidative injury such as metals, endotoxin, heme/hemoglobin, and various cytokines. Overexpression of HO in cells might therefore protect against oxidative stress produced by certain of these agents, specifically heme and hemoglobin, by catalyzing their degradation to bilirubin, which itself has antioxidant properties. We report here the successful in vitro transfection of rabbit coronary microvessel endothelial cells with a functioning gene encoding the human HO enzyme. A plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus promoter and the human HO cDNA complexed to cationic liposomes (Lipofectin) was used to transfect rabbit endothelial cells. Cells transfected with human HO exhibited an ≈3.0-fold increase in enzyme activity and expressed a severalfold induction of human HO mRNA as compared with endogenous rabbit HO mRNA. Transfected and nontransfected cells expressed factor VIII antigen and exhibited similar acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake (two important features that characterize endothelial cells) with >85% of cells staining positive for each marker. Moreover, cells transfected with the human HO gene acquired substantial resistance to toxicity produced by exposure to recombinant hemoglobin and heme as compared with nontransfected cells. The protective effect of HO overexpression against heme/hemoglobin toxicity in endothelial cells shown in these studies provides direct evidence that the inductive response of human HO to such injurious stimuli represents an important tissue adaptive mechanism for moderating the severity of cell damage produced by these blood components.

  20. Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells

    Ning Xia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. is one of the world’s oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC. Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1–100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h. Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials.

  1. Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Xia, Ning; Pautz, Andrea; Wollscheid, Ursula; Reifenberg, Gisela; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2014-03-24

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials.

  2. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  3. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  4. Myocardial imaging by direct injection of thallium-201 into coronary artery

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Inagaki, Suetsugu; Kubota, Yasushi

    1988-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion images were evaluated by direct injection of Thallium (Tl)-201 into coronary artery. Approximately 0.5 - 1 mCi of Tl-201 were instilled into the right coronary artery and/or the left coronary artery after coronary arteriography. Three images were obtained in the anterior, left anterior oblique and left lateral projections. Myocardial perfusion images of single photon emission computed tomography were also acquired in some patients. An image of supreme quality could be obtained in spite of small dose of Tl-201 since there was a lack of interference from background activity. Myocardial perfusion images corresponded to areas which were supplied by left or right coronary artery respectively. And the regional myocardial blood flow distribution of a coronary artery bypass graft could be revealed by instilling Tl-201 into the graft. Further, contribution of collateral channels to myocardial perfusion was showed. Not only left ventricle but also right ventricle was clearly visualized by injection of Tl-201 into right coronary artery. But in a case with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, there was an area of decreased tracer uptake in the apex of the right ventricle which was identified as the site of dysplasia by electrophysiologic study. We conclude that direct injection of Tl-201 into coronary artery is an useful method to clarify the correlation between coronary anatomical findings and coronary perfusion and contribution of collaterals to myocardial perfusion, and also to detect the right ventricular myopathic site. (author)

  5. Collateral flow after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Smith, A.S.; Wiznitzer, M.; Haacke, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    MR angiography was used to evaluate collateral flow after extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with permanent ligation of the right common carotid artery (RCCA). One year after ECMO, MR angiography of the cerebral circulation was performed in 11 survivors and MR angiography of the neck in seven. The diameters of the left common carotid (LCCA) and vertebral (Vert) arteries in the neck and of the basilar (Bas) and internal carotid arteries in the head were measured. Ratios of the artery diameters were compared with those of seven children (aged 6 months - 17 years) who had normal MR angiographic and brain MR imaging studies. Compared with carotid artery diameter, the ECMO population had proportionately larger vertebral (RVert/LCCA, -0.82 ± 0.12 vs 0.56 ± 0.20 [<.02], LVert/LCCA, -0.86 ± 0.15 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 [P < .02] and basilar artery diameters (LICA/Bas, -0.91 ± 0.15 vs 1.49 ± 0.48 [p < .003]) than did control subjects. Ratios in five children with enlarged RPComA after ECMO were not significantly different from those in controls. The RICA was present and smaller than the LICA in the ECMO population, but not in control subjects (RICA/LICA, -0.75 ± 0.06 vs 0.91 ± 0.23 [p < .05]). Increased vertebral and basilar artery flow is a response to RCCA ligation in the neonate and is independent of RPComA collateral flow. This suggests the presence of more extensive parenchymal collaterals from posterior cerebral arteries, from the vertebrobasilar circulation to the external carotid artery or other collaterals. Consequently, later abnormalities of vertebrobasilar flow might adversely affect right hemispheric function in this children

  6. Role of Myoendothelial Gap Junctions in the Regulation of Human Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation by Laminar Shear Stress

    Zongqi Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Smooth muscle cells may dedifferentiate into the synthetic phenotype and promote atherosclerosis. Here, we explored the role of myoendothelial gap junctions in phenotypic switching of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs co-cultured with human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs exposed to shear stress. Methods: HCASMCs and HCAECs were seeded on opposite sides of Transwell inserts, and HCAECs were exposed to laminar shear stress of 12 dyn/cm2 or 5 dyn/cm2. The myoendothelial gap junctions were evaluated by using a multi-photon microscope. Results: In co-culture with HCAECs, HCASMCs exhibited a contractile phenotype, and maintained the expression of differentiation markers MHC and H1-calponin. HCASMCs and HCAECs formed functional intercellular junctions, as evidenced by colocalization of connexin(Cx40 and Cx43 on cellular projections inside the Transwell membrane and biocytin transfer from HCAECs to HCASMCs. Cx40 siRNA and 18-α-GA attenuated protein expression of MHC and H1-calponin in HCASMCs. Shear stress of 5 dyn/cm2 increased Cx43 and decreased Cx40 expression in HCAECs, and partly inhibited biocytin transfer from HCAECs to HCASMCs, which could be completely blocked by Cx43 siRNA or restored by Cx40 DNA transfected into HCAECs. The exposure of HCAECs to shear stress of 5 dyn/cm2 promoted HCASMC phenotypic switching, manifested by morphological changes, decrease in MHC and H1-calponin expression, and increase in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB release, which was partly rescued by Cx43 siRNA or Cx40 DNA or PDGF receptor signaling inhibitor. Conclusions: The exposure of HCAECs to shear stress of 5 dyn/cm2 caused the dysfunction of Cx40/Cx43 heterotypic myoendothelial gap junctions, which may be replaced by homotypic Cx43/Cx43 channels, and induced HCASMC transition to the synthetic phenotype associated with the activation of PDGF receptor signaling, which may contribute to shear stress

  7. Stunning and Right Ventricular Dysfunction Is Induced by Coronary Balloon Occlusion and Rapid Pacing in Humans: Insights From Right Ventricular Conductance Catheter Studies.

    Axell, Richard G; Giblett, Joel P; White, Paul A; Klein, Andrew; Hampton-Til, James; O'Sullivan, Michael; Braganza, Denise; Davies, William R; West, Nick E J; Densem, Cameron G; Hoole, Stephen P

    2017-06-06

    We sought to determine whether right ventricular stunning could be detected after supply (during coronary balloon occlusion [BO]) and supply/demand ischemia (induced by rapid pacing [RP] during transcatheter aortic valve replacement) in humans. Ten subjects with single-vessel right coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with normal ventricular function were studied in the BO group. Ten subjects undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement were studied in the RP group. In both, a conductance catheter was placed into the right ventricle, and pressure volume loops were recorded at baseline and for intervals over 15 minutes after a low-pressure BO for 1 minute or a cumulative duration of RP for up to 1 minute. Ischemia-induced diastolic dysfunction was seen 1 minute after RP (end-diastolic pressure [mm Hg]: 8.1±4.2 versus 12.1±4.1, P right coronary artery balloon occlusion both cause ischemic right ventricular dysfunction with stunning observed later during the procedure. This may have intraoperative implications in patients without right ventricular functional reserve. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Collateral Recruitment in Stroke Patients.

    Dankbaar, Jan W; Kerckhoffs, Kelly G P; Horsch, Alexander D; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2017-04-24

    Leptomeningeal collaterals improve outcome in stroke patients. There is great individual variability in their extent. Internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis may lead to more extensive recruitment of leptomeningeal collaterals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-existing ICA stenosis with leptomeningeal collateral filling visualized with computed tomography perfusion (CTP). From a prospective acute ischemic stroke cohort, patients were included with an M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and absent ipsilateral, extracranial ICA occlusion. ICA stenosis was determined on admission CT angiography (CTA). Leptomeningeal collaterals were graded as good (>50%) or poor (≤50%) collateral filling in the affected MCA territory on CTP-derived vessel images of the admission scan. The association between ipsilateral ICA stenosis ≥70% and extent of collateral filling was analyzed using logistic regression. In a multivariable analysis the odds ratio (OR) of ICA stenosis ≥70% was adjusted for complete circle of Willis, gender and age. We included 188 patients in our analyses, 50 (26.6%) patients were classified as having poor collateral filling and 138 (73.4%) as good. Of the patients 4 with poor collateral filling had an ICA stenosis ≥70% and 14 with good collateral filling. Unadjusted and adjusted ORs of ICA stenosis ≥70% for good collateral filling were 1.30 (0.41-4.15) and 2.67 (0.81-8.77), respectively. Patients with poor collateral filling had a significantly worse outcome (90-day modified Rankin scale 3-6; 80% versus 52%, p = 0.001). No association was found between pre-existing ICA stenosis and extent of CTP derived collateral filling in patients with an M1 occlusion.

  9. Collateral veins in inferior caval vein occlusion demonstrated via CT

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.

    1983-01-01

    CT-scans of 12 patients with tumour-induced occlusion of the inferior vena cava were studied with regard to collateral veins. A comparison was performed with findings at phlebography in 10 patients and at autopsy in 2. The site and appearance of the main collateral pathway are presented. A close study of vascular structures renders useful information on collateral circulation in occlusion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  10. Cardiopulmonary changes in humans with coronary artery disease associated with exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains a list of cardiac and vascular biomarkers that were obtained on each day a participant visited the EPA Human Studies Facility. It also contains...

  11. Assessment of coronary fractional flow reserve using a monorail pressure catheter: the first-in-human ACCESS-NZ trial.

    Menon, Madhav; Jaffe, Warwick; Watson, Tim; Webster, Mark

    2015-07-01

    FFR measurements have been limited by the handling characteristics of pressure wire (PW) systems, and by signal drift. This first-in-human study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a new monorail catheter (Navvus) to assess coronary FFR, compared to a PW system. Resting measurements were acquired with both systems. After initiating IV adenosine, FFR was measured with the PW alone, simultaneously using both systems, and again with PW alone. Any zero offset of PW or Navvus was then recorded. Navvus measured FFR in all patients in whom a PW recording was obtained (50 of 58 patients); there were no complications related to Navvus. Navvus FFR correlated well with PW FFR (r=0.87, slope 1.0, intercept -0.02). Within PW measurement accuracy, in no cases did Navvus FFR classify lesion significance differently from PW FFR. PW signal drift was significantly greater than Navvus (0.06±0.12 vs. 0.02±0.02, p=0.014). Navvus and PW FFR correlated well. Navvus had less sensor drift. This new catheter-based system offers an alternative method for measuring FFR, with some potential advantages over PW.

  12. CT imaging of collaterals in stenoses of large mediastinal veins

    Goerich, J.; Flentje, M.; Gueckel, F.; Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Kaick, G. van; Heidelberg Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Scans of angio-computed tomography (CT) of 53 patients suffering from mediastinal space-occupying growths were reviewed: 16 patients showed stenosis of mediastinal veins with demonstration of subcutaneous venous channels, 17 showed an obstruction without collateral pathways and 20 patients had normal mediastinal vessels. Two thirds of the cases with external vein compression were caused by bronchogenic carcinoma. The degree of obstruction in patients showing collateral circulation was between 70 and 100 percent and significantly greater than in patients without collaterals (40%). The most important collaterals bypassing the upper mediastinal veins are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Documenting and automating collateral evolutions in Linux device drivers

    Padioleau, Yoann; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia

    2008-01-01

    . Manually performing such collateral evolutions is time-consuming and unreliable, and has lead to errors when modifications have not been done consistently. In this paper, we present an automatic program transformation tool, Coccinelle, for documenting and automating device driver collateral evolutions...... programmer. We have evaluated our approach on 62 representative collateral evolutions that were previously performed manually in Linux 2.5 and 2.6. On a test suite of over 5800 relevant driver files, the semantic patches for these collateral evolutions update over 93% of the files completely...

  14. microRNA expression profile in human coronary smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles is a source of biomarkers.

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta

    2016-01-01

    microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of extracellular vesicles is a potential tool for clinical practice. Despite the key role of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in cardiovascular pathology, there is limited information about the presence of miRNAs in microparticles secreted by this cell type, including human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Here, we tested whether HCASMC-derived microparticles contain miRNAs and the value of these miRNAs as biomarkers. HCASMC and explants from atherosclerotic or non-atherosclerotic areas were obtained from coronary arteries of patients undergoing heart transplant. Plasma samples were collected from: normocholesterolemic controls (N=12) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients (N=12). Both groups were strictly matched for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors. Microparticle (0.1-1μm) isolation and characterization was performed using standard techniques. VSMC-enriched miRNAs expression (miR-21-5p, -143-3p, -145-5p, -221-3p and -222-3p) was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Total RNA isolated from HCASMC-derived microparticles contained small RNAs, including VSMC-enriched miRNAs. Exposition of HCASMC to pathophysiological conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia, induced a decrease in the expression level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p in microparticles, not in cells. Expression levels of miR-222-3p were lower in circulating microparticles from FH patients compared to normocholesterolemic controls. Microparticles derived from atherosclerotic plaque areas showed a decreased level of miR-143-3p and miR-222-3p compared to non-atherosclerotic areas. We demonstrated for the first time that microparticles secreted by HCASMC contain microRNAs. Hypercholesterolemia alters the microRNA profile of HCASMC-derived microparticles. The miRNA signature of HCASMC-derived microparticles is a source of cardiovascular biomarkers. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  15. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children: diagnostic use of multidetector computed tomography

    Shen, Quanli; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Xihong [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is important to demonstrate the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery and its course before surgery. To explore the clinical diagnostic use of multidetector CT coronary angiography in detecting anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children. Nine children (2 boys, 7 girls) ages 2 months to 9 years with surgically confirmed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery were studied. Clinical data, transthoracic echocardiography and CT coronary angiography images were retrospectively analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiography correctly diagnosed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in 7 of 9 patients (95% CI: 40-97%). CT coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in all children (95% CI: 66-100%). In a 4-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, CT coronary angiography showed dilation of the right coronary artery and collateral circulation between the right and the left coronary arteries. CT coronary angiography is a useful method to show the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, especially for patients in whom origin of the left coronary artery cannot be detected by transthoracic echocardiography. (orig.)

  16. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children: diagnostic use of multidetector computed tomography

    Shen, Quanli; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is important to demonstrate the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery and its course before surgery. To explore the clinical diagnostic use of multidetector CT coronary angiography in detecting anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children. Nine children (2 boys, 7 girls) ages 2 months to 9 years with surgically confirmed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery were studied. Clinical data, transthoracic echocardiography and CT coronary angiography images were retrospectively analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiography correctly diagnosed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in 7 of 9 patients (95% CI: 40-97%). CT coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in all children (95% CI: 66-100%). In a 4-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, CT coronary angiography showed dilation of the right coronary artery and collateral circulation between the right and the left coronary arteries. CT coronary angiography is a useful method to show the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, especially for patients in whom origin of the left coronary artery cannot be detected by transthoracic echocardiography. (orig.)

  17. Pattern of Venous Collateral Development after Splenic Vein Occlusion in an Extended Whipple Procedure (Whipple at the Splenic Artery) and Long-Term Results.

    Rosado, Ismael Dominguez; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Sanchez, Luis A; Fields, Ryan C; Hawkins, William G; Strasberg, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    Extended Whipple procedures may require division of the splenic vein (SV). Controversy exists regarding the risk of sequelae of sinistral portal hypertension when the SV is ligated without reimplantation. The aim of this study was to identify postoperative venous collateral patterns and sequelae of SV ligation, as well as long-term results in an extended Whipple procedure. Patients who had an extended Whipple procedure (Whipple at the Splenic Artery or WATSA) were entered in an institutional database. Evaluation of the venous collaterals was performed at least 5 months postoperatively by imaging. Spleen size and platelet counts were measured before and after operation. Fifteen patients were entered from 2009 to 2014. SV was not reconstructed and the IMV-SV junction was always resected. Two collateral routes developed. An inferior route was present 14/15 patients. It connected the residual SV to the SMV via intermediate collateral veins in the omentum and along the colon. A superior route, present in 10/15 patients connected the residual SV to the portal vein via gastric, perigastric, and coronary veins. Gastrointestinal bleeding did not occur. Mean platelet count and spleen size were not affected significantly. Procedures were long, but few severe complications developed. In 12 patients with adenocarcinoma, the median survival has not been reached. Patients who have SV ligation in an extended Whipple are protected against sequelae of sinestral portal hypertension by inferior collateral routes. The omentum and marginal veins of the colon are key links in this pathway.

  18. Reexamining the Empirical Relation between Loan Risk and Collateral : The Role of the Economic Characteristics of Collateral

    Berger, A.N.; Frame, W.S.; Ioannidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting results in the literature concerning the empirical relation between collateral and loan risk. We posit that certain economic characteristics of collateral may be associated with the empirical dominance of different risk-collateral channels implied by economic theory, namely the “lender selection,” “borrower selection,” “risk-shifting,” and “loss mitigation” channels. Each of these four channels has different predictions re...

  19. Reexamining the empirical relation between loan risk and collateral:the roles of collateral liquidity and types

    Berger, Allen N.; Frame, W. Scott; Ioannidou, Vasso

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting results in the literature concerning the empirical relation between collateral and loan risk. We posit that differences in collateral characteristics, such as liquidity, may be associated with the empirical dominance of different risk-collateral relations implied by economic theory. Using credit registry data and a novel identification strategy to control for borrower and lender selection effects allows us to differentiate between t...

  20. Determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow in stroke patients with a middle cerebral artery occlusion

    van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Velthuis, Birgitta K.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Poor leptomeningeal collateral flow is related to worse clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke, but the factors that determine leptomeningeal collateral patency are largely unknown. We explored the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow and assessed their effect on the

  1. Oxidation modifies the structure and function of the extracellular matrix generated by human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Chuang, Christine Y; Degendorfer, Georg; Hammer, Astrid; Whitelock, John M; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J

    2014-04-15

    ECM (extracellular matrix) materials, such as laminin, perlecan, type IV collagen and fibronectin, play a key role in determining the structure of the arterial wall and the properties of cells that interact with the ECM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxynitrous acid, an oxidant generated by activated macrophages, on the structure and function of the ECM laid down by HCAECs (human coronary artery endothelial cells) in vitro and in vivo. We show that exposure of HCAEC-derived native matrix components to peroxynitrous acid (but not decomposed oxidant) at concentrations >1 μM results in a loss of antibody recognition of perlecan, collagen IV, and cell-binding sites on laminin and fibronectin. Loss of recognition was accompanied by decreased HCAEC adhesion. Real-time PCR showed up-regulation of inflammation-associated genes, including MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase 7) and MMP13, as well as down-regulation of the laminin α2 chain, in HCAECs cultured on peroxynitrous acid-treated matrix compared with native matrix. Immunohistochemical studies provided evidence of co-localization of laminin with 3-nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of peroxynitrous acid damage, in type II-III/IV human atherosclerotic lesions, consistent with matrix damage occurring during disease development in vivo. The results of the present study suggest a mechanism through which peroxynitrous acid modifies endothelial cell-derived native ECM proteins of the arterial basement membrane in atherosclerotic lesions. These changes to ECM and particularly perlecan and laminin may be important in inducing cellular dysfunction and contribute to atherogenesis.

  2. Collateral flow predicts outcome after basilar artery occlusion : The posterior circulation collateral score

    van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; McVerry, Ferghal; Vos, Jan Albert; Algra, Ale; Puetz, Volker; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Schonewille, Wouter J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Our aim was to assess the prognostic value of a semiquantitative computed tomography angiography-based grading system, for the prediction of outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, based on the presence of potential collateral pathways on computed tomography

  3. Treatment with a human recombinant monoclonal IgG antibody against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis-prone pigs reduces cathepsin S in coronary lesions

    Poulsen, Christian Bo; Al-Mashhadi, Ahmed Ludvigsen; von Wachenfeldt, Karin

    2016-01-01

    and results Thirty-eight hypercholesterolemic minipigs with defective LDL receptors were injected with an oxLDL antibody or placebo weekly for 12 weeks. An 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan (n = 9) was performed before inclusion and after 3 months of treatment. Blood samples....... There was no effect of treatment on plasma lipid profile, vascular FDG-PET signal or the amount of atherosclerosis in any of the examined arteries. However, immunostaining of coronary lesions revealed reduced cathepsin S positivity in the treated group compared with placebo (4.8% versus 8.2% of intima area, p = 0.......03) with no difference in CD68 or CD163 positivity. Conclusions In hypercholesterolemic minipigs, treatment with a human recombinant monoclonal antibody against oxLDL reduced cathepsin S in coronary lesions without any effect on the burden of atherosclerosis or aortic FDG-PET signal....

  4. Transvenous closure of large aortopulmonary collateral

    Parag W Barwad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortopulmonary collaterals (APCs are occluded either preoperatively or at the time of cardiac surgery in patients with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PAVSD. If left untreated, APCs are an important cause of deterioration in the early postoperative period. We present here an unusual case with a large residual APC causing refractory low-output state in the early postoperative period. Usual arterial approach failed due to extensive angulation with ostial narrowing. The large residual APC was successfully closed with an Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO device delivered through the transvenous route.

  5. Mortgage Finance and Security of Collateral

    Haldrup, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Developing economies face a gigantic lack of financing for urbanization due to the absence of formal and transparent property markets. The paper discuss the interference between mortgage finance and collateral security by using the Danish mortgage financing model as an example, because of its 200...... years long history, and because the system is recommended as an option in emerging markets and as a possible model for remedying failures in mature housing finance markets. It is suggested that development policies in land administration need to be revised in order to support a widening of credit...

  6. Quantification of myocardial area at risk in the absence of collateral flow: the validation of angiographic scores by myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Rodríguez-Palomares, José F; Alonso, Albert; Martí, Gerard; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; González-Alujas, M T; Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Candell-Riera, Jaume; García del Blanco, Bruno; Evangelista, Artur; García-Dorado, David

    2013-02-01

    Our study aimed to compare the area at risk (AAR) determined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI) and modified Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease (APPROACH) angiographic scores in the setting of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty for either unstable angina or an STEMI. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging prior to reperfusion has classically been the most widely practised technique for assessing the AAR and has been successfully used to compare the efficacy of various reperfusion strategies in patients with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The BARI and modified APPROACH scores are angiographic methods widely used to provide a rapid estimation of the AAR; however, they have not been directly validated with myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Fifty-five patients with no previous myocardial infarction who underwent coronary angioplasty for single-vessel disease (unstable angina: n = 25 or an STEMI: n = 30) with no evidence of collaterals (Rentrop Collateral Score collateral flow, BARI and APPROACH scores constitute valid methods for AAR estimation in current clinical practice, with more accurate results when used for the LAD territory; both are useful not only in STEMI patients but also in patients with unstable angina.

  7. Myocardial bridges of the coronary arteries in the human fetal heart.

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgür; Cavdar, Safiye; Yalin, Aymelek; Yener, Nuran; Ozdogmus, Omer

    2010-09-01

    During the last century, many investigators reported on myocardial bridges in the adult human heart. In the present study, 39 human fetal hearts (the mean gestastional age was 30 weeks) were studied for myocardial bridging, and the results were correlated with adult data. Among the 39 (27 male and 12 female) fetal hearts studied, 26 bridges were observed on 18 fetal hearts (46.2%). Ten of the bridges had one myocardial bridge, whereas double myocardial bridges were observed in eight fetal hearts. The most frequent myocardial bridges were observed on the left anterior descending artery (LAD), which had 13 bridges (50%). Eight (30.7%) myocardial bridges were on the diagonal artery, and on the posterior descending artery there were five (19.3%). Myocardial bridges were not observed on the circumflex artery. The data presented in this study may provide potentially useful information for the preoperative evaluation of the newborn and may have a clinical implication for sudden fetal death.

  8. Collateral and debt maturity choice: A signaling model

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, 27735

    2005-01-01

    This paper derives optimal loan policies under asymmetric information where banks offer loan contracts of long and short duration, backed or unbacked with collateral. The main novelty of the paper is that it analyzes a setting in which high quality firms use collateral as a complementary device

  9. 12 CFR 614.4250 - Collateral evaluation standards.

    2010-01-01

    ..., personal, or intangible property is taken as security for a loan or is the subject of a lease, an evaluation of such property shall be performed in accordance with § 614.4260 and the institutions' policies and procedures. Such a collateral evaluation shall be identified as either a collateral valuation or a...

