WorldWideScience

Sample records for human control subjects

  1. Robust adaptive control modeling of human arm movements subject to altered gravity and mechanical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfonidis, Michail

    It has been observed that during orbital spaceflight the absence of gravitation related sensory inputs causes incongruence between the expected and the actual sensory feedback resulting from voluntary movements. This incongruence results in a reinterpretation or neglect of gravity-induced sensory input signals. Over time, new internal models develop, gradually compensating for the loss of spatial reference. The study of adaptation of goal-directed movements is the main focus of this thesis. The hypothesis is that during the adaptive learning process the neural connections behave in ways that can be described by an adaptive control method. The investigation presented in this thesis includes two different sets of experiments. A series of dart throwing experiments took place onboard the space station Mir. Experiments also took place at the Biomechanics lab at MIT, where the subjects performed a series of continuous trajectory tracking movements while a planar robotic manipulandum exerted external torques on the subjects' moving arms. The experimental hypothesis for both experiments is that during the first few trials the subjects will perform poorly trying to follow a prescribed trajectory, or trying to hit a target. A theoretical framework is developed that is a modification of the sliding control method used in robotics. The new control framework is an attempt to explain the adaptive behavior of the subjects. Numerical simulations of the proposed framework are compared with experimental results and predictions from competitive models. The proposed control methodology extends the results of the sliding mode theory to human motor control. The resulting adaptive control model of the motor system is robust to external dynamics, even those of negative gain, uses only position and velocity feedback, and achieves bounded steady-state error without explicit knowledge of the system's nonlinearities. In addition, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate that

  2. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  3. Serum vitamin D levels are not altered after controlled diesel exhaust exposures in healthy human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has suggested that exposure to urban air pollution may be associated with vitamin D deficiency in human populations. Vitamin D is widely known for its importance in bone growth/remodeling, muscle metabolism, and its ability to promote calcium absorption in the gut; ...

  4. Haplotype-based case-control study of the human AGTR1 gene and essential hypertension in Han Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Sheng-jie; Wen-ru, Tang; Bi-feng, Chen; Jin, Li; Wen, Zhang; Sheng-jun, Luo; Wei-wei, Li; Hai-jing, Yu; Chun-jie, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Essential hypertension is considered to be a multifactorial trait resulting from the combined influence of environmental and genetic determinants. The aim of the study is to assess the association between the human AGTR1 gene and essential hypertension (EH) using a haplotype-based case-control study in Han Chinese subjects. Seven tag SNPs and the A1166C polymorphism of the AGTR1 gene were genotyped in 510 hypertension subjects and 510 normotensive subjects using PCR-RFLP method. Single SNP analyses indicated that the rs12695895 was significantly associated with hypertension, adjusted for covariates. Compared with the other haplotypes, Hap4 (AGGACTT) which carry the susceptible rs12695895 A allele was found to significantly increase the risk of EH with odds ratios equal to 1.84 (p=0.0002). The present results indicate that rs12695895 might be a genetic marker for EH and Hap4 (AGGACTT) was associated with hypertension in Han Chinese population. (c) 2009 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protecting human subjects in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orticio, Lily P

    2009-01-01

    The quest for advancing scientific knowledge through human experimentations using vulnerable groups is traced back to ancient history, when Herophilus performed vivisections on prisoners. The violation of the rights of human subjects through the 20th century led to the formulation of the Nuremberg Code in 1947 and the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. In the United States, the most infamous was the Tuskegee public health study that resulted in the enactment of the National Research Act that authorized the creation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1974. In spite of existing federal regulations, the system of protecting human subjects is still flawed. Transparency of conflict ofinterest, clarity, and strict adherence to institutional guidelines are critical in safeguarding the rights and safety of human subjects and the integrity of research. Education on ethics and emerging complex ethical issues, global awareness, and governmental cooperation and sanctions are important steps in addressing the inadequacies in protecting the most vulnerable populations in experimentations worldwide. Investigators must always remember that the primary safeguards of protecting human life rest in their hands.

  6. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  7. Simulated flight path control of fighter pilots and novice subjects at +3 Gz in a human centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar; Guardiera, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We have previously shown that subjects produce exaggerated manual forces in +3 Gz. When subjects execute discrete flight path changes in a flight simulator, their performance is less stable in +3 Gz than in +1 Gz. Here we explore whether Gz-related deficits are found with continuous flight path changes. Novice subjects and fighter pilots sat in a high-fidelity flight simulator equipped with the reproduction of the Eurofighter 2000 cockpit, including the realistic flight stick, and pursued continuous altitude changes of a target airplane in +1 Gz and +3 Gz. Subjects also produced verbal responses in a Stroop task. Pursuit and Stroop tasks were administered alone and concurrently. Flight instability increased in +3 Gz compared to +1 Gz in novices (+46%), but not in pilots (+3%), and even there only during the first minute. Flight performance improved after the first minute in both subject groups. Stroop reaction time was higher in novices (+5.27%) than in pilots (+3.77%) at +3 Gz. Dual-task costs did not differ between groups or Gz levels. Deficits of force production in high Gz are largely compensated for when subjects apply forces to produce a continuously changing flight path. This compensation seems not to require additional cognitive resources and may be achieved by using visual feedback. Force production deficits in high Gz seem to have no appreciable effects on flight performance and cognitive load of experienced pilots using a force-plus-displacement stick in +3 Gz. It remains to be shown whether this conclusion extends to purely isometric sticks and to higher Gz levels.

  8. Human subjects protection in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embry Howell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research and evaluation are growing in Africa. All evaluators have an ethical responsibility to protect their research subjects from harm that could occur if sensitive data are revealed. In this article, we use a literature and document review to provide an overview of the protection of human subjects internationally and in Africa; we then use interviews with evaluators working in Africa to place human subjects protection principles and practice in an African context. We conclude that human subjects protection must be supported by improved guidelines tailored to the African context and local conditions; improved infrastructure for implementing and enforcing the guidelines; and increased training in awareness of human subjects principles and approaches. These efforts could stimulate increased research and evaluation and more confidence in results in the communities where research is conducted.

  9. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  10. Lateral Inhibition in the Human Visual System in Patients with Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junoy Montolio, Francisco G; Meems, Wilma; Janssens, Marieke S A; Stam, Lucas; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2016-01-01

    In glaucoma, the density of retinal ganglion cells is reduced. It is largely unknown how this influences retinal information processing. An increase in spatial summation and a decrease in contrast gain control and contrast adaptation have been reported. A decrease in lateral inhibition might also

  11. Individual finger control of a modular prosthetic limb using high-density electrocorticography in a human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Guy; McMullen, David P.; Fifer, Matthew S.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Katyal, Kapil D.; Para, Matthew P.; Armiger, Robert; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Wester, Brock A.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. We used native sensorimotor representations of fingers in a brain-machine interface (BMI) to achieve immediate online control of individual prosthetic fingers. Approach. Using high gamma responses recorded with a high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) array, we rapidly mapped the functional anatomy of cued finger movements. We used these cortical maps to select ECoG electrodes for a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis classification scheme to predict: (1) if any finger was moving, and, if so, (2) which digit was moving. To account for sensory feedback, we also mapped the spatiotemporal activation elicited by vibrotactile stimulation. Finally, we used this prediction framework to provide immediate online control over individual fingers of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory modular prosthetic limb. Main results. The balanced classification accuracy for detection of movements during the online control session was 92% (chance: 50%). At the onset of movement, finger classification was 76% (chance: 20%), and 88% (chance: 25%) if the pinky and ring finger movements were coupled. Balanced accuracy of fully flexing the cued finger was 64%, and 77% had we combined pinky and ring commands. Offline decoding yielded a peak finger decoding accuracy of 96.5% (chance: 20%) when using an optimized selection of electrodes. Offline analysis demonstrated significant finger-specific activations throughout sensorimotor cortex. Activations either prior to movement onset or during sensory feedback led to discriminable finger control. Significance. Our results demonstrate the ability of ECoG-based BMIs to leverage the native functional anatomy of sensorimotor cortical populations to immediately control individual finger movements in real time.

  12. The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Unlike energy expenditure, energy intake occurs during discrete events: snacks and meals. The prevailing view is that meal size is governed by physiological and psychological events that promote satiation towards the end of a meal. This review explores an alternative and perhaps controversial proposition. Specifically that satiation plays a secondary role, and that meal size (kJ) is controlled by decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Recently, techniques have been developed that enable us to quantify 'expected satiation' and 'expected satiety' (respectively, the fullness and the respite from hunger that foods are expected to confer). When compared on a kJ-for-kJ basis, these expectations differ markedly across foods. Moreover, in self-selected meals, these measures are remarkably good predictors of the energy content of food that ends up on our plate, even more important than palatability. Expected satiation and expected satiety are influenced by the physical characteristics of a food (e.g. perceived volume). However, they are also learned. Indeed, there is now mounting evidence for 'expected-satiation drift', a general tendency for a food to have higher expected satiation as it increases in familiarity. Together, these findings show that important elements of control (discrimination and learning/adaptation) are clearly evident in plans around portion size. Since most meals are eaten in their entirety, understanding the nature of these controls should be given high priority.

  13. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic Performance in ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... while the dependent variables were students' academic performance.

  14. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  15. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in biological samples of male human immunodeficiency virus patients with tuberculosis and diarrhea compared to healthy control subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Naveed; Naeemullah, Faheem Shah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-01-01

    Electrolyte deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression and mortality. This study examined the association between low electrolyte concentrations in blood and scalp hair and the presence of opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Sixty-two male HIV positive patients (HIV-1) from various cities in Pakistan were recruited to the study. These Patients were divided into two groups according to secondary infections (tuberculosis and high fever with diarrhea), and biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood and urine) were collected from them. As a comparative control group, 120 healthy subjects (males) of the same age group (31 - 45 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits were also included in the study. The elements in the biological samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials (CRMs) and against values obtained by a conventional wet acid digestion method on the same CRMs. The results indicated significantly lower levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium and natrium in all analyzed biological samples (blood, serum and scalp hair) of male patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in comparison to healthy controls (p < 0.01), while the levels of these elements were found to be higher in urine samples of the AIDS patients than in those of the control group. These data offer guidance to clinicians and other professionals investigating the deficiency of electrolytes in biological samples (scalp hair, serum and blood) of AIDS patients in relation to healthy subjects.

  16. Human Subjects Research and the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubitskey, Beth W.; Thomsen, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Physics Education Research is a form of social science research in that it uses human subjects. As physicists we need to be aware of the ethical and legal ramifications of performing this research, taking into account the fundamental differences between working with substances and working with people. For several decades, the federal government…

  17. 77 FR 25533 - Agency Requests for Approval of a New Information Collection(s): Human Subjects Experiments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ...(s): Human Subjects Experiments Related to Keyless Ignition Controls, Gear Selection Controls, and....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Control Number: 2127-New. Title: Human Subjects Experiments... available at www.regulations.gov . Human factors observational experiments are proposed to examine...

  18. Comparison of human gut microbiota in control subjects and patients with colorectal carcinoma in adenoma: Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and next-generation sequencing analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Chika; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Moritani, Isao; Tanaka, Junichiro; Oya, Yumi; Inoue, Hidekazu; Tameda, Masahiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Ito, Masaaki; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Kojiro

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. The etiology of CRC has been linked to numerous factors including genetic mutation, diet, life style, inflammation, and recently, the gut microbiota. However, CRC-associated gut microbiota is still largely unexamined. This study used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare gut microbiota of Japanese control subjects and Japanese patients with carcinoma in adenoma. Stool samples were collected from 49 control subjects, 50 patients with colon adenoma, and 9 patients with colorectal cancer (3/9 with invasive cancer and 6/9 with carcinoma in adenoma) immediately before colonoscopy; DNA was extracted from each stool sample. Based on T-RFLP analysis, 12 subjects (six control and six carcinoma in adenoma subjects) were selected; their samples were used for NGS and species-level analysis. T-RFLP analysis showed no significant differences in bacterial population between control, adenoma and cancer groups. However, NGS revealed that i), control and carcinoma in adenoma subjects had different gut microbiota compositions, ii), one bacterial genus (Slackia) was significantly associated with the control group and four bacterial genera (Actinomyces, Atopobium, Fusobacterium, and Haemophilus) were significantly associated with the carcinoma-in-adenoma group, and iii), several bacterial species were significantly associated with each type (control: Eubacterium coprostanoligens; carcinoma in adenoma: Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides fragiles, Clostridium nexile, Fusobacterium varium, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Prevotella stercorea, Streptococcus gordonii, and Veillonella dispar). Gut microbial properties differ between control subjects and carcinoma-in-adenoma patients in this Japanese population, suggesting that gut microbiota is related to CRC prevention and development.

  19. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  20. Safety and comparability of controlled human Plasmodium falciparum infection by mosquito bite in malaria-naive subjects at a new facility for sporozoite challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K Talley

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies which recapitulate mosquito-borne infection are a critical tool to identify protective vaccine and drug candidates for advancement to field trials. In partnership with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the CHMI model was established at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute's Malaria Clinical Trials Center (MCTC. Activities and reagents at both centers were aligned to ensure comparability and continued safety of the model. To demonstrate successful implementation, CHMI was performed in six healthy malaria-naïve volunteers.All volunteers received NF54 strain Plasmodium falciparum by the bite of five infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes under controlled conditions and were monitored for signs and symptoms of malaria and for parasitemia by peripheral blood smear. Subjects were treated upon diagnosis with chloroquine by directly observed therapy. Immunological (T cell and antibody and molecular diagnostic (real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR] assessments were also performed.All six volunteers developed patent parasitemia and clinical malaria. No serious adverse events occurred during the study period or for six months post-infection. The mean prepatent period was 11.2 days (range 9-14 days, and geometric mean parasitemia upon diagnosis was 10.8 parasites/µL (range 2-69 by microscopy. qRT-PCR detected parasites an average of 3.7 days (range 2-4 days earlier than blood smears. All volunteers developed antibodies to the blood-stage antigen merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1, which persisted up to six months. Humoral and cellular responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP and liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1 were limited.The CHMI model was safe, well tolerated and characterized by consistent prepatent periods, pre-symptomatic diagnosis in 3/6 subjects and adverse event profiles as reported at established centers. The MCTC

  1. A Controlled Challenge Study on Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in House Dust and the Immune Response in Human Nasal Mucosa of Allergic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Deutschle, Tom; Reiter, Rudolf; Butte, Werner; Heinzow, Birger; Keck, Tilman; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies have yet addressed the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in house dust on human nasal mucosa. Objectives We investigated the effects of house dust containing DEHP on nasal mucosa of healthy and house dust mite (HDM)–allergic subjects in a short-term exposure setting. Methods We challenged 16 healthy and 16 HDM-allergic subjects for 3 hr with house dust at a concentration of 300 μg/m3 containing either low (0.41 mg/g) or high (2.09 mg/g) levels of DEHP. Exposu...

  2. ENGINEERING SUPPORT PARADIGM OF SUBJECT-ORIENTED CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharitonov V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic antilogy, which is attributed to forming an engineering support paradigm of new technologies related to the subject-oriented control in the noosphere, between the demand for an automatical creative thinking of a control subject and the vigilance of society to possible adverse effects of its subjective activities. It is stated that the noosphere, which showed miracles of automation and cybernation, covers all types of human activities, excluding above original positions, which they barely touched. Uppermost it is related to the central economics problem (economy management – the choice. The problem how to build an engineering support paradigm of subject-oriented control technologies is analyzed; it is based on the known subject-oriented control concept supplemented by concept-based models of the intuition mechanism, which assume its modeling based on formal systems with the purpose to automate control subjects mental activity. From the standpoint of Schopenhauer’s cognitive theory, a research method is developed to investigate evolution and becoming of a particular human category – engineers, which are responsible for the steady development of noosphere of Vernadsky. As a basis, a dynamic phylogenesis model of engineer’s figure was taken, including ready and effective vectors with parameters (education, intellect, skills and (prevision, choice, emergence, respectively. The results of ontogenesis modeling are given – regularities in future engineers’ preparation as a platform for quantization and convolution of its levels based on modern mathematical methods, including those for support engineers of subjectoriented control technologies

  3. Challenging research on human subjects: justice and uncompensated harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Stephen

    2013-02-01

    Ethical challenges to certain aspects of research on human subjects are not uncommon; examples include challenges to first-in-human trials (Chapman in J Clin Res Bioethics 2(4):1-8, 2011), certain placebo controlled trials (Anderson in J Med Philos 31:65-81, 2006; Anderson and Kimmelman in Kennedy Inst Ethics J 20(1):75-98, 2010) and "sham" surgery (Macklin in N Engl J Med 341:992-996, 1999). To date, however, there are few challenges to research when the subjects are competent and the research is more than minimal risk with no promise of direct benefit. The principal reason given for allowing research that is more than minimal risk without benefit is that we should respect the autonomy of competent subjects. I argue that though the moral intuitions informing respect for autonomy are sound, there is another set of intuitions regarding what we take to be just treatment of another when one agent knowingly causes or allows suffering on another agent. I argue that concerns generated by commutative justice serve as limitations on permissible research. I highlight our intuitions informing this notion of justice by appealing to work done on theodicy; what counts as a morally sufficient reason for God to allow suffering in humans is applicable also to the researcher-subject relationship. I conclude that all human subjects who are exposed to more than minimal risk research should enjoy the same actual protections (e.g., subpart D) as those given subjects who cannot consent.

  4. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    approach on human physiology and this focuses on the skin temperature which is the primary ... digital anemometer (Lutron Electronics Enterprise co. Ltd, Taiwan). .... that on the warm side of the comfort zone the relative humidity should not ...

  5. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  6. Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase activity in cultured human skeletal muscle cells: relationship to glucose disposal rate in control and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects and regulation by glucose and insulin.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    We examined the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine biosynthesis, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA) in human skeletal muscle cultures (HSMC), from 17 nondiabetic control and 13 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. GFA activity was assayed from HSMC treated with low (5 mM) or high (20 mM) glucose and low (22 pM) or high (30 microM) concentrations of insulin. In control subjects GFA activity decreased with increasing glucose disposal rate (r = -0.68,...

  7. Protections for Subjects in Human Research with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    All pesticide research using human subjects must meet our strict protective standards before we would consider using them in evaluating pesticides. EPA's regulation “Protections for Subjects in Human Research” was promulgated in 2006 and amended in 2013.

  8. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  9. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be... concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department Grants Administration Manual is available for inspection at...

  10. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

  11. Lifeboat habitability and effects on human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Jonathan T.; Simoes Re, Antonio J. [National Research Council of Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email: Jonathan.power@nrc.ca, email: Antonio.simoesre@nrc.ca

    2010-07-01

    When an accident occurs offshore, lifeboats are the principal means used to evacuate shipping and offshore industries. However, in the International Maritime Organization Lifesaving Appliances code, no criteria are established as to habitability and the effects on human of those evacuation craft. The aim of this project was to study the impact of prolonged occupancy on the human body. This study was carried out in a SOLAS lifeboat in Conception Bay with 2 persons on-board wearing immersion suit systems; measurements of their skin temperature, deep body temperature and heart rate while doing their tasks were conducted. Results showed that when the lifeboat is sealed, the thermal comfort is quickly reduced with occupants sweating. This study highlighted that hatches and immersions suits should be kept open when possible to reduce the thermal strain on the occupants and that properly designed ventilation systems should be installed in lifeboats.

  12. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  13. Human brain : biochemical lateralization in normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasundar R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical asymmetries in normal human brain were studied using the non-invasive technique of volume localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The technique of STEAM was used to acquire water-suppressed proton spectra from 8 ml voxels placed in bilaterally symmetrical positions in the two hemispheres of the brain. One hundred and sixty eight right-handed male volunteers were studied for six different regions in the brain (n=28, for each region. Parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal, thalamus and cerebellum regions were studied. The focus was on metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr and choline (Cho containing compounds. Ratios of the peak areas were calculated for them. Quantitation of the metabolites were carried for data on 18 volunteers. Significant interhemispheric differences in the distribution of metabolites were observed for all the regions studied. There were statistically significant differences on right and left side for the metabolite ratios in all the regions studied. The study has shown the existence of significant lateralization in the distribution of proton MR visible metabolites for all the regions studied.

  14. Differential expression of human cytochrome P450 enzymes from the CYP3A subfamily in the brains of alcoholic subjects and drug-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth Depaz, Iris M; Toselli, Francesca; Wilce, Peter A; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2013-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of most commonly used drugs. Among these enzymes, CYP3A forms mediate the clearance of around 40-50% of drugs and may also play roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds. CYP3A forms are expressed both in the liver and extrahepatically. However, little is known about the expression of CYP3A proteins in specific regions of the human brain. In this study, form-selective antibodies raised to CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were used to characterize the expression of these forms in the human brain. Both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 immunoreactivity were found to varying extents in the microsomal fractions of cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and cerebellum. However, only CYP3A4 expression was observed in the mitochondrial fractions of these brain regions. N-terminal sequencing confirmed the principal antigen detected by the anti-CYP3A4 antibody in cortical microsomes to be CYP3A4. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 expression was primarily localized in the soma and axonal hillock of neurons and varied according to cell type and cell layer within brain regions. Finally, analysis of the frontal cortex of chronic alcohol abusers revealed elevated expression of CYP3A4 in microsomal but not mitochondrial fractions; CYP3A5 expression was unchanged. The site-specific expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the human brain may have implications for the role of these enzymes in both normal brain physiology and the response to drugs.

  15. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  16. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  17. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der Jaap H.; Velthuis, Wubbe J.R.; Veltink, Peter H.; Vries, de Theo J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  18. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  19. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...

  20. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  1. Can Human Subject Pool Participation Benefit Sociology Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lynn Gencianeo; Gibbs Stayte, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Instructors at non-research institutions are less able to expose their students to research firsthand. Utilizing human subject pools (HSPs) in class may be a solution. Given that HSPs tend to be used in introduction to psychology classes at research institutions, we examine a community college HSP to answer three questions: (1) Do community…

  2. Demystifying the IRB: Human Subjects Research in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Maura A.

    2010-01-01

    Many academic librarians are interested in pursuing research studies that involve students, faculty, and other library patrons; these projects must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB). This article reviews federal requirements and regulations for human subjects research and explains the IRB application process. The author discusses…

  3. Subjective illusion of control modulates striatal reward anticipation in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Kühn, Simone; Pöhland, Lydia; Pelz, Patricia; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Raufelder, Diana; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2015-08-15

    The perception of control over the environment constitutes a fundamental biological adaptive mechanism, especially during development. Previous studies comparing an active choice condition with a passive no-choice condition showed that the neural basis of this mechanism is associated with increased activity within the striatum and the prefrontal cortex. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether subjective belief of control in an uncertain gambling situation induces elevated activation in a cortico-striatal network. We investigated 79 adolescents (age range: 13-16years) during reward anticipation with a slot machine task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed post-experimentally whether the participants experienced a subjective illusion of control on winning or losing in this task that was objectively not given. Nineteen adolescents experienced an illusion of control during slot machine gambling. This illusion of control group showed an increased neural activity during reward anticipation within a cortico-striatal network including ventral striatum (VS) as well as right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) relative to the group reporting no illusion of control. The rIFG activity was inversely associated with impulsivity in the no illusion of control group. The subjective belief about control led to an elevated ventral striatal activity, which is known to be involved in the processing of reward. This finding strengthens the notion that subjectively perceived control, not necessarily the objective presence of control, affects striatal reward-related processing.

  4. Disulfiram enhances subjective effects of dextroamphetamine in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Poling, James; Waters, Andrew; Sewell, Andrew; Hill, Kevin; Kosten, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Disulfiram has shown promise in several clinical trials for cocaine addiction, but its potential utility in the treatment of amphetamine addiction has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of disulfiram on acute physiological and subjective responses to dextroamphetamine in healthy volunteers. Five male and 5 female subjects participated in an outpatient double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of disulfiram (250 mg/day) or placebo treatments each lasting for 4 days. Day four of each treatment period was the experimental session, in which subjects orally ingested a single dose of dextroamphetamine (20 mg/70 kg). Outcome measures included heart rate, blood pressure, plasma cortisol and prolactin, subjective and performance on the Sustained Attention to Response Test (SART). Disulfiram did not affect dextroamphetamine-induced increases in heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol, or prolactin. Disulfiram did enhance some of the subjective effects of dextroamphetamine including ratings of “high,” “anxious,” “bad drug effects,” “want more drug” and “drug liking” and was also associated with decreased performance in the SART test. How these enhanced subjective amphetamine responses affect cocaine use behavior remains to be determined in future clinical trials. PMID:18474395

  5. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsuo Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM to study the effective (directional neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard. The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition.

  6. Enhancing Subject Access to OPACs: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Shirley Anne

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of retrieval performance of controlled vocabulary derived from natural language terms in tables of contents and book indexes assumed that controlled vocabulary representative of users' queries should adequately represent documents' contents. Queries were indexed using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LSCH), Dewey Decimal…

  7. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Chanal

    Full Text Available This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1 showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified than for controlled (introjected and external motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects.

