WorldWideScience

Sample records for human cooperation perspectives

  1. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  2. Looking for unity in diversity: human cooperative childcare in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; van Schaik, Carel; Griesser, Michael

    2017-12-20

    Humans engage in cooperative childcare, which includes some elements not found in other animals, such as the presence of post-reproductive helpers, extensive food sharing among adults and a pervasive sexual division of labour. In animals, cooperative offspring care has typically been studied in two different contexts. The first mainly involves helpers contributing care in cooperatively breeding family groups; the second context is allomaternal care in species usually not categorized as cooperative breeders (e.g. plural and communal breeders, often without male care). Comparative analyses suggest that cooperative breeding and allomaternal care in plural and communal breeders have distinct evolutionary origins, with humans fitting neither pathway entirely. Nevertheless, some critical proximate mechanisms of helping, including hormonal regulators, are likely to be shared across species. Other mechanisms may vary among species, such as social tolerance, proactive prosociality or conditional mother-infant bonding. These are presumably associated with specific details of the care system, such as whether all group members contribute, or whether mothers can potentially raise offspring alone. Thus, cooperative offspring care is seen in different contexts across animal lineages, but may nonetheless share several important psychological characteristics. We end by discussing how work on humans may play a unifying role in studying cooperative offspring care. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Variable postpartum responsiveness among humans and other primates with "cooperative breeding": A comparative and evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdy, Sarah B

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Until recently, evolutionists reconstructing mother-infant bonding among human ancestors relied on nonhuman primate models characterized by exclusively maternal care, overlooking the highly variable responsiveness exhibited by mothers in species with obligate reliance on allomaternal care and provisioning. It is now increasingly recognized that apes as large-brained, slow maturing, and nutritionally dependent for so long as early humans were, could not have evolved unless "alloparents" (group members other than genetic parents), in addition to parents, had helped mothers to care for and provision offspring, a rearing system known as "cooperative breeding." Here I review situation-dependent maternal responses ranging from highly possessive to permissive, temporarily distancing, rejecting, or infanticidal, documented for a small subset of cooperatively breeding primates. As in many mammals, primate maternal responsiveness is influenced by physical condition, endocrinological priming, prior experience and local environments (especially related to security). But mothers among primates who evolved as cooperative breeders also appear unusually sensitive to cues of social support. In addition to more "sapient" or rational decision-making, humankind's deep history of cooperative breeding must be considered when trying to understand the extremely variable responsiveness of human mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Switched Cooperative Driving Model towards Human Vehicle Copiloting Situation: A Cyberphysical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly automated and intelligent vehicles can lead to the reduction of driver workload. However, it also causes the out-of-the-loop problem to drivers, which leaves drivers handicapped in their ability to take over manual operations in emergency situations. This contribution puts forth a new switched driving strategy to avoid some of the negative consequences associated with out-of-the-loop performance by having drivers assume manual control at periodic intervals. To minimize the impact of the transitions between automated and manual driving on traffic operations, a switched cooperative driving model towards human vehicle copiloting situation is proposed by considering the vehicle dynamics and the realistic intervehicle communication in a cyberphysical view. The design method of the switching signal for the switched cooperative driving model is given based on the Lyapunov stability theory with the comprehensive consideration of platoon stability and human factors. The good agreement between simulation results and theoretical analysis illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  6. Cooperative mobility systems: The human factor challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke; Kroon, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a vision on cooperative mobility systems from a human factors perspective. To create a common ground for future developments, it’s important to define the common research themes and knowledge gaps. This article presents what steps need to be taken in order to come to proper

  7. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  8. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  9. Origins of human cooperation and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Vaish, Amrisha

    2013-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, morality is a form of cooperation. Cooperation requires individuals either to suppress their own self-interest or to equate it with that of others. We review recent research on the origins of human morality, both phylogenetic (research with apes) and ontogenetic (research with children). For both time frames we propose a two-step sequence: first a second-personal morality in which individuals are sympathetic or fair to particular others, and second an agent-neutral morality in which individuals follow and enforce group-wide social norms. Human morality arose evolutionarily as a set of skills and motives for cooperating with others, and the ontogeny of these skills and motives unfolds in part naturally and in part as a result of sociocultural contexts and interactions.

  10. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  11. The State of Human Anatomy Teaching in the Medical Schools of Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Present and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, Omar

    2009-04-01

    Available literature on medical education charts an emerging trend in the field of anatomy. In the past decade, assisted by innovations in informatics and the paradigm shift in medical education, the hands-on experience of cadaver dissection has progressively become a relic of the past. Within the context of the situation in Gulf Cooperation Council countries, this paper compares the traditional teaching approach with the modern one that tends to emphasise technical gadgetry, virtual reality and plastic models rather than hands-on-experience to impart knowledge and skill. However, cadaver-based learning is an important building block for the future physician and surgeon since clinical astuteness is likely to rely on skills gained from hands-on experience rather than the tendency to learning through virtual reality found in modern curricula.

  12. Cooperative Human-Centric Sensing Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena

    Human-Centric Sensing (HCS) is a new concept relevant to Internet of Things (IoT). HCS connectivity, referred to as “smart connectivity” enables applications that are highly personalized and often time-critical. In a typical HCS scenario, there may be many hundreds of sensor streams connections...

  13. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2017-06-14

    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  15. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  16. Cooperation in human-computer communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to simulate cooperation in human-computer communication to model the communicative interaction process of agents in natural dialogs in order to provide advanced human-computer interaction in that coherence is maintained between contributions of both agents, i.e. the human user and the computer. This thesis contributes to certain aspects of understanding and generation and their interaction in the German language. In spontaneous dialogs agents cooperate by the pro...

  17. Cooperation for Interference Management: A GDoF Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil; Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin

    2016-01-01

    The impact of cooperation on interference management is investigated by studying an elemental wireless network, the so-called symmetric interference relay channel (IRC), from a generalized degrees of freedom (GDoF) perspective. This is motivated

  18. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  19. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  20. Human cooperation by lethal group competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Martijn; Kats, Ralph; van der Sar, Xander; Reuben, Ernesto; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2013-01-01

    Why humans are prone to cooperate puzzles biologists, psychologists and economists alike. Between-group conflict has been hypothesized to drive within-group cooperation. However, such conflicts did not have lasting effects in laboratory experiments, because they were about luxury goods, not needed for survival ("looting"). Here, we find within-group cooperation to last when between-group conflict is implemented as "all-out war" (eliminating the weakest groups). Human subjects invested in helping group members to avoid having the lowest collective pay-off, whereas they failed to cooperate in control treatments with random group elimination or with no subdivision in groups. When the game was repeated, experience was found to promote helping. Thus, not within-group interactions alone, not random group elimination, but pay-off-dependent group elimination was found to drive within-group cooperation in our experiment. We suggest that some forms of human cooperation are maintained by multi-level selection: reciprocity within groups and lethal competition among groups acting together.

  1. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ionita COCHINTU; Laura TUTUNARU; Narcisa Mihaela STOICU; Daniela Cristina VALEA

    2011-01-01

    Trafficking in human beings, a phenomenon with global dimensions constitutes a serious violation of human rights, dignity and freedom, a social phenomenon with negative consequences for the entire society. Countries have been concerned over the time to find the most effective policy measures to combat and prevent human trafficking, and in this regard the United Nations, the European Union and the Council of Europe have developed a series of international documents which established an interna...

  2. Human-machine cooperative telerobotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, R.V.; Everett, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of work sites that are hazardous or merely inaccessible, remote manipulation has become more and more important. Nuclear, underwater, and space applications, exemplify a few of the dangerous environments in which work may be desired, while micromanipulation, which has become of more interest lately, is an example of an inherently inaccessible environment. The past 50 yr have seen great advances in remote manipulation technology, from the pioneering work of Ray Goertz in the 1950s to the ongoing development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of the modular light-duty utility arm (MLDUA), which is a long-reach manipulator for use in the cleanup of the waste storage tanks. Mainly, research has either focused on the improvement of manually operated remote manipulators or teleoperators, in which a human is an integral part of the control loop, or autonomous robots, which have the required decision-making capability and sensors. However, in the past few years, it has become increasingly evident that there are limitations in each of these modalities, which make them individually unsuited for certain tasks. While a human operator may be required to make high-level decisions, fatigue and tedium can result from repetitive tasks. On the other hand, computers can provide fast and efficient operation but are limited by their currently inadequate decision-making abilities as well as inaccuracies in the utilized sensors. An ideal teleoperator would be one in which the human is involved in the operation only to the extent that high-level decisions must be made and corrections must be made to account for inaccuracies in the sensors. Responsibilities such as gross alignment and repetitive motions would be delegated to computer control

  3. Human cooperation based on punishment reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Miguel; Rankin, Daniel J; Wedekind, Claus

    2013-08-01

    The threat of punishment usually promotes cooperation. However, punishing itself is costly, rare in nonhuman animals, and humans who punish often finish with low payoffs in economic experiments. The evolution of punishment has therefore been unclear. Recent theoretical developments suggest that punishment has evolved in the context of reputation games. We tested this idea in a simple helping game with observers and with punishment and punishment reputation (experimentally controlling for other possible reputational effects). We show that punishers fully compensate their costs as they receive help more often. The more likely defection is punished within a group, the higher the level of within-group cooperation. These beneficial effects perish if the punishment reputation is removed. We conclude that reputation is key to the evolution of punishment. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. What the Teaching Perspectives of Cooperating Teachers Tell US about Their Advisory Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A.; Jarvis-Selinger, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study drew upon the recently developed Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) to compare and contrast the teaching perspectives of cooperating teachers against a range of demographic data specific to cooperating teachers. The outcomes indicate, among other things, that a high percentage of cooperating teachers base their pedagogical…

  5. Non-cooperative game theory in biology and cooperative reasoning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalak, Alihan; Smirnova, Elena; Jost, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    The readiness for spontaneous cooperation together with the assumptions that others share this cooperativity has been identified as a fundamental feature that distinguishes humans from other animals, including the great apes. At the same time, cooperativity presents an evolutionary puzzle because non-cooperators do better in a group of cooperators. We develop here an analysis of the process leading to cooperation in terms of rationality concepts, game theory and epistemic logic. We are, however, not attempting to reconstruct the actual evolutionary process. We rather want to provide the logical structure underlying cooperation in order to understand why cooperation is possible and what kind of reasoning and beliefs would lead to cooperative decision-making. Game theory depends on an underlying common belief in non-cooperative rationality of the players, and cooperativity similarly can utilize a common belief in cooperative rationality as its basis. We suggest a weaker concept of rational decision-making in games that encompasses both types of decision-making. We build this up in stages, starting from simple optimization, then using anticipation of the reaction of others, to finally arrive at reflexive and cooperative reasoning. While each stage is more difficult than the preceding, importantly, we also identify a reduction of complexity achieved by the consistent application of higher stage reasoning.

  6. The 'spiteful' origins of human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Gurven, Michael; Tracer, David

    2011-07-22

    We analyse generosity, second-party ('spiteful') punishment (2PP), and third-party ('altruistic') punishment (3PP) in a cross-cultural experimental economics project. We show that smaller societies are less generous in the Dictator Game but no less prone to 2PP in the Ultimatum Game. We might assume people everywhere would be more willing to punish someone who hurt them directly (2PP) than someone who hurt an anonymous third person (3PP). While this is true of small societies, people in large societies are actually more likely to engage in 3PP than 2PP. Strong reciprocity, including generous offers and 3PP, exists mostly in large, complex societies that face numerous challenging collective action problems. We argue that 'spiteful' 2PP, motivated by the basic emotion of anger, is more universal than 3PP and sufficient to explain the origins of human cooperation.

  7. The Role of Ontogeny in the Evolution of Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    To explain the evolutionary emergence of uniquely human skills and motivations for cooperation, Tomasello et al. (2012, in Current Anthropology 53(6):673-92) proposed the interdependence hypothesis. The key adaptive context in this account was the obligate collaborative foraging of early human adults. Hawkes (2014, in Human Nature 25(1):28-48), following Hrdy (Mothers and Others, Harvard University Press, 2009), provided an alternative account for the emergence of uniquely human cooperative skills in which the key was early human infants' attempts to solicit care and attention from adults in a cooperative breeding context. Here we attempt to reconcile these two accounts. Our composite account accepts Hrdy's and Hawkes's contention that the extremely early emergence of human infants' cooperative skills suggests an important role for cooperative breeding as adaptive context, perhaps in early Homo. But our account also insists that human cooperation goes well beyond these nascent skills to include such things as the communicative and cultural conventions, norms, and institutions created by later Homo and early modern humans to deal with adult problems of social coordination. As part of this account we hypothesize how each of the main stages of human ontogeny (infancy, childhood, adolescence) was transformed during evolution both by infants' cooperative skills "migrating up" in age and by adults' cooperative skills "migrating down" in age.

  8. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  9. Case Study on the Forestry Cooperation Model from Game Structure Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Cai, Zhijian; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Take Chinese yew cooperative organization for example,different game structures of forestry cooperation model were analyzed,the elative merit and applicable occasion was discussed combined with empirical investigation,and some suggestions were given also.The results showed that depending entirely on normal forest farmers cooperate spontaneously is difficult. Policies should be designed from the perspective of promoted village cadres and influential family salons to cooperation. When m...

  10. Cooperation and conflict in cancer: An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Featherston

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary approaches to carcinogenesis have gained prominence in the literature and enhanced our understanding of cancer. However, an appreciation of neoplasia in the context of evolutionary transitions, particularly the transition from independent genes to a fullyintegrated genome, is largely absent. In the gene–genome evolutionary transition, mobile genetic elements (MGEs can be studied as the extant exemplars of selfish autonomous lowerlevel units that cooperated to form a higher-level, functionally integrated genome. Here,we discuss levels of selection in cancer cells. In particular, we examine the tension between gene and genome units of selection by examining the expression profiles of MGE domains in an array of human cancers. Overall, across diverse cancers, there is an aberrant expression of several families of mobile elements, including the most common MGE in the human genome, retrotransposon LINE 1. These results indicate an alternative life-history strategy for MGEs in the cancers studied. Whether the aberrant expression is the cause or effect oftumourigenesis is unknown, although some evidence suggests that dysregulation of MGEs can play a role in cancer origin and progression. These data are interpreted in combination with phylostratigraphic reports correlating the origin of cancer genes with multicellularity and other potential increases in complexity in cancer cell populations. Cooperation and conflict between individuals at the gene, genome and cell level provide an evolutionary medicineperspective of cancer that enhances our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment.

  11. International human cooperation in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Koreyuki; Kaieda, Keisuke; Makuuchi, Keizo; Takada, Kazuo; Nomura, Masayuki

    1997-01-01

    Rearing of talented persons in the area of nuclear energy is one of the important works in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the present situations and future schedules of international human cooperation in this area wsere summarized. First, the recent activities of International Nuclear Technology Center were outlined in respect of international human cooperation. A study and training course which was started in cooperation with JICA and IAEA from the middle of eighties and the international nuclear safety seminar aiming at advancing the nuclear safety level of the world are now being put into practice. In addition, a study and training for rearing talented persons was started from 1996 to improve the nuclear safety level of the neighbouring countries. The activities of the nuclear research interchange system by Science and Technology Agency established in 1985 and Bilateral Co-operation Agreement from 1984 were explained and also various difficulties in the international cooperation were pointed out. (M.N.)

  12. Cooperative and human aspects of software engineering: CHASE 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Sharp, Helen C.; Winschiers Theophilus, Heike

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people -- software engineers in cooperation with domain experts, users and other stakeholders--in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how and which methods and tools...... are required, to improve the creation and maintenance of software. The 3rd workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering held at the International Conference on Software Engineering continued the tradition from earlier workshops and provided a lively forum to discuss current developments...... and high quality research in the field. Further dissemination of research results will lead to an improvement of software development and deployment across the globe....

  13. Implementing Cooperative Learning in Australian Primary Schools: Generalist Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Angela; Dionigi, Rylee A.

    2013-01-01

    To implement cooperative learning successfully in practice, teachers require knowledge of cooperative learning, its features and terms, and how it functions in classrooms. This qualitative study examined 12 Australian generalist primary teachers', understandings of cooperative learning and perceived factors affecting its implementation. Using…

  14. International Cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities in 2015-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kapliienko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the state and perspectives of international cooperation of Izmail State University for Humanities with academic partners abroad. Special attention is given to the participation of the University in European research networks for educational and curricula quality promotion, as well as to improvement of academic staff professional qualification in view of social and regional needs for sustainable economic and social development.

  15. A Perspective on Helmberger and Hoos' Theory of Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Richard J.

    1995-01-01

    Helmberger and Hoos' (HH) 1962 paper is a landmark in the economic theory of agricultural cooperatives, Along with the related work by Helmberger (1964), it represented the definitive treatment of marketing cooperative behavior and standard reading for graduate students in agricultural marketing for more than two decades, To understand fully HH's paper, appreciate its many strengths, and also recognize its weaknesses: one must interpret it both in the context of the work on cooperatives that ...

  16. Theoretical Perspectives Underlying the Application of Cooperative Learning in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Dat

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been the centre of worldwide attention because it has been shown to have strong effects on student learning, as well as other positive outcomes. Although the academic, social, affective and psychological outcomes of students taught by cooperative learning are more positive compared with students taught by the traditional…

  17. Cooperation for Interference Management: A GDoF Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Gherekhloo, Soheil

    2016-10-13

    The impact of cooperation on interference management is investigated by studying an elemental wireless network, the so-called symmetric interference relay channel (IRC), from a generalized degrees of freedom (GDoF) perspective. This is motivated by the fact that the deployment of relays is considered as a remedy to overcome the bottleneck of current systems in terms of achievable rates. The focus of this paper is on the regime in which the interference link is weaker than the source-relay link in the IRC. Our approach toward studying the GDoF goes through the capacity analysis of the linear deterministic IRC (LD-IRC). New upper bounds on the sum capacity of the LD-IRC based on genie-aided approaches are established. These upper bounds together with some existing upper bounds are achieved by using four novel transmission schemes. Extending the upper bounds and the transmission schemes to the Gaussian case, the GDoF of the Gaussian IRC is characterized for the aforementioned regime. This completes the GDoF results available in the literature for the symmetric GDoF. It turns out that even if the incoming and outgoing links of the relay are both weaker than the desired channel, involving a relay can increase the GDoF. Interestingly, utilizing the relay in this case can increase the slope of the GDoF from -2 [in the interference channel (IC)] to -1 or 0. This shrinks the regime where ignoring the interference by treating it as noise is optimal. Furthermore, the analysis shows that if the relay ingoing and outgoing links are sufficiently strong, the relay is able to neutralize the interference completely. In this case, the bottleneck of the transmission will be the interference links, and hence, the GDoF increases if the interference link gets stronger. It is shown that in the strong interference regime, in contrast to the IC, the GDoF can be a monotonically decreasing function of the interference level. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  18. Ethical Issues in Cooperative Education--The Practitioner's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Raises issues of unethical student behavior in cooperative education, with examples of theft, abuse of workplace e-mail, fraudulent timesheets, and wrongful unemployment claims. Discusses new opportunities for unethical behavior created by technology and ways educators can respond. (SK)

  19. Human uniqueness-self-interest and social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Daijiro; Bingham, Paul M

    2008-07-21

    Humans are unique among all species of terrestrial history in both ecological dominance and individual properties. Many, or perhaps all, of the unique elements of this nonpareil status can be plausibly interpreted as evolutionary and strategic elements and consequences of the unprecedented intensity and scale of our social cooperation. Convincing explanation of this unique human social adaptation remains a central, unmet challenge to the scientific enterprise. We develop a hypothesis for the ancestral origin of expanded cooperative social behavior. Specifically, we present a game theoretic analysis demonstrating that a specific pattern of expanded social cooperation between conspecific individuals with conflicts of interest (including non-kin) can be strategically viable, but only in animals that possess a highly unusual capacity for conspecific violence (credible threat) having very specific properties that dramatically reduce the costs of coercive violence. The resulting reduced costs allow preemptive or compensated coercion to be an instantaneously self-interested behavior under diverse circumstances rather than in rare, idiosyncratic circumstances as in actors (animals) who do not have access to inexpensive coercive threat. Humans are apparently unique among terrestrial organisms in having evolved conspecific coercive capabilities that fulfill these stringent requirements. Thus, our results support the proposal that access to a novel capacity for projection of coercive threat might represent the essential initiating event for the evolution of a human-like pattern of social cooperation and the subsequent evolution of the diverse features of human uniqueness. Empirical evidence indicates that these constraints were, in fact, met only in our evolutionary lineage. The logic for the emergence of uniquely human cooperation suggested by our analysis apparently accounts simply for the human fossil record.

  20. Member Heterogeneity in Agricultural Cooperatives: A Systems-Theoretic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Iliopoulos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available All over the globe, cooperatives are plagued by pervasive member heterogeneity problems that are induced by the radical and dynamic changes in the business environment. Most current solutions to these problems emphasize strengthening member loyalty and commitment. Yet, many of these solutions are symptomatic rather than fundamental. Searching for fundamental solutions, this paper draws on the Luhmannian system-environment paradigm. Bringing this paradigm to bear on the cooperative scholarship, the paper views cooperatives as operationally closed systems maintaining a precarious relationship to their outer environment, which includes cooperative members. In view of their operational closure, cooperatives tend to overstrain the carrying capacity of their environment by being active in the areas marked by a limited extent of the true commonness of member interests. This overstraining results in a host of problems associated with member heterogeneity. The fundamental solutions following from the system-environment paradigm require the adjustment of cooperative boundaries and goals in light of the evolving range of the true common interests of members. In terms of methodology, we review the extant literature, synthesize the main elements of the system-environment approach and conduct a meta-analysis of case studies and other empirical research to highlight our theoretical arguments.

  1. Unto Others: Illustrating the Human Capacity for Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. Andrew; Urbanski, John; Hunt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Research in both evolutionary economics and evolutionary psychology provides strong evidence that human behavior can be, and is, a complex mix of hedonism and altruism with a strong inclination toward cooperation under certain conditions. In this article, behavioral assumptions made in mainstream business theory are compared and contrasted with…

  2. Designing a Social Environment for Human-Robot Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Fred M.

    Noting that work is partly a social activity, and that workers' psychological and emotional needs influence their productivity, this paper explores avenues for improving human-robot cooperation and for enhancing worker satisfaction in the environment of flexible automation. The first section of the paper offers a brief overview of the…

  3. Effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to study the effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, HGPRT+ cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of saccharin, all the interactions that developed in 4 and 24 h were positive for metabolic cooperation. When saccharin was added after donor cells and recipient cells had made contact, the proportion of interactions that were positive for metabolic cooperation was unchanged but the number of grains over primary recipients was reduced. However, in donor cells saccharin caused a reduction in [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation into both acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions, although the relative distribution of radioactivity between these two fractions and between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated derivatives of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine was unchanged. Metabolic cooperation was studied under conditions in which the number of grains over the nuclei of both the primary recipient and the primary recipient's donor could be counted. The change in the number of grains over these two cell types in response to saccharin was compared and found to be the same. Thus in normal human fibroblasts saccharin does not appear to affect metabolic cooperation, which is a measure of cell-to-cell communication

  4. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  5. Optimal Modality Selection for Cooperative Human-Robot Task Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mithun George; Wachs, Juan P

    2016-12-01

    Human-robot cooperation in complex environments must be fast, accurate, and resilient. This requires efficient communication channels where robots need to assimilate information using a plethora of verbal and nonverbal modalities such as hand gestures, speech, and gaze. However, even though hybrid human-robot communication frameworks and multimodal communication have been studied, a systematic methodology for designing multimodal interfaces does not exist. This paper addresses the gap by proposing a novel methodology to generate multimodal lexicons which maximizes multiple performance metrics over a wide range of communication modalities (i.e., lexicons). The metrics are obtained through a mixture of simulation and real-world experiments. The methodology is tested in a surgical setting where a robot cooperates with a surgeon to complete a mock abdominal incision and closure task by delivering surgical instruments. Experimental results show that predicted optimal lexicons significantly outperform predicted suboptimal lexicons (p human-robot collision) and the differences in the lexicons are analyzed.

  6. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard S; Boone, James L

    2010-08-21

    Two types of models aim to account the origins of rank differentiation and social hierarchy in human societies. Conflict models suggest that the formation of social hierarchies is synonymous with the establishment of relationships of coercive social dominance and exploitation. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation--the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject--may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. Little formal theoretical work, however, has established whether and under what conditions individuals would indeed prefer the establishment of more hierarchical relationships over more egalitarian alternatives. This paper provides an evolutionary game theoretical model for the acceptance of leadership in cooperative groups. We propose that the effort of a leader can reduce the likelihood that cooperation fails due to free-riding or coordination errors, and that under some circumstances, individuals would prefer to cooperate in a group under the supervision of a leader who receives a share of the group's productivity than to work in an unsupervised group. We suggest, in particular, that this becomes an optimal solution for individual decision makers when the number of group members required for collective action exceeds the maximum group size at which leaderless cooperation is viable.

  7. Interactions between personality and institutions in cooperative behaviour in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K. B.; Nettle, D.; McElreath, R.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory attempts to identify relationships between personality and cooperative behaviour in humans have generated inconsistent results. This may partially stem from different practices in psychology and economics laboratories, with both hypothetical players and incentives typical only in the former. Another possible cause is insufficient consideration of the contexts within which social dilemmas occur. Real social dilemmas are often governed by institutions that change the payoff structure via rewards and punishments. However, such ‘strong situations’ will not necessarily suppress the effects of personality. On the contrary, they may affect some personalities differentially. Extraversion and neuroticism, reflecting variation in reward and punishment sensitivity, should predict modification of cooperative behaviour following changes to the payoff structure. We investigate interactions between personality and a punishment situation via two versions of a public goods game. We find that, even in a strong situation, personality matters and, moreover, it is related to strategic shifts in cooperation. Extraversion is associated with a shift from free-riding to cooperation in the presence of punishment, agreeableness is associated with initially higher contributions regardless of game, and, contrary to our predictions, neuroticism is associated with lower contributions regardless of game. Results should lead to new hypotheses that relate variation in biological functioning to individual differences in cooperative behaviour and that consider three-way interactions among personality, institutional context and sociocultural background. PMID:26503684

  8. Investigation of the Impedance Characteristic of Human Arm for Development of Robots to Cooperate with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mozasser; Ikeura, Ryojun; Mizutani, Kazuki

    In the near future many aspects of our lives will be encompassed by tasks performed in cooperation with robots. The application of robots in home automation, agricultural production and medical operations etc. will be indispensable. As a result robots need to be made human-friendly and to execute tasks in cooperation with humans. Control systems for such robots should be designed to work imitating human characteristics. In this study, we have tried to achieve these goals by means of controlling a simple one degree-of-freedom cooperative robot. Firstly, the impedance characteristic of the human arm in a cooperative task is investigated. Then, this characteristic is implemented to control a robot in order to perform cooperative task with humans. A human followed the motion of an object, which is moved through desired trajectories. The motion is actuated by the linear motor of the one degree-of-freedom robot system. Trajectories used in the experiments of this method were minimum jerk (the rate of change of acceleration) trajectory, which was found during human and human cooperative task and optimum for muscle movement. As the muscle is mechanically analogous to a spring-damper system, a simple second-order equation is used as models for the arm dynamics. In the model, we considered mass, stiffness and damping factor. Impedance parameter is calculated from the position and force data obtained from the experiments and based on the “Estimation of Parametric Model”. Investigated impedance characteristic of human arm is then implemented to control a robot, which performed cooperative task with human. It is observed that the proposed control methodology has given human like movements to the robot for cooperating with human.

  9. RM Based Bilateral Regional Cooperation and its Perspective in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Sik

    2010-01-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) is one alternative step to fulfill safeguards requirements in the member states. Korea installed a surveillance and unattended monitoring system in the ACPF (Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 2005. Data began to be shared through a virtual private network (VPN) started in 2006 with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control (KINAC), KAERI, and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), as well. From 2009 the data are also being sent to the IAEA. Recently discussions have taken place to form a trilateral KINAC-SNL-JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) network using RM to strengthen the regional cooperative nonproliferation. The cooperation is supporting the basic ground of regional approaches for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This paper addresses the main features of recent development to form a trilateral KINAC- SNL-JAEA network and a future prospective in nuclear nonproliferation and transparency via remote monitoring surveillance

  10. Seeing Cooperation or Competition: Ecological Interactions in Cultural Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalehto, Bethany L; Medin, Douglas L; Horton, William S; Garcia, Salino G; Kays, Estefano G

    2015-10-01

    Do cultural models facilitate particular ways of perceiving interactions in nature? We explore variability in folkecological principles of reasoning about interspecies interactions (specifically, competitive or cooperative). In two studies, Indigenous Panamanian Ngöbe and U.S. participants interpreted an illustrated, wordless nonfiction book about the hunting relationship between a coyote and badger. Across both studies, the majority of Ngöbe interpreted the hunting relationship as cooperative and the majority of U.S. participants as competitive. Study 2 showed that this pattern may reflect different beliefs about, and perhaps different awareness of, plausible interspecies interactions. Further probes suggest that these models of ecological interaction correlate with recognition of social agency (e.g., communication, morality) in nonhuman animals. We interpret our results in terms of cultural models of nature and nonhuman agency. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. RM Based Bilateral Regional Cooperation and its Perspective in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Remote monitoring (RM) is one alternative step to fulfill safeguards requirements in the member states. Korea installed a surveillance and unattended monitoring system in the ACPF (Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 2005. Data began to be shared through a virtual private network (VPN) started in 2006 with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control (KINAC), KAERI, and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), as well. From 2009 the data are also being sent to the IAEA. Recently discussions have taken place to form a trilateral KINAC-SNL-JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) network using RM to strengthen the regional cooperative nonproliferation. The cooperation is supporting the basic ground of regional approaches for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This paper addresses the main features of recent development to form a trilateral KINAC- SNL-JAEA network and a future prospective in nuclear nonproliferation and transparency via remote monitoring surveillance

  12. World-wide cooperation in nuclear power: a canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the point of view of Canadian Authorities about the future of nuclear activities. Generally speaking, OECD countries will be focusing their efforts on plant refurbishment, maintenance and life extension while non-OECD countries will be facing capacity expansion needs. This duality will favour collaboration in the nuclear field between OECD and other countries. Key areas for enhanced cooperation will be: nuclear technology, nuclear safety, regulations, waste management, non-proliferation and financing

  13. Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE 2010)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Software is created by people---software engineers---working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspect of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improving the creation and maintenance...... research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over the field....... of software. Inspired by the hosting country's concept of co-responsibility -- ubuntu -- we especially invited contributions that address community-based development like open source development and sustainability of ICT eco-systems. The goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for discussing high quality...

  14. Safe human-robot cooperation in an industrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrocchi N.; Vicentini F.; Matteo M.; Tosatti L.M.

    2013-01-01

    The standard EN ISO10218 is fostering the implementation of hybrid production systems, i.e., production systems characterized by a close relationship among human operators and robots in cooperative tasks. Human‐robot hybrid systems could have a big economic benefit in small and medium sized production, even if this new paradigm introduces mandatory, challenging safety aspects. Among various requirements for collaborative workspaces, safety‐assurance involves two different application layers; ...

  15. Nuclear education in Russia. Status, peculiarities, perspectives and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is devoted to analysis of Russian nuclear education system: its current status, specific features, difficulties and prospects. Russian higher education system in nuclear engineering has been created simultaneously with development of nuclear industry, and the system completely satisfied all industrial demands for the specialists of different qualification level. The specific features of PhD level (doctoral program) of education in Russia are discussed. The paper underlines particularly a special role of international collaboration in the field of nuclear education for further development of nuclear education all over the world. Some examples of international cooperation in the frames of new educational programs development are considered. (author)

  16. Intergenerational Cooperation at the Workplace from the Management Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veingerl Čič Živa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The labor market is currently experiencing employees of four generations. Each generation has different behavior patterns, attitudes, expectations, habits, and motivational mechanisms. As generational gaps play an important role in the business process, organizations have to find ways to balance the needs and views of different age groups. To overcome the negative outcomes arising from generational differences and to use the strengths of each generation, the implementation of comprehensive and proactive model of intergenerational cooperation, presented in the paper, is becoming the necessity for each organization because of the benefits.

  17. Botswana's perspectives on CTBTO related regional cooperation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, H.

    2002-01-01

    The CTBTO vertification technology most attractive to Botswana is seismological observation. This is so even though, by global standards, the seismic activity of Botswana is very low. The Okavango Delta, Botswana's most active region, has an annual activity rate of about 2 tremors of magnitude <4. This is an alost insignificant number considering that worldwide, thousands of earthquakes of magnitude 1 occur daily. This low activity rate has resulted in a lack of urgency in making concerted efforts to put in place systems for national monitoring of earthquakes. This has adversely affected the transfer of expertise and technology to Botswana, and has resulted in very limited documentation of the country's seismicity. Recently, however, there have been some developments that are bound to change the situation and improve the country's capabilities in seismological observation. The Department of Geological Survey (DGS) is involved in international cooperation as well as national projects that will undoubtedly enhance the practice of seismology in Botswana

  18. International cooperation and competition in space - A current perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    International cooperative efforts undertaken by NASA are evaluated and consideration is given to the proposed space station. The Shuttle RMS and Spacelab were constructed through efforts of Canadian and European companies and the ESA. Landsat, with its widely dispersed technology and data, has encouraged international access to its capabilities and start-up of follow-on programs in other countries. Space station planning is proceeding with a view to worldwide utilization of space and to the commitment and resources other nations are willing to place in the station. It is conceded that administrative difficulties will arise if the space station is a completely international effort guided by NASA. Additionally, concern will be present for technology leaks, national security implications on the space station, and reasonably fulfilling the benefits expected by those who become partners in the construction and operation of the station.

  19. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  20. Physics of human cooperation: experimental evidence and theoretical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Angel

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, many physicists have used evolutionary game theory combined with a complex systems perspective in an attempt to understand social phenomena and challenges. Prominent among such phenomena is the issue of the emergence and sustainability of cooperation in a networked world of selfish or self-focused individuals. The vast majority of research done by physicists on these questions is theoretical, and is almost always posed in terms of agent-based models. Unfortunately, more often than not such models ignore a number of facts that are well established experimentally, and are thus rendered irrelevant to actual social applications. I here summarize some of the facts that any realistic model should incorporate and take into account, discuss important aspects underlying the relation between theory and experiments, and discuss future directions for research based on the available experimental knowledge.

  1. Perspectives on Neoliberalism for Human Service Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Mel; Dean, Mitchell; Agllias, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent perspectives on neoliberalism, which serve as a foundation for the assessment of neoliberalism's influence on human services practice. Conventionally, neoliberalism has been conceived of as an ideology, but more recent perspectives regard neoliberalism...... as an art of government, a thought collective, and an uneven but path-dependent process of regulatory development. We argue that these new perspectives have the potential to contribute to our critical capacity and open avenues for the analysis of contemporary transformations of public policy and its...

  2. Safe Human-Robot Cooperation in an Industrial Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pedrocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard EN ISO10218 is fostering the implementation of hybrid production systems, i.e., production systems characterized by a close relationship among human operators and robots in cooperative tasks. Human-robot hybrid systems could have a big economic benefit in small and medium sized production, even if this new paradigm introduces mandatory, challenging safety aspects. Among various requirements for collaborative workspaces, safety-assurance involves two different application layers; the algorithms enabling safe space-sharing between humans and robots and the enabling technologies allowing acquisition data from sensor fusion and environmental data analysing. This paper addresses both the problems: a collision avoidance strategy allowing on-line re-planning of robot motion and a safe network of unsafe devices as a suggested infrastructure for functional safety achievement.

  3. The effect of phorbols on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to study the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), 4-O-methyl TPA, and phorbol on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase+ (HGPRT+) cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine and either 4-O-methyl TPA or phorbol, nearly all interactions that developed in 4 h were positive for metabolic cooperation whereas when high concentrations of TPA were used, the number of positive interactions was significantly less than the control. If the phorbol analogs were added after the donors and recipients had made contact, the number of positive interactions was the same as the control in all cases. However, although primary recipients in the cultures that had been treated with phorbol had the same number of grains as those in the control, primary recipients in cultures that had been treated with TPA or high concentrations of 4-O-methyl TPA had significantly fewer grains than those in the control. TPA treatment for 4 h had no effect on total [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation or incorporation into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Thus, the effect of TPA on metabolic cooperation is interpreted as a reduction in the transfer of [ 3 H]nucleotides and is an indication of an interference with intercellular communication

  4. Integrating human factors and artificial intelligence in the development of human-machine cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Lindenberg, J.; Neericx, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing machine intelligence leads to a shift from a mere interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine relation requiring a multidisciplinary development approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering method CE+ for the integration of human factors

  5. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  6. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project implementers, and beginners

  7. Promotion of Bilateral Cooperative Programs in Nuclear Human Resources Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Nam, Y. M. (and others)

    2009-08-15

    The purpose of this project is strengthening of bilateral cooperation with those countries for sharing Korea's technology, and providing of education and training on Korean experience regarding national nuclear policy, technology self reliance, and technology itself, in the field of nuclear power generation and the application of radioisotopes and radiation. This project covers an analysis on the need of nuclear human resource development in countries having interest in the introduction of nuclear power and/or promotion of the use of nuclear energy, and provision of courses on 'nuclear power policy, planning and management' and 'design and operation of nuclear research reactor, and application of radiation technology' along with the country specific needs. Education and training of key members in nuclear energy development from Egypt: It was implemented through bilateral cooperation and support by KOICA program. The first part, which targeted staff members from Egypt Nuclear Commission, was held for 2 months providing a KOICA course on policy, planning and management for nuclear power project, and second part was on the job training in Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, KAERI respectively. On the job training of 1 scientist from Vietnam was implemented on the basis of bilateral cooperation in a research laboratory on radioactive waste treatment technology, at KAERI. Education and training for scientists from South East RCA countries were carried out for 11 participants from Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Pakistan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Bangladesh. The course dealt with nuclear research reactor and radiation application technology. Development of nuclear education and training programs for key persons involved in nuclear power projects from countries of Middle East: The developed program consists of 15 courses addressing 3 technical levels, i.e. high level policy makers, middle level project

  8. Taxation of cooperatives from the perspective of international expansion and sustainable development of social economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Patón García

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has created a major concern in developedcountries for control of social risks with negative effects on growth and this problem can be approached from the perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Thus, CSR is seen as an entrepreneurial attitude aimed at promoting social, economic and environmental purposes while guarantying competitiveness in the international market. Thus, social economy can contribute to sustainable development, economic and social cohesion, to promote productive and income distribution, to ensure employment and equality of opportunities. The purpose of this study is to have an influence onthe role that taxation plays in the area of incentive policies related to social economy and very prominently manifested in the legal status of cooperatives. The approach aims to provide proposals on tax regulation of cooperatives taking the perspective of the international context and the size of the sector in countries like Spain and Peru in order to encourage cooperative social responsibility. Indeed, the importance of providing a legal and fiscal framework to promote their internationalization connects providentially with the principles that govern the cooperative action. We consider that it is essential, from the perspective of sustainable development and cooperatives’social responsibility, to take into account in the tax regime applicable criteria that can be justified on constitutional principles, the general interest of society or internationalization economic activity. Also, there could be other positive effects in the area of Latin America, such as decreasing tax evasion and the formalization of at least a portion of the informal sector of the economy, including the real impulse to CSR.