  10. Collateral Informant Assessment in Alcohol Use Research Involving College Students

    Hagman, Brett T.; Cohn, Amy M.; Noel, Nora E.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between college students' self-reported alcohol use and corresponding collateral reports and identified factors that influence agreement between both sets of reports. Participants/Methods: Subject-collateral pairs (N = 300) were recruited from undergraduate psychology courses. Results: Data yielded…

  11. 27 CFR 25.105 - Release of collateral security.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of collateral security. 25.105 Section 25.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Bonds Or Consents of Surety § 25.105 Release of collateral security. Bonds, notes, and other...

  12. 48 CFR 32.304-6 - Other collateral security.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other collateral security. 32.304-6 Section 32.304-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... collateral security. The following are examples of other forms of security that, although seldom invoked...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1907 - Return of property or collateral.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return of property or collateral. 1.1907 Section 1.1907 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Collection of Claims Owed the United States General Provisions § 1.1907 Return of property or collateral...

  14. 13 CFR 120.395 - What is SBA's collateral position?

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is SBA's collateral position? 120.395 Section 120.395 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Builders Loan Program § 120.395 What is SBA's collateral position? SBA will require...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615.5335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net...

  16. 75 FR 64710 - Public Roundtable on Individual Customer Collateral Protection

    2010-10-20

    ... related to individual customer collateral protection in the context of the CFTC's rulemaking efforts... customer collateral protection in the context of the Act, may do so via: paper submission to David Stawick... be in English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to the CFTC in...

  17. On the Possible Interaction Mechanism between Collateral Vessels and Restenosis

    Zun, P.S.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical studies and their meta-analysis suggest that developed collateral vessels in the heart correlate to an increased risk of in-stent restenosis. The possible physiological interaction between the collateral development and in-stent restenosis is investigated in this study. Based on

  18. Beta Blockers Suppress Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    Haas, Michael J; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Beta blockers are known to have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. To determine whether beta blockers can also prevent dextrose-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human coronary artery endothelial cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours in the presence of carvedilol (a lipophilic beta blockers with alpha blocking activity), propranolol (a lipophilic nonselective beta blockers), and atenolol (a water-soluble selective beta blockers), and ER stress, oxidative, stress and cell death were measured. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α (eIF2α), and phospho-eIF2α and measurement of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining method. The ER stress, SO production, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by all 3 beta blockers tested. The antioxidative and ER stress reducing effects of beta blockers were also observed in HepG2 cells. The salutary effects of beta blockers on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of these agents.

  19. Different transcriptional profiling between senescent and non-senescent human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) by Omeprazole and Lansoprazole treatment.

    Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Malavolta, Marco; Basso, Andrea; Piacenza, Francesco; Provinciali, Mauro; Maggio, Marcello G; Corsonello, Andrea; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that high dose and/or long term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in older patients, but mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects are not known. Taking into account that the senescent endothelial cells have been implicated in the genesis or promotion of age-related cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized an active role of PPIs in senescent cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in gene expression occurring in senescent and non-senescent human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) following Omeprazole (OPZ) or Lansoprazole (LPZ) treatment. Here, we show that atherogenic response is among the most regulated processes in PPI-treated HCAECs. PPIs induced down-regulation of anti-atherogenic chemokines (CXCL11, CXCL12 and CX3CL1) in senescent but not in non-senescent cells, while the same chemokines were up-regulated in untreated senescent cells. These findings support the hypothesis that up-regulated anti-atherogenic chemokines may represent a defensive mechanism against atherosclerosis during cellular senescence, and suggest that PPIs could activate pro-atherogenic pathways by changing the secretory phenotype of senescent HCAECs. Moreover, the genes coding for fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2) were modulated by PPIs treatment with respect to untreated cells. In conclusions, our results show that long-term and high dose use of PPI could change the secretory phenotype of senescent cells, suggesting one of the potential mechanisms by which use of PPI can increase adverse outcomes in older subjects.

  20. Reoxygenation of human coronary smooth muscle cells suppresses HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and augments radiation-induced growth delay and apoptosis

    Grumann, T.; Arab, A.; Bode, C.; Hehrlein, C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany); Guttenberger, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Catheter-based coronary brachytherapy with {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation is an evidence-based method to prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent implantation, but the outcome may be PTCA are hypoxic. A lack of oxygen decreases the effect of low LET (linear energy transfer) irradiation. The authors assumed that reoxygenation of hypoxic human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCSMCs) improves the results of coronary brachytherapy. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) gene, and the rates of growth and apoptosis of hypoxic and reoxygenated HCSMCs after {gamma}-iradiation were therefore analyzed. Material and Methods: An in vitro model of megacolonies of HCSMCs was developed. After exposure to chronic hypoxia the HCSMCs were irradiated with graded doses of 2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy using a {sup 60}Co source either under hypoxia (pO{sub 2}<3 mmHg) or after reoxygenation (pO{sub 2}{approx}150 mmHg). RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis was used to quantify HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and the growth of HCSMC megacolonies was measured serially. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculate from the specific growth delay. Apoptosis of HCSMCs was quantified by counting cells with specific DNA strand breaks using the TUNEL assy. Results: HIF-1{alpha} gene expression was markedly suppressed in reoxygenated cells versus hypoxic cells 30 min after {gamma}-irradiation at all radiation doses (158{+-}46% vs. 1,675{+-}1,211%; p<0.01). Apoptosis was markedly increased in reoxygenated HCSMCs. The OER was 1.8(95% CI[confidence interval]1.3-2.4). Therefore, reoxygenated HCSMCs require 44% less radiation dose to achieve the equivalent biological radiation effect compared to hypoxic HCSMCs. Conclusion: Reoxygenation of coronary smooth muscle cells should be considered an option to increase efficacy of coronary brachytherapy. This could be used to reduce radiation dose

  1. Structure and microstructure of coronary dentin in non-erupted human deciduous incisor teeth

    Costa Luciane R.R S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dentin structure of non-erupted human deciduous mandibular and maxillary central and lateral incisor teeth was studied employing light and scanning electron microscopy. For light microscopy, nitric-acid-demineralized and ground sections were used. The sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius and azo-carmim methods, and ground specimens were prepared using a carborundum disk mounted in a handpiece. For SEM study, teeth were frozen in liquid nitrogen and fractured at longitudinal and transversal directions. Structurally, demineralization and ground methods revealed tubules with primary and secondary curvatures, canaliculi, giant tubules, interglobular dentin, predentin, and intertubular dentin. Scanning electron microscopy showed three-dimensional aspects of dentinal tubules, canaliculi, peritubular dentin, intertubular dentin, and predentin. This study contributes to knowledge about dentin morphology showing characteristics of teeth not yet submitted to mastication stress.

  2. Dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression during thallium-201 imaging in patients with coronary artery disease: angiographic and hemodynamic determinants

    Chambers, C.E.; Brown, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    To examine the angiographic and hemodynamic determinants of dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression in patients with coronary artery disease, 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary disease who underwent dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were studied. Dipyridamole-induced ST depression occurred in 14 (34%) of the 41 patients. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare the predictive value of angiographic findings (good coronary collateral vessels, jeopardized collateral vessels, multivessel disease), hemodynamic changes (changes in heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and rate-pressure product), thallium-201 results (perfusion defect, thallium-201 redistribution) and demographic data (age, gender, medications). Only the presence of good coronary collateral vessels (p less than 0.02) and increases in rate-pressure product after dipyridamole infusion (p less than 0.02) were significant multivariate predictors of dipyridamole-induced ST depression. Good collateral vessels were more common in the group with ST depression (11 [79%] of 14) than they were in the group without ST depression (6 [22%] of 27; p less than 0.001). Rate-pressure product increased 2,835 +/- 1,648 beats/min.mm Hg in the group with ST depression compared with 1,179 +/- 1,417 beats/min.mm Hg in patients without ST depression (p less than 0.005). In conclusion, dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression in patients with coronary artery disease appears to be related to 1) the presence of good coronary collateral vessels, which may act by facilitating coronary steal, and 2) increases in rate-pressure product, reflecting increased myocardial oxygen demand. These observations may explain the lack of prognostic value of dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression described in previous reports

  3. Myocardial perfusion SPECT in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is not a routine investigation in an Indian setting due to under referrals and logistic problems. However, MPI is a frequently performed and established modality of investigation in adults for the identification of myocardial ischemia and viability. We report myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery. Adenosine stress MPI revealed a large infarct involving anterior segment with moderate reversible ischemia of the lateral left ventricular segment. Coronary angiogram later confirmed left main coronary artery ostial occlusion with retrograde collateral supply from dilated right coronary artery

  4. Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery with a large patent ductus arteriosus: aversion of a catastrophe.

    Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Delius, Ralph E; Pettersen, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    We present an infant who had an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) and a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), who was diagnosed before a potentially catastrophic closure of PDA. In the presence of normal left ventricular function and the absence of coronary artery collaterals, it is difficult to diagnose ALCAPA. A disproportionate degree of left ventricular dilation and severity of mitral valve regurgitation relative to the degree of PDA shunt, and echogenic papillary muscles on an echocardiogram should raise a suspicion of coronary artery anomalies. The infant underwent surgical ligation of PDA with translocation of coronary arteries and had an uneventful recovery. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Retrograde Wiring of Collateral Channels of the Heart in Chronic Total Occlusions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Safety, Feasibility, and Incremental Value in Achieving Revascularization.

    Khand, Aleem; Patel, Bilal; Palmer, Nicholas; Jones, Julia; Andron, Mohammed; Perry, Raph; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Mitsudo, Kazuaki

    2015-11-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on retrograde wiring in chronic total occlusions (CTOs) with focus on its safety and feasibility. We searched publications from 1990 to December 2013 in PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database inserting a number of terms relating to the collateral circulation of the heart in CTOs. A total of 18 case series (n range17-462) with a total of 2280 CTO revascularization attempts fulfilled criteria for a study of retrograde wiring of collateral channels in CTOs. There were no randomized studies comparing a primary antegrade with a primary retrograde approach. Procedural CTO revascularization rates ranged from 67% to 90.6% with a large proportion having previously failed an "antegrade" approach. The septal perforator collaterals and epicardial channels were used in 73.2% (n = 1670) and 21.7% (n = 495) of cases. Although collateral/coronary perforation was not infrequent (n = 90, 5%), serious acute complications were uncommon; in the combined population 18 cases of cardiac tamponade (0.8%) and 3 deaths (0.1%). Septal perforating wiring (79.3%) was significantly more likely to be successful compared to epicardial coronary artery wiring (72.5%) when chosen by the operator as a route of retrograde access to the CTO body (relative risk 1.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.20; P = .013]). Successful retrograde wiring of collateral channels in selected patients undertaken by "CTO dedicated" operators can significantly enhance the chances of revascularization of complex CTOs with a low risk of acute serious complications. Septal perforator channels are significantly more likely to be successfully retrogradely wired compared to epicardial vessels when either is selected, by reference to their anatomical suitability by the operator, as a route of access. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Predicting ischemic mitral regurgitation in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Does time to reperfusion really matter and what is the role of collateral circulation?

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Budrys, Povilas; Jurkevicius, Renaldas

    2016-01-15

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is an adverse prognostic factor. We aimed to assess the role of time delay from symptom onset to reperfusion, and the impact of collateral circulation to incidence of MR in relation to established echocardiographic and clinical risk factors. Patients with STEMI presenting within 12 h from symptom onset and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) at Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed after PPCI. Based on MR grade, patients were divided into no significant MR (NMR, grade 0-I MR, N = 102) and ischemic MR (IMR, grade ≥ 2 MR, N = 71) groups. Well-developed collaterals were defined as grade ≥ 2 by Rentrop classification. Continuous variables were compared by independent samples Student's T-test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of ischemic MR. Time to reperfusion, MI localization, TIMI flow before/after PCI was similar between the groups. IMR group patients were elder, more often females and non-smokers, had lower body mass index, higher prevalence of multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), better-developed collateral supply, greater left ventricular end-diastolic diameter index, left atrial index, pulmonary artery systolic pressure and lower ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ischemic MR is predicted by female gender, well-developed collateral supply, presence of multi-vessel CAD, and lower EF. In acute STEMI significant MR is unrelated to ischemic time and is predicted by female gender, lower EF, multi-vessel CAD and well-developed collateral supply to the infarct region.

  7. Angiographic signs of acute thrombosis of the coronary artery in patients with myocardial infarction

    Zingerman, L.S.; Belozerov, G.E.; Topchiyan, G.S.; Zvereva, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a retrospective analysis of coronoragrams of 57 patients with myocardial infarction in whom intracoronary throbolytic therapy in the first 24 h of the desease resulted in the recanalization of the occluded infarction-related coronary artery indicating the presence of an obturating thrombus in its lumen are presented. The authors described signs detected during prior coronarography (before radioendovascular recanalization) in patients with acute coronary occlision due to thrombosis of the coronary artery. The most characteristic ones were a ''severed branch'' symptom in the early arterial phase (86%), the stump of the occluded coronary artery in the form of an ''increased contrast bar'' in the late arterial phase (78.9%), the symptom of ''retention'' of a contrast substance in the stump of the coronary artery in the parenchymatous and venous phases of coronography (64%), low detectability of collateral inflows in the distal bed of the acutely occluded coronary artery

  8. Collaterals 2016: Translating the collaterome around the globe.

    Liebeskind, David S; Woolf, Graham W; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2017-06-01

    Collaterals 2016 (third International Symposium on Collaterals to the Brain) was a multidisciplinary scientific conference focused on collateral circulation in acute ischemic stroke. Decisive challenges include generalizability of optimal triage and selection paradigms based on collateral status for definitive treatment of acute ischemic stroke, rapid dissemination of expert methods, and the urgent need to leverage networking opportunities for stroke science related to the hemodynamics of collaterals. The collaterome, or individual capacity to offset ischemia in the brain, and determination of a favorable collateral profile have become pivotal factors in consideration of the precision medicine of stroke decision-making. The conference convened over 50 invited faculty from around the world to connect on-site participants at a state-of-the-art facility with remote audiences in more than 22 countries and regions. The 2½-day program was structured into 40-min sessions devoted to key issues in translating the collaterome in acute stroke therapy across the globe. This unique forum of expertise emphasized the timely impact of collaterals on a monumental scale, encouraging maximal participation, rapid diffusion and added value of a diverse networking resource. The meeting format established a model geographical framework and innovative videoconferencing platform for future scientific conferences.

  9. Zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its significance.

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakajima, Satoko; Fuke, Sayuri; Sakurada, Naomi; Minami, Akira; Oku, Naoto

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the evidence that approximately 45% of Schaffer collateral boutons are zinc-positive, zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its action were examined in hippocampal slices. When zinc release from Schaffer collaterals was examined using ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, ZnAF-2 signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 was increased by tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s, suggesting that zinc is released from Schaffer collaterals in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. An in vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that the perfusion with 10 microM zinc significantly decreases extracellular glutamate concentration in the CA1. When tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 5s were delivered to the dentate granule cells, the increase in calcium signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, as well as in the stratum lucidum of the CA3, was attenuated by addition of 10 microM zinc, while enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The increase in calcium signal in the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist, during delivery of tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway was also significantly enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppressively modulates presynaptic and postsynaptic calcium signaling in the CA1, followed by the suppression of glutamate release.

  10. Transarterial chemoembolization through collateral vessels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Kim, Ji Hye; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    We performed 70 procedures of transarterial chemoembolization (TAE) through extrahepatic collateral vessels (n=27) or parasitic feeders (n=18) in 45 hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The collaterals developed after interruption of the hepatic artery due to repeated TAE (n=17), surgical ligation (n=7)and primary celiac occlusion (n=3). Radiologic findings suggest the existence of parasitic or collateral supply for hepatocellular carcinoma were 1) a focal defect of Lipiodol retention on CT or plain film after TAE via the hepatic artery, 2) dilated and tortuous vessels around the mass on angiography, 3) persistent elevation of the level of serum alpha-fetoprotein or continuous clinical symptoms in spite of sufficient devascularization of the tumor via the hepatic artery, and 4) radiological findings of direct invasion into adjacent organ. The sites of the catheter placement were the inferior phrenic artery(n=19), omental branches(n=16), periportal collaterals (n=6), pancreaticodenal arcade (n=3), gastroduodenal artery(n=3), internal mammary artery (n=2), intercosal artery (n=2), lateral thoracic artery (n=1), bronchial artery (n=1), and colic branches (n=1). Masses feeded by the inferior phrenic and chest wall collaterals were usually located at the dome area of the liver, and the omental and gastroduodenal collaterals developed in the masses located at the inferior tip of the liver. After TAE via collateral vessels, 37 patients underwent follow-up study. In 18 cases(48%), the tumor favorably responded to TAE. Specific complications of collateral TAE were epigastric soreness (n=10), severe shoulder pain (n=4), and embolization of the spinal artery during embolization through the intercostal artery (n=1). In conclusion, various extrahepatic collateals are important alternative or addition routes for effective chemoembolization in patients with advanced hepatoma, and early recognition of the parasitic supply and the effort to perform TAE via collaterals is very

  11. Transarterial chemoembolization through collateral vessels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Kim, Ji Hye; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    We performed 70 procedures of transarterial chemoembolization (TAE) through extrahepatic collateral vessels (n=27) or parasitic feeders (n=18) in 45 hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The collaterals developed after interruption of the hepatic artery due to repeated TAE (n=17), surgical ligation (n=7)and primary celiac occlusion (n=3). Radiologic findings suggest the existence of parasitic or collateral supply for hepatocellular carcinoma were 1) a focal defect of Lipiodol retention on CT or plain film after TAE via the hepatic artery, 2) dilated and tortuous vessels around the mass on angiography, 3) persistent elevation of the level of serum alpha-fetoprotein or continuous clinical symptoms in spite of sufficient devascularization of the tumor via the hepatic artery, and 4) radiological findings of direct invasion into adjacent organ. The sites of the catheter placement were the inferior phrenic artery(n=19), omental branches(n=16), periportal collaterals (n=6), pancreaticodenal arcade (n=3), gastroduodenal artery(n=3), internal mammary artery (n=2), intercosal artery (n=2), lateral thoracic artery (n=1), bronchial artery (n=1), and colic branches (n=1). Masses feeded by the inferior phrenic and chest wall collaterals were usually located at the dome area of the liver, and the omental and gastroduodenal collaterals developed in the masses located at the inferior tip of the liver. After TAE via collateral vessels, 37 patients underwent follow-up study. In 18 cases(48%), the tumor favorably responded to TAE. Specific complications of collateral TAE were epigastric soreness (n=10), severe shoulder pain (n=4), and embolization of the spinal artery during embolization through the intercostal artery (n=1). In conclusion, various extrahepatic collateals are important alternative or addition routes for effective chemoembolization in patients with advanced hepatoma, and early recognition of the parasitic supply and the effort to perform TAE via collaterals is very

  12. Blood pressure and collateral circulation in acute ischemic stroke.

    Wufuer, A; Mijiti, P; Abudusalamu, R; Dengfeng, H; Jian, C; Jianhua, M; Xiaoning, Z

    2018-03-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different blood pressure (BP) parameters on the collateral circulation in a retrospective cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke and ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. The degree of intracranial collaterals was graded according to the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) Collateral Flow Grading System. At 12-72 h after stroke onset, six BP measurements were obtained in 124 patients with ICA occlusion. Baseline clinical and imaging characteristics were collected. Group comparisons were performed, and the collateral score (CS) was assessed and entered into a logistic regression analysis. In all, 80 (64.5%) patients displayed good collateral filling (CS ≥ 2). Good intracranial collaterals were more frequently associated with the development of collaterals in the anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery, and leptomeningeal artery. The systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = 0.018), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = 0.013), and mean arterial pressure (MAP; p = 0.016) were significantly associated with good CS. Median CS was highest when SBP was 120-130 mm Hg (p = 0.034). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension (p = 0.026, OR: 0.380, 95% CI: 0.163-0.890) was a significant predictor of poor CS. The development of collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke with ICA occlusion may be influenced by BP. A moderately decreased SBP is associated with good integrity of the collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke with occlusion of the ICA.

  13. 13 CFR 120.1850 - Will the Collateral be held by SBA?

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan Program) § 120.1850 Will the Collateral be held by SBA? Yes, SBA or its expressly authorized agent... all Collateral for SISMBD Loans in a custodial account. Certificates held as Collateral must be in... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Collateral be held by SBA...

  14. Collateral veins in left renal vein stenosis demonstrated via CT

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.; Talle, K.

    1983-02-01

    Twelve patients with left renal vein stenosis from tumor compression were studied with CT. All had distended collateral veins in the perirenal space which either formed a radiating or a cobweb pattern or appeared as marked longitudinal veins. Inferior phrenic vein branches were seen in seven patients and were considerably enlarged in two. Other major veins possibly taking part in collateral circulation could not be recognized due to obliteration of fat planes. The renal fascia was thickened in eleven patients, probably due to edema. A close study of the perirenal space with CT may give valuable information about collateral development.

  15. Collateral veins in left renal vein stenosis demonstrated via CT

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.; Talle, K.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with left renal vein stenosis from tumor compression were studied with CT. All had distended collateral veins in the perirenal space which either formed a radiating or a cobweb pattern or appeared as marked longitudinal veins. Inferior phrenic vein branches were seen in seven patients and were considerably enlarged in two. Other major veins possibly taking part in collateral circulation could not be recognized due to obliteration of fat planes. The renal fascia was thickened in eleven patients, probably due to edema. A close study of the perirenal space with CT may give valuable information about collateral development. (orig.)

  16. An attempt of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging during transient coronary arterial occlusion by PTCA

    Nakagawa, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Hiroki; Katahira, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the myocardial perfusion during transient coronary occlusion, we attempted to obtain the myocardial scintigraphy during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Tl-201 was injected at the last inflation of angioplastic balloon and occlusion was kept on for 60 sec. Planar images or SPECT were obtained immediately after PTCA. With this protocol, myocardial perfusion defects were observed during PTCA and fully redistributed 3 hours after Tl injection. Extent of ischemic lesions were almost same as that observed during exercise in two cases without collateral vessels. In a case with well visualized collateral vessels, perfusion defect was smaller in PTCA images than that in exercise stressed images. We conclude that intravenous injection of Tl-201 during PTCA is useful to assess the alteration of myocardial perfusion due to transient coronary occlusion without increasing the risk of angioplastic procedure. (author)

  17. Use of collateral sensitivity networks to design drug cycling protocols that avoid resistance development

    Imamovic, Lejla; Sommer, Morten

    2013-01-01

    collateral sensitivity and resistance profiles, revealing a complex collateral sensitivity network. On the basis of these data, we propose a new treatment framework-collateral sensitivity cycling-in which drugs with compatible collateral sensitivity profiles are used sequentially to treat infection...... pathogens. These results provide proof of principle for collateral sensitivity cycling as a sustainable treatment paradigm that may be generally applicable to infectious diseases and cancer....

  18. Collateral and SME financing in Bangladesh: An analysis across bank size and bank ownership types

    Rahman, Ashiqur; Rahman, Mosiqure Twyeafur; Ključnikov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    We examine the issue of pledging collateral and its effect on access to credit, interest rates and credit risk of SMEs financing in Bangladesh with respect to bank size. We also examine the collateral classification (fixed assets collateral, personal guarantee and third-party guarantee) by bank ownership types to find what types of collateral are preferred by public, private and foreign banks in Bangladesh for lending to firms. In addition to that, we examine whether collateral requirements a...

  19. Screening in the credit market when the collateral value is stochastic

    Niinimäki, Juha-Pekka

    2009-01-01

    This theoretical paper explores screening with loan collateral when both the collateral value and the probability of project success fluctuate. Some model versions challenge the classic findings of Bester (1985) by showing that high-risk borrowers may in such case be more willing to pledge collateral than low-risk borrowers. Abundant collateral then would not signal low risk. The results may help explain the mixed empirical findings on the role of collateral. The paper also extends the analys...

  20. Pricing a Collateralized Derivative Trade with a Funding Value Adjustment

    Chadd B. Hunzinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 credit crisis changed the manner in which derivative trades are conducted. One of these changes is the posting of collateral in a trade to mitigate the counterparty credit risk. Another is the realization that banks are not risk-free and, as a result, cannot borrow at the risk-free rate any longer. The latter led banks to introduced the controversial adjustment to derivative prices, known as a funding value adjustment (FVA, which is interlinked with the posting of collateral. In this paper, we extend the Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (CRR discrete-time model to include collateral and FVA. We prove that this derived model is a discrete analogue of Piterbarg’s partial differential equation (PDE, which describes the price of a collateralized derivative. The fact that the two models coincide is also verified by numerical implementation of the results that we obtain.