  8. ETHICS IN HEALTH CARE: INDUCEMENT AND HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNIR HOSSAIN TALUKDER

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, most health researchers or donor organizations considerinducement as a vital part in promoting research. They propose benefits, such as post research free medical treatment, food, insurance facilities, or even cash, in order to meet sufficient number of subjects. So, inducement may influence one to participate in a research. Is it ethical to offer inducement to human subjects? What are the risks in such practice? What will happen if the donor agencies use subjects by hiding possible risks from them? When an inducement can satisfy ethical criteria? The CIOMS, FDA, and other ethical guidelines hold that inducement is unethical because it involves enough risk for voluntary informed consent. Supporting this position, a group of ethicists has argued that inducement undermines voluntariness especially when subjects are poor and vulnerable, and thus, unethical. In contrast to them, others argue that inducement contributes to discover new knowledge which can improve miserable condition of the poor. In their view, an inducement maintains all ethical criteria including subject’s autonomy, and therefore, morally permissible. The paper focuses this debate and analyzes both types ofargument. It examines whether inducement invalidate informed consent.Even if inducement may not violate the basic components of informedconsent, the paper concludes, subjects may claim a prima facie right to enjoy research outcomes.

  9. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrin; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28) for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable. PMID:27891255

  10. Natural control capabilities of robotic hands by hand amputated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Caputo, Barbara; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    People with transradial hand amputations who own a myoelectric prosthesis currently have some control capabilities via sEMG. However, the control systems are still limited and not natural. The Ninapro project is aiming at helping the scientific community to overcome these limits through the creation of publicly available electromyography data sources to develop and test machine learning algorithms. In this paper we describe the movement classification results gained from three subjects with an homogeneous level of amputation, and we compare them with the results of 40 intact subjects. The number of considered subjects can seem small at first sight, but it is not considering the literature of the field (which has to face the difficulty of recruiting trans-radial hand amputated subjects). The classification is performed with four different classifiers and the obtained balanced classification rates are up to 58.6% on 50 movements, which is an excellent result compared to the current literature. Successively, for each subject we find a subset of up to 9 highly independent movements, (defined as movements that can be distinguished with more than 90% accuracy), which is a deeply innovative step in literature. The natural control of a robotic hand in so many movements could lead to an immediate progress in robotic hand prosthetics and it could deeply change the quality of life of amputated subjects.

  11. Effects of resveratrol alone or in combination with piperine on cerebral blood flow parameters and cognitive performance in human subjects: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wightman, Emma; Reay, Jonathon; Haskell, Crystal; Williamson, Gary; Dew, Tristan; Kennedy, David

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that resveratrol can increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the absence of improved cognitive performance in healthy, young human subjects during the performance of cognitively demanding tasks. This lack of cognitive effects may be due to low bioavailability and, in turn, reduced bioefficacy of resveratrol in vivo. Piperine can alter polyphenol pharmacokinetics, but previous studies have not investigated whether this affects the efficacy of the target compound. Ther...

  12. Comparing effects of soybean oil- and palm olein-based mayonnaise consumption on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles in human subjects: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with cross-over design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chuah, Khun-Aik; Chinna, Karuthan; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Masuda, Yasunobu; Sundram, Kalyana; Sugano, Michihiro

    2016-08-17

    Mayonnaise is used widely in contemporary human diet with widespread use as a salad dressing or spread on breads. Vegetable oils used in its formulation may be a rich source of ω-6 PUFAs and the higher-PUFA content of mayonnaise may be beneficial in mediating a hypocholesterolemic effect. This study, therefore, evaluated the functionality of mayonnaise on cardiometabolic risk within a regular human consumption scenario. Subjects underwent a randomized double-blind crossover trial, consuming diets supplemented with 20 g/day of either soybean oil-based mayonnaise (SB-mayo) or palm olein-based mayonnaise (PO-mayo) for 4 weeks each with a 2-week wash-out period. The magnitude of changes for metabolic outcomes between dietary treatments was compared with PO-mayo serving as the control. The data was analyzed by ANCOVA using the GLM model. Analysis was adjusted for weight changes. Treatments resulted in significant reductions in TC (diff = -0.25 mmol/L; P = 0.001), LDL-C (diff = -0.17 mmol/L; P = 0.016) and HDL-C (diff = -0.12 mmol/L; P  0.05). Lipoprotein particle change was significant with large LDL particles increasing after PO-mayo (diff = +63.2 nmol/L; P = 0.007) compared to SB-mayo but small LDL particles remained unaffected. Plasma glucose, apolipoproteins and oxidative stress markers remained unchanged. Daily use with 20 g of linoleic acid-rich SB-mayo elicited reductions in TC and LDL-C concentrations without significantly changing LDL-C:HDL-C ratio or small LDL particle distributions compared to the PO-mayo diet. This clinical trial was retrospectively registered with the National Medical Research Register, National Institute of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, (NMRR-15-40-24035; registered on 29/01/2015; https://www.nmrr.gov.my/fwbPage.jsp?fwbPageId=ResearchISRForm&fwbAction=Update&fwbStep=10&pk.researchID=24035&fwbVMenu=3&fwbResearchAction=Update ). Ethical approval was obtained from the National University of

  13. Problems of Controlled Vocabulary versus Uncontrolled Vocabulary in Subject Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly to survey the centennial controversy between controlled vocabulary v. uncontrolled vocabulary of subject indexing in the western library and information society. We also discuss the related problems in Chinese information retrieval systems and analyze the factors affecting their performance. [Article content in Chinese

  14. Gastroprotection induced by capsaicin in healthy human subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyula Mózsik; János Szolcsányi; István Rácz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the gastro-protective effect of capsaicin against the ethanol- and indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal damage in healthy human subjects.METHODS: The effects of small doses (1-8 μg/mL,100 mL) of capsaicin on the gastric acid secretion basal acid output (BAO) and its electrolyte concentration,gastric transmucosal potential difference (GTPD),ethanol- (5 mL 300 mL/L i.g.) and IND- (3x25 mg/d)induced gastric mucosal damage were tested in a randomized, prospective study of 84 healthy human subjects. The possible role of desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferents was tested by repeated exposures and during a prolonged treatment.RESULTS: Intragastric application of capsaicin decreased the BAO and enhanced "non-parietal" component, GTPD in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease of GTPD evoked by ethanol was inhibited by the capsaicin application,which was reproducible. Gastric microbleeding induced by IND was inhibited by co-administration with capsaicin,but was not influenced by two weeks pretreatment with a daily capsaicin dose of 3x400 μg i.g.CONCLUSION: Capsaicin in low concentration range protects against gastric injuries induced by ethanol or IND, which is attributed to stimulation of the sensory nerve endings.

  15. Human subjects protection issues in QUERI implementation research: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Mona

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the structure and specifics of these institutional review boards (IRBs can and do differ. This variation affects all types of research, particularly implementation research. Methods In 2001, we began a series of inter-related studies on implementing evidence-based collaborative care for depression in Veterans Health Administration primary care. We have submitted more than 100 IRB applications, amendments, and renewals, and in doing so, we have interacted with 13 VA and University IRBs across the United States (U.S.. We present four overarching IRB-related themes encountered throughout the implementation of our projects, and within each theme, identify key challenges and suggest approaches that have proved useful. Where applicable, we showcase process aids developed to assist in resolving a particular IRB challenge. Results There are issues unique to implementation research, as this type of research may not fit within the traditional Human Subjects paradigm used to assess clinical trials. Risks in implementation research are generally related to breaches of confidentiality, rather than health risks associated with traditional clinical trials. The implementation-specific challenges discussed are: external validity considerations, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, risk-benefit issues, the multiple roles of researchers and subjects, and system-level unit of analysis. Discussion Specific aspects of implementation research interact with variations in knowledge, procedures, and regulatory interpretations across IRBs to affect the implementation and study of best methods to increase evidence-based practice. Through lack of unambiguous guidelines and local liability concerns, IRBs are often at risk of applying both variable and inappropriate or

  16. 40 CFR 26.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 26.118 Section 26.118 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects... plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  17. 16 CFR 1028.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1028.118 Section 1028.118 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants, cooperative... subjects remain to be selected; and projects in which human subjects' involvement will depend...

  18. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821373

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  19. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that physician-resea

  20. An adaptive breath sampler for use with human subjects with an impaired respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, M; Koimtzis, T; Singh, D; Wilson, I; Thomas, C L P

    2007-02-01

    An adaptive sampler for collecting 2.5 dm(3) samples of exhaled air from human subjects with an impaired respiratory function is described. Pressure in the upper respiratory tract is continuously monitored and the data used to control an automated system to collect select portions of the expired breathing cycle onto a mixed bed Tenax(trade mark) and Carbotrap(trade mark) adsorbent trap for analysis by GC-MS. The sampling approach is intended for use in metabolomic profiling of volatiles in human breath at concentrations greater than microg m(-3). The importance of experimental reproducibility in metabolomic data is emphasised and consequently a high purity air supply is used to maintain a stable exogenous volatile organic compound profile at concentrations in the range 5 to 30 microg m(-3). The results of a 90 day stability study showed that exogenous VOCs were maintained at significantly lower levels (40 times lower for isopropyl alcohol) and with significantly higher reproducibility (80 times lower standard deviation for isopropyl alcohol) than would have been be the case if ambient air had been used. The sampling system was evaluated with healthy controls alongside subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subjects were able to breathe normally with control subjects observed to breathe at a rate of 9 to 17 breaths per minute, compared to 16 to 30 breaths per minute for subjects with COPD. This study presents, for the first time, observations and estimates of intra-subject breath sample reproducibility from human subjects. These reproducibility studies indicated that VOCs in exhaled breath exhibit a variety of dynamic behaviours, with some species recovered with a RSD <30%, while other species were observed to have significantly more variable concentrations, 30 to 130% RSD. The approach was also demonstrated to reliably differentiate the differences in the VOC profiles between alveolar and dead space air.

  1. Toxicokinetics of inhaled bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301) in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C. W.; Weir, F. W.; Williams-Cavender, K.; Tan, M. N.; Galen, T. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301, CBrF3), is used as a fire extinguishant in the Space Shuttle, where several scenarios, such as a fire or a faulty alarm, could lead to its discharge resulting in a Halon 1301 concentration of up to 1 percent in the cabin atmosphere. The effect of Halon 1301 on mental performance and physiologic function was investigated in a NASA-sponsored human inhalation study in which four pairs of male subjects were each exposed in a double-blind fashion for 24 hr to 1 percent Halon 1301 and to air in two exposures about 1 week apart. Blood and breath samples from the exposed subjects were collected to provide dosimetric and toxicokinetic information. Halon 1301 blood levels increased rapidly and approached a steady state within 2 hr of the beginning the exposure; the steady-state concentration was approximately 3-4.5 microg/ml. Breath samples collected during exposures closely reflected chamber concentrations. Analysis of postexposure blood samples revealed that Halon 1301 was eliminated biphasically with an average t(1/2) alpha and t(1/2) beta of 4.5 min and 200 min, respectively.

  2. Diclofenac delays micropore closure following microneedle treatment in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Nicole K; Milewski, Mikolaj; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2012-10-28

    Drugs absorbed poorly through the skin are commonly delivered via injection with a hypodermic needle, which is painful and increases the risk of transmitting infectious diseases. Microneedles (MNs) selectively and painlessly permeabilize the outermost skin layer, allowing otherwise skin-impermeable drugs to cross the skin through micron-sized pores and reach therapeutic concentrations. However, rapid healing of the micropores prevents further drug delivery, blunting the clinical utility of this unique transdermal technique. We present the first human study demonstrating that micropore lifetime can be extended following MN treatment. Subjects received one-time MN treatment and daily topical application of diclofenac sodium. Micropore closure was measured with impedance spectroscopy, and area under the admittance-time curve (AUC) was calculated. AUC was significantly higher at MN+diclofenac sodium sites vs. placebo, suggesting slower rates of micropore healing. Colorimetry measurements confirmed the absence of local erythema and irritation. This mechanistic human proof-of-concept study demonstrates that micropore lifetime can be prolonged with simple topical administration of a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of subclinical inflammation in micropore healing. These results will allow for longer patch wear time with MN-enhanced delivery, thus increasing patient compliance and expanding the transdermal field to a wider variety of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Active control of an aircraft tail subject to harmonic excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Eissa; H. S. Bauomy; Y. A. Amer

    2007-01-01

    Vibration of structures is often an undesirable phenomena and should be avoided or controlled. There are two techniques to control the vibration of a system, that is,active and passive control techniques. In this paper, a negative feedback velocity is applied to a dynamical system, which is represented by two coupled second order nonlinear differ-ential equations having both quadratic and cubic nonlinear-ties. The system describes the vibration of an aircraft tail.The system is subjected to multi-external excitation forces.The method of multiple time scale perturbation is applied to solve the nonlinear differential equations and obtain approx-imate solutions up to third order of accuracy. The stability of the system is investigated applying frequency response equations. The effects of the different parameters are stud-ied numerically. Various resonance cases are investigated. A comparison is made with the available published work.

  4. Nocturnal bruxing events in subjects with sleep-disordered breathing and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, J P; Phillips, B A; Berry, D T; Cook, Y R; Cabelka, J F

    1991-01-01

    Nocturnal bruxing events were recorded during a single night of sleep for 12 subjects with sleep-disordered breathing and 12 age- and sex-matched controls. The results suggest that bruxing events are very common in both groups and are closely associated with sleep arousals. There were few differences in the number, duration, or type of bruxing events between these two groups. Bruxing events were common during stage 1, stage 2, and REM sleep, while they rarely occurred during stage 3 and 4 sleep. The average duration of bruxing events ranged from 3.82 to 6.68 seconds. There was a trend toward more bruxing events occurring while sleeping on the back than on the side.

  5. 22 CFR 225.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 225.118 Section 225.118 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  6. 15 CFR 27.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 27.118 Section 27.118 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  7. 28 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for grants,...

  8. 14 CFR 1230.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 1230.118 Section 1230.118 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications for...

  9. Cold sore susceptibility gene-1 genotypes affect the expression of herpes labialis in unrelated human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesel, John D; Bhatia, Amiteshwar; Thomas, Alun

    2014-01-01

    Our group has recently described a gene on human chromosome 21, the Cold Sore Susceptibility Gene-1 (CSSG-1, also known as C21orf91), which may confer susceptibility to frequent cold sores in humans. We present here a genotype-phenotype analysis of CSSG-1 in a new, unrelated human population. Seven hundred fifty-eight human subjects were enrolled in a case/control Cold Sore Study. CSSG-1 genotyping, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) serotyping, demographic and phenotypic data was available from 622 analyzed subjects. Six major alleles (H1-H6) were tested for associations with each of the self-reported phenotypes. The statistical analysis was adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Genotype-phenotype associations were analyzed from 388 HSV1-seropositive subjects. There were significant CSSG-1 haplotype effects on annual cold sore outbreaks (P=0.006), lifetime cold sores (P=0.012) and perceived cold sore severity (P=0.012). There were relatively consistent trends toward protection from frequent and severe cold sores among those with the H3 or H5/6 haplotypes, whereas those with H1, H2, and H4 haplotypes tended to have more frequent and more severe episodes. Different alleles of the newly described gene CSSG-1 affect the expression of cold sore phenotypes in this new, unrelated human population, confirming the findings of the previous family-based study.

  10. 48 CFR 1352.235-70 - Protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subjects research involves pregnant women, prisoners, or children, the contractor is also required to... subjects research protocol, all questionnaires, surveys, advertisements, and informed consent forms..., questionnaires, surveys, advertisements, and informed consent forms by the cognizant IRB; (3) Documentation...

  11. Ethics commentary: subjects of knowledge and control in field primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, N M; Fuentes, A; White, F J

    2010-09-01

    Our primate kin are routinely displaced from their habitats, hunted for meat, captured for trade, housed in zoos, made to perform for our entertainment, and used as subjects in biomedical testing. They are also the subjects of research inquiries by field primatologists. In this article, we place primate field studies on a continuum of human and alloprimate relationships as a heuristic device to explore the unifying ethical implications of such inter-relationships, as well as address specific ethical challenges arising from common research protocols "in the field" (e.g. risks associated with habituation, disease transmission, invasive collection of biological samples, etc.). Additionally, we question the widespread deployment of conservation- and/or local economic development-based justifications for field-based primatological pursuits. Informed by decades of combined fieldwork experience in Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, we demonstrate the process by which the adherence to a particular ethical calculus can lead to unregulated and ethically problematic research agendas. In conclusion, we offer several suggestions to consider in the establishment of a formalized code of ethics for field primatology.

  12. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 26 RIN 2070-AJ76 Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides... human subjects and to persons who submit the results of human research with pesticides to EPA. The amendments broaden the applicability of the rules to cover human testing with pesticides submitted to EPA...

  13. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  14. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  15. 38 CFR 16.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 16.118 Section 16.118 Pensions, Bonuses... and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of applications... knowledge that subjects may be involved within the period of support, but definite plans would not...

  16. 32 CFR 219.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plans for involvement of human subjects. 219.118 Section 219.118 National Defense Department of Defense....118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types... agencies with the knowledge that subjects may be involved within the period of support, but definite...

  17. From the Philosophy of Consciousness to the Philosophy of Difference: The Subject for Education after Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Biesta has suggested that education after humanism should be interested in existence, not essence, in what the subject can do, not in what the subject is--the truth about the subject--and this is the way inspired by Foucault and Levinas. In this article, I analyze Foucault's alleged deconstruction and reconfiguration of the subject and Levinas'…

  18. From the Philosophy of Consciousness to the Philosophy of Difference: The Subject for Education after Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Biesta has suggested that education after humanism should be interested in existence, not essence, in what the subject can do, not in what the subject is--the truth about the subject--and this is the way inspired by Foucault and Levinas. In this article, I analyze Foucault's alleged deconstruction and reconfiguration of the subject and Levinas'…

  19. 10 CFR 745.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 745.118 Section 745.118 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human...

  20. Input reconstruction for networked control systems subject to deception attacks and data losses on control signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Y.; Chabir, K.; Sauter, D.

    2016-03-01

    State estimation of stochastic discrete-time linear systems subject to unknown inputs or constant biases has been widely studied but no work has been dedicated to the case where a disturbance switches between unknown input and constant bias. We show that such disturbance can affect a networked control system subject to deception attacks and data losses on the control signals transmitted by the controller to the plant. This paper proposes to estimate the switching disturbance from an augmented state version of the intermittent unknown input Kalman filter recently developed by the authors. Sufficient stochastic stability conditions are established when the arrival binary sequence of data losses follows a Bernoulli random process.

  1. Voluntary control of human jaw stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Houle, Guillaume; Ostry, David J

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies of human arm movement have suggested that the control of stiffness may be important both for maintaining stability and for achieving differences in movement accuracy. In the present study, we have examined the voluntary control of postural stiffness in 3D in the human jaw. The goal is to address the possible role of stiffness control in both stabilizing the jaw and in achieving the differential precision requirements of speech sounds. We previously showed that patterns of kinematic variability in speech are systematically related to the stiffness of the jaw. If the nervous system uses stiffness control as a means to regulate kinematic variation in speech, it should also be possible to show that subjects can voluntarily modify jaw stiffness. Using a robotic device, a series of force pulses was applied to the jaw to elicit changes in stiffness to resist displacement. Three orthogonal directions and three magnitudes of forces were tested. In all conditions, subjects increased the magnitude of jaw stiffness to resist the effects of the applied forces. Apart from the horizontal direction, greater increases in stiffness were observed when larger forces were applied. Moreover, subjects differentially increased jaw stiffness along a vertical axis to counteract disturbances in this direction. The observed changes in the magnitude of stiffness in different directions suggest an ability to control the pattern of stiffness of the jaw. The results are interpreted as evidence that jaw stiffness can be adjusted voluntarily, and thus may play a role in stabilizing the jaw and in controlling movement variation in the orofacial system.

  2. Salivary Alpha Amylase Activity in Human Beings of Different Age Groups Subjected to Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-01-01

    ... in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip...

  3. Vestibular implantation and longitudinal electrical stimulation of the semicircular canal afferents in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James O; Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Jameyson, Elyse; Phillips, Christopher M; Nowack, Amy L; Golub, Justin S; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Animal experiments and limited data in humans suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organs could be used to treat loss of vestibular function. In this paper we demonstrate that canal-specific two-dimensionally (2D) measured eye velocities are elicited from intermittent brief 2 s biphasic pulse electrical stimulation in four human subjects implanted with a vestibular prosthesis. The 2D measured direction of the slow phase eye movements changed with the canal stimulated. Increasing pulse current over a 0-400 μA range typically produced a monotonic increase in slow phase eye velocity. The responses decremented or in some cases fluctuated over time in most implanted canals but could be partially restored by changing the return path of the stimulation current. Implantation of the device in Meniere's patients produced hearing and vestibular loss in the implanted ear. Electrical stimulation was well tolerated, producing no sensation of pain, nausea, or auditory percept with stimulation that elicited robust eye movements. There were changes in slow phase eye velocity with current and over time, and changes in electrically evoked compound action potentials produced by stimulation and recorded with the implanted device. Perceived rotation in subjects was consistent with the slow phase eye movements in direction and scaled with stimulation current in magnitude. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the vestibular end organ in human subjects provided controlled vestibular inputs over time, but in Meniere's patients this apparently came at the cost of hearing and vestibular function in the implanted ear.

  4. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzales-Arimborgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii in adult human subjects living at low (LA and high altitude (HA. A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL, and chronic mountain sickness (CMS score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in

  5. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E.; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2016-01-01

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  6. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Thomas F; Haile, Colin N; Mahoney, James J; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R

    2015-11-30

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine's reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine.

  7. Dose estimation for repeated phosphorus-32 ingestion in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H.; Tseng, C.L.; Hsieh, W.A.; Hung, D.Z.; Chang, W.P. E-mail: wpc94@mailsrv.ym.edu.tw

    2001-01-15

    Dose estimation was conducted for internal phosphorus-32 exposure in one young male subject from repeated oral mis-ingestion for >1 year. Since disclosure for previous continuous contamination, a series of urine samples were collected from this individual weekly for a period of >2 months. P-32 radioactivity in urine samples were measured by the acid precipitation method. Estimation for retrospective total effective dose equivalent received by this subject was conducted for cumulative internal dose estimation. A minimum of 9.4 mSv was estimated for an assumed single ingestion. As this was a rare case in radiation protection and internal radiation dosimetry, its implications were of considerable significance.

  8. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  9. Have humans lost control: The elusive X-controlling element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Samantha B; Yang, Christine; Brown, Carolyn J

    2016-08-01

    The process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) randomly silences one of two X chromosomes in normal female cells. The ability to predict if there is a preference for one of the two Xs to be chosen (and survive) more often as the active X has important repercussions in human health and X-linked disease. Mice have a genetic component that modulates non-random skewing called the X-controlling element (Xce). Although the nature of the locus and its mechanisms of action are still under investigation, it is clear that different mouse strains carry unique Xce alleles on their X chromosomes, resulting in distinct skewing phenotypes in the F1 progeny of hybrid crosses. Whether a similar mechanism exists in humans is unclear, and challenges to identifying such a locus include the complexity and diversity of the human genome, the restricted time points and tissue(s) of examination in human subjects, and the lack of a model system recapitulating XCI in early development. In this review we consider the evidence for such a controlling locus in humans, in addition to discussing if we have the power to recognize it given the contribution of selective growth in causing skewed patterns of XCI.

  10. Human rhinovirus infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of rhinovirus asymptomatic infections in the transmission among close contacts subjects is unknown. We tested health care workers, a pair of one child and a family member and immunocompromised patients (n =191. HRV were detected on 22.9% symptomatic and 3.6% asymptomatic cases suggesting lower transmission among contacts.

  11. Human Biology teaching portfolio for education subject Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hlasová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to create a teaching portfolio with special attention to the educational content of Human Biology. Instructional manuals are created for teaching natural science at primary school and are focused on selected systems in Biology of the human being, which are: muscle system, breathing system, circulation system, digest system, sensuous system, and a chapter about nourishment. Regarding the present?day School educational programmes the teachers themselves choose the year ...

  12. Classification and Subject Cataloguing Section. Bibliographic Control Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on classification and subject cataloging which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "PRECIS: Basic Principles, Function, and Use," in which Derek Austin (United Kingdom) describes the automated subject indexing system developed for use in the "British…

  13. Subject,Object and Target Systems of Rural Human Resource Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From subject,object and target subsystems,we analyze the rural human resource development system.The subject system includes government,education and training organizations,society,and rural human resource itself.Different development subject bears different responsibility.Object system includes farmers engaged in farming,farmer workers,rural unemployed people,rural students,rural left-behind people,and other people in rural areas.Different development object has different features.Development target system includes raising quality of rural human resource,keeping reasonable population size,optimizing structure of rural human resource,and improving vitality of rural human resource,etc.