  9. Human resources for health: global crisis and international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Gustavo Zoio; Fehn, Amanda Cavada; Ungerer, Regina Lucia Sarmento; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal

    2017-07-01

    From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions. In this scenario, technical cooperation activities may contribute to the development of the countries involved, strengthening relationships and expanding exchanges as well as contributing to the production, dissemination and use of technical scientific knowledge and evidence and the training of workers and institutional strengthening. This article aims to explore this context highlighting the participation of Brazil in the international cooperation arena on HRH and emphasizing the role of the World Health Organization in confronting this crisis that limits the ability of countries and their health systems to improve the health and lives of their populations.

  10. Within-group competition reduces cooperation and payoffs in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2012-01-01

    Social organisms in many taxa cooperate to produce resources that are shared among group members. Some cooperatively produced resources may be monopolized by individuals who invest in within-group competition, but these have largely been overlooked in empirical and theoretical research on human c......, and demonstrates unifying principles in cooperation and competition across the animal kingdom....

  11. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  12. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  13. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  14. Social robots from a human perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Taipale, Sakari; Sapio, Bartolomeo; Lugano, Giuseppe; Fortunati, Leopoldina

    2015-01-01

    Addressing several issues that explore the human side of social robots, this book asks from a social and human scientific perspective what a social robot is and how we might come to think about social robots in the different areas of everyday life. Organized around three sections that deal with Perceptions and Attitudes to Social Robots, Human Interaction with Social Robots, and Social Robots in Everyday Life, the book explores the idea that even if technical problems related to robot technologies can be continuously solved from a machine perspective, what kind of machine do we want to have and use in our daily lives? Experiences from previously widely adopted technologies, such smartphones, hint that robot technologies could potentially be absorbed into the everyday lives of humans in such a way that it is the human that determines the human-machine interaction. In a similar way to how today’s information and communication technologies were first designed for professional/industrial use, but which soon wer...

  15. Cooperation between humans and robots in fine assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Konold, P.; Rapp, I.; Mann, C.; Muminovic, A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ever smaller components in manufacturing processes require handling, assembling and testing of miniature similar components. The human eye meets its optical limits with ongoing miniaturization of parts, due to the fact that it is not able to detect particles with a size smaller than 0.11 mm or register distances below 0.07 mm - like separating gaps. After several hours of labour, workers cannot accurately differentiate colour nuances as well as constant quality of work cannot be guaranteed. Assembly is usually done with tools, such as microscopes, magnifiers or digital measuring devices. Due to the enormous mental concentration, quickly a fatigue process sets in. This requires breaks or change of task and reduces productivity. Dealing with handling devices such as grippers, guide units and actuators for component assembling, requires a time consuming training process. Often productivity increase is first achieved after years of daily training. Miniaturizations are ubiquitously needed, for instance in the surgery. Very small add-on instruments must be provided. In measurement, e.g. it is a technological must and a competitive advantage, to determine required data with a small-as-possible, highest-possible-resolution sensor. Solution: The realization of a flexible universal workstation, using standard robotic systems and image processing devices in cooperation with humans, where workers are largely freed up from highly strenuous physical and fine motoric work, so that they can do productive work monitoring and adjusting the machine assisted production process.

  16. Principles of cooperation across systems: from human sharing to multicellularity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they operate across systems including human sharing, cooperation in animal and insect societies and the massively large-scale cooperation that occurs in our multicellular bodies. The first principle is that of Walk Away: that cooperation is enhanced when individuals can leave uncooperative partners. The second principle is that resource sharing is often based on the need of the recipient (i.e., need-based transfers) rather than on strict account-keeping. And the last principle is that effective scaling up of cooperation requires increasingly sophisticated and costly cheater suppression mechanisms. By comparing how these principles operate across systems, we can better understand the constraints on cooperation. This can facilitate the discovery of novel ways to enhance cooperation and suppress cheating in its many forms, from social exploitation to cancer.

  17. Competitive debate classroom as a cooperative learning technique for the human resources subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. SANCHEZ PRIETO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an academic debate model as a cooperative learning technique for teaching human resources at University. The general objective of this paper is to conclude if academic debate can be included in the category of cooperative learning. The Specific objective it is presenting a model to implement this technique. Thus the first part of the paper shows the concept of cooperative learning and its main characteristics. The second part presents the debate model believed to be labelled as cooperative learning. Last part concludes with the characteristics of the model that match different aspects or not of the cooperative learning.

  18. Building the Leviathan--Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-02-18

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans.

  19. Building the Leviathan – Voluntary centralisation of punishment power sustains cooperation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jörg; Méder, Zsombor Z.; Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cooperation among humans is puzzling because cooperators can be exploited by free riders. Peer punishment has been suggested as a solution to this puzzle, but cumulating evidence questions its robustness in sustaining cooperation. Amongst others, punishment fails when it is not powerful enough, or when it elicits counter-punishment. Existing research, however, has ignored that the distribution of punishment power can be the result of social interactions. We introduce a novel experiment in which individuals can transfer punishment power to others. We find that while decentralised peer punishment fails to overcome free riding, the voluntary transfer of punishment power enables groups to sustain cooperation. This is achieved by non-punishing cooperators empowering those who are willing to punish in the interest of the group. Our results show how voluntary power centralisation can efficiently sustain cooperation, which could explain why hierarchical power structures are widespread among animals and humans. PMID:26888519

  20. Human-Computer Interaction The Agency Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, José

    2012-01-01

    Agent-centric theories, approaches and technologies are contributing to enrich interactions between users and computers. This book aims at highlighting the influence of the agency perspective in Human-Computer Interaction through a careful selection of research contributions. Split into five sections; Users as Agents, Agents and Accessibility, Agents and Interactions, Agent-centric Paradigms and Approaches, and Collective Agents, the book covers a wealth of novel, original and fully updated material, offering:   ü  To provide a coherent, in depth, and timely material on the agency perspective in HCI ü  To offer an authoritative treatment of the subject matter presented by carefully selected authors ü  To offer a balanced and broad coverage of the subject area, including, human, organizational, social, as well as technological concerns. ü  To offer a hands-on-experience by covering representative case studies and offering essential design guidelines   The book will appeal to a broad audience of resea...

  1. Ecological Design of Cooperative Human-Machine Interfaces for Safety of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research results in the domain of cooperative intelligent transport systems. The requirements for human-machine interface considering safety issue of for intelligent transport systems (ITSare analyzed. Profiling of the requirements to cooperative human-machine interface (CHMI for such systems including requirements to usability and safety is based on a set of standards for ITSs. An approach and design technique of cooperative human-machine interface for ITSs are suggested. The architecture of cloud-based CHMI for intelligent transport systems has been developed. The prototype of software system CHMI4ITSis described.

  2. Combining evolutionary game theory and network theory to analyze human cooperation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatà, Marialisa; Di Stefano, Alessandro; La Corte, Aurelio; Liò, Pietro; Catania, Emanuele; Guardo, Ermanno; Pagano, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of human cooperation in a social network. • We introduce the concepts of “Critical Mass”, centrality measure and homophily. • The emergence of cooperation is affected by the spatial choice of the “Critical Mass”. • Our findings show that homophily speeds up the convergence towards cooperation. • Centrality and “Critical Mass” spatial choice partially offset the impact of homophily. - Abstract: As natural systems continuously evolve, the human cooperation dilemma represents an increasingly more challenging question. Humans cooperate in natural and social systems, but how it happens and what are the mechanisms which rule the emergence of cooperation, represent an open and fascinating issue. In this work, we investigate the evolution of cooperation through the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of behaviours within the social network, where nodes can choose to cooperate or defect following the classical social dilemmas represented by Prisoner’s Dilemma and Snowdrift games. To this aim, we introduce a sociological concept and statistical estimator, “Critical Mass”, to detect the minimum initial seed of cooperators able to trigger the diffusion process, and the centrality measure to select within the social network. Selecting different spatial configurations of the Critical Mass nodes, we highlight how the emergence of cooperation can be influenced by this spatial choice of the initial core in the network. Moreover, we target to shed light how the concept of homophily, a social shaping factor for which “birds of a feather flock together”, can affect the evolutionary process. Our findings show that homophily allows speeding up the diffusion process and make quicker the convergence towards human cooperation, while centrality measure and thus the Critical Mass selection, play a key role in the evolution showing how the spatial configurations can create some hidden patterns, partially

  3. Public diplomacy and cooperation with non-governmental organizations in the liberal perspective of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Broś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of state cooperation with non-governmental organizations in public diplomacy. This has been explored in relation to the liberal perspective in international relations, which very clearly highlights the importance of NGOs as an influential participant in world politics. The article contains an analysis of the international system, categorizes the roles and functions of NGOs in international relations. It shows concepts on contemporary understanding of power and a clear focus on reinforcing and using components of soft power, including public diplomacy, in moden international relations. Methodological aspects are deepened by an analytical layer exploring Civil Society 2.0 Program, what is an example of an effective combination of diplomatic efforts between the state and NGOs to achieve common goals.

  4. Energy Profile and Perspectives on Northeast Asian Energy Co-operation of North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Energy policy of North Korea is basically based on the 'Principle of Self-reliance'. Throughout the active development of domestic energy sources, North Korea try to maximize the energy self-reliance as well as to minimize the outflow of currency for the import of energy. But, the 'Principle of Self-reliance' of energy sector brought about the excess dependency on coal and hydro, and eventually causes the contraction of oil and natural gas consumption. This kind of adverse reaction of the 'Principle of Self-reliance' is the major reason of overall weakness of national-wide economic system. It is not known actually what kinds of perspectives North Korea has on the Northeast Asian energy cooperation. But, it can be said that Northeast Asian energy cooperation can be the best chance for North Korea to solve current energy crisis and to transfer the economic system to capitalism for the recovery of national economy. 19 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Is capitalism in our genes? Competition, cooperation and the idea of homo oeconomicus from an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portera Mariagrazia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years a growing number of academic disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences have turned to the evolutionary approach: Evolutionary Economics, among these disciplines, is a thriving subfield of Economics, which adopts Darwin’s evolutionary ideas and concepts for the understanding of economic system and modes of production. Evolutionary hypotheses such as the „selfish gene“ idea, the ideas of „inclusive fitness“, „struggle for life“ and „survival of the fittest“ may suggest - and have indeed suggested - that humans are rational self-interest individuals, doing what they can to increase their own reproductive chances or at least the chances of their close relatives („inclusive fitness“. To put it differently, evolutionary theory seems to suggest that capitalism (in a broad sense is a system that has co-evolved with humans and best fits our evolved psychology. Is this the whole story? Is capitalism „in our genes“? In this paper I argue that conclusions such as „we are born to be rational self-interested agents“ or „capitalism is encoded in our genome“ are the result of a misleading application of Darwin’s evolutionary theory to human socio-economic processes, mainly to justify a (Western society based on selfish principles, but which is not naturally selfish in itself. Evolution seems to be the result of cooperative, not only (or not mainly competitive processes, and the model of Homo oeconomicus, that is the idea that humans are rational self-interested agents always trying to maximize profit, is, also from an bio-evolutionary perspective, nothing more than a fictional exercise.

  6. Prosocial preferences do not explain human cooperation in public-goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; West, Stuart A

    2013-01-02

    It has become an accepted paradigm that humans have "prosocial preferences" that lead to higher levels of cooperation than those that would maximize their personal financial gain. However, the existence of prosocial preferences has been inferred post hoc from the results of economic games, rather than with direct experimental tests. Here, we test how behavior in a public-goods game is influenced by knowledge of the consequences of actions for other players. We found that (i) individuals cooperate at similar levels, even when they are not informed that their behavior benefits others; (ii) an increased awareness of how cooperation benefits others leads to a reduction, rather than an increase, in the level of cooperation; and (iii) cooperation can be either lower or higher than expected, depending on experimental design. Overall, these results contradict the suggested role of the prosocial preferences hypothesis and show how the complexity of human behavior can lead to misleading conclusions from controlled laboratory experiments.

  7. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  8. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human-Human and Human-Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerrard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human-human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human-human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent's vision of her/his partner's gaze can significantly improve that agent's performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human-robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human-robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times.

  9. Combining Human Resource and Stakeholder Management Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia; Mormino, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores collaborative learning activities involving HR and external stakeholders that organizations decide to plan and implement in order to obtain benefits in terms of knowledge sharing, stakeholder understanding and value creation. The increasing uncertainty and multiplicity of comp...... and corporate learning in a stakeholder-oriented perspective can play a strategic role in supporting business strategy, providing organizations the resources to meet internal and external needs (Wilson, 2005) and to interconnect with their value network.......This paper explores collaborative learning activities involving HR and external stakeholders that organizations decide to plan and implement in order to obtain benefits in terms of knowledge sharing, stakeholder understanding and value creation. The increasing uncertainty and multiplicity...... of competitive pressures and stakeholder demands (Harrison, St. John, 1996) require organizations, and in particular HR, to take on a more strategic role aimed to build new capability and support the overarching business strategy (Ulrich, Beatty 2001). This study draws on Strategic Human Resource Management...

  10. Decision science a human-oriented perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mengov, George

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a new perspective on human decision-making by comparing the established methods in decision science with innovative modelling at the level of neurons and neural interactions. The book presents a new generation of computer models, which can predict with astonishing accuracy individual economic choices when people make them by quick intuition rather than by effort. A vision for a new kind of social science is outlined, whereby neural models of emotion and cognition capture the dynamics of socioeconomic systems and virtual social networks. The exposition is approachable by experts as well as by advanced students. The author is an Associate Professor of Decision Science with a doctorate in Computational Neuroscience, and a former software consultant to banks in the City of London.  .

  11. Strategic Human Resources Management of Employer Cooperative Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard P.; Porter, Ralph C.

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses effective strategic planning and management of employer cooperative education programs. It examines types of planning, the need for such programs, and implementation strategies. Several case studies are considered: Dayton-Hudson, IBM, AT&T, Delta Airlines, and Rockwell International. (CT)

  12. Human-Induced Effects on RSS Ranging Measurements for Cooperative Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Pelosi, Mauro; Nurmi, Jari

    2012-01-01

    of human-induced perturbations for enhancing the final positioning accuracy through cooperative schemes has been assessed. It has been proved that the effect of cooperation is very limited if human factors are not taken into account when performing experimental activities.......We present experimental evaluations of human-induced perturbations on received-signal-strength-(RSS-) based ranging measurements for cooperative mobile positioning. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to gain insight and understand the impact of both body loss and hand grip...... on the RSS for enhancing proximity measurements among neighbouring devices in cooperative scenarios. Our main contribution is represented by experimental investigations. Analysis of the errors introduced in the distance estimation using path-loss-based methods has been carried out. Moreover, the exploitation...

  13. Perspectives on Transnational Higher Education: A View from Cooperative Education%Perspectives on Transnational Higher Education:A View from Cooperative Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jun

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of transnational higher education among the world leaves theoretical and practical room for study on educational globalization in the age.In China,transnational higher education is mostly manifested through issues and approaches on Sino-Foreign Cooperative education,but comparatively speaking,cooperative education that is one of educational patterns has been examined and applied widely in western countries.This study offers a systematically review on transnational higher education and cooperative education specifically on its origins and practice,which demonstrate the usefulness improving development of higher education in China.

  14. Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tognetti

    Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.

  15. Human genetic issues from scientific and Islamic perspectives | Alwi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at revealing the Human Genome Project (HGP) and human genetic issues arising from science and Islamic perspectives such as Darwin's evolutionary theory, human cloning and eugenics. Finally, issues arising from the applications of human genetic technology need to be addressed to the best possible ...

  16. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  17. Joint effects of asymmetric payoff and reciprocity mechanisms on collective cooperation in water sharing interactions: a game theoretic perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Nam Ng

    Full Text Available Common-pool resource (CPR dilemmas distinguish themselves from general public good problems by encompassing both social and physical features. This paper examines how a physical mechanism, namely asymmetric payoff; and a social mechanism, reciprocity; simultaneously affect collective cooperation in theoretical water sharing interactions. We present an iterative N-person game theoretic model to investigate the joint effects of these two mechanisms in a linear fully connected river system under three information assumptions. From a simple evolutionary perspective, this paper quantitatively addresses the conditions for Nash Equilibrium in which collective cooperation might be established. The results suggest that direct reciprocity increases every actor's motivation to contribute to the collective good of the river system. Meanwhile, various upstream and downstream actors manifest individual disparities as a result of the direct reciprocity and asymmetric payoff mechanisms. More specifically, the downstream actors are less willing to cooperate unless there is a high probability that long-term interactions are ensured; however, a greater level of asymmetries is likely to increase upstream actors' incentives to cooperate even though the interactions could quickly end. The upstream actors also display weak sensitivity to an increase in the total number of actors, which generally results in a reduction in the other actors' motivation for cooperation. It is also shown that the indirect reciprocity mechanism relaxes the overall conditions for cooperative Nash Equilibrium.

  18. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tyurikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment.

  19. Human Geography Trains Diverse Perspectives on Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Education for equity in global development and cultural diversity calls for professional capacity building to perceive diverse perspectives on complex procedures of globalisation. The discipline of human geography is such a "provider of perspectives". The purpose of this paper is to propose a historic series of how theories of geography…

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE RURAL PRODUCER TO COOPERATE AND INDUSTRY IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION UNDER THE PERSPECTIVE OF ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Melo Abicht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationships between the family farmer cooperatives of small farmers, producing biodiesel industries and government regulators from the perspective of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE. As a theoretical framework we sought literature on ECT, cooperatives, family farms and biodiesel. For exploratory feasibility of this article, literature and data collection research was conducted with biodiesel production units, research centers and universities. In the analysis and discussion of results from the union of the theoretical basis and data collection, the possibilities that the farmer has to negotiate its production were demonstrated, either directly with industry, or indirectly, through cooperatives. Finally, some concluding remarks around the theme, as well as suggestions for further research were made.

  1. The history and perspective of Romania-USA cooperation in the field of technologic transfer of TRIGA reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocaanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    The cooperation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW t TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW t level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this cooperation and the perspective for a new cooperation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited

  2. Analysis concerning the perspective of Romania-USA technological cooperation with a view to performing TRIGA reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.; Constantin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The co-operation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW, TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW, level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this co-operation and the perspective for a new co-operation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited. (author)

  3. Synthesizing perspectives on the evolution of cooperation within and between species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessica Livia; Bronstein, Judith L.; Friesen, Maren L.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation is widespread both within and between species, but are intra-specific and inter-specific cooperation fundamentally similar or qualitatively different phenomena? This review evaluates this question, necessary for a general understanding of the evolution of cooperation. First, we outline...... three advantages of cooperation relative to non-cooperation (acquisition of otherwise inaccessible goods and services, more efficient acquisition of resources, and buffering against variability), and predict when individuals should cooperate with a conspecific versus a heterospecific partner to obtain......, certain asymmetries between partners are more common in, but not exclusive to, cooperation between species, especially complementary resource use and production. We conclude that cooperation within and between species share many fundamental qualities, and that differences between the two systems...

  4. Education and Worker Co-operatives. Some Perspectives of the Australian TAFE Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Denis

    The workers' cooperative movement has grown in many countries of Europe, where it is often state-sanctioned and supported. In Australia, however, the movement is just beginning. The government organization of what are called cooperative development programs is the dominant new feature on the Australian worker cooperative scene. However, funding is…

  5. Judgments about Cooperators and Freeriders on a Shuar Work Team: An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary biological theories of group cooperation predict that (1) group members will tend to judge cooperative co-members favorably, and freeriding co-members negatively and (2) members who themselves cooperate more frequently will be especially likely to make these social judgments. An experiment tested these predictions among Shuar…

  6. A Study on Governance and Human Resources for Cooperative Road Facilities Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sachiko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Demura, Yoshifumi

    Within today's infrastructure management, Asset Management systems are becoming a mainstream feature. For region where the risk is low, it is necessary to create a "cooperative road facilities management system". This research both examined and suggested what kind of cooperative road facilities management system should be promoted by the regional society. Concretely, this study defines the operational realities of a previous case. It discusses the problem of the road facilities management as a governance. Furthermore, its realization depends on "the cooperation between municipalities", "the private-sector initiative", and "residents participation" .Also, it discusses the problem of human resources for governance. Its realization depends on "the engineers' promotion", and "creation of a voluntary activity of the resident" as a human resources. Moreover, it defines that the intermediary is important because the human resources tied to the governance. As a result, the prospect of the road facilities management is shown by the role of the player and the relation among player.

  7. Pi-pi Stacking Mediated Cooperative Mechanism for Human Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botao Fa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily with responsibility for metabolizing ~50% of clinical drugs. Experimental evidence showed that CYP3A4 can adopt multiple substrates in its active site to form a cooperative binding model, accelerating substrate metabolism efficiency. In the current study, we constructed both normal and cooperative binding models of human CYP3A4 with antifungal drug ketoconazoles (KLN. Molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation were then carried out to study the cooperative binding mechanism. Our simulation showed that the second KLN in the cooperative binding model had a positive impact on the first one binding in the active site by two significant pi-pi stacking interactions. The first one was formed by Phe215, functioning to position the first KLN in a favorable orientation in the active site for further metabolism reactions. The second one was contributed by Phe304. This pi-pi stacking was enhanced in the cooperative binding model by the parallel conformation between the aromatic rings in Phe304 and the dioxolan moiety of the first KLN. These findings can provide an atomic insight into the cooperative binding in CYP3A4, revealing a novel pi-pi stacking mechanism for drug-drug interactions.

  8. Evolutionary game theory meets social science: is there a unifying rule for human cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2010-05-21

    Evolutionary game theory has shown that human cooperation thrives in different types of social interactions with a PD structure. Models treat the cooperative strategies within the different frameworks as discrete entities and sometimes even as contenders. Whereas strong reciprocity was acclaimed as superior to classic reciprocity for its ability to defeat defectors in public goods games, recent experiments and simulations show that costly punishment fails to promote cooperation in the IR and DR games, where classic reciprocity succeeds. My aim is to show that cooperative strategies across frameworks are capable of a unified treatment, for they are governed by a common underlying rule or norm. An analysis of the reputation and action rules that govern some representative cooperative strategies both in models and in economic experiments confirms that the different frameworks share a conditional action rule and several reputation rules. The common conditional rule contains an option between costly punishment and withholding benefits that provides alternative enforcement methods against defectors. Depending on the framework, individuals can switch to the appropriate strategy and method of enforcement. The stability of human cooperation looks more promising if one mechanism controls successful strategies across frameworks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Islamic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I

    2013-11-01

    Sexual and reproductive rights of women are essential components of human rights. They should never be transferred, renounced or denied for any reason based on race, religion, origin, political opinion or economic conditions. Women have the right to the highest attainable standard of health care for all aspects of their reproductive and sexual health (RSH). The principle of autonomy emphasizes the important role of women in the decision-making. Choices of women in reproduction, after providing evidence based information, should be respected. Risks, benefits and alternatives should be clearly explained before they make their free informed consent. Justice requires that all be treated with equal standard and have equal access to their health needs without discrimination or coercion. When resources are limited there is tension between the principle of justice and utility. Islamic perspectives of bioethics are influenced by primary Sharia namely the Holy Quran, authenticated traditions and saying of the Profit Mohamed (PBUH), Igmaa and Kias (analogy). All the contemporary ethical principles are emphasized in Islamic Shariaa, thus these principles should be observed when providing reproductive and sexual health services for Muslim families or communities. The Family is the basic unit in Islam. Safe motherhood, family planning, and quality reproductive and sexual health information and services and assisted reproductive technology are all encouraged within the frame of marriage. While the Shiaa sect permits egg donation, and surrogacy the Sunni sect forbids a third party contribution to reproduction. Harmful practices in RSH as FGM, child marriage and adolescent pregnancy are prohibited in Islam. Conscientious objection to treatment should not refrain the physician from appropriate referral.

  10. Workshop on cooperative and human aspects of software engineering (CHASE 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataldo, Marcelo; de Souza, Cleidson; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    is to provide a forum for discussing high quality research on human and cooperative aspects of software engineering. We aim at providing both a meeting place for the growing community and the possibility for researchers interested in joining the field to present their work in progress and get an overview over......Software is created by people for people working in varied environments, under various conditions. Thus understanding cooperative and human aspects of software development is crucial to comprehend how methods and tools are used, and thereby improve the creation and maintenance of software. Over...

  11. A human-machine cooperation route planning method based on improved A* algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengsheng; Cai, Chao

    2011-12-01

    To avoid the limitation of common route planning method to blindly pursue higher Machine Intelligence and autoimmunization, this paper presents a human-machine cooperation route planning method. The proposed method includes a new A* path searing strategy based on dynamic heuristic searching and a human cooperated decision strategy to prune searching area. It can overcome the shortage of A* algorithm to fall into a local long term searching. Experiments showed that this method can quickly plan a feasible route to meet the macro-policy thinking.

  12. The Impact of International Cooperation for the Development of Democracy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Prado Lallande

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Cold War, the developed countries agreed that democracy and human rights would be top priority goals of the international cooperation for development. However, nearly two decades after those official commitments, these goals have not been relevant elements of the international agenda, since political, economic and security issues still prevail over both values. This paper analyzes the existing situation, in reference to the U.S. and European Union experiences. The article includes some considerations for the improvement of the international cooperation ability to promote democracy and human rights in third world countries.

  13. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  14. An African Perspective on Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of classroom activities comparing differing views of human rights in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People's Rights. Includes excerpts from the African Charter on Human and People's Rights and the full text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (CFR)

  15. The cooperative economy of food: Implications for human life history and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L

    2018-04-06

    The human diet has undergone substantial modifications since the emergence of modern humans and varies considerably in today's traditional societies. Despite these changes and cross-cultural differences, the human diet can be characterized by several common elements. These include diverse, high quality foods, technological complexity to acquire and process food, and the establishment of home bases for storage, processing and consumption. Together these aspects of the human diet challenge any one individual to independently meet all of his or her daily caloric needs. Humans solve this challenge through food sharing, labor exchange and the division of labor. The cooperative nature of the human diet is associated with many downstream effects on our life history and physiology. This paper overviews the constellation of traits that likely led to a cooperative economy of food, and draws on ethnographic examples to illustrate its effects on human life history and physiology. Two detailed examples using body composition, time allocation and food acquisition data show how cooperation among Savanna Pumé hunter-gatherers affects activity levels, sexual dimorphism in body fat, maturational pace and age at first birth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

  17. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  18. Quantifying the Role of Homophily in Human Cooperation Using Multiplex Evolutionary Game Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Di Stefano

    Full Text Available Nature shows as human beings live and grow inside social structures. This assumption allows us to explain and explore how it may shape most of our behaviours and choices, and why we are not just blindly driven by instincts: our decisions are based on more complex cognitive reasons, based on our connectedness on different spaces. Thus, human cooperation emerges from this complex nature of social network. Our paper, focusing on the evolutionary dynamics, is intended to explore how and why it happens, and what kind of impact is caused by homophily among people. We investigate the evolution of human cooperation using evolutionary game theory on multiplex. Multiplexity, as an extra dimension of analysis, allows us to unveil the hidden dynamics and observe non-trivial patterns within a population across network layers. More importantly, we find a striking role of homophily, as the higher the homophily between individuals, the quicker is the convergence towards cooperation in the social dilemma. The simulation results, conducted both macroscopically and microscopically across the network layers in the multiplex, show quantitatively the role of homophily in human cooperation.

  19. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Human communication revisited – A biblical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S.A. Ayee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication is very important in our daily lives. It is the most common everyday activity and it is at the core of all human contact. It permeates every aspect of who we are and what we do, and is a highly complex human phenomenon. The ability to communicate is a gift from God to enable us to develop relationships with others and to create culture. Studying and theorising about communication will enable us to discover ‘serviceable insights’ to help us to become good stewards of everything that God has entrusted to us. The Bible gives us a grand historical narrative of the cosmos, helping us to understand the fact that God created the world and its people. This article argued that the Creation-Fall-Redemption motif or theme, which is a highly schematised version of the Bible’s grand narrative, could be used as a framework to help us understand and teach communication from an integrated Christian perspective. The clarion call is to redeem communication so that it can be appropriately used directionally for what is true, noble, right, pure, lovely and admirable (Phlp 4:8. As far as communication is concerned, integration of faith and learning should encompass what we teach (content, how we teach that content (pedagogy, and how what we teach impacts the way we think, what we believe, and how we live (our character.Menslike kommunikasie herbesoek – ’n Bybelse perspektief. Kommunikasie is baie belangrik in ons daaglikse lewens. Dit is die mees algemene alledaagse aktiwiteit en vorm deel van die kern van alle menslike kontak. Dit deurdring elke aspek van wie ons is en wat ons doen en is ’n hoogs-komplekse menslike fenomeen. Die vermoë om te kommunikeer is ’n geskenk van God wat ons in staat stel om verhoudings met ander te ontwikkel en kultuur te skep. Die bestudering en teoretisering oor kommunikasie sal ons in staat stel om ‘diensbare insigte’ te ontdek, wat ons sal help om goeie rentmeesters te wees van alles wat God aan ons

  1. Human-Capital based Governance Structure, Success Factors and Barriers to Effective Governance: Co-operatives in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohana Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-operatives comprise the crucial third engine of growth for the Malaysian economy after the public and private sectors. This study investigates the human capital based governance structure, success factors and barriers to effective governance of co-operatives in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed to the top 100 co-operatives listed in the Malaysian Co-operative Societies Commission website. Analysis of the responses to the questionnaires showed that human capital based co-operatives governance comprise members’ participation, independence of the board, depth of expertise and competencies of directors and other characteristics of the board. This study also identified branding as the most important success factor ahead of competitiveness and proximity. Malaysia’s economy is projected to continue relying significantly on the performance of co-operatives. Thus, it is incumbent for greater attention to be given towards an effective governance that results in successful co-operatives.

  2. Cooperative Learning and Web 2.0: A Social Perspective on Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, Rae Carrington

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses how cooperative learning as a socioinstructional approach, relates to both socially-based emerging technologies (i.e. Web 2.0) and to critical thinking with respect to co-cognition. It begins with a discussion of the importance of connecting cooperative learning, Web 2.0, and critical thinking. This is followed by the need…

  3. A Conceptual Framework for the Cultural Integration of Cooperative Learning: A Thai Primary Mathematics Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Yong; Nuntrakune, Tippawan

    2013-01-01

    The Thailand education reform adopted cooperative learning to improve the quality of education. However, it has been reported that the introduction and maintenance of cooperative learning has been difficult and uncertain because of the cultural differences. The study proposed a conceptual framework developed based on making a connection between…

  4. Considering University-Business Cooperation Modes from the Perspective of Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses enterprises' engagement in university-business cooperation (UBC) activities: research and development, mobility of academics and students, curriculum development and lifelong learning. It first provides an introductory overview of university-business cooperation policy. It then presents a selection of UBC models, elements and…

  5. Sexual Selection of Human Cooperative Behaviour: An Experimental Study in Rural Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Faurie, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could do...

  6. A Study of Sino-Russian Energy Cooperation from the Perspective of Theories of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyue Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy cooperation is an important component in the Sino-Russia relationship. After more than a decade of efforts, China and Russia have made great progress in their cooperation in the area of oil and natural gas, which has not only promoted the economic developments in both countries, but also expanded their common interests to a large extent, resulting in a tremendous improvement of the two countries’ international strategies towards each other. Nevertheless, constrained and influenced by the evolution of contemporary international politics and economies, the Sino-Russia energy cooperation is facing some problems and barriers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to analyze the multiple elements affecting the Sino-Russia energy cooperation through the prism of Neo-realism, Neo-liberalism and Social Constructivism, hence a clear account of the opportunities and challenges that constitute this cooperation will be gained.

  7. Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, Jean-Loup

    2002-01-01

    In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of CEI. for France from 0.6 to 0.78, and from 0.7 to 0.85 for USA. In 1997, CEI of China was 0.46, and 0.38 for India. This index is a good tool to measure the progression of development of the countries and the related energy needs. Comparison of the evolutions of CEI of these different countries shows a similar positive trend with some delay between OECD countries and China or India. A positive scenario for the future is based on a similar curve for these developing countries with learning effect which produces development with less energy consumption. This simulation results however in energy needs that exceed fossil fuel today available resources in 2070. Ultimate fossil

  8. Interface technology based on human cognition and understanding for the operation and maintenance of advanced human cooperative plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Niwa, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Keiko; Fukuto, Junji; Okazaki, Tadatsugi; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Liu, Qiao; Mitomo, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    'Development of Intelligent Systems Technology for Advanced Human Cooperative Plants' was implemented as 'Nuclear Energy Fundamentals Crossover Research' by 3 institutes (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research; RIKEN, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; AIST and National Maritime Research Institute; NMRI). Aiming at appropriate interaction between human and agents in Digital Maintenance Field which spreads widely in time and space, NMRI developed technologies on contraction of plant information, generalization and intuition of the information through visual presentation. Intuitive presentation gave on-site information for identifying the source of abnormalities to human operators. And a human-machine cooperation infrastructure for plant maintenance was proposed and developed, where an overview display was used to show position and state information of all the agents in the plant and each agent view was used to show the corresponding agent's information in detail. A part of this technology was implemented in a demonstration program. Two agents were developed to support human operators' plant maintenance activities in this program. This demonstration showed the effectiveness of human-agent cooperation for early plant abnormality detection. (author)

  9. Importance and difficulties of cooperative learning application in class teaching from teachers' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Marina Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous knowledge of cooperative learning two approaches stand out in researching the importance of cooperative learning: a the first approach tries to examine the effects, conditions and mechanisms by which educational outcomes are realized in the application of cooperative learning; and b the second approach moves the focus towards attitudes and perceptions of teachers and students on the relevance of cooperative learning. By applying descriptive-analytical technique we conducted a research aimed at examining the opinions of teachers (N=305 about the importance and difficulties in application of cooperative learning in the context of class teaching. The results show that the teachers had positive attitudes towards the importance of cooperative learning for reaching various educational goals and socio-affective and cognitive development of students. It turned out that the opinions of the teachers were not determined by the level of their education or work experience. Additionally, it turned out that the teachers' opinions about the difficulties of application in class are due more to work organization and were not assessed from the aspect of knowledge, attitudes and convictions of the participants in the teaching process. The obtained results, although generally encouraging for teaching practice indicate a need for further advancement of this segment of the teacher's work in order to understand better the value of cooperative learning and consider more critically the difficulties for its application in classroom.

  10. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  11. East-west cooperation in the environment in Europe-problems, strategies, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Helmut

    1989-12-01

    This report deals with problems and developments in the field of East-West cooperation in Europe. The major emphasis is put on the cooperation in the environmental field. Nevertheless it has to be stated that developments in the environmental field should not be separated from the developments in other fields of possible cooperation like economy, science and culture. The report is divided in five chapters and an appendix. In the first chapter the results of the study will be discussed on the basis of the research questions given by the National Energy Administration. The second chapter contains some background information on some basic trends in environmental problems in Eastern Europe; the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union are the countries described here. Special emphasis is laid on Poland, a country of particular interest for Sweden. In the third chapter answers are given to the question, why East-West environmental cooperation is necessary. In chapter four existing forms of cooperation are surveyed. In this chapter, the author deals mainly with cooperations in the field of environmental protection, but he also gives an overview on cooperations in other fields. Four countries are included in this overview: the FGR, France, Great Britain and the Netherlands. In chapter five, questions of general concern for East-West environmental cooperation are discussed. Appendix 1 gives an overview of the more important bilateral agreements between Eastern and Western European countries. Appendix 2 lists the institutions and names of the persons we interviewed. Appendix 3 gives an overview on the literature on East-West environmental cooperation in Europe.

  12. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  13. Fuzzy variable impedance control based on stiffness identification for human-robot cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dachao; Yang, Wenlong; Du, Zhijiang

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy variable impedance control algorithm for human-robot cooperation. In order to estimate the intention of human for co-manipulation, a fuzzy inference system is set up to adjust the impedance parameter. Aiming at regulating the output fuzzy universe based on the human arm’s stiffness, an online stiffness identification method is developed. A drag interaction task is conducted on a 5-DOF robot with variable impedance control. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior.

  14. Regional co-operation in radioactive waste management from an IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a lead in to a Round Table discussion on Regional Co-operation in Radioactive Waste Management at the International Conference on N uclear Option in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids , which will be held from 19 to 22 June 2000 in Dubrovnik, Croatia. The Round Table discussion will focus on international co-operation in the Eastern European region

  15. An EDF perspective on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1987-01-01

    Human factors are important in the reliability or unreliability of industrial processes. The study of how to improve human performers, and their working conditions to enable them to perform reliably is difficult. Some of the human characteristics of importance for understanding human behaviour in this context are described. These include such things as ''man is not a component, man functions through a single channel'', ''man biases risk estimation''. The Electricite de France programme for improving human reliability following the Three Mile Island accident is then discussed. This has many aspects, the man-machine interfaces, operator training, crew organization, operator experience analysis and emergency planning. The control room planned for a new plant, which is based on this program is described. The improvements are in communication, identification and labelling, stress, simulator tests and human performance data banks. (UK)

  16. New perspectives in human milk banks

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bertino; Claudia Rossi; Paola Di Nicola; Chiara Peila; Elena Maggiora; Liliana Vagliano; Alessandra Coscia

    2015-01-01

    Mother’s own milk (MOM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and when it is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. It has been shown that feeding preterm infants with human milk is less related to major morbidities, enhances feeding tolerance and prevents metabolic syndrome in childhood. As The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) states, specific guidelines for Human Milk...

  17. Development cooperation in water and sanitation: is it based on the human rights framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Heller, Léo

    2017-07-01

    The water and sanitation sector is verifiably receiving increased attention and funding through international development cooperation. Not least because of the way that it affects incentives and institutions in partner countries, development cooperation can have either positive or negative effects on human rights though. The consolidated frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation is becoming linked to the international community's coordinated development efforts, as evidenced notably in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, a review of major funders' official policies for development cooperation in the sector suggests that many only partially endorse the frameworks for the human rights to water and sanitation. An observation of development cooperation flows to the sector allows the hypothesis to be advanced that worldwide inequalities in access to these services may be reduced through a full and clear application of the human rights framework in development cooperation activities. The article presents findings of this research and explores key stakes for development cooperation in the water and sanitation sector that are relevant for their ability to either negatively or positively contribute to the realization of human rights. Resumen El sector de agua y saneamiento ha recibido creciente atención y financiación a través de la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo. La cooperación para el desarrollo puede tener efectos tanto positivos cuanto negativos sobre los derechos humanos. El hito que consolida los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están articulados a esfuerzos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por la comunidad internacional, como se evidencia en la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Sin embargo, una revisión de las políticas oficiales de los principales financiadores del sector sugiere que muchos de ellos aprueban solo parcialmente los hitos de los derechos humanos al agua y el

  18. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  19. Pakistan's Water Challenges: A Human Development Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Shezad (Shafqat); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This paper gives an overview of the human and social dimensions of Pakistan’s water policies to provide the basis for water-related policy interventions that contribute to the country’s human development, with special attention being given to the concerns of women and the

  20. Human radiation experimentation: a health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper observes ethical human experimentation can be considered in terms of two basic principles or tests: informed, willing and knowledgeable subjects; and expectation of benefits. A number of human experiments are evaluated in terms of these principles, including a sixteenth century toxicology experiment, the deliberate exposure by an x-ray pioneer, and the plutonium injection cases of the 1940's. The following rational ethic is proposed for the practice of health physics with respect to human radiation experimentation: At all levels, the health physicist has a professional as well as personal obligation to ensure that proper human requirements, including proper informed consent and willing subjects, arc carried out with respect to human radiation experimentation, and must be convinced that the real or potential benefits to be derived from the experiment clearly exceed the potential detriment and risk. (author)

  1. Medical humanities: a resident doctor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauranik, Anvita

    2012-01-01

    The barrage of competitive examinations, overwork, sleep deprivation, and the pressure of expectations all combine to destroy the dreams that resident doctors have when they start medical school. The empathy they had before entering this field fades away, and they eventually become insensitive to their patients. Medical humanities may be the means to halt this trend. Sensitising young minds, using the arts, literature, history and lessons on social issues, may bring about a paradigm shift in these doctors' outlook towards their patients. However, for the humanities to be integrated into medical education, the current curriculum must be modified and made more clinically and socially relevant. Further, the humanities cannot be taught in lecture halls; they need to be integrated into all aspects of medical school. For this, the medical school faculty should be sensitised to, and trained in, humanities education.