  1. Leptomeningeal collateral status predicts outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Madelung, Christopher Fugl; Ovesen, C; Trampedach, C

    2017-01-01

    NCCT and according to European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) criteria. Modified Rankin Scale score was assessed at 90 days, and mortality at 1 year. RESULTS: At 90 days, median (IQR) modified Rankin Scale score in patients with poor collateral status was 4 (3-6) compared to 2 (1-4) in patients...... population (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Leptomeningeal collateral status predicts functional outcome, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation following middle cerebral artery occlusion.......OBJECTIVES: Perfusion through leptomeningeal collateral vessels is a likely pivotal factor in the outcome of stroke patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of collateral status on outcome in a cohort of unselected, consecutive stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion undergoing...

  2. Coronary artery disease confined to secondary branches of the left coronary system

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Klein, B.L.; Segal, B.L.; Kimbiris, D.; Bemis, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among 3,000 patients studied by coronary arteriography during a 4-year period, 31 patients (1%) had coronary artery disease limited to a diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (15 patients), marginal branch of the left circumflex (10 patients), or to both branches (6 patients). Ten patients had 50-69% and twenty-one had greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing. The suitability for grafting was noted in 20 patients as judged by the caliber and distribution of the diseased branches. Collaterals were noted in seven patients. Disease was present in 28 men and 3 women (age range 38-70 years). At least one major coronary risk factor was present in 27 patients. Angina was noted in 27 patients; prior myocardial infarction was noted in 5 patients by history and in 4 by ECG. The left ventriculogram was normal in 22 patients and showed mild segmental asynergy in 9; ejection fraction was normal in all. Exercise ECGs were positive in 12 of 25 patients; exercise 201thallium scans were positive in 13. All patients responded to medical therapy. In conclusion, among the population of patients who undergo catheterization, coronary branch disease is rare. The clinical findings are indistinguishable from patients with major coronary disease. Prognosis remains benign and patients respond to medical therapy

  3. The medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    Floris, S; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Dalstra, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed. On morph......Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed...

  4. Leptomeningeal collateral status predicts outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Madelung, C F; Ovesen, C; Trampedach, C; Christensen, A; Havsteen, I; Hansen, C K; Christensen, H

    2018-01-01

    Perfusion through leptomeningeal collateral vessels is a likely pivotal factor in the outcome of stroke patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of collateral status on outcome in a cohort of unselected, consecutive stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion undergoing reperfusion therapy. This retrospectively planned analysis was passed on prospectively collected data from 187 consecutive patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion admitted within 4.5 hours to one center and treated with intravenous thrombolysis alone (N = 126), mechanical thrombectomy alone (N = 5), or both (N = 56) from May 2009 to April 2014. Non-contrast CT (NCCT) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) were provided on admission and NCCT repeated at 24 hours. Collateral status was assessed based on the initial CTA. Hemorrhagic transformation was evaluated on the 24-hour NCCT and according to European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) criteria. Modified Rankin Scale score was assessed at 90 days, and mortality at 1 year. At 90 days, median (IQR) modified Rankin Scale score in patients with poor collateral status was 4 (3-6) compared to 2 (1-4) in patients with good collateral status (P collateral status were less likely to achieve a good 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) (Adjusted odds ratio 0.27, 95% CI: 0.09-0.86). During the first year, 40.9% of patients with poor collateral status died vs 18.2% of the remaining population (P = .001). Leptomeningeal collateral status predicts functional outcome, mortality, and hemorrhagic transformation following middle cerebral artery occlusion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. COLLATERAL IN SMES’ LENDING: BANKS’ REQUIREMENTS VS CUSTOMERS’ EXPECTATIONS

    Daniel BADULESCU

    2011-01-01

    SMEs’ support and importance in developing economies should not be only declarative. Searching for funding, managers encounter various obstacles arising from information asymmetry, lack of experience, severe market conditions, and insufficient or unsatisfactory collaterals for banks (OECD 2006; Badulescu and Badulescu 2010; OECD 2000 and 2004; Lin and Sun 2006; Toivanen and Cresy, 2000). The collateral issue is extensively discussed in literature – preventing moral hazard, the alignment the i...

  6. Coronary involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Dendramis, Gregory; Paleologo, Claudia; Piraino, Davide; Arrotti, Salvatore; Assennato, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are themselves a relevant and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary ectasia. We describe a case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man who was admitted to our department for unstable angina. History of asthma, paranasal sinus abnormality, and peripheral eosinophilia given a high suspicion of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). Diagnosis was performed with 5 of the 6 American College of Rheumatology criteria. The knowledge that CSS is often associated with significant coronary artery involvement and the persistence of chest pain led us to performing immediately a coronary angiography. Coronary angiography showed diffuse ectasic lesions, chronic occlusion of left anterior descending artery with homocoronary collateral circulation from left circumflex artery and subocclusive stenosis in the proximal tract of posterior descending artery. The early recognition of CSS, an aggressive invasive diagnostic approach, and an early appropriate therapy are important to prevent the progressive and permanent cardiac damage in these patients. In the setting of a multidisciplinary approach, careful cardiac assessment is an essential step in CSS, even in mildly symptomatic patients. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A long-term survivor of Bland-White-Garland syndrome with systemic collateral supply: A case report and review of the literature

    Papagiannopoulou P

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background land-White-Garland syndrome (anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare disease which may result in myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and sometimes death during the early infantile period. Case presentation: A succesfully treated case of a 45-year-old mother of 2 children with Bland-White-Garland syndrome and concomitant severe mitral regurgitation is presented. Subsequent therapy consisted of ligation of the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery, anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending branch and mitral valve replacement. Continuous blood flow from the left coronary artery ostium during extracorporeal circulation and aorta clamping suggested systemic collateral supply. Conclusions: Recognition and diagnosis of Bland-White-Garland syndrome is important due to its potentially life-threatening complications.

  8. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    Elless, M.P.; Ferguson, B.W.; Bray, C.A.; Patch, S.; Mielke, H.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

  9. Shaker-related voltage-gated K+ channel expression and vasomotor function in human coronary resistance arteries.

    Nishijima, Yoshinori; Korishettar, Ankush; Chabowski, Dawid S; Cao, Sheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Gutterman, David D; Zhang, David X

    2018-01-01

    K V channels are important regulators of vascular tone, but the identity of specific K V channels involved and their regulation in disease remain less well understood. We determined the expression of K V 1 channel subunits and their role in cAMP-mediated dilation in coronary resistance arteries from subjects with and without CAD. HCAs from patients with and without CAD were assessed for mRNA and protein expression of K V 1 channel subunits with molecular techniques and for vasodilator response with isolated arterial myography. Assays of mRNA transcripts, membrane protein expression, and vascular cell-specific localization revealed abundant expression of K V 1.5 in vascular smooth muscle cells of non-CAD HCAs. Isoproterenol and forskolin, two distinct cAMP-mediated vasodilators, induced potent dilation of non-CAD arterioles, which was inhibited by both the general K V blocker 4-AP and the selective K V 1.5 blocker DPO-1. The cAMP-mediated dilation was reduced in CAD and was accompanied by a loss of or reduced contribution of 4-AP-sensitive K V channels. K V 1.5, as a major 4-AP-sensitive K V 1 channel expressed in coronary VSMCs, mediates cAMP-mediated dilation in non-CAD arterioles. The cAMP-mediated dilation is reduced in CAD coronary arterioles, which is associated with impaired 4-AP-sensitive K V channel function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Atraumatic medial collateral ligament oedema in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    Bergin, D.; Keogh, C.; O'Connell, M.; Zoga, A.; Rowe, D.; Shah, B.; Eustace, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and determine the prevalence of atraumatic medial collateral oedema identified in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Design and patients: Sixty patients, 30 patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 4) and 30 age-matched patients with atraumatic knee pain without osteoarthritis, referred for MR imaging over a 2 year period were included in the study. In each case, severity of osteoarthritis was recorded on radiographs and correlated with the presence or absence of medial collateral ligament oedema at MR imaging. Results: Medial collateral oedema was identified in 27 of the 30 patients with osteoarthritis, of whom 14 had grade 1 oedema and 13 had grade 2 oedema compared with the presence of medial collateral ligament oedema (grade 1) in only two of the 30 control patients without osteoarthritis (P<<0.0001). Conclusion: Medial collateral oedema is common in patients with osteoarthritis in the absence of trauma. When identified, medial collateral ligament oedema should be considered to be a feature of osteoarthritis and should not be incorrectly attributed to an acute traumatic injury. (orig.)

  11. Expression of human olfactory receptor 10J5 in heart aorta, coronary artery, and endothelial cells and its functional role in angiogenesis.

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Yoon, Yeo Cho; Lee, Ae Sin; Kang, NaNa; Koo, JaeHyung; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-05-01

    ORs are ectopically expressed in non-chemosensory tissues including muscle, kidney, and keratinocytes; however, their physiological roles are largely unknown. We found that human olfactory receptor 10J5 (OR10J5) is expressed in the human aorta, coronary artery, and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Lyral induces Ca(2+) and phosphorylation of AKT in HUVEC. A knockdown study showed the inhibition of the lyral-induced Ca(2+) and the phosphorylation AKT and implied that these processes are mediated by OR10J5. In addition, lyral enhanced migration of HUVEC, which were also inhibited by RNAi in a migration assay. In addition, matrigel plug assay showed that lyral enhanced angiogenesis in vivo. Together these data demonstrate the physiological role of OR10J5 in angiogenesis and represent roles of ORs in HUVEC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Injury to ulnar collateral ligament of thumb.

    Madan, Simerjit Singh; Pai, Dinker R; Kaur, Avneet; Dixit, Ruchita

    2014-02-01

    Injury of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of thumb can be incapacitating if untreated or not treated properly. This injury is notorious for frequently being missed by inexperienced health care personnel in emergency departments. It has frequently been described in skiers, but also occurs in other sports such as rugby, soccer, handball, basketball, volleyball and even after a handshake. The UCL of the thumb acts as a primary restraint to valgus stress and is injured if hyperabduction and hyperextension forces are applied to the first metacarpophalangeal joint. The diagnosis is best established clinically, though MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Many treatment options exist, surgical treatment being offered depending on various factors, including timing of presentation (acute or chronic), grade (severity of injury), displacement (Stener lesion), location of tear (mid-substance or peripheral), associated or concomitant surrounding tissue injury (bone, volar plate, etc.), and patient-related factors (occupational demands, etc.). This review aims to identify the optimal diagnostic techniques and management options for UCL injury available thus far. © 2014 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Influence of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins on lipid-mediated gene expression in smooth muscle cells of the human coronary artery.

    Bermúdez, Beatriz; López, Sergio; Pacheco, Yolanda M; Villar, José; Muriana, Francisco J G; Hoheisel, Jöerg D; Bauer, Andrea; Abia, Rocío

    2008-07-15

    Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) have a direct effect on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and they increase the risk of atherogenesis. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that the different fatty acid composition of TRL is capable of differentially modifying gene expression in human coronary artery SMC (CASMC). In addition, the effect of TRL on cell proliferation and transcription factor activation was also evaluated. TRL were prepared from plasma of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of meals enriched in refined olive oil (ROO), butter or a mixture of vegetable and fish oils (VEFO). We use cDNA microarrays to determine the genes differentially expressed in TRL-treated CASMC. Correspondence cluster analysis demonstrated that TRL-butter, -ROO and -VEFO provoked different transcriptional profiles in CASMC. Sixty-six genes were regulated by TRL-butter, 55 by -ROO, and 47 by -VEFO. The data revealed that TRL-butter predominantly activated genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and inflammation. Likewise, TRL-VEFO induced the expression of genes implicated in inflammation, while TRL-ROO promoted a less atherogenic gene profile. The pathophysiological contribution of TRL to the development of atherosclerosis and the stability of atherosclerotic plaques may depend on the fatty acid composition of TRL. Our findings suggest a role for macrophage-inhibiting cytokine-1 (MIC-1) in coronary artery cardiovascular events.

  14. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and interleukin-8 production in human coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    Kudo, Keiko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Hirano, Reiji; Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kittaka, Setsuaki; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile vasculitis of childhood that is associated with elevated production of inflammatory cytokines, causing damage to the coronary arteries. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) is regulated by nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. We have previously reported that the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3)), inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) on TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression (vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)) and cytokine production (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8) in HCAECs. Pretreatment with 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression and IL-8 production in HCAECs. Our results suggest that adjunctive 1α,25-(OH)(2)D(3) therapy may modulate the inflammatory response during Kawasaki disease vasculitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Myocardial infarction in the conscious dog: three dimensional mapping of infarct, collateral flow and region at risk

    Jugdutt, B.I.; Hutchins, G.M.; Bulkley, B.H.; Becker, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Myocardial infarcts were examined in dogs to determine the spatial distribution of infarction in the region at risk and the relation between infarction and collateral blood flow. Permanent occlusion of the left circumflex (LC) coronary artery at a constant site was made in 27 conscious dogs that were sacrificed 2 days later. The anatomic region at risk was defined by postmortem coronary arteriography as the volume of the occluded LC coronary bed. The masses of the left ventricle (LV), infarct (I) and risk region (R) were calculated from planimetered areas of weighted bread-loaf sections of LV. Infarct size was directly related to the mass of the risk region (I = 0.53 R - 9.87; r = 0.97; p < 0.001). There was no infarction when R was less than about 20 g or 20% of the LV. The infarcts were mainly subendocardial and tapered from base to apex of the LV; 34% of the risk region became infarcted at the base compared with 22% at the apex. In all dogs, a significant rim of noninfarcted myocardium was identified at lateral aspects of the risk region, even at the endocardial surface. Using 9-μ radioactive microspheres, initial postocclusion flow at the margin of the infarct, but well within the risk region, was higher than at the center, and outer flows were higher than inner flows. Postocclusion flow was even higher in the noninfarcted rim within the risk region, but was still significantly less than flow to normal, nonrisk areas. Collateral flows throughout the risk region increased during the first hour after occlusion, and were even higher at 2 days.Epicardially and laterally within the anatomic risk region there is a substantial amount of tissue that does not infarct despite initally reduced blood flow

  16. [Association of human epicardial adipose tissue volume and inflammatory mediators with atherosclerosis and vulnerable coronary atherosclerotic plaque].

    Zhou, Liangliang; Gong, Jianbin; Li, Demin; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Dong; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relation of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) determined by dual-source CT (DSCT) cardiac angiography and EAT-derived inflammatory factors to coronary heart disease (CHD) and vulnerable plaque. A total of 260 patients underwent cardiac computed tomography to evaluate stenosis of coronary artery, and blood samples were obtained from each patient. CHD was confirmed in 180 patients by DSA and CHD was excluded in the remaining 80 patients (NCHD). Vascular remodeling index and plaque vulnerability parameters (fatty volume, fibrous volume and calcification volume and fiber volume) were measured in CHD patients and correlation with EATV was analyzed. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and intrathoracic adipose tissue (TAT) were collected from 40 CHD patients undergoing CABG surgery, and, mRNA and protein expressions of leptin and MMP9 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. (1) The EATV was significantly higher in the CHD group than in NCHD group ((121.2 ± 40.6) mm³ vs. (74.7 ± 18.1) mm³, P = 0.01). (2) Subgroup analysis of the CHD patients demonstrated that EATV was significantly higher in patients with positive remodeling than in patients without positive remodeling ((97.6 ± 42.0) cm³ vs. (75.5 ± 25.4) cm³, P = 0.01). Lipid plaque volume was positively correlated with EATV (r = 0.34, P = 0.002); however, fiber plaque volume was negatively correlated with EATV (r = -0.30, P = 0.008). (3) Logistic regression analysis indicated that EATV was an independent risk factor for positive vascular remodeling (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30-2.32, P = 0.01). (4) mRNA and protein expression of leptin and MMP9 in EAT was significantly upregulated in 40 CHD patients who received CABG surgery compared to 40 NCHD patients (P 0.05) in mRNA and protein expression of leptin and MMP9 from the SAT between CHD and NCHD patients. (5) In the CHD group, leptin and MMP9 levels in EAT and EATV were positively correlated with lipid plaque volume and fibrous plaque

  17. Radiologic analysis of the medical collateral ligament rupture

    Cho, Chung Che; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung

    1979-01-01

    The medical collateral ligament rupture is the most common injury involving the knee joint ligaments. The ruptured medical collateral ligaments of 73 cases with clinical and surgical confirmations were radiologically analyzed. The results were obtained as follows: 1. The most risky age for tearing of the medical collateral ligament was third to fifth decades (50 cases of male and 23 of females). 2. The most common cause of the medical collateral ligament rupture was traffic accident (82.2%). 3. The mean distance of medial knee joint space was 7.9 ± 2.0 mm on the normal side and 13.7 ± 4.2 mm on the affected side. 4. The mean degree of knee joint space was 10.1 ± 2.5 on the normal side and 14.7 ± 3.8 on the affected side. 5. The fibula was the bone fractured most frequently in association with the medial collateral ligament rupture (30.6%).

  18. Morphology of the medial collateral ligament of the knee

    Gill Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative knowledge on the anatomy of the medial collateral ligament (MCL is important for treatment of MCL injury and for MCL release during total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the morphology of the MCL of human knees. Methods 10 cadaveric human knees were dissected to investigate the MCL anatomy. The specimens were fixed in full extension and this position was maintained during the dissection and morphometric measurements. The outlines of the insertion sites of the superficial MCL (sMCL and deep MCL (dMCL were digitized using a 3D digitizing system. Results The insertion areas of the superficial MCL (sMCL were 348.6 ± 42.8 mm2 and 79.7 ± 17.6 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The insertion areas of the deep MCL (dMCL were 63.6 ± 13.4 mm2 and 71.9 ± 14.8 mm2 on the tibia and femur, respectively. The distances from the centroids of the tibial and femoral insertions of the sMCL to the tibial and femoral joint line were 62.4 ± 5.5 mm and 31.1 ± 4.6 mm, respectively. The distances from the centroids of dMCL in the tibial insertion and the femoral insertion to the tibial and femoral joint line were 6.5 ± 1.3 mm and 20.5 ± 4.2 mm, respectively. The distal portion of the dMCL (meniscotibial ligament - MTL was approximately 1.7 times wider than the proximal portion of the dMCL (meniscofemoral ligament - MFL, whereas the MFL was approximately 3 times longer than the MTL. Conclusions The morphologic data on the MCL may provide useful information for improving treatments of MCL-related pathology and performing MCL release during TKA.

  19. Evaluation of combined near-IR spectroscopic (NIRS)-IVUS imaging as a means to detect lipid-rich plaque burden in human coronary autopsy specimens

    Su, Jimmy L.; Grainger, Stephanie J.; Greiner, Cherry A.; Hendricks, Michael J.; Goode, Meghan M.; Saybolt, Matthew D.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Madden, Sean P.; Muller, James E.

    2016-02-01

    Intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can identify lipid in the coronary arteries, but lacks depth resolution. A novel catheter is currently in clinical use that combines NIRS with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), which provides depth-resolved structural information via the IVUS modality. A measure designated as lipid-rich plaque burden (LRPB) has been proposed as a means to interpret the combined acoustic and optical information of NIRS-IVUS. LRPB is defined as the area created by the intersection of the NIRS lipid-rich arc with the corresponding IVUS-measured plaque burden. We determined the correlation in human coronary autopsy specimens between LRPB, a measure of lipid presence and extent available via intravascular imaging in patients, and the area of lipid-rich plaque as determined by the gold-standard of histology. Fifteen artery segments from 8 human autopsy hearts were imaged with the NIRS-IVUS system (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx Inc., Burlington, MA). Arteries were imaged in a specialty fixture that assured accurate co-registration between imaging and histology. The arteries were then fixed and divided into 2 mm blocks for histological staining. Pathological contouring of lipid-rich areas was performed on the stained thin sections for 54 lipid-rich blocks. Computation of LRPB was performed on transverse NIRS-IVUS frames corresponding to the histologic sections. The quantified LRPB was frequently higher than the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology, because the region denoted by the EEL and lumen within the NIRS lipid-rich arc is not entirely comprised of lipid. Overall, a moderate to strong correlation (R = 0.73) was found between LRPB determined by NIRS-IVUS imaging and the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology. LRPB, which can be measured in patients with NIRS-IVUS imaging, corresponds to the amount of lipid-rich plaque in a coronary artery. LRPB should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials for its ability to

  20. Collateral vessels in moyamoya disease : comparison of MR and MRA with conventional angiography

    Shim, Joo Eun; Yoon, Dae Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Sun; Bae, Sang Hoon

    1998-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in assessing collateral vessels of moyamoya disease. Twenty-four patients with moyamoya disease who underwent MR, 3D TOF MRA, and conventional angiography participated in this study. Two radiologists working independently and with no knowledge of the angiographic findings, interpreted the MR and MRA images. To determine the presence of parenchymal and leptomeningeal collaterals (48 hemispheres) and transdural collaterals (38 hemispheres in 19 patients were depicted by angiography of the external carotid), the findings were compared with those of angiography. Parenchymal, leptomeningeal, and transdural collaterals were depicted by conventional angiography in 34 (71%), 32 (67%), and 11 (29%) hemispheres respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MR/MRA for collateral vessels were 79.1/88.1 % for parenchymal collaterals, 72.1/88.1 % for leptomeningeal collaterals, and 0.1/18.1 % for transdural collaterals, respectively. Respective sensitivity and specificity of MR/MRA were 88.94/94.1% for leptomeningeal collaterals, and 18.93/55.1 % for transdural collaterals, when the prominent posterior cerebral and external carotid artery were regarded as secondary signs of leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels. In moyamoya disease, MR and MRA are useful imaging modalities for the assessment of collateral vessels. The prominent posterior cerebral artery and external carotid artery can be useful secondary signs of leptomeningeal and transdural collateral vessels. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs

  1. A different kind of Christmas tree: anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA).

    Afolabi-Brown, Olayinka; Witzke, Christian; Moldovan, Raul; Pressman, Gregg

    2014-02-01

    Anomalous right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that has an incidence of 0.002%. We report a case of a previously healthy female who presented to our hospital with pneumonia and was incidentally discovered to have ARCAPA. This was initially diagnosed on echocardiography by the unusual echocardiographic finding of multiple color flow Doppler signals around the right ventricular free wall and apex which were subsequently confirmed by angiography to be due to extensive collateral circulation between the left and right coronary arteries. This represents an unusual echocardiographic manifestation of this very rare condition. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ketanserin effect on limb perfusion and arterial collaterals

    Grassi, C.J.; Janicek, M.; Hollenberg, N.K.; Meyerovitz, M.F.; Harrington, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Arterial collateral flow and major vessel patency are important in patients with intermittent claudication. Activity of serotonin released from platelets has been demonstrated experimentally, and serotonin antagonists have been investigated in treadmill testing. Ketanserin, a serotonin (5-HT/sup 2/) antagonist, was investigated in 20 patients with intermittent claudication to assess its effect on collaterals. Blood-pressure ratio (thigh/arm), mercury-strain gauge plethysmography, Doppler pressures, and repeat arteriography were performed. Ketanserin (3-30 μg/kg IA) increased collateral vessel size on angiography in 12 patients (60%) and increased blood-flow ratio and plethysmogrpahy pressures on average. These observations, confirming clinical studies that some patients show a dramatic response and others do not, might prove useful in identifying patients who will respond to ketanserin for occlusive vascular disease

  3. Computed tomographic diagnosis for hepatofugal collaterals in portal hypertension

    Iida, Akihiko; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Sasai, Keisuke

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with the diagnostic capability of CT scan for hepatofugal collaterals in 22 patients with portal hypertension. The patients studied were those who underwent percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP) and CT scan within a short period. Each collateral vein demonstrated by PTP was classified into three grades according to its caliber (d) : (1) Grade I, d<5mm, (2) Grade II, 5mm< d<10mm and (3) Grade III, 10mm< d. Based on the PTP finding, the demonstrability of these collaterals on the CT images was analysed comparatively. Most collaterals in Grade I failed to demonstrate on CT images, while Grade II and III well coincided with CT images, at the rate of 64% and 100% respectively. CT features of these vascular structures showed multiformity: rounded, ovoid comma-shaped, tubular or beaded, etc.. To get an accurate diagnosis, each image must be analysed together with the adjacent upper and lower ones on the fully-performed contrast enhancement technique. Image deterioration of CT was concerned with Partial Volume Phenomenon for small vessels, and motion artifacts produced by intestinal peristalses, cardiac beats and occasionally by difficulty of breath holding. In spite of such diagnostic Iimitation, CT scan provides much qualified images than conventional angiographic procedures in evaluating hepatofugal collaterals. CT scan, which is widely applied to clinical workup for cirrhosis of the liver with special reference to hepatoma, allows incidental diagnostic information about collaterals in size and course. Such simplicity of the procedure contributes to the follow-up and repeat study after sclerotherapy for esophageal varices. (author)

  4. The study with 13N-NH3 PET and coronary angiography to investigate the effect of CD151 gene therapy on swines with experimental myocardial infarction

    Zuo Houjuan; Liu Zhengxiang; Liu Xiaochun; Ceng Hesong; Liu Tao; Wen Sha; Chen Jin; Wang Daowen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our previous studies showed that CD151 could promote neovascularization in a rat hind-limb ischemia model and in a rat myocardial ischemia model. This study was to determine the change of myocardial perfusion and coronary collateralization after intramyocardial administration CD151 in swines with experimental myocardial infarction. Methods: CD151 and antiCD151 were constructed into the recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV). Twenty swines received coronary artery ligation and intramuscular injection of rAAV-CD151 or rAAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP). Eight weeks after vector administration, the expression of CD151 protein and the capillary density were measured using immunohistochemistry. Regional myocardial perfusian was evaluated by 13 N-NH 3 PET. Coronary angiography was per-formed to assess collateral vessels reconstruction. The t-test or ANOVA with SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis. Results: High levels of CD151 protein expression and capillary density were detected in the rAAV-CD151 group. 13 N-NH 3 PET imaging showed that myocardial perfusion was improved and the myocardial ischemia scores were significantly decreased in the rAAV-CD151 group when compared with rAAV-GFP group (10.82 ± 2.36 vs 19.33 ± 1.67, t=5.86, P=0.002).Coronary angiography confirmed better collateral circulation in the rAAV-CD151 group. Conclusions: rAAV-CD151 direct injection can transfect the myocardium and express the CD151 protein, thereby significantly improve the myocardial blood perfusion and coronary collateralization. 13 N-NH 3 PET and coronary angiography can be used directly to evaluate the col-lateral vessel reconstruction and perfusion status of swine myocardium. (authors)

  5. Efficacy of collateral types used by financial intermediaries in KwaZulu-Natal

    Kuhn, M.E.; Darroch, Mark A.G.; Ortmann, Gerald F.