  14. Hallucinogenic drugs attenuate the subjective response to alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sean P; Archambault, Jennifer; Engelberg, Marla J; Pihl, Robert O

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated possible interactions between alcohol and hallucinogens in 22 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and/or psilocybin users through retrospective structured interviews. Of those who had used LSD with alcohol, 86;7 per cent reported a complete blockade of subjective alcohol effects, while the remaining cases reported a diminished response. In addition, 60 per cent of respondents who had used alcohol and psilocybin together reported a partial antagonism of subjective alcohol effects.T-test analyses revealed that LSD's antagonism of alcohol effects were significantly greater than those associated with psilocybin. It is proposed that LSD's effect on alcohol intoxication may involve interactions with various serotonergic and/or dopaminergic receptor systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Development and validation of a biomarker for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pimentel

    Full Text Available Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375 were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3. Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (n=142, subjects with celiac disease (n=121, and healthy controls (n=43 were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (P<0.001. Anti-vinculin titers were also significantly higher in IBS (P<0.001 compared to the other groups. The area-under-the-receiver operating curves (AUCs were 0.81 and 0.62 for diagnosis of D-IBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80 the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68 were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and

  16. Biologic effect of a hybrid preparation of human chorionic gonadotropin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, E

    1982-01-01

    Alpha and beta-hCG subunits were recombined generating a hybrid hCG preparation (AB1ER-CR-2XY) which met the required specifications of a pharmaceutical product. The biologic activity contained in each vial of AB1ER-CR-2XY was equivalent to 10 000IU of hCG-IS. This preparation was given as a single dose of 10 000IU by the i.m. route to four female subjects presenting unexplained infertility. The hCG hybrid was demonstrated to effect gonadal stimulation in humans.

  17. Quantifying human subjective experience and social interaction using the eXperience Induction Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardet, Ulysses; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Inderbitzin, Martin; Wierenga, Sytse; Mura, Anna; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2011-06-30

    With the advance of novel brain imaging technology more correlations between complex human properties and the neuronal substrate can be assessed. However, thus far, not many well-validated paradigms exist that would allow for a systematic and quantitative exploration of these phenomena. For instance, despite the rapid technological advances in the domain of mixed and virtual reality systems, a fundamental issue remains how we can define and quantify "presence". A standard approach has been to use questionnaires and self-report measures. However, it has been well established that humans' capabilities to access and externalize their internal states are limited. Hence, we have investigated the question whether other less subjective measures can be devised that can corroborate subjective self-reports on presence. In particular, we have developed a quantitative recollection task that assesses the ability of human subjects (N=40) to recollect the factual structure and organization of a structured and fully controlled experience in a human accessible mixed reality space, the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). In this structured experience - referred to as the "Autodemo"--a virtual guide explains the key elements and properties of XIM while the user is able to freely move around in the space. To evaluate the users' experience and the amount of factual information retained about the Autodemo, we used the ITC-SOPI questionnaire and a recall test specifically designed for the Autodemo. We found significant correlations between spatial presence and engagement factors of ITC-SOPI and recall performance. Moreover we observed an interaction with the participants' gender. Our results show that we can assess correlates of "presence" by focusing on other dependent measures such as those related to memory and performance. Additionally, our work exemplifies how virtual and mixed reality systems provide new ways to address fundamental questions in psychology and cognitive neuroscience

  18. 48 CFR 1352.235-73 - Research involving human subjects-after initial contract award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... women, prisoners, or children, the contractor is also required to follow the guidelines set forth at 45... documentation may include: (1) Copies of the human subjects research protocol, advertisements, recruitment... human subjects research protocol, advertisements, recruitment material, and informed consent forms...

  19. 7 CFR 1c.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 1c.118 Section 1c.118 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement...

  20. 45 CFR 46.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Research Subjects § 46.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 46.118 Section 46.118 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 49 CFR 11.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 11.118 Section 11.118 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans...

  2. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. 97.118 Section 97.118 Education Office of the Secretary, Department...

  3. HEW Proposed Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects: Experimentation and the Institutionalized Mentally Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington University Law Quarterly, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Underlying bases for federal interest in experimentation on human subjects, including abuses of investigative processes and efforts at regulation, are explored. Focus is on recent HEW rules on the protection of human subjects, which will have a significant impact on many research institutions. (LBH)

  4. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  5. The research subject advocate at minority Clinical Research Centers: an added resource for protection of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easa, David; Norris, Keith; Hammatt, Zoë; Kim, Kari; Hernandez, Esther; Kato, Kambrie; Balaraman, Venkataraman; Ho, Tammy; Shomaker, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    In early 2001, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) created the research subject advocate (RSA) position as an additional resource for human subjects protection at NIH-funded Clinical Research Centers (CRCs) to enhance the protection of human participants in clinical research studies. We describe the RSA position in the context of clinical research, with a particular emphasis on the role of the RSA in two of the five CRCs funded by the NIH Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) program. Through participation in protocol development, informed consent procedures, study implementation and follow-up with adverse events, the RSA works closely with research investigators and their staff to protect study participants. The RSA also conducts workshops, training and education sessions, and consultation with investigators to foster enhanced communication and adherence to ethical standards and safety regulations. Although we cannot yet provide substantive evidence of positive outcomes, this article illuminates the value of the RSA position in ensuring that safety of research participants is accorded the highest priority at CRCs. On the basis of initial results, we conclude that the RSA is an effective mechanism for achieving the NIH goal of maintaining the utmost scrutiny of protocols involving human subjects.

  6. Robot Tracking of Human Subjects in Field Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Shillcutt, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    Future planetary exploration will involve both humans and robots. Understanding and improving their interaction is a main focus of research in the Intelligent Systems Branch at NASA's Johnson Space Center. By teaming intelligent robots with astronauts on surface extra-vehicular activities (EVAs), safety and productivity can be improved. The EVA Robotic Assistant (ERA) project was established to study the issues of human-robot teams, to develop a testbed robot to assist space-suited humans in exploration tasks, and to experimentally determine the effectiveness of an EVA assistant robot. A companion paper discusses the ERA project in general, its history starting with ASRO (Astronaut-Rover project), and the results of recent field tests in Arizona. This paper focuses on one aspect of the research, robot tracking, in greater detail: the software architecture and algorithms. The ERA robot is capable of moving towards and/or continuously following mobile or stationary targets or sequences of targets. The contributions made by this research include how the low-level pose data is assembled, normalized and communicated, how the tracking algorithm was generalized and implemented, and qualitative performance reports from recent field tests.

  7. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG, a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™. The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045 and flare (P = 0.0143 when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024 and flare (P = 0.015 in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046. There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014

  8. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  9. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift in normal-hearing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Dell, Shawna; Hensley, Brittany; Hall, James W; Campbell, Kathleen C M; Antonelli, Patrick J; Green, Glenn E; Miller, James M; Guire, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is the availability of an established clinical paradigm with real-world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal-hearing human subjects. Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93 to 95 (n = 10), 98 to 100 (n = 11), or 100 to 102 (n = 12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of 4 hr. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured before and after music exposure. Postmusic tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and 1 week later. Changes in thresholds after the lowest-level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a "notch" configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean = 6.3 ± 3.9 dB; range = 0-14 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hr postexposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1 week postexposure. These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music-player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function after digital music-player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be taken to fully inform potential subjects in

  10. Subjective wellbeing and longevity: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michael E; Miller, Christopher J; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is increasingly defined not only by the absence of illness but by the presence of subjective well-being (SWB). Previous cohort studies have consistently shown that indicators of SWB predict favorable life outcomes, including better mental and somatic health, and longevity. The favor......Mental health is increasingly defined not only by the absence of illness but by the presence of subjective well-being (SWB). Previous cohort studies have consistently shown that indicators of SWB predict favorable life outcomes, including better mental and somatic health, and longevity....... The favorable effects associated with SWB have prompted new research aimed at raising happiness and wellbeing through individual interventions and public health initiatives. Standard observational studies of individual-level associations, however, are subject to potential confounding of exposure and outcome...

  11. Influence of diet on flatus volume in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. J.

    1971-01-01

    Ten flatulent but otherwise healthy subjects were studied while consuming two or three different diets. Flatus collections showed that a bean-containing, high crude-fibre diet produced more flatus (mean 49·4 ml/hr) than either a diet with a restricted crude-fibre content (mean 26·7 ml/hr) or a liquid chemically defined diet (mean 10·9 ml/hr). There was a close correlation between the crude-fibre content of the diet and the production of flatus. The results are consistent with the conclusion that flatus is not the result of swallowing air, but arises mainly from bacterial fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate, eg, cellulose, passing into the colon. PMID:5098326

  12. OKN asymmetry in human subjects: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Christopher M; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene

    2013-03-01

    Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is a reflex eye movement induced by motion of the whole or a large proportion of the visual field. It can be horizontal, vertical, and torsional in direction and consists of two basic components, a slow tracking movement and a rapid recovery saccade. Two forms of OKN exist: "look" and "stare" OKN. There is strong evidence that horizontal OKN is symmetrical in normal healthy adults and that the OKN gains can be influenced by a variety of different factors including target size, shape, contrast, and velocity. Vertical OKN on the other hand is less well understood, although there is a belief that vertical OKN is asymmetrical with an upward preference. Recent publications contradict this assertion. In this article a comprehensive literature review was carried out to determine whether a vertical OKN asymmetry exists in healthy subjects and to explain any anomalous findings.

  13. Allometric control of human gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lori Ann

    The purpose of the study was to extract the information contained in the fluctuations in the stride interval time series and the correlation properties of walking. To determine if the time series had memory or long-time correlation properties, the decay (loss) of correlation of the data across time was studied. The information acquired was to determine if control of walking could be better understood, by studying statistics of stride intervals. Furthermore, it was determined if the time series for walking was stable enough to establish a baseline for future studies. Allometric analysis was done on relaxed walking for 10 individuals. The data obtained during the experiments consisted of the time interval for a given stride and the number of strides in the sequence of steps. The maximal extension of the right leg, the ``stride interval'' versus the stride number, yielded a graph that has all the characteristics of a time series. Insight into the stride interval time series was obtained using relative dispersion, also know as the coefficient of variation, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. The results indicated memory in the control of walking for all subjects. Furthermore, memory was not maintained once the data was randomized suggesting the order of strides is important. The amount of memory differed for each subject, whereby some subjects had significant memory (high correlation coefficients = 0.693) while others showed low correlation coefficients. The relative dispersion for all subjects decreased with increasing aggregation number. This straight line with a negative slope depicted an inverse power-law relation between the relative dispersion and the aggregation number. The data does not have a dominant scale and can be evaluated on many scales without information lost. Although these data alone do not establish a baseline, the data analyzed using allometric analysis appears sufficiently stable to establish a baseline norm for walking. Finally, the

  14. Can ropinirole modulate reinforcing subjective effects of cocaine in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated, by means of the Cocaine Rush Visual Analogue Scale (CRVAS, the impact of ropinirole on the expected rush induced by cocaine in a group of heroin addicts abusing cocaine; the self-reported reaction to the rush blockade (if any on cocaine consumption, and the correlations between this self-reported reaction and individual, clinical and therapeutic parameters. Nineteen cocaine abuser heroin-dependent patients entered the study. Their experienced cocaine rush was 61.31±32.1% of the maximum effect previously experienced. Compared with their previous rush intensity 16 patients experienced significantly lower intensity, three the same intensity and none a higher intensity. In particular, two patients experienced a complete blockade of rush and reported a reduced use of cocaine. Fourteen patients experienced a partial blockade of cocaine rush; of these, nine reported they had reduced their use of cocaine. Ropinirole does diminish the subjective intensity of an expected cocaine rush, so interfering with the dynamics of reward, while supporting its possible use in the treatment of cocaine dependence.

  15. Robust Control for Uncertain Linear System Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust control scheme using composite nonlinear feedback (CNF technology is proposed to improve tracking control performance for the uncertain linear system with input saturation and unknown external disturbances. A disturbance observer is presented to estimate the unknown disturbance generated by a linear exogenous system. The designed gain matrix of the disturbance observer is determined by solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Based on the output of the designed disturbance observer, a robust CNF controller including a linear feedback control item and a nonlinear item is developed to follow the desired tracking signals. The linear feedback controller is designed using LMIs and the stability of the closed-loop system is proved via rigorous Lyapunov analysis. Finally, the extensive simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  17. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Control Subject to Actuation Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the control of coupled aeroelastic aircraft model which is configured with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system. The relative deflection between two adjacent flaps is constrained and this actuation constraint is accounted for when designing an effective control law for suppressing the wing vibration. A simple tuned-mass damper mechanism with two attached masses is used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of vibration suppression with confined motion of tuned masses. In this paper, a dynamic inversion based pseudo-control hedging (PCH) and bounded control approach is investigated, and for illustration, it is applied to the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) configured with VCCTEF system.

  18. Evaluation of Subjective and Objective Performance Metrics for Haptically Controlled Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dung Pham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our

  19. Role of betahistine in glycemic control of obese subjects: a placebo- controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hayder H. Al-Anbari; Ahmed S. Sahib; Amer O. Al-Mukhtar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor glycemic control, insulin resistance and abnormal beta cell function are of the most important complications that associated with obesity, targeting of such complications with pharmacological agents depending on the already existing central mechanism may decrease the incidence of morbidity and mortality among obese subjects. Betahistine is an anti-vertigo drug, commonly prescribed to patients with balance disorders or to improve vertigo symptoms associated with Meniere's dise...

  20. Higher prevalence and abundance of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the human gut of healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Iebba

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Members of the human intestinal microbiota are key players in maintaining human health. Alterations in the composition of gut microbial community (dysbiosis have been linked with important human diseases. Understanding the underlying processes that control community structure, including the bacterial interactions within the microbiota itself, is essential. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a gram-negative bacterium that preys other gram-negative species for survival, acting as a population-balancer. It was found in terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems, and in animal intestines, postulating its presence also in the human gut. METHODS: The present study was aimed to evaluate, by end-point PCR and qPCR, the presence of B. bacteriovorus in intestinal and faecal biopsy specimens from 92 paediatric healthy subjects and patients, suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD, Celiac disease and Cystic fibrosis (CF. RESULTS: i B. bacteriovorus was present and abundant only in healthy individuals, while it was heavily reduced in patients, as in the case of IBD and Celiac, while in CF patients and relative controls we observed comparable results; ii B. bacteriovorus seemed to be mucosa-associated, because all IBD and Celiac biopsies (and related controls were treated with mucus-removing agents, leaving only the mucosa-attached microflora; iii B. bacteriovorus abundance was district-dependent, with a major preponderance in duodenum, and gradually decreasing up to rectum; iv B. bacteriovorus levels significantly dropped in disease status, in duodenum and ileum. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained in this study could represent the first step for new therapeutic strategies aimed to restore a balance in the intestinal ecosystem, utilizing Bdellovibrio as a probiotic.

  1. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  2. Liver Afferents Contribute to Water Drinking-Induced Sympathetic Activation in Human Subjects: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcus; Gueler, Faikah; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Heiringhoff, Karl-Heinz; Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, André; Brandt, André; Strassburg, Christian P.; Tank, Jens; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Jordan, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant) as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant) as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (pwater drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431 PMID:22016786

  3. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431.

  4. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  5. Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO) damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four convert...

  6. A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Jewett, Megan E.; Cajochen, Christian; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The circadian pacemaker is differentially sensitive to the resetting effects of retinal light exposure, depending upon the circadian phase at which the light exposure occurs. Previously reported human phase response curves (PRCs) to single bright light exposures have employed small sample sizes, and were often based on relatively imprecise estimates of circadian phase and phase resetting. In the present study, 21 healthy, entrained subjects underwent pre- and post-stimulus constant routines (CRs) in dim light (approximately 2-7 lx) with maintained wakefulness in a semi-recumbent posture. The 6.7 h bright light exposure stimulus consisted of alternating 6 min fixed gaze (approximately 10 000 lx) and free gaze (approximately 5000-9000 lx) exposures. Light exposures were scheduled across the circadian cycle in different subjects so as to derive a PRC. Plasma melatonin was used to determine the phase of the onset, offset, and midpoint of the melatonin profiles during the CRs. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in phase between the pre- and post-stimulus CRs. The resultant PRC of the midpoint of the melatonin rhythm revealed a characteristic type 1 PRC with a significant peak-to-trough amplitude of 5.02 h. Phase delays occurred when the light stimulus was centred prior to the critical phase at the core body temperature minimum, phase advances occurred when the light stimulus was centred after the critical phase, and no phase shift occurred at the critical phase. During the subjective day, no prolonged 'dead zone' of photic insensitivity was apparent. Phase shifts derived using the melatonin onsets showed larger magnitudes than those derived from the melatonin offsets. These data provide a comprehensive characterization of the human PRC under highly controlled laboratory conditions.

  7. Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four converters based on the concept developed by Uppsala University is studied. In the solution, motion constraints, including constraints on the amplitudes of displacement and velocity, are included. Twelve months of sea states, based on measured wave data at the Lysekil test site on the Swedish west coast, are used in the simulation to evaluate the performance of the wave energy farm using the new method. Results from the new coordinated control method and traditional control method are compared, indicating that the coordinated control of wave energy converters is an effective way to improve the energy production of wave energy farm in harmonic waves.

  8. Hans Jonas' Thought on The Ethics of Research on Human Subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Subjects: Implications for Contemporary Medical Research in. Nigeria. Ebeh J.I1 and ... Keywords: Human Research ethics, Nigeria, Hans Jonas. *Author for corresp .... 1998) reported a case of over sixty embryos that were transplanted into ...

  9. Using genetic algorithms with subjective input from human subjects: implications for fitting hearing aids and cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başkent, Deniz; Eiler, Cheryl L; Edwards, Brent

    2007-06-01

    To present a comprehensive analysis of the feasibility of genetic algorithms (GA) for finding the best fit of hearing aids or cochlear implants for individual users in clinical or research settings, where the algorithm is solely driven by subjective human input. Due to varying pathology, the best settings of an auditory device differ for each user. It is also likely that listening preferences vary at the same time. The settings of a device customized for a particular user can only be evaluated by the user. When optimization algorithms are used for fitting purposes, this situation poses a difficulty for a systematic and quantitative evaluation of the suitability of the fitting parameters produced by the algorithm. In the present study, an artificial listening environment was generated by distorting speech using a noiseband vocoder. The settings produced by the GA for this listening problem could objectively be evaluated by measuring speech recognition and comparing the performance to the best vocoder condition where speech was least distorted. Nine normal-hearing subjects participated in the study. The parameters to be optimized were the number of vocoder channels, the shift between the input frequency range and the synthesis frequency range, and the compression-expansion of the input frequency range over the synthesis frequency range. The subjects listened to pairs of sentences processed with the vocoder, and entered a preference for the sentence with better intelligibility. The GA modified the solutions iteratively according to the subject preferences. The program converged when the user ranked the same set of parameters as the best in three consecutive steps. The results produced by the GA were analyzed for quality by measuring speech intelligibility, for test-retest reliability by running the GA three times with each subject, and for convergence properties. Speech recognition scores averaged across subjects were similar for the best vocoder solution and for the

  10. Experimentation with human subjects: a critique of the views of Hans Jonas.

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, A.

    1983-01-01

    The ethics of experimentation on human subjects has become the subject of much debate among medical scientists and philosophers. Ethical problems and conflicts of interest become especially serious when research subjects are recruited from the class of patients. Are patients who are ill and suffering in a position to give voluntary and informed consent? Are there inevitable conflicts of interest and moral obligation when a personal physician recruits his own patients for an experiment designe...

  11. 45 CFR 690.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects. Certain types of... knowledge that subjects may be involved within the period of support, but definite plans would not normally... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications and proposals lacking definite...

  12. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...

  13. Swinging on the pendulum. Shifting views of justice in human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, A; Kahn, J

    2001-01-01

    Federal policies on human subjects research have performed a near-about face. In the 1970s, policies were motivated chiefly by a belief that subjects needed protection from the harms and risks of research. Now the driving concern is that patients, and the populations they represent, need access to the benefits of research.

  14. Effects of growth hormone on glucose and fat metabolism in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Møller, Louise; Krag, Morten Brøgger

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on in vivo data from tests performed in normal subjects and in patients who had abnormal growth hormone (GH) status. Experimental data in human subjects demonstrate that GH acutely inhibits glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. At the same time GH stimulates the turnover...

  15. Single muscle fibre contractile properties differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, J.P; Jaspers, R.T.; Rittweger, Jörn; SEYNNES, OLIVIER R.; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Brazaitis, M.; Skurvydas, A.; Pisot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan; Narici, Maco V.; Degens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do the contractile properties of single muscle fibres differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects? •What is the main finding and its importance? Peak power normalized for muscle fibre volume in power athletes is higher than in control subjects. Compared with control subjects, maximal isometric tension (normalized for muscle fibre cross-sectional area) is lower in body-builders. Although this difference may be cause...

  16. Chaos control for the plates subjected to subsonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Hamed; Younesian, Davood

    2016-07-01

    The suppression of chaotic motion in viscoelastic plates driven by external subsonic air flow is studied. Nonlinear oscillation of the plate is modeled by the von-Kármán plate theory. The fluid-solid interaction is taken into account. Galerkin's approach is employed to transform the partial differential equations of the system into the time domain. The corresponding homoclinic orbits of the unperturbed Hamiltonian system are obtained. In order to study the chaotic behavior of the plate, Melnikov's integral is analytically applied and the threshold of the excitation amplitude and frequency for the occurrence of chaos is presented. It is found that adding a parametric perturbation to the system in terms of an excitation with the same frequency of the external force can lead to eliminate chaos. Variations of the Lyapunov exponent and bifurcation diagrams are provided to analyze the chaotic and periodic responses. Two perturbation-based control strategies are proposed. In the first scenario, the amplitude of control forces reads a constant value that should be precisely determined. In the second strategy, this amplitude can be proportional to the deflection of the plate. The performance of each controller is investigated and it is found that the second scenario would be more efficient.

  17. Emotional and physiologic responses to laboratory challenges: patients with temporomandibular disorders versus matched control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, S L; Carlson, C R; Okeson, J P

    1996-01-01

    This study explored psychologic and physiologic factors differentiating patients with temporomandibular disorders (n = 23) from sex-, age-, and weight-matched asymptomatic control subjects. Each subject completed several standard psychologic questionnaires and then underwent two laboratory stressors (mental arithmetic and pressure-pain stimulation). Results indicated that patients with temporomandibular disorders had greater resting respiration rates and reported greater anxiety, sadness, and guilt relative to control subjects. In response to the math stressor, patients with temporomandibular disorders reacted with greater anger than did control subjects. There were no differences between patients with temporomandibular disorders and control subjects on pain measures or any other measured variable for the pressure-pain stimulation trial. In addition, there were no differences in electromyography levels between patients with temporomandibular disorders and control subjects. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of this common and debilitating set of disorders.

  18. Effect of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index and phagocytosis tested in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaik, Muhammad Ahmed; Ahmed, Asif; Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla; Jan, Saleem; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed; Perveen, Shahida; Azim, Muhammad Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The Grewia asiatica (commonly known as Phalsa or Fasla) is a shrub or small tree found in southern Asia. It produces purple to black color fruit when ripe. In folk medicine the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. The current study described the effects of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index (GI) and phagocytosis in healthy non-diabetic human subjects. The results showed that Grewia asiatica fruit has low GI value of 5.34 with modest hypoglycemic activity. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was carried out to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the oxidative burst activity of whole blood. ROS production was found to be significantly affected, having the 78.3, 58.6 and 30.8% when the subjects were fed with D-glucose, mixture of D-glucose and Grewia asiatica fruit and Grewia asiatica fruit alone respectively as compared to the control. The aqueous, methanolic and butanolic extracts of Grewia asiatica fruits were found to produce a stimulatory effect on ROS production however; the chloroform, hexane and ethanol-acetate extracted exerted significant inhibitory effect. These results demonstrated that Grewia asiatica fruit has desirable effects on blood glucose metabolism manifested as low glycemic response and modulation of ROS production.

  19. Paying human subjects in research: where are we, how did we get here, and now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWalde, Ari; Kurzban, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Both international and federal regulations exist to ensure that scientists perform research on human subjects in an environment free of coercion and in which the benefits of the research are commensurate with the risks involved. Ensuring that these conditions hold is difficult, and perhaps even more so when protocols include the issue of monetary compensation of research subjects. The morality of paying human research subjects has been hotly debated for over 40 years, and the grounds for this debate have ranged from discussion of legal rights, economic rights, philosophical principles of vulnerability and altruism to bioethical concepts of consent, best-interest determination, and justice theory. However, the thought surrounding these issues has evolved over time, and the way we think about the role of the human research subject today is markedly different than the way we thought in the past. Society first thought of the research subject as an altruist, necessarily giving of his time to benefit society as a whole. As time progressed, many suggested that the subject should not need to sacrifice himself for research: if something goes wrong, someone should compensate the subject for injuries. The concept of redress evolved into a system in which subjects were offered money as an inducement to participate in research, sometimes merely to offset the monetary costs of participation, but sometimes even to mitigate the risks of the study. This article examines ethical and legal conversations regarding compensation from the 1960s through today, examining theories of the ethics of compensation both comparatively and critically. In conclusion, we put forward an ethical framework for treating paid research subjects, with an attempt to use this framework as a means of resolving some of the more difficult problems with paying human subjects in research.