  2. China and Africa: Human Rights Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant concept behind that of power and sovereignty is national interest. ..... of whom deny that modern states have a moral or legal authority to represent them in ... protection of human rights based on cultural relativism would then only be.

  3. Object categorization: computer and human vision perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2009-01-01

    .... The result of a series of four highly successful workshops on the topic, the book gathers many of the most distinguished researchers from both computer and human vision to reflect on their experience...

  4. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  5. Regulatory perspectives on human factors validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.; Staples, L.

    2001-01-01

    Validation is an important avenue for controlling the genesis of human error, and thus managing loss, in a human-machine system. Since there are many ways in which error may intrude upon system operation, it is necessary to consider the performance-shaping factors that could introduce error and compromise system effectiveness. Validation works to this end by examining, through objective testing and measurement, the newly developed system, procedure or staffing level, in order to identify and eliminate those factors which may negatively influence human performance. It is essential that validation be done in a high-fidelity setting, in an objective and systematic manner, using appropriate measures, if meaningful results are to be obtained, In addition, inclusion of validation work in any design process can be seen as contributing to a good safety culture, since such activity allows licensees to eliminate elements which may negatively impact on human behaviour. (author)

  6. New perspectives on recombinant human antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Kruif (John); A.-R. van der Vuurst de Vries (Anne); L. Cilenti (L.); E. Boel (E.); W. van Ewijk (Willem); T. Logtenberg (Ton)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe limited potential of murine monoclonal antibodies for human immunotherapy has driven recent progress in recombinant antibody technology. Here, de Kruif and colleagues report on advances in the development and use of phage-antibody-display libraries.

  7. Human compulsivity: A perspective from evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-05-01

    Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Methodological evolutions in human-machine cooperative problem solving with applications to nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Takahashi, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    A new framework for attaining higher safety of nuclear plants through introducing machine intelligence and robots has been proposed in this paper. The main emphasis of the framework is placed on user-centered human-machine cooperation in solving problems experienced during conducting operation, monitoring and maintenance activities in nuclear plants. In this framework, human operator is supposed to take initiative of actions at any moment of operation. No attempt has been made to replace human experts by machine intelligence and robots. Efforts have been paid to clarify the expertise and behavioral model of human experts so that the developed techniques are consistent with human mental activities in solving highly complicated operational and maintenance problems. Several techniques essential to the functioning of the framework have also been introduced. Modification of environment to provide support information has also been pursued to realize the concept of ubiquitous computing. (author)

  9. Investigating the role of Clinical Nurse Consultants in one health district from multiple stakeholder perspectives: a cooperative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth; Bothe, Janine; Edgar, Denise; Beaven, Geraldine; Burgess, Bernadette; Dickson, Vhari; Dunn, Stephen; Horning, Lynda; Jensen, Janice; Kandl, Bronia; Nonu, Miriam; Owen, Fran; Moss, Cheryle

    2015-01-01

    The impetus for this research came from a group of 11 Clinical Nurse Consultants (CNCs) within a health service in NSW, Australia, who wanted to investigate the CNC role from multiple stakeholder perspectives. With support from academic researchers, the CNCs designed and implemented the study. The aim of this research project was to investigate the role of the CNC from the multiple perspectives of CNCs and other stakeholders who work with CNCs in the Health District. This was a co-operative inquiry that utilised qualitative descriptive research approach. Co-operative inquiry methods enabled 11 CNCs to work as co-researchers and to conduct the investigation. The co-researchers implemented a qualitative descriptive design for the research and used interviews (7) and focus groups (16) with CNC stakeholders (n = 103) to gather sufficient data to investigate the role of the CNC in the organisation. Thematic analysis was undertaken to obtain the results. The CNC role is invaluable to all stakeholders and it was seen as the "glue" which holds teams together. Stakeholder expectations of the CNC role were multiple and generally agreed. Five themes derived from the data are reported as "clinical leadership as core", "making a direct difference to patient care", "service development as an outcome", "role breadth or narrowness and boundaries", and "career development". There was clear appreciation of the work that CNCs do in their roles, and the part that the CNC role plays in achieving quality health outcomes. The role of the CNC is complex and the CNCs themselves often negotiate these complexities to ensure beneficial outcomes for the patient and organisation. For the wider audience this study has given further insights into the role of these nurses and the perspectives of those with whom they work.

  10. R&D Cooperation Between Firms---A Perceived Transaction Cost Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Brockhoff

    1992-01-01

    Transaction cost is considered as an explanatory variable for the choice between markets and various organizational arrangements for performing some predefined tasks, such as engaging in private R&D. With respect to R&D cooperation between firms, we show that the perception of high transaction cost is related to certain characteristics of the firm and to the type of R&D task. We also show a relationship between the perception of transaction cost and the perceived success of the cooperation. T...

  11. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  12. HUMANIZE AND PEACE PERSPECTIVE OF VENEZUELAN PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiny Beth Torres Barroso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a reflection about the humanization and peace ways, which the Venezuelan society in these complex times and of political tension, presents as encouraging and own signs of the living together. The central purpose is discusses about communication and politics, understood as vital practices with the transformation and with the development of the country, his des- humanization prevents from advancing towards a just well-being. Also, this one paper of work constitutes a sample of Doctoral thesis: Humanization of communication and politic to build the peace in Venezuela. Framed in a qualitative methodology, it is at first (in principle a theoretical - conceptual review confirmed with the reality of the country, by what there are analyzed some features of the democracy that assumes as a project of participative citizenship and in addition intercultural that they form today, a panorama of possible alternatives humanizadoras and of peace in this new century

  13. An EDF perspective on human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the main lines of the program undertaken by Electricite de France in the field of human factors as a result of the Three-Mile Island (TMI) accident. As it is important to be aware of some human characteristics to understand the difficulties and needs in the field, the following behaviour characteristics are described: man is not a component, man functions through a single channel, man has a continuous need of information, man biases risk estimation and man uses mental representations. The following actions taken after TMI to improve the man-machine interface, the operator training, the crew organisation, the operating experience analysis, the state approach development and the emergency planning, are all linked to human factors. The paper ends by presenting the new control room studies for the N4 project (a light water reactor) and some other actions aimed at improving plant operation. (author)

  14. Perspectives of International Human Epigenome Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bum Bae

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC launched officially at the 2010 Washington meeting, a giant step toward the conquest of unexplored regions of the human genome has begun. IHEC aims at the production of 1,000 reference epigenomes to the international scientific community for next 7-10 years. Seven member institutions, including South Korea, Korea National Institute of Health (KNIH, will produce 25-200 reference epigenomes individually, and the produced data will be publically available by using a data center. Epigenome data will cover from whole genome bisulfite sequencing, histone modification, and chromatin access information to miRNA-seq. The final goal of IHEC is the production of reference maps of human epigenomes for key cellular status relevant to health and disease.

  15. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Kukarenko

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health. To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main purpose of this article is not to give a full review but to draw attention to the gaps in knowledge and challenges in the Arctic research trends on climate change, human health and gender. A broad literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources from natural, medical, social science and humanities. The focus was on the keywords. Despite the evidence provided by many researchers on differentiating effects of climate change on well-being and health of women and men, gender perspective remains of marginal interest in climate change, environmental and health studies. At the same time, social sciences and humanities, and gender studies in particular, show little interest towards climate change impacts on human health in the Arctic. As a result, we still observe the division of labour between disciplines, the disciplinary-bound pictures of human development in the Arctic and terminology confusion. Efforts to bring in a gender perspective in the Arctic research will be successful only when different disciplines would work together. Multidisciplinary research is a way to challenge academic/disciplinary homogeneity and their boundaries, to take advantage of the diversity of approaches and methods in production of new integrated knowledge. Cooperation and dialogue across disciplines will help to develop adequate indicators for monitoring human health and elaborating efficient policies and strategies to the benefit of both women and men in the Arctic. Global Health Action 2011. © 2011 Kukarenko

  16. International Perspective on Teaching Human Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Kevan; Weerakoon, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors outline international training programs in human sexuality. Methods: The authors reviewed the international literature and Internet resources to identify key training opportunities and curricula, with particular emphasis on training opportunities for psychiatrists. Results: The authors outline key resources and training…

  17. Bacteriology of humans : an ecological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Michael, 1947

    2008-01-01

    ..., Staphylococcus aureus, etc. What is now a-changing is that interest is shifting towards the vast majority of our microbial partners that do not cause disease and, indeed, are essential to our well being. The indigenous microbiota of healthy humans is now the subject of intense scrutiny, and its enormous diversity and the crucial roles that it pl...

  18. The Electric Humanities: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Michael T.; Litwin, James L.

    An interdisciplinary "Coordinated Quarter of Mass Media Studies," instituted at Bowling Green State University with funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, is the subject of this paper. The first part of the paper tells how instructors from the subject areas of popular culture, psychology, sociology, speech communication, and…

  19. Exploring Stakeholders' Perspectives of the Influences on Student Learning in Cooperative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to cooperative education is a philosophical commitment to learning through the experience of work. The workplace can be viewed as a social environment and provides a context for learning that is very different from that provided within a university. The aim of this research was, through an interpretive case study, to explore the…

  20. New perspectives in human milk banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mother’s own milk (MOM is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and when it is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM is recommended. It has been shown that feeding preterm infants with human milk is less related to major morbidities, enhances feeding tolerance and prevents metabolic syndrome in childhood. As The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN states, specific guidelines for Human Milk Banks (HMB are needed to guarantee the best possible compromise between microbiological safety and nutritional/biological quality of human milk (HM. Currently, Holder pasteurization (HoP: pasteurization process at 62.5-63°C for 30 minutes is recommended by all international guidelines: this method inactivates bacterial and viral pathogens but it also affects some nutritional and biological properties of human milk. New methods to ameliorate the biological quality and safety of DHM are under investigation in the last years. High Pressure Processing (HPP is a non- thermal process used in food industries: this technology inactivates pathogenic microorganisms by applying hydrostatic high pressure, however further researches are required before applying this technology in milk banking. Ultraviolet-C irradiation (UV-C is another non-thermal method capable of reducing vegetative bacteria in human milk and it also seems to preserve higher levels of immunological proteins than HoP. High-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST: flash pasteurization, 72°C for 5-15 seconds currently is available only at industrial level, but it could represent an alternative to HoP seeming to maintain the protein profile and some of the key active components of DHM. Further researches are needed to define the optimal treatment of DHM. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb

  1. Open access monographs: a humanities research perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jim Cheshire

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the thoughts of a humanities researcher in relation to open access (OA publishing. Digital media have dramatically improved access to historic texts but library e-books are frustrating due to software and loan arrangements. Authors of illustrated books risk losing control of book design, although new media offer opportunities to improve image quality and access. Alfred Tennyson's career shows that authors have been sensitive about the physical form of their work since the Victorian period and ignoring the material significance of the book could make us overlook the fundamental changes that the e-book represents. Monographs retain value as a way of evaluating substantive research projects and those published through the OA process will have great advantages over the commercial e-book. ‘Green’ OA publishing is impractical for humanities scholars and funded ‘gold’ OA publishing is likely to involve a labour-intensive application process.

  2. Ethical issues regarding human cloning: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Leyla

    2003-05-01

    Advances in cloning technology and successful cloning experiments in animals raised concerns about the possibility of human cloning in recent years. Despite many objections, this is not only a possibility but also a reality. Human cloning is a scientific revolution. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social and health related concerns. Human cloning would have an impact on the practice of nursing because it could result in the creation of new physiological and psychosocial conditions that would require nursing care. The nursing profession must therefore evaluate the ethics of human cloning, in particular the potential role of nurses. This article reviews the ethical considerations of reproductive human cloning, discusses the main reasons for concern, and reflects a nursing perspective regarding this issue.

  3. On human consciousness: A mathematical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Grindrod

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the implications of the mathematical modeling and analysis of large modular neuron-to-neuron dynamical networks. We explain how the dynamical behavior of relatively small-scale strongly connected networks leads naturally to nonbinary information processing and thus to multiple hypothesis decision-making, even at the very lowest level of the brain’s architecture. In turn we build on these ideas to address some aspects of the hard problem of consciousness. These include how feelings might arise within an architecture with a foundational decision-making and classification layer of unit processors. We discuss how a proposed “dual hierarchy model,” made up from both externally perceived, physical elements of increasing complexity, and internally experienced, mental elements (which we argue are equivalent to feelings, may support aspects of a learning and evolving consciousness. We introduce the idea that a human brain ought to be able to reconjure subjective mental feelings at will, and thus these feelings cannot depend on internal chatter or internal instability-driven activity (patterns. An immediate consequence of this model, grounded in dynamical systems and nonbinary information processing, is that finite human brains must always be learning and forgetting and that any possible subjective internal feeling that might be fully idealized with a countable infinity of facets could never be learned completely a priori by zombies or automata. It may be experienced more and more fully by an evolving human brain (yet never in totality, not even in a lifetime. We argue that, within our model, the mental elements and thus internal modes (feelings play a role akin to latent variables in processing and decision-making, and thus confer an evolutionary “fast-thinking” advantage.

  4. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  6. Current status and future perspectives of research and development cooperation between utilities, research institutions and universities in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Yasuji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the research and development activity in the field of electric power production, transmission and distribution in Japan. Organizations participating in the research and development are described with emphasis on theirs roles and cooperation between them. Next described are the R and D subjects and projects carried out by respective organizations. The needs and motivations of respective R and D programs are reviewed briefly together with the financial and human resources put into implementation. The R and D activities in the electric power industry are compared with those in other industrial sectors such as automobile, steel, telecommunication, etc. Mainly in terms of R and D fund. A similar comparison is made with the electric power industry in countries other than Japan. Importance of the international cooperation in stressed for further development of electric power industry and economic progress worldwide. (author) 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. [Clinical research activity of the French cancer cooperative network: Overview and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Claire; Morin, Franck; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Langlais, Alexandra; Seitz, Jean-François; Girault, Cécile; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Deschaseaux, Pascal; Casassus, Philippe; Mathiot, Claire; Pujade-Lauraine, Éric; Votan, Bénédicte; Louvet, Christophe; Delpeut, Christine; Bardet, Étienne; Vintonenko, Nadejda; Hoang Xuan, Khê; Vo, Maryline; Michon, Jean; Milleron, Bernard

    The French Cancer Plan 2014-2019 stresses the importance of strengthening collaboration between all stakeholders involved in the fight against cancer, including cancer cooperative groups and intergroups. This survey aimed to describe the basics characteristics and clinical research activity among the Cancer Cooperative Groups (Groupes coopérateurs en oncologie). The second objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to their research activity. A questionnaire was sent to all the clinicians involved in 2014 as investigators in a clinical trial sponsored by one of the ten members of the Cancer Cooperative Groups network. The questions were related to their profile, research activity and the infrastructure existing within their healthcare center to support clinical research and related compliance activities. In total, 366 investigators responded to our survey. The academic clinical trials sponsored by the Cancer Cooperative Groups represented an important part of the research activity of the investigators in France in 2014. These academic groups contributed to the opening of many research sites throughout all regions in France. Factors associated with a higher participation of investigators (more than 10 patients enrolled in a trial over a year) include the existing support of healthcare professionals (more than 2 clinical research associate (CRA) OR=11.16 [3.82-32.6] compared to none) and the practice of their research activity in a University Hospital Center (CHU) rather than a Hospital Center (CH) (OR=2.15 [1.20-3.83]). This study highlighted factors that can strengthen investigator clinical research activities and subsequently improve patient access to evidence-based new cancer therapies in France. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Recipient design in human communication: simple heuristics or perspective taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokpoel, Mark; van Kesteren, Marlieke; Stolk, Arjen; Haselager, Pim; Toni, Ivan; van Rooij, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable capacity for tuning their communicative behaviors to different addressees, a phenomenon also known as recipient design. It remains unclear how this tuning of communicative behavior is implemented during live human interactions. Classical theories of communication postulate that recipient design involves perspective taking, i.e., the communicator selects her behavior based on her hypotheses about beliefs and knowledge of the recipient. More recently, researchers have argued that perspective taking is computationally too costly to be a plausible mechanism in everyday human communication. These researchers propose that computationally simple mechanisms, or heuristics, are exploited to perform recipient design. Such heuristics may be able to adapt communicative behavior to an addressee with no consideration for the addressee's beliefs and knowledge. To test whether the simpler of the two mechanisms is sufficient for explaining the "how" of recipient design we studied communicators' behaviors in the context of a non-verbal communicative task (the Tacit Communication Game, TCG). We found that the specificity of the observed trial-by-trial adjustments made by communicators is parsimoniously explained by perspective taking, but not by simple heuristics. This finding is important as it suggests that humans do have a computationally efficient way of taking beliefs and knowledge of a recipient into account.

  9. Recipient design in human communication: Simple heuristics or perspective taking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eBlokpoel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans have a remarkable capacity for tuning their communicative behaviors to different addressees, a phenomenon also known as recipient design. It remains unclear how this tuning of communicative behavior is implemented during live human interactions. Classical theories of communication postulate that recipient design involves perspective taking, i.e., the communicator selects her behavior based on her hypotheses about beliefs and knowledge of the recipient. More recently, researchers have argued that perspective taking is computationally too costly to be a plausible mechanism in everyday human communication. These researchers propose that computationally simple mechanisms, or heuristics, are exploited to perform recipient design. Such heuristics may be able to adapt communicative behavior to an addressee with no consideration for the addressee's beliefs and knowledge. To test whether the simpler of the two mechanisms is sufficient for explaining the `how' of recipient design we studied communicators' behaviors in the context of a non-verbal communicative task (the Tacit Communication Game, TCG. We found that the specificity of the observed trial-by-trial adjustments made by communicators is parsimoniously explained by perspective taking, but not by simple heuristics. This finding is important as it suggests that humans do have a computationally efficient way of taking beliefs and knowledge of a recipient into account.

  10. 'The Fear of Insignificance': New Perspectives on Harmonising Police Cooperation in Europe and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Hufnagel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Australia and the European Union (EU have different structures of governance, histories, and cultures, both entities face remarkably similar problems in relation to police cooperation across borders. Australia is divided in nine different criminal jurisdictions, each of them policed by its own police force. Problems of border crossing, information exchange and joint investigations therefore arise similar to those in the EU. These problems have intensified in the 20th century with globalisation and the increased mobility of offenders. Several strategies, both legal and administrative, have necessarily developed to secure inter-state borders. Many of these strategies, like joint investigation teams, common databases and mutual recognition can be compared to solutions developed in the EU. This article will analyse some of the strategies that have been developed in Australia and in the EU to out-balance the lack of borders within them. It will be discussed what the major common impediments to police cooperation are in both entities. As many problems of cross-border policing result from the fact that law enforcement strategies are purely regional, it will be explored how more advanced cooperation strategies could be harmonised at the EU and Australian Federal levels. The major inhibiting factor in relation to harmonisation of legal frameworks in both entities will be defined as ‘the fear of insignificance’ or the fear of state actors to lose their individual identities in the process of harmonisation.

  11. Cooperative Learning within Educational Networks: Perspectives for Good Educational Governance in Modern Reading Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Marci-Boehncke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available German schools, universities, and libraries haven’t established a teaching and cooperation practice that uses the potential of a convergent and participatory culture (Jenkins 2006, 2009. Schools and libraries have to collaborate more closely using the digital networks and language of the students of today. Although official references, such as the report of the EU High-Level Group of Experts on Literacy (2012, postulate joint efforts with the objective of promoting reading and media education by different educational and non-educational institutions, at least in Germany this is currently still not a collaborative educational practice. One reason for this might be a missing link in local educational governance. Furthermore, the professional self-image of teachers and librarians, as well as the image of the cooperation partner, may limit effective public cooperation. This contribution starts (1 with an outline of the demands in the field of digital literacy and participatory culture, followed by (2 a discussion about the chances and potentials of partnerships between schools and public libraries, their specific interests, and potential. Finally, (3 problems and principles of good educational governance within those networks are identified and developed to excavate the potential, especially for academic teaching and students’ practice. The article is based on empirical data as well as participatory observation of the three-years teacher training and the seven years of on-the-job-training of librarians of public libraries (“Experten für das Lesen”.

  12. The case for international nuclear co-operation. An IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerk, P. de

    2001-01-01

    In the light of the diminished commitment to the promotion and development of nuclear technologies by governments, and in view of the globalization of major parts of the nuclear sector, international cooperation is becoming increasingly more important. Continued strong cooperation is expected in the areas of nuclear safety and the advanced, development of nuclear power plant projects, the decommissioning of nuclear installations, and in waste management. The broad range of activities this entails for the future also add to the duties and the scope of activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as one of the main coordinating international institutions. In addition to the Agency's basic duty, i.e. overseeing more than nine hundred nuclear facilities in the non-nuclear weapon states under the non-proliferation scheme, it is mainly coordinating activities which are becoming more and more important in the changing environment. In the research sector alone, 159 projects are currently handled internationally under the 'Coordinated Research Projects' heading. In the interest of making national safety standards compatible, a multi-level international safety system is being developed which is to lay the foundations for decisions about the engineered safeguards design of nuclear plants on the national level which continues to bear responsibility for deciding in matters of safety. This broad range of duties in technology, safety, and oversight will make IAEA an important organization for multilateral cooperation. (orig.) [de

  13. Human biomonitoring from an environmental justice perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrens, Bert; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Environmental justice research shows how socially disadvantaged groups are more exposed and more vulnerable to environmental pollution. At the same time, these groups are less represented and, thus, less visible in biomedical studies. This socioeconomic participation bias is a form...... of environmental injustice within research practice itself. Methods: We designed, implemented and evaluated a targeted recruitment strategy to enhance the participation of socially disadvantaged pregnant women in a human biomonitoring study in Belgium. We focused on women of Turkish and Moroccan descent...... in direct, person-to-person contact with trusted buddies and supported by practical advice about cultural and linguistic sensitivity, it was possible to increase study participation of socially disadvantaged people. Above all, this required openness and flexibility in the mind-set of researchers so...

  14. Human embryonic stem cells: preclinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarda Kanchan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have been extensively discussed in public and scientific communities for their potential in treating diseases and injuries. However, not much has been achieved in turning them into safe therapeutic agents. The hurdles in transforming hESCs to therapies start right with the way these cells are derived and maintained in the laboratory, and goes up-to clinical complications related to need for patient specific cell lines, gender specific aspects, age of the cells, and several post transplantation uncertainties. The different types of cells derived through directed differentiation of hESC and used successfully in animal disease and injury models are described briefly. This review gives a brief outlook on the present and the future of hESC based therapies, and talks about the technological advances required for a safe transition from laboratory to clinic.

  15. Human Genetics of Diabetic Retinopathy: Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. K. Ng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a most severe microvascular complication which, if left unchecked, can be sight-threatening. With the global prevalence of diabetes being relentlessly projected to rise to 438 million subjects by 2030, DR will undoubtedly pose a major public health concern. Efforts to unravel the human genetics of DR have been undertaken using the candidate gene and linkage approaches, while GWAS efforts are still lacking. Aside from evidence for a few genes including aldose reductase and vascular endothelial growth factor, the genetics of DR remain poorly elucidated. Nevertheless, the promise of impactful scientific discoveries may be realized if concerted and collaborative efforts are mounted to identify the genes for DR. Harnessing new genetic technologies and resources such as the upcoming 1000 Genomes Project will help advance this field of research, and potentially lead to a rich harvest of insights into the biological mechanisms underlying this debilitating complication.

  16. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Patent filing strategies: perspectives from the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Nevin Jacob

    2016-07-01

    The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights has become one of the most contentious issues in global commerce. Much of the traditional growth and development of countries in the Middle East over the past 30 years or so has come from oil and gas revenues. The main areas that have been covered in this article are: synopsis of patenting system in each country, the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf patent filing system, patentability subject matter, prosecution of patent application, opposition and/or invalidation action(s) and issues that need to be resolved for an effective patent regime.

  18. Introduction of symbiotic human-robot-cooperation in the steel sector: an example of social innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Valentina; Schroeder, Antonius; Buzzelli, Andrea; Abbà, Dario; Faes, Andrea; Romaniello, Lea

    2018-05-01

    The introduction of new technologies, which can support and empower human capabilities in a number of professional tasks while possibly reducing the need for cumbersome operations and the exposure to risk and professional diseases, is nowadays perceived as a must in any industrial field, process industry included. However, despite their relevant potentials, new technologies are not always easy to introduce in the professional environment. A design procedure which takes into account the workers' acceptance, needing and capabilities as well as a continuing education and training process of the personnel who must exploit the innovation, is as fundamental as the technical reliability for the successful introduction of any new technology in a professional environment. An exemplary case is provided by symbiotic human-robot-cooperation. In the steel sector, the difficulties for the implementation of symbiotic human-robot-cooperation is bigger with respect to the manufacturing sector, due to the environmental conditions, which in some cases are not favorable to robots. On the other hand, the opportunities and potential advantages are also greater, as robots could replace human operators in repetitive, heavy tasks, by improving workers' health and safety. The present paper provides an example of the potential and opportunities of human-robot interaction and discusses how this approach can be included in a social innovation paradigm. Moreover, an example will be provided of an ongoing project funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, "ROBOHARSH", which aims at implementing such approach in the steel industry, in order to develop a very sensitive task, i.e. the replacement of the refractory components of the ladle sliding gate.

  19. International cooperation for nuclear science and energy development- A win win perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: International and regional cooperation is fundamental for the safe and effective introduction and expansion of nuclear power programme (NPP). A win-win situation can be harnessed as experienced countries in NPP are able to offer a myriad of benefits to new comer countries as well as countries planning for NPP whilst new comer countries are able to offer education and training opportunities and business opportunities to advanced countries in NPP. Countries with long experience in nuclear power programme (NPP) are able to offer experience, knowledge, advisory as well as sharing of resources and facilities with new comer countries. As skilled and competent personnel in the entire nuclear value-chain are critical to support NPP, this paper will provide an overview of some of the experience and resources of advanced countries in NPP that could be shared with new comer countries, with a focus in the area of education and training, as well as in industrial development. The paper will conclude by offering some recommendations as a way forward for establishing international cooperation in Nuclear Education and Training, as well as for industrial development. (author)

  20. Human action perspectives based on individual plant examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.; Thompson, C.; Drouin, M.; Lois, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides perspectives on human actions gained from reviewing 76 individual plant examination (IPE) submittals. Human actions found to be important in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are presented and the events most frequently found important are discussed. Since there are numerous factors that can influence the quantification of human error probabilities (HEPs) and introduce significant variability in the resulting HEPs (which in turn can influence which events are found to be important), the variability in HEPs for similar events across IPEs is examined to assess the extent to which variability in results is due to real versus artifactual differences. Finally, similarities and differences in human action observations across BWRs and PWRs are examined

  1. When do humans spontaneously adopt another's visuospatial perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Martin; Kovács, Ágnes M; Sebanz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    Perspective-taking is a key component of social interactions. However, there is an ongoing controversy about whether, when and how instances of spontaneous visuospatial perspective-taking occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying factors as well as boundary conditions that characterize the spontaneous adoption of another person's visuospatial perspective (VSP) during social interactions. We used a novel paradigm, in which a participant and a confederate performed a simple stimulus-response (SR) compatibility task sitting at a 90° angle to each other. In this set-up, participants would show a spatial compatibility effect only if they adopted the confederate's VSP. In a series of 5 experiments we found that participants reliably adopted the VSP of the confederate, as long as he was perceived as an intentionally acting agent. Our results therefore show that humans are able to spontaneously adopt the differing VSP of another agent and that there is a tight link between perspective-taking and performing actions together. The results suggest that spontaneous VSP-taking can effectively facilitate and speed up spatial alignment processes accruing from dynamic interactions in multiagent environments. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The dialog between health and foreign policy in Brazilian cooperation in human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Tiago Mocellin; Dri, Clarissa Franzoi

    2017-07-01

    Mother's milk is the primary source of nourishment in early infancy. When this source is unavailable, secondary sources may be used, such as human milk banks. The first milk bank in Brazil was created in 1943, and they have been used ever since. A national model was developed through a number of phases, culminating in the Brazilian Network of Human Milk Banks. This gave rise to a number of international cooperation projects, with the Brazilian model particularly relevant for developing nations. The main objective of this analysis is to understand what drives Brazil to promote milk banks internationally. To do this we tried to understand the relationship between health and foreign policy, expressed here as soft power, as here the two areas dialog with one another. The results include gains in both areas and the affirmation of health as a central goal of the national interest cluster of the case.

  3. A Smell of Higher Honey: E-Humanities Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Leemans

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Is e-humanities ‘The next big thing’ and are we on the verge of a ‘Humanities 3.0’? The field of e-humanities, at this moment, seems to be too diverse and scattered to move in sync. One of the challenges that face e-humanities research at this moment lies in the field of uniting data digitisation/management and data analysis/representation. Here, heritage institutions, libraries, archives and universities should cooperate closely. Existing (digital humanities data corpora should be connected and integrated through on the basis of question-driven analysis possibilities. However the biggest challenge would be to take hermeneutics as a base for e-science, by developing digital analytical strategies for the knowledge fields unique to the humanities – meaning attribution, interpretation and concept formation in text, image, sound, object or space, and combining these withnumeric data about production, consumption patterns, networks, et cetera. How can we trace complex and essentially contested concepts? Can digital analysis set us on a trail for new interpretations? How can we accommodate the complexity and ambiguity of the sources with which we work and develop digital methods to automate the way humanities scholars look for patterns, interpret and evaluate them? The evaluative aspect of e-humanities could really alter our research field, since for a long time humanities scholars have tended to work with implicit evaluative schemes. The advantage of e-humanities research therefore would lie not only in the fact that hermeneutics are structurally taken into account in digital analysis, and that new patterns and interpretations might be found, but also that we would gain more insight in the kind of questions we pose, the steps that we take during this process and in the validation of the results.

  4. Teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, D

    1999-03-01

    The current interest in philosophical questions and ethical aspects of medicine turns attention towards the past and obtains suggestions and perspectives from previous descriptions and interpretations of sickness, therapy, and the relation between the patient and physician. Culture as therapy and therapy as culture are fundamental challenges for the present; physician, patient, and society, i.e., humans and humane medicine, need this dialogue, which should also be constitutive for teaching history of medicine. Through the separation of the natural sciences and the humanities, modern progress of medicine has produced many benefits but has, at the same time, raised many problems. Negative consequences of this development exist not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician. In the course of modern history, there have been several reactions aimed at overcoming these one-sided tendencies: in the Renaissance, in the epoch of Romanticism and Idealism, and at the beginning and the end of the 19th century. This article outlines, with historical examples and contemporary reflections, the concept of teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

  5. The management of human resources in the Basic Units of Cooperative Production in Cuba: An essential challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Alfonso Porraspita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic structure of Cuba has undergone a stage of profound transformation, with various factors that have intervened in this process, where different forms of business structures have converged, one of which has been represented by the cooperative sector, fundamentally developed in agriculture from the country. In this scenario the issue of the effectiveness of these entities has been subject to dissimilar analyzes and debates from different sides, where what is related to the human factor has played an essential role, this implies a detailed observation of the adequate management of human resources in the integral management of these organizations. In this line, the fundamental challenge will be to manage human resources in a way that contributes to the continuous improvement of the Cooperative Production Units as one of the representative structures of the agrarian cooperative sector in Cuba. Carrying out an analysis highlighting the importance of the management of human resources as a contribution to affectivity of the Basic Units of Cooperative production constituted the objective of the work. Through analysis, synthesis and use of the logical historical in the system analysis, the work addressed the theoretical pillars and methodological aspects that support the management of human resources in the cooperative entities analyzed as a tribute to the effectiveness of their results.

  6. Evaluating a national science and technology program using the human capital and relational asset perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia-Liang; Chou, Jerome Chih-Lung; Roan, Hung-Wei

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of the National Science and Technology Program (NSTP) by targeting the Taiwan National Telecommunication Program (NTP) initiated in 1998. The Taiwan telecommunications industry has prospered, currently occupying key positions in global markets even though NTP seldom contributes positively to patent citation performance. Hence, the authors of this study investigate the qualitative perspective of intellectual capital rather than quantitative technological indices. The current study focuses on both human capital and relational assets through surveys of 53 principal investigators of NTP projects and 63 industrial R&D managers of telecommunications corporations in the Taiwan market. Results show that NSTP member quality and the flow of employment are good indicators of human capital and that both perform better than the middle value in the case of Taiwan NTP. In addition, we find that industrial participants are more likely to share R&D resources than other academic researchers with higher intention of co-publishing, co-funding, and sharing equipment and facilities. The industrial NTP participants also have higher expectations regarding achieving advanced technology breakthroughs in contrast to non-NTP industrial interviewees. Moreover, industrial participants with greater industry-university cooperation intensity indeed obtain a particular advantage, that is, greater knowledge acquisition from other fields related to the effect of knowledge spillovers through the particular NSTP linkage. Accordingly, from the perspectives of human capital and relational assets, the authors conclude by articulating the importance of absorptive capacity resulting from good human capital and knowledge spillover contributed by relational assets within governmental technology policy and NSTP programming. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human dignity and sexual behavious � A theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vorster

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the sex ethic of Scripture with the anthropological values that underlie modern sexual morality and gives guidelines for a responsible� sex ethics that can safeguard human dignity. As point of departure it states that the biblical view of sexuality must be understood from the perspective of creation and re-creation and not the fall. The creation narratives teach that humanity possesses qualities of sameness and difference that constitutes our being. Sexuality forms the dynamic which bonds the dialectic of sameness and difference into a unity of persons. The� article concludes that the� African concept of gender , the radical freedom concept of secular society, the utilitarian view of sex, and the postmodern view that sexual behaviour and marriage are social constructs, aggravate sexual promiscuity. In order to fight HIV/AIDS and preserve human dignity the exclusiveness of the sex act, the importance of faithfulness and the sanctity of marriage must be proclaimed.

  8. Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerman Martha GM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs and human resource managers (HRM. Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Methods Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Results Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. Conclusions There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health

  9. Facilitating job retention for chronically ill employees: perspectives of line managers and human resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haafkens, Joke A; Kopnina, Helen; Meerman, Martha G M; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2011-05-17

    Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to work disability and job loss in Europe. Recent EU policies aim to improve job retention among chronically ill employees. Disability and occupational health researchers argue that this requires a coordinated and pro-active approach at the workplace by occupational health professionals, line managers (LMs) and human resource managers (HRM). Little is known about the perspectives of LMs an HRM on what is needed to facilitate job retention among chronically ill employees. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and compare the perspectives of Dutch LMs and HRM on this issue. Concept mapping methodology was used to elicit and map statements (ideas) from 10 LMs and 17 HRM about what is needed to ensure continued employment for chronically ill employees. Study participants were recruited through a higher education and an occupational health services organization. Participants generated 35 statements. Each group (LMs and HRM) sorted these statements into six thematic clusters. LMs and HRM identified four similar clusters: LMs and HRM must be knowledgeable about the impact of chronic disease on the employee; employees must accept responsibility for work retention; work adaptations must be implemented; and clear company policy. Thematic clusters identified only by LMs were: good manager/employee cooperation and knowledge transfer within the company. Unique clusters identified by HRM were: company culture and organizational support. There were both similarities and differences between the views of LMs and HRM on what may facilitate job retention for chronically ill employees. LMs perceived manager/employee cooperation as the most important mechanism for enabling continued employment for these employees. HRM perceived organizational policy and culture as the most important mechanism. The findings provide information about topics that occupational health researchers and planners should address in developing job retention

  10. Order-disorder transitions govern kinetic cooperativity and allostery of monomeric human glucokinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Larion

    Full Text Available Glucokinase (GCK catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glucose catabolism in the pancreas, where it functions as the body's principal glucose sensor. GCK dysfunction leads to several potentially fatal diseases including maturity-onset diabetes of the young type II (MODY-II and persistent hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemia of infancy (PHHI. GCK maintains glucose homeostasis by displaying a sigmoidal kinetic response to increasing blood glucose levels. This positive cooperativity is unique because the enzyme functions exclusively as a monomer and possesses only a single glucose binding site. Despite nearly a half century of research, the mechanistic basis for GCK's homotropic allostery remains unresolved. Here we explain GCK cooperativity in terms of large-scale, glucose-mediated disorder-order transitions using 17 isotopically labeled isoleucine methyl groups and three tryptophan side chains as sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR probes. We find that the small domain of unliganded GCK is intrinsically disordered and samples a broad conformational ensemble. We also demonstrate that small-molecule diabetes therapeutic agents and hyperinsulinemia-associated GCK mutations share a strikingly similar activation mechanism, characterized by a population shift toward a more narrow, well-ordered ensemble resembling the glucose-bound conformation. Our results support a model in which GCK generates its cooperative kinetic response at low glucose concentrations by using a millisecond disorder-order cycle of the small domain as a "time-delay loop," which is bypassed at high glucose concentrations, providing a unique mechanism to allosterically regulate the activity of human GCK under physiological conditions.

  11. Structural health monitoring for bolt loosening via a non-invasive vibro-haptics human-machine cooperative interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekedis, Mahmut; Mascerañas, David; Turan, Gursoy; Ercan, Emre; Farrar, Charles R.; Yildiz, Hasan

    2015-08-01

    For the last two decades, developments in damage detection algorithms have greatly increased the potential for autonomous decisions about structural health. However, we are still struggling to build autonomous tools that can match the ability of a human to detect and localize the quantity of damage in structures. Therefore, there is a growing interest in merging the computational and cognitive concepts to improve the solution of structural health monitoring (SHM). The main object of this research is to apply the human-machine cooperative approach on a tower structure to detect damage. The cooperation approach includes haptic tools to create an appropriate collaboration between SHM sensor networks, statistical compression techniques and humans. Damage simulation in the structure is conducted by releasing some of the bolt loads. Accelerometers are bonded to various locations of the tower members to acquire the dynamic response of the structure. The obtained accelerometer results are encoded in three different ways to represent them as a haptic stimulus for the human subjects. Then, the participants are subjected to each of these stimuli to detect the bolt loosened damage in the tower. Results obtained from the human-machine cooperation demonstrate that the human subjects were able to recognize the damage with an accuracy of 88 ± 20.21% and response time of 5.87 ± 2.33 s. As a result, it is concluded that the currently developed human-machine cooperation SHM may provide a useful framework to interact with abstract entities such as data from a sensor network.