    1997-01-01

    Collateral is an important incentive device used by lenders to encourage loan repayment. However, collateral must have secure and transferable title, it must be marketable, have low lender liquidation costs and lenders must be able to attach the collateral. Study results for rural and micro-enterprise finance institutions in KwaZulu-Natal showed that assets such as vehicles and equipment were not effective as collateral due to high costs in attaching the asset. Cessions on crops were often co...

  6. Diagnostic Value of Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients With Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery

    Li, Rong-Juan; Sun, Zhonghua; Yang, Jiao; Yang, Ya; Li, Yi-Jia; Leng, Zhao-Ting; Liu, Guo-Wen; Pu, Li-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality associated with early infant mortality and sudden death in adults. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) plays an important role in early detection and diagnosis of ALCAPA as a noninvasive modality. However, its diagnostic value is not well studied. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of TTE in the diagnostic assessment of ALCAPA as compared with coronary CT and invasive coronary angiography. A total of 22 patients (13 women and 9 men, mean age, 12.9 ± 19.5 years) with ALCAPA who underwent echocardiographic examination for clinical diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiographic features of ALCAPA were analyzed and its diagnostic value was compared with invasive coronary angiography and coronary CT angiography (CTA) with surgical findings serving as the gold standard. Surgery was performed in all of the patients to establish the dual coronary artery system. Five underwent the Takeuchi procedure and 17 had re-implantation of the anomalous left coronary artery. Of 20 patients, echocardiographic diagnoses were in good agreement with findings at surgery, resulting in the diagnostic accuracy of 90.9%. Two cases were misdiagnosed—one as the right coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula and the other as rheumatic heart disease. The echocardiographic features of these patients with ALCAPA included: abnormal left coronary ostium arising from the pulmonary trunk with retrograde coronary artery flow in 20 patients; enlargement of the right coronary artery in 17 patients; abundant intercoronary septal collaterals in 17 patients; and moderate and significant mitral regurgitation in 14 patients. The diagnostic accuracy of invasive coronary angiography (in 17 patients) and coronary CTA (in 9 patients) was 100%. This study shows that TTE is an accurate, noninvasive imaging modality

  7. 10 CFR 609.15 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 609... PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.15 Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation... Guaranteed Obligation. Such assignment shall include all related liens, security, and collateral rights to...

  8. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  9. 12 CFR 908.32 - Collateral attacks on proceedings under this part.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral attacks on proceedings under this... Rules § 908.32 Collateral attacks on proceedings under this part. If a respondent files in any court a collateral attack that purports to challenge all or any portion of a proceeding under this part, the hearing...

  10. Congenital absence of infrarenal IVC and iliac venous system : Unusual collateral Pathways

    Lee, Jin Joo; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1994-01-01

    We present a case with congenital absence of the infrarenal portion of inferior vena cava and iliac venous system, showing unusual venous collaterals including the left ovarian venous collateral via parametrial venous complex, and a mesenteric-periureteric venous connection. The venous collateral pathways were demonstrated by computed tomography and venography

  11. 31 CFR 363.146 - May a certificate of indebtedness be pledged or used as collateral?

    2010-07-01

    ... pledged or used as collateral? 363.146 Section 363.146 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... certificate of indebtedness be pledged or used as collateral? A certificate of indebtedness may not be pledged or used as collateral for the performance of an obligation. [69 FR 50309, Aug. 16, 2004. Redesignated...

  12. 10 CFR 609.16 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 609.16... THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.16 Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. (a... to perfect and maintain liens, as applicable, on assets which are pledged as collateral for the...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.444 - Appraisal of property serving as collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisal of property serving as collateral. 1980.444... Program § 1980.444 Appraisal of property serving as collateral. (a) Appraisal reports prepared by independent qualified fee appraisers will be required on all property that will serve as collateral. In the...

  14. 31 CFR 363.176 - May a converted savings bond be pledged or used as collateral?

    2010-07-01

    ... pledged or used as collateral? 363.176 Section 363.176 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... a converted savings bond be pledged or used as collateral? A converted savings bond may not be pledged or used as collateral for the performance of an obligation. ...

  15. 10 CFR 611.111 - Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default, demand, payment, and collateral liquidation. 611... collateral liquidation. (a) In the event that the Borrower has defaulted in the making of required payments.... Attorney General, may seek to foreclose on the collateral assets and/or take such other legal action as...

  16. 10 CFR 611.108 - Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Perfection of liens and preservation of collateral. 611... of collateral. (a) The Agreement and other documents related thereto shall provide that: (1) DOE and... necessary to perfect and maintain liens, as applicable, on assets which are pledged as collateral for the...

  17. 12 CFR 221.7 - Supplement: Maximum loan value of margin stock and other collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... value of margin stock and other collateral. (a) Maximum loan value of margin stock. The maximum loan... nonmargin stock and all other collateral. The maximum loan value of nonmargin stock and all other collateral... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement: Maximum loan value of margin stock...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5090 - Reduction in carrying value of collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5090 Reduction in carrying value of collateral. When the bank or Farm Credit Administration determines that a loan did not... withdrawn from collateral until the cause of ineligibility is remedied. When a loan has been classified as a...

  19. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.106 - Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral... Marketing Assistance Loans § 1421.106 Warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan collateral. (a) A commodity may be pledged as collateral for a warehouse-stored marketing assistance loan in the quantity...

  1. 13 CFR 123.513 - Does SBA require collateral on its Military Reservist EIDL?

    2010-01-01

    ..., or both. SBA will not decline a loan if you do not have a particular amount of collateral so long as SBA is reasonably sure that you can repay the loan. If you refuse to pledge the available collateral... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does SBA require collateral on its...

  2. Collateral Determinats In Bank Risk Mananagement: The Regional Case

    A. M. Karminsky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional banks are struggling with significant obstacles in the modern Russian economy. Among them are strong competition with major big banks, strong resource restrictions, tightening the Bank of Russia’s requirements, and quite rapid expansion of financial technologies. Thus, the reduction of regional banks occurs, that produces both a negative impact on the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and challenges for balanced competition on the Russian market. Basically, these banks provide the settlement of region’s social and economic problems while maintaining local companies and enterprises. Collateral, as a source for losses covering, became the essential element of credit risk management in banks. Providing lenders to implement such instruments, it helps to reduce bank losses under borrower’s default. The purpose of the article relates to revealing of collateral determinants with higher impact on bank risk with the application of empirical methods (including regional level. This study is based on linear regression models evaluated by the least square method. Private data of secured small and medium business loans is used. This article presents LTV (loan-to-value as a major collateral determinant. The empirical evidence of interlinkage between collateral requirements, by the means of LTV, and risk premium is provided for loan portfolio of Russian regional banks. The hypothesis that LTV conversely correlates with risk premium is statistically proved.

  3. 38 CFR 1.913 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-07-01

    ... security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security instrument or a nonjudicial foreclosure, and apply the proceeds to the applicable debt, if the debtor fails to pay the debt within 180 days after demand and if such action is in the best interest of the United States. Collection from...

  4. 45 CFR 30.16 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-10-01

    ... fails to pay the debt(s) within a reasonable time after demand and if such action is in the best interests of the United States. (2) Collection from other sources, including liquidation of security or... will liquidate security or collateral through the exercise of a power of sale in the security...

  5. Collateral Information for Equating in Small Samples: A Preliminary Investigation

    Kim, Sooyeon; Livingston, Samuel A.; Lewis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation of an empirical Bayes (EB) procedure for using collateral information to improve equating of scores on test forms taken by small numbers of examinees. Resampling studies were done on two different forms of the same test. In each study, EB and non-EB versions of two equating methods--chained linear…

  6. Collateral effects of antibiotics on mammalian gut microbiomes

    Antibiotics are an essential component of the modern lifestyle. They improve our lives by treating disease, preventing disease, and in the case of agricultural animals by improving feed efficiency. However, antibiotic usage is not without collateral effects. The development and spread of antibiot...

  7. In vivo metacarpophalanageal joint collateral ligament length changes during flexion.

    Sun, Y C; Sheng, X M; Chen, J; Qian, Z W

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the in vivo length changes of the collateral ligaments of metacarpophalangeal joint during flexion. We obtained computed tomography scans of index, middle, ring and little fingers at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of joint flexion from six hands of six healthy adult volunteers. Three of them had their dominant right hand studied, and the other three had their non-dominant left hand studied. We measured and analysed the radial and ulnar collateral ligaments of each metacarpophalangeal joint from the reconstructed images. We found that the dorsal and middle portions of the both radial and ulnar collateral ligament lengthened progressively during digital flexion and reached the maximum at 90° flexion. The length of the volar portion increased from 0° to 30° flexion and then decreased from 30° to 60° flexion, reaching the minimum at 90°. In conclusion, three portions of collateral ligaments on both sides of the metacarpophalangeal joint have variable length changes during flexion, which act to stabilize the joint through its flexion arc.

  8. 12 CFR 614.4245 - Collateral evaluation policies.

    2010-01-01

    ... directors of each Farm Credit System institution that engages in lending or leasing secured by collateral... descriptive and detailed to provide ample support to the institution's related credit decisions; (2) Performed... Section 614.4245 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND...

  9. Targeting pathogen metabolism without collateral damage to the host

    Haanstra, J.R.; Gerding, A.; Dolga, A.M.; Sorgdrager, F.J.H.; Buist-Homan, M.; du Toit, F.; Faber, K.N.; Holzhütter, H.-G.; Szöör, B.; Matthews, K.R.; Snoep, J.L.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of drugs that can inactivate disease-causing cells (e.g. cancer cells or parasites) without causing collateral damage to healthy or to host cells is complicated by the fact that many proteins are very similar between organisms. Nevertheless, due to subtle, quantitative differences

  10. 31 CFR 203.21 - Collateral security requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral security requirements. 203.21 Section 203.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... hereunder; or (iv) The depositary is closed for business by regulatory action or by proper corporate action...

  11. 31 CFR 901.7 - Liquidation of collateral.

    2010-07-01

    ... reasonable time after demand and if such action is in the best interest of the United States. Collection from... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 901.7 Section 901.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL...

  12. 7 CFR 762.142 - Servicing related to collateral.

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary to properly service the loan. (4) Ensure the borrower does not convert loan security. (5) Ensure... collateral. (b) Partial releases. (1) A lender may release guaranteed loan security without FSA concurrence... applied as extra payments and not as a regular installment on the loan. (ii) The security item will be...

  13. Embolization of nonvariceal portosystemic collaterals in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Arias, Mercedes; Longo, Jesus Maria; Alejandre, Pedro Luis; Betes, Maria Teresa; Elizalde, Arlette Maria

    1997-01-01

    Percutaneous embolization of large portosystemic collaterals was performed in three patients following placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to improve hepatopetal portal flow. Improved hepatic portal perfusion was achieved in these cases, thereby theoretically reducing the risk of chronic hepatic encephalopathy

  14. Collateral and the limits of debt capacity: theory and evidence

    Giambona, E.; Mello, A.S.; Riddiough, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers how collateral is used to finance a going concern, and demonstrates with theory and evidence that there are effective limits to debt capacity and the kinds of claims that are issued to deploy that debt capacity. The theory shows that firms with (unobservably) better quality

  15. Integral diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis by coronary multidetector computed tomography and by invasive coronary angiography

    Llerena Rojas, Luis Roberto; Llerena Rojas, Lorenzo D; Mendoza Rodriguez, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography by multidetector computed tomography (CMDCT) visualizes the wall and lumen of coronary arteries. Invasive coronary angiography (INVCA) only visualizes the arterial lumen but with better resolution

  16. Macroscopic description of the coronary arteries in Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus

    A. Yoldas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 (13 male, 12 female adult, healthy Swiss albino mice were used to investigate the origin, course and anastomoses of coronary arteries. Coloured latex was injected into the aortic arch to enable these arteries to be clearly discerned. A. coronaria sinistra was larger than A. coronaria dextra. It was divided into a Ramus interventricularis paraconalis and a Ramus circumflexus sinister. However, in 2 specimens, the septal ramus, was observed to stem directly from the left coronary artery, and only 1 ventricular branch arose from the left circumflex. The collateral branches of the paraconal interventricular ramus had a larger diameter and more extensive distribution was observed in these specimens. The A. coronaria dextra was divided into a Ramus septalis and Ramus circumflexus dexter. The Ramus interventricularis subsinuosis was not detected in this study. The ventricular branches of the left coronary artery run intramyocardially whereas the branches of the right coronary artery course subendocardially.

  17. Collateral ligament strains during knee joint laxity evaluation before and after TKA.

    Delport, Hendrik; Labey, Luc; De Corte, Ronny; Innocenti, Bernardo; Vander Sloten, Jos; Bellemans, Johan

    2013-08-01

    Passive knee stability is provided by the soft tissue envelope. There is consensus among orthopedic surgeons that good outcome in Total Knee Arthroplasty requires equal tension in the medial/lateral compartment of the knee joint, as well as equal tension in the flexion/extension gap. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ligament laxity in the normal non-arthritic knee before and after Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty. We hypothesized that the Medial/Lateral Collateral Ligament shows minimal changes in length when measured directly by extensometers in the native human knee during varus/valgus laxity testing. We also hypothesized that due to differences in material properties and surface geometry, native laxity is difficult to reconstruct using a Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee. Six specimens were used to perform this in vitro cadaver test using extensometers to provide numerical values for laxity and varus-valgus tilting in the frontal plane. This study enabled a precise measurement of varus-valgus laxity as compared with the clinical assessment. The strains in both ligaments in the replaced knee were different from those in the native knee. Both ligaments were stretched in extension, in flexion the Medial Collateral Ligament tends to relax and the Lateral Collateral Ligament remains tight. As material properties and surface geometry of the replaced knee add stiffness to the joint, we recommend to avoid overstuffing the joint, when using this type of Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty, in order to obtain varus/valgus laxity close to the native joint. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mexico's northern border conflict: collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups El conflicto en la frontera norte de México: daños colaterales a la salud y los derechos humanos en grupos vulnerables

    Leo Beletsky

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions. METHODS: Female sex workers who inject drugs were surveyed in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Structured interviews and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were conducted (October 2008 to October 2009. Frequencies of individual and environmental factors, including police abuse, risk of HIV infection, and protective behaviors, were compared between sites using univariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 624 women, almost half reported police syringe confiscation despite syringes being legal; 55.6% reported extortion (past 6 months, with significantly higher proportions in Ciudad Juarez (P OBJETIVO: Comparar las distribuciones de las violaciones a los derechos humanos y el riesgo de enfermedades; yuxtaponer los patrones obtenidos con las variables demográficas y estructurales del entorno, y formular las implicaciones de llevar a cabo intervenciones estructurales. MÉTODOS: Se entrevistaron trabajadoras del sexo que consumían drogas inyectables en Tijuana y Ciudad Juárez, México. Entre octubre del 2008 y octubre del 2009 se llevaron a cabo entrevistas estructuradas y pruebas para detectar infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS. Se compararon entre las dos ciudades las frecuencias de factores individuales y ambientales, como el abuso policial, el riesgo de infección por el VIH y las conductas protectoras, usando regresión logística de una sola variable. RESULTADOS: De 624 mujeres, casi la mitad comunicaron la confiscación de jeringas por la policía a pesar de que es legal poseerlas; 55,6% informaron extorsión (en los últimos 6 meses, con proporciones significativamente mayores en Ciudad Juárez (P < 0,001. Los informes de solicitación reciente de favores sexuales (28,5% en Tijuana, 36,5% en

  19. Relation of time to complete redistribution and the severity of coronary artery disease

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the severity of coronary artery disease and the time to complete redistribution (RD) was investigated in 66 patients with angina pectoris (AP) (28 SVD, 18 DVD and 20 TVD) and 104 patients with myocardial infarction (MI) (45 SVD, 36 DVD and 23 TVD). Stress thallium scan was performed immediately, 30 minutes (early) and 4 hours (delayed) after exercise. RD was classified into three groups (complete, incomplete and no RD). Early complete RD was observed in 15 (23 %) of AP and 3 (3 %) of MI cases. In both cases, the incidence of early RD was higher in SVD compared to DVD and TVD. And diffuse slow washout calculated from exercise and RD study disturbed the incidence of early RD in DVD and TVD. In the early RD cases of AP, coronary stenosis showed mild and collateral was not correlated, however, in the complete or incomplete RD of MI, coronary stenosis showed severe (> 90 %) and the frequency of collateral was higher compared to no RD cases. In MI cases, complete, incomplete and no RD were observed in 22 %, 25 % and 53 %, respectively. In the latter, a- or dys-kinesis at infarct zone was often observed which showed myocardial viability. In conclusion, early RD was observed about 20 % of coronary artery disease and the time to complete RD was closely related to the severity of coronary artery disease. In addition, the sensitivity for detecting transient thallium defect was influenced by the delay in beginning imaging. (author)

  20. Determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow in stroke patients with a middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Seeters, Tom van; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L.J.; Graaf, Yolanda van der

    2016-01-01

    Poor leptomeningeal collateral flow is related to worse clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke, but the factors that determine leptomeningeal collateral patency are largely unknown. We explored the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow and assessed their effect on the relation between leptomeningeal collateral flow and clinical outcome. We included 484 patients from the Dutch acute stroke study (DUST) with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The determinants of poor leptomeningeal collateral flow (≤50 % collateral filling) were identified with logistic regression. We calculated the relative risk (RR) of poor leptomeningeal collateral flow in relation to poor clinical outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale 3-6) using Poisson regression and assessed whether the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow affected this relation. Leptomeningeal collateral flow was poor in 142 patients (29 %). In multivariable analyses, higher admission glucose level (odds ratio (OR) 1.1 per mmol/L increase (95 % CI 1.0-1.2)), a proximal MCA occlusion (OR 1.9 (95 % CI 1.3-3.0)), and an incomplete posterior circle of Willis (OR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.1-2.6)) were independently related to poor leptomeningeal collateral flow. Poor leptomeningeal collateral flow was related to poor clinical outcome (unadjusted RR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.4-2.0)), and this relation was not affected by the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow. Our study shows that admission glucose level, a proximal MCA occlusion, and an incomplete ipsilateral posterior circle of Willis are determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow that represent a combination of congenital, acquired, and acute factors. After adjustment for these determinants, leptomeningeal collateral flow remains related to clinical outcome. (orig.)

  1. Determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow in stroke patients with a middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Seeters, Tom van; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the Dutch acute stroke study (DUST) investigators

    2016-10-15

    Poor leptomeningeal collateral flow is related to worse clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke, but the factors that determine leptomeningeal collateral patency are largely unknown. We explored the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow and assessed their effect on the relation between leptomeningeal collateral flow and clinical outcome. We included 484 patients from the Dutch acute stroke study (DUST) with a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The determinants of poor leptomeningeal collateral flow (≤50 % collateral filling) were identified with logistic regression. We calculated the relative risk (RR) of poor leptomeningeal collateral flow in relation to poor clinical outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale 3-6) using Poisson regression and assessed whether the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow affected this relation. Leptomeningeal collateral flow was poor in 142 patients (29 %). In multivariable analyses, higher admission glucose level (odds ratio (OR) 1.1 per mmol/L increase (95 % CI 1.0-1.2)), a proximal MCA occlusion (OR 1.9 (95 % CI 1.3-3.0)), and an incomplete posterior circle of Willis (OR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.1-2.6)) were independently related to poor leptomeningeal collateral flow. Poor leptomeningeal collateral flow was related to poor clinical outcome (unadjusted RR 1.7 (95 % CI 1.4-2.0)), and this relation was not affected by the determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow. Our study shows that admission glucose level, a proximal MCA occlusion, and an incomplete ipsilateral posterior circle of Willis are determinants of leptomeningeal collateral flow that represent a combination of congenital, acquired, and acute factors. After adjustment for these determinants, leptomeningeal collateral flow remains related to clinical outcome. (orig.)

  2. High-Risk Coronary Plaques Complicated with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Young Patients

    Opincariu Diana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA has evolved notably over the last decade, gaining an increased amount of temporo-spatial resolution in combination with decreased radiation exposure. The importance of CCTA is emerging especially in vulnerable and young patients who might not have developed a viable collateral vascular network to sustain the circulation to an infarction area during a major adverse coronary event. There are a few well-known markers by which a vulnerable plaque can be assessed and that can predict the subsequent events of sudden myocardial ischemia, such as an increased positive remodeling index (cut-off >1.4, low-attenuation plaque (cut-off 0.7, and napkin-ring sign (NRS. This manuscript presents a series of 3 clinical cases of young patients experiencing symptoms and signs of myocardial ischemia who underwent CCTA in order to assess the composition and functional characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques and their repercussion in developing an acute coronary syndrome.

  3. Differentiation of early from advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions: systematic comparison of CT, intravascular US, and optical frequency domain imaging with histopathologic examination in ex vivo human hearts.

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Schlett, Christopher L; Alkadhi, Hatem; Nakano, Masataka; Stolzmann, Paul; Vorpahl, Marc; Scheffel, Hans; Tanaka, Atsushi; Warger, William C; Maehara, Akiko; Ma, Shixin; Kriegel, Matthias F; Kaple, Ryan K; Seifarth, Harald; Bamberg, Fabian; Mintz, Gary S; Tearney, Guillermo J; Virmani, Renu; Hoffmann, Udo

    2012-11-01

    To establish an ex vivo experimental setup for imaging coronary atherosclerosis with coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography, intravascular ultrasonography (US), and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) and to investigate their ability to help differentiate early from advanced coronary plaques. All procedures were performed in accordance with local and federal regulations and the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval of the local Ethics Committee was obtained. Overall, 379 histologic cuts from nine coronary arteries from three donor hearts were acquired, coregistered among modalities, and assessed for the presence and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. To assess the discriminatory capacity of the different modalities in the detection of advanced lesions, c statistic analysis was used. Interobserver agreement was assessed with the Cohen κ statistic. Cross sections without plaque at coronary CT angiography and with fibrous plaque at OFDI almost never showed advanced lesions at histopathologic examination (odds ratio [OR]: 0.02 and 0.06, respectively; both Padvanced lesions (OR: 2.49, P=.0003; OR: 2.60, P=.002; and OR: 31.2, Padvanced lesions than intravascular US and coronary CT angiography (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.858 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.802, 0.913], 0.631 [95% CI: 0.554, 0.709], and 0.679 [95% CI: 0.618, 0.740]; respectively, Padvanced coronary plaques. © RSNA, 2012

  4. Telmisartan enhances mitochondrial activity and alters cellular functions in human coronary artery endothelial cells via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Sugamura, Koichi; Toyama, Kensuke; Matsubara, Junichi; Fujisue, Koichiro; Ohba, Keisuke; Maeda, Hirofumi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Sumida, Hitoshi; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cellular senescence and impaired function of vascular endothelium, resulted in cardiovascular diseases. Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II type I receptor blocker that has been shown to prevent cardiovascular events in high risk patients. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in mitochondrial biogenesis and endothelial function. This study assessed whether telmisartan enhances mitochondrial function and alters cellular functions via AMPK in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). In cultured HCAECs, telmisartan significantly enhanced mitochondrial activity assessed by mitochondrial reductase activity and intracellular ATP production and increased the expression of mitochondria related genes. Telmisartan prevented cellular senescence and exhibited the anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of genes related anti-oxidant and pro-angiogenic properties were increased by telmisartan. Telmisartan increased endothelial NO synthase and AMPK phosphorylation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling was not involved in telmisartan-induced improvement of mitochondrial function. All of these effects were abolished by inhibition of AMPK. Telmisartan enhanced mitochondrial activity and exhibited anti-senescence effects and improving endothelial function through AMPK in HCAECs. Telmisartan could provide beneficial effects on vascular diseases via enhancement of mitochondrial activity and modulating endothelial function through AMPK activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP3 is a lysophosphatidic acid-binding protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    Ryoko Tsukahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty-acid-binding protein 3, muscle and heart (FABP3, also known as heart-type FABP, is a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. It is a small cytoplasmic protein with a molecular mass of about 15 kDa. FABPs are known to be carrier proteins for transporting fatty acids and other lipophilic substances from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where these lipids are released to a group of nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. In this study, using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA-coated agarose beads, we have identified FABP3 as an LPA carrier protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs. Administration of LPA to HCAECs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPARγ activation. Furthermore, the LPA-induced PPARγ activation was abolished when the FABP3 expression was reduced using small interfering RNA (siRNA. We further show that the nuclear fraction of control HCAECs contained a significant amount of exogenously added LPA, whereas FABP3 siRNA-transfected HCAECs had a decreased level of LPA in the nucleus. Taken together, these results suggest that FABP3 governs the transcriptional activities of LPA by targeting them to cognate PPARγ in the nucleus.