  20. Thermal quantitative sensory testing: a study of 101 control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Jessica; Lee, Geoffrey; Joester, Jenna; Lynch, Mary; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Wrigley, Paul J; Ng, Karl

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative sensory testing is useful for the diagnosis, confirmation and monitoring of small fibre neuropathies. Normative data have been reported but differences in methodology, lack of age-specific values and graphical presentation of data make much of these data difficult to apply in a clinical setting. We have collected normative age-specific thermal threshold data for use in a clinical setting and clarified other factors influencing reference values, including the individual machine or operator. Thermal threshold studies were performed on 101 healthy volunteers (21-70 years old) using one of two Medoc Thermal Sensory Analyser II machines (Medoc, Ramat Yishai, Israel) with a number of operators. A further study was performed on 10 healthy volunteers using both machines and one operator at least 3 weeks apart. Thermal threshold detection increases with age and is different for different body regions. There is no significant difference seen in results between machines of the same make and model; however, different operators may influence results. Normative data for thermal thresholds should be applied using only age- and region-specific values and all operators should be trained and strictly adhere to standard protocols. To our knowledge, this is the largest published collection of normal controls for thermal threshold testing presented with regression data which can easily be used in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences in emotion-related cognitive processes in irritable bowel syndrome and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Jennifer S; Gupta, Arpana; Coveleskie, Kristen; Tillisch, Kirsten; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Jarcho, Johanna; Feier, Natasha; Bueller, Joshua; Stains, Jean; Smith, Suzanne; Suyenobu, Brandall; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2013-10-01

    Greater responsiveness of emotional arousal circuits in relation to delivered visceral pain has been implicated as underlying central pain amplification in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with female subjects showing greater responses than male subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotion recognition paradigm, using faces expressing negative emotions (fear and anger). Sex and disease differences in the connectivity of affective and modulatory cortical circuits were studied in 47 IBS (27 premenopausal female subjects) and 67 healthy control subjects (HCs; 38 premenopausal female subjects). Male subjects (IBS+HC) showed greater overall brain responses to stimuli than female subjects in prefrontal cortex, insula, and amygdala. Effective connectivity analyses identified major sex- and disease-related differences in the functioning of brain networks related to prefrontal regions, cingulate, insula, and amygdala. Male subjects had stronger connectivity between anterior cingulate subregions, amygdala, and insula, whereas female subjects had stronger connectivity to and from the prefrontal modulatory regions (medial/dorsolateral cortex). Male IBS subjects demonstrate greater engagement of cortical and affect-related brain circuitry compared to male control subjects and female subjects, when viewing faces depicting emotions previously shown to elicit greater behavioral and brain responses in male subjects.

  2. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote... shall survey the patient or the human research subject and the remote afterloader unit with a...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1203 - Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus), a nursing woman... Exposure of Human Subjects who are Children or Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1203 Prohibition of research involving intentional exposure of any human subject who is a pregnant woman (and therefore her fetus),...

  4. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ramnani, Priya; Costabile, Adele; Bustillo, A. G. R.; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal ...

  5. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  6. The Effect of Drinking on Plasma Vasopressin and Renin in Dehydrated Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mechanisms activated by drinking have been shown to induce a rapid decline in plasma vasopressin which preceeds postabsorptive changes in plasma composition in the dehydrated dog. The present study was undertaken to determine what factor(s) inhibit(s) vasopressin secretion after rehydration in water deprived human subjects. Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined on the day of the experiment, together with electrolytes and osmolalities which were measured on freshly separated serum. Plasma was immediately frozen and further analyzed by radioimmunoassay for renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone. The data were analyzed using an analysis of variance for repeated measurements and significant differences between the dehydrated control period and various time points after the start of rehydration were determined using a multiple-range test. began and reached water replete levels 15 minutes after drinking in the absence of any detectable decline in serum sodium or osmolality, we conclude that 427 oropharyngeal factors, alone or combined with gastric distension account for the extremely rapid inhibition of AVP secretion after drinking in the water-deprived human, as has been shown to be the case in dogs. Our findings are also in agreement wiht the recent demonstration that at the onset of drinking in the dehydrated monkey, there is an abrupt fall in plasma AVP concentration associated with a considerable decrease in the firing rate of the supraoptic neurosecretory neurons.

  7. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  8. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  9. Adaptive Human Control Gains During Precision Grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Engeberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight human test subjects attempted to track a desired position trajectory with an instrumented manipulandum (MN. The test subjects used the MN with three different levels of stiffness. A transfer function was developed to represent the human application of a precision grip from the data when the test subjects initially displaced the MN so as to learn the position mapping from the MN onto the display. Another transfer function was formed from the data of the remainder of the experiments, after significant displacement of the MN occurred. Both of these transfer functions accurately modelled the system dynamics for a portion of the experiments, but neither was accurate for the duration of the experiments because the human grip dynamics changed while learning the position mapping. Thus, an adaptive system model was developed to describe the learning process of the human test subjects as they displaced the MN in order to gain knowledge of the position mapping. The adaptive system model was subsequently validated following comparison with the human test subject data. An examination of the average absolute error between the position predicted by the adaptive model and the actual experimental data yielded an overall average error of 0.34mm for all three levels of stiffness.

  10. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  11. Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Mimnall, Rebecca K

    2015-08-01

    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are the absence of maximum limits to risk and the potential for institutional review boards to include questionable benefits to subjects and society when weighing the risks and benefits of research protocols. The lack of a duty of medical care by physician-investigators to research subjects is likewise of concern. The transparency of microbial challenge experiments and the safety concerns raised in this work may stimulate further dialogue on the risks to participants of human experimentation.

  12. Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: the science and the state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed, with emphasis on internal validity issues, the number of participants enrolled in published studies, operational specification of the dependent and independent variables, and reliability of measurement. As a result of reading this paper, the participant will: (1) understand the mechanisms required for demonstration of internal and external validity using single subject controlled experimental designs, (2) become familiar with the basic requirements of single subject controlled experimental research, (3) understand the types of single subject controlled experimental designs that are the most appropriate for studying the effects of treatment for aphasia, and (4) become familiar with trends in the published aphasia treatment literature in which single subject controlled experimental designs have been used.

  13. Antibody responses to bacteriophage phi X-174 in human subjects exposed to the antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, W. T.; Lugg, D. J.; Rosenblatt, H. M.; Nickolls, P. M.; Sharp, R. M.; Reuben, J. M.; Ochs, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that exposure to long-term spaceflight conditions (stress, isolation, sleep disruption, containment, microbial contamination, and solar radiation) or to ground-based models of spaceflight will alter human immune responses, but specific antibody responses have not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether exposure to the 8-month Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight would alter human antibody responses. METHODS: During the 1999 Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions, 11 adult study subjects at Casey, Antarctica, and 7 control subjects at Macquarie Island, sub-Antarctica, received primary and secondary immunizations with the T cell-dependent neoantigen bacteriophage phi X-174. Periodic plasma samples were analyzed for specific antibody function. RESULTS: All of the subjects from Casey, Antarctica, cleared bacteriophage phi X-174 normally by 1 week after primary immunization, and all had normal primary and secondary antibody responses, including immunologic memory amplification and switch from IgM to IgG antibody production. One subject showed a high normal pattern, and one subject had a low normal pattern. The control subjects from Macquarie Island also had normal immune responses to bacteriophage phi X-174. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support the hypothesis that de novo specific antibody responses of subjects become defective during the conditions of the Antarctic winter-over. Because the Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight lacks the important factors of microgravity and solar radiation, caution must be used in interpreting these data to anticipate normal antibody responses in long-term spaceflight.

  14. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  15. A Method for Remotely Sensing Vital Signs of Human Subjects Outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuantao Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions, finding survivors is a huge challenge. Although human bodies can be found by smart vehicles and drones equipped with cameras, it is difficult to verify if the person is alive or dead this way. This paper describes a continuous wave radar sensor for remotely sensing the vital signs of human subjects. Firstly, a compact and portable 24 GHz Doppler radar system is designed to conduct non-contact detection of respiration signal. Secondly, in order to improve the quality of the respiration signals, the self-correlation and adaptive line enhancer (ALE methods are proposed to minimize the interferences of any moving objects around the human subject. Finally, the detection capabilities of the radar system and the signal processing method are verified through experiments which show that human respiration signals can be extracted when the subject is 7 m away outdoors. The method provided in this paper will be a promising way to search for human subjects outdoors.

  16. A Method for Remotely Sensing Vital Signs of Human Subjects Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Jin, Jingxi; Lv, Hao; Li, Sheng; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2015-01-01

    After chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions, finding survivors is a huge challenge. Although human bodies can be found by smart vehicles and drones equipped with cameras, it is difficult to verify if the person is alive or dead this way. This paper describes a continuous wave radar sensor for remotely sensing the vital signs of human subjects. Firstly, a compact and portable 24 GHz Doppler radar system is designed to conduct non-contact detection of respiration signal. Secondly, in order to improve the quality of the respiration signals, the self-correlation and adaptive line enhancer (ALE) methods are proposed to minimize the interferences of any moving objects around the human subject. Finally, the detection capabilities of the radar system and the signal processing method are verified through experiments which show that human respiration signals can be extracted when the subject is 7 m away outdoors. The method provided in this paper will be a promising way to search for human subjects outdoors. PMID:26115454

  17. Embedded human control of robots using myoelectric interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuvan, Chris Wilson; Ison, Mark; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-07-01

    Myoelectric controlled interfaces have become a research interest for use in advanced prostheses, exoskeletons, and robot teleoperation. Current research focuses on improving a user's initial performance, either by training a decoding function for a specific user or implementing "intuitive" mapping functions as decoders. However, both approaches are limiting, with the former being subject specific, and the latter task specific. This paper proposes a paradigm shift on myoelectric interfaces by embedding the human as controller of the system to be operated. Using abstract mapping functions between myoelectric activity and control actions for a task, this study shows that human subjects are able to control an artificial system with increasing efficiency by just learning how to control it. The method efficacy is tested by using two different control tasks and four different abstract mappings relating upper limb muscle activity to control actions for those tasks. The results show that all subjects were able to learn the mappings and improve their performance over time. More interestingly, a chronological evaluation across trials reveals that the learning curves transfer across subsequent trials having the same mapping, independent of the tasks to be executed. This implies that new muscle synergies are developed and refined relative to the mapping used by the control task, suggesting that maximal performance may be achieved by learning a constant, arbitrary mapping function rather than dynamic subject- or task-specific functions. Moreover, the results indicate that the method may extend to the neural control of any device or robot, without limitations for anthropomorphism or human-related counterparts.

  18. An Adaptive Neuromuscular Controller for Assistive Lower-Limb Exoskeletons: A Preliminary Study on Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI, where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery. Here we demonstrate the capability of a novel, biologically-inspired neuromuscular controller (NMC which uses dynamical models of lower limb muscles to assist the gait of SCI subjects. Advantages of this controller include robustness, modularity, and adaptability. The controller requires very few inputs (i.e., joint angles, stance, and swing detection, can be decomposed into relevant control modules (e.g., only knee or hip control, and can generate walking at different speeds and terrains in simulation. We performed a preliminary evaluation of this controller on a lower-limb knee and hip robotic gait trainer with seven subjects (N = 7, four with complete paraplegia, two incomplete, one healthy to determine if the NMC could enable normal-like walking. During the experiment, SCI subjects walked with body weight support on a treadmill and could use the handrails. With controller assistance, subjects were able to walk at fast walking speeds for ambulatory SCI subjects—from 0.6 to 1.4 m/s. Measured joint angles and NMC-provided joint torques agreed reasonably well with kinematics and biological joint torques of a healthy subject in shod walking. Some differences were found between the torques, such as the lack of knee flexion near mid-stance, but joint angle trajectories did not seem greatly affected. The NMC also adjusted its torque output to provide more joint work at faster speeds and thus greater joint angles and step length. We also found that the optimal speed-step length curve observed in healthy humans emerged for most of the subjects, albeit with relatively longer step length at faster speeds. Therefore, with very few sensors and no predefined

  19. Olfactory Sensitivity for Six Predator Odorants in CD-1 Mice, Human Subjects, and Spider Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafchi, Amir; Odhammer, Anna M. E.; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Laska, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Using a conditioning paradigm, we assessed the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) for six sulfur-containing odorants known to be components of the odors of natural predators of the mouse. With all six odorants, the mice discriminated concentrations <0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with five of the six odorants the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations <1 ppt (parts per trillion). Four female spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and twelve human subjects (Homo sapiens) tested in parallel were found to detect the same six odorants at concentrations <0.01 ppm, and with four of the six odorants the best-scoring animals and subjects even detected concentrations <10 ppt. With all three species, the threshold values obtained here are generally lower than (or in the lower range of) those reported for other chemical classes tested previously, suggesting that sulfur-containing odorants may play a special role in olfaction. Across-species comparisons showed that the mice were significantly more sensitive than the human subjects and the spider monkeys with four of the six predator odorants. However, the human subjects were significantly more sensitive than the mice with the remaining two odorants. Human subjects and spider monkeys significantly differed in their sensitivity with only two of the six odorants. These comparisons lend further support to the notion that the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or the relative or absolute size of the olfactory bulbs are poor predictors of a species’ olfactory sensitivity. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both mice and human subjects the type of alkyl rest attached to a thietane and the type of oxygen moiety attached to a thiol significantly affected olfactory sensitivity. PMID:24278296

  20. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23

  1. Effects of food on cortisol and mood in vulnerable subjects under controllable and uncontrollable stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, R.; Panhuysen, G.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in stress-prone subjects, carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor food (CR/PP) diminished depressive mood and a cortisol response under controllable as well as uncontrollable laboratory stress. Twenty-two subjects with high stress proneness (HS) and 23 subjec

  2. Human Operator Control Strategy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    fashion. HOPE reflects the two-store theory of memory current in the psycho- logical literature ( Atkinson & Shiffrin , 1968; Broadbent, 1971). Two...uncertainty. In P.M.A. Rabbit & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and performance V. New York: Academic Press, 1975. Atkinson , R. C., & Shiffrin , R. M. Human...48 2. The Perception Process ... ............... 50 3. The Command Memory and Command Selection Process

  3. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  4. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. de Jong

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for m

  5. Ethical and Legal Considerations in Dental Caries Research Using Human Subjects: Conference Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Joanna

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research are discussed. It is concluded that dentistry must not uncritically accept guidelines meant for a broader class of research, that guidelines can be misapplied, and that researchers must educate themselves on the Commission…

  6. Education and the Labour Market: Subjective Aspects of Human Capital Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, John; Turton, Richard; Diamond, Wayne; Dosnon, Odile; Wach, Monique

    1999-01-01

    Explores subjective aspects of human-capital investment decisions in education. Explores connections that 11th- and 13th-year British students perceive between their education and the labor market, and between qualifications mechanisms and life chances. Most students believe education plays a market-signaling role and a marginal role in raising…

  7. 48 CFR 1352.235-71 - Protection of human subjects-exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...). (f) In the event the human subjects research involves pregnant women, prisoners, or children..., all questionnaires, surveys, advertisements, and informed consent forms approved by the cognizant IRB..., advertisements, and informed consent forms by the cognizant IRB; (3) Documentation of continuing IRB approval...

  8. Validity of animal models for the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee diterpenes in human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Sawyer, J.K.; Katan, M.B.; Rudel, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol, coffee lipids present in unfiltered coffee brews, potently increase LDL-cholesterol concentration in human subjects. We searched for an animal species in which cafestol similarly increases LDL-cholesterol. Such an animal model could be used subsequently as a model to study the

  9. Synchronization of lower limb motor unit activity during walking in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Naja L; Hansen, S; Christensen, L. O. D.

    2001-01-01

    Synchronization of motor unit activity was investigated during treadmill walking (speed: 3-4 km/h) in 25 healthy human subjects. Recordings were made by pairs of wire electrodes inserted into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and by pairs of surface electrodes placed over this muscle and a number...

  10. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  11. A Pilot Study of Phase-Evoked Acoustic Responses From the Ears of Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Dewey, James; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2015-01-01

    cochlear excitation revealing properties of the nonlinearity responsible for OAE generation. To explore the temporal properties of OAEs further, we studied acoustic responses from the ears of nine young, normal-hearing human subjects to abrupt changes in the phase of pure tones. The measurement paradigm...

  12. Overcoming Deformations of the Legal Consciousness of Teenagers through the Medium of Teaching Humanities Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a model for teaching humanities subjects, which is oriented towards overcoming deformations of the legal consciousness of teenagers. The author provides a description of the model’s aims, content, stages, and procedural characteristics. The author views the learning process as the opportunity to forestall illicit behavior by the underage.

  13. Overcoming Deformations of the Legal Consciousness of Teenagers through the Medium of Teaching Humanities Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Katysheva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a model for teaching humanities subjects, which is oriented towards overcoming deformations of the legal consciousness of teenagers. The author provides a description of the model’s aims, content, stages, and procedural characteristics. The author views the learning process as the opportunity to forestall illicit behavior by the underage.

  14. Human response to an individually controlled microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Knudsen, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The response of 48 subjects to an individually controlled microenvironment was studied at room air temperatures of 20 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 26 degrees C An individually controlled system (ICS) comprising personalized ventilation, an under-desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair...... who are comfortable with their microenvironment....

  15. Biomarkers of mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle of healthy young human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Nielsen, Joachim; Neigaard Nielsen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    closely associated these commonly used biochemical measures are to muscle mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS).Sixteen young healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and muscle......Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content varies extensively between human subjects. Biochemical measures of mitochondrial proteins, enzyme activities and lipids are often used as markers of mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS). The purpose of this study was to determine how...... to muscle oxidative capacity followed by complex II activity.We conclude that cardiolipin content, CS and complex I activity are the biomarkers that exhibit the strongest association to mitochondrial content, while complex IV activity is strongly associated with OXPHOS capacity in human skeletal muscle....

  16. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C; Sturgeon, Gregory M; Segars, William P; Ghate, Sujata V; Nolte, Loren W; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y

    2015-07-01

    Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power-law descriptions of the phantom images

  17. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  18. Reflex control of human jaw muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Kemal S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss what is known about the reflex control of the human masticatory system and to propose a method for standardized investigation. Literature regarding the current knowledge of activation of jaw muscles, receptors involved in the feedback control, and reflex pathways is discussed. The reflexes are discussed under the headings of the stimulation conditions. This was deliberately done to remind the reader that under each stimulation condition, several receptor systems are activated, and that it is not yet possible to stimulate only one afferent system in isolation in human mastication experiments. To achieve a method for uniform investigation, we need to set a method for stimulation of the afferent pathway under study with minimal simultaneous activation of other receptor systems. This stimulation should also be done in an efficient and reproducible way. To substantiate our conviction to standardize the stimulus type and parameters, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical and electrical stimuli. For mechanical stimulus to be delivered in a reproducible way, the following precautions are suggested: The stimulus delivery system (often a probe attached to a vibrator) should be brought into secure contact with the area of stimulation. To minimize the slack between the probe, the area to be stimulated should be taken up by the application of pre-load, and the delivered force should be recorded in series. Electrical stimulus has advantages in that it can be delivered in a reproducible way, though its physiological relevance can be questioned. It is also necessary to standardize the method for recording and analyzing the responses of the motoneurons to the stimulation. For that, a new technique is introduced, and its advantages over the currently used methods are discussed. The new method can illustrate the synaptic potential that is induced in the motoneurons without the errors that are unavoidable in the current

  19. An overview of coordinated control for multi-agent systems subject to input saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated control of multi-agent systems has widespread application in engineering such as unmanned aerial vehicles and unmanned ground vehicles. Due to the fact that input saturation can lead a control system to deterioration and instability, a lot of efforts have been devoted to investigating this subject of great importance. The present article offers a survey of recent developments on coordinated control of multi-agents systems subject to input saturation. Some preliminaries about graph theory, stability theory and input saturation are first provided, followed by some important results in the area, which are categorized into semi-global and global coordinated controls. Future research topics are finally discussed.

  20. Dysfunctional attitudes in depressed patients before and after clinical treatment and in normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselow, E D; Robins, C; Block, P; Barouche, F; Fieve, R R

    1990-04-01

    To evaluate the role of maladaptive thinking patterns in depression, the authors administered the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale to 112 depressed patients before and after 3-6 weeks of treatment with antidepressants or placebo. Twenty-two normal subjects were also assessed twice. Depressed patients had a significantly higher initial mean score than control subjects, but during treatment their score significantly decreased, and the posttreatment score of those with complete recoveries was nearly as low as the control subjects' final score. The higher the initial dysfunctional attitude score the poorer the response to treatment. Patients with endogenous depression had significantly lower scores than nonendogenously depressed patients.

  1. Informed consent in human subject research: a comparison of current international and Nigerian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadare, Joseph O; Porteri, Corinna

    2010-03-01

    Informed consent is a basic requirement for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. Currently, the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association and the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) are widely accepted as international codes regulating human subject research and the informed consent sections of these documents are quite important. Debates on the applicability of these guidelines in different socio-cultural settings are ongoing and many workers have advocated the need for national or regional guidelines. Nigeria, a developing country, has recently adopted its national guideline regulating human subject research: the National Health Research Ethics Committee (NHREC) code. A content analysis of the three guidelines was done to see if the Nigerian guidelines confer any additional protection for research subjects. The concept of a Community Advisory Committee in the Nigerian guideline is a novel one that emphasizes research as a community burden and should promote a form of "research friendship" to foster the welfare of research participants. There is also the need for a regular update of the NHREC code so as to address some issues that were not considered in its current version.

  2. Nonlinear-dynamical arrhythmia control in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christini, D J; Stein, K M; Markowitz, S M; Mittal, S; Slotwiner, D J; Scheiner, M A; Iwai, S; Lerman, B B

    2001-05-08

    Nonlinear-dynamical control techniques, also known as chaos control, have been used with great success to control a wide range of physical systems. Such techniques have been used to control the behavior of in vitro excitable biological tissue, suggesting their potential for clinical utility. However, the feasibility of using such techniques to control physiological processes has not been demonstrated in humans. Here we show that nonlinear-dynamical control can modulate human cardiac electrophysiological dynamics by rapidly stabilizing an unstable target rhythm. Specifically, in 52/54 control attempts in five patients, we successfully terminated pacing-induced period-2 atrioventricular-nodal conduction alternans by stabilizing the underlying unstable steady-state conduction. This proof-of-concept demonstration shows that nonlinear-dynamical control techniques are clinically feasible and provides a foundation for developing such techniques for more complex forms of clinical arrhythmia.

  3. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of two fenofibrate tablet formulations in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachad, Siddharth S; Gole, Milind; Malhotra, Geena; Naidu, Raghu

    2014-06-01

    Fenofibrate is a serum lipid-lowering agent used as an adjunct to diet in patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The new fenofibrate tablet formulation was developed as a pharmaceutical equivalent to the marketed tablet formulation containing 145 mg. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and safety of 2 tablet formulations containing 145 mg of fenofibrate (CAS number 49562-28-9) in healthy human subjects. The study was a randomized, 2-treatment, 3-period, 3-sequence, single-dose, 3-way crossover, partial replicate bioequivalence study in healthy human subjects under fasting conditions. Eligible subjects received each treatment in a crossover manner according to the randomization schedule. Replicate dosing was conducted for the reference formulation to determine its intrasubject variability. The predose blood sample was taken within 1 hour before dosing, and serial blood sampling was performed up to 72.0 hours' postdose. The analysis of plasma samples for concentrations of fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, was conducted by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Bioequivalence was to be concluded if the 90% CIs as constructed were within the range of 80% to 125% for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ for fenofibric acid. Subjects were monitored for safety and tolerability throughout the study. 15 healthy human subjects between 18 and 45 years of age and having body mass index between 18.5 and 30 kg/m(2) were recruited into the study. The 90% CIs for the test/reference mean ratios of the ln-transformed pharmacokinetic variables Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were within the conventional bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. Both formulations were well tolerated after a single oral dose in these healthy male subjects. Both fenofibrate tablet formulations demonstrated equivalent rates and extent of systemic absorption, and hence were considered bioequivalent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights

  4. Proportional myoelectric control of a virtual object to investigate human efferent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Ferris, Daniel P

    2004-12-01

    We used proportional myoelectric control of a one-dimensional virtual object to investigate differences in efferent control between the proximal and distal muscles of the upper limbs. Eleven subjects placed one of their upper limbs in a brace that restricted movement while we recorded electromyography (EMG) signals from elbow flexors/extensors or wrist flexors/extensors during isometric contractions. By activating their muscles, subjects applied virtual forces to a virtual object using a real-time computer interface. The magnitudes of these forces were proportional to EMG amplitudes. Subjects used this proportional EMG control to move the virtual object through two tracking tasks, one with a static target and one with a moving target (i.show $132#e., a sine wave). We hypothesized that subjects would have better control over the virtual object using their distal muscles rather than using their proximal muscles because humans typically use more distal joints to perform fine motor tasks. The results indicated that there was no difference in subjects' ability to control virtual object movements when using either upper arm muscles or forearm muscles. These results suggest that differences in control accuracy between elbow joint movements and wrist joint movements are more likely to be a result of motor practice, proprioceptive feedback or joint mechanics rather than inherent differences in efferent control.