  12. Exploring problem-based cooperative learning in undergraduate physics labs: student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, S. D.; Murphy, C.; Shuilleabhain, A. Ni

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the potential of problem-based cooperative learning (PBCL) in expanding undergraduate physics students’ understanding of, and engagement with, the scientific process. Two groups of first-year physics students (n = 180) completed a questionnaire which compared their perceptions of learning science with their engagement in physics labs. One cohort completed a lab based on a PBCL approach, whilst the other completed the same experiment, using a more traditional, manual-based lab. Utilising a participant research approach, the questionnaire was co-constructed by researchers and student advisers from each cohort in order to improve shared meaning between researchers and participants. Analysis of students’ responses suggests that students in the PBCL cohort engaged more in higher-order problem-solving skills and evidenced a deeper understanding of the scientific process than students in the more traditional, manual-based cohort. However, the latter cohort responses placed more emphasis on accuracy and measurement in lab science than the PBCL cohort. The students in the PBCL cohort were also more positively engaged with their learning than their counterparts in the manual led group.

  13. National implementation and regional cooperation from the perspective of Ethiopia: points for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekuriaw, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for a comprehensive global verification regime that includes International Monitoring System (IMS). Ethiopia is expected to contribute to the system through a seismic station to be upgraded and a radionuclide station to be established yet. The capacity built at and the experience gained by the geographical observatory of the Addis Ababa University seismic monitoring makes it the leading institution on implementing activities related to verification of the treaty in Ethiopia. Assessment of the current situation indicates that the implementation is going on at a relatively slow rate. There is a general understanding that the country's contribution to and the benefits to be gained from the CTBT implementation related activities would be enhanced if it works in close collaborartion with other East and Southern African countries. However, this could be realised if and only if higher priorities are accorded to the establishment and strengthening of national monitoring and data processing capabilities and the cooperation program is provided with adequate funding. (author)

  14. Fuelling Insecurity? Sino-Myanmar Energy Cooperation and Human Security in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botel, Gabriel

    This thesis examines the relationship between energy, development and human security in Sino-Myanmar relations. Rapid economic growth and increased urbanisation have intensified China's industrial and domestic energy consumption, drastically increasing demand and overwhelming national supply capacities. Chinese foreign policy has responded by becoming more active in securing and protecting foreign energy resources and allowing Chinese companies more freedom and opportunities for investment abroad. Consequently, Chinese foreign investment and policies have become increasing sources of scrutiny and debate, typically focusing on their (presumed) intentions and the social, economic, environmental and political impacts they have on the rest of the world. Within this debate, a key issue has been China's engagement with so-called pariah states. China has frequently received substantial international criticism for its unconditional engagement with such countries, often seen as a geopolitical pursuit of strategic national (energy) interests, unconcerned with international opprobrium. In the case of Myanmar, traditional security analyses interpret this as, at best, undermining (Western) international norms and, at worst, posing a direct challenge to international security. However, traditional security analyses rely on state-centric concepts of security, and tend to over-simply Sino-Myanmar relations and the dynamics which inform it. Conversely, implications for human security are overlooked; this is in part because human security remains poorly defined and also because there are questions regarding its utility. However, human security is a critical tool in delineating between state, corporate and 'civilian' interests, and how these cleavages shape the security environment and potential for instability in the region. This thesis takes a closer look at some of the entrenched and changing security dynamics shaping this Sino-Myanmar energy cooperation, drawing on an extensive

  15. Human-machine cooperation: a solution for life-critical systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Patrick; Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making plays an important role in life-critical systems. It entails cognitive functions such as monitoring, as well as fault prevention and recovery. Three kinds of objectives are typically considered: safety, efficiency and comfort. People involved in the control and management of such systems provide two kinds of contributions: positive with their unique involvement and capacity to deal with the unexpected; and negative with their ability to make errors. In the negative view, people are the problem and need to be supervised by regulatory systems in the form of operational constraints or by design. In the positive view, people are the solution and lead the game; they are decision-makers. The former view also deals with error resistance, and the latter with error tolerance, which, for example, enables cooperation between people and decision support systems (DSS). In the real life, both views should be considered with respect to appropriate situational factors, such as time constraints and very dangerous environments. This is known as function allocation between people and systems. This paper presents a possibility to reconcile both approaches into a joint human-machine organization, where the main dimensioning factors are safety and complexity. A framework for cooperative and fault tolerant systems is proposed, and illustrated by an example in Air Traffic Control.

  16. Communication, coordination and cooperation in construction projects: business environment and human behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah Alaloul, Wesam; Shahir Liew, Mohd; Zawawi, Noor Amila Wan

    2017-12-01

    The accomplishment of construction projects is extremely dependent on the integration of several stakeholders; therefore none of them has the control or the ability to accomplish the project alone. Each of them may influence and be influenced by the project management approach. There is no comprehensive theoretical platform for defining Communication, Coordination and Cooperation (3Cs) in the management of construction project. This paper deliberates the function of the 3Cs different theoretical perceptions. Through an analysis of selected articles from reputable academic journals in construction management, the business environment and human behaviour were identified as two main parts. A little has been done so far about the 3Cs, and how they are correlated with construction projects performance. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to explain the definitions and the association between the 3Cs. There is a significant link between communication and coordination. Coordination alternatively, is trust-based a logic of mutual and exchange. Consequently, cooperation is much more sophisticated, which needing more time and attempts.

  17. Defecting or not defecting: how to "read" human behavior during cooperative games by EEG measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio De Vico Fallani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for human social interactions is difficult, since the brain activities of two or more individuals have to be examined simultaneously and correlated with the observed social patterns. We introduce the concept of hyper-brain network, a connectivity pattern representing at once the information flow among the cortical regions of a single brain as well as the relations among the areas of two distinct brains. Graph analysis of hyper-brain networks constructed from the EEG scanning of 26 couples of individuals playing the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma reveals the possibility to predict non-cooperative interactions during the decision-making phase. The hyper-brain networks of two-defector couples have significantly less inter-brain links and overall higher modularity--i.e., the tendency to form two separate subgraphs--than couples playing cooperative or tit-for-tat strategies. The decision to defect can be "read" in advance by evaluating the changes of connectivity pattern in the hyper-brain network.

  18. The Difference Between Ice Cream and Nazis: Moral Externalization and the Evolution of Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, P Kyle

    2017-07-06

    A range of empirical findings are first used to more precisely characterize our distinctive tendency to objectify or externalize moral demands, and it is then argued that this salient feature of our moral cognition represents a profound puzzle for evolutionary approaches to human moral psychology that existing proposals do not help to resolve. It is then proposed that such externalization facilitated a broader shift to a vastly more cooperative form of social life by establishing and maintaining a connection between the extent to which an agent is herself motivated by a given moral norm and the extent to which she uses conformity to that same norm as a criterion in evaluating candidate partners in social interaction generally. This connection ensures the correlated interaction necessary to protect those prepared to adopt increasingly cooperative, altruistic, and other prosocial norms of interaction from exploitation, especially as such norms were applied in novel ways and/or to novel circumstances and as the rapid establishment of new norms allowed us to reap still greater rewards from hypercooperation. A wide range of empirical findings are then used to support this hypothesis, showing why the status we ascribe to moral demands and considerations exhibits the otherwise puzzling combination of objective and subjective elements that it does as well as showing how the need to effectively advertise our externalization of particular moral commitments generates features of our social interaction so familiar that they rarely strike us as standing in need of any explanation in the first place.

  19. Shape perception in human and computer vision an interdisciplinary perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Sven J

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive and authoritative text/reference presents a unique, multidisciplinary perspective on Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision. Rather than focusing purely on the state of the art, the book provides viewpoints from world-class researchers reflecting broadly on the issues that have shaped the field. Drawing upon many years of experience, each contributor discusses the trends followed and the progress made, in addition to identifying the major challenges that still lie ahead. Topics and features: examines each topic from a range of viewpoints, rather than promoting a speci

  20. Cooperation between gatekeepers in sickness insurance – the perspective of social insurance officers. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective was to describe variations in how social insurance officers conceive the cooperation with the health care in their daily work with sick leave. Methods Fifteen social insurance officers (SIOs working with administration of sickness benefits were interviewed. They were purposefully recruited to represent different parts of the social insurance office organization, different ages, gender, education, and work experience. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using phenomenographic approach. Results 11 women and 4 men, aged 25–65, with a work experience ranging from 1–40 years were interviewed. Three descriptive categories embracing eleven subcategories emerged: 1 Communication channels included three subcategories; to obtain medical opinions, to hold meetings with actors involved, to experience support functions; 2 Organizational conditions included five subcategories; to experience lack of time, to experience problems of availability, to experience lack of continuity, to experience unclear responsibility, to experience ongoing change; 3 Attitudes included three subcategories; to conceive the attitudes of the physicians, to conceive the attitudes of the patients, to conceive the attitudes of the SIOs. Conclusion Personal communication was described as crucial to ensure a more efficient working process. The personal contact was obstructed mainly by issues related to work load, lack of continuity, and reorganisations. By enhancing and enabling personal contact between SIOs and health care professionals, the waiting times for the sick-listed might be shortened, resulting in shorter periods of sick-leave. Issues around collaboration and communication between gatekeepers need to be recognized in the ongoing work with new guidelines and education in insurance medicine.

  1. Cooperation and dialogical modeling for designing a safe Human space exploration mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grès, Stéphane; Tognini, Michel; Le Cardinal, Gilles; Zalila, Zyed; Gueydan, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes an approach for a complex and innovative project requiring international contributions from different communities of knowledge and expertise. Designing a safe and reliable architecture for a manned mission to Mars or the Asteroids necessitates strong cooperation during the early stages of design to prevent and reduce risks for the astronauts at each step of the mission. The stake during design is to deal with the contradictions, antagonisms and paradoxes of the involved partners for the definition and modeling of a shared project of reference. As we see in our research which analyses the cognitive and social aspects of technological risks in major accidents, in such a project, the complexity of the global organization (during design and use) and the integration of a wide and varie d range of sciences and innovative technologies is likely to increase systemic risks as follows: human and cultural mistakes, potential defaults, failures and accidents. We identify as the main danger antiquated centralized models of organization and the operational limits of interdisciplinarity in the sciences. Beyond this, we can see that we need to take carefully into account human cooperation and the quality of relations between heterogeneous partners. Designing an open, self-learning and reliable exploration system able to self-adapt in dangerous and unforeseen situations implies a collective networked intelligence led by a safe process that organizes interaction between the actors and the aims of the project. Our work, supported by the CNES (French Space Agency), proposes an innovative approach to the coordination of a complex project.

  2. The ethics of human genetic intervention: a postmodern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A R

    1997-03-01

    Gene therapy for a particular disease like Parkinson's involves ethical principles worked out for other diseases. The major ethical issues for gene therapy (and the corresponding ethical principles) are safety (nonmalfeasance), efficacy (beneficence), informed consent (autonomy), and allocation of resources (justice). Yet genetic engineering (germ-line interventions or interventions to enhance human potentialities) raises emotions and fears that might cause resistance to gene therapies. Looking at these technologies in a postmodern perspective helps one to appreciate the issues at stake in social and cultural change with a new technology such as gene therapy. While "modern" technology and ethics have focused on the autonomy of the individual, we are beginning to see a lessening of such emphasis on individualism and autonomy and more emphasis on the health of the population. Such a social change could cause technologies about which society may currently be cautious (such as human genetic interventions) to become more acceptable or even expected.

  3. Community Context and Child Health: A Human Capital Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2017-09-01

    Human capital theory suggests that education benefits individuals' and their children's health through the educational skills people acquire in school. This perspective may also be relevant at the community level: the greater presence of adults with educational skills in a community may be a reason why living in a more highly educated setting benefits health. I use Demographic and Health Survey data for 30 sub-Saharan African countries to investigate whether the percentage of literate adults-specifically women-in a community is associated with children's likelihood of survival. I characterize 13,785 African communities according to the prevalence of women who are literate. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models ( N = 536,781 children) confirm that living in a community where more women are literate is positively associated with child survival. The study supports the conceptualization of literacy, and potentially other educational skills, as forms of human capital that can spill over to benefit others.

  4. Genomics and the Ark: an ecocentric perspective on human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub; Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Views of ourselves in relationship to the rest of the biosphere are changing. Theocentric and anthropocentric perspectives are giving way to more ecocentric views on the history, present, and future of humankind. Novel sciences, such as genomics, have deepened and broadened our understanding of the process of anthropogenesis, the coming into being of humans. Genomics suggests that early human history must be regarded as a complex narrative of evolving ecosystems, in which human evolution both influenced and was influenced by the evolution of companion species. During the agricultural revolution, human beings designed small-scale artificial ecosystems or evolutionary "Arks," in which networks of plants, animals, and microorganisms coevolved. Currently, our attitude towards this process seems subject to a paradoxical reversal. The boundaries of the Ark have dramatically broadened, and genomics is not only being used to increase our understanding of our ecological past, but may also help us to conserve, reconstruct, or even revivify species and ecosystems to whose degradation or (near) extinction we have contributed. This article explores the role of genomics in the elaboration of a more ecocentric view of ourselves with the help of two examples, namely the renaissance of Paleolithic diets and of Pleistocene parks. It argues that an understanding of the world in ecocentric terms requires new partnerships and mutually beneficial forms of collaboration and convergence between life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities.

  5. On Orbit and Beyond Psychological Perspectives on Human Spaceflight

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As we stand poised on the verge of a new era of spaceflight, we must rethink every element, including the human dimension. This book explores some of the contributions of psychology to yesterday’s great space race, today’s orbiter and International Space Station missions, and tomorrow’s journeys beyond Earth’s orbit. Early missions into space were typically brief, and crews were small, often drawn from a single nation. As international cooperation in space exploration has increased over the decades, the challenges of communicating across cultural boundaries and dealing with interpersonal conflicts have become all the more important, requiring different coping skills and sensibilities than “the right stuff” expected of early astronauts. As astronauts travel to asteroids or establish a permanent colony on the Moon, with the eventual goal of reaching Mars, the duration of expeditions will increase markedly, as will the psychosocial stresses. Away from their home planet for extended times, future spac...

  6. [Cancer Education for Children from the Perspective of International Cooperation for Cancer in Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Norie

    2015-08-01

    When considering how Japan can propose cancer prevention strategies for other countries in Asia and what would be the best format for such strategies, involvement in cancer education has the potential to make a significant contribution to cancer control measures in Asia. Such involvement would be effective not only from the perspective of promoting future research collaborations for cancer but also because many countries in Asia are coming to a turning point in their social structures as population growth declines and societies start to age. Cancer involves various stages, from prevention, early detection, early treatment, and treatment with advanced methods to prognosis and follow-up, and prevention of recurrence. In all of these stages, the daily lives of patients and the clinical environment are intricately interlinked on the same level. In addition, decisions on when and how to allocate medical resources that support the various cancer stages affect the health and quality of life of patients. Progress in prevention and early detection can reduce the consumption of medical resources. However, the tendency is to rely on self-help efforts and individual awareness in these areas. It is therefore thought to be necessary to re-appraise prevention and early detection in the context of a framework that aims to bring people together in a way that encourages mutual and public assistance. It would be ideal if children, who represent the future, could acquire awareness about such matters from an existing body of knowledge that has been formed through ongoing interpersonal interactions that have been nurtured through community and blood relationships. It is necessary to consider what cancer education means for individuals and society, and how it can change the way people go about their daily lives, particularly in the context of the changing social structure of Asia.

  7. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecequet, Martina; DeWaard, Jack; Hellmann, Jessica J.; Abel, Guy J.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate–migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure) and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country) migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability. PMID:29707262

  8. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecequet, Martina; DeWaard, Jack; Hellmann, Jessica J; Abel, Guy J

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate-migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure) and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country) migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability.

  9. Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR) Holguin Territorial Office Scientific Technical Co-operation in the field of ionizing radiation metrology: Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Bravo, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities carried out in order to organic a dosimetric calibration territorial service to be performed mainly with Secretaria Ejecutiva Para Asuntos Nucleares (SEAN) personnel and model facilities. This paper emphasizes the results of the calibration which will performed this service in joint association with CPHR specialist and Holguin Territorial Office (june 1993). The perspective of co-operation in this field starting up the CPHR dosimetric calibration secondary laboratory are presented

  10. Markerless human motion tracking using hierarchical multi-swarm cooperative particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sanjay; Zakaria, Nordin; Rambli, Dayang Rohaya Awang; Sulaiman, Suziah

    2015-01-01

    The high-dimensional search space involved in markerless full-body articulated human motion tracking from multiple-views video sequences has led to a number of solutions based on metaheuristics, the most recent form of which is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the classical PSO suffers from premature convergence and it is trapped easily into local optima, significantly affecting the tracking accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed a method for the problem based on Hierarchical Multi-Swarm Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization (H-MCPSO). The tracking problem is formulated as a non-linear 34-dimensional function optimization problem where the fitness function quantifies the difference between the observed image and a projection of the model configuration. Both the silhouette and edge likelihoods are used in the fitness function. Experiments using Brown and HumanEva-II dataset demonstrated that H-MCPSO performance is better than two leading alternative approaches-Annealed Particle Filter (APF) and Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO). Further, the proposed tracking method is capable of automatic initialization and self-recovery from temporary tracking failures. Comprehensive experimental results are presented to support the claims.

  11. A Review of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's International Education Surveys: Governance, Human Capital Discourses, and Policy Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clara; Volante, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Given the influential role that the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) plays in educational governance, we believe it is timely to provide an in-depth review of its education surveys and their associated human capital discourses. By reviewing and summarizing the OECD's suite of education surveys, this paper identifies the…

  12. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  13. [Success Factors and Stumbling Blocks in the Cooperation with Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy from the Perspective of Social Pedagogues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Luzi, Seraina; Schmid, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Success Factors and Stumbling Blocks in the Cooperation with Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy from the Perspective of Social Pedagogues In numerous current studies, experts describe a need for improved cooperation between employees of youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatry/-psychotherapy. The present study investigates how social pedagogues working in youth welfare institutions perceive psychiatrists or psychologists working in child and adolescent psychiatry. Benefits and difficulties of the cooperation are described and potential areas of improvement as perceived by youth welfare employees are identified. The study presents quantitative and qualitative data and pursues a mixed-method approach. The qualitative evaluation is based on the content structuring qualitative content analysis according to Kuckartz (2012) and is complemented by descriptive data. The results are based on the responses of 221 social pedagogues in Switzerland. While 97.7 % of respondents perceive interdisciplinary collaborations for children with high psychological stress as ideal, they also mention various barriers that hinder effective and efficient cooperation. Many social pedagogues wish for the field of child and adolescent psychiatry to show a greater interest in their job profile, as well as more appreciation for the demanding work that they perform. Clarification of roles and responsibilities, a better flow of information and a direct person of contact are also deemed important aspects to improve upon. The study suggests practical approaches for a more effective cooperation.

  14. Accreditation of human research protection program: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Bairy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of clinical trials being placed in India, it is the collective responsibility of the Investigator sites, Government, Ethics Committees, and Sponsors to ensure that the trial subjects are protected from risks these studies can have, that subjects are duly compensated, and credible data generated. Most importantly, each institution/hospital should have a strong Human Research Protection Program to safe guard the trial subjects. In order to look at research with a comprehensive objective approach, there is a need for a formal auditing and review system by a recognized body. As of now, only the sponsors are monitoring/auditing their respective trials; however, there is an increasing need to perform a more detailed review and assessment of processes of the institution and the Ethics Committee. This challenge can be addressed by going for accreditation by a reputed association that encompasses-the institutions, the ethics committees, and researcher/research staff. Starting their journey for the accreditation process in late 2010, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital [KMC], Manipal, and Manipal Hospital Bangalore [MHB] received full Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP accreditation in Dec 2011-a first in India. This article delves into the steps involved in applying for AAHRPP accreditation from an Indian Perspective, the challenges, advantages, and testimonials from the two hospitals on the application experience and how the accreditation has improved the Human Research Protection Program at these hospitals.

  15. FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN INDONESIAN PRESS: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Staples

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will firstly examine the international framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the international human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia’s constitutional law and criminal and civil law, including sedition and defamation laws, and finally media ownership, on the interpretation and scope of the right to freedom of speech in the press. Consideration of these laws will be integrated with a discussion of judicial processes. This discussion will be used to determine how and in what circumstances the constitutional right to freedom of speech in the press may be facilitated or enabled, or on the other hand, limited, overridden or curtailed in Indonesia. Conclusions will then be drawn regarding the strengths and weaknesses of Indonesian laws in safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press and the democratic implications from an international human rights perspective. This inquiry will be restricted to Indonesian laws in existence during the post-New Order period of 1998 to the present, and to the information and analysis provided by English-language sources.

  16. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  17. I Reach Faster When I See You Look: Gaze Effects in Human–Human and Human–Robot Face-to-Face Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-David; Pattacini, Ugo; Lelong, Amelie; Bailly, Gerard; Elisei, Frederic; Fagel, Sascha; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Human–human interaction in natural environments relies on a variety of perceptual cues. Humanoid robots are becoming increasingly refined in their sensorimotor capabilities, and thus should now be able to manipulate and exploit these social cues in cooperation with their human partners. Previous studies have demonstrated that people follow human and robot gaze, and that it can help them to cope with spatially ambiguous language. Our goal is to extend these findings into the domain of action, to determine how human and robot gaze can influence the speed and accuracy of human action. We report on results from a human–human cooperation experiment demonstrating that an agent’s vision of her/his partner’s gaze can significantly improve that agent’s performance in a cooperative task. We then implement a heuristic capability to generate such gaze cues by a humanoid robot that engages in the same cooperative interaction. The subsequent human–robot experiments demonstrate that a human agent can indeed exploit the predictive gaze of their robot partner in a cooperative task. This allows us to render the humanoid robot more human-like in its ability to communicate with humans. The long term objectives of the work are thus to identify social cooperation cues, and to validate their pertinence through implementation in a cooperative robot. The current research provides the robot with the capability to produce appropriate speech and gaze cues in the context of human–robot cooperation tasks. Gaze is manipulated in three conditions: Full gaze (coordinated eye and head), eyes hidden with sunglasses, and head fixed. We demonstrate the pertinence of these cues in terms of statistical measures of action times for humans in the context of a cooperative task, as gaze significantly facilitates cooperation as measured by human response times. PMID:22563315

  18. Direct labelling of the human P2X7 receptor and identification of positive and negative cooperativity of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A D; Chambers, L J; Clay, W C; Condreay, J P; Walter, D S; Chessell, I P

    2007-05-01

    The P2X(7) receptor exhibits complex pharmacological properties. In this study, binding of a [(3)H]-labelled P2X(7) receptor antagonist to human P2X(7) receptors has been examined to further understand ligand interactions with this receptor. The P2X(7) receptor antagonist, N-[2-({2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-5-quinolinyl]-2-tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]dec-1-ylacetamide (compound-17), was radiolabelled with tritium and binding studies were performed using membranes prepared from U-2 OS or HEK293 cells expressing human recombinant P2X(7) receptors. Binding of [(3)H]-compound-17 was higher in membranes prepared from cells expressing P2X(7) receptors than from control cells and was inhibited by ATP suggesting labelled sites represented human P2X(7) receptors. Binding was reversible, saturable and modulated by P2X(7) receptor ligands (Brilliant Blue G, KN62, ATP, decavanadate). Furthermore, ATP potency was reduced in the presence of divalent cations or NaCl. Radioligand binding exhibited both positive and negative cooperativity. Positive cooperativity was evident from bell shaped Scatchard plots, reduction in radioligand dissociation rate by unlabelled compound-17 and enhancement of radioligand binding by KN62 and unlabelled compound-17. ATP and decavanadate inhibited binding in a negative cooperative manner as they enhanced radioligand dissociation. These data demonstrate that human P2X(7) receptors can be directly labelled and provide novel insights into receptor function. The positive cooperativity observed suggests that binding of compound-17 to one subunit in the P2X(7) receptor complex enhances subsequent binding to other P2X(7) subunits in the same complex. The negative cooperative effects of ATP suggest that ATP and compound-17 bind at separate, interacting, sites on the P2X(7) receptor.

  19. Influence of facial feedback during a cooperative human-robot task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura; Khoramshahi, Mahdi; Salesse, Robin N; Bortolon, Catherine; Słowiński, Piotr; Zhai, Chao; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Di Bernardo, Mario; Capdevielle, Delphine; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Bardy, Benoit G; Billard, Aude; Raffard, Stéphane

    2017-11-03

    Rapid progress in the area of humanoid robots offers tremendous possibilities for investigating and improving social competences in people with social deficits, but remains yet unexplored in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the influence of social feedbacks elicited by a humanoid robot on motor coordination during a human-robot interaction. Twenty-two schizophrenia patients and twenty-two matched healthy controls underwent a collaborative motor synchrony task with the iCub humanoid robot. Results revealed that positive social feedback had a facilitatory effect on motor coordination in the control participants compared to non-social positive feedback. This facilitatory effect was not present in schizophrenia patients, whose social-motor coordination was similarly impaired in social and non-social feedback conditions. Furthermore, patients' cognitive flexibility impairment and antipsychotic dosing were negatively correlated with patients' ability to synchronize hand movements with iCub. Overall, our findings reveal that patients have marked difficulties to exploit facial social cues elicited by a humanoid robot to modulate their motor coordination during human-robot interaction, partly accounted for by cognitive deficits and medication. This study opens new perspectives for comprehension of social deficits in this mental disorder.

  20. Evolving techniques of diagnosis. Toward establishment of new paradigm for human machine cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masaharu; Takahashi, Makoto; Kanamoto, Shigeru; Saeki, Akira; Washio, Takashi; Ohga, Yukiharu; Furuta, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1998-01-01

    By monitoring equipments of a plant and state of a process, the diagnostic technique to detect a sign of abnormality properly to identify its reason has often been advanced on a lot of researches in various industrial fields containing atomic force. Some fundamental studies expected for such diagnostic technique to play an important role to keep and improve operational safety of a nuclear plant have been conducted since early period of the nuclear reaction development, but their contents are evolved and changed rapidly, in recent. The technique on the diagnosis was related closely to a statistical analysis method on signal fluctuation component, so-called reactor noise analysis method in early 1980s, but technical innovation step of their recent advancement were remarkable by introduction of new techniques such as chaos theory, wavelet analysis, model base application of expert system, artificial intelligence, and so on at middle of 1980s. And, when diagnosing in the field of atomic force, owing to be required for much high ability, studies on a multi method integration system considered complementary application of a plurality of technical methods and a cooperative method between human and mechanical intelligences, are also forwarded actively faster than those in other industrial areas. In this paper, in each important item, its technical nature and present state of its application to diagnosis are described with their future technical view. (G.K.)

  1. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  2. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  3. Teachers' Pedagogical Perspectives and Teaching Practices on Human Rights in Cyprus: An Empirical Exploration and Implications for Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Charalambous, Constadina; Charalambous, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study that explored the understandings of human rights, pedagogical perspectives and practices in human rights teaching of three Greek-Cypriot elementary teachers. The study revealed some significant challenges in human rights teaching that seemed to be common for all three participating teachers. First, all of…

  4. IFI16 and cGAS cooperate in the activation of STING during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almine, Jessica F; O'Hare, Craig A J; Dunphy, Gillian; Haga, Ismar R; Naik, Rangeetha J; Atrih, Abdelmadjid; Connolly, Dympna J; Taylor, Jordan; Kelsall, Ian R; Bowie, Andrew G; Beard, Philippa M; Unterholzner, Leonie

    2017-02-13

    Many human cells can sense the presence of exogenous DNA during infection though the cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Other putative DNA receptors have been described, but whether their functions are redundant, tissue-specific or integrated in the cGAS-cGAMP pathway is unclear. Here we show that interferon-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) cooperates with cGAS during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes, as both cGAS and IFI16 are required for the full activation of an innate immune response to exogenous DNA and DNA viruses. IFI16 is also required for the cGAMP-induced activation of STING, and interacts with STING to promote STING phosphorylation and translocation. We propose that the two DNA sensors IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to prevent the spurious activation of the type I interferon response.

  5. The Cooperative Education as central axis for the integral Formation in the cooperative sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriadna Marín de León

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative constitutes one of the most important sectors in the economy in any economic formation - social, its fundamental cell is the man's integral development who should be capable for, from a reflexive and creative position, to assume the challenges that it implies an efficient and effective administration in function of the cooperative company. It is the educational dimension in cooperative values the key for the future, conceived in a systematic way and assuming an appropriate methodological conception. In this perspective, leaving of the theoretical foundation of the administration of the human resources in general, he intends to be carried out an integral analysis of the formation processes and education for the cooperative with the purpose of valuing the central aspects of this thematic one, leaving of the fact that the education constitutes the medullary element that leads to a true cooperative formation.

  6. Overview of NRA Human Resource Development Center and NRA Cooperation and Support for IAEA/ANSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shohei

    2014-01-01

    Vision: • Development and training of NRA employees: → To achieve and maintain nuclear regulation based on a high level of expertise; → To abide by the plan over a long period of time; → To recognize that such workforce is the most valuable asset of the regulatory body. • Establishment of safety culture: → To continuously master specialized knowledge and skills on nuclear safety; → To implement constant thorough review of the safety improvement. • Enhancement of international cooperation: → Cooperation with foreign nuclear regulatory organizations; → Cooperation with emerging nuclear power countries; → Special emphasis on sharing lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident. Mission: • Design, develop and implement training programs for NRA employees; • Promote knowledge transfer from experienced expert to young staff; • Strengthen international cooperation with other nuclear regulatory organizations; • Implement national examinations and develop nuclear safety experts at large etc.; • Continuously improve training programs by implementing a PDCA cycle

  7. HOXB5 cooperates with NKX2-1 in the transcription of human RET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS regulates peristaltic movement of the gut, and abnormal ENS causes Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR in newborns. HSCR is a congenital complex genetic disorder characterised by a lack of enteric ganglia along a variable length of the intestine. The receptor tyrosine kinase gene (RET is the major HSCR gene and its expression is crucial for ENS development. We have previously reported that (i HOXB5 transcription factor mediates RET expression, and (ii mouse with defective HOXB5 activity develop HSCR phenotype. In this study, we (i elucidate the underlying mechanisms that HOXB5 mediate RET expression, and (ii examine the interactions between HOXB5 and other transcription factors implicated in RET expression. We show that human HOXB5 binds to the promoter region 5' upstream of the binding site of NKX2-1 and regulates RET expression. HOXB5 and NKX2-1 form a protein complex and mediate RET expression in a synergistic manner. HSCR associated SNPs at the NKX2-1 binding site (-5G>A rs10900296; -1A>C rs10900297, which reduce NKX2-1 binding, abolish the synergistic trans-activation of RET by HOXB5 and NKX2-1. In contrast to the synergistic activation of RET with NKX2-1, HOXB5 cooperates in an additive manner with SOX10, PAX3 and PHOX2B in trans-activation of RET promoter. Taken together, our data suggests that HOXB5 in coordination with other transcription factors mediates RET expression. Therefore, defects in cis- or trans-regulation of RET by HOXB5 could lead to reduction of RET expression and contribute to the manifestation of the HSCR phenotype.

  8. Conical Perspective Image of an Architectural Object Close to Human Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwierzynska, Jolanta

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a method of computer aided constructing conical perspective of an architectural object, which is close to human perception. The conical perspective considered in the paper is a central projection onto a projection surface being a conical rotary surface or a fragment of it. Whereas, the centre of projection is a stationary point or a point moving on a circular path. The graphical mapping results of the perspective representation is realized directly on an unrolled flat projection surface. The projective relation between a range of points on a line and the perspective image of the same range of points received on a cylindrical projection surface permitted to derive formulas for drawing perspective. Next, the analytical algorithms for drawing perspective image of a straight line passing through any two points were formulated. It enabled drawing a perspective wireframe image of a given 3D object. The use of the moving view point as well as the application of the changeable base elements of perspective as the variables in the algorithms enable drawing conical perspective from different viewing positions. Due to this fact, the perspective drawing method is universal. The algorithms are formulated and tested in Mathcad Professional software, but can be implemented in AutoCAD and majority of computer graphical packages, which makes drawing a perspective image more efficient and easier. The presented conical perspective representation, and the convenient method of its mapping directly on the flat unrolled surface can find application for numerous advertisement and art presentations.

  9. Lenses on ‘Japaneseness’ in the Development Cooperation Charter of 2015: Soft power, human resources development, education and training

    OpenAIRE

    King, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The Working Paper provides a critical analysis of the 2015 Development Assistance Charter, paying particular attention to its case for Japan’s comparative advantage and uniqueness in its development cooperation policies and practice. The term ‘Japaneseness’ is used as a shorthand for this ‘Japan brand ODA’. The paper’s focus is especially on the softer side of Japanese aid, notably its long history of concern with human resources development, knowledge creation, and self-help. These prioritie...

  10. Cooperation and human development projects as bachelor, master and PhD thesis: evaluating an internship program

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Martí, Laia; Garfi, Marianna; Ferrer Martí, Ivet

    2015-01-01

    The Research Group on Cooperation and Human Development (GRECDH) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) has long promoted Bachelor, Master and PhD Theses in the framework of sustainable energy projects in low income countries. In this way, students combine their work at UPC with tasks in these countries. The aim of this paper is to present and evaluate the program through the experience of several students who participated in sustainable energy projects in Central and South America.

  11. A developmental perspective on the neural bases of human empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Béatrice; Eugène, Fanny; Jackson, Philip L

    2017-08-01

    While empathy has been widely studied in philosophical and psychological literatures, recent advances in social neuroscience have shed light on the neural correlates of this complex interpersonal phenomenon. In this review, we provide an overview of brain imaging studies that have investigated the neural substrates of human empathy. Based on existing models of the functional architecture of empathy, we review evidence of the neural underpinnings of each main component, as well as their development from infancy. Although early precursors of affective sharing and self-other distinction appear to be present from birth, recent findings also suggest that even higher-order components of empathy such as perspective-taking and emotion regulation demonstrate signs of development during infancy. This merging of developmental and social neuroscience literature thus supports the view that ontogenic development of empathy is rooted in early infancy, well before the emergence of verbal abilities. With age, the refinement of top-down mechanisms may foster more appropriate empathic responses, thus promoting greater altruistic motivation and prosocial behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Water resources and human behaviour: an integrated landscape management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Oosterbeek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A two sides balance can be drawn from the last 20 years of active intents to change local, regional and global policies concerning water and global environment issues. On one hand, as a consequence of the “sustainable development” model, there is an increasing awareness of the issues in stake, and environment became a core part of any public policy. International conferences and the investment in scientific research in these areas are an expression of this. Yet, concerns are growing in face of the increasing stress imposed on freshwater resources, climate change and the difficulties to achieve international consensus on specific strategies. This was the focus of discussion in the international conference on climate change organised in Nagoya in December 2010, by ICSS, ICSU and ICPHS. A revision of the conceptual approach to sustainable development, moving beyond a strictly socio-economic understanding of human behaviour and incorporating, as basic strategies, the dimensions of culture, didactics of dilemma and governance, is currently being applied in some scenarios, hopefully with a better result. The paper discusses water resources in the context of climate change from this integrated perspective.

  13. New perspectives in human stem cell therapeutic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells are in evaluation in clinical stem cell trials, primarily as autologous bone marrow studies, autologous and allogenic mesenchymal stem cell trials, and some allogenic neural stem cell transplantation projects. Safety and efficacy are being addressed for a number of disease state applications. There is considerable data supporting safety of bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cell transplants but the efficacy data are variable and of mixed benefit. Mechanisms of action of many of these cells are unknown and this raises the concern of unpredictable results in the future. Nevertheless there is considerable optimism that immune suppression and anti-inflammatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells will be of benefit for many conditions such as graft versus host disease, solid organ transplants and pulmonary fibrosis. Where bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells are being studied for heart disease, stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders, again progress is mixed and mostly without significant benefit. However, correction of multiple sclerosis, at least in the short term is encouraging. Clinical trials on the use of embryonic stem cell derivatives for spinal injury and macular degeneration are beginning and a raft of other clinical trials can be expected soon, for example, the use of neural stem cells for killing inoperable glioma and embryonic stem cells for regenerating β islet cells for diabetes. The change in attitude to embryonic stem cell research with the incoming Obama administration heralds a new co-operative environment for study and evaluation of stem cell therapies. The Californian stem cell initiative (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine has engendered global collaboration for this new medicine that will now also be supported by the US Federal Government. The active participation of governments, academia, biotechnology, pharmaceutical companies, and private investment is a powerful consortium for

  14. Negative association between parental care and sibling cooperation in earwigs: a new perspective on the early evolution of family life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J; Thesing, J; Meunier, J

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of family life requires net fitness benefits for offspring, which are commonly assumed to mainly derive from parental care. However, an additional source of benefits for offspring is often overlooked: cooperative interactions among juvenile siblings. In this study, we examined how sibling cooperation and parental care could jointly contribute to the early evolution of family life. Specifically, we tested whether the level of food transferred among siblings (sibling cooperation) in the European earwig Forficula auricularia (1) depends on the level of maternal food provisioning (parental care) and (2) is translated into offspring survival, as well as female investment into future reproduction. We show that higher levels of sibling food transfer were associated with lower levels of maternal food provisioning, possibly reflecting a compensatory relationship between sibling cooperation and maternal care. Furthermore, the level of sibling food transfer did not influence offspring survival, but was associated with negative effects on the production of the second and terminal clutch by the tending mothers. These findings indicate that sibling cooperation could mitigate the detrimental effects on offspring survival that result from being tended by low-quality mothers. More generally, they are in line with the hypothesis that sibling cooperation is an ancestral behaviour that can be retained to compensate for insufficient levels of parental investment. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. A system engineer's Perspective on Human Errors For a more Effective Management of Human Factors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong-Il; Lee, Soo-Kil

    2007-01-01

    The management of human factors in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has become one of the burden factors during their operating period after the design and construction period. Almost every study on the major accidents emphasizes the prominent importance of the human errors. Regardless of the regulatory requirements such as Periodic Safety Review, the management of human factors would be a main issue to reduce the human errors and to enhance the performance of plants. However, it is not easy to find out a more effective perspective on human errors to establish the engineering implementation plan for preventing them. This paper describes a system engineer's perspectives on human errors and discusses its application to the recent study on the human error events in Korean NPPs

  16. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  17. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-01-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes

  18. A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective on Embodied Language for Human-Robot Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Carol; Hoen, Michel; Dominey, Peter Ford

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses issues in embodied sentence processing from a "cognitive neural systems" approach that combines analysis of the behavior in question, analysis of the known neurophysiological bases of this behavior, and the synthesis of a neuro-computational model of embodied sentence processing that can be applied to and tested in the…

  19. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  20. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  1. Cooperative federalism and hydraulic fracturing: a human right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This Article argues that filling the energy governance gaps regarding unconventional natural gas can best be accomplished through collaborative governance that is genuinely adaptive and cooperative. Through cooperative federalism, combined with procedural rights for inclusive, innovative decision-making, state and non-state actors should design and implement the requisite safeguards before further natural gas development advances. Hydraulic fracturing provisions are strikingly fragmented and have sparked a fierce debate about chemical disclosure, radioactive wastewater disposal, and greenhouse gas emissions. United States natural gas production may stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades and will not provide a bridge to a sound energy policy if it "erode[s] efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge." Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a transition to a new addiction. This Article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights against police powers to regulate natural gas production.