  6. Sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 perfusion scintigrams under exercise in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Verani, M.S.; Marcus, M.L.; Razzak, M.A.; Ehrhardt, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), under exercise, in patients with suspected coronary-obstructive disease was compared with graded exercise ECG tests (GTX) in patients with angiographically normal (N = 34) and obstructed (N = 48) coronary arteries. Of the 34 patients with normal coronaries, only one had a perfusion defect on the MPI (specificity 97%). Of the 48 patients with coronary obstructive disease (>50% obstruction of at least one coronary vessel), MPI was positive in 38 (sensitivity 79%). In contrast, the GTX had a specificity of 62% and sensitivity of 88% if nondiagnostic GTX tests are excluded. When the MPI and the GTX were used in combination, however, the sensitivity of detecting patients with coronary obstructive disease was increased to 94% (p < 0.01). The MPI was particularly useful in the evaluation of the 26 patients with nondiagnostic GTX. In this group, 24 of the 26 patients were correctly identified by the MPI with respect to the presence or absence of coronary-obstructive disease. In the 14 patients with a history of classical angina but with normal coronaries, the MPI was negative in 13 and positive in one, thus suggesting that in the majority of these patients transient transmural myocardial ischemia probably does not occur during exercise. The presence or absence of angiographically demonstrable coronary collateral vessels did not seem to influence the exercise MPI in patients with coronary-obstructive disease. Thus, although the MPI does not correctly identify all patients with either coronary-obstructive disease or normal coronary arteries, it is helpful in patients who have a nondiagnostic GTX. Furthermore, when used in combination with the GTX, the MPI significantly increases the likelihood that significant coronary-obstructive disease is present when both tests are positive, and that coronary disease is absent when both tests are negative

  7. Coronary heart disease

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  8. ACE INHIBITION ATTENUATES SYMPATHETIC CORONARY VASOCONSTRICTION IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE

    PERONDI, R; SAINO, A; TIO, RA; POMIDOSSI, G; GREGORINI, L; ALESSIO, P; MORGANTI, A; ZANCHETTI, A; MANCIA, G

    Background. In humans, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates the vasoconstriction induced by sympathetic stimulation in a number of peripheral districts. Whether this is also the case in the coronary circulation is unknown, however. Methods and Results. In nine normotensive

  9. Change in the collateral and accessory collateral ligament lengths of the proximal interphalangeal joint using cadaveric model three-dimensional laser scanning.

    Sandhu, S S; Dreckmann, S; Binhammer, P A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the lengths of the index and middle finger proximal interphalangeal joint ligaments and determine the relative changes in the collateral and accessory collateral ligament lengths at 0°, 45° and 90° flexion. We generated three-dimensional scans of 16 finger (eight index and eight middle) proximal interphalangeal joints to assess relative changes in ligament length. Significant changes were found between 45°-90° and 0°-90° for the ulnar collateral ligament of the index finger and both collateral ligaments of the middle finger between 45°-90° and 0°-90°. No significant changes in length were found for the radial collateral ligament of the index finger or the accessory collateral ligaments of the index and middle fingers. Overall, it was found that the collateral ligament length changed significantly, but there was no significant change in the accessory collateral ligaments. Therapeutic IV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Medial collateral ligament healing one year after a concurrent medial collateral ligament and anterior cruciate ligament injury: an interdisciplinary study in rabbits.

    Yamaji, T; Levine, R E; Woo, S L; Niyibizi, C; Kavalkovich, K W; Weaver-Green, C M

    1996-03-01

    The optimal treatment for concurrent injuries to the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments has not been determined, despite numerous clinical and laboratory studies. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of surgical repair of the medial collateral ligament on its biomechanical and biochemical properties 52 weeks after such injuries. In the left knee of 12 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, the medial collateral ligament was torn and the anterior cruciate ligament was transected and then reconstructed. This is an experimental model previously developed in our laboratory. In six rabbits, the torn ends of the medial collateral ligament were repaired, and in the remaining six rabbits, the ligament was not repaired. Fifty-two weeks after injury, we examined varus-valgus and anterior-posterior knee stability; structural properties of the femur-medial collateral ligament-tibia complex; and mechanical properties, collagen content, and mature collagen crosslinking of the medial collateral ligament. We could not detect significant differences between repair and nonrepair groups for any biomechanical or biochemical property. Our data support clinical findings that when the medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments are injured concurrently and the anterior cruciate ligament is reconstructed, conservative treatment of the ruptured medial collateral ligament can result in successful healing.

  11. Status of systemic to pulmonary arterial collateral flow after the fontan procedure.

    Whitehead, Kevin K; Harris, Matthew A; Glatz, Andrew C; Gillespie, Matthew J; DiMaria, Michael V; Harrison, Neil E; Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S; Rome, Jonathan J; Fogel, Mark A

    2015-06-15

    The investigators recently validated a method of quantifying systemic-to-pulmonary arterial collateral flow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging velocity mapping. Cross-sectional data suggest decreased collateral flow in patients with total cavopulmonary connections (TCPCs) compared with those with superior cavopulmonary connections (SCPCs). However, no studies have examined serial changes in collateral flow from SCPCs to TCPCs in the same patients. The aim of this study was to examine differences in collateral flow between patients with SCPCs and those with TCPCs. Collateral flow was quantified by 2 independent measures from 250 single-ventricle studies in 219 different patients (115 SCPC and 135 TCPC studies, 31 patients with both) and 18 controls, during routine studies using through-plane phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Collateral flow was indexed to body surface area, aortic flow, and pulmonary venous flow. Regardless of indexing method, SCPC patients had significantly higher collateral flow than TCPC patients (1.64 ± 0.8 vs 1.03 ± 0.8 L/min/m(2), p <0.001). In 31 patients who underwent serial examinations, collateral flow as a fraction of aortic flow increased early after TCPC completion. In TCPC patients, indexed collateral flow demonstrated a significant negative correlation with time from TCPC. In conclusion, SCPC and TCPC patients demonstrate substantial collateral flow, with SCPC patients having higher collateral flow than TCPC patients overall. On the basis of the paired subset analysis, collateral flow does not decrease in the short term after TCPC completion and trends toward an increase. In the long term, however, collateral flow decreases over time after TCPC completion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of collateral circulation on early outcome and risk of hemorrhagic complications after systemic thrombolysis.

    Brunner, Freimuth; Tomandl, Bernd; Hanken, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Kastrup, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    In stroke patients, collateral flow can rapidly be assessed on computed tomography angiography (CTA). In this study, the impact of baseline collaterals on early outcome and risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages after systemic thrombolysis in patients with proximal arterial occlusions within the anterior circulation were analyzed. Collateralization scores were determined on the CT angiography source images (0 = absent; 1 ≤ 50%, 2 > 50% but collateral filling) of patients with distal intracranial carotid artery and/or M1 segment occlusions treated from 2008 to December 2011. A collateral score of 0 to 1 was designated as poor and 2 to 3 as good collateral vessel status. Outcome variables included in hospital mortality, favorable outcome at discharge (modified Rankin score ≤ 2), and rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage based on the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II definition. Among 246 subjects (mean age of 74 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale N at admission 14), 205 patients (83%) had good collaterals, whereas 41 patients (17%) had poor collaterals, respectively. Patients with poor collaterals had significantly higher rates of in-hospital mortality (41% vs. 12%, P collaterals. The grade of collateralization was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (P collaterals have a poor early functional outcome and high rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after systemic thrombolysis. Since similar findings have also been reported after endovascular therapy, strategies to improve collateral blood flow should be assessed in this patient population. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  13. Vascular endothelial overexpression of human CYP2J2 (Tie2-CYP2J2 Tr) modulates cardiac oxylipin profiles and enhances coronary reactive hyperemia in mice

    Hanif, Ahmad; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Morisseau, Christophe; Falck, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome (CYP) P450 epoxygenases, and to ω-terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) by ω-hydroxylases. EETs and HETEs often have opposite biologic effects; EETs are vasodilatory and protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, while ω-terminal HETEs are vasoconstrictive and cause vascular dysfunction. Other oxylipins, such as epoxyoctadecaenoic acids (EpOMEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), and prostanoids also have varied vascular effects. Post-ischemic vasodilation in the heart, known as coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH), protects against potential damage to the heart muscle caused by ischemia. The relationship among CRH response to ischemia, in mice with altered levels of CYP2J epoxygenases has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of endothelial overexpression of the human cytochrome P450 epoxygenase CYP2J2 in mice (Tie2-CYP2J2 Tr) on oxylipin profiles and CRH. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of pharmacologic inhibition of CYP-epoxygenases and inhibition of ω-hydroxylases on CRH. We hypothesized that CRH would be enhanced in isolated mouse hearts with vascular endothelial overexpression of human CYP2J2 through modulation of oxylipin profiles. Similarly, we expected that inhibition of CYP-epoxygenases would reduce CRH, whereas inhibition of ω-hydroxylases would enhance CRH. Compared to WT mice, Tie2-CYP2J2 Tr mice had enhanced CRH, including repayment volume, repayment duration, and repayment/debt ratio (P iso-PGF2α (P < 0.05). Inhibition of CYP epoxygenases with MS-PPOH attenuated CRH (P < 0.05). Ischemia caused a decrease in mid-chain HETEs (5-, 11-, 12-, 15-HETEs P < 0.05) and HODEs (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that vascular endothelial overexpression of CYP2J2, through changing the oxylipin profiles, enhances CRH. Inhibition of CYP epoxygenases decreases CRH, whereas inhibition of ω-hydroxylases enhances CRH. PMID:28328948

  14. Is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit a suitable experimental model for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in humans? A light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study

    Wanibuchi, H.; Dingemans, K. P.; Becker, A. E.; Ueda, M.; Naruko, T.; Tanizawa, S.; Nakamura, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to assess an experimental model for the study of mechanisms that underlie restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit lacks the receptor for low density lipoproteins, produces atherosclerotic lesions

  15. Collateral Composition, Diversification Risk, and Systemically Important Merchant Banks

    Derviz, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, Special Issue (2014), s. 23-34 ISSN 1572-3089 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11983S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : collateral * systemic risk * merchant bank * CoCo Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/derviz-0433271.pdf

  16. Multidetector CT portal venography in evaluation of portosystemic collateral vessels

    Agarwal, A.; Jain, M.

    2008-01-01

    This essay shows the usefulness of multidetector CT angiography for evaluation of the splenoportal venous system, which is essential in the management of patients with portal hypertension and its complications, such as portal vein thrombosis. By providing scanning with reconstruction of thin axial source images and reformatting into thicker multiplanar reformats, multidetector CT can help to determine the extent and location of portosystemic collateral vessels in patients with portal hypertension and is probably the optimal imaging technique in this setting.

  17. Collateral Optimization : Liquidity & Funding Value Adjustments, - Best Practices -

    Genest, Benoit; Rego, David; Freon, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how the current financial landscape shaped by the crises and new regulations impacts Investment Banking’s business model. We will focus on quantitative implications, i.e. valuation, modeling and pricing issues, as well as qualitative implications, i.e. best practices to manage quantitative aspects and handle these functions to the current Investment Banking organization. We considered two pillars to shape our vision of collateral optimization: ...

  18. Gross anatomical study on the human myocardial bridges with special reference to the spatial relationship among coronary arteries, cardiac veins, and autonomic nerves.

    Watanabe, Yuko; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Kageyama, Ikuo; Aizawa, Yukio; Kumaki, Katsuji; Miki, Akinori; Terashima, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Coronary arteries are frequently covered by cardiac muscles. This arrangement is termed a myocardial bridge. Previous studies have shown that myocardial bridges can cause myocardial ischemic diseases or cardiac arrhythmia, but the relevant pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We examined 60 hearts from Japanese cadavers macroscopically to clarify the spatial relationships among coronary arteries, cardiac veins and autonomic nerves. We found 86 myocardial bridges in 47 hearts from the 60 cadavers examined (78.3%). Next, we dissected out nine hearts with myocardial bridges in detail under the operating microscope. We found no additional branches of coronary arteries on the myocardial bridge surfaces. However, the cardiac veins, which usually accompany the coronary arteries, ran independently on the myocardial bridge surfaces in the same region. Cardiac autonomic nerves comprised two rami: one was associated with the coronary artery under the myocardial bridge and the other ran on the surface of the bridge. Such spatial relationships among the coronary arteries, cardiac veins and cardiac autonomic nerves at the myocardial bridges are quite similar to those in mouse embryo hearts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes.

    Kramer, Dennis E; Miller, Patricia E; Berrahou, Iman K; Yen, Yi-Meng; Heyworth, Benton E

    2017-12-08

    The majority of research on medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligament injuries has focused on adults and combined collateral/cruciate injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics associated with isolated collateral ligament injuries in adolescents, and assess timing for return to sports. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients aged below 17 years who sustained a magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed isolated MCL or LCL injury over an 8-year period. Retrospective review then documented patient and injury characteristics and clinical course. General linear modeling was used to analyze risk factors for prolonged return to sports, continued pain or reinjury. Fifty-one knees (33 in males, 65%), mean age 13.8 years (range, 5 to 17), were identified, of which 40 (78%) had MCL injuries. Over half (29, 57%) of knees had an open distal femoral physis including all 5 bony avulsion injuries. Eleven (22%) had LCL injuries of which 3 (6%) had concurrent posterolateral corner injuries. Forty-two (82%) knees had injuries that occurred during sports. Eleven knees (28%) with MCL tears had a simultaneous patellar instability episode. Knee injuries that occurred during sports had 37% shorter recovery time (P=0.02). Eight knees (16%) experienced a reinjury and 12 (24%) were followed over an extended period of time for various knee issues. Football injuries were more likely to be grade 3 (P=0.03), and football and soccer accounted for all grade III injuries. The mean return to sports was 2.2 months, with grade III cases returning at 2.4 months, and 95% of cases within 4 months. Isolated collateral ligament injuries are rare in adolescent athletes. MCL injuries, one-quarter of which occurred in conjunction with patellar instability events, were 4 times more common than LCL injuries, one quarter of which have other posterolateral corner structures involved. Grade III injuries represent 20% to 25% of collateral ligament injuries and

  20. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging during transient coronary occlusion at the time of PTCA

    Nakagawa, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Hiroki; Inagaki, Suetsugu

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate myocardial perfusion during transient coronary arterial occlusion, thallium-201 was administered intravenously during percutaneous transluminall coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in 12 patients with effort angina, and the resulting perfusion images were compared with those of exercise stress obtained before PTCA. Thallium-201 was injected at the last inflation of an angioplastic baloon and occlusion was maintained for 60 to 90 sec. Three projections of planar images were obtained immediately after PTCA, using a portable gamma camera in an angiography room. These perfusion images obtained during PTCA and exercise were visually interpreted and compared. Myocardial perfusion defects due to the responsible vessel occlusion were observed at early imaging after PTCA, and were fully redistributed three hrs post injection. In 10 patients without angiographically imaged collateral vessels, there were no significatn differences in perfusion between images during PTCA and during exercise. Two patients whose collaterals were observed during coronary angiography before PTCA had higher perfusion scores during PTCA than during exercise. We concluded that intravenous injection of thallium-201 during PTCA is a useful means for assessing alteration of myocardial perfusion due to transient coronary occlusion without increasing the risk of angioplastic procedures, and that it provides more precise information about the jeopardized myocardium, perfused by antegrade blood flow. (author)

  1. Cerebral collateral therapeutics in acute ischemic stroke: A randomized preclinical trial of four modulation strategies.

    Beretta, Simone; Versace, Alessandro; Carone, Davide; Riva, Matteo; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cuccione, Elisa; Cai, Ruiyao; Monza, Laura; Pirovano, Silvia; Padovano, Giada; Stiro, Fabio; Presotto, Luca; Paternò, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Giussani, Carlo; Sganzerla, Erik P; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral collaterals are dynamically recruited after arterial occlusion and highly affect tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the efficacy and safety of four pathophysiologically distinct strategies for acute modulation of collateral flow (collateral therapeutics) in the rat stroke model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. A composed randomization design was used to assign rats (n = 118) to receive phenylephrine (induced hypertension), polygeline (intravascular volume load), acetazolamide (cerebral arteriolar vasodilation), head down tilt (HDT) 15° (cerebral blood flow diversion), or no treatment, starting 30 min after MCA occlusion. Compared to untreated animals, treatment with collateral therapeutics was associated with lower infarct volumes (62% relative mean difference; 51.57 mm 3 absolute mean difference; p Collateral therapeutics acutely increased cerebral perfusion in the medial (+40.8%; p collaterals is feasible and provides a tissue-saving effect in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke prior to recanalization therapy.

  2. Collateral findings during computed tomography scan for atrial fibrillation ablation: Let's take a look around.

    Perna, Francesco; Casella, Michela; Narducci, Maria Lucia; Dello Russo, Antonio; Bencardino, Gianluigi; Pontone, Gianluca; Pelargonio, Gemma; Andreini, Daniele; Vitulano, Nicola; Pizzamiglio, Francesca; Conte, Edoardo; Crea, Filippo; Tondo, Claudio

    2016-04-26

    The growing number of atrial fibrillation catheter ablation procedures warranted the development of advanced cardiac mapping techniques, such as image integration between electroanatomical map and cardiac computed tomography. While scanning the chest before catheter ablation, it is frequent to detect cardiac and extracardiac collateral findings. Most collateral findings are promptly recognized as benign and do not require further attention. However, sometimes clinically relevant collateral findings are detected, which often warrant extra diagnostic examinations or even invasive procedure, and sometimes need to be followed-up over time. Even though reporting and further investigating collateral findings has not shown a clear survival benefit, almost all the working groups providing data on collateral findings reported some collateral findings eventually coming out to be malignancies, sometimes at an early stage. Therefore, there is currently no clear agreement about the right strategy to be followed.

  3. Associations Between Collateral Status and Thrombus Characteristics and Their Impact in Anterior Circulation Stroke.

    Alves, Heitor C; Treurniet, Kilian M; Dutra, Bruna G; Jansen, Ivo G H; Boers, Anna M M; Santos, Emilie M M; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Dippel, Diederik W J; van der Lugt, Aad; van Zwam, Wim H; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Lingsma, Hester F; Roos, Yvo B W E M; Yoo, Albert J; Marquering, Henk A; Majoie, Charles B L M

    2018-02-01

    Thrombus characteristics and collateral score are associated with functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. It has been suggested that they affect each other. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between clot burden score, thrombus perviousness, and collateral score and to determine whether collateral score influences the association of thrombus characteristics with functional outcome. Patients with baseline thin-slice noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography images from the MR CLEAN trial (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands) were included (n=195). Collateral score and clot burden scores were determined on baseline computed tomographic angiography. Thrombus attenuation increase was determined by comparing thrombus density on noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography using a semiautomated method. The association of collateral score with clot burden score and thrombus attenuation increase was evaluated with linear regression. Mediation and effect modification analyses were used to assess the influence of collateral score on the association of clot burden score and thrombus attenuation increase with functional outcome. A higher clot burden score (B=0.063; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.118) and a higher thrombus attenuation increase (B=0.014; 95% confidence interval, 0.003-0.026) were associated with higher collateral score. Collateral score mediated the association of clot burden score with functional outcome. The association between thrombus attenuation increase and functional outcome was modified by the collateral score, and this association was stronger in patients with moderate and good collaterals. Patients with lower thrombus burden and higher thrombus perviousness scores had higher collateral score. The positive effect of thrombus perviousness on clinical outcome was only present in patients with

  4. Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells

    Ning Xia; Andrea Pautz; Ursula Wollscheid; Gisela Reifenberg; Ulrich Förstermann; Huige Li

    2014-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world’s oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects ...

  5. Angiotensin II receptor one (AT1) mediates dextrose induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and superoxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Haas, Michael J; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Lee, Tracey; Torfah, Maisoon; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2016-10-01

    Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in diabetes-related vascular complications partly through oxidative stress. To determine the role of angiotensin II receptor subtype one (AT1) in dextrose induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, another cellular stress implicated in vascular disease. Human coronary artery endothelial cells with or without AT1 receptor knock down were treated with 27.5mM dextrose for 24h in the presence of various pharmacologic blockers of RAAS and ER stress and superoxide (SO) production were measured. Transfection of cells with AT1 antisense RNA knocked down cellular AT1 by approximately 80%. The ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase (ES-TRAP) assay and western blot analysis of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), c-jun-N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), phospho-JNK1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and phospho-eIF2α measurements. Superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride (MCLA) chemiluminescence. In cells with AT1 knock down, dextrose induced ER stress was significantly blunted and treatment with 27.5mM dextrose resulted in significantly smaller increase in SO production compared to 27.5mM dextrose treated and sham transfected cells. Dextrose induced ER stress was reduced with pharmacologic blockers of AT1 (losartan and candesartan) and mineralocorticoid receptor blocker (spironolactone) but not with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril and lisinopril). The dextrose induced SO generation was inhibited by all pharmacologic blockers of RAAS tested. The results indicate that dextrose induced ER stress and SO production in endothelial cells are mediated at least partly through AT1 receptor activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The utility of collateral student drinking reports: Evidence from a biomarker study.

    Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Berger, Lisa; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas; Jones, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have increasingly used collateral informants to validate the reports provided by primary research subjects. We assessed the utility of collateral informants for college students in a study that incorporates biomarkers to validate student reports of recent drinking behavior. Students from a Midwestern university were randomly selected for a study in which they provided 90-day Timeline Followback data, hair and fingernail specimens for ethylglucuronide (EtG) testing, and information about collateral (friends or peers) informants who were familiar with their drinking behavior. We compared summary measures of recent drinking to collateral informant reports for the subset of 72 students who were selected to participate in the collateral validation process who had complete measures. Kappa, weighted kappa, and McNemar tests were performed to evaluate levels of agreement. We compared levels of use indicated by each informant within the context of EtG findings. We also compared respondent and collateral reports with respect to heavy drinking directly to EtG test results. There was considerable overlap between the reports provided by the student participants and their collateral informants. Within the context of EtG-informed analyses, collaterals rarely provided new information about heavy use beyond that provided by the study subjects. Collateral informants have limited utility in non-clinical studies of heavy drinking in randomly selected college students. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Non-bronchial collateral supply from the left gastric artery in massive haemoptysis

    Sellars, N.; Belli, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients presented with recurrent, massive haemoptysis. Arteriography, including thoracoabdominal aortograms, revealed in both cases large non-bronchial collaterals arising from the left gastric artery. In the first case the non-bronchial collateral supplied the upper left lobe and in the second case it supplied the middle right lobe. Percutaneous embolisation of bronchial and non-bronchial collateral branches has become an accepted procedure in controlling massive or recurrent haemoptysis. Accurate identification of the non-bronchial collateral arterial feeders is essential for successful embolotherapy. (orig.)