  5. Human/computer control of undersea teleoperators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.; Verplank, W. L.; Brooks, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of supervisory controlled teleoperators for accomplishment of manipulation and sensory tasks in deep ocean environments is discussed. Teleoperators and supervisory control are defined, the current problems of human divers are reviewed, and some assertions are made about why supervisory control has potential use to replace and extend human diver capabilities. The relative roles of man and computer and the variables involved in man-computer interaction are next discussed. Finally, a detailed description of a supervisory controlled teleoperator system, SUPERMAN, is presented.

  6. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  7. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  8. iPad-assisted measurements of duration estimation in psychiatric patients and healthy control subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Preuschoff

    Full Text Available Handheld devices with touchscreen controls have become widespread in the general population. In this study, we examined the duration estimates (explicit timing made by patients in a major general hospital and healthy control subjects using a custom iPad application. We methodically assessed duration estimates using this novel device. We found that both psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients significantly overestimated time periods compared with healthy control subjects, who estimated elapsed time very precisely. The use of touchscreen-based methodologies can provide valuable information about patients.

  9. On improving the convergence rate of linear continuous-time systems subject to asymmetrically constrained control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the problem of controlling linear continuous-time systems subject to control signals constrained in magnitude (maybe asymmetrically. A controller design methodology is proposed, based on using an asymmetric Lyapunov function, that avoids the discontinuities in the control vector components resulting from the application of a piecewise linear control law previously proposed. The proposed method gives improved speed of convergence without discontinuities of the control vector components, respecting always the imposed asymmetric constraints. An example illustrates the approach.

  10. Control Deficit Subjects are Superior for Man-Made Objects on a Verbal Semantic Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roncero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When semantic deficits occur following brain damage, the subjects generally show anomia as well as deficits on semantic matching tasks such as the Camels and Cactus test. Such individuals can be further characterized as demonstrating either a semantic control deficit or a storage deficit (Jeffries & Lambon Ralph, 2006. Semantic control subjects show improved performance when responses are constrained, but storage subjects do not. In the present study, we categorized 17 subjects with neurodegenerative diseases – Alzheimer’s disease and Primary Progressive Aphasia - as Semantic Storage or Semantic Control patterns of deficit, based on their performance on three semantic tasks—Naming, Cued Naming, and Word-to-Picture Matching. This was done independent of both the subject’s localization of brain damage and clinical diagnosis. Subjects who demonstrated impaired performance on the Naming task, but showed normal performance on Cued Naming and Word-to-Picture Matching, were classified as showing a control deficit (N = 8, while subjects who were impaired on all three semantic tasks were classified as anomic subjects with a storage deficit (N = 9. Despite only using these three semantic tasks, the identified sub-groups demonstrated different patterns of semantic knowledge consistent with either a control deficit or a storage deficit. The identified sub-groups, for example, were comparable for letter fluency, but subjects with a storage deficit were significantly worse for animal fluency. Accessing subjects’ semantic knowledge with the word and picture versions of the Camels and Cactus test, we also found that storage deficit subjects’ performance was equally poor on both versions compared to normal elderly participants, whereas control deficit subjects were relatively impaired only in the word version. Finally, comparing FDG PET scans for these subjects, we noted storage deficit subjects typically had bilateral temporal damage—all but one

  11. The influence of perceived control and locus of control on the cortisol and subjective responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Annie M; Walker, Elaine F; Hamann, Stephan; Kestler, Lisa

    2004-11-01

    Stress has been implicated in the etiology of numerous mental and physical illnesses. Thus, it is important to identify factors that buffer individuals against stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of perceived control (PC) on the biological and subjective stress responses, and to investigate the potential moderating effect of locus of control (LOC) on this relationship. Stress was induced with a noise-cognitive paradigm, and PC was manipulated by offering the option of manual control over noise intensity. Saliva cortisol and subjective stress were measured. There was no main effect of control on cortisol. However, LOC moderated the relation between control and cortisol; participants with more internal LOC, who also perceived themselves to have control over the stressor, showed a reduced cortisol response in the PC condition. The results are discussed in light of their implications for elucidating the determinants of the effects of perceived control on stress.

  12. Electric Wheelchair Controlled by Human Body Motion Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Sho; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Yasuhiro; She, Jin-Hua

    This research studies the possibility of an intuitive interface for an electric wheelchair by using human body except hands. For this purpose, we focused on the human body motion which has relation to actions or behavior. This motion comes from the human stabilization function for holding expectable collapsing caused by voluntary motion. Thus this motion is considered as a kind of characteristics of human motion, and is linked to intentions unconsciously. Therefore, the interface which does not require conscious and complex motion is realized by applying this human body motion to the interface of electric wheelchair. In this paper, first, we did experiment to search a part which vividly shows the pressure change on the seat. As a result, it was confirmed that pressure change of the seat back vividly shows the human body motion. Next, we designed the prototype based on this evidence. Finally, experiment was conducted by using 10 subjects and SD method to evaluate feeling of operation. For this result, it was turned out that all subjects feel that proposed interface was intuitive, or to control at their direction. Therefore it was confirmed that human body motion interface has a possibility to be used for an interface of electric wheelchair.

  13. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: Implementation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin `Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature ( t eq) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t eq from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t eq. The results showed that the t eq values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  14. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  15. Losses of Humanity in Times of War: The Actions of Alternative Subjects of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Monárrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses loss of humanity due to violence in Ciudad Juarez (2008–2014 and the actions of alternative subjects of justice – the organized civil society – seeking to address it. This paper resonates with theoretical currents of feminism and humanism, both of which have created a critical apparatus for thinking about social inequality in the context of life, death, and injustice. The discussion draws on the theoretical concepts of discourse societies, necropolitics, private government and actions. With this theoretical structure, the paper seeks to understand the political actions of eight civil society organizations aiming to recover the right to the body, to space and to be a political subject for a community shattered by violence. The paper argues that, through these actions, they helped to prevent crime, enhance public safety and stabilise a society suffering from continued violence due in large part to the war on drugs.

  16. Control of human trophoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondi Carla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trophoblast, i.e. the peripheral part of the human conceptus, exerts a crucial role in implantation and placentation. Both processes properly occur as a consequence of an intimate dialogue between fetal and maternal tissues, fulfilled by membrane ligands and receptors, as well as by hormone and local factor release. During blastocyst implantation, generation of distinct trophoblast cell types begins, namely the villous and the extravillous trophoblast, the former of which is devoted to fetal-maternal exchanges and the latter binds the placental body to the uterine wall. Physiological placentation is characterized by the invasion of the uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells arising from anchoring villi. Due to this invasion, the arterial structure is replaced by amorphous fibrinoid material and endovascular trophoblastic cells. This transformation establishes a low-resistance, high-capacity perfusion system from the radial arteries to the intervillous space, in which the villous tree is embedded. The physiology of pregnancy depends upon the orderly progress of structural and functional changes of villous and extravillous trophoblast, whereas a derangement of such processes can lead to different types of complications of varying degrees of gravity, including possible pregnancy loss and maternal life-threatening diseases. In this review we describe the mechanisms which regulate trophoblast differentiation, proliferation, migration and invasiveness, and the alterations in these mechanisms which lead to pathological conditions. Furthermore, based on the growing evidence that proper inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are needed for successful gestation, we explain the mechanisms by which agents able to influence such processes may be useful in the prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders.

  17. Human response to an individually controlled microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Knudsen, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    The response of 48 subjects to an individually controlled microenvironment was studied at room air temperatures of 20 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 26 degrees C An individually controlled system (ICS) comprising personalized ventilation, an under-desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair...... with convectively heated backrest, an under-desk radiant heating panel, and a floor-heating panel were used. The temperature of the air supplied from the personalized ventilation and the under-desk device was 20 degrees C The subjects were provided with control of the flow rate and direction of the personalized air...... at a room temperature of 22 degrees C without ICS. Thus, ICS will increase the number of satisfied occupants when applied in practice. The design and control of the ICS, as well as the background air distribution in a room, should be carefully considered in order to obtain the maximum number of occupants...

  18. Rapid Evolution from the First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis to Chronic Pancreatitis in Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Elie Aoun; Adam Slivka; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Whitcomb, David C.; Gleeson, Ferga C; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2007-01-01

    Context Growing evidence suggests that recurrent acute pancreatitis leads to chronic pancreatitis, but this sequence is seldom reported in human subjects. The sentinel acute pancreatitis event hypothesis suggests that an initial episode of acute pancreatitis is the first step in a complicated series of events ultimately leading to chronic pancreatitis. Objective To identify patients who evolved from recurrent acute pancreatitis to chronic pancreatitis. Setting The Severity of Acute Pancreatit...

  19. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P...

  20. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E.

  1. Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2016-0001 Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures James E. Parker General...them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th ABW Public Affairs Office and is available to the general public, including foreign ...This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange , and its

  2. Simultaneous transdermal extraction of glucose and lactate from human subjects by reverse iontophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly,Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Tak S Ching1, Patricia Connolly21Asia University, Taiwan; 2Bioengineering Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UKAbstract: This study investigated the possibility of simultaneously extracting glucose and lactate from human subjects, at the same skin location, using transdermal reverse iontophoresis. Transdermal monitoring using iontophoresis is made possible by the skin’s permeability to small molecules and the nanoporous and microporous nature of the structure of ski...

  3. Ethical review of research on human subjects at Unilever: reflections on governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Marti, Vernon; Roberts, Tony

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the process of ethical review of research on human subjects at a very large multinational consumer products company. The commercial context of this research throws up unique challenges and opportunities that make the ethics of the process of oversight distinct from mainstream medical research. Reflection on the justification of governance processes sheds important, contrasting light on the ethics of governance of other forms and context of research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Modeling human decision making behavior in supervisory control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulga, M. K.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision control model was developed, which is based primarily on a dynamic programming algorithm which looks at all the available task possibilities, charts an optimal trajectory, and commits itself to do the first step (i.e., follow the optimal trajectory during the next time period), and then iterates the calculation. A Bayesian estimator was included which estimates the tasks which might occur in the immediate future and provides this information to the dynamic programming routine. Preliminary trials comparing the human subject's performance to that of the optimal model show a great similarity, but indicate that the human skips certain movements which require quick change in strategy.

  5. Oral sensitivity to fatty acids, food consumption and BMI in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Golding, Matthew; Delahunty, Conor; Clifton, Peter M; Keast, Russell S J

    2010-07-01

    Fatty acids are the chemical moieties that are thought to stimulate oral nutrient sensors, which detect the fat content of foods. In animals, oral hypersensitivity to fatty acids is associated with decreased fat intake and body weight. The aims of the present study were to investigate oral fatty acid sensitivity, food selection and BMI in human subjects. The study included two parts; study 1 established in thirty-one subjects (29 (sem 1.4) years, 22.8 (sem 0.5) kg/m2) taste thresholds using 3-AFC (3-Alternate Forced Choice Methodology) for oleic, linoleic and lauric acids, and quantified oral lipase activity. During study 2, fifty-four subjects (20 (sem 0.3) years, 21.5 (sem 0.4) kg/m2) were screened for oral fatty acid sensitivity using oleic acid (1.4 mm), and they were defined as hypo- or hypersensitive via triplicate triangle tests. Habitual energy and macronutrient intakes were quantified from 2 d diet records, and BMI was calculated from height and weight. Subjects also completed a fat ranking task using custard containing varying amounts (0, 2, 6 and 10 %) of fat. Study 1 reported median lipase activity as 2 mumol fatty acids/min per l, and detection thresholds for oleic, linoleic and lauric acids were 2.2 (sem 0.1), 1.5 (sem 0.1) and 2.6 (sem 0.3) mm. Study 2 identified twelve hypersensitive subjects, and hypersensitivity was associated with lower energy and fat intakes, lower BMI (P acid was correlated to performance in the fat ranking task (r 0.4, P fatty acid hypersensitivity is associated with lower energy and fat intakes and BMI, and it may serve as a factor that influences fat consumption in human subjects.

  6. Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Control for Uncertain Networked System Subject to Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo C. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with uncertain systems with networked sliding mode control, subject to time delay. To minimize the degenerative effects of the time delay, a simpler format of state predictor is proposed in the control law. Some ultimate bounded stability analyses and stabilization conditions are provided for the uncertain time delay system with proposed discrete-time sliding mode control strategy. A numerical example is presented to corroborate the analyses.

  7. Mechanical work as an indirect measure of subjective costs influencing human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelik, Karl E; Kuo, Arthur D

    2012-01-01

    To descend a flight of stairs, would you rather walk or fall? Falling seems to have some obvious disadvantages such as the risk of pain or injury. But the preferred strategy of walking also entails a cost for the use of active muscles to perform negative work. The amount and distribution of work a person chooses to perform may, therefore, reflect a subjective valuation of the trade-offs between active muscle effort and other costs, such as pain. Here we use a simple jump landing experiment to quantify the work humans prefer to perform to dissipate the energy of landing. We found that healthy normal subjects (N = 8) preferred a strategy that involved performing 37% more negative work than minimally necessary (Pheights. This then required additional positive work to return to standing rest posture, highlighting the cost of this preference. Subjects were also able to modulate the amount of landing work, and its distribution between active and passive tissues. When instructed to land softly, they performed 76% more work than necessary (Pwork, with more of it performed passively through soft tissue deformations (at least 30% in stiff landings vs. 16% preferred). During jump landings, humans appear not to minimize muscle work, but instead choose to perform a consistent amount of extra work, presumably to avoid other subjective costs. The degree to which work is not minimized may indirectly quantify the relative valuation of costs that are otherwise difficult to measure.

  8. Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

    1988-08-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.

  9. Brain neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors in drug abuse and depression: from mice to human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel S Onaivi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addiction and major depression are mental health problems associated with stressful events in life with high relapse and reoccurrence even after treatment. Many laboratories were not able to detect the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2-Rs in healthy brains, but there has been demonstration of CB2-R expression in rat microglial cells and other brain associated cells during inflammation. Therefore, neuronal expression of CB2-Rs had been ambiguous and controversial and its role in depression and substance abuse is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we tested the hypothesis that genetic variants of CB2 gene might be associated with depression in a human population and that alteration in CB2 gene expression may be involved in the effects of abused substances including opiates, cocaine and ethanol in rodents. Here we demonstrate that a high incidence of (Q63R but not (H316Y polymorphism in the CB2 gene was found in Japanese depressed subjects. CB2-Rs and their gene transcripts are expressed in the brains of naïve mice and are modulated following exposure to stressors and administration of abused drugs. Mice that developed alcohol preference had reduced CB2 gene expression and chronic treatment with JWH015 a putative CB2-R agonist, enhanced alcohol consumption in stressed but not in control mice. The direct intracerebroventricular microinjection of CB2 anti-sense oligonucleotide into the mouse brain reduced mouse aversions in the plus-maze test, indicating the functional presence of CB2-Rs in the brain that modifies behavior. We report for the using electron microscopy the sub cellular localization of CB2-Rs that are mainly on post-synaptic elements in rodent brain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate the functional expression of CB2-Rs in brain that may provide novel targets for the effects of cannabinoids in depression and substance abuse disorders beyond neuro-immunocannabinoid activity.

  10. HUMAN-SIMULATING VEHICLE STEERING CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Youchun; LI Keqiang; CHANG Ming; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    A new vehicle steering control algorithm is presented. Unlike the traditional methods do,the algorithm uses a sigmoid function to describe the principle of the human driver's steering strategy.Based on this function, a human simulating vehicle steering model, human-simulating steering control(HS) algorithm is designed. In order to improve the adaptability to different environments, a parameter adaptive adjustment algorithm is presented. This algorithm can online modify the value of the key parameters of the HS real time. HS controller is used on a vehicle equipped with computer vision system and computer controlled steering actuator system, the result from the automatic vehicle steering experiment shows that the HS algorithm gives good performance at different speed, even at the maximum speed of 172 km/h.

  11. Human right to water and conventionality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces the challenge of achieving the sustainability of water resources supply for the satisfaction of human needs and ofensuring the sustainability of the natural ecosystems for the achievement of sustainable human development and the quality of life of present and future generations. For this reason the recognition of access to water as a Human Right has fundamental significance. We proceed to analyze the international instruments that provide content and legal basis to the human right to water and the obligations of States. In this context, we deal with the constitutional reception of human right to water in Argentina in the constitutional reform of 1994 and the control of conventionality as guarantor of access to water, which has led to different domestic courts to consider cases in which a violation ofthe right to water was proved.

  12. Physiological and subjective evaluation of a human-robot object hand-over task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehais, Frédéric; Sisbot, Emrah Akin; Alami, Rachid; Causse, Mickaël

    2011-11-01

    In the context of task sharing between a robot companion and its human partners, the notions of safe and compliant hardware are not enough. It is necessary to guarantee ergonomic robot motions. Therefore, we have developed Human Aware Manipulation Planner (Sisbot et al., 2010), a motion planner specifically designed for human-robot object transfer by explicitly taking into account the legibility, the safety and the physical comfort of robot motions. The main objective of this research was to define precise subjective metrics to assess our planner when a human interacts with a robot in an object hand-over task. A second objective was to obtain quantitative data to evaluate the effect of this interaction. Given the short duration, the "relative ease" of the object hand-over task and its qualitative component, classical behavioral measures based on accuracy or reaction time were unsuitable to compare our gestures. In this perspective, we selected three measurements based on the galvanic skin conductance response, the deltoid muscle activity and the ocular activity. To test our assumptions and validate our planner, an experimental set-up involving Jido, a mobile manipulator robot, and a seated human was proposed. For the purpose of the experiment, we have defined three motions that combine different levels of legibility, safety and physical comfort values. After each robot gesture the participants were asked to rate them on a three dimensional subjective scale. It has appeared that the subjective data were in favor of our reference motion. Eventually the three motions elicited different physiological and ocular responses that could be used to partially discriminate them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and the Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of visual stimulus using central and peripheral visual field on postural control of normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Du-Jin

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of visual stimulus using central and peripheral vision fields on postural control. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 40 young adult volunteers (15 males, 25 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of differing visual stimulus. Each group was given visual intervention in a standing position for 3 minutes. Postural control was evaluated before and after visual intervention. [Results] The results of the functional reach test and body sway test showed significant differences among the four groups. [Conclusion] The two-way peripheral vision-field group showed significantly more body sway after visual intervention than the other three groups. This finding may suggest two-way peripheral vision field is a more effective visual stimulus for training postural control and balance.

  14. A Single Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Dose Improves B Cell Memory in Previously Infected Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Scherer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although licensed human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are most efficacious in persons never infected with HPV, they also reduce infection and disease in previously infected subjects, indicating natural immunity is not entirely protective against HPV re-infection. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the B cell memory elicited by HPV infection and evaluate whether vaccination merely boosts antibody (Ab levels in previously infected subjects or also improves the quality of B cell memory. Toward this end, the memory B cells (Bmem of five unvaccinated, HPV-seropositive subjects were isolated and characterized, and subject recall responses to a single HPV vaccine dose were analyzed. Vaccination boosted Ab levels 24- to 930-fold (median 77-fold and Bmem numbers 3- to 27-fold (median 6-fold. In addition, Abs cloned from naturally elicited Bmem were generally non-neutralizing, whereas all those isolated following vaccination were neutralizing. Moreover, Ab and plasmablast responses indicative of memory recall responses were only observed in two subjects. These results suggest HPV vaccination augments both the magnitude and quality of natural immunity and demonstrate that sexually active persons could also benefit from HPV vaccination. This study may have important public policy implications, especially for the older ‘catch-up’ group within the vaccine's target population.

  15. The Belmont Report. Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On July 12, 1974, the National Research Act (Pub. L. 93-348) was signed into law, thereby creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. One of the charges to the Commission was to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and to develop guidelines which should be followed to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles. In carrying out the above, the Commission was directed to consider: (a) the boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research and the accepted and routine practice of medicine, (b) the role of assessment of risk-benefit criteria in the determination of the appropriateness of research involving human subjects, (c) appropriate guidelines for the selection of human subjects for participation in such research and (d) the nature and definition of informed consent in various research settings. The Belmont Report attempts to summarize the basic ethical principles identified by the Commission in the course of its deliberations. It is the outgrowth of an intensive four-day period of discussions that were held in February 1976 at the Smithsonian Institution's Belmont Conference Center supplemented by the monthly deliberations of the Commission that were held over a period of nearly four years. It is a statement of basic ethical principles and guidelines that should assist in resolving the ethical problems that surround the conduct of research with human subjects. By publishing the Report in the Federal Register, and providing reprints upon request, the Secretary intends that it may be made readily available to scientists, members of Institutional Review Boards, and Federal employees. The two-volume Appendix, containing the lengthy reports of experts and specialists who assisted the Commission in fulfilling this part of its charge, is available as DHEW Publication No. (OS

  16. The psychology of HPA axis activation: Examining subjective emotional distress and control in a phobic fear exposure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Stefanie E; Snodgrass, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; Briggs, Hedieh; Curtis, George C; Abelson, James L

    2017-02-09

    The HPA axis plays a key role in mediating the effects of "stress" on health, but clarifying mechanisms requires an understanding of psycho-biological linkages. There has long been an implicit assumption that subjective emotional distress (e.g., fear) should activate the HPA axis. Although this assumption was challenged 25 years ago (Curtis, 1976), laboratory studies in humans are limited. In this study we sought to replicate Curtis' findings and extend it by investigating if presence or absence of stressor control shapes HPA axis reactivity in a phobic fear exposure model. We recruited 19-45-year-old specific phobia participants (n=32 spider/snake phobia; n=14 claustrophobia) and gradually exposed them to their feared object or situation while measuring hormonal (ACTH and cortisol) and subjective (emotional distress, perceived control) responses. Utilizing a dyadic yoked design, we compared HPA reactivity when the pace of exposure was controlled by participants to identical exposure given to matched participants in the absence of control. Results showed that phobic fear exposure generated intense emotional distress without a corresponding increase in HPA axis activity. Although our actual manipulation of control failed to impact HPA responses, perceived control during exposure was associated with lower cortisol, an effect that was moderated by actual availability of stressor control. Our findings replicate Curtis' findings and challenge the still common but unsupported assumption that HPA axis activity reflects subjective distress. These results also highlight the importance of both perceived and actual aspects of stressor control in understanding what is truly "stressful" to the HPA axis system.

  17. High density electromyography data of normally limbed and transradial amputee subjects for multifunction prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Heather; Englehart, Kevin; Hargrove, Levi; Kuruganti, Usha

    2012-06-01

    Pattern recognition based control of powered upper limb myoelectric prostheses offers a means of extracting more information from the available muscles than conventional methods. By identifying repeatable patterns of muscle activity across multiple muscle sites rather than relying on independent EMG signals it is possible to provide more natural, reliable control of myoelectric prostheses. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine if participants can perform distinctive muscle activation patterns associated with multiple wrist and hand movements reliably and (2) to show that high density EMG can be applied individually to determine the electrode location of a clinically acceptable number of electrodes (maximally eight) to classify multiple wrist and hand movements reliably in transradial amputees. Eight normally limbed subjects (five female, three male) and four transradial amputee subjects (two traumatic and congenital) subjects participated in this study, which examined the classification accuracies of a pattern recognition control system. It was found that tasks could be classified with high accuracy (85-98%) with normally limbed subjects (10-13 tasks) and with amputees (4-6) tasks. In healthy subjects, reducing the number of electrodes to eight did not affect accuracy significantly when those electrodes were optimally placed, but did reduce accuracy significantly when those electrodes were distributed evenly. In the amputee subjects, reducing the number of electrodes up to 4 did not affect classification accuracy or the number of tasks with high accuracy, independent of whether those remaining electrodes were evenly distributed or optimally placed. The findings in healthy subjects suggest that high density EMG testing is a useful tool to identify optimal electrode sites for pattern recognition control, but its use in amputees still has to be proven. Instead of just identifying the electrode sites where EMG activity is strong, clinicians will be able to

  18. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malý Marek

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146 and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446 was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p 95= 1.76–4.01 times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p 95 = 1.14–3.03 for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16, higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.39–9.59 for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64, and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89–135.66 for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem.

  19. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    . Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...... consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 ◦C or decreases below 22 ◦C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established....... occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...