  2. Thinking About Education in Human Rights from an Ethical and Controversial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Magendzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into the relationship between the education in human rights and ethics from a controversial perspective. It is a direction that seeks to help people become active and participatory citizens in a pluralistic democracy. Three fundamental ethical principles are analyzed, and they allow teaching human rights through controversy: Human rights: a global ethics of human rights; human rights: an ethical minimum; human rights and moral pluralism. This article proposes to relate human rights education with the critical-dialogical pedagogy. In this perspective are identified four critical inquiry tools that serve to develop different dimensions for a critical understanding in the social sphere: the approach of the problem, the reflexive skepticism, the multiperspectivity, and systemic thinking.

  3. Access to health care for undocumented migrants from a human rights perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Dan; Toebes, Brigit; Hjern, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Undocumented migrants' access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants' access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands...... from a human rights perspective....

  4. Cooperation networks and innovation: A complex system perspective to the analysis and evaluation of a EU regional innovation policy programme

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Margherita; Rossi, Federica

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in innovation theory and policy have led policymakers to assign particular importance to supporting networks of cooperation among heterogeneous economic actors, especially in production systems composed of small and medium enterprises. Such innovative policies call for parallel innovations in policy analysis, monitoring and assessment. Our analysis of a policy experiment aimed at supporting innovation networks in the Italian region of Tuscany intends to address some issues...

  5. From APEC 2011 to APEC 2012: American and Russian Perspectives on Asia-Pacific Security and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ways associated with hegemonic intentions, as ascendant powers have done in the past? Is the difference between a cute and cuddly panda and a fire...risks of resisting or containing China will be too great to bear . The region could be overwhelmed by Chinese economic blandishments to support...according to Russian Foreign Minis- ter Sergei Lavrov, today not only serves “as the main load- bearing struc- ture of cooperation,”6 but, following the

  6. Human dignity and the profoundly disabled: a theological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2011-01-01

    One challenge to the concept of human dignity is that it is a rootless notion invoked simply to mask inequalities that inevitably exist between human beings. This privileging of humans is speciesist and its weak point is the profoundly disabled human being. This article argues that far from being a weak point, the profoundly disabled person is a source of strength and witness to the intrinsic dignity that all human beings have by virtue of being human. The disabled represent the reality of human existence that is both strong and fragile. Although human dignity can be understood philosophically its depth is rooted in Christian theological insights. The profoundly disabled occupy a privileged position and share in a theology of mission since they testify to the interdependence of every human being and human dependence on God to a myopic world that only values strength, autonomy and independence.

  7. Downsizings, Mergers, and Acquisitions: Perspectives of Human Resource Development Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, LaVerne; Roth, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to provide perspectives of HR practitioners based on their experiences with mergers, acquisitions, and/or downsizings. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative study utilized interviews with 13 HR practitioners. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Findings: HR practitioners were not involved in…

  8. Within- and across-trial dynamics of human EEG reveal cooperative interplay between reinforcement learning and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne G E; Frank, Michael J

    2018-03-06

    Learning from rewards and punishments is essential to survival and facilitates flexible human behavior. It is widely appreciated that multiple cognitive and reinforcement learning systems contribute to decision-making, but the nature of their interactions is elusive. Here, we leverage methods for extracting trial-by-trial indices of reinforcement learning (RL) and working memory (WM) in human electro-encephalography to reveal single-trial computations beyond that afforded by behavior alone. Neural dynamics confirmed that increases in neural expectation were predictive of reduced neural surprise in the following feedback period, supporting central tenets of RL models. Within- and cross-trial dynamics revealed a cooperative interplay between systems for learning, in which WM contributes expectations to guide RL, despite competition between systems during choice. Together, these results provide a deeper understanding of how multiple neural systems interact for learning and decision-making and facilitate analysis of their disruption in clinical populations.

  9. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  10. Cooperative Enhancement of Radiosensitivity After Combined Treatment of 17-(Allylamino)-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin and Celecoxib in Human Lung and Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mee

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the combined treatment of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90), and celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, can cooperatively enhance the radiosensitivity of various human cancer cells. Combined treatment with 17-AAG and celecoxib, at clinically relevant concentrations, cooperatively induced radiosensitization in all tested cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Cooperative radiosensitization by the drug combination was also shown in a human tumor xenograft system. We found that ataxia-telangiectasia and rad3-related (ATR) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are novel client proteins of hsp90. Combined treatment with 17-AAG and celecoxib cooperatively induced downregulation of ATR and ATM. In conclusion, combined treatment with 17-AAG and celecoxib at clinically relevant concentrations may significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation. PMID:21830942

  11. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-05-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes the existence of a legitimate authority and leaves an unresolved gap in the transition from peer-punishment to centralized punishment. Here we show that the origins of centralized punishment could lie in individuals’ distinct ability to punish defectors. In our laboratory experiment, we vary the structure of the punishment situation to disentangle the effects of punitive preferences, monetary incentives, and individual punishment costs on the punishment of defectors. We find that actors tacitly coordinate on the strongest group member to punish defectors, even if the strongest individual incurs a net loss from punishment. Such coordination leads to a more effective and more efficient provision of a cooperative environment than we observe in groups of all equals. Our results show that even an arbitrary assignment of an individual to a focal position in the social hierarchy can trigger the endogenous emergence of more centralized forms of punishment.

  12. Cloning humans? Current science, current views, and a perspective from Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rudolf B

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic cloning is urgent and should be vigorously supported. To successfully argue for this position, the distinction between a human embryo and a human nuclear transplant may be helpful. Even if current technical difficulties should be solved, global legislation should prohibit cloning for the purpose of fabricating babies. This position originates from a view on human nature in general and from a Christian perspective in particular.

  13. Health and human rights a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2014-01-01

    General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed.

  14. Perspective: Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anuradha

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the high poverty levels in the United States implies that the goals of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) have not yet transformed the reality of U.S. citizens. Describes the national campaign called "Economic Human Rights: The Time Has Come!" that combats the violations of basic human rights like poverty.…

  15. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    An Australian scholar in the Arts and Humanities responds to recent US models emphasizing civic-engaged learning as a way to renew the humanities in undergraduate education. Policy contexts and curriculum initiatives of kindred trends in recent Australian undergraduate education in the humanities are contrasted in this essay. The Australian…

  16. [Human orgasm from the physiological perspective--part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Depko, Andrzej; Jedrzejewska, Sylwia; Talarowska, Monika

    2012-07-01

    Physiological phenomenon of sexuality occurring in both sexes that brings physical and mental satisfaction, and often affects the quality of life is an orgasm. The ability to experience regular orgasms affects relationship with partner. The definition of orgasm is not an easy task. The way of experiencing it is subjective, and the possibility of observing significantly reduced. Contemporary works on the phenomenon of orgasm are concentrated on several aspects: biological perspective (neurophysiological and biochemical determinants of orgasm), psychological perspective and on the differences in its course in both sexes. In sexology are two models of sexual response: a linear model of sexual response (by W. Masters and V. Johnson, and H. S. Kaplan) and the circular model of sexual response (created by R. Basson). The ability to experiencing an orgasm is inherent in men. In women, that phenomenon is acquired, is the consequence of further experience.

  17. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  18. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Henny Nuraeny; Tanti Kirana Utami

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficki...

  19. Human dignity and biomedical ethics from a Christian theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich H.J. Körtner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The argument of human dignity plays an important role in current debates on human rights and their relevance in modern biomedicine. When discussing the contribution of Christian theology to current debates on human dignity and human rights the thesis is not that the modern idea of human dignity depends on a theological grounding. Also, it is not the task of theology to legitimate rights as Christian a posteriori. We do not need to deduce modern human rights from theological doctrines. The theological challenge is to find an access for Christians from their belief to the modern idea of human rights and human dignity and to discuss the contribution which theology and the churches can make to further development of human rights. The Christian image of man, which serves as the foundation for the church position on bioethical topics in the German-speaking context, is a mix of biblical motives, a Kantian interpretation of the concept of human dignity and an interpretation of the German constitutional law inspired by the Catholic tradition of natural law. The following presented theological understanding of human dignity, in contrast, was inspired by the insights of the Pauline doctrine of justification and its Protestant reinterpretation.

  20. Humans choose representatives who enforce cooperation in social dilemmas through extortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Hilbe, Christian; Semmann, Dirk; Sommerfeld, Ralf; Marotzke, Jochem

    2016-03-01

    Social dilemmas force players to balance between personal and collective gain. In many dilemmas, such as elected governments negotiating climate-change mitigation measures, the decisions are made not by individual players but by their representatives. However, the behaviour of representatives in social dilemmas has not been investigated experimentally. Here inspired by the negotiations for greenhouse-gas emissions reductions, we experimentally study a collective-risk social dilemma that involves representatives deciding on behalf of their fellow group members. Representatives can be re-elected or voted out after each consecutive collective-risk game. Selfish players are preferentially elected and are hence found most frequently in the `representatives' treatment. Across all treatments, we identify the selfish players as extortioners. As predicted by our mathematical model, their steadfast strategies enforce cooperation from fair players who finally compensate almost completely the deficit caused by the extortionate co-players. Everybody gains, but the extortionate representatives and their groups gain the most.

  1. Tourism And Environment: Toward Promoting Sustainable Development Of Tourism: A Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Supasti Dharmawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities in era globalization bring positive and negative impacts especially for the host countries destination. To minimize the negative impacts it is very important to always promote the sustainable development of tourism including from a human rights perspective. This paper will discuss concerning who have responsibility to promote a human rights related with sustainable development of tourism. To explore the topic in this article, Author will study both international human rights instruments and environmental convention as well as the soft law regarding the tourism sector such as the UN WTO Global Code Of Ethics. The Law No. 10 Year 2009 concerning Indonesia Tourism Law is also part of legal material studied in this paper. There are national, international legal instruments of the human rights as well as UNWTO Global Codes of Ethics which can be utilized to promote sustainable tourism through human rights perspective. It is considered that all stakeholders have responsibility to promote sustainable development of tourism.

  2. [Elderly human being with ostomy and environments of care: reflection on the perspective of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo

    2012-01-01

    This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.

  3. Human-Multi-Robot Teleoperation for Cooperative Manipulation Tasks using Wearable Haptic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    . Control inputs for both subtasks are provided by the human. The inputs are projected onto the space of subtasks using a forward mapping strategy. Measured wrenches are projected onto the feedback signals provided to the human via wearable fingertip haptic devices through a feedback mapping strategy...

  4. Human Capital, Education and the Promotion of Social Cooperation: A Philosophical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2009-01-01

    Although since the 1960s human capital theory has played a major role in guiding educational policy, philosophical issues that stem from this development have rarely been discussed. In this article, I critically examine how the idea that human capital should serve as a guide to educational policy making stands in relation to the role assigned to…

  5. Indulging anxiety: human enhancement from a Protestant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark J

    1999-08-01

    At the heart of any ethics of human enhancement must be some normative assumptions about human nature. The purpose of this essay is to draw on themes from a Protestant theological anthropology to provide a basis for understanding and evaluating the tension between maintaining our humanity and enhancing it. Drawing primarily on the work of theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, I interpret enhancement as proceeding from the anxiety that characterizes human experience at the juncture of freedom and finiteness. Religious and moral dimensions of human sinfulness are considered in relation to cultural values that motivate human enhancement generally. I employ these dimensions in a series of benchmarks to suggest a background of theological, anthropological, and moral considerations against which enhancement is not to be condemmed but rather critically evaluated.

  6. We can work it out: An enactive look at cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eFantasia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The past years have seen an increasing debate on cooperation and its unique human character. Philosophers and psychologists have proposed that cooperative activities are characterized by shared goals to which participants are committed through the ability to understand each other’s intentions. Despite its popularity, some serious issues arise with this approach to cooperation. First, one may challenge the assumption that high-level mental processes are necessary for engaging in acting cooperatively. If they are, then how do agents that do not possess such ability (preverbal children, or children with autism who are often claimed to be mind-blind engage in cooperative exchanges, as the evidence suggests? Secondly, to define cooperation as the result of two de-contextualized minds reading each other’s intentions may fail to fully acknowledge the complexity of situated, interactional dynamics and the interplay of variables such as the participants’ relational and personal history and experience. In this paper we challenge such accounts of cooperation, calling for an embodied approach that sees cooperation not only as an individual attitude towards the other, but also as a property of interaction processes. Taking an enactive perspective, we argue that cooperation is an intrinsic part of any interaction, and that there can be cooperative interaction before complex communicative abilities are achieved. The issue then is not whether one is able or not to read the other’s intentions, but what it takes to participate in joint action. From this basic account, it should be possible to build up more complex forms of cooperation as needed. Addressing the study of cooperation in these terms may enhance our understanding of human social development, and foster our knowledge of different ways of engaging with others, as in the case of autism.

  7. A regulatory perspective on human factors in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper sets out the approaches being taken by the United Kingdom Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to monitoring the application of human factors principles and practice in the UK industry. The role of NII is outlined, the development of human factors concerns is reviewed, the assessment of the Sizewell 'B' safety case is presented as a particular example, and pertinent future developments in the human factors discipline are proposed. (author)

  8. What the humanities are for - a semiotic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cobley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of both 9/11 and the financial crisis of 2008, the humanities have been offered as constituents of higher education which, if more prominent and more strenuously promoted, might have prevented both events. At the same time, the humanities have undergone an assault from governments in the West, with massively reduced or wholly cut funding as part of an attempt to promote science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in universities. The response from parts of the humaniti...

  9. Oxytocin and vasopressin effects on the neural response to social cooperation are modulated by sex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Hackett, Patrick D; DeMarco, Ashley C; Chen, Xu; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Ditzen, Beate; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Rilling, James K

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has examined the effects of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on human social behavior and brain function. However, most participants have been male, while previous research in our lab demonstrated sexually differentiated effects of OT and AVP on the neural response to reciprocated cooperation. Here we extend our previous work by significantly increasing the number of participants to enable the use of more stringent statistical thresholds that permit more precise localization of OT and AVP effects in the brain. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 153 men and 151 women were randomized to receive 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU intranasal AVP or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Sex differences were observed for effects of OT on the neural response to reciprocated cooperation, such that OT increased the caduate/putamen response among males, whereas it decreased this response among females. Thus, 24 IU OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions among men, while decreasing their reward or salience among women. Similar sex differences were also observed for AVP effects within bilateral insula and right supramarginal gyrus when a more liberal statistical threshold was employed. While our findings support previous suggestions that exogenous nonapeptides may be effective treatments for disorders such as depression and autism spectrum disorder, they caution against uniformly extending such treatments to men and women alike.

  10. A common oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism modulates intranasal oxytocin effects on the neural response to social cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, C; Lori, A; Waldman, I D; Binder, E B; Haroon, E; Rilling, J K

    2015-09-01

    Intranasal oxytocin (OT) can modulate social-emotional functioning and related brain activity in humans. Consequently, OT has been discussed as a potential treatment for psychiatric disorders involving social behavioral deficits. However, OT effects are often heterogeneous across individuals. Here we explore individual differences in OT effects on the neural response to social cooperation as a function of the rs53576 polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Previously, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which healthy men and women were randomized to treatment with intranasal OT or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Within the left ventral caudate nucleus, intranasal OT treatment increased activation to reciprocated cooperation in men, but tended to decrease activation in women. Here, we show that these sex differences in OT effects are specific to individuals with the rs53576 GG genotype, and are not found for other genotypes (rs53576 AA/AG). Thus, OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions for male GG homozygotes, while decreasing those processes for female GG homozygotes. These results suggest that rs53576 genotype is an important variable to consider in future investigations of the clinical efficacy of intranasal OT treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Cooperation of decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein in regulating survival of human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ling-Juan; Guo, Shu-Yu; Cai, You-Qun; Gu, Ping-Qing; Su, Ya-Juan; Gong, Hui; Liu, Yun; Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) are the key molecules involved in cell protection against autologus complement, which restricts the action of complement at critical stages of the cascade reaction. The cooperative effect of DAF and MCP on the survival of human cervical cancer cell (ME180) has not been demonstrated. In this study we applied, for the first time, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down the expression of the DAF and MCP with the aim of exploiting complement more effectively for tumor cell damage. Meanwhile, we investigated the cooperative effects of DAF and MCP on the viability and migration, moreover the proliferation of ME180 cell. The results showed that shRNA inhibition of DAF and MCP expression enhanced complement-dependent cytolysis (CDC) up to 39% for MCP and up to 36% for DAF, and the combined inhibition of both regulators yielded further additive effects in ME180 cells. Thus, the activities of DAF and MCP, when present together, are greater than the sum of the two protein individually. These data indicated that combined DAF and MCP shRNA described in this study may offer an additional alternative to improve the efficacy of antibody-and complement-based cancer immunotherapy

  12. [Simulator-based modular human factor training in anesthesiology. Concept and results of the module "Communication and Team Cooperation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M; Hofinger, G; Buerschaper, C; Grapengeter, M; Harms, H; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J

    2004-02-01

    Human factors (HF) play a major role in crisis development and management and simulator training can help to train HF aspects. We developed a modular training concept with psychological intensive briefing. The aim of the study was to see whether learning and transfer in the treatment group (TG) with the module "communication and team-cooperation" differed from that in the control group (CG) without psychological briefing ("anaesthesia crisis resource management type course"). A total of 34 residents (TG: n=20, CG: n=14) managed 1 out of 3 scenarios and communication patterns and management were evaluated using video recordings. A questionnaire was answered at the end of the course and 2 months later participants were asked for lessons learnt and behavioral changes. Good communication and medical management showed a significant correlation (r=0.57, p=0.001). The TG showed greater initiative ( p=0.001) and came more often in conflict with the surgeon ( p=0.06). The TG also reported more behavioral changes than the CG 2 months later. The reported benefit of the simulation was training for rare events in the CG, whereas in the TG it was issues of communication and cooperation ( p=0.001). A training concept with psychological intensive briefing may enhance the transfer of HF aspects more than classical ACRM.

  13. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies. © 2010 APJPH.

  14. Reconceptualizing Social Work Behaviors from a Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Although the human rights philosophy has relevance for many segments of the social work curriculum, the latest version of accreditation standards only includes a few behaviors specific to human rights. This deficit can be remedied by incorporating innovations found in the social work literature, which provides a wealth of material for…

  15. Education for Sustainability: The Need for a New Human Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Anthony

    Disturbing global trends show that human activity continues to threaten our ability to meet current human needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability will become more inaccessible without a dramatic change in our current mindset and behavior. As the primary centers of teaching, research, and…

  16. A comparative perspective on the human temporal lobe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, K.L.; Preuss, T.M.; Bruner, E.; Ogihara, N.; Tanabe, H.

    2018-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a morphological specialization of primates resulting from an expansion of higher-order visual cortex that is a hallmark of the primate brain. Among primates, humans possess a temporal lobe that has significantly expanded. Several uniquely human cognitive abilities, including

  17. Coronial law and practice: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian; McGregor, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Coronial law and practice inevitably impact upon the human rights of those affected by deaths. It is important that such rights be incorporated in how death investigations, up to and including coronial inquests, take place. This article explores the significant impact of the jurisprudence emanating from the European Court of Human Rights, as well as the application of such law by the courts of the United Kingdom and potentially in other countries. It argues that viewing the work of coroners through the lens of human rights is a constructive approach and that, although in the coronial legislation of Australia and New Zealand, many human rights, especially those of family members, and civil liberties are explicitly protected, there remain real advantages in reflecting upon compliance with human rights by death investigation procedures and decision-making.

  18. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  19. A Perspective on Computational Human Performance Models as Design Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    The design of interactive systems, including levels of automation, displays, and controls, is usually based on design guidelines and iterative empirical prototyping. A complementary approach is to use computational human performance models to evaluate designs. An integrated strategy of model-based and empirical test and evaluation activities is particularly attractive as a methodology for verification and validation of human-rated systems for commercial space. This talk will review several computational human performance modeling approaches and their applicability to design of display and control requirements.

  20. Adenosinergic Immunosuppression by Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Requires Co-Operation with T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkelä, Erja; Laitinen, Anita; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valkonen, Sami; Takatalo, Maarit; Larjo, Antti; Veijola, Johanna; Lampinen, Milla; Siljander, Pia; Lehenkari, Petri; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to counteract excessive inflammatory responses. MSCs possess a range of immunomodulatory mechanisms, which can be deployed in response to signals in a particular environment and in concert with other immune cells. One immunosuppressive mechanism, not so well-known in MSCs, is mediated via adenosinergic pathway by ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39. In this study, we demonstrate that adenosine is actively produced from adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) by CD73 on MSCs and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Our results indicate that although MSCs express CD39 at low level and it colocalizes with CD73 in bulge areas of membranes, the most efficient adenosine production from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires co-operation of MSCs and activated T cells. Highly CD39 expressing activated T cells produce AMP from ATP and MSCs produce adenosine from AMP via CD73 activity. Furthermore, adenosinergic signaling plays a role in suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows that adenosinergic signaling is an important immunoregulatory mechanism of MSCs, especially in situations where ATP is present in the extracellular environment, like in tissue injury. An efficient production of immunosuppressive adenosine is dependent on the concerted action of CD39-positive immune cells with CD73-positive cells such as MSCs or their EVs. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Unifying perspectives on cooperation under social viscosity. Comment on "Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Chris T.

    2015-09-01

    How cooperation evolved in populations of self-interested agents puzzled Charles Darwin, who portrayed the paradox in The Descent of Man as such: "He who was ready to sacrifice his life, as many a savage has been, rather than betray his comrades, would often leave no offspring to inherit his noble nature" [1]. Darwin invoked group selection to explain cooperation: if groups of cooperating individuals could work together to outcompete groups of selfish individuals, cooperation could thrive. Fundamentally, this mechanism works by allowing cooperators to interact preferentially with one another: cooperators tend to interact with other co-operators whereas selfish "defectors" tend to interact with other defectors. Since cooperators cooperate and defectors defect, groups of cooperators should do better, on average.

  2. "More money for health - more health for the money": a human resources for health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Iain

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the MDG Summit in September 2010, the UN Secretary-General launched the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Central within the Global Strategy are the ambitions of "more money for health" and "more health for the money". These aim to leverage more resources for health financing whilst simultaneously generating more results from existing resources - core tenets of public expenditure management and governance. This paper considers these ambitions from a human resources for health (HRH perspective. Methods Using data from the UK Department for International Development (DFID we set out to quantify and qualify the British government's contributions on HRH in developing countries and to establish a baseline.. To determine whether activities and financing could be included in the categorisation of 'HRH strengthening' we adopted the Agenda for Global Action on HRH and a WHO approach to the 'working lifespan' of health workers as our guiding frameworks. To establish a baseline we reviewed available data on Official Development Assistance (ODA and country reports, undertook a new survey of HRH programming and sought information from multilateral partners. Results In financial year 2008/9 DFID spent £901 million on direct 'aid to health'. Due to the nature of the Creditor Reporting System (CRS of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD it is not feasible to directly report on HRH spending. We therefore employed a process of imputed percentages supported by detailed assessment in twelve countries. This followed the model adopted by the G8 to estimate ODA on maternal, newborn and child health. Using the G8's model, and cognisant of its limitations, we concluded that UK 'aid to health' on HRH strengthening is approximately 25%. Conclusions In quantifying DFID's disbursements on HRH we encountered the constraints of the current CRS framework. This limits standardised measurement of ODA on HRH

  3. "More money for health - more health for the money": a human resources for health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Jones, Iain; Whyms, Desmond

    2011-07-15

    At the MDG Summit in September 2010, the UN Secretary-General launched the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Central within the Global Strategy are the ambitions of "more money for health" and "more health for the money". These aim to leverage more resources for health financing whilst simultaneously generating more results from existing resources - core tenets of public expenditure management and governance. This paper considers these ambitions from a human resources for health (HRH) perspective. Using data from the UK Department for International Development (DFID) we set out to quantify and qualify the British government's contributions on HRH in developing countries and to establish a baseline.. To determine whether activities and financing could be included in the categorisation of 'HRH strengthening' we adopted the Agenda for Global Action on HRH and a WHO approach to the 'working lifespan' of health workers as our guiding frameworks. To establish a baseline we reviewed available data on Official Development Assistance (ODA) and country reports, undertook a new survey of HRH programming and sought information from multilateral partners. In financial year 2008/9 DFID spent £901 million on direct 'aid to health'. Due to the nature of the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) it is not feasible to directly report on HRH spending. We therefore employed a process of imputed percentages supported by detailed assessment in twelve countries. This followed the model adopted by the G8 to estimate ODA on maternal, newborn and child health. Using the G8's model, and cognisant of its limitations, we concluded that UK 'aid to health' on HRH strengthening is approximately 25%. In quantifying DFID's disbursements on HRH we encountered the constraints of the current CRS framework. This limits standardised measurement of ODA on HRH. This is a governance issue that will benefit from further

  4. Advances and perspectives in in vitro human gut fermentation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Amanda N; Zihler, Annina; Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The gut microbiota is a highly specialized organ containing host-specific assemblages of microbes whereby metabolic activity directly impacts human health and disease. In vitro gut fermentation models present an unmatched opportunity of performing studies frequently challenged in humans and animals owing to ethical concerns. Multidisciplinary systems biology analyses supported by '-omics' platforms remain widely neglected in the field of in vitro gut fermentation modeling but are key to advancing the significance of these models. Model-driven experimentation using a combination of in vitro gut fermentation and in vitro human cell models represent an advanced approach in identifying complex host-microbe interactions and niches central to gut fermentation processes. The aim of this review is to highlight the advances and challenges exhibited by in vitro human gut fermentation modeling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobile human-computer interaction perspective on mobile learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying a Mobile Human Computer Interaction (MHCI) view to the domain of education using Mobile Learning (Mlearning), the research outlines its understanding of the influences and effects of different interactions on the use of mobile technology...

  6. Moslem Women, Religion And The Hijab: A Human Rights Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    veil (niqab) and the head-to-toe all enveloping garment (jilbab) has raised complex human rights issues particularly in the context of women's rights to freedom of religion and its manifestation, equality and nondiscrimination, education and work ...

  7. Simulating the evolution of the human family: cooperative breeding increases in harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Newson, Lesley; Schank, Jeffrey C; Richerson, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and mathematical models that consider the costs and benefits of behavioral strategies have been useful in explaining animal behavior and are often used as the basis of evolutionary explanations of human behavior. In most cases, however, these models do not account for the effects that group structure and cultural traditions within a human population have on the costs and benefits of its members' decisions. Nor do they consider the likelihood that cultural as well as genetic traits will be subject to natural selection. In this paper, we present an agent-based model that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution of a population under conditions of different environmental harshness and in which selection can occur at the level of the group as well as the level of the individual. We focus on the evolution of a socially learned characteristic related to individuals' willingness to contribute to raising the offspring of others within their family group. We find that environmental harshness increases the frequency of individuals who make such contributions. However, under the conditions we stipulate, we also find that environmental variability can allow groups to survive with lower frequencies of helpers. The model presented here is inevitably a simplified representation of a human population, but it provides a basis for future modeling work toward evolutionary explanations of human behavior that consider the influence of both genetic and cultural transmission of behavior.

  8. Simulating the evolution of the human family: cooperative breeding increases in harsh environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Smaldino

    Full Text Available Verbal and mathematical models that consider the costs and benefits of behavioral strategies have been useful in explaining animal behavior and are often used as the basis of evolutionary explanations of human behavior. In most cases, however, these models do not account for the effects that group structure and cultural traditions within a human population have on the costs and benefits of its members' decisions. Nor do they consider the likelihood that cultural as well as genetic traits will be subject to natural selection. In this paper, we present an agent-based model that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution of a population under conditions of different environmental harshness and in which selection can occur at the level of the group as well as the level of the individual. We focus on the evolution of a socially learned characteristic related to individuals' willingness to contribute to raising the offspring of others within their family group. We find that environmental harshness increases the frequency of individuals who make such contributions. However, under the conditions we stipulate, we also find that environmental variability can allow groups to survive with lower frequencies of helpers. The model presented here is inevitably a simplified representation of a human population, but it provides a basis for future modeling work toward evolutionary explanations of human behavior that consider the influence of both genetic and cultural transmission of behavior.

  9. FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN INDONESIAN PRESS: INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Staples

    2016-01-01

    This paper will firstly examine the International framework of human rights law and its guidelines for safeguarding the right to freedom of speech in the press. Secondly, it will describe the constitutional and other legal rights protecting freedom of speech in Indonesia and assess their compatibility with the right to freedom of speech under the International human rights law framework. Thirdly it will consider the impact of Indonesia's constitutional law and criminal and civil law, includin...

  10. Incorporating Human Factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guide-lines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  11. Expanding perspectives on cognition in humans, animals, and machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Mainen, Zachary F

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade neuroscience has been attacking the problem of cognition with increasing vigor. Yet, what exactly is cognition, beyond a general signifier of anything seemingly complex the brain does? Here, we briefly review attempts to define, describe, explain, build, enhance and experience cognition. We highlight perspectives including psychology, molecular biology, computation, dynamical systems, machine learning, behavior and phenomenology. This survey of the landscape reveals not a clear target for explanation but a pluralistic and evolving scene with diverse opportunities for grounding future research. We argue that rather than getting to the bottom of it, over the next century, by deconstructing and redefining cognition, neuroscience will and should expand rather than merely reduce our concept of the mind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  13. Toward a Theoretical Model of Employee Turnover: A Human Resource Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shari L.

    2004-01-01

    This article sets forth the Organizational Model of Employee Persistence, influenced by traditional turnover models and a student attrition model. The model was developed to clarify the impact of organizational practices on employee turnover from a human resource development (HRD) perspective and provide a theoretical foundation for research on…

  14. Teachers' Perspectives on the Human-Nature Relationship: Implications for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Antonio; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2013-01-01

    This study based on a theoretical framework of three main environmental perspectives in the human-nature relationship (anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism), aimed to identify their incidence in teachers involved with environmental projects when confronted with diverse environmental issues. 60 teachers drawn from four school cycles in…

  15. Mass Communication as a Perspective on Human Communication: The Quandary of a Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Mary E.; McLuskie, Ed

    The empirical and critical traditions in mass communication inquiry are examined in this paper to determine if mass communication inquiry can provide a useful perspective on human communication. The paper first describes the development of interest in mass communication in the nineteenth century, then explains the empirical research tradition in…

  16. A new perspective on human reward research: How consciously and unconsciously perceived reward information influences performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zedelius, Claire; Veling, Harm; Custers, Ruud; Bijleveld, Erik; Chiew, K.S.; Aarts, Henk

    2014-01-01

    The question of how human performance can be improved through rewards is a recurrent topic of interest in psychology and neuroscience. Traditional, cognitive approaches to this topic have focused solely on consciously communicated rewards. Recently, a largely neuroscience-inspired perspective has

  17. A new perspective on human reward research: How consciously and unconsciously perceived reward information influences performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zedelius, C.M.; Veling, H.P.; Custers, R.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Chiew, K.S.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The question of how human performance can be improved through rewards is a recurrent topic of interest in psychology and neuroscience. Traditional, cognitive approaches to this topic have focused solely on consciously communicated rewards. Recently, a largely neuroscience-inspired perspective has

  18. The Nature of Geography and Its Perspectives in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexander B.; Hare, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    AP Human Geography students need to develop an understanding of what it means to examine the world around them from a geographic perspective. Focusing attention on geography's concern with spatial relationships, place characteristics, and geographic context helps student appreciate the nature of the discipline and the insights it offers. These…

  19. User Location Identification for Cooperative Human-Centric Sensing (HCS) Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova

    Human-Centric Sensing (HCS) is a newly emerged concept in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the active and assisted living (AAL) scenario. HCS connectivity, also referred to as “smart connectivity” enables applications that are highly personalized and often time...

  20. Stakeholder Capability Enhancement as a Path to Promote Human Dignity and Cooperative Advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Van Buren III, H.J.; Berman, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Promoting dignity is at the heart of the human capability approach to development. We introduce the concept of stakeholder capability enhancement, beginning with a discussion of the capability approach to development proposed by Sen (1985) and further advanced by Nussbaum (1990) to incorporate

  1. A Novel Perspective on Dopaminergic Processing of Human Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, animal, and neuroimaging experiments suggests that the addictive behavior is associated with dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. The precise role of dopamine in establishment and maintenance of addiction however is unclear. In this context animal studies on the brain reward system and the associative memory processing provide a novel insight. It was shown that both processing involve dopamine neurotransmission and both are disrupted in addiction. These findings indicate that dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission alters the brain processing of not only the reward system but also that of the memory of association between an addictive substance and reward. These alterations lead to maladaptive motivational behavior leading to chemical dependency. This concept however is based mostly on the data obtained in laboratory animals because of the paucity of human data. Due to lack of a reliable technique to study neurotransmission in the live human brain, it has been a problem to study the role of dopamine in human volunteers. A recently developed dynamic molecular imaging technique however, provides an opportunity to study these concepts in human volunteers because the technique allows detection, mapping and measurement of dopamine released in the live human brain during task performance.

  2. Small-world human brain networks: Perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xuhong; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; He, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Modelling the human brain as a complex network has provided a powerful mathematical framework to characterize the structural and functional architectures of the brain. In the past decade, the combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches enable us to map human structural and functional connectivity patterns (i.e., connectome) at the macroscopic level. One of the most influential findings is that human brain networks exhibit prominent small-world organization. Such a network architecture in the human brain facilitates efficient information segregation and integration at low wiring and energy costs, which presumably results from natural selection under the pressure of a cost-efficiency balance. Moreover, the small-world organization undergoes continuous changes during normal development and ageing and exhibits dramatic alterations in neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this review, we survey recent advances regarding the small-world architecture in human brain networks and highlight the potential implications and applications in multidisciplinary fields, including cognitive neuroscience, medicine and engineering. Finally, we highlight several challenging issues and areas for future research in this rapidly growing field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear cooperation within the CAEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the situation and the perspectives of the nuclear cooperation between USSR and the different countries participating in the CAEM (USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania and Cuba) and Yugoslavia [fr

  4. Perspectives on Human Trafficking and Modern Forms of Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration, technology, law, and measurement are each among the most topical areas of enquiry in the global human trafficking field, with much work remaining to be done in these and other areas. Beneath these particular intersections lies a crucial truth—slavery is a global business that thrives on the callous exploitation of the labor activity of a vast and highly vulnerable subclass of people whose brutalization is tacitly accepted by every participant in the global economy, from corporations to consumers. I am deeply gratified to edit Social Inclusion’s second issue on human trafficking and modern slavery. The level of scholarly interest in these topics continues to grow, and in this issue the authors explore some of the most pressing manifestations of human trafficking around the world.

  5. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  6. Human cloning, stem cell research. An Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aqeel, Aida I

    2009-12-01

    The rapidly changing technologies that involve human subjects raise complex ethical, legal, social, and religious issues. Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hopes for the treatment of serious diseases. But this promise has raised many complex questions. This field causes debate and challenge, not only among scientists but also among ethicists, religious scholars, governments, and politicians. There is no consensus on the morality of human cloning, even within specific religious traditions. In countries in which religion has a strong influence on political decision making, the moral status of the human embryo is at the center of the debate. Because of the inevitable consequences of reproductive cloning, it is prohibited in Islam. However, stem cell research for therapeutic purposes is permissible with full consideration, and all possible precautions in the pre-ensoulment stages of early fetus development, if the source is legitimate.

  7. Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

    2009-10-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible.

  8. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficking in Cianjur is in line with the concept of human rights. This study uses normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. Results from this study is the protection of child victims of trafficking in persons has been referred to the concept of human rights which the regional government make policies on prevention of trafficking, rehabilitation, counseling and empowerment of victims of human trafficking.

  9. Human Resources Administration: A School-Based Perspective. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced and updated, this Fourth Edition of Richard E. Smith's highly successful text examines the growing role of the principal in planning, hiring, staff development, supervision, and other human resource functions. The Fourth Edition includes new sections on ethics, induction, and the role of the mentor teacher. This edition also introduces…

  10. Why only humans shed emotional tears : Evolutionary and cultural perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracanin, A.; Bylsma, L.M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    Producing emotional tears is a universal and uniquely human behavior. Until recently, tears have received little serious attention from scientists. Here, we summarize recent theoretical developments and research findings. The evolutionary approach offers a solid ground for the analysis of the

  11. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An economic perspective on oceans and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the

  13. China and Africa: human rights perspective | Osondu-Oti | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of the twenty-first century, China emerged as a major player in Africa's international relations. This emergence has attracted a lot of attention in literature on what it portends for Africa. Studies have pointed that China's involvement in Africa undermines human rights. Of important note was China's support for the ...

  14. Promoting Instructional Improvement: A Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Mark A.; Wenzel, Stacy A.

    2006-01-01

    This report argues that instructional improvement, which goes hand-in-hand with efforts at education reform, can be promoted through the strategic use of human resource management (HRM) practices at the school, district, and state levels. The authors present information from the organizational and management literatures on how firms in several…

  15. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: A UK Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is in a state of flux and this is having particular impact on the humanities. On the one hand, the pressure to support a STEM agenda is seen by some as forcing higher education down a narrow economic agenda, while government requirements for assessing the social and economic impact of research have raised concerns about…

  16. Humanities Programming in Public Libraries: The Connecticut Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how public libraries can plan, fund, and implement scholar-led, library-based, humanities book discussion programs using the example of the Southern Connecticut Library Council. Key steps in planning, funding, targeting the audience, selecting topics and books, obtaining community support, recruiting scholars, marketing, administration,…

  17. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  18. The productivity from a human perspective: Dimensions and factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Marvel Cequea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature, for both theoretical foundations and empirical research, in order to establish relationships between the variables related to human factors and their impact on productivity.Design/methodology/approach: The strategy employed corresponds to a descriptive non-experimental design, which is the establishment of three criteria for the literature review, in order to narrow down the topic to research works relating productivity with the human factor. This was investigated in databases and journals dealing with related topics, in addition to consulting doctoral theses and published books concerning the influence of human factors on productivity. About 250 papers which were considered the most relevant for the research were selected.Findings:  As a result of this exploration the classification of the factors in two dimensions that are manifested in people when they act in organizations was highlighted: the psychological and the psychosocial dimension. Human factors included in these dimensions are: individual factors (motivation, skills, job satisfaction, identification, commitment and involvement with the organization, group factors (participation, cohesion and management conflict and organizational factors (organizational culture, organizational climate and leadership. All these factors have an impact on the productivity of the organization and are addressed in this research.Originality/value: The selected variables were used to formulate a model that incorporates the human factors identified and considers the phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. It will be addressed through multivariate analysis, with the possible application of structural equations in order to assess the causal relationships that may exist between factors and productivity.

  19. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  20. Tribal Proclivity and its Effects on the Cooperate Existence of Nigeria in the Centenary Era: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USMAN JIMOH MUHAMMAD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper consists of seven sub-sections namely, the introduction, a flash on the prevalence of tribal proclivity in Nigeria, causes of tribal proclivity among Nigerians and its effects. Other aspect of the paper includes the Islamic perspective on tribal proclivity in Nigeria, recommendations and conclusion. The introduction briefly appraises the historical composition of Nigeria in the early nineteen century and its amalgamation in the year 1914. Reference is being made in the paper to cases of tribal proclivity in Nigeria while the causes of tribal penchant include unemployment, selfishness of some politicians, lack of patience and endurance by citizens in their relationship among themselves. Tribal proclivity the paper affirms results into insecurity of lives and properties, portrays evidence of lack of unity and bad governance. The paper examines some relevant verses and prophetic traditions in a bid to redress the situation and recommends that the government and the well to problem of unemployment in the nation. In addition, religious do people in the society should join hands together towards addressing the scholars and other orientation bodies must reorient people towards peaceful coexistence among themselves.