  8. Aging causes collateral rarefaction and increased severity of ischemic injury in multiple tissues

    Faber, James E.; Zhang, Hua; Lassance-Soares, Roberta M.; Prabhakar, Pranay; Najafi, Amir H.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Aging is a major risk factor for increased ischemic tissue injury. Whether collateral rarefaction and impaired remodeling contribute to this is unknown. We quantified the number and diameter of native collaterals, and their remodeling in 3-, 16-, 24-, and 31-months-old mice. Methods and Results Aging caused an “age-dose-dependent” greater drop in perfusion immediately after femoral artery ligation, followed by a diminished recovery of flow and increase in tissue injury. These effects were associated with a decline in collateral number, diameter and remodeling. Angiogenesis was also impaired. Mechanistically, these changes were not accompanied by reduced recruitment of T-cells or macrophages to remodeling collaterals. However, eNOS signaling was dysfunctional, as indicated by increased protein nitrosylation and less phosphorylated eNOS and VASP in collateral wall cells. The cerebral circulation exhibited a similar age-dose-dependent loss of collateral number and diameter and increased tortuosity, resulting in an increase in collateral resistance and infarct volume (e.g., 6- and 3-fold, respectively, in 24-months-old mice) after artery occlusion. This was not associated with rarefaction of similarly-sized arterioles. Collateral remodeling was also reduced. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that aging causes rarefaction and insufficiency of the collateral circulation in multiple tissues, resulting in more severe ischemic tissue injury. PMID:21617137

  9. Pressure-flow characteristics and nutritional capacity of coronary veins in dogs

    Cohen, M.V.; Matsuki, T.; Downey, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    To examine the hemodynamic interdependence of coronary arteries and veins, great cardiac vein (GCV) and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery flows of dogs were measured. Although they were not different under base-line conditions, 42.9 +/- 4.1 and 34.9 +/- 5.2 ml/min, respectively, LAD occlusion caused only a 56% decrease in GCV flow, whereas peak GCV flow during reactive hyperemia consistently underestimated peak LAD flow by nearly 40%. The measured hemodynamic data were very closely predicted by a simple model that assumed the presence of a low-resistance venous collateral anastomotic pathway between the GCV and veins outside the LAD territory. The resistance of the venous collaterals averaged 9.9 +/- 3.0% of LAD resistance. Therefore, GCV flow does not solely represent LAD collateral flow when the LAD is occluded, nor is it a reliable indicator of changes in LAD perfusion patterns. Nutritional myocardial perfusion assessed with 133 Xe washout decreased from 0.86 +/- 0.16 to 0.13 +/- 0.02 ml.min-1.g-1 after LAD occlusion, whereas retroperfusion of the GCV with arterial blood enhanced washout by 85% to 0.23 +/- 0.03 ml.min-1.g-1 (P less than 0.005). Retroperfusion was inefficient, however, since only 10% of the isotope injected into the GCV gained access to the myocardium

  10. Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Severe Peripheral Artery Disease in a 20-Year-Old with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Purva Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Patients with perinatally acquired HIV may be at increased risk due to the viral infection itself and exposure to HAART in utero or as part of treatment. A 20-year-old female with transplacentally acquired HIV infection presented with symptoms of transient aphasia, headache, palpitations, and blurry vision. She was admitted for hypertensive emergency with blood pressure 203/100 mmHg. Within a few hours, she complained of typical chest pain, and ECG showed marked ST depression. Troponin I levels escalated from 0.115 to 10.8. She underwent coronary angiogram showing 95% stenosis of the right coronary artery (RCA and severe peripheral arterial disease including total occlusion of both common iliacs and 95% infrarenal aortic stenosis with collateral circulation. She underwent successful percutaneous intervention with a drug-eluting stent to the mid-RCA. Patients with HIV are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Of these, coronary artery disease is one of the most critical complications of HIV. Perinatally acquired HIV infection can be a high-risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A high degree of suspicion is warranted in such patients, especially if they are noncompliant to their ART.

  11. Time-resolved assessment of collateral flow using 4D CT angiography in large-vessel occlusion stroke

    Froelich, Andreas M.J.; Wolff, Sarah Lena; Psychogios, Marios N.; Schramm, Ramona; Knauth, Michael; Schramm, Peter; Klotz, Ernst; Wasser, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion, collateral blood flow affects tissue fate and patient outcome. The visibility of collaterals on computed tomography angiography (CTA) strongly depends on the acquisition phase, but the optimal time point for collateral imaging is unknown. We analysed collaterals in a time-resolved fashion using four-dimensional (4D) CTA in 82 endovascularly treated stroke patients, aiming to determine which acquisition phase best depicts collaterals and predicts outcome. Early, peak and late phases as well as temporally fused maximum intensity projections (tMIP) were graded using a semiquantitative regional leptomeningeal collateral score, compared with conventional single-phase CTA and correlated with functional outcome. The total extent of collateral flow was best visualised on tMIP. Collateral scores were significantly lower on early and peak phase as well as on single-phase CTA. Collateral grade was associated with favourable functional outcome and the strength of this relationship increased from earlier to later phases, with collaterals on tMIP showing the strongest correlation with outcome. Temporally fused tMIP images provide the best depiction of collateral flow. Our findings suggest that the total extent of collateral flow, rather than the velocity of collateral filling, best predicts clinical outcome. (orig.)

  12. Nox2 and p47phox modulate compensatory growth of primary collateral arteries

    DiStasi, Matthew R.; Unthank, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in both the promotion and impairment of compensatory collateral growth remains controversial because the specific Nox and reactive oxygen species involved are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the primary Nox and reactive oxygen species associated with early stage compensatory collateral growth in young, healthy animals. Ligation of the feed arteries that form primary collateral pathways in rat mesentery and mouse hindlimb was used to assess the role of Nox during collateral growth. Changes in mesenteric collateral artery Nox mRNA expression determined by real-time PCR at 1, 3, and 7 days relative to same-animal control arteries suggested a role for Nox subunits Nox2 and p47phox. Administration of apocynin or Nox2ds-tat suppressed collateral growth in both rat and mouse models, suggesting the Nox2/p47phox interaction was involved. Functional significance of p47phox expression was assessed by evaluation of collateral growth in rats administered p47phox small interfering RNA and in p47phox−/− mice. Diameter measurements of collateral mesenteric and gracilis arteries at 7 and 14 days, respectively, indicated no significant collateral growth compared with control rats or C57BL/6 mice. Chronic polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase administration significantly suppressed collateral development in rats and mice, implying a requirement for H2O2. Taken together, these results suggest that Nox2, modulated at least in part by p47phox, mediates early stage compensatory collateral development via a process dependent upon peroxide generation. These results have important implications for the use of antioxidants and the development of therapies for peripheral arterial disease. PMID:24633549

  13. Collateral hepatic circulation with the portal hypertension syndrome in children

    Filippkin, M.A.; Kondakov, V.T.; Artamonov, Yu.A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of complex examination carried out in 80 children of different age with the extrahepatic form of portal hypertension and liver fibrosis are presented. Correspondence between clinical and roentgenoangiograph patterns of disease is detected. Dependence of the degree of varicose transformation of submucous veins of the esophagus and stomach on the value and the character of portal blood disposal is established. The risk group is detected. Clinico-X-ray comparisons carried out testify about advisability of the account of individual features of collateral hepatic circulation of the liver when developing medical treatment

  14. Computed tomographic manifestations of abdominal and pelvic venous collaterals

    Pagani, J.J.; Thomas, J.L.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Obstruction of blood flow through the inferior vena cava and portal vein may produce venous collaterals. These include the paravertebral venous system and its communications with the ascending lumbar veins and azygous/hemiazygous system; gonadal, periureteric, and other retroperitoneal veins; abdominal wall veins; hemorrhoidal venous plexus; and the portal venous system. The anatomic location of these vessels is discussed. Computed tomography demonstrates them as round or tubular structures that are isodens when compared with other venous structures following contrast material administration. Techniques of examination and methods of differentiation of these vascular structures from other abnormalities, especially lymphadenopathy, are discussed

  15. Length of Coronary Sinus in a Black Kenyan Population: Correlation ...

    The aim of the current study was to determine the length of coronary sinus among black Kenyans. Coronary sinuses of seventy-four hearts (43 males and 31 females) of adult age range (20-70years) black Kenyans obtained during autopsy were studied at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

  16. Coronary artery aneurysms

    Koischwitz, D.; Harder, T.; Schuppan, U.; Thurn, P.

    1982-04-01

    Seven saccular coronary artery aneurysms have been demonstrated in the course of 1452 selective coronary artery angiograms. In six patients they were arterio-sclerotic; in one patient the aneurysm must have been congenital or of mycotic-embolic origin. The differential diagnosis between true aneurysms and other causes of vascular dilatation is discussed. Coronary artery aneurysms have a poor prognosis because of the possibility of rupture with resultant cardiac tamponade, or the development of thrombo-embolic myocardial infarction. These aneurysms can only be diagnosed by means of coronary angiography and require appropriate treatment.

  17. Indications for coronary angiography

    Kaltenbach, M.; Vallbracht, C.

    1985-01-01

    Today selective coronary angiography, introduced by Sones in 1957, is used as clinical routine for diagnosing morphological changes in the coronary arteries. Hitherto, more recent techniques such as digital subtraction angiography cannot provide comparable information. Strict criteria for its indication depending on possible therapeutic consequences, have to be applied, although the risk is low with a letality of 0.01 to 0.05 percent. Radionuclear investigations can be used as additional tool in selected cases. The careful indication for coronary angiography usually implies the possible need for coronary bypass graft surgery of balloon angioplasty. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Characterizing the angiogenic activity of patients with single ventricle physiology and aortopulmonary collateral vessels.

    Sandeep, Nefthi; Uchida, Yutaka; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; McCarter, Robert; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Bangoura, Aminata; Zhao, Zhen; Oliver-Danna, Jacqueline; Leatherbury, Linda; Kanter, Joshua; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke

    2016-04-01

    Patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease often form aortopulmonary collateral vessels via an unclear mechanism. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of aortopulmonary collateral vessels, we correlated angiogenic factor levels with in vitro activity and angiographic aortopulmonary collateral assessment and examined whether patients with single ventricle physiology have increased angiogenic factors that can stimulate endothelial cell sprouting in vitro. In patients with single ventricle physiology (n = 27) and biventricular acyanotic control patients (n = 21), hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor levels were measured in femoral venous and arterial plasma at cardiac catheterization. To assess plasma angiogenic activity, we used a 3-dimensional in vitro cell sprouting assay that recapitulates angiogenic sprouting. Aortopulmonary collateral angiograms were graded using a 4-point scale. Compared with controls, patients with single ventricle physiology had increased vascular endothelial growth factor (artery: 58.7 ± 1.2 pg/mL vs 35.3 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P collateral severity. We are the first to correlate plasma angiogenic factor levels with angiography and in vitro angiogenic activity in patients with single ventricle disease with aortopulmonary collaterals. Patients with single ventricle disease have increased stromal-derived factor 1-alpha and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and their roles in aortopulmonary collateral formation require further investigation. Plasma factors and angiogenic activity correlate poorly with aortopulmonary collateral severity in patients with single ventricles, suggesting complex mechanisms of angiogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition improves collateral vascular reactivity in biliary cirrhotic rats

    Ching-Chih Chang

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: There was no significant hemodynamic change and renal toxicity after acute administration of COX inhibitor in the FBDL-induced cirrhotic rats. Preincubation of selective COX-1, but not COX-2, inhibitor could enhance collateral vascular response to AVP, indicating that COX-1 plays a major role in the collateral vascular reactivity.

  20. The Power of Collateral : How Problems in Securing Transections Limit Private Credit from Movable Property

    Fleisig, Heywood

    1995-01-01

    In many developing countries, faulty laws and regulations make it hard to use livestock, machines, equipment, standing crops, and other movable property as collateral. The resulting constraints on access to credit hurt economies. In Bolivia, for example, a faulty legal and regulatory framework for the use of movable property as collateral has led to a loss in GDP estimated at between 5 and...

  1. 13 CFR 123.11 - Does SBA require collateral for any of its disaster loans?

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does SBA require collateral for any of its disaster loans? 123.11 Section 123.11 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...? Generally, SBA will not require that you pledge collateral to secure a disaster home loan or a physical...

  2. SmPL: A Domain-Specific Language for Specifying Collateral Evolutions in Linux Device Drivers

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    identifying the affected files and modifying all of the code fragments in these files that in some way depend on the changed interface. We have studied the collateral evolution problem in the context of Linux device drivers. Currently, collateral evolutions in Linux are mostly done manually using a text...

  3. 25 CFR 166.223 - Can I use a permit as collateral for a loan?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I use a permit as collateral for a loan? 166.223... PERMITS Permit Requirements Permit (leasehold) Mortgage § 166.223 Can I use a permit as collateral for a loan? We may approve a permit containing a provision that authorizes the permittee to encumber the...

  4. Collateralization, Bank Loan Rates and Monitoring : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Ongena, S.; Roszbach, K.

    2011-01-01

    Collateral is one of the most important features of a debt contract. A substantial theoretical literature motivates the use of collateral as a means to alleviate ex-ante and ex-post information asymmetries between borrowers and lenders and the incidence of credit rationing. Through its seniority

  5. Abnormal monocyte recruitment and collateral artery formation in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 deficient mice

    Voskuil, Michiel; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Royen, Niels; Hua, Jing; de Graaf, Stijn; Bode, Christoph; Buschmann, Ivo R.; Piek, Jan J.

    2004-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been shown to be effective for the stimulation of collateral artery formation in small and large animal models. The availability of a genetic knockout mouse enables evaluation of the importance of the role of MCP-1 in the natural course of collateral

  6. Tests of Ex Ante Versus Ex Post Theories of Collateral Using Private and Public Information

    Berger, A.N.; Frame, W.S.; Ioannidou, V.

    2010-01-01

    Collateral is a widely used, but not well understood, debt contracting feature. Two broad strands of theoretical literature explain collateral as arising from the existence of either ex ante private information or ex post incentive problems between borrowers and lenders. However, the extant

  7. Tests of ex ante ex post theories of collateral using private and public information

    Berger, A.N.; Frame, W.S.; Ioannidou, V.

    2011-01-01

    Collateral is a widely used, but not well understood, debt contracting feature. Two broad strands of theoretical literature explain collateral as arising from the existence of either ex ante private information or ex post incentive problems between borrowers and lenders. However, the extant

  8. Absent collateral function of the circle of Willis as risk factor for ischemic stroke

    Hoksbergen, A. W. J.; Legemate, D. A.; Csiba, L.; Csáti, G.; Síró, P.; Fülesdi, B.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Autopsy studies show a higher prevalence of circle of Willis anomalies in brains with signs of ischemic infarction. Our goal was to examine the collateral function of the circle of Willis in ischemic stroke patients and to assess in a case-control study if a collateral deficient circle

  9. Inflammatory processes during arteriogenesis : the contribution of the innate immune system to collateral artery growth

    de Groot, D.

    2011-01-01

    The central theme of the work presented in the thesis is restoration of tissue perfusion by collateral artery growth. During collateral artery growth, or arteriogenesis, unused pre-existing vascular anastomoses remodel into functional arteries. These arteries are able to take over the perfusion of

  10. Stimulation of collateral artery growth: travelling further down the road to clinical application

    Schirmer, S. H.; van Nooijen, F. C.; Piek, J. J.; van Royen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Collateral artery growth is a potent natural defence mechanism to prevent death and myocardial infarction in occlusive artery disease. Given the high prevalence of arterial obstructive disease, a therapeutic compound stimulating collateral vessel growth could have a major impact on morbidity and

  11. Clinical utility and problem of thallium myocardial imaging after coronary angioplasty

    Konishi, Tokuji; Tamai, Takuya; Nakamura, Mashio; Miyahara, Masatoshi; Isaka, Naoki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to assess the value and limits of stress thallium myocardial imaging in the diagnosis of reclosure after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and (2) to determine how myocardial viability, as determined on thallium imaging, influenced the therapeutic option. In study 1, 117 segments, which were treated with PTCA, were examined. Of 52 segments that showed thallium defects, 27 were treated with repeated PTCA. Of the other 25 segments, 12 were found to be reclosed. On the other hand, 65 other segments showed redistribution on thallium imaging, and 60 of these had no reclosure. The remaining 5 segments that were reclosed reflected no evidence of myocardial viability. These findings suggest that coronary arteriography may omitted when redistribution is seen on stress thallium imaging after PTCA. The population in Study 2 included 39 patients who were diagnosed as having myocardial necrosis on thallium imaging. In 22 of these patients, thallium findings ruled out coronary revascularization. One other patient did not undergo coronary revascularization because of technical problems. Thus, the remaining 16 patients were treated with coronary revascularization combined with bypass surgery for necrotic zones (n=10) or with PTCA for preserved collateral circulation (n=6). For necrotic zones evidenced on thallium imaging, factors other than necrosis were considered in determining coronary revascularization. (N.K.)

  12. Collateral methotrexate resistance in cisplatin-selected murine leukemia cells

    Bhushan A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major cause of failure of many therapeutic protocols. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The exact mechanism depends upon the drug of interest as well as the tumor type treated. While studying a cell line selected for its resistance to cisplatin we noted that the cells expressed a >25,000-fold collateral resistance to methotrexate. Given the magnitude of this resistance we elected to investigate this intriguing collateral resistance. From a series of investigations we have identified an alteration in a membrane protein of the resistant cell as compared to the sensitive cells that could be the primary mechanism of resistance. Our studies reviewed here indicate decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein (molecular mass = 66 in the resistant cells, which results in little or no transfer of methotrexate from the medium into the cell. Since this is a relatively novel function for tyrosine phosphorylation, this information may provide insight into possible pharmacological approaches to modify therapeutic regimens by analyzing the status of this protein in tumor samples for a better survival of the cancer patients.

  13. Orbital atherectomy system in treating calcified coronary lesions: 3-Year follow-up in first human use study (ORBIT I trial)

    Bhatt, Parloop, E-mail: parloop.bhatt@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Parth, E-mail: parth.parikh@cimshospital.org [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Patel, Apurva, E-mail: patela12@ccf.org [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Chag, Milan, E-mail: milan.chag@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Chandarana, Anish, E-mail: anish.chandarana@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Roosha, E-mail: parikhr@ccf.org [Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Parikh, Keyur, E-mail: keyur.parikh@cims.me [Care Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS), Ahmedabad 380060, Gujarat (India)

    2014-06-15

    Background/Purpose: The ORBIT I trial evaluated the safety and performance of an orbital atherectomy system (OAS) in treating de novo calcified coronary lesions. Severely calcified coronary arteries pose ongoing treatment challenges. Stent placement in calcified lesions can result in stent under expansion, malapposition and procedural complications. OAS treatment may be recommended to facilitate coronary stent implantation in these difficult lesions. Materials/Methods: Fifty patients with de novo calcified coronary lesions were enrolled in the ORBIT I trial. Patients were treated with the OAS followed by stent placement. Our institution treated 33/50 patients and continued follow-up for 3 years. Results: Average age was 54.4 years and 90.9% were males. Mean lesion length was 15.9 mm. The average number of OAS devices used per patient was 1.3. Procedural success was achieved in 97% of patients. Angiographic complications were observed in five patients (two minor dissections, one major dissection and two perforations). The cumulative major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate was 6.1% in-hospital, 9.1% at 30 days, 12.1% at 6 months, 15.2% at 2 years, and 18.2% at 3 years. The MACE rate included two in-hospital non Q-wave myocardial infarctions (MI), one additional non Q-wave MI at 30 days leading to target lesion revascularization (TLR), and three cardiac deaths. Conclusions: The ORBIT I trial suggests that OAS treatment may offer an effective method to modify calcified coronary lesion compliance to facilitate optimal stent placement in these difficult-to-treat patients with acceptable levels of safety up to 3 years post-index procedure.

  14. Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

    Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei

    2013-11-16

    It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also

  15. Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment...... is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial....... In conclusion, both CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity were found to be reduced in symptomatic patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease. The presence of collateral flow is associated with further haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals is associated with severe haemodynamic impairment....

  16. Kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow

    Eygendaal, D; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Jensen, Steen Lund

    2000-01-01

    In this study the kinematics of partial and total ruptures of the medial collateral ligament of the elbow are investigated. After selective transection of the medial collateral ligament of 8 osteoligamentous intact elbow preparations was performed, 3-dimensional measurements of angular displacement......, increase in medial joint opening, and translation of the radial head were examined during application of relevant stress. Increase in joint opening was significant only after complete transection of the anterior part of the medial collateral ligament was performed. The joint opening was detected during...... valgus and internal rotatory stress only. After partial transection of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament was performed, there was an elbow laxity to valgus and internal rotatory force, which became significant after transection of 100% of the anterior bundle of the medial collateral...

  17. Collateral Consequences and Effectiveness of Sex Offender Registration and Notification: Law Enforcement Perspectives.

    Cubellis, Michelle A; Walfield, Scott M; Harris, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    A growing body of research has examined the collateral effects of sex offender registration and notification (SORN), particularly those related to offenders' social and economic reintegration into society. Although studies have examined public, offender, treatment provider, and other criminal justice perspectives on SORN's collateral impacts, few have elicited the views of law enforcement (LE) professionals who have contact with registered offenders. This study presents results from a mixed method study examining LE perspectives on collateral consequences and effectiveness of SORN. Results indicate that, although overall LE concern regarding collateral impacts is limited, those who are most engaged in SORN-related duties are significantly more likely to indicate such concern, and also more likely to believe that SORN was an effective public safety tool. Importantly, respondents in states with larger registries expressed greater concern over collateral consequences, and less belief in SORN's public safety efficacy. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  18. The significance of collateral vessels, as seen on chest CT, in predicting SVC obstruction

    Yeouk, Young Soo; Kim, Sung Jin; Bae, Il Hun; Kim, Jae Youn; Hwang, Seung Min; Han, Gi Seok; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Dae Young

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of collateral veins, as seen on chest CT, in the diagnosis of superior vena cava obstruction. We retrospectively the records of 81 patients in whom collateral veins were seen on chest CT. On spiral CT(n=49), contrast material was infused via power injector, and on conventional CT(n=32), 50 ml bolus infusion was followed by 50 ml drip infusion. Obstruction of the SVC was evaluated on chest CT; if, however, evaluation of the SVC of its major tributaries was difficult, as in five cases, the patient underwent SVC phlebography. Collateral vessels were assigned to one of ten categories. On conventional CT, the jugular venous arch in the only collateral vessel to predict SVC obstruction; on spiral CT, however, collateral vessels are not helpful in the diagnosis of SVC obstruction, but are a nonspecific finding. (author). 12 refs., 2 tab., 2 figs

  19. Breast varices: imaging findings of an unusual presentation of collateral pathways in superior vena caval syndrome

    Oezdemir, Ayseguel; Ilgit, Erhan T.; Konus, Oeznur L.; Cetin, Meltem; Oezsunar, Yelda

    2000-01-01

    Imaging findings are presented of an unusual pathway of collateral circulation consisting of bilateral and diffuse dilated breast veins from a patient with long standing superior vena caval syndrome. The main importance of this case is the extent of the collateral development through the breast veins, serving as the major pathway of collateral circulation. Identification of this unusual collateral development, which resembles breast varices, was performed with contrast-enhanced chest CT scans, digital subtraction venography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and mammographic studies. Collateral development was secondary to a long segment idiopathic venous occlusion involving bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic veins as well as vena cava superior. We conclude that dilated breast veins when detected on any imaging modality should raise the suspicion of central venous obstruction

  20. Pattern of venous collateral development after splenic vein occlusion in an extended Whipple procedure : comparison with collateral vein pattern in cases of sinistral portal hypertension.

    Strasberg, Steven M; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Sanchez, Luis A; Linehan, David C

    2011-11-01

    The risks of developing sinistral portal hypertension as a result of occlusion of the splenic vein close to its termination during a Whipple procedure are unclear. Our purpose was to compare the pattern of venous collateral development after splenic vein ligation in an extended Whipple procedure with the pattern of collateral development in cases of sinistral portal hypertension. Five patients underwent an extended Whipple procedure in which the splenic vein was divided and not reconstructed. Six to eight months later detailed mapping of venous return from the spleen was determined by contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography or in one case by 3D contrast-enhanced MRI. Spleen size and length of residual patent splenic vein were also measured. The literature on sinistral portal hypertension was evaluated to ascertain whether the venous collateral pattern in cases of left-sided portal hypertension was similar to the pattern that developed when the splenic vein was ligated at its termination in the Whipple procedure. A length of splenic vein remained patent in all five patients, measuring 4.5 to 11.5 cm from the spleen. Splenomegaly did not develop. Blood returned from the spleen by multiple collaterals including collaterals in the omentum and mesocolon. These types of collaterals do not develop in sinistral portal hypertension, nor is residual patent splenic vein seen. Ligation of the splenic vein close to its termination in five patients resulted in a pattern of venous return different from patients that have developed left-sided portal hypertension.

  1. 31 CFR 363.58 - May book-entry savings bonds be pledged or used as collateral?

    2010-07-01

    ... pledged or used as collateral? 363.58 Section 363.58 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...Direct General § 363.58 May book-entry savings bonds be pledged or used as collateral? Bonds may not be pledged or used as collateral for the performance of an obligation. ...

  2. 13 CFR 120.1882 - What happens if funds to make required loan payments are not generated from the Collateral?

    2010-01-01

    ... required loan payments are not generated from the Collateral? 120.1882 Section 120.1882 Business Credit and... to make required loan payments are not generated from the Collateral? (a) The SISMBD is responsible... Collateral as set forth in the Loan Agreements, related documents and applicable law. (b) An SISMBD will have...

  3. 13 CFR 120.1881 - How are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the...

    2010-01-01

    ... are payments on the Collateral allocated between the SISMBD borrower and repayment of the SISMBD Loan? Unless otherwise provided in the Loan Agreements for a particular SISMBD Loan, any payment on Collateral... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are payments on the Collateral...