  20. Mechanical work as an indirect measure of subjective costs influencing human movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E Zelik

    Full Text Available To descend a flight of stairs, would you rather walk or fall? Falling seems to have some obvious disadvantages such as the risk of pain or injury. But the preferred strategy of walking also entails a cost for the use of active muscles to perform negative work. The amount and distribution of work a person chooses to perform may, therefore, reflect a subjective valuation of the trade-offs between active muscle effort and other costs, such as pain. Here we use a simple jump landing experiment to quantify the work humans prefer to perform to dissipate the energy of landing. We found that healthy normal subjects (N = 8 preferred a strategy that involved performing 37% more negative work than minimally necessary (P<0.001 across a range of landing heights. This then required additional positive work to return to standing rest posture, highlighting the cost of this preference. Subjects were also able to modulate the amount of landing work, and its distribution between active and passive tissues. When instructed to land softly, they performed 76% more work than necessary (P<0.001, with a higher proportion from active muscles (89% vs. 84%, P<0.001. Stiff-legged landings, performed by one subject for demonstration, exhibited close to the minimum of work, with more of it performed passively through soft tissue deformations (at least 30% in stiff landings vs. 16% preferred. During jump landings, humans appear not to minimize muscle work, but instead choose to perform a consistent amount of extra work, presumably to avoid other subjective costs. The degree to which work is not minimized may indirectly quantify the relative valuation of costs that are otherwise difficult to measure.

  1. Parental bonding in subjects with pathological gambling disorder compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, Laia; Arévalo, Rubén; Valdepérez, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; de los Cobos, J Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-V) includes pathological gambling disorder (PGD) in the subgroup of "Addiction and Related Disorders" due to the similarities between PGD and substance-based addictions in neurobiological, psychological, and social risk factors. Family factors as parental rearing attitudes play a crucial role in the development of substance use disorders and PGD. The aim of the present study was to assess the parental bonding during childhood perceived for adults with PGD compared with healthy controls. Twenty males with PGD and 20 control subjects answered the parental bonding instrument, which measures subjects' recollections of parenting on dimensions of care and protection. Subjects with PGD showed significantly lower maternal and paternal care (p = 0.016 and p = 0.031, respectively) than controls, and higher paternal protection (p = 0.003). The most common parental pattern for PGD subjects was the affectionless control (50% for the father and 60% for the mother). Preliminary results suggest that, as previously reported for substance use disorders, an affectionless control parenting style is associated with PGD.

  2. Fetal hemoglobin levels are related to metabolic control in diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardini V.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the relationship between fetal hemoglobin (HbF levels and metabolic control in subjects with insulin-dependent (N = 79 and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (N = 242. HbF and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels were increased in subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes as compared to levels in nondiabetic individuals (P<0.0001, and were significantly higher in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes subjects. Lower levels of HbA1c and HbF were observed in type 2 diabetes subjects treated by diet, intermediate levels in those treated with oral hypoglycemic agents, and higher levels in those treated with insulin. HbF and HbA1c levels were correlated in type 1 diabetes (R2 = 0.57, P<0.0001 and type 2 diabetes (R2 = 0.58, P<0.0001 subjects. Following intense treatment, twelve diabetic patients showed significant improvement both in HbA1c and HbF values. We conclude that increased HbF levels reflect poor metabolic control in subjects with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  4. Skin conductance orienting response in unmedicated RDC schizophrenic, schizoaffective, depressed, and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, D F

    1991-10-01

    In an evaluation of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) as a marker for schizophrenia, skin conductance (SC) activity was studied in 36 Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) schizophrenic (SCZ), 17 schizoaffective--mainly schizophrenic (SA), 24 depressed (DEP), and 25 psychiatrically well control (CONT) subjects. All subjects were unmedicated. Data are presented from four paradigms: a series of 1 s 70 dB tones in a no-task habituation paradigm; a similar series of 103 dB tones; a series of tones with a button-press (reaction time) task; and a loud white noise stimulus (without task). The proportion of SCOR nonresponse to the first 70 dB tone was 39% for SCZ, 82% for SA, 46% for DEP, and 36% for CONT subjects; the response rate for SA subjects was significantly lower than for all other groups. The CONT group was less responsive than in most previous studies. SCZ subjects did not show increased responsivity to more intense and to task-relevant stimuli, although SA subjects did show such increases. DEP subjects showed some evidence of autonomic hyperarousal (higher tonic SC level, trend toward more spontaneous SC responses). The overall pattern of results does not support SCOR to neutral, moderate-intensity tones as a specific marker for schizophrenia, although there was some evidence for a generalized decrease in autonomic responsivity to stimuli.

  5. Shared resource control between human and computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, James; Wilson, Reid

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of an AI system of actively monitoring human control of a shared resource (such as a telerobotic manipulator) are presented. A system is described in which a simple AI planning program gains efficiency by monitoring human actions and recognizing when the actions cause a change in the system's assumed state of the world. This enables the planner to recognize when an interaction occurs between human actions and system goals, and allows maintenance of an up-to-date knowledge of the state of the world and thus informs the operator when human action would undo a goal achieved by the system, when an action would render a system goal unachievable, and efficiently replans the establishment of goals after human intervention.

  6. Proprioceptive Control of Human Movement. The Human Movement Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John

    Various research studies concerned with the feedback from proprioceptors which accompany movement and the way in which this information is relevant to the control of activity are brought together in this volume. It is intended for the use of those who have some basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology as well as an acquaintance with…

  7. H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming;

    2016-01-01

    are designed to efficiently track the unbalanced current components and the 5th and 7th background harmonics. The robust stability (RS) and robust performance (RP) of the proposed controller are verified by the structured singular value µ. The performance of the H∞ robust current controller was demonstrated......This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage...

  8. Passive Control Architecture for Virtual Humans

    CERN Document Server

    Rennuit, Antoine; Merlhiot, Xavier; Andriot, Claude; Guillaume, François; Chevassus, Nicolas; Chablat, Damien; Chedmail, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, we introduce a new control architecture aimed at driving virtual humans in interaction with virtual environments, by motion capture. It brings decoupling of functionalities, and also of stability thanks to passivity. We show projections can break passivity, and thus must be used carefully. Our control scheme enables task space and internal control, contact, and joint limits management. Thanks to passivity, it can be easily extended. Besides, we introduce a new tool as for manikin's control, which makes it able to build passive projections, so as to guide the virtual manikin when sharp movements are needed.

  9. Subjective evaluation with FAA criteria: A multidimensional scaling approach. [ground track control management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E. F.

    1975-01-01

    Perceived orderliness in the ground tracks of five A/C during their simulated flights was studied. Dynamically developing ground tracks for five A/C from 21 separate runs were reproduced from computer storage and displayed on CRTS to professional pilots and controllers for their evaluations and preferences under several criteria. The ground tracks were developed in 20 seconds as opposed to the 5 minutes of simulated flight using speedup techniques for display. Metric and nonmetric multidimensional scaling techniques are being used to analyze the subjective responses in an effort to: (1) determine the meaningfulness of basing decisions on such complex subjective criteria; (2) compare pilot/controller perceptual spaces; (3) determine the dimensionality of the subjects' perceptual spaces; and thereby (4) determine objective measures suitable for comparing alternative traffic management simulations.

  10. State-Feedback Control for Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Subject to Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a state-feedback control method for fractional-order nonlinear systems subject to input saturation. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the asymptotical stability of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. Then based on Gronwall-Bellman lemma and a sector bounded condition of the saturation function, a linear state-feed back controller is designed. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the validity of the proposed method.

  11. Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, S H; MacDonald, E K; Rush, C R

    2001-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Methylphenidate is clearly effective for the treatment of ADHD, but there is controversy as to whether it has significant abuse potential like other psychostimulants (e.g., D-amphetamine and cocaine). In general, the drug is believed to be abused at rates much lower than those for other stimulants. The present review examines studies that investigated the behavioral pharmacological profile of methylphenidate and discusses how results from these studies address its abuse liability. Using MEDLINE search terms methylphenidate, drug discrimination, reinforcement, self-administration, subjective effects, subject-rated effects, abuse potential, and abuse liability, along with a review of the references from identified articles, 60 studies were located in which the reinforcing, discriminative-stimulus, or subjective effects of methylphenidate were directly assessed in nonhumans or humans. Forty-eight (80.0%) of the studies reviewed indicate that methylphenidate either functions in a manner similar to D-amphetamine or cocaine (e.g., functions as a reinforcer, substitutes fully in drug discrimination experiments), or produces a pattern of subjective effects suggestive of abuse potential. The results are discussed as they pertain to factors that may account for the apparent discrepancy in abuse rates between methylphenidate and other stimulants, including characterization of actual abuse rates, defining abuse and misuse, pharmacokinetic factors, and validity of abuse liability assays.

  12. Convex quadratic programming relaxations for parallel machine scheduling with controllable processing times subject to release times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; CHEN Feng; TANG Guochun

    2004-01-01

    Scheduling unrelated parallel machines with controllable processing times subject to release times is investigated. Based on the convex quadratic programming relaxation and the randomized rounding strategy, a 2-approximation algorithm is obtained for a special case with the all-or-none property and then a 3-approximation algorithm is presented for general problem.

  13. Simultaneous transdermal extraction of glucose and lactate from human subjects by reverse iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Tak S; Connolly, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of simultaneously extracting glucose and lactate from human subjects, at the same skin location, using transdermal reverse iontophoresis. Transdermal monitoring using iontophoresis is made possible by the skin's permeability to small molecules and the nanoporous and microporous nature of the structure of skin. The study was intended to provide information which could be used to develop a full, biosensor-based, monitoring system for multiple parameters from transdermal extraction. As a precursor to the human study, in vitro reverse iontophoresis experiments were performed in an artificial skin system to establish the optimum current waveforms to be applied during iontophoresis. In the human study, a bipolar DC current waveform (with reversal of the electrode current direction every 15 minutes) was applied to ten healthy volunteers via skin electrodes and utilized for simultaneous glucose and lactate transdermal extraction at an applied current density of 300 microA/cm2. Glucose and lactate were successfully extracted through each subject's skin into the conducting gel that formed part of each iontophoresis electrode. The results suggest that it will be possible to noninvasively and simultaneously monitor glucose and lactate levels in patients using this approach and this could have future applications in diagnostic monitoring for a variety of medical conditions.

  14. Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis of liver conditions in animal and human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueding; Xu, Guan; Tian, Chao; Wan, Shanshan; Welling, Theodore H.; Lok, Anna S. F.; Rubin, Jonathan M.

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease affecting 30% of the population in the United States. Biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing NAFLD. Liver histology assesses the amount of fat, and determines type and extent of cell injury, inflammation and fibrosis. However, liver biopsy is invasive and is limited by sampling error. Current radiological diagnostic modalities can evaluate the 'physical' morphology in liver by quantifying the backscattered US signals, but cannot interrogate the 'histochemical' components forming these backscatterers. For example, ultrasound (US) imaging can detect the presence of fat but cannot differentiate steatosis alone from steatohepatitis. Our previous study of photoacoustic physiochemical analysis (PAPCA) has demonstrated that this method can characterize the histological changes in livers during the progression of NAFLD in animal models. In this study, we will further validate PAPCA with human livers. Ex vivo human liver samples with steatosis, fibrosis and cirrhosis will be scanned using optical illumination at wavelengths of 680-1700 nm and compared to histology results. In vivo study on human subjects with confirmed steatosis is planned using our PA-ultrasound (US) parallel imaging system based on Verasonic US imaging flatform with an L7-4 probe. 10 mJ/cm2 per pulse optical energy at 755 nm will be delivered to the skin surface, which is under the safety limit of American National Standard Institute. Preliminary study with ex vivo human tissue has demonstrated the potential of the proposed approach in differentiating human liver conditions.

  15. Adaptive correction of human-eye aberrations in a subjective feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, G; Loktev, M; Simonov, A; Kijko, V; Volkov, S

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive optical system with a subjective feedback loop is used to improve the visual acuity and to determine the aberrations of the human eye. Corrections of as many as 12 low-order aberration modes were made, based on the perceived sharpness of the test object observed through the adaptive optical system. The acuity of vision was improved by adjustment of the weights of the orthogonal modes produced by a deformable mirror. Objective measurements of the correcting aspherical figures, obtained in independent subjective correction cycles for one person, demonstrated good repeatability. Participants in the study with strong ocular aberrations reported moderate to significant improvement of their visual acuity, estimated with the U.S. Air Force 1951 acuity chart.

  16. The motor cortex drives the muscles during walking in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Conway, B A;

    2012-01-01

    to address if activity arising in the motor cortex contributes to the muscle activity during gait. Nine healthy human subjects walked on a treadmill at a speed of 3.5–4 km h(-1). Seven of the subjects in addition walked at a speed of 1 km h(-1). Significant coupling between EEG recordings over the leg motor...... area and EMG from the anterior tibial muscle was found in the frequency band 24–40 Hz prior to heel strike during the swing phase of walking. This signifies that rhythmic cortical activity in the 24–40 Hz frequency band is transmitted via the corticospinal tract to the active muscles during walking...

  17. Pregnant woman and road safety: experimental crash test with post mortem human subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delotte, Jerome; Behr, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Bongain, Andre; Brunet, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to create a realistic anatomical model of pregnant woman using a post mortem human subject (PMHS). We inserted a physical model of the gravid uterus into the pelvis of a PMHS. 3D acceleration sensors were placed on the subject to measure the acceleration on different body segments. We simulated three frontal impact situations at 20 km/h between two average European cars. Two main kinematics events were identified as possible causes of injuries: lap belt loading and backrest impact. Cadaver experiments provide one interesting complementary approach to study injury mechanisms related to road accidents involving pregnant women. This anatomical accuracy makes it possible to progress in the field of safety devices.

  18. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours to diffe......Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P...

  19. A new robust adaptive controller for vibration control of active engine mount subjected to large uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Vahid; Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Chang-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a new robust model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for vibration control caused from vehicle engine using an electromagnetic type of active engine mount. Vibration isolation performances of the active mount associated with the robust controller are evaluated in the presence of large uncertainties. As a first step, an active mount with linear solenoid actuator is prepared and its dynamic model is identified via experimental test. Subsequently, a new robust MRAC based on the gradient method with σ-modification is designed by selecting a proper reference model. In designing the robust adaptive control, structured (parametric) uncertainties in the stiffness of the passive part of the mount and in damping ratio of the active part of the mount are considered to investigate the robustness of the proposed controller. Experimental and simulation results are presented to evaluate performance focusing on the robustness behavior of the controller in the face of large uncertainties. The obtained results show that the proposed controller can sufficiently provide the robust vibration control performance even in the presence of large uncertainties showing an effective vibration isolation.

  20. Rethinking optimal control of human movements

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Dongsung

    2012-01-01

    The complex bio-mechanics of human body is capable of generating an unlimited repertoire of movements, which on one hand yields highly versatile motor behavior but on the other hand presents a formidable control problem for the brain. Understanding the computational process that allows us to easily perform various motor tasks with a high degree of coordination is of central interest to both neuroscience and robotics control. In recent decades, it became widely accepted that the observed movem...

  1. HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE HUMAN RESOURCE CONTROLLING INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Dugelova; Mariana Strenitzerova

    2015-01-01

    Human resource controlling represents a company’s strategic method to support its role is planning, checking, and managing—including information supplement for human resources department. Human resource controlling helps with optimization and transformation of human resource functions and with general human resource management. Our survey deals with the implementation of human resource controlling in information technology companies. The selection of appropriate human resource controlling too...

  2. Multi-subject/daily-life activity EMG-based control of mechanical hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorilla Angelo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forearm surface electromyography (EMG has been in use since the Sixties to feed-forward control active hand prostheses in a more and more refined way. Recent research shows that it can be used to control even a dexterous polyarticulate hand prosthesis such as Touch Bionics's i-LIMB, as well as a multifingered, multi-degree-of-freedom mechanical hand such as the DLR II. In this paper we extend previous work and investigate the robustness of such fine control possibilities, in two ways: firstly, we conduct an analysis on data obtained from 10 healthy subjects, trying to assess the general applicability of the technique; secondly, we compare the baseline controlled condition (arm relaxed and still on a table with a "Daily-Life Activity" (DLA condition in which subjects walk, raise their hands and arms, sit down and stand up, etc., as an experimental proxy of what a patient is supposed to do in real life. We also propose a cross-subject model analysis, i.e., training a model on a subject and testing it on another one. The use of pre-trained models could be useful in shortening the time required by the subject/patient to become proficient in using the hand. Results A standard machine learning technique was able to achieve a real-time grip posture classification rate of about 97% in the baseline condition and 95% in the DLA condition; and an average correlation to the target of about 0.93 (0.90 while reconstructing the required force. Cross-subject analysis is encouraging although not definitive in its present state. Conclusion Performance figures obtained here are in the same order of magnitude of those obtained in previous work about healthy subjects in controlled conditions and/or amputees, which lets us claim that this technique can be used by reasonably any subject, and in DLA situations. Use of previously trained models is not fully assessed here, but more recent work indicates it is a promising way ahead.

  3. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  4. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  5. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim

    2015-08-01

    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  6. Subjective State, Blood Pressure, and Behavioral Control Changes Produced by an "Energy Shot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Ossege, Julianne; Maloney, Sarah F; Bardgett, Mark E; Brown, Clifford J

    2014-06-01

    Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy(®)) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products.

  7. Resveratrol as Add-on Therapy in Subjects With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Ligt, M. de; Phielix, E.; Weijer, T. van de; Hansen, J.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Kunz, I.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Schrauwen, P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether resveratrol supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity and promote overall metabolic health on top of standard diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen subjects with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D) were treated with placebo and 150 mg/day

  8. Resveratrol as Add-on Therapy in Subjects With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Ligt, M. de; Phielix, E.; Weijer, T. van de; Hansen, J.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Kunz, I.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Schrauwen, P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether resveratrol supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity and promote overall metabolic health on top of standard diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen subjects with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D) were treated with placebo and 150 mg/day resve

  9. Sumatriptan does not affect arteriovenous oxygen differences in jugular and cubital veins in normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, T.; Hansen, J.M.; Petersen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) may open up during migraine attacks. In studies with anaesthetized and bilaterally vagosympatectomized pigs, triptans reduce AVA blood flow and increase the arteriovenous O-2 difference (AVDO(2)). To investigate whether subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg could induce...... changes in the AVDO(2), we measured the AVDO(2) in the external jugular vein in healthy subjects. We also measured the AVDO(2) in the internal jugular and cubital veins. There were no changes in AVDO(2) after subcutaneous sumatriptan, probably because AVA blood flow is limited in humans with an intact...

  10. Plutonium stories. [Stories of subjects of Department of Energy human experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presented here are thumbnail sketches of six people who received injections of plutonium in an Atomic Energy Commission experiment, presumably designed to assess the biological effects of radiation on the human body. The information was drawn from a copyrighted series in the Albuquerque Tribune, a newspaper that counts Los Alamos within its circulation area. Eighteen subjects were involved in this plutonium experiment. They received their injections at the Manhattan Project hospital in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and at prestigious teaching hospitals--the University of California Hospital in San Francisco, Billings Hospital at the University of Chicago, and Strong Memorial Hospital at the University of Rochester.

  11. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gambino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free fatty acid (FFA metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients.

  12. Control of support limb muscles in recovery after tripping in young and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnappels, Mirjam; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2005-01-01

    Older people fall more often after tripping than young people due to a slower development of mechanical responses. This might be due to age-related changes in muscle properties, but also to changes in motor control. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether (a) timing and sequencing of muscle activation and (b) the magnitude and rate of development of muscle activation in recovery after a trip differs between young and older subjects. We focused on the support limb, as it contributes to recovery after tripping by counteracting the forward angular momentum. Ten young (25 years) and seven older (68 years) men and women walked over a platform and were tripped several times at different points in the gait cycle. Kinematics and EMG of the support limb muscles were measured. After tripping, rapid EMG responses (60-80 ms) were observed in hamstring and triceps surae muscles in both young and older subjects. A slightly increased delay (11 ms) was found only in the soleus muscle of the older subjects. The muscle activity patterns (timing and sequencing) were similar in young and older subjects, but the magnitude and rate of development of muscle activity were significantly lower in older subjects. Especially the lower rate of development of muscle activation in the support limb of older subjects is likely to reduce the rate of force generation, which can contribute to inadequate recovery responses and falls.

  13. Predictors of adult humans' self-control and impulsiveness for food reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzano, L B; Logue, A W

    1992-08-01

    Humans vary in the degree to which they demonstrate self-control--choice of larger, more delayed over smaller, less delayed reinforcers. When reinforcers consist of food, individual human subjects' choice behavior varies from virtually exclusive self-control to exclusive impulsiveness. The present experiment, using 26 men and 26 women subjects, explored some possible sources of this individual variation through assessing the correlation of behaviors exhibited in the self-control paradigm with various subject characteristics. The results suggest that self-control is negatively related to individuals' reported susceptibility to hunger (Factor 3 of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) and positively related to overall rating of juice desirability, but not to gender or to various measures of caloric deprivation or personality. Relatively high self-perceived levels of food deprivation may decrease self-control, whereas assigning a relatively high value to the reinforcer may increase self-control. Both tendencies would have been adaptive for evolving humans.

  14. Balance Control Comparison between Subjects with and without Non-specific Low Back Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bin; LUO Chun; WANG Rongli; WANG Ninghua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the balance ability between normal people and non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) patients and explore the relationship between balance ability and muscle function in nsLBP patients. Method: Ten nsLBP patients as nsLBP group and 10 age and gender-matched healthy control subjects as control group were investigated. Posturography on balance platform and surface electromyography (sEMG) were performed to assess all the subjects' function of equilibrium and muscle activities of erector spinea(ES), muhifidus(MF), abdominal external oblique (EO), hamstring (HS) and maximal gluteus (MG) bilaterally. Result: The nsLBP subjects had greater sway on anterior-posterior direction (Y-speed and Y-extension, P=0.05) on feet-together posture and bigger main axis (P=0.023) on nature standing with eyes closed when compared with controls. The iEMG ratios of right MG in nature standing (eyes closed)/ nature standing (eyes open) and feet-together (eyes open)/nature standing (eyes open) in control group were significant higher than that in nsLBP group (P=0.03 and P=0.013). Conclusion: Balance evaluation combined with sEMG measurement on trank and lower limb muscles provided some quantitative information about functional deficits such as pestural control and muscle activities in nsLBP patients. This relationship should be emphasized in prevention and rehabilitation of nsLBP.

  15. The effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Chambers, Edward S; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-01-01

    Recent work shows that increased meal frequency reduces ghrelin responses in sheep. Human research suggests there is an interaction between insulin and ghrelin. The effect of meal frequency on this interaction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding frequency on insulin...... and ghrelin responses in human subjects. Five healthy male volunteers were recruited from the general population: age 24 (SEM 2)years, body mass 75.7 (SEM 3.2) kg and BMI 23.8 (SEM 0.8) kg/m(2). Volunteers underwent three 8-h feeding regimens: fasting (FAST); low-frequency(two) meal ingestion (LOFREQ(MEAL......)); high-frequency (twelve) meal ingestion (HIFREQ(MEAL)). Meals were equi-energetic within trials,consisting of 64% carbohydrate, 23% fat and 13% protein. Total energy intake was equal between feeding trials. Total area under the curve for serum insulin and plasma ghrelin responses did not differ between...

  16. Sensor Fault and Delay Tolerant Control for Networked Control Systems Subject to External Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-Yuan; Chen, Yue-Hui; Tang, Gong-You

    2017-03-28

    In this paper, the problem of sensor fault and delay tolerant control problem for a class of networked control systems under external disturbances is investigated. More precisely, the dynamic characteristics of the external disturbance and sensor fault are described as the output of exogenous systems first. The original sensor fault and delay tolerant control problem is reformulated as an equivalence problem with designed available system output and reformed performance index. The feedforward and feedback sensor fault tolerant controller (FFSFTC) can be obtained by utilizing the solutions of Riccati matrix equation and Stein matrix equation. Based on the designed fault diagnoser, the proposed FFSFTC is further reconstructed to compensate for the sensor fault and delayed measurement effects. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed FFSFTC with different cases with various types of sensor faults, measurement delays and external disturbances.

  17. A Comparison of Postural Control Characteristics between Subjects with Kyphosis and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalfani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: It is known that postural control performance in upright standing position could be affected by abnormal posture alignment. Despite the fact that kyphosis is one of the most common spine abnormality, the effect of thoracic curve abnormality at sagittal plane on postural stability has received little attention to date. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate the dynamic and static postural control among individuals with kyphosis in comparison with a control matched group.Materials & Methods: Nineteen males with increased normal thoracic kyphosis (> 40 degrees were randomly selected as kyphotic group. Eighteen controls matched for age, weight and height were selected to participate in the study. We measured the amount of kyphosis using flexible ruler as a noninvasive and reliable method. Dynamic and static postural stability were assessed using the biodex stability system and the balance error scoring system respectively. ANOVA with repeated measures followed by Tukey HSD test and independent t-test were employed for statistical analyses (p<0.05. Results: For dynamic postural assessment, the means of all stability indices were significantly higher in the kyphotic individuals than controls in the eyes-closed condition. With the platform in the most unstable position, kyphotic group were detected to have significantly poorer balance performance than controls in both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. For static balance evaluation, no difference was noted between both groups in stability performance during double and tandem stances. During the single-limb stance trials, the kyphotic group had poorer performance than controls while standing on the firm surface and foam surface (firm surface: p=0.044; foam surface: p=0.000.Conclusion: The findings suggest that postural control especially dynamic postural stability may be altered in individuals with increased thoracic kyphosis.