  1. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  2. Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDiarmid, Alison; MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn

    2016-01-01

    -term changes of affected species and define appropriate and realistic management targets. Second, increased multi-and trans-disciplinary effort is required to better understand the relative importance of different human demographic, technological, economic, and cultural drivers on the patterns, intensities......There is an essentially circular interaction between the human social system and the marine ecosystem. The Oceans Past V Conference "Multidisciplinary perspectives on the history of human interactions with life in the ocean" held in Tallinn, Estonia, in May 2015 was an opportunity...... for the presentation and discussion of papers on a diverse array of topics that examined this socio-ecological system from a historical perspective. Here we provide background to the disciplines participating in the conference and to the conference itself. We summarize the conference papers that appear in this special...

  3. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  4. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  5. On the origin of modern humans: Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Christopher J; Douka, Katerina; Petraglia, Michael D

    2017-12-08

    The traditional "out of Africa" model, which posits a dispersal of modern Homo sapiens across Eurasia as a single wave at ~60,000 years ago and the subsequent replacement of all indigenous populations, is in need of revision. Recent discoveries from archaeology, hominin paleontology, geochronology, genetics, and paleoenvironmental studies have contributed to a better understanding of the Late Pleistocene record in Asia. Important findings highlighted here include growing evidence for multiple dispersals predating 60,000 years ago in regions such as southern and eastern Asia. Modern humans moving into Asia met Neandertals, Denisovans, mid-Pleistocene Homo , and possibly H. floresiensis , with some degree of interbreeding occurring. These early human dispersals, which left at least some genetic traces in modern populations, indicate that later replacements were not wholesale. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Human Transcriptome and Chromatin Modifications: An ENCODE Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A decade-long project, led by several international research groups, called the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE, recently released an unprecedented amount of data. The ambitious project covers transcriptome, cistrome, epigenome, and interactome data from more than 1,600 sets of experiments in human. To make use of this valuable resource, it is important to understand the information it represents and the techniques that were used to generate these data. In this review, we introduce the data that ENCODE generated, summarize the observations from the data analysis, and revisit a computational approach that ENCODE used to predict gene expression, with a focus on the human transcriptome and its association with chromatin modifications.

  7. Human Capital and Romania’s Perspective in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of improving people life standard depends, alongsideother factors, on efforts oriented towards education, research, andknowledge enrichment. It is also related to development and disseminationof high performance technology, with knowledge development, skills andabilities, professional training able to realize, disseminate, and useinnovation. However, these investments in human capital will lead to goodresults by extending the active life of skilled workers, by improving thegeneral health status of the population, by preserving the environment, byimproving food products quality. All these are the more valid for Romania’seconomy, the more it needs to be integrated in the Western European area,which is a highly competitive area. Or, relative sub-investment inautochthonous human capital might force our country to developcomparative advantages in border fields from the point of view ofproductivity, to specialize in fields that intensively use raw materials, to turninto a low paid labour market.

  8. Human milk bank under the perspective of the donating woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecyr Herdy Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at signifying the values related to the act of milk donation which emerges in the symbolic imaginary traumas of nursing mother’s values and understanding the meaning of the imaginary value structures which are revealed in the action of the donating women. This is a descriptive study with eleven nursing mothers of a bank of human milk of a university hospital through the systematized observation and individual interview. The concerning of the nursing mothers with a transforming action, willing to donate their milk, believing that this is a way for the transformation of the world. The values engendered in the action of donation of human milk emerge from the symbolic domains of acting of the health professionals, characterizing the imaginary myth of the nursing mothers. The donations require practices which reinforce the social imaginary during the care to health offered by the Milk Bank.

  9. From human error to organizational failure: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, F.; Cambon, J.; Boissieres, I.

    2008-01-01

    This article hinges around three main parts.The first part goes back over the foundations of the human factor approach. It introduces the basic assumptions as well as some of the methods which have been developed. The second part accounts for the reasons why organizational factors have drawn our attention at the first place underlying two major points: the limits of the human factor approach but also the original contribution and the innovative aspect of sociology. At last, the third part describes the keystone principles and hypotheses on which lay the foundations of the organizational factor approach and draws a brief overview of the methods which have lately been implanted within the industrial world. (authors)

  10. [Digitizing Human and Social Sciences Journals. Recent History and Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence and the gradual rise of French journals digital offers in the fields of human and social sciences. In this article, we will both reconsider the conditions of occurrence of these services and discuss the evolution of their environment. Through the example of several emerging initiatives in the field of scientific publishing, in a context marked by continuity but also rupture, we will try to glimpse the role journals could play in the new digital world being created.

  11. Human lacrimal gland regeneration: Perspectives and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Shubha; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Vemuganti, Geeta K.

    2014-01-01

    The human lacrimal gland is an essential component of the lacrimal functional unit (LFU). Any perturbation of this unit can lead to the debilitating morbid condition called the dry eye syndrome (DES). The current line of therapy available for dry eye remains supportive and palliative with the patient being dependent on life long and frequent administration of lubricating eye drops. Even advanced therapies like punctual plugs, cyclosporine B administration, and salivary gland auto-transplantat...

  12. Human resource management and economic success: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the case for a link at the national and firm level between human resource management (HRM) and economic success in Australia. A brief history of the industrial development of Australia (and New Zealand) is presented and some differentiating factors noted (Dowling/Boxall 1994). A key factor with regard to Australia is the relatively small size of the population and economy and the disproportionate impact of globalisation and global political and economic events upon th...

  13. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  14. Gender disparities in Italy from a Human Development Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Costantini; Salvatore Monni

    2006-01-01

    (1) All citizens have equal social dignity and are equal before the law, without distinction of sex, race, language, religion, political opinion, personal and social conditions. (2) It is the duty of the Republic to remove those obstacles of an economic or social nature which constrain the freedom and equality of citizens, thereby impeding the full development of the human person and the effective participation of all workers in the political, economic and social organisation of the country.*...

  15. Pharmacology of bovine and human thyrotropin: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J

    1999-05-01

    Before the induction of a brief period of hypothyroidism became the standard method for inducing 131I uptake in thyroid cancer diagnosis and therapy, several other methods were explored and used. At the dawn of this new era of recombinant human thyrotropin (TSH) it is of interest to reflect briefly on some of this work. Partially purified bovine TSH (bTSH) was supplied for many years by the Armour Company as Thytropar for intramuscular injection and was first used in thyroid cancer 50 years ago at the Montefiore Hospital and at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Most of the patients were already hypothyroid and bTSH induced further 131I uptake in only a few. Experience over the next 30 years revealed frequent allergic reactions, occasionally serious ones, and in 1961 it was shown that prolonged use could result in resistance to both bTSH and human TSH. bTSH was, therefore, reserved for thyroid cancer patients unable to increase endogenous TSH when hypothyroid. bTSH also was used widely as a test to distinguish between hypothyroidism caused by thyroid or pituitary failure until it was replaced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In a few studies, TRH was also tested as an adjuvant to increase endogenous TSH and thus help to stimulate function in thyroid cancer, but this attracted little interest. Prolonged hypothyroidism, enhanced by antithyroid drugs, was used early on, but this very effective stimulant of thyroid cancer function was, for multiple reasons, discarded. Beginning interest 15 to 25 years ago in obtaining TSH from human pituitary glands, a byproduct of growth hormone production, was interrupted when this product was found to risk development of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. Recombinant human TSH, a safe and effective substitute, is now ready for widespread use and development in thyroid cancer management.

  16. Transcriptome Profiling in Human Diseases: New Advances and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Casamassimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, transcriptome profiling has been one of the most utilized approaches to investigate human diseases at the molecular level. Through expression studies, many molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been found for several human pathologies. This number is continuously increasing thanks to total RNA sequencing. Indeed, this new technology has completely revolutionized transcriptome analysis allowing the quantification of gene expression levels and allele-specific expression in a single experiment, as well as to identify novel genes, splice isoforms, fusion transcripts, and to investigate the world of non-coding RNA at an unprecedented level. RNA sequencing has also been employed in important projects, like ENCODE (Encyclopedia of the regulatory elements and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas, to provide a snapshot of the transcriptome of dozens of cell lines and thousands of primary tumor specimens. Moreover, these studies have also paved the way to the development of data integration approaches in order to facilitate management and analysis of data and to identify novel disease markers and molecular targets to use in the clinics. In this scenario, several ongoing clinical trials utilize transcriptome profiling through RNA sequencing strategies as an important instrument in the diagnosis of numerous human pathologies.

  17. Human lacrimal gland regeneration: Perspectives and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shubha; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2014-01-01

    The human lacrimal gland is an essential component of the lacrimal functional unit (LFU). Any perturbation of this unit can lead to the debilitating morbid condition called the dry eye syndrome (DES). The current line of therapy available for dry eye remains supportive and palliative with the patient being dependent on life long and frequent administration of lubricating eye drops. Even advanced therapies like punctual plugs, cyclosporine B administration, and salivary gland auto-transplantation have led to a limited success. Under these scenarios, the option of cell based therapy needs to be explored to provide better and long term relief to these patients. This review gives an overview of the efforts in lacrimal gland regeneration and examines the past and ongoing research in cell based therapies in animals as well as human lacrimal gland cultures. The authors discuss their first of its kind functionally viable human lacrimal gland in vitro culture system from fresh exenteration specimens. A brief overview of research in near future and the potential implications of lacrimal gland regenerative therapies have been discussed.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling in Human Diseases: New Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassimi, Amelia; Federico, Antonio; Rienzo, Monica; Esposito, Sabrina; Ciccodicola, Alfredo

    2017-07-29

    In the last decades, transcriptome profiling has been one of the most utilized approaches to investigate human diseases at the molecular level. Through expression studies, many molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been found for several human pathologies. This number is continuously increasing thanks to total RNA sequencing. Indeed, this new technology has completely revolutionized transcriptome analysis allowing the quantification of gene expression levels and allele-specific expression in a single experiment, as well as to identify novel genes, splice isoforms, fusion transcripts, and to investigate the world of non-coding RNA at an unprecedented level. RNA sequencing has also been employed in important projects, like ENCODE (Encyclopedia of the regulatory elements) and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), to provide a snapshot of the transcriptome of dozens of cell lines and thousands of primary tumor specimens. Moreover, these studies have also paved the way to the development of data integration approaches in order to facilitate management and analysis of data and to identify novel disease markers and molecular targets to use in the clinics. In this scenario, several ongoing clinical trials utilize transcriptome profiling through RNA sequencing strategies as an important instrument in the diagnosis of numerous human pathologies.

  19. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BEST PRACTICES AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A UNIVERSALISTIC PERSPECTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo-See Beh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The universalistic perspective of human resource management practices perceives that a set of practices can achieve competitive advantage and firm performance. This study sought to investigate the relationship between best human resource practices and firm performance. A descriptive survey research design was used to gather primary data using self-administered questionnaire. The study population (n=312 was comprised of non-executives, executives, managers, and top management from seven major insurance firms at headquarters in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The study found that performance appraisal, internal communication, SHRM alignment in the organization, and career planning were the human resource management best practices.

  20. Key Determinants of Human Resource Management in Hospitals: Stakeholder Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchelt Beata Irma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, theoretical and empirical research on the various aspects of human resources (HR within the healthcare (HC sector has grown extensively due to its′ strategic importance in the sector. There is a visible tendency among researchers to pursue an effective human resource management (HRM strategies, methods, and tools. Countries implement policies which should increase the amount and competences of employees within healthcare. Providers of HC services (i.e. hospitals tend to enforce modern HRM solutions adapted from business organisations to attract, retain and develop HR. However, these seem not be as effective as they could (Hyde et al., 2013. Because of this, authors approached a researched reality from the point of view of a contextual paradigm, assuming that HRM solutions to be effective should match the reality of HC providers (Pocztowski, 2008. The aim of the research was to detect determinants which might influence the management of medical personnel in hospitals and identify the possible strength of these determinants so a more adjusted organisational and human resource management strategy could be elaborated. The list of possible determinants of hospital operations as the result of meta-analysis was elaborated. The list created the basis for interviews conducted among stakeholders and experts. Respondents were asked to appraise the factors with the usage of numerical scale considering their influence on medical personnel management in hospitals (physicians, nurses and others. In total, there were 28 interviews completed. The general conclusion which can be drawn from the analysis of these data is that hospitals should reorient their HRM practices in such the way that not only the quantitative but also the qualitative aspect of performance would be properly handled. This paper draws from HRM theory (contextual approach, stakeholder theory, and healthcare management theory, adding new insight to each in the context of

  1. Human Cystic Echinococcosis: Old Problems and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Siracusano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a widespread chronic endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with metacestodes of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. CE affects humans and has a worldwide prevalence of approximately six million. In this review, we discuss current findings in diagnosis and clinical management of CE and new concepts relating to E. granulosus molecules that directly modulate the host immune responses favouring a strong anti-inflammatory response and perpetuating parasite survival in the host. New insights into the molecular biology of E. granulosus will improve considerably our knowledge of the disease and will provide new potential therapeutic applications to treat or prevent inflammatory immune-mediated disease.

  2. Noisy cooperative intermittent processes: From blinking quantum dots to human consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Bedini, Remo; Gemignani, Angelo [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica (IFC-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Fronzoni, Leone, E-mail: allegrini@ifc.cnr.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' -Universita di Pisa and INFM CRS-SOFT, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-07-08

    We study the superposition of a non-Poisson renewal process with the presence of a superimposed Poisson noise. The non-Poisson renewals mark the passage between meta-stable states in system with self-organization. We propose methods to measure the amount of information due to the two independent processes independently, and we see that a superficial study based on the survival probabilities yield stretched-exponential relaxations. Our method is in fact able to unravel the inverse-power law relaxation of the isolated non-Poisson processes, even when noise is present. We provide examples of this behavior in system of diverse nature, from blinking nano-crystals to weak turbulence. Finally we focus our discussion on events extracted from human electroencephalograms, and we discuss their connection with emerging properties of integrated neural dynamics, i.e. consciousness.

  3. Critical Evaluation of International Treaties and Conventions on Women’s Human Right. A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Vijaya KUMAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human right is a complete concept within it which never tends to devide the identity of men or women but simply say human. The ways in which women experience human rights and human right violations are unique. While human rights are often understood as the rights that everyone has by virtue of their humanity, the assumption that all humans have the same experiences and needs is particularly problematic for women. The human right revolution which has become a core principle of almost all the laws of the nation around the world discern that its essences is not just in enumerating it into a piece of law but practically applying it and respecting it, as an eternal part of justice. There is an urgent need to adopt balance approach in identifying the rights of women as human right. At the same time identifying this right individually and as part universal phenomenon of human right should be the concern of every woman in every walk of life. The present study undertakes a doctrinal research and attempt to critically analyze the practical application of human right norms from both national and international law perspective, thus drawing the attention of human right activist to this problematic area of concern.

  4. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  5. Human IgG4: a structural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna M; Sutton, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    IgG4, the least represented human IgG subclass in serum, is an intriguing antibody with unique biological properties, such as the ability to undergo Fab-arm exchange and limit immune complex formation. The lack of effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity, is desirable for therapeutic purposes. IgG4 plays a protective role in allergy by acting as a blocking antibody, and inhibiting mast cell degranulation, but a deleterious role in malignant melanoma, by impeding IgG1-mediated anti-tumor immunity. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between IgG4 and Fcγ receptors. Despite a wealth of structural information for the IgG1 subclass, including complexes with Fcγ receptors, and structures for intact antibodies, high-resolution crystal structures were not reported for IgG4-Fc until recently. Here, we highlight some of the biological properties of human IgG4, and review the recent crystal structures of IgG4-Fc. We discuss the unexpected conformations adopted by functionally important Cγ2 domain loops, and speculate about potential implications for the interaction between IgG4 and FcγRs. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The boundaries of cooperation: sharing and coupling from ethology to neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elide Vanutelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation is usually described as a human tendency to act jointly that involves helping, sharing, and acting prosocially. Nonetheless clues of cooperative actions can be found also in non-humans animals, as described in the first section of the present work. Even if such behaviors have been conventionally attributed to the research of immediate benefits within the animal world, some recent experimental evidence highlighted that, in highly social species, the effects of cooperative actions on others’ wellbeing may constitute a reward per se, thus suggesting that a strictly economic perspective can’t exhaust the meaning of cooperative decisions in animals. Here we propose, in the second section, that a deeper explanation concerning cognitive and emotional abilities in both humans and animals should be taken into account. Finally, the last part of the paper will be devoted to the description of synchronization patterns in humans within complex neuroscientific experimental paradigms, such as hyperscanning.

  7. Distance Education: the humanization of technology in a Freirean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Orlando Rodrigues; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-05-01

    The Distance Education [DE] presents significant growth in graduates and postgraduates programs. Regarding this fact, new challenges arise and others must be considered, as the generation gap between digital immigrants and digital natives, the establishment of a population increasingly accustomed to Information and Communication Technologies [ICT] and teaching methodologies that should be used and developed. Vygotsky's model of social interaction related to mediation can and should be used in DE, and concerning historical, social and cultural approaches affecting Brazilian reality, Paulo Freire is still up-to-date, integrating humanization into the use of ICT. This work only proceeds with analyzes of these elements, being an excerpt of the master's dissertation of one of the authors [Ferreira], under the guidance of another [Voelzke].

  8. The Science of Unitary Human Beings in a Creative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caratao-Mojica, Rhea

    2015-10-01

    In moving into a new kind of world, nurses are encouraged to look ahead and be innovative by transcending to new ways of using nursing knowledge while embracing a new worldview. "We need to recognize that we're going to have to use our imagination more and more" (Rogers, 1994). On that note, the author in this paper explicates Rogers' science of unitary human beings in a creative way relating it to painting. In addition, the author also explores works derived from Rogers' science such as Butcher's (1993) and Cowling's (1997), which are here discussed in light of an artwork. A painting is presented with the unpredictability, creativity, and the "dance of color and light" (Butcher, 1993) is appreciated through comprehending essence, pandimensionality, and wholeness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS IN A HUMAN RESOURCE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOGOFĂTU MONICA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  10. Editorial: Human well-being from different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito-Santo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2018, the editors of the Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research (PJBSR continue to favor the publication of original articles of investigation and revision in the areas of social and behavioral sciences. The PJBSR continues to promote thinking, questioning the changes in society, their realities, and rethinking their problems, encouraging a reflection among their readers. The number 1 of the fourth volume of the PJBSR adds four original articles and one review article. Although this issue of the PJBSR addresses different contents, there is evidence of a focus on the study of positive psychological variables and their relation to human well-being, whether it is operationalized as physical or mental health, studied in the context of institutionalization or in the context of the work, evaluated at the level of the subjective perception of well-being or the level of the conception of death with dignity.

  11. Human-Automation Cooperation for Separation Assurance in Future NextGen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Cabrall, Christopher; Martin, Lynne; Morey, Susan; Gomez, Ashley; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A 2012 Human-In-The-Loop air traffic control simulation investigated a gradual paradigm-shift in the allocation of functions between operators and automation. Air traffic controllers staffed five adjacent high-altitude en route sectors, and during the course of a two-week experiment, worked traffic under different function-allocation approaches aligned with four increasingly mature NextGen operational environments. These NextGen time-frames ranged from near current-day operations to nearly fully-automated control, in which the ground systems automation was responsible for detecting conflicts, issuing strategic and tactical resolutions, and alerting the controller to exceptional circumstances. Results indicate that overall performance was best in the most automated NextGen environment. Safe operations were achieved in this environment for twice todays peak airspace capacity, while being rated by the controllers as highly acceptable. However, results show that sector operations were not always safe; separation violations did in fact occur. This paper will describe in detail the simulation conducted, as well discuss important results and their implications.

  12. Parental Perspectives on a Pediatric Human Non-Subjects Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic biorepositories will be important tools to help unravel the effect of common genetic variants on risk for common pediatric diseases. Our objective was to explore how parents would respond to the inclusion of children in an opt-out model biobank. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with parents in hospital-based pediatric clinics. Participants responded to a description of a biorepository already collecting samples from adults. Two coders independently analyzed and coded interviews using framework analysis. Opt-out forms were later piloted in a clinic area. Parental opt-out choices were recorded electronically, with opt-out rates reported here. RESULTS: Parents strongly supported medical research in general and expressed a high level of trust that Vanderbilt University would keep their child's medical information private. Parents were more likely to allow their child's sample to be included in the biorepository than to allow their child to participate in a hypothetical study that would not help or harm their child, but might help other children. Only a minority were able to volunteer a concern raised by the description of the biobank. The opt-out rate was initially high compared with the opt-out rate in the adult biorepository, but after the first week decreased to near the baseline in adult clinics. CONCLUSION: Parents in our study generally support an opt-out model biobank in children. Most would allow their own child's sample to be included. Institutions seeking to build pediatric biobanks may consider the human non-subjects model as a viable alternative to traditional human-subjects biobanks.

  13. Relational Diversity Promotes Cooperation in Prisoner’s Dilemma Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma games. PMID:25474354

  14. Cooperative functions of manganese and thiol redox system against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur Bansal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the effects of 0.1 mM Mn 2+ on thiol components (total thiols [TSH], glutathione reduced [GSH], glutathione oxidized [GSSG] and redox ratio [GSH/ GSSG] have been determined in human spermatozoa. Settings and Design: The subjects of the study were healthy males having more than 75% motility and 80 x 10 6 sperms/mL. Materials and Methods: Fresh semen was suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (pH 7.2 and this suspension was divided into eight equal fractions. All fractions, control (containing PBS and experimental (treated/untreated with [ferrous ascorbate, FeAA - 200 FeSO 4 μM, 1000 μM ascorbic acid, nicotine (0.5 mM and FeAA + nicotine], supplemented/unsupplemented with Mn 2+ [0.1 mM], were incubated for 2 h at 378C. These fractions were assessed for determining the thiol components. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed by Students " t" test. Results and Conclusions: Ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and ferrous ascorbate + nicotine induced oxidative stress and decreased GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio but increased the TSH and GSSG levels. Mn 2+ supplementation improved TSH, GSH and redox ratio (GSH/GSSG but decreased the GSSG level under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Thiol groups serve as defense mechanisms of sperm cells to fight against oxidative stress induced by stress inducers such as ferrous ascorbate, nicotine and their combination (ferrous ascorbate + nicotine. In addition, Mn 2+ supplementation maintains the thiol level by reducing oxidative stress.

  15. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  16. Biotechnology for development: Human and animal health perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilma, Tilahun

    2001-01-01

    In much of the world, resources for human life are meager at best. While the developed parts of the world enjoy a standard of living higher than at any time in history, the benefits of technology and industrialization have not been available to developing countries. The extreme lack of resources leads to very slow progress despite intense interest and hard work; thus the technological gap between developing and developed nations continues to widen, as discoveries and advances accelerate in the more favored countries while technological accomplishments of developing nations are soon outmoded. It is apparent that developing nations will not be able to overcome this disadvantage if the situation is not addressed soon. Developing nations should not be condemned permanently to such status. It is essential for world political and economic stability to develop orderly plans to help struggling nations advance to technological production levels rather than exist as marginal consumers. It is essential that all projects in such countries have distinct, stated goals for conversion of the developing nation to a developed nation, and that such goals be the overriding consideration in the direction of the project. Cognizant of the significance of the recommendations and with a real desire for prompt implementation, we have established an 'International Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Tropical Disease Agents (ILMB)' whose main agenda is the transfer of biotechnology to developing countries. In this spirit, we have entered into partnership with a number of international organizations including the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), a number of United Nations Agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Organization for African Unity (OAU), and a number of countries from the developing nations in Africa and Asia. We are working with these partners toward: establishment of laboratories of molecular biology in developing countries

  17. Cooperative Learning Groups and the Evolution of Human Adaptability : (Another Reason) Why Hermits Are Rare in Tonga and Elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adrian Viliami; Hernandez, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the prevalence of adaptive culture in part requires understanding the dynamics of learning. Here we explore the adaptive value of social learning in groups and how formal social groups function as effective mediums of information exchange. We discuss the education literature on Cooperative Learning Groups (CLGs), which outlines the potential of group learning for enhancing learning outcomes. Four qualities appear essential for CLGs to enhance learning: (1) extended conversations, (2) regular interactions, (3) gathering of experts, and (4) incentives for sharing knowledge. We analyze these four qualities within the context of a small-scale agricultural society using data we collected in 2010 and 2012. Through an analysis of surveys, interviews, and observations in the Tongan islands, we describe the role CLGs likely plays in facilitating individuals' learning of adaptive information. Our analysis of group affiliation, membership, and topics of conversation suggest that the first three CLG qualities reflect conditions for adaptive learning in groups. We utilize ethnographic anecdotes to suggest the fourth quality is also conducive to adaptive group learning. Using an evolutionary model, we further explore the scope for CLGs outside the Tongan socioecological context. Model analysis shows that environmental volatility and migration rates among human groups mediate the scope for CLGs. We call for wider attention to how group structure facilitates learning in informal settings, which may be key to assessing the contribution of groups to the evolution of complex, adaptive culture.

  18. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. An Explanatory Model of Poverty from the Perspective of Social Psychology and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Muñoz, Alfonso; Chacón, Fernando; Martínez Arias, Rosario

    2015-12-09

    Poverty is a social problem, entailing not only an economical perspective but above all a human and social issue. Poverty is promoted, justified and maintained by unique individuals and groups by means of our own attitudes, interests and behavior, as well as with our social structures and social relationships. From this interactive, psychosocial and sociostructural perspective, and also considering poverty as a denial of basic human rights (UNDP, 1998), we carried out a study with the primary objective to design and verify an Explanatory Model of Poverty. This research may helps to increase the validity of diagnostics and the effectiveness of interventions. Most of the hypotheses were accepted during the analysis and verification of the Model (p poverty including its effects, processes and causes; (b) the need for everybody to accept the social responsibility in the prevention and solution to poverty; and (c) the need to conduct longitudinal interventions with scientific methodology and social participation.

  20. Control of the exercise hyperpnoea in humans: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, S A

    2000-09-01

    Models of the exercise hyperpnoea have classically incorporated elements of proportional feedback (carotid and medullary chemosensory) and feedforward (central and/or peripheral neurogenic) control. However, the precise details of the control process remain unresolved, reflecting in part both technical and interpretational limitations inherent in isolating putative control mechanisms in the intact human, and also the challenges to linear control theory presented by multiple-input integration, especially with regard to the ventilatory and gas-exchange complexities encountered at work rates which engender a metabolic acidosis. While some combination of neurogenic, chemoreflex and circulatory-coupled processes are likely to contribute to the control, the system appears to evidence considerable redundancy. This, coupled with the lack of appreciable error signals in the mean levels of arterial blood gas tensions and pH over a wide range of work rates, has motivated the formulation of innovative control models that reflect not only spatial interactions but also temporal interactions (i.e. memory). The challenge is to discriminate between robust competing control models that: (a) integrate such processes within plausible physiological equivalents; and (b) account for both the dynamic and steady-state system response over a range of exercise intensities. Such models are not yet available.

  1. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  2. Human infancy and parenting in global perspective: specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Park, Yoonjung; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Haynes, O Maurice

    2017-12-20

    We address three long-standing fundamental questions about early human development and parental caregiving within a specificity framework using data from 796 infant-mother dyads from 11 societies worldwide. Adopting a cross-society view opens a vista on universal biological origins of, and contextual influences on, infant behaviours and parenting practices. We asked: how do infant behaviours and parenting practices vary across societies? How do infant behaviours relate to other infant behaviours, and how do parent practices relate to other parent practices? Are infant behaviours and parent practices related to one another? Behaviours of firstborn five-month infants and parenting practices of their mothers were microanalysed from videorecords of extensive naturally occurring interactions in the home. In accord with behavioural specificity, biological expectations and cultural influences, we find that infants and mothers from diverse societies exhibit mean-level society differences in their behaviours and practices; domains of infant behaviours generally do not cohere, nor do domains of maternal practices; and only specific infant behaviours and mother practices correspond. Few relations were moderated by society. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Tools and technologies for expert systems: A human factors perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Navaratna S.

    1987-01-01

    It is widely recognized that technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI), especially expert systems, can make significant contributions to the productivity and effectiveness of operations of information and knowledge intensive organizations such as NASA. At the same time, these being relatively new technologies, there is the problem of transfering technology to key personnel of such organizations. The problems of examining the potential of expert systems and of technology transfer is addressed in the context of human factors applications. One of the topics of interest was the investigation of the potential use of expert system building tools, particularly NEXPERT as a technology transfer medium. Two basic conclusions were reached in this regard. First, NEXPERT is an excellent tool for rapid prototyping of experimental expert systems, but not ideal as a delivery vehicle. Therefore, it is not a substitute for general purpose system implementation languages such a LISP or C. This assertion probably holds for nearly all such tools on the market today. Second, an effective technology transfer mechanism is to formulate and implement expert systems for problems which members of the organization in question can relate to. For this purpose, the LIghting EnGineering Expert (LIEGE) was implemented using NEXPERT as the tool for technology transfer and to illustrate the value of expert systems to the activities of the Man-System Division.

  4. Promotion of The Human Skeletal Heritage: A Milanese Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cattaneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The history and cultural heritage of a city can be evaluated not only through the study of the works of art, artifacts or buildings, but also through the examination of the remains of persons who walked the city in the past millennia. Therefore several thousands of skeletal remains found in Lombardia, especially in Milano, act as cultural assets, though in an the ethical scenario of full respect of human remains. In this way the skeletons tell a history concerning the conditions of health, the richness, culture and even violence, which may confirm, integrate or deny the historical sources when available. Preliminary studies performed on skeletons from different areas of Lombardia have already demonstrated the potential of skeletal material in highlighting for example the evolution of infectious diseases from the Roman age to the Middle Ages, the multiethnicity of Milan at the time of St Ambrose, the heavy labor of children which seems to be present among the Longobards who inhabited the geographic areas of Bergamo as well as Manzoni’s plague affecting the remains found under the Spanish walls. How were they different from us for what concerns life expectancy, diseases, interpersonal violence and lifestyle? In this the skeleton comes through as a true cultural asset.

  5. Telephone based speech interfaces in the developing world, from the perspective of human-human communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, before computers systems were able to synthesize or recognize speech, speech was a capability unique to humans. The human brain has developed to differentiate between human speech and other audio occurrences. Therefore, the slowly- evolving... human brain reacts in certain ways to voice stimuli, and has certain expectations regarding communication by voice. Nass affirms that the human brain operates using the same mechanisms when interacting with speech interfaces as when conversing...

  6. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  7. Benefits from a geographers' perspective on human-water systems - the waterscape concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Mariele; Höllermann, Britta; Almoradie, Adrian; Taft, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Recently a couple of theoretical foundations and concepts were developed such as hydro-sociology, hydro-economics and integrated water resources management in order to structure and process parameterizations of hydrological research and reflect human-water-interrelations. However, a remaining challenge in human-water-system research is that approaches like socio-hydrology still struggle to formalize hypotheses which are capable to capture the basic driving mechanisms of the dynamic human-water system beyond optimizing algorithms or the principle of optimality or entropy as the societal values and experiences may unfold diverging policy and society responses (cf. Troy et al. 2015). Another challenge that we see is the integration of physical and social sciences with regard to the different epistemologies and perspectives: positivist thinking common in natural sciences and engineering and constructivist conceptualisation common in the social sciences. Here, geographic research seeks to acknowledge multi-spatial perspectives of the different actors and entities and their integration into the physical system that needs mutual recognition of natural and social sciences concepts, theories and methods. We suggest for human-water system research a more geographic perspective, which we call waterscape concept. Water can be regarded as a key structuring element for landscape and its management and, hence, from our perspective, the dynamics in water resources and interrelation of actors and entities in its management also helps to better understand current landscape patterns, their developments and interrelations, respectively. By our definition, a waterscape includes sources and users of water, their interactions, feedbacks and external influencing factors. It is therefore not only the physical space but rather includes the arena of actors and entities interacting. Against this understanding, waterscapes are defined by reciprocal boundary conditions which allow integrating

  8. Contact and perspective taking improve humanness standards and perceptions of humanness of older adults and people with dementia: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Anca M; McFadden, Susan H; Hermus, Nathan J; Buelow, Jennifer; Nazario, Amanda S; Seelman, Katarena

    2017-10-01

    No empirical work has systematically explored perceptions of humanness of people with dementia and of older adults and the variables that could improve these perceptions. We thus investigated the role of contact and perspective taking in improving perceptions of humanness of these social groups. To do so, we developed a new concept, humanness standards, defined as the amount of evidence of ability impairment needed to conclude that elderly people and those with dementia have lost personhood. We used a cross-sectional survey design (n = 619) to assess participants' humanness standards and perceptions of uniquely human characteristics and human nature characteristics of two social groups (people with dementia and older adults). Half the participants (n = 311) completed a survey about people with dementia and half (n = 308) assessed older adults. People with dementia were perceived as possessing humanness characteristics to a lesser extent than were older adults. For both groups, contact predicted enhanced perceptions of humanness characteristics. Participants' degree of contact with individuals with dementia also predicted humanness standards, but only under low perspective-taking conditions. As predicted, for older adults, participants set the highest humanness impairment thresholds in the high contact/high perspective-taking condition. We conclude that while social programs that bring persons with dementia and other individuals in contact could change humanness standards and perceptions of humanness characteristics of people with dementia, in the case of elderly adults, the contact must be supplemented by variables that facilitate taking the perspective of the person.

  9. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  10. Cooperação em saúde na perspectiva bioética Cooperation in health from the bioethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paranaguá de Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo considera o cenário das relações internacionais na transição para o Século XXI como pano de fundo para uma reflexão sobre a perspectiva bioética da cooperação internacional em saúde. Apresenta uma análise exploratória sobre a produção científica interdisciplinar da bioética com a saúde pública no contexto internacional, revelando que o enfoque de ambas, ou mesmo das articulações entre esses dois temas, tem parca abordagem do ponto de vista das relações diplomáticas. Descreve a metodologia que permitiu selecionar publicações catalogadas nessa área interdisciplinar em duas fontes bibliográficas disponíveis na Web (93 artigos na BVS/Bireme e 161 na PubMed, apontando dificuldades na recuperação dessa literatura. Advoga o potencial da vertente epistemológica que floresceu na América Latina sob a designação da Bioética de Intervenção na abordagem dos desafios que afrontam o sistema de cooperação internacional, acenado como referencial de análise da cooperação sul-sul em saúde. Conclui propondo a sistematização e o aprofundamento do conhecimento na interseção da bioética com a saúde pública e a diplomacia, cuja projeção no âmbito político-institucional poderá contribuir para a redução das desigualdades das condições de saúde entre as nações.This study considers the scenario of international relations in the transition to the twenty-first century as a backdrop for reflection on the bioethical perspective of international cooperation in health. It presents an exploratory analysis of the interdisciplinary scientific production in bioethics and public health in the international context, revealing that the focus and confluence of both issues has scant coverage in terms of diplomatic relations. It describes the methodology used to select publications cataloged in this interdisciplinary area from two bibliographic sources available on the web (93 articles in BVS/BIREME and 161 in Pub

  11. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  12. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  13. Teachers as Human Capital or Human Beings? USAID's Perspective on Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes three USAID education strategy documents (1998, 2005, and 2011) as well as USAID's requests for proposals for three projects to assess how teachers are represented. The main findings indicate that USAID education strategy documents a) treat teachers as human capital, a human resource input, rather than as human beings and b)…

  14. Rethinking the theory of evolution: New perspectives on human evolution and why it matters for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wentzel Van Huyssteen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of human imagination from the perspective of ‘niche construction’ in the wider discussion about ‘what makes us human’ and what it means to be a ‘self’, specifically for the Christian faith and for theology. In the article, a brief review of human origins and human evolution demonstrates the path and substantive impact of changes in behaviour, life histories and bodies in our human ancestors and us as humans ourselves. In the interactive process of niche construction, potentially changeable natural environments were, and are, acting continuously on variation in the gene pools of populations, and in this way gene pools were modified over generations. It is argued that a distinctively human imagination is part of the explanation for human evolutionary success and can be seen as one of the structurally significant aspects of the transition from earlier members of the genus Homo to ourselves as we are today. There is thus a naturalness to human imagination, even to religious imagination, that facilitates engagement with the world that is truly distinct. This provides fruitful addition to the toolkit of inquiry for both evolutionary scientists and interdisciplinary theologians interested in reconstructing the long, winding historical path to humanity.

  15. INPO Perspectives and Activities to Enhance Supplier Human Performance and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Within their own organizations, utilities have made significant improvements in human performance and safety culture, supported by a strong community of practice through INPO and WANO. In recent years, utilities have been making increasing use of suppliers for design, construction, inspection and maintenance services in support of their NPPs. Many of these suppliers do not have the benefit of being members of a community of practice when it comes to human performance and safety culture. To help the supplier community make improvements similar to what the utilities have achieved, INPO has recently expanded its Supplier Participant program to address the issue of human performance and safety culture in the supplier community. The intent of this paper will be to share the INPO’s perspectives and activities in helping suppliers of services and products to NPPs enhance their human performance and safety culture. (author)

  16. The cell cycle regulator ecdysoneless cooperates with H-Ras to promote oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Zhang, Ying; Ahmad Mir, Riyaz; Lin, Simon; Kim, Jun Hyun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; West, William; Qiu, Fang; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian ortholog of Drosophila ecdysoneless (Ecd) gene product regulates Rb-E2F interaction and is required for cell cycle progression. Ecd is overexpressed in breast cancer and its overexpression predicts shorter survival in patients with ErbB2-positive tumors. Here, we demonstrate Ecd knock down (KD) in human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) induces growth arrest, similar to the impact of Ecd Knock out (KO) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, whole-genome mRNA expression analysis of control vs. Ecd KD in hMECs demonstrated that several of the top 40 genes that were down-regulated were E2F target genes. To address the role of Ecd in mammary oncogenesis, we overexpressed Ecd and/or mutant H-Ras in hTERT-immortalized hMECs. Cell cycle analyses revealed hMECs overexpressing Ecd+Ras showed incomplete arrest in G1 phase upon growth factor deprivation, and more rapid cell cycle progression in growth factor-containing medium. Analyses of cell migration, invasion, acinar structures in 3-D Matrigel and anchorage-independent growth demonstrated that Ecd+Ras-overexpressing cells exhibit substantially more dramatic transformed phenotype as compared to cells expressing vector, Ras or Ecd. Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, Ecd+Ras-overexpressing hMECs exhibited better survival, with substantial upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Significantly, while hMECs expressing Ecd or mutant Ras alone did not form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, Ecd+Ras-overexpressing hMECs formed tumors, clearly demonstrating oncogenic cooperation between Ecd and mutant Ras. Collectively, we demonstrate an important co-oncogenic role of Ecd in the progression of mammary oncogenesis through promoting cell survival.