  4. 13 CFR 120.545 - What are SBA's policies concerning the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans...

    2010-01-01

    ... the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans and physical disaster assistance loans... policies concerning the liquidation of collateral and the sale of business loans and physical disaster.... SBA or the Lender may liquidate collateral securing a loan if the loan is in default or there is no...

  5. Relationship Between Collateral Status, Contrast Transit, and Contrast Density in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Kawano, Hiroyuki; Bivard, Andrew; Lin, Longting; Spratt, Neil J; Miteff, Ferdinand; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher R

    2016-03-01

    Collateral circulation is recognized to influence the life expectancy of the ischemic penumbra in acute ischemic stroke. The best method to quantify collateral status on acute imaging is uncertain. We aimed to determine the relationship between visual collateral status, quantitative collateral assessments, baseline computed tomographic perfusion measures, and tissue outcomes on follow-up imaging. Sixty-six consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke clinically eligible for recanalization therapy and with M1 or M2 middle cerebral artery occlusion were evaluated. We compared the visual collateral scoring with measures of contrast peak time delay and contrast peak density. We also compared these measures for their ability to predict perfusion lesion and infarct core volumes, final infarct, and infarct growth. Shorter contrast peak time delay (P=0.041) and higher contrast peak density (P=0.002) were associated with good collateral status. Shorter contrast peak time delay correlated with higher contrast peak density (β=-4.413; P=0.037). In logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, onset-computed tomographic time, and occlusion site, higher contrast peak density was independently associated with good collateral status (P=0.009). Multiple regression analysis showed that higher contrast peak density was an independent predictor of smaller perfusion lesion volume (P=0.029), smaller ischemic core volume (P=0.044), smaller follow-up infarct volume (P=0.005), and smaller infarct growth volume (P=0.010). Visual collateral status, contrast peak density, and contrast peak time delay were inter-related, and good collateral status was strongly associated with contrast peak density. Contrast peak density in collateral vessel may be an important factor in tissue fate in acute ischemic stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  7. Isolated Unilateral Absent Branch Pulmonary Artery with Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease

    Sunil Abhishek B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated Unilateral Absent Pulmonary Artery (UAPA is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually associated with congenital heart defects. A 45 year old male patient presented with complaints of fever with cough and expectoration for 15 days and retrosternal chest discomfort for the previous 2 days. ECG showed diffuse ST segment depression with T wave inversion in the inferior and lateral leads. Coronary Angiogram done through the right femoral approach revealed diffusely diseased Left Anterior Descending (LAD artery that was totally cut off at the mid segment. The Left Circumflex (LCx artery was providing blood supply to the right middle and lower lung areas. There was another collateral arising from the Left Subclavian Artery supplying the right middle and lower lung areas. The left pulmonary artery was normal, but branches supplying the middle and lower lobes of the right lung were absent and the upper lobe branch had pulmonary stenosis. UAPA is a rare clinical entity; collaterals from coronaries are extremely rare in this condition and till now there has not been any case report of unilateral absent branch pulmonary artery with peripheral stenosis of other branches, on the affected side and associated coronary artery disease.

  8. Large coronary intramural hematomas

    Antonsen, Lisbeth; Thayssen, Per; Jensen, Lisette Okkels

    2015-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous coronary intramural hematoma is a unique subset of spontaneous coronary artery dissection that is characterized by a hemorrhage limited to the medial-adventitial layers, causing subsequent hematoma formation without visible intimal flaps. It is an infrequent and serious...... diagnostics and treatment strategy. Coronary intramural hematomas can also occur iatrogenically, as a complication to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary angiography (CAG) has limited diagnostic value in the absence of intimal dissections, and lesions are often angiographically ambiguous....... Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an important diagnostic tool in establishing the correct diagnosis, as it provides a complete vessel wall assessment, and enables morphometric information regarding the magnitude and severity of the underlying hematoma. Due to the rarity of this clinical scenario...

  9. Significance of collateral vessels on the prediction of superior vena cava syndrome on CT

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Hyeng Gon; Ahn, In Oak; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    Although visible collateral vessels on computed tomography (CT) has been considered as an important finding in superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, there is no systematical analysis concerning correlation between the CT evidence of collateral vessels and clinical evidence of SVC syndrome. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how accurately we predict the clinical presence of SVC syndrome by the collateral vessels in patients with apparent SVC obstruction in CT. Forty seven patients having a CT evidence of obstruction or compression of SVC and/or its major tributaries were included in this study. Lung cancer was the most common underlying disease (n=40). The enhanced CT scans were obtained through either arm vein using a combined bolus and drip-infusion technique. Analyzing the CT scans, we particularly paid attention to the site and pattern of venous compromise, presence of collateral vessels, and if present, their location, without knowing whether symptoms and sign were present or nor, and then compared them with clinical data by a thorough review of charts, To verify the frequency of visible collateral vessels in normal subjects, we also evaluated the CT scans of 50 patients without mediastinal disease and clinical SVC syndrome as a control group. On CT, collateral vessels were found in 24 patients, among whom three patient had a single collateral and 21 patients had two or more collateral channels. There were two false positive cases, in which clinically overt SVC syndrome appeared 10 days and three months after CT examination respectively, and one false negative case. The presence of collateral vessels on CT, respectively, and one false negative case. The presence of collateral vessels on CT, regardless of the number and location of collateral vessels and pattern of venous obstruction, was a good clue for predicting the presence of clinical SVC syndrome with the sensitivity and the specificity of 95.7% and 91.7%, respectively. In control group, collateral

  10. Dynamic Failure Properties of the Porcine Medial Collateral Ligament-Bone Complex for Predicting Injury in Automotive Collisions

    Peck, Louis; Billiar, Kristen; Ray, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to model the dynamic failure properties of ligaments and their attachment sites to facilitate the development of more realistic dynamic finite element models of the human lower extremities for use in automotive collision simulations. Porcine medial collateral ligaments were chosen as a test model due to their similarities in size and geometry with human ligaments. Each porcine medial collateral ligament-bone complex (n = 12) was held in a custom test fixture placed in a drop tower to apply an axial impulsive impact load, applying strain rates ranging from 0.005 s-1 to 145 s-1. The data from the impact tests were analyzed using nonlinear regression to construct model equations for predicting the failure load of ligament-bone complexes subjected to specific strain rates as calculated from finite element knee, thigh, and hip impact simulations. The majority of the ligaments tested failed by tibial avulsion (75%) while the remaining ligaments failed via mid-substance tearing. The failure load ranged from 384 N to 1184 N and was found to increase with the applied strain rate and the product of ligament length and cross-sectional area. The findings of this study indicate the force required to rupture the porcine MCL increases with the applied bone-to-bone strain rate in the range expected from high speed frontal automotive collisions. PMID:20461229

  11. [Endarterectomy of the coronary arteries].

    Fischer, V; Simkovic, I; Holoman, M; Verchvodko, P; Janotík, P; Galbánek, J; Hulman, M; Kostelnicák, J; Jurco, R; Slezák, J

    1992-02-01

    The authors analyze 50 patients with endarterectomy of the coronary arteries during the periods of 1972-1974 and 1988-1990. The results of endarterectomy of the right and left coronary artery provide evidence of its justification in indicated cases whereby contrary to some departments the results of endarterectomy of the left coronary artery are comparable with endarterectomy of the right coronary artery.

  12. Severe Degeneration of the Medial Collateral Ligament in Hallux Valgus: A Histopathologic Study in 12 Consecutive Patients

    Prasitdumrong, Ittipol; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Reeboonlarb, Nitit; Poonpracha, Tara; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the degree and location of degenerative changes of the medial collateral ligament of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, using the lateral collateral ligament as a control, in patients undergoing hallux valgus correction. Materials and Methods A strip of medial and lateral collateral ligaments were biopsied from 12 consecutive patients (age 45 ± 4.8 years) with symptomatic hallux valgus. A blinded analysis of histopathology was performed by an experienced pathologist. Results The medial collateral ligament was significantly more degenerated compared to the lateral collateral ligament (x2 = 23.41, DF = 2, p hallux valgus correction. The Authors received no financial support for this study. PMID:24027461

  13. The cerebral collateral circulation: Relevance to pathophysiology and treatment of stroke.

    Ginsberg, Myron D

    2017-08-09

    The brain's collateral circulation consists of arterial anastomotic channels capable of providing nutrient perfusion to brain regions whose normal sources of flow have become compromised, as occurs in acute ischemic stroke. Modern CT-based neuroimaging is capable of providing detailed information as to collateral extent and sufficiency and is complemented by magnetic resonance-based methods. In the present era of standard-of-care IV thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, and following the recent therapeutic successes of randomized clinical trials of acute endovascular intervention, the sufficiency of the collateral circulation has been convincingly established as a key factor influencing the likelihood of successful reperfusion and favorable clinical outcome. This article reviews the features of the brain's collateral circulation; methods for its evaluation in the acute clinical setting; the relevance of collateral circulation to prognosis in acute ischemic stroke; the specific insights into the collateral circulation learned from recent trials of endovascular intervention; and the major influence of genetic factors. Finally, we emphasize the need to develop therapeutic approaches to augment collateral perfusion as an adjunctive strategy to be employed along with, or prior to, thrombolysis and endovascular interventions, and we highlight the possible potential of inhaled nitric oxide, albumin, and other approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective collateral circulation may indicate improved perfusion territory restoration after carotid endarterectomy.

    Lin, Tianye; Lai, Zhichao; Lv, Yuelei; Qu, Jianxun; Zuo, Zhentao; You, Hui; Wu, Bing; Hou, Bo; Liu, Changwei; Feng, Feng

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between the level of collateral circulation and perfusion territory normalisation after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This study enrolled 22 patients with severe carotid stenosis that underwent CEA and 54 volunteers without significant carotid stenosis. All patients were scanned with ASL and t-ASL within 1 month before and 1 week after CEA. Collateral circulation was assessed on preoperative ASL images based on the presence of ATA. The postoperative flow territories were considered as back to normal if they conformed to the perfusion territory map in a healthy population. Neuropsychological tests were performed on patients before and within 7 days after surgery. ATA-based collateral score assessed on preoperative ASL was significantly higher in the flow territory normalisation group (n=11, 50 %) after CEA (P mean differences+2SD among control (MMSE=1.35, MOCA=1.02)]. This study demonstrated that effective collateral flow in carotid stenosis patients was associated with normalisation of t-ASL perfusion territory after CEA. The perfusion territory normalisation group tends to have more cognitive improvement after CEA. • Evaluation of collaterals before CEA is helpful for avoiding ischaemia during clamping. • There was good agreement on ATA-based ASL collateral grading. • Perfusion territories in carotid stenosis patients are altered. • Patients have better collateral circulation with perfusion territory back to normal. • MMSE and MOCA test scores improved more in the territory normalisation group.

  15. Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease.

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A; Okell, Thomas W; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Zeebregts, Clark J; Bokkers, Reinoud Ph

    2017-01-01

    Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres were compromised. Haemodynamic impairment in the affected brain region was always present in symptomatic patients. The degree of collateral blood flow was inversely correlated with haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals only occurred in symptomatic ICA occlusion patients. In conclusion, both CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity were found to be reduced in symptomatic patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease. The presence of collateral flow is associated with further haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals is associated with severe haemodynamic impairment.

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of coronary artery disease

    Roed, Torsten; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjaer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Several chronic infections have been associated with cardiovascular diseases, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis. This review evaluates the literature on the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of coronary artery...

  17. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Hopper, Dale E.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-01-01

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C 60 .

  18. On Security of Collateral in Danish Mortgage Finance

    Haldrup, Karin

    2017-01-01

    on the balance principle that assigns risks and responsibility to market players in a self-disciplinary manner and protected the mortgage banks against cash flow mismatches even during deep crisis, as history attests. It is shown how property registers and effective enforcement have created transparent property......Specialized mortgage intermediaries in Denmark have for over two hundred years provided owners and buyers of real property wide access to credit. The present paper sets out to explore the safeguards that nurtured development of a robust, market based financing system and a deep mortgage market....... Observations are made on the nature of collateral performance in respect to property rights, mortgage law and market development in search of general features of required institutional arrangements. The robustness of the Danish mortgage finance system is largely accredited to the securitization model based...

  19. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    Gambini, D.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined [fr

  20. Congenital coronary artery fistula

    Oh, Yeon Hee; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seoc Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1986-01-01

    Congenital coronary artery fistula (CCAF) is communication of a coronary artery or its main branch with one of the atria or ventricles, the coronary sinus, the superior vena cava, or the pulmonary artery. In Korean peoples, only 4 cases of the CCAF were reported as rare as worldwide and authors want to report another case of CCAF, confirmed by operation. 10-year-old girl shows a fistula between sinus node artery of the right coronary artery and right atrium on root aortogram with left-to-right shunt and Qp/Qs=1.58, in which simple ligation of the sinus node artery from right coronary artery was performed. All of the 5 Korean CCAF (4 were previously reported and 1 of authors) were originated from right coronary artery, and of which 4 were opening into right ventricle and 1 of authors were into right atrium. Associated cardiac anomaly was noted in only 1 case as single coronary artery. Ages were from 9 months of age to 10 years old and no adult left case were found. 3 were female and 2 were male patients.

  1. Collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy provides endogenous protection in cerebral ischemia.

    Luo, Chuanming; Liang, Fengyin; Ren, Huixia; Yao, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiang; Li, Mingyue; Qin, Dajiang; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Pei, Zhong; Su, Huanxing

    2017-11-01

    Collateral blood flow as vascular adaptions to focal cerebral ischemia is well recognized. However, few studies directly investigate the dynamics of collateral vessel recruitment in vivo and little is known about the effect of collateral blood flow in different cerebrovascular hierarchy on the neuropathology after focal ischemic stroke. Here, we report that collateral blood flow is critically involved in blood vessel compensations following regional ischemia. We occluded a pial arteriole using femtosecond laser ablating under the intact thinned skull and documented the changes of collateral flow around the surface communication network and between the surface communication network and subsurface microcirculation network using in vivo two photon microscopy imaging. Occlusion of the pial arteriole apparently increased the diameter and collateral blood flow of its leptomeningeal anastomoses, which significantly reduced the cortical infarction size. This result suggests that the collateral flow via surface communicating network connected with leptomeningeal anastomoses could greatly impact on the extent of infarction. We then further occluded the target pial arteriole and all of its leptomeningeal anastomoses. Notably, this type of occlusion led to reversals of blood flow in the penetrating arterioles mainly proximal to the occluded pial arteriole in a direction from the subsurface microcirculation network to surface arterioles. Interesting, the cell death in the area of ischemic penumbra was accelerated when we performed occlusion to cease the reversed blood flow in those penetrating arterioles, suggesting that the collateral blood flow from subsurface microcirculation network exerts protective roles in delaying cell death in the ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence that collateral blood vessels at different cerebrovascular hierarchy are endogenously compensatory mechanisms in brain ischemia. © 2016 International Society of

  2. Leptomeningeal collateralization in acute ischemic stroke: Impact on prominent cortical veins in susceptibility-weighted imaging

    Verma, Rajeev K.; Hsieh, Kety; Gratz, Pascal P.; Schankath, Adrian C.; Mordasini, Pasquale; Zubler, Christoph; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Jung, Simon; Schroth, Gerhard; Gralla, Jan; El-Koussy, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extent of hypoperfusion is an important prognostic factor in acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies have postulated that the extent of prominent cortical veins (PCV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) reflects the extent of hypoperfusion. Our aim was to investigate, whether there is an association between PCV and the grade of leptomeningeal arterial collateralization in acute ischemic stroke. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between SWI and perfusion-MRI findings. Methods: 33 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a thromboembolic M1-segment occlusion underwent MRI followed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and were subdivided into two groups with very good to good and moderate to no leptomeningeal collaterals according to the DSA. The extent of PCV on SWI, diffusion restriction (DR) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and prolonged mean transit time (MTT) on perfusion-imaging were graded according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission and the time between symptom onset and MRI were documented. Results: 20 patients showed very good to good and 13 patients poor to no collateralization. PCV-ASPECTS was significantly higher for cases with good leptomeningeal collaterals versus those with poor leptomeningeal collaterals (mean 4.1 versus 2.69; p = 0.039). MTT-ASPECTS was significantly lower than PCV-ASPECTS in all 33 patients (mean 1.0 versus 3.5; p < 0.00). Conclusions: In our small study the grade of leptomeningeal collateralization correlates with the extent of PCV in SWI in acute ischemic stroke, due to the deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin ratio. Consequently, extensive PCV correlate with poor leptomeningeal collateralization while less pronounced PCV correlate with good leptomeningeal collateralization. Further SWI is a very helpful tool in detecting tissue at risk but cannot replace PWI since MTT detects significantly more ill

  3. Negative modulation of presynaptic activity by zinc released from Schaffer collaterals.

    Takeda, Atsushi; Fuke, Sayuri; Tsutsumi, Wataru; Oku, Naoto

    2007-12-01

    The role of zinc in excitation of Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses is poorly understood. Schaffer collaterals stained with ZnAF-2 or ZnAF-2DA, a membrane-impermeable or a membrane-permeable zinc indicator, respectively, were treated by tetanic stimulation (200 Hz, 1 sec). Extracellular and intracellular ZnAF-2 signals were increased in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist. Both the increases were completely blocked in the presence of 1 mM CaEDAT, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, suggesting that 1 mM CaEDTA is effective for chelating zinc released from Schaffer collaterals. The role of Schaffer collateral zinc in presynaptic activity was examined by using FM4-64, a fluorescent indicator for vesicular exocytosis. The decrease in FM4-64 signal during tetanic stimulation (10 Hz, 180 sec) was enhanced in Schaffer collaterals in the presence of 1 mM CaEDTA but suppressed in the presence of 5 microM ZnC1(2), suggesting that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppresses presynaptic activity during tetanic stimulation. When Schaffer collateral synapses stained with calcium orange AM, a membrane-permeable calcium indicator, were regionally stimulated with 1 mM glutamate, calcium orange signal was increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. This increase was enhanced in the presence of CaEDTA and attenuated in the presence of zinc. These results suggest that zinc attenuates excitation of Schaffer collateral synapses elicited with glutamate via suppression of presynaptic activity. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Stress changes of lateral collateral ligament at different

    ZHONG Yan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To create a 3-dimensional finite element model of knee ligaments and to analyse the stress changes of lateral collateral ligament (LCL with or without displaced movements at different knee flexion conditions. Methods: A four-major-ligament contained knee specimen from an adult died of skull injury was prepared for CT scanning with the detectable ligament insertion footprints, locations and orientations precisely marked in advance. The CT scanning images were converted to a 3-dimensional model of the knee with the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique and transformed into finite element model by the software of ANSYS. The model was validated using experimental and numerical results obtained by other scientists. The natural stress changes of LCL at five different knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120° and under various motions of anterior-posterior tibial translation, tibial varus rotation and internal-external tibial rotation were measured. Results: The maximum stress reached to 87%-113% versus natural stress in varus motion at early 30° of knee flexions. The stress values were smaller than the peak value of natural stress at 0° (knee full extension when knee bending was over 60° of flexion in anterior-posterior tibial translation and internal-external rotation. Conclusion: LCL is vulnerable to varus motion in almost all knee bending positions and susceptible to anterior- posterior tibial translation or internal-external rotation at early 30° of knee flexions. Key words: Knee joint; Collateral ligaments; Finite element analysis

  5. 31 CFR 380.4 - What collateral may I pledge instead of a surety bond under 31 CFR part 225, and what value will...

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What collateral may I pledge instead..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT COLLATERAL ACCEPTABILITY AND VALUATION Acceptable Collateral and Its Valuation § 380.4 What collateral may I pledge instead of a surety bond under 31 CFR part...

  6. Collateral abdominal circulation in patient with Leriche's syndrome diagnosed with 64-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT)

    Staskiewicz, G.; Drop, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leriche's syndrome results from slowly developing occlusion of the abdominal aorta. It affects mainly middle-aged males. The blood flow distal to the occlusion site is secured by collateral circulation. Signs of Leriche's syndrome include claudication, gluteal pain and impotence. The paper presents a patient with Leriche's syndrome, in whom a detailed visualization of collateral circulation was obtained with multislice computed tomography angiography. Patient underwent surgical recanalization of the aorta with an excellent result. To our knowledge, the presented case is the first description of collateral circulation in Leriche's syndrome obtained with 64-row computed tomography. (author)

  7. Value of Quantitative Collateral Scoring on CT Angiography in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Boers, A M M; Sales Barros, R; Jansen, I G H; Berkhemer, O A; Beenen, L F M; Menon, B K; Dippel, D W J; van der Lugt, A; van Zwam, W H; Roos, Y B W E M; van Oostenbrugge, R J; Slump, C H; Majoie, C B L M; Marquering, H A

    2018-06-01

    Many studies have emphasized the relevance of collateral flow in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship of the quantitative collateral score on baseline CTA with the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke and test whether the timing of the CTA acquisition influences this relationship. From the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) data base, all baseline thin-slice CTA images of patients with acute ischemic stroke with intracranial large-vessel occlusion were retrospectively collected. The quantitative collateral score was calculated as the ratio of the vascular appearance of both hemispheres and was compared with the visual collateral score. Primary outcomes were 90-day mRS score and follow-up infarct volume. The relation with outcome and the association with treatment effect were estimated. The influence of the CTA acquisition phase on the relation of collateral scores with outcome was determined. A total of 442 patients were included. The quantitative collateral score strongly correlated with the visual collateral score (ρ = 0.75) and was an independent predictor of mRS (adjusted odds ratio = 0.81; 95% CI, .77-.86) and follow-up infarct volume (exponent β = 0.88; P quantitative collateral score showed areas under the curve of 0.71 and 0.69 for predicting functional independence (mRS 0-2) and follow-up infarct volume of >90 mL, respectively. We found significant interaction of the quantitative collateral score with the endovascular therapy effect in unadjusted analysis on the full ordinal mRS scale ( P = .048) and on functional independence ( P = .049). Modification of the quantitative collateral score by acquisition phase on outcome was significant (mRS: P = .004; follow-up infarct volume: P quantitative collateral scoring in patients with acute ischemic stroke is a reliable and user-independent measure of the collateral

  8. PENGEMBANGAN HAK KEKAYAAN INTELEKTUAL SEBAGAI COLLATERAL (AGUNAN UNTUK MENDAPATKAN KREDIT PERBANKAN DI INDONESIA

    Sri Mulyani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual Property Rights is granted the exclusive rights to creators, inventors or designers for the creation or invention that has commercial value, either directly or through the automatic registration of the relevant agencies as awards, recognition should be given the protection of the rights of the community development law. Globally, the IPR will be used as collateral to obtain a bank loan internasional. In this law is necessary to realize the concept of legislation in each country who are willing to apply that regulate substance loading, binding, and registration of intellectual property as collateral. Key words: development of intellectual property rights, collateral, bank credit in Indonesia

  9. Coronary CT angiography

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2009-07-01

    Coronary CT angiography has attained increasing scientific attention at academic institutions and has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality. Extending this knowledge into a practice setting is the purpose of 'Coronary CT Angiography'. This book will assist you in integrating cardiac CT into your daily practice, while also giving an overview of the current technical status and applications. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors are also presented providing an objective overview of noninvasive coronary angiography using CT. (orig.)

  10. Different effects of antisense RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 oligonucleotides on the nuclear factor-κB mediated expression of ICAM-1 in human coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells

    Both Anton

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is one of the key events in early atherosclerosis and restenosis. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α induced and NF-κB mediated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 can be inhibited by antisense RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 oligonucleotides (RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. Results Smooth muscle cells (SMC from human coronary plaque material (HCPSMC, plaque material of 52 patients, SMC from the human coronary media (HCMSMC, human endothelial cells (EC from umbilical veins (HUVEC, and human coronary EC (HCAEC were successfully isolated (HCPSMC, HUVEC, identified and cultured (HCPSMC, HCMSMC, HUVEC, HCAEC. 12 hrs prior to TNF-α stimulus (20 ng/mL, 6 hrs RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 (1, 2, 4, 10, 20, and 30 μM and controls were added for a period of 18 hrs. In HUVEC and HCAEC there was a dose dependent inhibition of ICAM-1 expression after adding of both RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. No inhibitory effect was seen after incubation of HCMSMC with RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. A moderate inhibition of ICAM-1 expression was found after simultaneous addition of RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 to HCPSMC, no inhibitory effect was detected after individual addition of RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50. Conclusions The data point out that differences exist in the NF-κB mediated expression of ICAM-1 between EC and SMC. Experimental antisense strategies directed against RelA p65 and NF-κB1 p50 in early atherosclerosis and restenosis are promising in HCAEC but will be confronted with redundant pathways in HCMSMC and HCPSMC.