  18. LMI-Based Fuzzy Optimal Variance Control of Airfoil Model Subject to Input Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean S.M.; Ayoubi, Mohammad A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of fuzzy optimal variance control problem for dynamical systems subject to actuator amplitude and rate constraints. Using Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy modeling and dynamic Parallel Distributed Compensation technique, the stability and the constraints can be cast as a multi-objective optimization problem in the form of Linear Matrix Inequalities. By utilizing the formulations and solutions for the input and output variance constraint problems, we develop a fuzzy full-state feedback controller. The stability and performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated through its application to the airfoil flutter suppression.

  19. GLP-1 and Calcitonin Concentration in Humans: Lack of Evidence of Calcitonin Release from Sequential Screening in over 5000 Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Nondiabetic Obese Subjects Treated with the Human GLP-1 Analog, Liraglutide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Moses, Alan C; Zdravkovic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    to the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or nondiabetic obese subjects. Methods: Unstimulated serum CT concentrations were measured at 3-month intervals for no more than 2 yr in a series of trials in over 5000 subjects receiving liraglutide or control therapy...

  20. An evaluation of the influence of a magnetic field on a human subject with the use of bio-impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papezova, S [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague (Czech Republic); Papez, V, E-mail: stanislava.papezova@fs.cvut.c, E-mail: papez@feld.cvut.c [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a magnetic field on a living human organism was monitored using a bio-impedance evaluation of vasodilatation effects. A quantitative evaluation of the influence of a magnetic field on a human being was implemented by means of a quantitative evaluation of changes in the bio-impedance of the tissue. The pulse of the magnetic field was controlled by a pseudo-random impulse signal using a power switch that controlled the current of the applicator coil. The peak magnetic field flux density was approximately 60 mT. The bio-impedance was measured by a four-electrode method by means of a radiofrequency narrow band vector bioimpedance meter. Experiments were performed on the magnetic exposure of the forearm of an exposed human subject. During exposure to a magnetic field, the bio-impedance change signal level increases above the normal level, and reaches the maximum level after about 10 minutes. The maximum value is approximately 50 % higher than the normal level.

  1. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  2. Vaccination of healthy subjects and autoantibodies: from mice through dogs to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, N; Avcin, T

    2009-11-01

    Vaccination against pathogenic microorganisms is one of the major achievements of modern medicine, but due to an increasing number of reports of adverse reactions the vaccination procedure has induced also considerable debate. It is well known that certain infections are involved in triggering the production of autoantibodies, which could lead to autoimmune adverse reactions in genetically predisposed subjects. Based on these findings it was assumed that vaccinations might induce similar autoimmune reactions. At present there is no clear-cut evidence that vaccinations are associated with overt autoimmune diseases but it has been demonstrated that in genetically predisposed persons vaccination can trigger the production of autoantibodies and autoimmune adverse reactions. The first studies investigating the production of autoantibodies following vaccination were done in dogs and mice. Several studies investigated the production of autoantibodies following vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, but there are only limited data on the autoimmune responses after vaccinations in apparently healthy humans. This review summarizes current evidence on the vaccination-induced autoantibodies in apparently healthy subjects including studies in animals and humans.

  3. Human Subjects Protection and Technology in Prevention Science: Selected Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Anthony R; Wyman, Peter A; Mohr, David C; Perrino, Tatiana; Gallo, Carlos; Villamar, Juan; Kendziora, Kimberly; Howe, George W; Sloboda, Zili; Brown, C Hendricks

    2016-08-01

    Internet-connected devices are changing the way people live, work, and relate to one another. For prevention scientists, technological advances create opportunities to promote the welfare of human subjects and society. The challenge is to obtain the benefits while minimizing risks. In this article, we use the guiding principles for ethical human subjects research and proposed changes to the Common Rule regulations, as a basis for discussing selected opportunities and challenges that new technologies present for prevention science. The benefits of conducting research with new populations, and at new levels of integration into participants' daily lives, are presented along with five challenges along with technological and other solutions to strengthen the protections that we provide: (1) achieving adequate informed consent with procedures that are acceptable to participants in a digital age; (2) balancing opportunities for rapid development and broad reach, with gaining adequate understanding of population needs; (3) integrating data collection and intervention into participants' lives while minimizing intrusiveness and fatigue; (4) setting appropriate expectations for responding to safety and suicide concerns; and (5) safeguarding newly available streams of sensitive data. Our goal is to promote collaboration between prevention scientists, institutional review boards, and community members to safely and ethically harness advancing technologies to strengthen impact of prevention science.

  4. Research monitoring by US medical institutions to protect human subjects: compliance or quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jean Philippe; van Zwieten, Myra C B; Willems, Dick L

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, institutions in the USA have begun to set up programmes to monitor ongoing medical research. These programmes provide routine, onsite oversight, and thus go beyond existing oversight such as investigating suspected misconduct or reviewing paperwork provided by investigators. However, because of a lack of guidelines and evidence, institutions have had little guidance in setting up their programmes. To help institutions make the right choices, we used interviews and document analysis to study how and why 11 US institutions have set up their monitoring programmes. Although these programmes varied considerably, we were able to distinguish two general types. 'Compliance' programmes on the one hand were part of the institutional review board office and set up to ensure compliance with regulations. Investigators' participation was mandatory. Monitors focused on documentation. Investigators could be disciplined, and could be obliged to take corrective actions. 'Quality-improvement' programmes on the other hand were part of a separate office. Investigators requested to be monitored. Monitors focused more on actual research conduct. Investigators and other parties received feedback on how to improve the research process. Although both types of programmes have their drawbacks and advantages, we argue that if institutions want to set up monitoring programmes, quality improvement is the better choice: it can help foster an atmosphere of trust between investigators and the institutional review board, and can help raise the standards for the protection of human subjects.

  5. The Role of Intuition in Risk/Benefit Decision-Making in Human Subjects Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2017-01-01

    One of the key principles of ethical research involving human subjects is that the risks of research to should be acceptable in relation to expected benefits. Institutional review board (IRB) members often rely on intuition to make risk/benefit decisions concerning proposed human studies. Some have objected to using intuition to make these decisions because intuition is unreliable and biased and lacks transparency. In this article, I examine the role of intuition in IRB risk/benefit decision-making and argue that there are practical and philosophical limits to our ability to reduce our reliance on intuition in this process. The fact that IRB risk/benefit decision-making involves intuition need not imply that it is hopelessly subjective or biased, however, since there are strategies that IRBs can employ to improve their decisions, such as using empirical data to estimate the probability of potential harms and benefits, developing classification systems to guide the evaluation of harms and benefits, and engaging in moral reasoning concerning the acceptability of risks.

  6. [Encountering the subject in the health field: a human care theory based on lived experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonarx, Nicolas; Desgroseilliers, Valérie

    2013-09-01

    Dominated by a bio-mechanistic paradigm, Western health systems are suffering from numerous problems. One such problem is the lack of consideration for lived experiences and the complexity and depth of meaning that characterize them. We accordingly emphasize in this text the importance of talking a deep look at the experiences of the cared-for Subject and changing the viewpoint on his or her problems. We defend this viewpoint with the help of a few ideas borrowed from Georges Canguilhem. We then refer to a socio-phenomenological approach inspired by the work of Alfred Schütz which allows us to better grasp people's lived experiences. We thus rehabilitate the Subject by proposing a human care theory that focuses on its' relationship(s) with the body, others, time and space, as well as on self-referent identity labels that give meaning to one's existence. This study is a theoretical reflection on human care that considers professional collaboration and interdisciplinarity, and that does not ignore the concrete practices of stakeholders and professionals.

  7. Human preferences for symmetry: subjective experience, cognitive conflict and cortical brain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available This study examines the links between human perceptions, cognitive biases and neural processing of symmetrical stimuli. While preferences for symmetry have largely been examined in the context of disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders, we examine various these phenomena in non-clinical subjects and suggest that such preferences are distributed throughout the typical population as part of our cognitive and neural architecture. In Experiment 1, 82 young adults reported on the frequency of their obsessive-compulsive spectrum behaviors. Subjects also performed an emotional Stroop or variant of an Implicit Association Task (the OC-CIT developed to assess cognitive biases for symmetry. Data not only reveal that subjects evidence a cognitive conflict when asked to match images of positive affect with asymmetrical stimuli, and disgust with symmetry, but also that their slowed reaction times when asked to do so were predicted by reports of OC behavior, particularly checking behavior. In Experiment 2, 26 participants were administered an oddball Event-Related Potential task specifically designed to assess sensitivity to symmetry as well as the OC-CIT. These data revealed that reaction times on the OC-CIT were strongly predicted by frontal electrode sites indicating faster processing of an asymmetrical stimulus (unparallel lines relative to a symmetrical stimulus (parallel lines. The results point to an overall cognitive bias linking disgust with asymmetry and suggest that such cognitive biases are reflected in neural responses to symmetrical/asymmetrical stimuli.

  8. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS- enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  9. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS-) enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  10. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior.

  11. Satisfactory fault-tolerant controller design for uncertain systems subject to actuator faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dengfeng; Su Hongye; Wang Zhiquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on satisfactory control strategy, a new method for robust passive fault tolerant controller is proposed for a class of uncertain discrete-time systems subject to actuator faults. The state-feedback gain matrix is calculated by linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. The designed controller guarantees that the closed-loop system meets the pre-specified consistent constraints on circular pole index and steady-state variance index simultaneously for normal case and possible actuator fault case. The consistency of the performance indices is discussed. Furthermore, with the mentioned indices constraints, a solution is obtained by convex optimal technique for the robust satisfactory fault-tolerant controller with optimal control-cost.

  12. Achieving Closed-Loop Control Simulation of Human-Artefact Interaction: A Comparative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Frederik van der Vegte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To include user interactions in simulations of product use, the most common approach is to couple human subjects to simulation models, using hardware interfaces to close the simulation-control loop. Testing with virtual human models could offer a low-cost addition to evaluation with human subjects. This paper explores the possibilities for coupling human and artefact models to achieve fully software-based interaction simulations. We have critically reviewed existing partial solutions to simulate or execute control (both human control and product-embedded control and compared solutions from literature with a proof-of-concept we have recently developed. Our concept closes all loops, but it does not rely on validated algorithms to predict human decision making and low-level human motor control. For low-level control, validated solutions are available from other approaches. For human decision making, however, validated algorithms exist only to predict the timing but not the reasoning behind it. To identify decision-making schemes beyond what designers can conjecture, testing with human subjects remains indispensable.

  13. Decentralized PID neural network control for a quadrotor helicopter subjected to wind disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦民; 何勇灵; 周岷峰

    2015-01-01

    A decentralized PID neural network (PIDNN) control scheme was proposed to a quadrotor helicopter subjected to wind disturbance. First, the dynamic model that considered the effect of wind disturbance was established via Newton−Euler formalism. For quadrotor helicopter flying at low altitude in actual situation, it was more susceptible to be influenced by the turbulent wind field. Therefore, the turbulent wind field was generated according to Dryden model and taken into consideration as the disturbance source of quadrotor helicopter. Then, a nested loop control approach was proposed for the stabilization and navigation problems of the quadrotor subjected to wind disturbance. A decentralized PIDNN controller was designed for the inner loop to stabilize the attitude angle. A conventional PID controller was used for the outer loop in order to generate the reference path to inner loop. Moreover, the connective weights of the PIDNN were trained on-line by error back-propagation method. Furthermore, the initial connective weights were identified according to the principle of PID control theory and the appropriate learning rate was selected by discrete Lyapunov theory in order to ensure the stability. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the controller can effectively resist external wind disturbances, and presents good stability, maneuverability and robustness.

  14. Design and evaluation of vibratory shoe on balance control for elderly subjects: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Atefeh; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Farahmand, Farzam; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Fadayevatan, Reza; Abdollahi, Ehsan

    2017-03-22

    Aging often results in a decline in somatosensory function, and such changes are associated with diminished motor performance. Input noise can enhance sensory and motor function through a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). This paper describes the development and testing of a new vibrating shoe to possibly assist the elderly patients in controlling their balance and decreasing their falling risks. The new vibrating shoe was evaluated to ascertain its ability to generate appropriate random and nonlinear vibrations. The vibratory shoe performance in two young subjects with decreased foot sensation and two elderly subjects in different static and dynamic balance situations was also evaluated. The postural control, expressed by the stability index (SI), was significantly affected by SR in the older subjects. The vibrating motors could be recommended as a suitable solution for dynamic balance situations. Moreover, the new vibrating shoe could improve the age-related balance impairments in elderly subjects with balance deficiencies and others with impaired foot sensations. Implications for rehabilitations Older adults exhibited decreased postural stability. Noise signal improves sensation and proprioception in older people. New shoe with vibrating motors can operate in different dynamic situations.

  15. Schedule-induced masseter EMG in facial pain subjects vs. no-pain controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, S E; Grayson, R L; Sullivan, T N; Schwartz, S

    1997-02-01

    Empirical reports suggest that oral habits (e.g., teeth clenching) may be behavioral mediators linking stress to muscle hyperreactivity and the development of facial pain. Another report suggests that excessive behavioral adjuncts develop in conjunction with fixed-time stimulus presentation. The present study assessed the extent to which the oral habits exhibited by facial pain patients are schedule-induced. Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) symptomatology (n = 15) and pain-free controls (n = 15) participated in a 4-phase experiment (adaptation, baseline, task, recovery) designed to elicit schedule-induced behaviors. Self-report of oral habits and negative affect were recorded after each phase. Objective measures of oral habits were obtained via behavioral observation and masseter EMG recordings. Results revealed that negative arousal significantly increased during the fixed-time (FT) task and was also associated with increased oral habits among the TMD subjects. Moreover, 40% of the TMD subjects and none of the controls exhibited a pattern of EMG elevations in the early part of the inter-stimulus interval that met a strict criteria for scheduled-induced behavior per se. Taken together, these results suggest that the TMD subjects were engaging in schedule-induced oral habits. The adjunctive behavior literature seems to provide a plausible explanation as to how oral habits develop and are maintained in TMD patients, despite their painful consequences.

  16. An efficient method for multiobjective optimal control and optimal control subject to integral constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ajeet

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new and efficient numerical method for multicriterion optimal control and single criterion optimal control under integral constraints. The approach is based on extending the state space to include information on a "budget" remaining to satisfy each constraint; the augmented Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman PDE is then solved numerically. The efficiency of our approach hinges on the causality in that PDE, i.e., the monotonicity of characteristic curves in one of the newly added dimensions. A semi-Lagrangian "marching" method is used to approximate the discontinuous viscosity solution efficiently. We compare this to a recently introduced "weighted sum" based algorithm for the same problem. We illustrate our method using examples from flight path planning and robotic navigation in the presence of friendly and adversarial observers.

  17. Human response to an individually controlled environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, G.L.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2005-01-01

    -desk air terminal device supplying cool air, a chair with convectively heated backrest, an under-desk radiant heating panel and a floor-heating panel. The temperature of the PV air and the under-desk air was kept at 20 degrees C. The subjects were provided with control of the flow rate and direction...... of the personalized air and under-desk airflow rate, the temperature of the convection flow from the chair, and the surface temperature of the heating panels. The results reveal that the thermal and air quality acceptability was significantly higher with the ICS at all room temperatures compared to the reference...... condition. The ICS could satisfy more than 85% of the subjects in regard to both thermal comfort and inhaled air quality....

  18. The effect of low light intensity on the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Lyman, J.; Beljan, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The light-intensity threshold for humans is not known. In past space flights owing to power restrictions, light intensities have been minimal and reported to be as low as 15 ft. c. This study was conducted to determine whether the light (L)/dark (D) environment of 16L : 8D at the relatively low light intensity of 15 ft. c. was adequate for the maintenance of circadian synchrony in human subjects. Six healthy male subjects aged 20-23 years were exposed for 21 days to a 16L : 8D photoperiod. During the first 7 days the light intensity was 100 ft. c.; it was reduced to 15 ft. c. during the next 7 days and increased again to 100 ft. c. during the last 7 days of the study. Rectal temperature (RT) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously throughout the 21 days of the study. In the 100 ft. c. 16L : 8D the RT and HR rhythms remained stable and circadian throughout. When the light intensity was decreased to 15 ft. c. the periodicity of the HR rhythm was significantly decreased and this rhythm showed marked instability. In contrast the period of the RT rhythm did not change but a consistent phase delay occurred due to a delay in the lights-on associated rise in RT. These divergent effects on these two rhythms in internal desynchronization and performance decrement during the 15 ft. c. exposure. The data emphasize the need for establishing accurately the minimal lighting requirements for the maintenance of circadian rhythms of humans in confined environments.

  19. The Effects of Volitional Preemptive Abdominal Contraction on Postural Control Responses in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Sawyer, Steven F; James, C Roger; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Hooper, Troy L; Sizer, Phillip S

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of volitional preemptive abdominal contraction by using an abdominal bracing maneuver (ABM) on postural control responses. A within-subjects, repeated-measure, experimental design. Laboratory. Sixty-five healthy subjects between 18 and 50 years of age. Subjects performed ABM alternating with No-ABM during 2 rounds of 2 Neurocom computed dynamic posturography tests: the Motor Control Test (MCT) and conditions 1 (eyes open), 2 (eyes closed), and 5 (eyes closed, sway-referenced support) of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). (1) MCT Response Latency (milliseconds) and Response Scaling (magnitude of active postural correction) and (2) SOT Equilibrium Scores and 2-Dimensional Sway (°/second), and SOT Movement Strategy, which measure postural sway and movement strategies (ankle versus hip strategy), respectively. The use of ABM (versus No-ABM) produced: (1) a small but statistically significant decrease in SOT Equilibrium Score for condition 2 (-1.0%; P = .004); (2) an increase in SOT 2-Dimensional Sway (°/second) during conditions 1 (16.9%; P = .0001) and 2 (15.0%; P = .0001); (3) a small decrease in SOT Movement Strategy scores during condition 1 (-0.5%; P = .001) and condition 2 (-1.0%; P = .017); and (4) a reduction of MCT Response Latency by 3 milliseconds (-2.1%; P = .005) and reduction of Response Scaling by 0.33°/second (-9.2%; P = .001). Individuals can incorporate the ABM without substantively altering postural control. Although selected SOT and MCT scores exhibited small decreases in postural response integrity, those outcomes did not reflect functionally meaningful changes. These findings can enhance clinicians' confidence in prescribing the ABM as a means to protectively stabilize the spine and potentially prevent injury in healthy subjects without concern for reducing postural control, especially during more complex postural perturbations that introduce sensory conflict. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine

  20. Single muscle fibre contractile properties differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, J P; Jaspers, R T; Rittweger, J; Seynnes, O R; Kamandulis, S; Brazaitis, M; Skurvydas, A; Pišot, R; Šimunič, B; Narici, M V; Degens, H

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do the contractile properties of single muscle fibres differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? Peak power normalized for muscle fibre volume in power athletes is higher than in control subjects. Compared with control subjects, maximal isometric tension (normalized for muscle fibre cross-sectional area) is lower in body-builders. Although this difference may be caused in part by an apparent negative effect of hypertrophy, these results indicate that the training history of power athletes may increase muscle fibre quality, whereas body-building may be detrimental. We compared muscle fibre contractile properties of biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis of 12 body-builders (BBs; low- to moderate-intensity high-volume resistance training), six power athletes (PAs; high-intensity, low-volume combined with aerobic training) and 14 control subjects (Cs). Maximal isotonic contractions were performed in single muscle fibres, typed with SDS-PAGE. Fibre cross-sectional area was 67 and 88% (P power (PP) of PA fibres was 58% higher than that of BB fibres (P < 0.05), whereas BB fibres, despite considerable hypertrophy, had similar PP to the C fibres. This work suggests that high-intensity, low-volume resistance training with aerobic exercise improves PP, while low- to moderate-intensity high-volume resistance training does not affect PP and results in a reduction in specific tension. We postulate that the decrease in specific tension is caused by differences in myofibrillar density and/or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  1. Fractal time series analysis of postural stability in elderly and control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doussot Michel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of balance using stabilogram analysis is of particular interest in the study of falls. Although simple statistical parameters derived from the stabilogram have been shown to predict risk of falls, such measures offer little insight into the underlying control mechanisms responsible for degradation in balance. In contrast, fractal and non-linear time-series analysis of stabilograms, such as estimations of the Hurst exponent (H, may provide information related to the underlying motor control strategies governing postural stability. In order to be adapted for a home-based follow-up of balance, such methods need to be robust, regardless of the experimental protocol, while producing time-series that are as short as possible. The present study compares two methods of calculating H: Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA and Stabilogram Diffusion Analysis (SDA for elderly and control subjects, as well as evaluating the effect of recording duration. Methods Centre of pressure signals were obtained from 90 young adult subjects and 10 elderly subjects. Data were sampled at 100 Hz for 30 s, including stepping onto and off the force plate. Estimations of H were made using sliding windows of 10, 5, and 2.5 s durations, with windows slid forward in 1-s increments. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for the effect of time, age and estimation method on the Hurst exponent, while the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used as a measure of reliability. Results Both SDA and DFA methods were able to identify differences in postural stability between control and elderly subjects for time series as short as 5 s, with ICC values as high as 0.75 for DFA. Conclusion Both methods would be well-suited to non-invasive longitudinal assessment of balance. In addition, reliable estimations of H were obtained from time series as short as 5 s.

  2. Simultaneous transdermal extraction of glucose and lactate from human subjects by reverse iontophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak S Ching

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tak S Ching1, Patricia Connolly21Asia University, Taiwan; 2Bioengineering Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UKAbstract: This study investigated the possibility of simultaneously extracting glucose and lactate from human subjects, at the same skin location, using transdermal reverse iontophoresis. Transdermal monitoring using iontophoresis is made possible by the skin’s permeability to small molecules and the nanoporous and microporous nature of the structure of skin. The study was intended to provide information which could be used to develop a full, biosensor-based, monitoring system for multiple parameters from transdermal extraction. As a precursor to the human study, in vitro reverse iontophoresis experiments were performed in an artificial skin system to establish the optimum current waveforms to be applied during iontophoresis. In the human study, a bipolar DC current waveform (with reversal of the electrode current direction every 15 minutes was applied to ten healthy volunteers via skin electrodes and utilized for simultaneous glucose and lactate transdermal extraction at an applied current density of 300 µA/cm2. Glucose and lactate were successfully extracted through each subject’s skin into the conducting gel that formed part of each iontophoresis electrode. The results suggest that it will be possible to noninvasively and simultaneously monitor glucose and lactate levels in patients using this approach and this could have future applications in diagnostic monitoring for a variety of medical conditions.Keywords: transdermal, iontophoresis, glucose, lactate, diagnostic monitoring

  3. Human Body as Subjectivity in Edith Stein. A Discussion on Anthropological Monism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego I. Rosales Meana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to explain why «anthropological monism» is the most adequate perspective in order to understand human reality, and that this ‘monism’ must not be necessarily considered as materialist. I will divide my work in four sections. First, I will explain briefly the Cartesian paradigm and what I consider some of its ontological mistakes. Then, I will try to build a phenomenology of the self with Edith Stein’s anthropology as its base, in order to reunite the two realities separated by Descartes: body and subjectivity. Third, I will talk about the concept of ‘form’ as the inseparable vital principle of living beings and, finally, I will talk about empathy as the phenomenon by which we constitute the idea of ‘I’ and the notion of ‘human being’. This way, monism will be presented as the best option to explain human reality and its activity.

  4. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  5. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT, the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD Checklist (PCL and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ. In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82. QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function.

  6. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    8-iso-PGF2a; plasma levels of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and a-tocopherol; serum high sensitive C-reactive protein; or activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. A significant increase in plasma level of EPA þ DHA was observed in both fish oil groups, but no significant...... markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g...

  7. Tuning a PD Controller Based on an SVR for the Control of a Biped Robot Subject to External Forces and Slope Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    The ZMP is calculated by reading four force sensors placed under each of the robot’s feet. The gait implemented in this biped is similar to a human gait, which is acquired and adapted to the robot’s size. The main contribution of this paper is the fine-tuning of the ZMP controller based on the SVR. To implement and test this, the biped robot was subjected to external forces and slope variation. Some experiments are presented and the results show that the implemented gait combined with the correct tuning of the SVR controller is appropriate for use with this biped robot. The SVR controller runs at 0.2 ms, which is about 50 times faster than a corresponding first- order TSK neural-fuzzy network.

  8. H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    distortions considered include asymmetric voltage dips and grid background harmonics. An uncertain DFIG model is developed with uncertain factors originating from distorted stator voltage, and changed generator parameters due to the flux saturation effect, the skin effect, etc. Weighting functions......This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage...

  9. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has...... to be deployed in the feedback path. For this situation, and by focusing on a class of source-coding schemes built around entropy coded dithered quantizers, we develop a framework to deal with average data-rate constraints in a tractable manner that combines ideas from both information and control theories...

  10. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.