  17. Ethics is for human subjects too: participant perspectives on responsibility in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Susan M; McDonald, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Despite the significant literature as well as energy devoted to ethical review of research involving human subjects, little attention has been given to understanding the experiences of those who volunteer as human subjects. Why and how do they decide to participate in research? Is research participation viewed as a form of social responsibility or as a way of obtaining individual benefits? What if anything do research subjects feel they are owed for participation? And what do they feel that they owe the researcher? Drawing on in-depth individual interviews conducted in 2006 and 2007 with 41 subjects who participated in a variety of types of health research in Canada, this paper focuses on subject perspectives on responsibility in research. Highlighting the range of ways that subjects describe their involvement in research and commitments to being a 'good' subject, we present a typology of narratives that sheds new light on the diverse meanings of research participation. These narratives are not mutually exclusive or prescriptive but are presented as ideal types typifying a set of circumstances and values. As such, they collectively illuminate a range of motivations expressed by human subjects as well as potential sources of vulnerability. The typology adds a new dimension to the literature in this area and has significant implications for researchers seeking more human-subject centred approaches to research recruitment and retention, as well as research ethics boards trying to better anticipate the perspectives of prospective participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Human-Robot Interaction Perspective on Assistive and Rehabilitation Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerle, Philipp; Salvietti, Gionata; Unal, Ramazan; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Rossi, Simone; Castellini, Claudio; Hirche, Sandra; Endo, Satoshi; Amor, Heni Ben; Ciocarlie, Matei; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Argall, Brenna D; Bianchi, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Assistive and rehabilitation devices are a promising and challenging field of recent robotics research. Motivated by societal needs such as aging populations, such devices can support motor functionality and subject training. The design, control, sensing, and assessment of the devices become more sophisticated due to a human in the loop. This paper gives a human-robot interaction perspective on current issues and opportunities in the field. On the topic of control and machine learning, approaches that support but do not distract subjects are reviewed. Options to provide sensory user feedback that are currently missing from robotic devices are outlined. Parallels between device acceptance and affective computing are made. Furthermore, requirements for functional assessment protocols that relate to real-world tasks are discussed. In all topic areas, the design of human-oriented frameworks and methods is dominated by challenges related to the close interaction between the human and robotic device. This paper discusses the aforementioned aspects in order to open up new perspectives for future robotic solutions.

  19. Simultaneous Cooperation and Competition in the Evolution of Musical Behavior: Sex-Related Modulations of the Singer's Formant in Human Chorusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Keller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction through music is a vital part of social life across cultures. Influential accounts of the evolutionary origins of music favor cooperative functions related to social cohesion or competitive functions linked to sexual selection. However, work on non-human “chorusing” displays, as produced by congregations of male insects and frogs to attract female mates, suggests that cooperative and competitive functions may coexist. In such chorusing, rhythmic coordination between signalers, which maximizes the salience of the collective broadcast, can arise through competitive mechanisms by which individual males jam rival signals. Here, we show that mixtures of cooperative and competitive behavior also occur in human music. Acoustic analyses of the renowned St. Thomas Choir revealed that, in the presence of female listeners, boys with the deepest voices enhance vocal brilliance and carrying power by boosting high spectral energy. This vocal enhancement may reflect sexually mature males competing for female attention in a covert manner that does not undermine collaborative musical goals. The evolutionary benefits of music may thus lie in its aptness as a medium for balancing sexually motivated behavior and group cohesion.

  20. Human capital and human resource management to achieve ambidextrous learning: A structural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Diaz-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisational learning has become increasingly important for strategic renewal. Ambidextrous organisations are especially successful in the current environment, where firms are required to be efficient and adapt to change. Using a structural approach, this study discusses arguments about the nature of ambidexterity and identifies the kinds of human capital that better support specific learning types and HRM practices suited to these components of human capital. Results highlight learning differences between marketing and production units, as well as different HRM practices and human capital orientations. This study points out that human capital mediates between HRM practices and learning.

  1. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative... conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and...

  2. Human-robot cooperative movement training: Learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez Raul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Methods Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. Results We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. Conclusion The assist

  3. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  4. THE IMPACT OF THE WTO RETALIATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Innayatun Soeparna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available World Trade Organization (WTO dispute settlement system through Panel and Appellate Body, allows sanction to be imposed when a member is unwilling to bring a WTO-inconsistent trade measure into conformity. According to the Article 22 of Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU, if in a certain case WTO Panel finds a party has failed to make new policy in compliance with the WTO rules, the aggrieved party is entitled to obtain retaliation. The WTO retaliation emerges negative impact for some countries in particular developing or small economic countries. This impact denotes the violation of international human rights law, particularly economic rights that stipulate in Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR. This paper explains the impact that arises when WTO retaliation is imposed to a country whether a developed or developing country, from the perspective of international human rights law.

  5. Strategic Human Resource Metrics: A Perspective of the General Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and quantifying strategic human resource outcomes in relation to key performance criteria is essential to developing value-adding metrics. Objectives This paper posits (using a general systems lens that strategic human resource metrics should interpret the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance criteria such as profitability, quality or customer service. Approach Using the general systems model as underpinning theory, the study assesses the variation in response to a Likert type questionnaire with twenty-four (24 items measuring the major attitudinal dispositions of HRM outcomes (employee commitment, satisfaction, engagement and embeddedness. Results A Chi-square test (Chi-square test statistic = 54.898, p=0.173 showed that variation in responses to the attitudinal statements occurred due to chance. This was interpreted to mean that attitudinal human resource outcomes influence performance as a unit of system components. The neutral response was found to be associated with the ‘reject’ response than the ‘acceptance’ response. Value The study offers suggestion on the determination of strategic HR metrics and recommends the use of systems theory in HRM related studies. Implications This study provides another dimension to human resource metrics by arguing that strategic human resource metrics should measure the relationship between attitudinal human resource outcomes and performance using a systems perspective.

  6. New roads toward North-South cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, E G

    1989-12-01

    A Netherlands Parliament member gives a European Perspective on population and development, problems in urban development, and methods of cooperation between industrialized and developing countries. On population and development, the relationship between population explosion and poverty, underdevelopment, environment, social infrastructure, and food shortages is pointed out. Most population growth in the years ahead will be in developing countries. Rampant population growth and burgeoning poverty strain the world's carrying capacity and environment, both in industrial and developing countries. Development policy and cooperation will fail in the absence of efforts to stem population growth. On this front, religious and political leaders have groundbreaking cooperative steps in supporting international family planning efforts through the global forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Economic development, environment, and population issues are inexorably tied together. The numerous problems faced by uncontrolled Third World urbanization are discussed with potential solutions for change. Incorporating women in the development process is strongly encouraged. The interdependent North-South relationship is discussed. All nations, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and women must cooperate to find solutions and effect positive change on a case-by-case basis.

  7. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  8. Enhancing student perspectives of humanism in medicine: reflections from the Kalaupapa service learning project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winona K; Harris, Chessa C D; Mortensen, Kawika A; Long, Linsey M; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle

    2016-05-09

    Service learning is endorsed by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) as an integral part of U.S. medical school curricula for future physicians. Service learning has been shown to help physicians in training rediscover the altruistic reasons for pursuing medicine and has the potential to enhance students' perspectives of humanism in medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a unique collaboration between disadvantaged post-baccalaureate students with an underserved rural community. This study was conducted to determine whether the Kalaupapa service learning curricula enhanced student perspectives of humanism in medicine at an early stage of their medical training. Program participants between 2008 and 2014 (n = 41) completed written reflections following the conclusion of the service learning project. Four prompts guided student responses. Reflections were thematically analyzed. Once all essays were read, team members compared their findings to condense or expand themes and assess levels of agreement. Emerging themes of resilience and unity were prominent throughout the student reflections. Students expressed respect and empathy for the patients' struggles and strengths, as well as those of their peers. The experience also reinforced students' commitment to service, particularly to populations in rural and underserved communities. Students also gained a deeper understanding of the patient experience and also of themselves as future physicians. To identify and address underserved and rural patients' health care needs, training programs must prepare an altruistic health care workforce that embraces the humanistic element of medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a potential curricular model that can be used to enhance students' awareness and perspectives of humanism in medicine.

  9. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adua, Lazarus; York, Richard; Schuelke-Leech, Beth-Anne

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the manifold human and physical dimensions of climate change has become an area of great interest to researchers in recent decades. Using a U.S. nationally-representative data set and drawing on the ecological modernization, political economy, and human ecology perspectives, this study examines the impacts of energy efficiency technologies, affluence, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics on residential CO2 emissions. Overall, the study provides mixed support for the ecological modernization perspective. While several findings are consistent with the theory's expectation that modern societies can harness technology to mitigate human impacts on the environment, others directly contradict it. Also, the theory's prediction of an inverted U-shaped relationship between affluence and environmental impacts is contradicted. The evidence is somewhat more supportive of the political economy and human ecology perspectives, with affluence, some indicators of technology, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics emerging as important drivers of residential CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Movement Performance of Human-Robot Cooperation Control Based on EMG-Driven Hill-Type and Proportional Models for an Ankle Power-Assist Exoskeleton Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Gao, JinWu

    2017-08-01

    Although the merits of electromyography (EMG)-based control of powered assistive systems have been certified, the factors that affect the performance of EMG-based human-robot cooperation, which are very important, have received little attention. This study investigates whether a more physiologically appropriate model could improve the performance of human-robot cooperation control for an ankle power-assist exoskeleton robot. To achieve the goal, an EMG-driven Hill-type neuromusculoskeletal model (HNM) and a linear proportional model (LPM) were developed and calibrated through maximum isometric voluntary dorsiflexion (MIVD). The two control models could estimate the real-time ankle joint torque, and HNM is more accurate and can account for the change of the joint angle and muscle dynamics. Then, eight healthy volunteers were recruited to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot and complete a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks in the vertical plane. With the various levels of assist based on the two calibrated models, the subjects were instructed to track the target displayed on the screen as accurately as possible by performing ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Two measurements, the root mean square error (RMSE) and root mean square jerk (RMSJ), were derived from the assistant torque and kinematic signals to characterize the movement performances, whereas the amplitudes of the recorded EMG signals from the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GAS) were obtained to reflect the muscular efforts. The results demonstrated that the muscular effort and smoothness of tracking movements decreased with an increase in the assistant ratio. Compared with LPM, subjects made lower physical efforts and generated smoother movements when using HNM, which implied that a more physiologically appropriate model could enable more natural and human-like human-robot cooperation and has potential value for improvement of human-exoskeleton interaction in future applications.

  13. Access to health and human services for drug users: an urban/rural community systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, J E; Komaroff, E; Kibort, A C

    1999-01-01

    Publicly funded drug-user treatment programs in both urban and rural areas are under unprecedented pressure to adapt to multiple perspectives of their mission, reduced governmental funding, diminished entitlement program resources for clients, managed care reforms, and continuing unmet need for services. This article describe an ongoing health services research study that is investigating how these and related health and human service programs currently serve and cross-refer chronic drug users and how they perceive and are reacting to systemic pressures. Interim analysis on intra-agency diversity and managed care perceptions are reported.

  14. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  15. The importance of specific human capital, planning and familiarity in Dutch small firm ownership transfers : a seller’s perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex van Teeffelen; Martijn Driessen; Lorraine Uhlaner

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transfer process and the importance of human capital and succession planning as firm resource from the seller’s perspective. It further differentiates amongst two types of human capital - specific and generic - to predict the transfer duration, obtained price and

  16. Review: Public perspectives on the utilization of human placentas in scientific research and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, R S

    2013-01-01

    Placental tissues are frequently utilized by scientists studying pregnancy and reproduction and in diverse fields including immunology, stem cell research, genetics, cancer research, and tissue engineering, as well as by clinicians in many therapies. Though the utilization of the human placenta in science and medicine has benefitted many people, little is known about public perspectives of this phenomenon. This review addresses placental donation, collection, and utilization in science and medicine, focusing on public perspectives. Cultural values and traditions, ethical paradigms and concerns, public understandings of science and medicine, and political considerations may impact perceptions of the utilization of the placenta in science and medicine, but systematic study is lacking. It is argued that knowledge of public views gained from empirical investigation may underpin the development of collection protocols and research projects that are more responsive to public will, spur more extensive utilization in science and medicine of this unique organ, and/or aid in the realization of the mobilization of knowledge about the placenta for clinical and educational ends. New avenues for research on public perspectives of the placenta are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  18. 21 century perspective in radiation protection of humans and human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 21 century ionizing radiation is applied in all field of human activities. In parallel, the radiobiology and radiation medicine are developing as separate branches for the purposes of the radiation protection: for risk estimation and regulation of the human irradiation. Main features of radiation protection at the beginning of the century are: 1.Well developed conservative theoretical background, based on the linear non-threshold concept 'dose-effect' towards the carcinogenesis and genetic effects; 2. Developed international and national structures, including organizations as ICRP, UNSCEAR, ICRU, IAEA, WHO, FAO, BEIR, OECD/NEA, ILO, NCRP, NRPB etc. 3. Detailed regulative legislation for all cases of human irradiation, combines with effective control structures. Ionizing radiation is the most strictly regulated factor affecting humans among the all adverse impacts of the living environment. The expectations for the radiation protection in 21 century are: 1. A radical reassessment of the concept for low doses and the linear non-threshold concept since data for existing of a threshold on the human population level. 2. Taking into consideration of the the adaptation to the irradiation, comparable with the natural radiation background. 3. Taking into consideration of the radiation hormesis, which are now ignored by the risk theory. 4. Clarification of the questions of the genetic effects, which are not yet determined for the human population. 5. Radical solutions of the radioactive waste problem, which will be crucial for the future of the nuclear energy production. 6. Gradual overcoming of the fear from ionizing radiation, which is an important social factor

  19. A Local Response to the Global Human Rights Standard: The "Ubuntu" Perspective on Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Some African leaders have made the argument that the promotion of an international human rights standard is a strategy that is used and abused by hypocritical Western governments to justify their intervention into the affairs of African countries. The tacit objective behind this articulation is the desire to avoid an external evaluation or…

  20. Human resource practices and organisational performance: Can the HRM-performance linkage be explained by the cooperative behaviours of employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, Mattijs; Sanders, Karin; Koster, Ferry; Zwiers, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the question as to whether the linkage between HRM and organisational performance can be explained by the effect of the internal and strategic fit of HRM on the cooperative behaviours of employees. We expect that the more HRM practices are aligned within themselves (internal

  1. Plasticity in the Human Visual Cortex: An Ophthalmology-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Andreia Martins; Silva, Maria Fátima; Murta, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to reorganize the function and structure of its connections in response to changes in the environment. Adult human visual cortex shows several manifestations of plasticity, such as perceptual learning and adaptation, working under the top-down influence of attention. Plasticity results from the interplay of several mechanisms, including the GABAergic system, epigenetic factors, mitochondrial activity, and structural remodeling of synaptic connectivity. There is also a downside of plasticity, that is, maladaptive plasticity, in which there are behavioral losses resulting from plasticity changes in the human brain. Understanding plasticity mechanisms could have major implications in the diagnosis and treatment of ocular diseases, such as retinal disorders, cataract and refractive surgery, amblyopia, and in the evaluation of surgical materials and techniques. Furthermore, eliciting plasticity could open new perspectives in the development of strategies that trigger plasticity for better medical and surgical outcomes. PMID:24205505

  2. Plasticity in the Human Visual Cortex: An Ophthalmology-Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Martins Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to reorganize the function and structure of its connections in response to changes in the environment. Adult human visual cortex shows several manifestations of plasticity, such as perceptual learning and adaptation, working under the top-down influence of attention. Plasticity results from the interplay of several mechanisms, including the GABAergic system, epigenetic factors, mitochondrial activity, and structural remodeling of synaptic connectivity. There is also a downside of plasticity, that is, maladaptive plasticity, in which there are behavioral losses resulting from plasticity changes in the human brain. Understanding plasticity mechanisms could have major implications in the diagnosis and treatment of ocular diseases, such as retinal disorders, cataract and refractive surgery, amblyopia, and in the evaluation of surgical materials and techniques. Furthermore, eliciting plasticity could open new perspectives in the development of strategies that trigger plasticity for better medical and surgical outcomes.

  3. Anxiety from a Phylogenetic Perspective: Is there a Qualitative Difference between Human and Animal Anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Belzung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic approach to anxiety is proposed. The different facets of human anxiety and their presence at different levels of the phylum are examined. All organisms, including unicellular such as protozoan, can display a specific reaction to danger. The mechanisms enabling the appraisal of harmful stimuli are fully present in insects. In higher invertebrates, fear is associated with a specific physiological response. In mammals, anxiety is accompanied by specific cognitive responses. The expression of emotions diversifies in higher vertebrates, only primates displaying facial expressions. Finally, autonoetic consciousness, a feature essential for human anxiety, appears only in great apes. This evolutive feature parallels the progress in the complexity of the logistic systems supporting it (e.g., the vegetative and central nervous systems. The ability to assess one's coping potential, the diversification of the anxiety responses, and autonoetic consciousness seem relevant markers in a phylogenetic perspective.

  4. Walrus history around the North Water: Human-animal relations in a long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotfredsen, Anne Birgitte; Appelt, Martin; Hastrup, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    This article highlights the relationship between walruses and humans in and around the North Water polynya in a long-term perspective. The present study draws on a combination of biological, archaeological, archaeo-zoological, historical, and ethnographic sources covering the period from the 8th century AD to the late 20th century. The study demonstrates that the walrus was an important resource of meat, blubber, and other products throughout all the studied periods, if always supplemented by other kinds of game. It is suggested that walrus distribution and behaviour, as well as hunting strategies and technologies historically constituted a powerful component not only in forming human action and social life in the region but also in serving as an imaginative resource. It is further argued that the walrus and the walrus hunt still play a significant role in the present community living on the edge of the North Water, even if the hunt is increasingly circumscribed due to changing ice conditions.

  5. Distributive justice and cooperation in a world of humans and non-humans. A contractarian argument for drawing non-humans in the sphere of justice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Various arguments have been provided for drawing non-humans such as animals and artificial agents into the sphere of moral consideration. In this paper, I argue for a shift from an ontological to a social-philosophical approach: instead of asking what an entity is, we should try to conceptually

  6. Aging and human sexual behavior: biocultural perspectives - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review, we consider an evolutionary biocultural perspective on human aging and sexuality. An evolutionary approach to senescence highlights the energetic trade-offs between fertility and mortality. By comparing humans to other primates, we situate human senescence as an evolutionary process, with shifts in postreproductive sexual behavior in this light. Age-related declines in sexual behavior are typical for humans but also highly contingent on the sociocultural context within which aging individuals express their sexuality. We briefly review some of the most comprehensive studies of aging and sexual behavior, both from the USA and cross-culturally. We frame these patterns with respect to the long-term relationships within which human sexual behavior typically occurs. Because sexuality is typically expressed within pair-bonds, sexual behavior sometimes declines in both members of a couple with age, but also exhibits sex-specific effects that have their roots in evolved sex differences. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. "Artificial humans": Psychology and neuroscience perspectives on embodiment and nonverbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2010-01-01

    "Artificial humans", so-called "Embodied Conversational Agents" and humanoid robots, are assumed to facilitate human-technology interaction referring to the unique human capacities of interpersonal communication and social information processing. While early research and development in artificial intelligence (AI) focused on processing and production of natural language, the "new AI" has also taken into account the emotional and relational aspects of communication with an emphasis both on understanding and production of nonverbal behavior. This shift in attention in computer science and engineering is reflected in recent developments in psychology and social cognitive neuroscience. This article addresses key challenges which emerge from the goal to equip machines with socio-emotional intelligence and to enable them to interpret subtle nonverbal cues and to respond to social affordances with naturally appearing behavior from both perspectives. In particular, we propose that the creation of credible artificial humans not only defines the ultimate test for our understanding of human communication and social cognition but also provides a unique research tool to improve our knowledge about the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Capital-centric versus knowledge-centric paradigms of human resource management: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2016-04-01

    Research purpose: This article relates certain changes in HRM over time to the argument that there has been a shift from an industrial paradigm (on which many human resource [HR] systems, practices and theoretical frameworks are still based to a knowledge paradigm (of knowledge work, in which employee knowledge and skills offer compound advantages that are not substitutable which explains a great deal of the variance in changes of the field over time. Motivation for the study: It is argued that in order for the field to move forward, it may needto bring to the surface certain assumptions and differentiate between theoretical frameworkswhen dealing with knowledge work versus non-knowledge work. Research design, approach and method: This article offers a perspective of HR theory development over time. It is a conceptual/perspectives article and is not qualitative nor quantitative in nature. Further research will be able to test the ideas presented here. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources managers need to differentiate between knowledge and non-knowledge work. The latter is associated with increased heterogeneity and complexity, and differences in power relationships, as knowledge work shifts power away from capital into the hands of skilled knowledge labour.

  9. Future perspectives on space psychology: Recommendations on psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects of human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Gabriel G.; van Baarsen, Berna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Kanas, Nick; Weiss, Karine; Schneider, Stefan; Whiteley, Iya

    2012-12-01

    Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.

  10. Precision Medicine and Advancing Genetic Technologies—Disability and Human Rights Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling de Paor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological developments are propelling genetics and genetic technologies into the public sphere. Scientific and technological innovation is becoming more refined, resulting in an increase in the availability and use of genetic testing, and other cutting edge genetic technologies, including gene editing. These genetic advances not only signal a growing trend towards precision medicine, but also provoke consideration of the protection of genetic information as an emerging human rights concern. Particular ethical and legal issues arise from a disability perspective, including the potential for discrimination and privacy violations. In consideration of the intersection of genetics and disability, this article highlights the significant concerns raised as genetic science and technology advances, and the consequences for disability rights, particularly the core concepts of non-discrimination, and respect for diversity and difference. On examining international human rights perspectives, it looks particularly at the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and how it may be used to guide best practice in this area. With an acknowledgement of historical abuses of genetic science, this article highlights the need to maintain caution as to the potential consequences of advancing genetic technologies on persons with disabilities and indeed on society as a whole.

  11. Human factors in telemanipulation: Perspectives from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel at the Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have extensive experience designing, building, and operating teleoperators for a variety of settings, including space, battlefields, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and hazardous waste retrieval. In the course of the last decade and a half, the RPSD designed, built, and operated 4 telemanipulators (M-2, ASM, LTM, CESAR arm) and operated another half dozen (M-8, Model 50, TOS SM-229, RM-10, PaR 5000, BilArm 83A). During this period, human factors professionals have been closely integrated with RPSD design teams, investigating telemanipulator feedback and feed forward, designing cockpits and control rooms, training users and designers, and helping to develop performance specifications for telemanipulators. This paper presents a brief review of this and other work, with an aim towards providing perspectives on some of the human factors aspects of telemanipulation. The first section of the paper examines user tasks during supervisory control and discusses how telemanipulator responsiveness determines the appropriate control metaphor for continuous manual control. The second section provides an ecological perspective on telemanipulator feedback and feed-forward. The third section briefly describes the RPSD control room design approach and how design projects often serve as systems integrators.

  12. Human factors in telemanipulation: Perspectives from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel at the Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have extensive experience designing, building, and operating teleoperators for a variety of settings, including space, battlefields, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and hazardous waste retrieval. In the course of the last decade and a half, the RPSD designed, built, and operated 4 telemanipulators (M-2, ASM, LTM, CESAR arm) and operated another half dozen (M-8, Model 50, TOS SM-229, RM-10, PaR 5000, BilArm 83A). During this period, human factors professionals have been closely integrated with RPSD design teams, investigating telemanipulator feedback and feed forward, designing cockpits and control rooms, training users and designers, and helping to develop performance specifications for telemanipulators. This paper presents a brief review of this and other work, with an aim towards providing perspectives on some of the human factors aspects of telemanipulation. The first section of the paper examines user tasks during supervisory control and discusses how telemanipulator responsiveness determines the appropriate control metaphor for continuous manual control. The second section provides an ecological perspective on telemanipulator feedback and feed-forward. The third section briefly describes the RPSD control room design approach and how design projects often serve as systems integrators

  13. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  14. Thermodynamics of cooperative binding of FAD to human NQO1: Implications to understanding cofactor-dependent function and stability of the flavoproteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavería-Gimeno, Rafael; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Pey, Angel Luis

    2017-12-15

    The stability of human flavoproteins strongly depends on flavin levels, although the structural and energetic basis of this relationship is poorly understood. Here, we report an in-depth analysis on the thermodynamics of FAD binding to one of the most representative examples of such relationship, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). NQO1 is a dimeric enzyme that tightly binds FAD, which triggers large structural changes upon binding. A common cancer-associated polymorphism (P187S) severely compromises FAD binding. We show that FAD binding is described well by a thermodynamic model explicitly incorporating binding cooperativity when applied to different sets of calorimetric analyses and NQO1 variants, thus providing insight on the effects in vitro and in cells of cancer-associated P187S, its suppressor mutation H80R and the role of NQO1 C-terminal domain to modulate binding cooperativity and energetics. Furthermore, we show that FAD binding to NQO1 is very sensitive to physiologically relevant environmental conditions, such as the presence of phosphate buffer and salts. Overall, our results contribute to understanding at the molecular level the link between NQO1 stability and fluctuations of FAD levels intracellularly, and supports the notion that FAD binding energetics and cooperativity are fundamentally linked with the dynamic nature of apo-NQO1 conformational ensemble. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  16. Special course for global nuclear human resource development in cooperation with Hitachi-GE nuclear energy in Tokyo institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Futami, T.; Saito, M.; Murata, F.; Shimizu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many Asian countries are willing to learn Japanese nuclear power plants experiences, and are interested in introducing nuclear power generation to meet their future energy demand. Special course for Global Nuclear Human Resource Development was established in April, 2011 in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Graduate School of Tokyo Institute of Technology in cooperation with Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy. Purpose of the special course is to develop global nuclear engineers and researchers not only in the Tokyo Institute of Technology but also in the educational institutes of Southeast Asian countries

  17. Preliminary perspectives on DNA collection in anti-human trafficking efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, Sara H; Kim, Joyce; Minear, Mollie A; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Wagner, Jennifer K

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles. We administered a survey targeted to victims' advocates to gain preliminary understanding of perspectives regarding human trafficking definitions, DNA and sex workers, and perceived trust of authorities potentially involved in DNA collection. We asked respondents to consider the use of DNA for investigating adoption fraud, sex trafficking, and post-conflict child soldier cases. We found some key differences in perspectives on defining what qualifies as "trafficking." When we varied terminology between "sex worker" and "sex trafficking victim" we detected differences in perception on which authorities can be trusted. Respondents were supportive of the hypothetical models proposed to collect DNA. Most were favorable of DNA specimens being controlled by an authority outside of law enforcement. Participants voiced concerns focused on privacy, misuse of DNA samples and data, unintentional harms, data security, and infrastructure. These preliminary data indicate that while there is perceived value in programs to use DNA for investigating cases of human trafficking, these programs may need to consider levels of trust in authorities as their logistics are developed and implemented.

  18. Co-operatives in the Cultural Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Sandoval

    2015-04-01

    The roundtable discussed the potentials and limits of worker co-operatives as an alternative way of organizing cultural work. It explored how worker co-operation might contribute to new collaborative forms of cultural production; how they do, or might, strengthen a 'cultural commons'; and the role cultural co-ops play in the wider context of movements for workers' rights. Questions that were discussed include: To what extent can worker co-operatives be a means to confront precariousness and individualisation in work in the cultural sector? Do worker co-ops open up new possibilities for the collaborative production of cultural commons? What role can worker co-operatives play within a broader movement for creating more just, equal and humane cultural work and an alternative to capitalist economies? Where lies the boundary between neoliberal calls for self-help and individual responsibility and a radical co-op movement? What is the relation between worker co-ops and other forms of progressive politics such as the union movements, social protests and civil society activism? Can cultural co-ops contribute to reinventing the meaning and practice of work in the 21st century? About the speakers: Marisol Sandoval is a Lecturer at the Department of Culture and Creative Industries at City University London. Her research critically deals with questions of power, responsibility, commodification, exploitation, ideology and resistance in the global culture industry. Jo Littler is Senior Lecturer at City University London's Department of Culture and Creative Industries. Her work explores questions of culture and power from an interdisciplinary, cultural studies-informed perspective. Rhiannon Colvin after graduating in 2010 to find the world of work competitive and brutal, Rhiannon founded AltGen to empower young graduates to get together and create their own work. http://www.altgen.org.uk/ Tara Mulqueen is a PhD candidate at Birkbeck College School of Law. Her thesis concerns the

  19. Empirical Analysis on Evolution and Small World Effect of Chinese Enterprise-Enterprise Patent Cooperation Network: From the Perspective of Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The patent cooperation network which enterprises join is a very important network platform for enterprises’ open innovation. However, very limited work has been done to empirically investigate the dynamic change process of the network in China. To address this issue, this paper analyzes dynamic change process of cooperation network of enterprises and the small-world effect of the biggest subgroup according to the data of 36731 items of cooperative patents between enterprises from 1985 to 2010 published by the State Intellectual Property Office of China. A conclusion can be drawn from the analysis results that the biggest subgroup has the characteristics of small-world effect, but the overall network structure also has some defects, which limit the development of open innovation. For the first time, suggestions on open innovation strategies are put forward to provide theoretical reference for both the government and enterprises.

  20. [Between sancticity and value of human life: in perspective of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyk, W

    2001-01-01

    The more we know, the more duties and greater responsibility we have. The dynamic development of biology carries a lot of hope for the freeing of mankind from genetic diseases. But the introduction of scientific thought necessarily has to be bound with the development of technology. It is wrong when technology dictates science a direction of development; when technique comes before ethics; and when technology does not respect the essence of a human being. The uncritical introduction of eugenics, especially cloning of people and rejecting all moral arguments, recalls inglorious acts of science when the ideology of progress determined the range of problems that researchers focused on. The same ideology of progress, although originating from other sources, pushes science toward a second extreme, into utilitarianism. In the article the author wishes to substantiate the necessity for researchers to respect ethical norms. Recognition of natural laws alone does not provide science with full development if the rights of conscience are violated.

  1. The ongoing evolution of humanness: perspectives from Darwin to de Chardin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Buckeridge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of humanness is discussed from observations made by Aristotle in 4th-century Greece, through to those of Charles Darwin, Teilhard de Chardin and William Shakespeare. Attempts to define humanness upon a narrow range of criteria, as some have tried, is argued as flawed, for humanness is more elusive than a single or a few demonstrated phenomena. The path that Darwin pursued in determining the place of humans in nature in his book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is assessed from a 19thcentury perspective; the difficulties he faced, both personally and with the broader public, are reviewed and then evaluated in a modern context. Darwin’s thesis adheres to scientific principles, and is debated, defended and later verified on these principles. This is somewhat at variance to the approach adopted by the priest-scientist de Chardin a century later in his major work, The Phenomenon of Man—in which an attempt is made to reconcile a deep Christian faith with science. De Chardin scores well from a theological viewpoint, but fails on scientific grounds as his thesis moves beyond the realms of empiricism into mysticism. Surprisingly, de Chardin’s predicament of a future wherein human evolution enters a new stage of consciousness through the noosphere (an invisible layer of thought encompassing the globe has been partially realised through the worldwide web, although the nature of the web is almost certainly not what de Chardin might have anticipated, or desired. Science too fails to answer all, particularly the nature of God. Darwin considered the Creator in several of his works and does not dismiss the concept of a farseeing deity, although we are left with the notion that he died agnostic. Humanness is derived from an elevated moral code and this is reflected in our arts, particularly literature, wherein we may temporally reflect upon quintessential human traits such as mercy. However, expression of the arts is only

  2. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings. R and D on robot system cooperating and coexisting with human beings; 2000 nendo ningen kyocho kyozongata robot system kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    A highly safe and reliable robot is being developed capable of cooperating with human beings and executing complicated operations in a human working/living space. This paper describes the fiscal 2000 results. Development of robot motion library was continued for extended task for providing services to people in care houses for the aged controlling motions of the humanoid robot. A basic design for a personal service system by the humanoid robot was conducted with the aim of nursing assistance and for the objective of developing a portable terminal type tele-operation device. A public and a home cockpit were researched with the purpose of developing user interfaces for telexistence control. A dynamic simulator for humanoid robots was built, with motions of standing-up and walking examined, in order to develop basic theories for the dual-handed tasks aided by the leg-arm cooperative motion. To develop a robot that properly and safely cooperates and coexists with the human beings, it is essential to obtain a dynamically reasonable and natural control law, so that the basic studies were conducted in this direction. With the purpose of developing a motion capture and learning system, a virtual robot platform and an information acquiring interface were developed. Studies were also conducted on modeling technique for achieving realistic material properties from high-precision image synthesis and actual images. (NEDO)

  3. Can hospitals prohibit euthanasia? An analysis from a European human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    At present, in four European countries euthanasia and/ or physician assisted suicide (PAS) are tolerated under strict legal conditions. However, in practice these patient groups are often deprived of the possibility to undergo such decisions. Particularly Catholic health care institutions have developed policies which restrict the internal application of the law. Yet, the legitimacy of such policies is questionable. From a European human rights perspective it can be defended that the freedom of association allows hospitals to develop policies elaborating their ethical stances on euthanasia and PAS. However, to respect the patient's right to self-determination the concerned hospitals should at least inform current and future patients about the restrictive policy and deal carefully with euthanasia and PAS requests. If a patient's wish remains seriously incompatible with the ethical stances of the hospital, at least reasonable and attainable alternatives (such as a referral to a tolerant regional hospital) should be offered.

  4. A Watershed Cooperative Addresses Short and Long-Term Perspectives for the Management of Harmful Algae at a Southwestern Ohio Drinking Water Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    The multi-agency East Fork Watershed Cooperative (EFWCoop) has focused discussion and consequent leveraged monitoring efforts to understand how to ensure water safety in the short term. The EFWCoop is also collecting the dense data sets required to consider potential options for...

  5. Child Participation in Family-School Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleš, Dubravka; Kuševic, Barbara; Širanovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the cooperation between families and schools from the perspective of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Given that the principal purpose of the cooperation between families and schools is children's well-being, it is reasonable to expect the child's participation in situations of direct parent-teacher…

  6. Motivation, Coordination and Cognition in Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Feng (Li)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA cooperative is a firm collectively owned by many independent input suppliers or buyers. This dissertation examines the nature of a cooperative and its efficiency compared with other governance structures from the perspectives of motivation, coordination and cognition. We find that the

  7. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  8. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: comparative aspects and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorne, J L C M; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human perspectives and conservation of grizzly bears in Banff National Park, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Emily C; Rutherford, Murray B; Gibeau, Michael L

    2012-06-01

    Some conservation initiatives provoke intense conflict among stakeholders. The need for action, the nature of the conservation measures, and the effects of these measures on human interests may be disputed. Tools are needed to depolarize such situations, foster understanding of the perspectives of people involved, and find common ground. We used Q methodology to explore stakeholders' perspectives on conservation and management of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in Banff National Park and the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Twenty-nine stakeholders participated in the study, including local residents, scientists, agency employees, and representatives of nongovernmental conservation organizations and other interest groups. Participants rank ordered a set of statements to express their opinions on the problems of grizzly bear management (I-IV) and a second set of statements on possible solutions to the problems (A-C). Factor analysis revealed that participants held 4 distinct views of the problems: individuals associated with factor I emphasized deficiencies in goals and plans; those associated with factor II believed that problems had been exaggerated; those associated with factor III blamed institutional flaws such as disjointed management and inadequate resources; and individuals associated with factor IV blamed politicized decision making. There were 3 distinct views about the best solutions to the problems: individuals associated with factor A called for increased conservation efforts; those associated with factor B wanted reforms in decision-making processes; and individuals associated with factor C supported active landscape management. We connected people's definitions of the problem with their preferred solutions to form 5 overall problem narratives espoused by groups in the study: the problem is deficient goals and plans, the solution is to prioritize conservation efforts (planning-oriented conservation advocates); the problem is flawed

  10. Experience, Intersubjectivity, and Reflection: A Human Science Perspective on Preparation of Future Professionals in Adaptive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F.; Rugseth, Gro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that and how philosophy and philosophical thinking can be of relevance for the preparation of future professionals in adaptive physical activity. To this end we utilize philosophical insights from the human science perspective on two central issues, namely experience and intersubjectivity, which are weaved…

  11. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  12. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment

  13. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ► Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ► Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ► Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ► Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  14. A structural approach to constructing perspective efficient and reliable human-computer interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, L.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of human-computer interface (HCI) realizations are investigated with the aim of getting closer to a general framework and thus, to a more or less solid background of constructing perspective efficient, reliable and cost-effective human-computer interfaces. On the basis of characterizing and classifying the different HCI solutions, the fundamental problems of interface construction are pointed out especially with respect to human error occurrence possibilities. The evolution of HCI realizations is illustrated by summarizing the main properties of past, present and foreseeable future interface generations. HCI modeling is pointed out to be a crucial problem in theoretical and practical investigations. Suggestions concerning HCI structure (hierarchy and modularity), HCI functional dynamics (mapping from input to output information), minimization of human error caused system failures (error-tolerance, error-recovery and error-correcting) as well as cost-effective HCI design and realization methodology (universal and application-oriented vs. application-specific solutions) are presented. The concept of RISC-based and SCAMP-type HCI components is introduced with the aim of having a reduced interaction scheme in communication and a well defined architecture in HCI components' internal structure. HCI efficiency and reliability are dealt with, by taking into account complexity and flexibility. The application of fast computerized prototyping is also briefly investigated as an experimental device of achieving simple, parametrized, invariant HCI models. Finally, a concise outline of an approach of how to construct ideal HCI's is also suggested by emphasizing the open questions and the need of future work related to the proposals, as well. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  15. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  16. Proposta de indicadores de performance sob a perspectiva do balanced scorecard: o caso de uma cooperativa de crédito = Proposed performance indicators in the perspective of the balanced scorecard: the case of a credit cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Thais Hubner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivo propor um conjunto de fatores que podem se constituir em indicadores de desempenho sob a perspectiva do BSC em uma cooperativa de crédito. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos, a pesquisa classifica-se como descritiva, do tipo levantamento e abordagem quantitativa do problema. A população de pesquisa foram os agentes que se relacionam com a cooperativa de crédito: gerentes, administradores, contador, controller, clientes e colaboradores. A amostra resultou em 50 respondentes para a perspectiva clientes, 10 para a perspectiva financeira, 40 para aprendizado e crescimento e de processos internos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário para captar os fatores ligados às quatro perspectivas do BSC e, posteriormente, validados em uma segunda rodada de questionários. O estudo mostrou que a cooperativa de crédito deverá desenvolver esforços para atender aos clientes e incentivar os colaboradores, afim de que a organização continue desenvolvendo com sucesso suas atividades. Conclui-se que a organização necessita, também, avaliar a qualidade dos produtos e serviços financeiros oferecidos, bem como a satisfação dos clientes, acompanhando não só os indicadores financeiros, mas também os indicadores não-financeiros. The study aimed to propose a set of factors that may be incurred in performance indicators from the perspective of the BSC in a credit cooperative As methodolo gical procedures, the search ranks as descriptive, survey-type and quantitative approach to the problem. The study population were the agents that are related to the credit union, managers, administrators, accountant, controller, customers and employees. The sample resulted in 50 respondents to the customer perspective, financial perspective for 10, 40 for learning and growth and internal processes. Data were collected through a questionn aire applied in the target populatio n to capture factors related to the four BSC

  17. A systems engineering perspective on the human-centered design of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, George M; Horst, Richard L

    2005-02-01

    The discipline of systems engineering, over the past five decades, has used a structured systematic approach to managing the "cradle to grave" development of products and processes. While elements of this approach are typically used to guide the development of information systems that instantiate a significant user interface, it appears to be rare for the entire process to be implemented. In fact, a number of authors have put forth development lifecycle models that are subsets of the classical systems engineering method, but fail to include steps such as incremental hazard analysis and post-deployment corrective and preventative actions. In that most health information systems have safety implications, we argue that the design and development of such systems would benefit by implementing this systems engineering approach in full. Particularly with regard to bringing a human-centered perspective to the formulation of system requirements and the configuration of effective user interfaces, this classical systems engineering method provides an excellent framework for incorporating human factors (ergonomics) knowledge and integrating ergonomists in the interdisciplinary development of health information systems.