  11. Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all thumb injuries on a single NFL team from 1991 to 2014 was performed. All players with a thumb MCP collateral ligament injury were included. Collateral ligament injuries were confirmed by review of both physical examination findings and magnetic resonance imaging. Player demographics, surgical details, and return-to-play data were obtained from the team electronic medical record and surgeons' records. A total of 36 thumbs in 32 NFL players were included in the study, yielding an incidence of 1.6 thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these, 9 thumbs (25%) had a simultaneous combined UCL and RCL tear injury pattern confirmed on both physical examination and MRI. The remaining 27 thumbs (75%) were isolated UCL injuries. All combined UCL/RCL injuries required surgery due to dysfunction from instability; 63.0% of isolated UCL injuries required surgical repair ( P = .032) due to continued pain and dysfunction from instability. Repair, when required, was delayed until the end of the season. All players with combined UCL/RCL injuries and isolated UCL injuries returned to play professional football the following season. Simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tear is a previously undescribed injury pattern that occurred in 25% of thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries on a single NFL team over a 23-year period. All players with combined thumb UCL

  12. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    ... heart cells are dying. An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) can diagnose an acute coronary syndrome by measuring ... Privacy Policy Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  13. Coronary artery fistula

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 84. Friedman AH, Silverman NH. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. In: ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  14. Coronary Artery Disease

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important risk factor for adverse coronary events, in particular if the disease has an early onset. The risk of CAD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors with a greater genetic contribution earlier in life. Through recent years......), and to characterize and quantify subclinical atherosclerosis in their relatives. Furthermore, the aim was to explore the impact of common genetic risk variants on the age of onset, familial clustering and disease severity. In study I, 143 patients with early- onset CAD were recruited from the Western Denmark Heart...... Registry and risk factor control was evaluated. The study revealed that risk factors are common in early-onset CAD and that a large room for risk factor improvement remains. In study II, we used coronary computed tomography angiography to compare the coronary plaque burden and characteristics between 88...

  15. Auxetic coronary stent endoprosthesis

    Amin, Faisal; Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Ansari, Umar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular heart disease is one of the leading health issues in the present era and requires considerable health care resources to prevent it. The present study was focused on the development of a new coronary stent based on novel auxetic geometry which enables the stent to exhibit...... a negative Poisson's ratio. Commercially available coronary stents have isotropic properties, whereas the vascular system of the body shows anisotropic characteristics. This results in a mismatch between anisotropic-isotropic properties of the stent and arterial wall, and this in turn is not favorable...... for mechanical adhesion of the commercially available coronary stents with the arterial wall. It is believed that an auxetic coronary stent with inherent anisotropic mechanical properties and negative Poisson's ratio will have good mechanical adhesion with the arterial wall. METHODS: The auxetic design...

  16. Acute coronary syndrome

    ... Have plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and lean meats. Try to limit foods high in cholesterol ... et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary ...

  17. Carbon dioxide coronary angiography: A mechanical feasibility study with a cardiovascular simulator

    Ivan Corazza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a bench evaluation of the biomechanical feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO2 coronary arteriography. Many patients among the aging population of individuals requiring cardiac intervention have underlying renal insufficiency making them susceptible to contrast-induced nephropathy. To include those patients, it is imperative to find an alternative and safe technique to perform coronary imaging on cardiac ischemic patients. As CO2 angiography has no renal toxicity, it may be a possible solution offering good imaging with negligible collateral effects. Theoretically, by carefully controlling the gas injection process, new automatic injectors may avoid gas reflux into the aorta and possible cerebral damage. A feasibility study is mandatory. A mechanical mock of the coronary circulation was developed and employed. CO2 was injected into the coronary ostium with 2 catheters (2F and 6F and optical images of bubbles flowing inside the vessels at different injection pressures were recorded. The gas behavior was then carefully studied for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Video recordings showed that CO2 injection at a precise pressure in the interval between the arterial dicrotic notch and the minimum diastolic value does not result in gas reflow into the aorta. Gas reflow was easier to control with the smaller catheter, but the gas bubbles were smaller with different vascular filling. Our simulation demonstrates that carefully selected injection parameters allow CO2 coronary imaging without any risk of gas reflux into the aorta.

  18. Carbon dioxide coronary angiography: A mechanical feasibility study with a cardiovascular simulator

    Corazza, Ivan; Taglieri, Nevio; Pirazzini, Edoardo; Rossi, Pier Luca; Lombi, Alessandro; Scalise, Filippo; Caridi, James G.; Zannoli, Romano

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a bench evaluation of the biomechanical feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO2) coronary arteriography. Many patients among the aging population of individuals requiring cardiac intervention have underlying renal insufficiency making them susceptible to contrast-induced nephropathy. To include those patients, it is imperative to find an alternative and safe technique to perform coronary imaging on cardiac ischemic patients. As CO2 angiography has no renal toxicity, it may be a possible solution offering good imaging with negligible collateral effects. Theoretically, by carefully controlling the gas injection process, new automatic injectors may avoid gas reflux into the aorta and possible cerebral damage. A feasibility study is mandatory. A mechanical mock of the coronary circulation was developed and employed. CO2 was injected into the coronary ostium with 2 catheters (2F and 6F) and optical images of bubbles flowing inside the vessels at different injection pressures were recorded. The gas behavior was then carefully studied for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Video recordings showed that CO2 injection at a precise pressure in the interval between the arterial dicrotic notch and the minimum diastolic value does not result in gas reflow into the aorta. Gas reflow was easier to control with the smaller catheter, but the gas bubbles were smaller with different vascular filling. Our simulation demonstrates that carefully selected injection parameters allow CO2 coronary imaging without any risk of gas reflux into the aorta.

  19. Coronary hemodynamics in vasospastic angina

    Matsumura, Kentaro; Kubota, Shinobu; Serizawa, Takashi; Nakase, Emiko; Kawai, Ichiro; Saito, Takayuki

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the coronary circulation and myocardial perfusion dynamics, we performed left coronary digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 35 patients with vasospastic angina. The left coronary circulation time (CCT) measured from the proximal left coronary artery to the coronary sinus was 5.77±0.86 sec, and the left epicardial conducting artery transmission time (CAT) measured from the proximal left coronary artery to the apical area was 2.65±0.82 sec in normal controls. The CCT and CAT were significantly prolonged in patients with vasospastic angina, indicating that the coronary peripheral vascular resistance is probably greater after the cessation of nitrates and Ca ++ -antagonists. After the intracoronary injection of ergonovine malate, the CCT was slightly shortened, but the apical T 1/2 was significantly prolonged in patients with vasospastic angina. This suggested that coronary vasospasm is present not only in the epicardial arteries but also in coronary arteries with peripheral resistance. These phenomena were not observed in normal controls. We performed left coronary DSA after conventional left coronary cineangiography. When the CCT exceeded 6.7 sec, we considered that the coronary circulation was significantly impaired. We concluded that the coronary DSA is very useful for evaluating abnormal coronary circulation in patients with vasospastic angina during myocardial perfusion. (author)

  20. Hypercholesterolemia reduces collateral artery growth more dominantly than hyperglycemia or insulin resistance in mice

    Weel, V. van; Vries, M. de; Voshol, P.J.; Verloop, R.E.; Eilers, P.H.C.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Bockel, J.H. van; Quax, P.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Collateral artery development (arteriogenesis), a vital compensatory mechanism in patients with arterial obstructive disease, may be deregulated by vascular risk factors, eg, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. Here, we compared the effects of either disturbed glucose metabolism or

  1. Aspirin, but not clopidogrel, reduces collateral conductance in a rabbit model of femoral artery occlusion

    Hoefer, Imo E.; Grundmann, Sebastian; Schirmer, Stephan; van Royen, Niels; Meder, Benjamin; Bode, Christoph; Piek, Jan J.; Buschmann, Ivo R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to test the potential of aspirin and clopidogrel to influence collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis). BACKGROUND Aspirin and clopidogrel are antiplatelet agents commonly used in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Both inhibit platelet

  2. 76 FR 31518 - Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral

    2011-06-01

    ... on any other topics related to customer collateral protection in the context of the Act, may do so... comments must be in English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to the...

  3. 45 CFR 1336.67 - Security and collateral: Responsibilities of the Loan Administrator.

    2010-10-01

    ... inventory or proceeds of inventory sales as well as marketable securities and cash collateral accounts. (1... security at any time during the term of the loan if after review and monitoring an assessment indicates the...

  4. Coronary tortuosity: a long and winding road.

    Zegers, E.S.; Meursing, B.T.J.; Oude Ophuis, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Coronary tortuosity is a phenomenon often encountered by cardiologists performing coronary angiography. The aetiology and clinical importance of coronary tortuosity are still unclear. Coronary tortuosity without fixed atherosclerotic stenosis in patients with angina pectoris and an abnormal exercise

  5. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  6. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  7. Collateral status affects the onset-to-reperfusion time window for good outcome.

    Kim, Byung Moon; Baek, Jang-Hyun; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Yoo, Joonsang; Kim, Dong Joon; Jeon, Pyoung; Baik, Seung Kug; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kyung Yol; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Roh, Hong Gee; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Sang Heum; Ryu, Chang-Woo; Ihn, Yon-Kwon; Kim, Byungjoon; Jeon, Hong Jun; Kim, Jin Woo; Byun, Jun Soo; Suh, Sangil; Park, Jeong Jin; Lee, Woong Jae; Roh, Jieun; Shin, Byoung-Soo; Bang, Oh Young

    2018-03-08

    To characterise the time window in which endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is associated with good outcome, and to test the differential relationship between functional outcome and onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT), depending on collateral status. This was a retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data of 554 consecutive patients, who had recanalisation success by EVT for anterior circulation large artery occlusion, from the prospectively maintained registries of 16 comprehensive stroke centres between September 2010 and December 2015. The patients were dichotomised into good and poor collateral groups, based on CT angiography. We tested whether the likelihood of good outcome (modified Rankin Scale, 0-2) by ORT was different between two groups. ORT was 298 min±113 min (range, 81-665 min), and 84.5% of patients had good collaterals. Age, diabetes mellitus, previous infarction, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, good collaterals (OR 40.766; 95% CI 10.668 to 155.78; pcollateral group (OR 0.305 for every 30 min; 95% CI 0.113 to 0.822) than in good collateral group (OR 0.926 for every 30 min; 95% CI 0.875 to 0.980). Earlier successful recanalisation was strongly associated with good outcome in poor collateral group; however, this association was weak during the tested time window in good collateral group. This suggests that the ORT window for good outcome can be adjusted according to collateral status. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. COLLATERAL'S IMPORTANCE IN SMES FINANCING: WHAT IS THE BANKS' RESPONSE? SOME EVIDENCE FOR ROMANIA

    Badulescu Daniel; Petria Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    Searching for funding, SMEs' managers face various obstacles arising from information asymmetry, lack of experience, severe market conditions, and insufficient or unsatisfactory collaterals for banks (OECD 2006; Badulescu and Badulescu 2010; OECD 2000 and 2004; Lin and Sun 2006; Toivanen and Cresy, 2000). The collateral issue is extensively discussed in literature - preventing moral hazard, the alignment the interests (Stiglitz and Weiss 1981:393-410; Chan and Thakor 1987:345-363; Jiménez and...

  9. Stimulation of collateral artery growth: travelling further down the road to clinical application

    Schirmer, S.H.; van Nooijen, F.C.; Piek, J.J.; van Royen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Collateral artery growth is a potent natural defence mechanism to prevent death and myocardial infarction in occlusive artery disease. Given the high prevalence of arterial obstructive disease, a therapeutic compound stimulating collateral vessel growth could have a major impact on morbidity and mortality world wide. Although experimental studies on the stimulation of arteriogenesis have been promising, not a single drug has been proved to be applicable in clinical practice, either because of...

  10. Differential impact of diabetes mellitus type II and arterial hypertension on collateral artery growth and concomitant macrophage accumulation.

    Ito, Wulf D; Lund, Natalie; Sager, Hendrik; Becker, Wiebke; Wenzel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II and arterial hypertension are major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease and have been considered to reduce collateral growth (arteriogenesis). Collateral growth proceeds through different stages. Vascular proliferation and macrophage accumulation are hallmarks of early collateral growth. We here compare the impact of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II on collateral proliferation (Brdu incorporation) and macrophage accumulation (ED 2 staining) as well as collateral vessel function (collateral conductance) in a rat model of peripheral vascular disease (femoral artery occlusion), diabetes mellitus type II (Zucker fatty diabetic rats and Zucker lean rat controls) and arterial hypertension (induced via clip placement around the right renal arteriy). We furthermore tested the impact of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP‑1) on collateral proliferation and macrophage accumulation in these models Diabetic animals showed reduced vascular proliferation and macrophage accumulation, which however did not translate into a change of collateral conductance. Hypertensive animals on the contrary had reduced collateral conductances without altered macrophage accumulation and only a marginal reduction in collateral proliferation. Infusion of MCP‑1 only enhanced vascular proliferation in diabetic animals. These findings illustrate that impaired monocyte/macrophage recruitment is responsible for reduced collateral growth under diabetic conditions but not in arterial hypertension suggesting that diabetes mellitus in particular affects early stages of collateral growth whereas hypertension has its impact on later remodeling stages. Successful pro-arteriogenic treatment strategies in a patient population that presents with diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension need to address different stages of collateral growth and thus different molecular and cellular targets simultaneously.

  11. Prediction of infarction and reperfusion in stroke by flow- and volume-weighted collateral signal in MR angiography.

    Ernst, M; Forkert, N D; Brehmer, L; Thomalla, G; Siemonsen, S; Fiehler, J; Kemmling, A

    2015-02-01

    In proximal anterior circulation occlusive strokes, collateral flow is essential for good outcome. Collateralized vessel intensity in TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA is variable due to different acquisition methods. Our purpose was to quantify collateral supply by using flow-weighted signal in TOF-MRA and blood volume-weighted signal in contrast-enhanced MRA to determine each predictive contribution to tissue infarction and reperfusion. Consecutively (2009-2013), 44 stroke patients with acute proximal anterior circulation occlusion met the inclusion criteria with TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA and penumbral imaging. Collateralized vessels in the ischemic hemisphere were assessed by TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA using 2 methods: 1) visual 3-point collateral scoring, and 2) collateral signal quantification by an arterial atlas-based collateral index. Collateral measures were tested by receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression against 2 imaging end points of tissue-outcome: final infarct volume and percentage of penumbra saved. Visual collateral scores on contrast-enhanced MRA but not TOF were significantly higher in patients with good outcome. Visual collateral scoring on contrast-enhanced MRA was the best rater-based discriminator for final infarct volume 50% (area under the curve, 0.67; P = .04). Atlas-based collateral index of contrast-enhanced MRA was the overall best independent discriminator for final infarct volume of collateral index combining the signal of TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA was the overall best discriminator for effective reperfusion (percentage of penumbra saved >50%; area under the curve, 0.89; P collateral assessment, TOF- and contrast-enhanced MRA both contain predictive signal information for penumbral reperfusion. This could improve risk stratification in further studies. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Acute development of collateral circulation and therapeutic prospects in ischemic stroke

    Eri Iwasawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In acute ischemic stroke, collateral circulation plays an important role in maintaining blood flow to the tissue that is at risk of progressing into ischemia, and in increasing the successful recanalization rate without hemorrhagic transformation. We have reported that well-developed collateral circulation is associated with smaller infarct volume and better long-term neurological outcome, and it disappears promptly once the effective recanalization is achieved. Contrary to the belief that collateral vessels develop over time in chronic stenotic condition, there exists a phenomenon that collateral circulation develops immediately in acute stenosis or occlusion of the arteries and it seems to be triggered by fluid shear stress, which occurs between the territories of stenotic/occluded arteries and those fed by surrounding intact arteries. We believe that this acute development of collateral circulation is a target of novel therapeutics in ischemic stroke and refer our recent attempt in enhancing collateral circulation by modulating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1, which is a known shear-stress mechanosensing protein.

  13. Retrospective analysis of intravertebral collateral enhancement in patients with central venous obstruction

    Simeone, F.J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Bennett, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    To compare prevalence and patterns of intravertebral collateral enhancement in patients with and without central venous obstruction (CVO). Chest CTs performed between 1/1/2000 and 12/15/2012 with reports containing terms indicating CVO were identified. All contrast enhanced CTs were examined for the presence of CVO and collateral venous pathways. If intravertebral collateral enhancement was present, the pattern was recorded as nodular, linear, or both. In 209 suspected cases of CVO, 53 (25 %) were confirmed with obstruction and 156 (75 %) were without obstruction. In patients with CVO, 47 % (25/53) demonstrated collateral venous flow through an intravertebral marrow pathway compared to 5 % (8/156) of patients without CVO (P < 0.0001). The most common level of enhancement was the upper thoracic spine, involving only the vertebral body. Nodular, linear, and combined nodular-linear enhancement patterns were seen with similar frequency. Nodular intravertebral collateral enhancement was mistaken for sclerotic metastases in 33 % (3/9) of cases. Intravertebral collateral enhancement was seen in almost half the patients with CVO and when nodular enhancement is present, it is important to differentiate between metastatic lesions and enhancement related to CVO. (orig.)

  14. Acute development of collateral circulation and therapeutic prospects in ischemic stroke.

    Iwasawa, Eri; Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Yokota, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, collateral circulation plays an important role in maintaining blood flow to the tissue that is at risk of progressing into ischemia, and in increasing the successful recanalization rate without hemorrhagic transformation. We have reported that well-developed collateral circulation is associated with smaller infarct volume and better long-term neurological outcome, and it disappears promptly once the effective recanalization is achieved. Contrary to the belief that collateral vessels develop over time in chronic stenotic condition, there exists a phenomenon that collateral circulation develops immediately in acute stenosis or occlusion of the arteries and it seems to be triggered by fluid shear stress, which occurs between the territories of stenotic/occluded arteries and those fed by surrounding intact arteries. We believe that this acute development of collateral circulation is a target of novel therapeutics in ischemic stroke and refer our recent attempt in enhancing collateral circulation by modulating sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1, which is a known shear-stress mechanosensing protein.

  15. Blood pool SPECT for visualization of portosystemic collaterals in portal hypertension

    Kroiss, A.; Auinger, C.

    1990-01-01

    In 46 patients, 26 male and 20 female, age from 32 to 71 years (mean 47,4 ± 11 years) a bloodpool-scintigraphy (BSP) with SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) was performed. The in-vivo labelling of the erythrocytes with pyrophosphate and Tc99m was performed in the usual way. The SPECT investigations were performed with a digital Anger-Camera (Elscint; Apex 401). In 14 patients without collaterals BPS was performed to compare the method with patients with liver diseases and collaterals. 29 patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension were investigated with the BSP and additionaly a scintisplenoportography (SSP) was performed. In patients with only cephalad collaterals all the results were concordant. In just 1 patient with cephalad and caudad collaterals we found a discordant result. In 8 patients we performed BSP, SSP and a katheterangiography (KA). Taking the KA as the 'golden standard' we found a concordant result with the 3 methods in all patients with cephalad collaterals. In patients with cephalad and caudad collaterals we once found a discordant result with the SSP and twice with the BSP. In 2 patients the patency of surgical shunts were proved. 2 patients after sclerosis of the oesophageal varices have been proved by BPS and SSP and both patients showed good therapeutical results. (Authors)

  16. Retrospective analysis of intravertebral collateral enhancement in patients with central venous obstruction

    Simeone, F.J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Bennett, Debbie L. [Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To compare prevalence and patterns of intravertebral collateral enhancement in patients with and without central venous obstruction (CVO). Chest CTs performed between 1/1/2000 and 12/15/2012 with reports containing terms indicating CVO were identified. All contrast enhanced CTs were examined for the presence of CVO and collateral venous pathways. If intravertebral collateral enhancement was present, the pattern was recorded as nodular, linear, or both. In 209 suspected cases of CVO, 53 (25 %) were confirmed with obstruction and 156 (75 %) were without obstruction. In patients with CVO, 47 % (25/53) demonstrated collateral venous flow through an intravertebral marrow pathway compared to 5 % (8/156) of patients without CVO (P < 0.0001). The most common level of enhancement was the upper thoracic spine, involving only the vertebral body. Nodular, linear, and combined nodular-linear enhancement patterns were seen with similar frequency. Nodular intravertebral collateral enhancement was mistaken for sclerotic metastases in 33 % (3/9) of cases. Intravertebral collateral enhancement was seen in almost half the patients with CVO and when nodular enhancement is present, it is important to differentiate between metastatic lesions and enhancement related to CVO. (orig.)

  17. Acute development of collateral circulation and therapeutic prospects in ischemic stroke

    Eri Iwasawa; Masahiko Ichijo; Satoru Ishibashi; Takanori Yokota

    2016-01-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, collateral circulation plays an important role in maintaining blood lfow to the tissue that is at risk of progressing into ischemia, and in increasing the successful recanalization rate with-out hemorrhagic transformation. We have reported that well-developed collateral circulation is associated with smaller infarct volume and better long-term neurological outcome, and it disappears promptly once the effective recanalization is achieved. Contrary to the belief that collateral vessels develop over time in chronic stenotic condition, there exists a phenomenon that collateral circulation develops immediately in acute stenosis or occlusion of the arteries and it seems to be triggered by lfuid shear stress, which occurs be-tween the territories of stenotic/occluded arteries and those fed by surrounding intact arteries. We believe that this acute development of collateral circulation is a target of novel therapeutics in ischemic stroke and refer our recent attempt in enhancing collateral circulation by modulating sphingosine-1-phosphate recep-tor 1, which is a known shear-stress mechanosensing protein.

  18. Evaluation of Collateral Source Characteristics With 3-Dimensional Analysis Using Micro-X-Ray Computed Tomography.

    Arima, Yuichiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Tabata, Noriaki; Nakagawa, Osamu; Oshima, Asahi; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Sato, Takahiro; Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Otani, Jun; Ishii, Masanobu; Uchikawa, Michie; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Kaikita, Koichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Nishiyama, Koichi; Tsujita, Kenichi

    2018-03-23

    Collateral arteries provide an alternative blood supply and protect tissues from ischemic damage in patients with peripheral artery disease. However, the mechanism of collateral artery development is difficult to validate. Collateral arteries were visualized using micro-x-ray computed tomography. Developmental characteristics were assessed using confocal microscopy. We conducted a single-center, retrospective, observational study and assessed the dilatation of collateral arteries on ischemic sides. We quantified the vascular volume in both ischemic and nonischemic legs. A prominent increase in vascular volume was observed in the ischemic leg using a murine hind-limb ischemia model. We also performed qualitative assessment and confirmed that the inferior gluteal artery functioned as a major collateral source. Serial analysis of murine hind-limb vessel development revealed that the inferior gluteal artery was a remnant of the ischial artery, which emerged as a representative vessel on the dorsal side during hind-limb organogenesis. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients who were admitted for the diagnosis or treatment of peripheral artery disease. The diameter of the inferior gluteal artery on the ischemic side showed significant dilatation compared with that on the nonischemic side. Our findings indicate that an embryonic remnant artery can become a collateral source under ischemic conditions. Flow enhancement in the inferior gluteal artery might become a novel therapeutic approach for patients with peripheral artery disease. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Calcified Plaque of Coronary Artery: Factors Influencing Overestimation of Coronary Artery Stenosis on Coronary CT Angiography

    Kim, Mok Hee; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Choi, Song; Seon, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Ko, Joon Seok

    2010-01-01

    To assess the influence of calcified plaque characteristics on the overestimation of coronary arterial stenosis on a coronary CT angiography (CCTA). The study included 271 coronary arteries with calcified plaques identified by CCTA, and based on 928 coronary arteries from 232 patients who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Individual coronary arteries were classified into two groups by agreement based on the degree of stenosis from each CCTA and ICA: 1) group A includes patients with concordant CCTA and ICA results and, 2) group B includes patients with an overestimation of CCTA compared to ICA. Parameters including total calcium score, calcium score of an individual coronary artery, calcium burden number of an individual coronary artery, and the density of each calcified plaque (calcium score / number of calcium burden) for each individual coronary artery were compared between the two groups. Of the 271 coronary arteries, 164 (60.5%) were overestimated on CCTA. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) had a significantly low rate of overestimation (47.1%) compared to the other coronary arteries (p=0.001). No significant differences for total calcium score, calcium score of individual coronary artery, and the density of each calcified plaque from individual coronary arteries between two groups was observed. However, a decreasing tendency for the rate of overestimation on CCTA was observed with an increase in calcium burden of individual coronary arteries (p<0.05). The evaluation of coronary arteries suggests that the degree of coronary arterial stenosis had a tendency to be overestimated by calcified plaques on CCTA. However, the rate of overestimation for the degree of coronary arterial stenosis by calcified plaques was not significantly influenced by total calcium score, calcium score of individual coronary artery, and density of each calcified plaque

  20. Distal coronary hemoperfusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    Muinck, Ebo Derk de

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis several aspects of passive and active coronary perfusion during coronary angioplasty are investigated. The autoperfusion balloon catheters that were evaluated are the Stack® and the RX-60® catheters (Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, inc., Santa Clara, California, U.S.A). The coronary