  18. Perspectives of cooperation of the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University and Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholdasbekov, M.Zh.; Donbaev, K.M.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    It is noted, that one of a modern tendency in development both science and education in CIS and Kazakhstan is its step-by-step integration. For purpose of further development of scientific trends in physics field the agreement on cooperative activity between the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University and Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan was concluded (2000, November 18). The principle aim of the cooperative activity of the sides is conducting of fundamental and applied studies on solid state physics, nuclear physics, radioecological problems of the Astana town and development of science-intensive technologies. For realization of this task the Astana Filial of Institute of Nuclear Physics is established at the University. In particularly, on the ground of this cooperation the implementation of Inter-disciplinary Research Complex with heavy ion accelerator was initiated. Such accelerator could be used for the scientific researches, training of students and postgraduates, and different technological purposes

  19. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  20. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  1. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  2. Cooperative effects in differentiation and proliferation between PDGF-BB and matrix derived synthetic peptides in human osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordemvenne Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhancing osteogenic capabilities of bone matrix for the treatment of fractures and segmental defects using growth factors is an active area of research. Recently, synthetic peptides like AC- 100, TP508 or p-15 corresponding to biologically active sequences of matrix proteins have been proven to stimulate bone formation. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF BB has been identified as an important paracrine factor in early bone healing. We hypothesized that the combined use of PDGF-BB with synthetic peptides could result in an increase in proliferation and calcification of osteoblast-like cells. Methods Osteoblast-like cell cultures were treated with PDGF and synthetic peptides, singly and as combinations, and compared to non-treated control cell cultures. The cultures were evaluated at days 2, 5, and 10 in terms of cell proliferation, calcification and gene expression of alkaline phosphate, collagen I and osteocalcin. Results Experimental findings revealed that the addition of PDGF, p-15 and TP508 and combinations of PDGF/AC-100, PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/TP508 resulted in an increase in proliferating osteoblasts, especially in the first 5 days of cultivation. Proliferation did not significantly differ between single factors and factor combinations (p > 0.05. The onset of calcification in osteoblasts occurred earlier and was more distinct compared to the corresponding control or PDGF stimulation alone. Significant difference was found for the combined use of PDGF/p-15 and PDGF/AC-100 (p Conclusions Our findings indicate that PDGF exhibits cooperative effects with synthetic peptides in differentiation and proliferation. These cooperative effects cause a significant early calcification of osteoblast-like cells (p

  3. A unified perspective on ankle push-off in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelik, Karl E; Adamczyk, Peter G

    2016-12-01

    Muscle-tendon units about the ankle joint generate a burst of positive power during the step-to-step transition in human walking, termed ankle push-off, but there is no scientific consensus on its functional role. A central question embodied in the biomechanics literature is: does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing, or to center of mass (COM) acceleration? This question has been debated in various forms for decades. However, it actually presents a false dichotomy, as these two possibilities are not mutually exclusive. If we ask either question independently, the answer is the same: yes! (1) Does ankle push-off primarily contribute to leg swing acceleration? Yes. (2) Does ankle push-off primarily contribute to COM acceleration? Yes. Here, we summarize the historical debate, then synthesize the seemingly polarized perspectives and demonstrate that both descriptions are valid. The principal means by which ankle push-off affects COM mechanics is by a localized action that increases the speed and kinetic energy of the trailing push-off limb. Because the limb is included in body COM computations, this localized segmental acceleration also accelerates the COM, and most of the segmental energy change also appears as COM energy change. Interpretation of ankle mechanics should abandon an either/or contrast of leg swing versus COM acceleration. Instead, ankle push-off should be interpreted in light of both mutually consistent effects. This unified perspective informs our fundamental understanding of the role of ankle push-off, and has important implications for the design of clinical interventions (e.g. prostheses, orthoses) intended to restore locomotor function to individuals with disabilities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Thermodynamic perspectives on genetic instructions, the laws of biology, diseased states and human population control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saier, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines in a broad perspective entropy and some examples of its relationship to evolution, genetic instructions and how we view diseases. Many knowledge gaps abound, hence our understanding is still fragmented and incomplete. Living organisms are programmed by functional genetic instructions (FGI), through cellular communication pathways, to grow and reproduce by maintaining a variety of hemistable, ordered structures (low entropy). Living organisms are far from equilibrium with their surrounding environmental systems, which tends towards increasing disorder (increasing entropy). Organisms must free themselves from high entropy (high disorder) to maintain their cellular structures for a period of time sufficient enough to allow reproduction and the resultant offspring to reach reproductive ages. This time interval varies for different species. Bacteria, for example need no sexual parents; dividing cells are nearly identical to the previous generation of cells, and can begin a new cell cycle without delay under appropriate conditions. By contrast, human infants require years of care before they can reproduce. Living organisms maintain order in spite of their changing surrounding environment, that decreases order according to the second law of thermodynamics. These events actually work together since living organisms create ordered biological structures by increasing local entropy. From a disease perspective, viruses and other disease agents interrupt the normal functioning of cells. The pressure for survival may result in mechanisms that allow organisms to resist attacks by viruses, other pathogens, destructive chemicals and physical agents such as radiation. However, when the attack is successful, the organism can be damaged until the cell, tissue, organ or entire organism is no longer functional and entropy increases. PMID:21262480

  5. The cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain: an application of event-related fMRI study of the voluntary motor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Enzhong; Tian Jie; Dai Ruwei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To detect the cooperation of the functional activation areas in human brain using event-related fMRI technique developed in recent years. Methods: Forty-four subjects were selected in this experiment and scanned by GE Signa Horizon 1.5 Tesla superconductive MR system. A CUE-GO paradigm was used in this experiment. The data were analyzed in SUN and SGI workstation. Results: The activation areas were found in contralateral primary motor area (Ml), bilateral supplementary motor areas (SMA), pre-motor areas (PMA), basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices. The time-signal curve of Ml was a typical single-peak curve, but the curves in PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were double-peak curves. SMA had 2 parts, one was Pre-SMA, and another was SMA Proper. The curve was double-peak type in Pre-SMA and single-peak type in SMA Proper. There was difference between the time-signal intensity curves in above-mentioned areas. Conclusion: (1) Ml is mainly associated with motor execution, while others with both motor preparation and execution. There are differences in the function at the variant areas in the brain. (2) The fact that bilateral SMA, PMA, basal ganglia, and cerebellar cortices were activated, is different from what the classical theories told. (3) Event-related fMRI technique has higher temporary and spatial resolutions. (4) There is cooperation among different cortical areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum

  6. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  7. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  8. Reflection on the Judicial Activism or Constructivism: In Perspective of Being an Instrument of Cooperation in Judicial Facing Issues of Social Security and Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gomes de Vasconcelos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a present thinking as the possibility of reaching solutions to some social security and labor issues in democratic rule of law using judicial cooperation in the search for effective social law of social security. The current legal constructivism, also called judicial activism in its manifestation of legal instrument to weigh yourself to get and verify the approach of social dialogue for more proactive attitude of the court, in which the actors involved in the conflict are called to have a more active participation on problem situations, requiring them more than mere legal interpretation in philosophical hermeneutics.

  9. Cooperative learning and academic achievement: why does groupwork work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Slavin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Four major theoretical perspectives on achievement effects of cooperative learning are reviewed: Motivational, social cohesion, developmental, and cognitive elaboration. Evidence from practical classroom research primarily supports the motivational perspective, which emphasizes the use of group goals and individual accountability for group success. However, there are conditions under which methods derived from all four theoretical perspectives contribute to achievement gain. This chapter reconciles these perspectives in a unified theory of cooperative learning effects.

  10. Autonomic computing enabled cooperative networked design

    CERN Document Server

    Wodczak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of autonomic computing driven cooperative networked system design from an architectural perspective. As such it leverages and capitalises on the relevant advancements in both the realms of autonomic computing and networking by welding them closely together. In particular, a multi-faceted Autonomic Cooperative System Architectural Model is defined which incorporates the notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour being orchestrated by the Autonomic Cooperative Networking Protocol of a cross-layer nature. The overall proposed solution not only advocates for the inc

  11. Cooperation of endothelin-1 signaling with melanosomes plays a role in developing and/or maintaining human skin hyperpigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Murase

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin hyperpigmentation is characterized by increased melanin synthesis and deposition that can cause significant psychosocial and psychological distress. Although several cytokine-receptor signaling cascades contribute to the formation of ultraviolet B-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation, their possible involvement in other types of skin hyperpigmentation has never been clearly addressed. Since our continuous studies using skin specimens from more than 30 subjects with ethnic skin diversity emphasized a consistent augmentation in the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 and its receptor (Endothelin B receptor, ET-B in hyperpigmented lesions, including senile lentigos (SLs, the precise function of ET-1 signaling was investigated in the present study. In line with previous studies, ET-1 significantly induced melanogenesis followed by increases in melanosome transport in melanocytes and in its transfer to keratinocytes while inhibition of ET-B function substantially depressed melanogenic ability in tissue-cultured SLs. Additionally, in agreement with a previous report that the formation of autophagosomes rather than melanosomes is stimulated according to starvation or defective melanosome production, ET-1 was found to remarkably augment the expression of components necessary for early melanosome formation, indicating its counteraction against autophagy-targeting melanosome degradation in melanocytes. Despite the lack of substantial impact of ET-1 on keratinocyte melanogenic functions, the expression of ET-1 was enhanced following melanosome uptake by keratinocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that ET-1 plays a substantial role in the development and/or maintenance of skin hyperpigmentation in reciprocal cooperation with increased melanosome incorporation.

  12. Unleashing the power of human genetic variation knowledge: New Zealand stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yulong; Warren, James Roy; Day, Karen Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the challenges in using genetic information in health care and to identify opportunities for improvement. Taking a grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted with 48 participants to collect multiple stakeholder perspectives on genetic services in New Zealand. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) four service delivery models were identified in operation, including both those expected models involving genetic counselors and variations that do not route through the formal genetic service program; (2) multiple barriers to sharing and using genetic information were perceived, including technological, organizational, institutional, legal, ethical, and social issues; and (3) impediments to wider use of genetic testing technology, including variable understanding of genetic test utilities among clinicians and the limited capacity of clinical genetic services. Targeting these problems, information technologies and knowledge management tools have the potential to support key tasks in genetic services delivery, improve knowledge processes, and enhance knowledge networks. Because of the effect of issues in genetic information and knowledge management, the potential of human genetic variation knowledge to enhance health care delivery has been put on a "leash."

  13. Perspectives for induced pluripotent stem cell technology: new insights into human physiology involved in somatic mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoki; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-31

    Induced pluripotent stem cell technology makes in vitro reprogramming of somatic cells from individuals with various genetic backgrounds possible. By applying this technology, it is possible to produce pluripotent stem cells from biopsy samples of arbitrarily selected individuals with various genetic backgrounds and to subsequently maintain, expand, and stock these cells. From these induced pluripotent stem cells, target cells and tissues can be generated after certain differentiation processes. These target cells/tissues are expected to be useful in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology testing, and proof-of-concept studies in drug development. Therefore, the number of publications concerning induced pluripotent stem cells has recently been increasing rapidly, demonstrating that this technology has begun to infiltrate many aspects of stem cell biology and medical applications. In this review, we discuss the perspectives of induced pluripotent stem cell technology for modeling human diseases. In particular, we focus on the cloning event occurring through the reprogramming process and its ability to let us analyze the development of complex disease-harboring somatic mosaicism.

  14. Possibilities and limits of Art teacher education and school artistic education from the humanizing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Dozza Subtil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on initial education of Art teachers, prioritized knowledge in the curriculum and demands of school artistic practice, resulting from research performed with teachers from Parana State Public Network (Brazil, especially graduates with Music Teaching Degrees. Questions on education in Teaching Degrees are addressed - musical practice, pedagogical studies, training and relationship with the school, strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum and school artistic practice - planning, content and methodologies, demands of students and managers for Art classes. The purpose of this analysis was to collate education by teachers whilst adhering to school‟s demands, to discuss the challenges of teaching work in Art/Music in relation to different determinants that constitute it. Among other problems, data shows the difficulties for teachers in planning from the determinations of the Diretrizes Curriculares Estaduais - DCE (2009 (State Curricular Guidelines, which proposes actions within all artistic fields Music, Theater, Dance and Visual Arts and the effective practice with a view to the specific education in Music and Visual Arts Teaching Degrees. The resulting answers enabled problematization of the relationship between theory and practice of education/work of these teachers and pointed to the contradiction between artistic education as a pragmatic activity and the potentiality of aesthetic and humanizing education proclaimed by the Marxist perspective.

  15. A Perspective on Remote Handling Operations and Human Machine Interface for Remote Handling in Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haist, B.; Hamilton, D.; Sanders, St.

    2006-01-01

    A large-scale fusion device presents many challenges to the remote handling operations team. This paper is based on unique operational experience at JET and gives a perspective on remote handling task development, logistics and resource management, as well as command, control and human-machine interface systems. Remote operations require an accurate perception of a dynamic environment, ideally providing the operators with the same unrestricted knowledge of the task scene as would be available if they were actually at the remote work location. Traditional camera based systems suffer from a limited number of viewpoints and also degrade quickly when exposed to high radiation. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality software offer great assistance. The remote handling system required to maintain a tokamak requires a large number of different and complex pieces of equipment coordinating to perform a large array of tasks. The demands on the operator's skill in performing the tasks can escalate to a point where the efficiency and safety of operations are compromised. An operations guidance system designed to facilitate the planning, development, validation and execution of remote handling procedures is essential. Automatic planning of motion trajectories of remote handling equipment and the remote transfer of heavy loads will be routine and need to be reliable. This paper discusses the solutions developed at JET in these areas and also the trends in management and presentation of operational data as well as command, control and HMI technology development offering the potential to greatly assist remote handling in future fusion machines. (author)

  16. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the “well below 2°C” warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work’s primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2. PMID:28628676

  17. Human reaction and risk perception to catastrophic events: a psycho-social and cultural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthakur, M.

    1998-01-01

    Catastrophes of various kinds occur worldwide inflicting major human suffering, more so in the less privileged regions of the world. Human beings react differently to different traumatic situations and to the threat of an event in spite of man common underlying factors. Psychological reactions to catastrophic natural events like flooding on the perception of risk of flooding across various communities thus becomes an interesting study. Economic situation, lack of knowledge and resources are assumed to give a totally different perspective to reactions and perception of risk and its interpretation specially in an underprivileged country like India, compared to other developed countries. For the proposed session, the results of a study carried out in India will be presented. This includes reactions and responses of individuals and general public affected by flooding and their perceptions of risk of flooding. The study also focuses on a comparison between the people affected and at risk of flooding. Socio-cultural values, religion and superstitions, common beliefs and expectations from authorities will be studied as underlying variables, to what extent they might have an impact on the behavioral pattern of an individual in a situation and the perception of oncoming risk. A sizeable number of the Indian population resides in areas, which are generally affected by flooding or highly prone to flooding. Could perceptions vary among individuals within the society or is it simply poverty and unaffordability that drive these people info such hazardous areas? Lack of consciousness may seem to be an important variable, but what really matters and needs to be looked into is how threatened they actually feel. (author)

  18. Global climate change - a feasibility perspective of its effect on human health at a local scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bernardi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are two responses to global climate change. First, mitigation, which actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester or store carbon in the short-term, and make development choices that will lead to low emissions in the long-term. Second, adaptation, which involves adjustments in natural or human systems and behaviours that reduce the risks posed by climate change to people’s lives and livelihoods. While the two are conceptually distinct, in practice they are very much interdependent, and both are equally urgent from a healthy population perspective. To define the policies to mitigate and to adapt to global climate change, data and information at all scales are the basic requirement for both developed and developing countries. However, as compared to mitigation, adaptation is an immediate concern for low-income countries and for small islands states, where the reduction of the emissions from greenhouse gases is not among their priorities. Adaptation is also highly location specific and the required ground data to assess the impacts of climate change on human health are not available. Climate data at high spatial resolution can be derived by various downscaling methods using historical and real-time meteorological observations but, particularly in low-income countries, the outputs are limited by the lack of ground data at the local level. In many of these countries, a negative trend in the number of meteorological stations as compared as to before 2000 is evident, while remotelysensed imagery becomes more and more available at high spatial and temporal resolution. The final consequence is that climate change policy options in the developing world are greatly jeopardized.

  19. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Alberto; Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the "well below 2°C" warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work's primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2.

  20. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  1. Maternal and child health from a human rights perspective: the Indian scenario and nuns as community health enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All women need access to antenatal care in pregnancy, skilled care during childbirth, and care and support in the weeks after childbirth. This discussion tries to look into the life context of maternal and child health, and the health scenario of women/girl children in general in India from the perspective of Human Rights. Currently, most of the public and private health experts and organizations do not talk and act on the human rights perspective of health service delivery. Reversely, only a very few rights-based organizations advocate directly the right to health for the marginalized. Within the framework of a rights-based approach, the right to (Maternal Health on practical terms means “Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability and Quality.” Concluding, in the background of the Catholic Health Association of India (CHAI, the discussion also focuses on how the nun nurses play their role as “Community Health Enablers” to improve the situation.

  2. Background and perspective on rapid progress and deepening of international development of nuclear industry-composition of international nuclear energy business 'cooperation and competition'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Tokio; Kanda, Keji; Ishizuka, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Based on the recognition that international development of nuclear industry was important by a viewpoint of international cooperation to neighboring Asian area and also it was the trump that defeated a feeling of domestic confinement, the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) founded Nuclear energy international development gathering' in November 2004. On that occasion our magazine (March, 2005 issue) featured 'prospects and problem of the international development of nuclear energy use'. Slightly for half a year afterwards this nuclear energy international development has been rapidly deepened and become a close-up as a policy of an important strategy of the field of nuclear energy that the government and the private sector were united to make. Therefore the nuclear energy international development was secondly featured from multidirectional points of view such as a background of nuclear energy international development, composition of international nuclear energy business, a main strategy of three makers, approach of finance / a business firm. (T. Tanaka)

  3. BCL-x{sub L}/MCL-1 inhibition and RARγ antagonism work cooperatively in human HL60 leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Mariarita; Yap, Jeremy L.; Yu, Jianshi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 N Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Cione, Erika [Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, Ed. Polifunzionale, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, CS (Italy); Fletcher, Steven [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 N Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Kane, Maureen A., E-mail: mkane@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 N Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by chromosomal translocations that result in fusion proteins, including the promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor, alpha fusion protein (PML–RARα). All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment is the standard drug treatment for APL yielding cure rates >80% by activating transcription and proteasomal degradation of retinoic acid receptor, alpha (RARα). Whereas combination therapy with As{sub 2}O{sub 3} has increased survival further, patients that experience relapse and are refractory to atRA and/or As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a clinically significant problem. BCL-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis and over-expression of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family proteins has been associated with chemotherapeutic resistance in APL including impairment of the ability of atRA to induce growth arrest and differentiation. Here we investigated the novel BH3 domain mimetic, JY-1-106, which antagonizes the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-x{sub L}) and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) alone and in combination with retinoids including atRA, AM580 (RARα agonist), and SR11253 (RARγ antagonist). JY-1-106 reduced cell viability in HL-60 cells alone and in combination with retinoids. The combination of JY-1-106 and SR11253 had the greatest impact on cell viability by stimulating apoptosis. These studies indicate that dual BCL-x{sub L}/MCL-1 inhibitors and retinoids could work cooperatively in leukemia treatment. - Highlights: • Novel Bcl-x{sub L}/Mcl-1 inhibitor JY-1-106 reduces HL60 cell viability. • JY-1-106 is investigated in combination with retinoic acid, AM580, and SR11253. • AM580 is an RARα agonist; SR11253 is an RARγ antagonist. • Combined use of JY-1-106/SR11253 exhibited the greatest cell viability reduction. • JY-1-106 alone or in combination with retinoids induces apoptosis.

  4. An Origin of Cooperative Oxygen Binding of Human Adult Hemoglobin: Different Roles of the α and β Subunits in the α2β2 Tetramer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Nagatomo

    Full Text Available Human hemoglobin (Hb, which is an α2β2 tetramer and binds four O2 molecules, changes its O2-affinity from low to high as an increase of bound O2, that is characterized by 'cooperativity'. This property is indispensable for its function of O2 transfer from a lung to tissues and is accounted for in terms of T/R quaternary structure change, assuming the presence of a strain on the Fe-histidine (His bond in the T state caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds at the subunit interfaces. However, the difference between the α and β subunits has been neglected. To investigate the different roles of the Fe-His(F8 bonds in the α and β subunits, we investigated cavity mutant Hbs in which the Fe-His(F8 in either α or β subunits was replaced by Fe-imidazole and F8-glycine. Thus, in cavity mutant Hbs, the movement of Fe upon O2-binding is detached from the movement of the F-helix, which is supposed to play a role of communication. Recombinant Hb (rHb(αH87G, in which only the Fe-His in the α subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, showed a biphasic O2-binding with no cooperativity, indicating the coexistence of two independent hemes with different O2-affinities. In contrast, rHb(βH92G, in which only the Fe-His in the β subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, gave a simple high-affinity O2-binding curve with no cooperativity. Resonance Raman, 1H NMR, and near-UV circular dichroism measurements revealed that the quaternary structure change did not occur upon O2-binding to rHb(αH87G, but it did partially occur with O2-binding to rHb(βH92G. The quaternary structure of rHb(αH87G appears to be frozen in T while its tertiary structure is changeable. Thus, the absence of the Fe-His bond in the α subunit inhibits the T to R quaternary structure change upon O2-binding, but its absence in the β subunit simply enhances the O2-affinity of α subunit.

  5. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  6. Human relations in a nonviolent perspective between “openess to thou” and creative management of conflitcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella FALCICCHIO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The nonviolent perspective radically modifies the relations between human beings and among other living creatures. The non – destructive and openness principle leads to see in the other a “you” that, even during interpersonal or social conflicts, does not become an enemy, but must still be considered akin, close, recognizable as human, capable of doing good. This vision changes the quality of conflicts which are not denied or avoided and therefore do not decrease. On the contrary, they increase because a positive dynamic of relation transformation is established.

  7. Cooperation of Indian Hedgehog and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth in Human Hepatocellular Carcinomas, an Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guangxi; Wang, Yuxiang; Guo, Limei

    2018-04-07

    The Hedgehog pathway was recently shown to be involved in vascular development and neovascularization in human embryogenesis and disease. However, the role of Hedgehog pathway in modulating tumor angiogenesis is still unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with immunohistochemical staining and compared the immunoreaction data with various clinicopathologic characteristics. Immunoreactivity of Ihh and VEGF proteins was observed in 61.5% (56/91) and 64.5% (59/91) cases of HCC tumor tissues, respectively, which was considerably higher than the adjacent nonmalignant tissues. Ihh protein was observed predominantly in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells with a staining pattern of which was sparse and dot-like, or circular around the cell membrane. VEGF protein was expressed heterogenously in the cytoplasm in tumor cells and was negative in peritumoral areas in all cases. CD34 showed diffuse staining in the tumor parenchyma in most HCC specimens. The association of expression of Ihh and VEGF with tumor size was statistically significant (PIhh and VEGF proteins in HCC (r=0.6, PIhh and CD34 staining (r=0.261, P=0.012). Our findings suggest that Ihh is involved in the development of HCC. These findings are also consistent with the concept that cooperation of Ihh and VEGF modulate HCC tumor angiogenesis and growth.

  8. Tie2 signaling cooperates with TNF to promote the pro-inflammatory activation of human macrophages independently of macrophage functional phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M; van Es, Inge E; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions.

  9. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  10. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  11. Heuristics for Cooperative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships

  12. Human Donor Milk or Formula: A Qualitative Study of Maternal Perspectives on Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Molly R; Kair, Laura R; Sipsma, Heather L; Phillipi, Carrie A; Larson, Ilse A

    2018-04-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental to maternal and child health and is the most cost-effective intervention to reduce child mortality. Pasteurized human donor milk (HDM) is increasingly provided for term newborns requiring temporary supplementation. Few studies examine maternal perspectives on supplementation of term newborns. We conducted semistructured in-person interviews with mothers of term newborns (n = 24) during postpartum hospitalization. Mothers were asked whether they had chosen or would choose to supplement with HDM versus infant formula, if medically indicated, and why. Data were gathered to saturation and analyzed inductively by consensus. Emerging semantic themes were compared between mothers who chose or would choose HDM and those who chose or would choose infant formula. Most mothers had concerns about HDM, including uncertainty regarding screening and substances passed through HDM. Experiences with prior children influenced decision-making. Mothers who chose or would choose HDM (56%, n = 14) praised it as "natural," and some felt suspicious of infant formula as "synthetic." Mothers who chose or would choose infant formula (44%, n = 10) did not know enough about HDM to choose it, and many viewed infant formula as a short-term solution to supply concerns. Mothers unanimously mistrusted online milk purchasing sources, although the majority felt positively about using a friend or family member's milk. Counseling regarding term newborn supplementation should focus on HDM education, specifically on areas of greatest concern and uncertainty such as donor selection, screening, transmission of substances, and mother's milk supply. Research is needed to assess the long-term impact of attitudes and choices on breastfeeding.

  13. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts*

    OpenAIRE

    Dror, Itiel E.; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerpri...

  14. [Rehabilitation in the system of social benefit law seen from a social policy perspective with special regard to the problems involved in cross carrier cooperation and coordination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, B

    2009-06-01

    Eight years after Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX had entered into force, secondary analyses of published reports (for example those of the Federal Rehabilitation Council, BAR) about the existence and functioning of important institutional innovations such as the common service centres or new benefits such as the Personal Budget show many quantitative and qualitative deficiencies in its implementation. Deficits are mainly a lack of transparency, insufficient utilization of the innovative possibilities offered by the law and above all, poor cooperation among the various rehabilitation carriers involved. Among the deficits concerned are some which it has been impossible to eliminate for decades (since the so-called Rehabilitation harmonization law of 1974) by simple legal regulations or by appeals and voluntary self-commitments. To enable the innovative goals of the SGB IX to be reached, more intensive thought should again focus on the sense of having different rehabilitation carriers in place side by side. Irrespective of this issue, the legislator has to sanction obvious offences against the spirit of the SGB IX more strongly than so far.

  15. KRAS (G12D Cooperates with AML1/ETO to Initiate a Mouse Model Mimicking Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It has been demonstrated that KRAS mutations represent about 90% of cancer-associated mutations, and that KRAS mutations play an essential role in neoplastic transformation. Cancer-associated RAS mutations occur frequently in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, suggesting a functional role for Ras in leukemogenesis. Methods: We successfully established a mouse model of human leukemia by transplanting bone marrow cells co-transfected with the K-ras (G12D mutation and AML1/ETO fusion protein. Results: Mice transplanted with AML/ETO+KRAS co-transduced cells had the highest mortality rate than mice transplanted with AML/ETO- or KRAS-transduced cells (115d vs. 150d. Upon reaching a terminal disease stage, EGFP-positive cells dominated their spleen, lymph nodes, peripheral blood and central nervous system tissue. Immunophenotyping, cytologic analyses revealed that AML/ETO+KRAS leukemias predominantly contained immature myeloid precursors (EGFP+/c-Kit+/Mac-1-/Gr-1-. Histologic analyses revealed that massive leukemic infiltrations were closely packed in dense sheets that effaced the normal architecture of spleen and thymus in mice transplanted with AML1/ETO + KRAS co-transduced cells. K-ras mRNA and protein expression were upregulated in bone marrow cells of the K-ras group and AML1/ETO + Kras group. The phosphorylation of MEK/ERK was significantly enhanced in the AML1/ETO + Kras group. The similar results of the AML1/ETO + Nras group were consistent with those reported previously. Conclusion: Co-transduction of KrasG12D and AML1/ETO induces acute monoblastic leukemia. Since expression of mutant K-ras alone was insufficient to induce leukemia, this model may be useful for investigating the multi-step leukemogenesis model of human leukemia.

  16. Efforts for nuclear energy human resource development by industry-government-academic sectors cooperation. Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development Council Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The report consists of eighteen sections such as the present conditions of nuclear energy, decreasing students in the department of technology and decreasing numbers of nuclear-related subjects, The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Program (HRD Program), The Nuclear Energy Human Resources Development Council (HRD Council), the industry-academia partnership for human resource development, the present situation of new graduates in the nuclear field, new workers of nuclear industry, the conditions of technical experts in the nuclear energy industry, long-range forecast of human resource, increasing international efforts, nuclear energy human resources development road map, three points for HRD, six basic subjects for HRD, the specific efforts of the industrial, governmental and academic sectors, promoting a better understanding of nuclear energy and supporting job hunting and employment, students to play an active part in the world, and support of the elementary and secondary schools. Change of numbers of nuclear-related subjects of seven universities, change of number of new graduates in nuclear field of various companies from 1985 to 2006, number of people employed by nuclear industries from 1998 to 2007, number of technical experts in the electric companies and the mining and manufacturing industries and forecast of number of technical experts in total nuclear industries are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  17. Performing Ecosystem Services at Mud Flats in Seocheon, Korea: Using Q Methodology for Cooperative Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuck Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem services, which are the direct and indirect benefits of nature to humans, has been established as a supporting tool to increase the efficiency in decision-making regarding environmental planning. However, preceding studies on decision-making in relation to ecosystem services have been limited to identifying differences in perception, whereas few studies have reported cooperative alternatives. Therefore, this study aimed to present a method for cooperative decision-making among ecosystem service stakeholders using Q methodology. The results showed three perspectives on ecosystem services of small mud flat areas: ecological function, ecotourism, and human activity. The perspectives on cultural services and regulating services were diverse, whereas those on supporting services were similar. Thus, supporting services were considered crucial for the cooperative assessment and management of small mud flat ecosystems as well as for the scientific evaluation of regulating services. Furthermore, this study identified practical implementation measures to increase production through land management, to manufacture related souvenirs, and to link them to ecotourism. Overall, our results demonstrated the ideal process of cooperative decision-making to improve ecosystem services.

  18. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  19. Enabling Effective Human-Robot Interaction Using Perspective-Taking in Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trafton, J. G; Cassimatis, Nicholas L; Bugajska, Magdalena D; Brock, Derek P; Mintz, Farilee E; Schultz, Alan C

    2005-01-01

    ...) and present a cognitive architecture for performing perspective-taking called Polyscheme. Finally, we show a fully integrated system that instantiates our theoretical framework within a working robot system...

  20. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Itiel E; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerprint examiners were affected by the position of the matching print in terms of false exclusions and false inconclusives. Furthermore, the data showed that false identification errors were more likely at the top of the list and that such errors occurred even when the correct match was present further down the list. These effects need to be studied and considered carefully, so as to optimize human decision making when using technologies such as AFIS. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  2. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PKA and Epac cooperate to augment bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release from human airway smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halayko Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway smooth muscle contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases by secreting inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-8 (IL-8. IL-8 production is in part regulated via activation of Gq-and Gs-coupled receptors. Here we study the role of the cyclic AMP (cAMP effectors protein kinase A (PKA and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac1 and Epac2 in the bradykinin-induced IL-8 release from a human airway smooth muscle cell line and the underlying molecular mechanisms of this response. Methods IL-8 release was assessed via ELISA under basal condition and after stimulation with bradykinin alone or in combination with fenoterol, the Epac activators 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP and Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS, the PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP. Where indicated, cells were pre-incubated with the pharmacological inhibitors Clostridium difficile toxin B-1470 (GTPases, U0126 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS (PKA. The specificity of the cyclic nucleotide analogs was confirmed by measuring phosphorylation of the PKA substrate vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. GTP-loading of Rap1 and Rap2 was evaluated via pull-down technique. Expression of Rap1, Rap2, Epac1 and Epac2 was assessed via western blot. Downregulation of Epac protein expression was achieved by siRNA. Unpaired or paired two-tailed Student's t test was used. Results The β2-agonist fenoterol augmented release of IL-8 by bradykinin. The PKA activator 6-Bnz-cAMP and the Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP significantly increased bradykinin-induced IL-8 release. The hydrolysis-resistant Epac activator Sp-8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMPS mimicked the effects of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, whereas the negative control 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cGMP did not. Fenoterol, forskolin and 6-Bnz-cAMP induced VASP phosphorylation, which was diminished by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS. 6-Bnz-cAMP and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP induced GTP

  5. Human resources - meeting the challenge. An Organization of CANDU Industries perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wash, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the topic of human resources in the nuclear industry. The primary drivers for new human resources are retirement or normal turnover of existing human resources base and sustained new or increased reliance on nuclear energy

  6. An Origin of Cooperative Oxygen Binding of Human Adult Hemoglobin: Different Roles of the α and β Subunits in the α2β2 Tetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroshi; Imai, Kiyohiro; Mizusawa, Naoki; Ogura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Human hemoglobin (Hb), which is an α2β2 tetramer and binds four O2 molecules, changes its O2-affinity from low to high as an increase of bound O2, that is characterized by ‘cooperativity’. This property is indispensable for its function of O2 transfer from a lung to tissues and is accounted for in terms of T/R quaternary structure change, assuming the presence of a strain on the Fe-histidine (His) bond in the T state caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds at the subunit interfaces. However, the difference between the α and β subunits has been neglected. To investigate the different roles of the Fe-His(F8) bonds in the α and β subunits, we investigated cavity mutant Hbs in which the Fe-His(F8) in either α or β subunits was replaced by Fe-imidazole and F8-glycine. Thus, in cavity mutant Hbs, the movement of Fe upon O2-binding is detached from the movement of the F-helix, which is supposed to play a role of communication. Recombinant Hb (rHb)(αH87G), in which only the Fe-His in the α subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, showed a biphasic O2-binding with no cooperativity, indicating the coexistence of two independent hemes with different O2-affinities. In contrast, rHb(βH92G), in which only the Fe-His in the β subunits is replaced by Fe-imidazole, gave a simple high-affinity O2-binding curve with no cooperativity. Resonance Raman, 1H NMR, and near-UV circular dichroism measurements revealed that the quaternary structure change did not occur upon O2-binding to rHb(αH87G), but it did partially occur with O2-binding to rHb(βH92G). The quaternary structure of rHb(αH87G) appears to be frozen in T while its tertiary structure is changeable. Thus, the absence of the Fe-His bond in the α subunit inhibits the T to R quaternary structure change upon O2-binding, but its absence in the β subunit simply enhances the O2-affinity of α subunit. PMID:26244770

  7. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  8. A life course perspective on migration and mental health among Asian immigrants: the role of human agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Fujishiro, Kaori; Takeuchi, David T

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between human agency and health is an important yet under-researched topic. This study uses a life course perspective to examine how human agency (measured by voluntariness, migratory reasons, and planning) and timing (measured by age at immigration) affect mental health outcomes among Asian immigrants in the United States. Data from the National Latino and Asian American Study showed that Asian immigrants (n=1491) with multiple strong reasons to migrate were less likely to suffer from mental health problems (i.e., psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in the past 12 months) than those without clear goals. Moreover, Asian immigrants with adequate migratory planning had lower levels of distress and lower rates of 12-month psychiatric disorders than those with poorly planned migration. Compared with migrants of the youngest age category (six or younger), those who migrated during preteen and adolescent years without clear goals had higher levels of psychological distress, and those who migrated during adulthood (25 years or older) were less likely to suffer from recent depressive disorders (with the exception of those migrating for life-improving goals). Furthermore, we found that well-planned migration lowered acculturative stress, and multiple strong reasons for migration buffered the negative effect of acculturative stress upon mental health. Findings from this study advance research on immigrant health from the life course perspective by highlighting the effects of exercising human agency during the pre-migration stage upon post-migration mental health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Language as a barrier to ministry of the Word with special reference to sign language in ministry: Human dignity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leepo J. Modise

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is born out of my participation in the General Synod Ministerial Formation for theological training of Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA, when a decision was taken to license a student with a disability to be a minister of the Word in URCSA. Furthermore, my experience and observation of the licensing of the two candidates with hearing impairments to the ministry of the Word and Sacrament in URCSA and Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (DRCSA has encouraged me to conduct this research. This article is made up of four important parts: Firstly, the researcher will discuss Belhar Confession as the confession that emphasises unity (inclusivity, reconciliation and justice. Secondly, Belhar Confession and disability from the human dignity perspective will be discussed. Thirdly, the ecclesiological practices and shortcomings from the human dignity perspective will be highlighted. Fourthly, pastoral care as the affirmation of human dignity will be discussed.Interdisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The fields involved in this article are Systematic Theology, Sociology and Psychology. The author challenges classification of people with a disability under the category of limited competence by the Dutch Reformed Church when they license the ministerial candidates. The future results will reveal the inclusivity in terms of licensing and calling of ministers in the Dutch Reformed Church Family. This research calls for the change in the traditional discourse within ecclesiological, sociological and psychological fields, which exclude the people with a disability from the ministry of the Word and Sacraments.

  10. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  11. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.

  12. Girls' and Boys' Reasoning on Cultural and Religious Practices: A Human Rights Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Annamagriet; Roux, Cornelia; Simmonds, Shan; ter Avest, Ina

    2012-01-01

    Human rights play a vital role in citizens' political, religious and cultural life (Wang 2002, 171). Due to the prominence of human rights in the everyday life of citizens, including those of South Africa, human rights education has been included in many school curricula. Human rights education aims to develop responsible citizens who "inter…

  13. A multidisciplinary framework for (teaching) human product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; van der Bijl-Brouwer, Mieke; Boks, C.; McMahon, C.; Ion, W.; Parkinson, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a framework for dealing with the complexity of human-product relationships. The actual framework is a matrix of design perspectives, with three cooperating disciplines on the one hand and three levels of abstraction on the other hand. Basis of the framework is the notion

  14. From stem cells to human development: a distinctly human perspective on early embryology, cellular differentiation and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, April M; Johnson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Over 100 scientists with common interests in human development, disease and regeneration gathered in late September 2016 for The Company of Biologists' second 'From Stem Cells to Human Development' meeting held in historic Southbridge. In this Meeting Review, we highlight some of the exciting new findings that were presented, and discuss emerging themes and convergences in human development and disease that arose during these discussions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  16. Human Resource Management and Sustainability at work across the lifespan : An Integrative Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beatrice van der Heijden; Dorien Kooij; Annet de Lange

    2015-01-01

    Facing the Challenges of a Multi-Age Workforce examines the shifting economic, cultural, and technological trends in the modern workplace that are taking place as a result of the aging global workforce. Taking an international perspective, contributors address workforce aging issues around the

  17. The Battle over Professorship: Reform of Human Resource Management and Academic Careers in a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    Changing conditions of academic and scientific labour markets challenge the current conceptual thinking about the mechanisms of academic promotion, selection and recruitment. This paper explores the models of academic promotion and recruitment of professors in a comparative perspective using the examples of Poland and Germany, and addresses the…

  18. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference...... is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs...... is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  19. Human Rights and Religious Education in the Contentious Context of Conflict-Troubled Societies: Perspectives from Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some of the tensions that are created from the entanglement of religion and human rights and offers a possible response to these tensions in the context of religious education in conflict-troubled societies. It is suggested that a historicised and politicised approach in religious education in conjunction with human rights…

  20. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known