  11. Subjective pain response to two anesthetic systems in dental surgery: traditional syringe vs. a computer controlled delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patini, R; Coviello, V; Raffaelli, L; Manicone, P F; Dehkhargani, S Z; Verdugo, F; Perfetti, G; D'Addona, A

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate human pain perception at different phases of dental surgery using a computer controlled device, the Single Tooth Anesthesia System (STA System), versus the traditional syringe technique. One hundred healthy patients participated in this single-blind split-mouth design study. Individuals provided pain ratings at needle insertion, delivery of anesthetic solution and tooth extraction via a numeric visual rating scale or NVRS. The anterior middle superior alveolar, or AMSA, injection was compared with traditional syringe injections in maxillary quadrants. NVRS scores for AMSA were significantly lower for the STA System when compared to traditional syringe technique at needle insertion, delivery of anesthetic solution (p less than 0.0001) and also during tooth extractions (p=0.0002). A higher percentage of patients (23 percent) required a second injection after the traditional syringe technique. Subjects reported having less clinical pain with AMSA injection at every step of the dental surgery. The STA System combines an anesthetic pathway and controlled flow rate resulting in virtually imperceptible needle insertion and injection, and a rapid onset of profound anesthesia. NVRS scoring system facilitated patient comprehension in assessing pain value and intensity experienced. The two anesthetic delivery techniques were therapeutically equivalent for maxillary injections but AMSA/computer controlled protocol significantly minimizes subjective pain perception at needle insertion, anesthetic delivery and during tooth extraction.

  12. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊; 孙辉; 马振洋

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design.

  13. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics and Optimal Control of SMA Composite Wings Subjected to Stochastic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of high-aspect-ratio shape memory alloy (SMA composite wing is proposed to reduce the wing’s fluttering. The nonlinear dynamic characteristics and optimal control of the SMA composite wings subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation are investigated where the great bending under the flight loads is considered. The stochastic stability of the system is analyzed, and the system’s response is obtained. The conditions of stochastic Hopf bifurcation are determined, and the probability density of the first-passage time is obtained. Finally, the optimal control strategy is proposed. Numerical simulation shows that the stability of the system varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process; the reliability of the system is improved through optimal control, and the first-passage time is delayed. Finally, the effects of the control strategy are proved by experiments. The results of this paper are helpful for engineering applications of SMA.

  14. Ethylphenidate formation in human subjects after the administration of a single dose of methylphenidate and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, J S; DeVane, C L; Boulton, D W; Nahas, Z; Risch, S C; Diamond, F; Patrick, K S

    2000-06-01

    Ethylphenidate was recently reported as a novel drug metabolite in two overdose fatalities where there was evidence of methylphenidate and ethanol coingestion. This study explores the pharmacokinetics of ethylphenidate relative to methylphenidate and the major metabolite ritalinic acid, in six healthy subjects who received methylphenidate and ethanol under controlled conditions. Subjects (three males, three females) received a single oral dose of methylphenidate (20 mg; two 10-mg tablets) followed by consumption of ethanol (0.6 g/kg) 30 min later. Methylphenidate, ritalinic acid, and ethylphenidate were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ethylphenidate was detectable in the plasma and urine of all subjects after ethanol ingestion. The mean (+/-S.D.) area under the concentration versus time curve for ethylphenidate was 1.2 +/- 0.7 ng/ml/h, representing 2.3 +/- 1.3% that of methylphenidate (48 +/- 12 ng/ml/h). A significant correlation was observed between the area under the concentration versus time curve of methylphenidate and that of ethylphenidate. In view of the known dopaminergic activity of racemic ethylphenidate, it remains possible that under certain circumstances of higher level dosing, e.g., in the abuse of methylphenidate and ethanol, the metabolite ethylphenidate may contribute to drug effects.

  15. Substrate Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity During Fasting in Obese Human Subjects: Impact of GH Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgild; Svart, Mads Vandsted; Lebeck, Janne; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Møller, Niels; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility are features of obesity and are amplified by fasting. Growth hormone (GH) secretion increases during fasting and GH causes insulin resistance. To study the metabolic effects of GH blockade during fasting in obese subjects. Nine obese males were studied thrice in a randomized design: (1) after an overnight fast (control), (2) after 72 hour fasting (fasting), and (3) after 72 hour fasting with GH blockade (pegvisomant) [fasting plus GH antagonist (GHA)]. Each study day consisted of a 4-hour basal period followed by a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp combined with indirect calorimetry, assessment of glucose and palmitate turnover, and muscle and fat biopsies. GH levels increased with fasting (P fasting-induced reduction of serum insulin-like growth factor I was enhanced by GHA (P Fasting increased lipolysis and lipid oxidation independent of GHA, but fasting plus GHA caused a more pronounced suppression of lipid intermediates in response to hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Fasting-induced insulin resistance was abrogated by GHA (P Fasting plus GHA also caused elevated glycerol levels and reduced levels of counterregulatory hormones. Fasting significantly reduced the expression of antilipolytic signals in adipose tissue independent of GHA. Suppression of GH activity during fasting in obese subjects reverses insulin resistance and amplifies insulin-stimulated suppression of lipid intermediates, indicating that GH is an important regulator of substrate metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility also in obese subjects.

  16. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stabil...

  17. Circulating T helper and T regulatory subsets in untreated early rheumatoid arthritis and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Jayesh M; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hallström, Magnus; Andersson, Kerstin; Nordström, Inger; Rudin, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenic role and frequency of T cell subtypes in early rheumatoid arthritis are still unclear. We therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of the circulating T cell subtype pattern in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy control subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 26 patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis and from with 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. T helper cell types Th0, Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th1/17 and nonclassic T helper subsets were defined by flow cytometry based on the expression of chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR6, and CXCR3. Regulatory T cells were defined by expression of CD25(+) CD127(low) and also FOXP3 CXCR5(+) cells among regulatory and nonregulatory T cells were defined as T follicular regulatory and T follicular helper cells, respectively. The phenotype of T cell subsets was confirmed by transcription factor and cytokine secretion analyses. Multivariate discriminant analysis showed that patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis were segregated from healthy control subjects based on the circulating T cell subset profile. Among the discriminator subsets, CCR4(+)CXCR3(-) (Th2 and Th17), CTLA4(+) and FOXP3(+) subsets were present in significantly higher frequencies, whereas CCR4(-) (Th1/Th17, CCR6(+)CCR4(-)CXCR3(-), and Th1) subsets were present in lower frequencies in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis compared with healthy control subjects. The proportions of Th2 and Th17 subsets associated positively with each other and negatively with the CXCR3(+)/interferon γ-secreting subsets (Th1 and Th1/Th17) in patients with untreated rheumatoid arthritis. The proportions of Th2 cells increased with age in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis and healthy control subjects. The dominance of circulating CCR4(+)CXCR3(-) T helper subsets (Th2 and Th17) in untreated early rheumatoid arthritis point toward a pathogenic role of

  18. Influence of lower body negative pressure release on soleus H reflex, respiratory sensations and reflexes in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashima; Raj, Hans; Gupta, Uday A; Srivastava, Niraj

    2010-09-30

    Using a physiological model of acutely increasing venous return into the lungs, i.e. by applying and then releasing lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to mimic the natural stimulus of juxtapulmonary capillary (J) or pulmonary C fibre receptors, produced an immediate and significant reduction in the amplitude of the Hoffman (H) reflex by 81±4% (P=0.001) in a majority of subjects 70% (n=5). Accompanying this was a notable change in the respiratory pattern with tidal volume (V(T)) increasing in all subjects from (mean) 0.462±.038 to 0.777±.061l/min (P=0.001) and the respiratory rate (F(R)) in 40% from 14±1 to 24±0.8 breaths/min. A feeling of pressure in throat, upper chest was reported by all and a shortness of breath-by 70% of the subjects. These were similar in nature to the respiratory sensations felt with threshold doses of intravenous lobeline, a well-established chemical stimulant of J receptors. All effects lasted for 15-20s and within a minute the parameters resumed their earlier control values. In animals, respiratory augmentation and locomotion inhibition are well-established reflexes of J receptors - this simultaneous though transitory reduction in H reflex amplitude reflecting change in the excitability of the motoneurone pool and appearance of respiratory effects, is the first demonstration in human subjects of the two reflexes appearing in response to a sudden increase in pulmonary blood flow that mimics the natural stimulus of these receptors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Naltrexone but Not Ketanserin Antagonizes the Subjective, Cardiovascular, and Neuroendocrine Effects of Salvinorin-A in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Ana Elda; Valle, Marta; Addy, Peter H.; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Puntes, Montserrat; Coimbra, Jimena; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Garrido, Maite; González, Mireia; Claramunt, Judit; Barker, Steven; Lomnicka, Izabela; Waguespack, Marian; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Salvinorin-A is a terpene found in the leaves of the plant Salvia divinorum. When administered to humans, salvinorin-A induces an intense but short-lasting modified state of awareness, sharing features with those induced by the classical serotonin-2A receptor agonist psychedelics. However, unlike substances such as psilocybin or mescaline, salvinorin-A shows agonist activity at the kappa-opioid receptor rather than at the serotonin-2A receptor. Here, we assessed the involvement of kappa-opioid receptor and serotonin-2A agonism in the subjective, cardiovascular, and neuroendocrine effects of salvinorin-A in humans. Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study with 2 groups of 12 healthy volunteers with experience with psychedelic drugs. There were 4 experimental sessions. In group 1, participants received the following treatment combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+salvinorin-A, naltrexone+placebo, and naltrexone+salvinorin-A. Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist, was administered at a dose of 50mg orally. In group 2, participants received the treatment combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+salvinorin-A, ketanserin+placebo, and ketanserin+salvinorin-A. Ketanserin, a selective serotonin-2A antagonist, was administered at a dose of 40mg orally. Results: Inhalation of 1mg of vaporized salvinorin-A led to maximum plasma concentrations at 1 and 2 minutes after dosing. When administered alone, salvinorin-A severely reduced external sensory perception and induced intense visual and auditory modifications, increased systolic blood pressure, and cortisol and prolactin release. These effects were effectively blocked by naltrexone, but not by ketanserin. Conclusions: Results support kappa opioid receptor agonism as the mechanism of action underlying the subjective and physiological effects of salvinorin-A in humans and rule out the involvement of a serotonin-2A-mediated mechanism. PMID:26874330

  20. Sensory stimulation (TENS): effects of parameter manipulation on mechanical pain thresholds in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, Linda S; Barlas, Panos; Foster, Nadine E; Lundeberg, Thomas; Wright, Christine C; Baxter, G David

    2002-09-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a popular form of electrostimulation. Despite an extensive research base, there remains no consensus regarding the parameter selection required to achieve maximal hypoalgesic effects. The aim of this double blind, sham-controlled study was to investigate the relative hypoalgesic effects of different TENS parameters (frequency, intensity and stimulation site) upon experimentally induced mechanical pain. Two hundred and forty participants were recruited in order to provide statistical analysis with 80% power at alpha = 0.05. Subjects were randomised to one of the six TENS groups, a control, and a sham TENS group (n = 30, 15 males, 15 females, per group). TENS groups differed in their combinations of stimulation; frequency (4 or 110 Hz), intensity ('to tolerance' or 'strong but comfortable') and stimulation site (segmental--over the distribution of the radial nerve or, extrasegmental--over acupuncture point 'gall bladder 34', or a combination of both segmental and extrasegmental). Pulse duration was fixed at 200 micros. Stimulation was delivered for 30 min and subjects were then monitored for a further 30 min. Mechanical pain threshold (MPT) was measured using a pressure algometer and taken from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the dominant hand, ipsilateral to the stimulation site. MPT measures were taken, at baseline, and at 10-min intervals for 60 min. Difference scores were analysed using repeated measures and one-way ANOVA and relevant post hoc tests. Low frequency, high intensity, extrasegmental stimulation produced a rapid onset hypoalgesic effect, which increased during the stimulation period (P < 0.0005 control and sham) and was sustained for 30 min post-stimulation (P < 0.0005(control), P = 0.024(sham)). Whilst high frequency, 'strong but comfortable' intensity, segmental stimulation produced comparable hypoalgesic levels during stimulation, this effect was not sustained post

  1. Striatal μ-opioid receptor availability predicts cold pressor pain threshold in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelberg, Nora; Aalto, Sargo; Tuominen, Lauri;

    2012-01-01

    Previous PET studies in healthy humans have shown that brain μ-opioid receptor activation during experimental pain is associated with reductions in the sensory and affective ratings of the individual pain experience. The aim of this study was to find out whether brain μ-opioid receptor binding...... at the resting state, in absence of painful stimulation, can be a long-term predictor of experimental pain sensitivity. We measured μ-opioid receptor binding potential (BP(ND)) with μ-opioid receptor selective radiotracer [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 healthy male subjects...... the potential associations between μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) and psychophysical measures. The results show that striatal μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) predicts cold pressor pain threshold, but not cold pressor pain tolerance or tactile sensitivity. This finding suggests that striatal μ-opioid receptor density...

  2. In vivo applications of X-ray fluorescence in human subjects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R Chettle

    2011-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence has been used to measure several elements noninvasively within living human subjects. Some description is given of the constraints imposed by this rather unusual form of analysis together with a brief listing indicating the range of elements for which such analyses have been developed. Measurements of two elements are then presented in more detail. Lead is measured in bone and has become a well-established tool in continuing research into the long term effects of lead. Strontium is also measured in bone and, although presently not in widespread use, offers the potential for essential information in the study of the reported benefits of strontium supplementation.

  3. Documentation of ethical conduct of human subject research published in Saudi medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gaai, E A; Hammami, M M; Al Eidan, M

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the documentation of ethical conduct (obtaining institutional review board approval and consent and following ethical guidelines) of human subject research studies published in Saudi Arabian medical journals between 1979 and 2007. Studies were classified as retrospective, prospective noninterventional, interventional or survey/interview. Of 1838 studies published in 286 journal issues of 11 Saudi Arabian medical journals, only 0.9% documented the ethical guidelines followed, with a significantly higher rate for studies published after year 2000 (1.7%). Of 821 studies requiring institutional review board approval, 8.6% documented obtaining the approval and informed consent, with a significantly higher rate for interventional studies (19.4%), post-year 2000 studies (19.7%) and studies performed outside Saudi Arabia (15.9%). The low documentation rate suggests editor's lack of rigor and/or investigators' ignorance of guidelines. The higher documentation rate after year 2000 suggests an ongoing improvement.

  4. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of low...... intensity (below threshold for a motor-evoked potential, MEP) produced a suppression of ongoing EMG activity during walking. The average latency for this suppression was 40.0 +/- 1.0 ms. At slightly higher intensities of stimulation there was a facilitation of the EMG activity with an average latency of 29.......5 +/- 1.0 ms. As the intensity of the stimulation was increased the facilitation increased in size and eventually a MEP was clear in individual sweeps. 3. In three subjects TMS was replaced by electrical stimulation over the motor cortex. Just below MEP threshold there was a clear facilitation at short...

  5. Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E

    2002-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation activates corticospinal neurones directly and transsynaptically and hence, activates motoneurones and results in a response in the muscle. Transmastoid stimulation results in a similar muscle response through activation of axons in the spinal cord. This study...... was designed to determine whether the two stimuli activate the same descending axons. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimuli paired with electrical transmastoid stimuli were examined in biceps brachii in human subjects. Twelve interstimulus intervals (ISIs) from -6 ms (magnet before transmastoid) to 5 ms......-wave, facilitation still occurred at ISIs of -6 and -5 ms and depression of the paired response at ISIs of 0, 1, 4 and 5 ms. The interaction of the response to transmastoid stimulation with the multiple descending volleys elicited by magnetic stimulation of the cortex is complex. However, depression of the response...

  6. Arachidonic acid metabolism in the platelets and neutrophils of diabetic rabbit and human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greco, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    An alteration of arachidonic acid metabolism to prostaglandins and leukotrienes from platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes respectively is evident in subjects with diabetes mellitus. There is evidence of altered platelet/vascular wall interactions in diabetes mellitus and evidence that polymorphonuclear leukocytes influence the vascular walls. Theories on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis include both blood cells. Platelet hypersensitivity is evident in those platelets from the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit either suspended in plasma or buffer. Arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, release of /sup 14/serotonin, and T x B/sub 2/ and 12-HETE production is enhanced when responses of diabetic platelets are compared to control platelets. Control rabbit neutrophils produce more LTB/sub 4/, LTB/sub 4/ isomers and 5-HETE than diabetic rabbits neutrophils. Decreased synthesis from diabetic rabbit neutrophils is not explained by increased catabolism of LTB/sub 4/, reesterification of 5-HETE, or increased eicosanoid formation. These experiments demonstrate both platelet and neutrophil dysfunction in diabetic subjects. Because of the involvement of these cells in regulating circulatory homeostatis, abnormal behavior could aggravate the atherosclerotic process. Platelet and neutrophil dysfunctions are noted before macroscopic vascular lesions are apparent suggesting an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  7. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  8. Recommendations for nanomedicine human subjects research oversight: an evolutionary approach for an emerging field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Leili; Wolf, Susan M; McCullough, Jeffrey; Hall, Ralph; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Jones, Cortney; Campbell, Stephen A; Dresser, Rebecca S; Erdman, Arthur G; Haynes, Christy L; Hoerr, Robert A; Hogle, Linda F; Keane, Moira A; Khushf, George; King, Nancy M P; Kokkoli, Efrosini; Marchant, Gary; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Siegel, Ronald A; Wickline, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, "active," and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an occasion to think systematically about appropriate oversight, especially early in the evolution of a technology, when hazard and risk information may remain incomplete. This paper presents the consensus recommendations of a multidisciplinary, NIH-funded project group, to ensure a science-based and ethically informed approach to HSR issues in nanomedicine, and to integrate HSR analysis with analysis of occupational, bystander, and environmental concerns. We recommend creating two bodies, an interagency Human Subjects Research in Nanomedicine (HSR/N) Working Group and a Secretary's Advisory Committee on Nanomedicine (SAC/N). HSR/N and SAC/N should perform 3 primary functions: (1) analysis of the attributes and subsets of nanomedicine interventions that raise HSR challenges and current gaps in oversight; (2) providing advice to relevant agencies and institutional bodies on the HSR issues, as well as federal and federal-institutional coordination; and (3) gathering and analyzing information on HSR issues as they emerge in nanomedicine. HSR/N and SAC/N will create a home for HSR analysis and coordination in DHHS (the key agency for relevant HSR oversight), optimize federal and institutional approaches, and allow HSR review to evolve with greater knowledge about nanomedicine interventions and greater clarity about attributes of concern.

  9. Comparison of techniques for morphologic evaluation of glycerol-preserved human skim subjected to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de A. [Faculty of Humanities, Economic and Health Sciences of Araguaina ITPAC (FAHESA/ITPAC/TO) Araguaina, TO (Brazil); Isaac, Cesar [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (FMUSP/SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Herson, Marisa R., E-mail: marisah@vifm.org [Tissue Bank of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Freitas, Anderson Z. de; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: azanardi@ipen.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Radiation Technology Centre; Oliveira, Sergio F. de [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (ICB-USP/SP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for auto graft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, causes breakdown of collagen I fibrils in the skin preserved in glycerol at 85% and this change influences fibroblast migration and deposition of new collagen. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. After the surgery the skins of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} and 90{sup th} days; optical coherence tomography on the 90{sup th} day and histological assay on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} days to compare the results of the repair process among the techniques, considering that the OCT allows in vivo and not destructive morphological analysis. According to the results obtained through OCT it was possible to observe a more organized repair process in the animals which received irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) if compared to unirradiated grafts. It was not possible to observe such phenomena through macroscopic or histological evaluation. (author)

  10. Immune response to acetaldehyde-human serum albumin adduct among healthy subjects related to alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Schilirò, Tiziana; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the main metabolic product in ethanol metabolism, although it can also derive from sources of airborne pollution. As a typical aldehyde, AA is able to react with a variety of molecular targets, including DNA and protein. This property justifies the hypothesis of a immune reaction against this kind of adduct, to be studied by a seroprevalence screening approach. In this study, the correlation between drinking habits and the amount of circulating AA-human serum albumin adduct (AA-HSA) was evaluated in a group of healthy subjects, non alcohol-addicted. Daily ethanol intake (grams) was inferred for each subject using the information collected through a questionnaire, and AA-HSA antibodies (AA-HSA ab) analyses were performed using the Displacement Assay on whole blood samples. The findings showed a correlation between ethanol intake and immune response to molecular adduct. These results underscore the evaluation of AA-HSA ab amount as a suitable molecular marker for alcohol intake that can be applied in future investigations on a large scale for prevention screening.

  11. Airflow in a Multiscale Subject-Specific Breathing Human Lung Model

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-01-01

    The airflow in a subject-specific breathing human lung is simulated with a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) lung model. The three-dimensional (3D) airway geometry beginning from the mouth to about 7 generations of airways is reconstructed from the multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) image at the total lung capacity (TLC). Along with the segmented lobe surfaces, we can build an anatomically-consistent one-dimensional (1D) airway tree spanning over more than 20 generations down to the terminal bronchioles, which is specific to the CT resolved airways and lobes (J Biomech 43(11): 2159-2163, 2010). We then register two lung images at TLC and the functional residual capacity (FRC) to specify subject-specific CFD flow boundary conditions and deform the airway surface mesh for a breathing lung simulation (J Comput Phys 244:168-192, 2013). The 1D airway tree bridges the 3D CT-resolved airways and the registration-derived regional ventilation in the lung parenchyma, thus a multiscale model. Larg...

  12. Sonomyography (SMG) control for powered prosthetic hand: a study with normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Guo, Jing-Yi; Shi, Jun

    2010-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that the muscle thickness change detected by ultrasonography during contraction, namely sonomyography (SMG), can be used for functional assessment of skeletal muscles and has the potential for prosthetic control. In this study, we further investigated the feasibility of using one-dimensional SMG (1-D SMG) signal for controlling a powered prosthesis with one degree of freedom. The performance of SMG control in visual pursuit tracking of opening-closure patterns of the prosthesis was evaluated. Nine normal subjects including seven males and two females participated in the experiment. SMG signals were collected from the extensor carpi radialis muscle to control the opening position of the prosthetic hand. The subjects were instructed to perform the wrist extension movement to match the prosthesis response to the target sinusoid and square tracks under different movement rates as accurately as possible. The normalized root mean square (RMS) tracking error between the target track and the degree of the prosthetic hand's opening position, which was measured by an electronic goniometer, was calculated to evaluate the control performance. It was found that the mean RMS tracking errors of SMG control under different movement rates were 12.8 +/- 3.2% (mean +/- SD) and 14.8 +/- 4.6% for sinusoid and square tracks, respectively. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in RMS tracking errors among the three movement rates (p = 2.0 x 10(-6)) and between the two target tracks (p = 0.007). The results suggest that SMG signal, based on further improvement, has potential to be an alternative method for prosthetic control.

  13. Reflex control of robotic gait using human walking data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Macleod

    Full Text Available Control of human walking is not thoroughly understood, which has implications in developing suitable strategies for the retraining of a functional gait following neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Bipedal robots allow us to investigate simple elements of the complex nervous system to quantify their contribution to motor control. RunBot is a bipedal robot which operates through reflexes without using central pattern generators or trajectory planning algorithms. Ground contact information from the feet is used to activate motors in the legs, generating a gait cycle visually similar to that of humans. Rather than developing a more complicated biologically realistic neural system to control the robot's stepping, we have instead further simplified our model by measuring the correlation between heel contact and leg muscle activity (EMG in human subjects during walking and from this data created filter functions transferring the sensory data into motor actions. Adaptive filtering was used to identify the unknown transfer functions which translate the contact information into muscle activation signals. Our results show a causal relationship between ground contact information from the heel and EMG, which allows us to create a minimal, linear, analogue control system for controlling walking. The derived transfer functions were applied to RunBot II as a proof of concept. The gait cycle produced was stable and controlled, which is a positive indication that the transfer functions have potential for use in the control of assistive devices for the retraining of an efficient and effective gait with potential applications in SCI rehabilitation.

  14. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  15. Control and surveillance of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, it appeared that human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) could be effectively controlled, but by the beginning of the twenty-first century several decades of neglect had led to alarming numbers of reported new cases, with an estimated 300 000 people infected. The World Health Organization (WHO) responded with a series of initiatives aimed at bringing HAT under control again. Since 2001, the pharmaceutical companies that produce drugs for HAT have committed themselves to providing them free of charge to WHO for distribution for the treatment of patients. In addition, funds have been provided to WHO to support national sleeping sickness control programmes to boost control and surveillance of the disease. That, coupled with bilateral cooperation and the work of nongovernmental organizations, helped reverse the upward trend in HAT prevalence. By 2012, the number of reported cases was fewer than 8000. This success in bringing HAT under control led to its inclusion in the WHO Roadmap for eradication, elimination and control of neglected tropical diseases, with a target set to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020. A further target has been set, by countries in which HAT is endemic, to eliminate gambiense HAT by reducing the incidence of infection to zero in a defined geographical area. This report provides information about new diagnostic approaches, new therapeutic regimens and better understanding of the distribution of the disease with high-quality mapping. The roles of human and animal reservoirs and the tsetse fly vectors that transmit the parasites are emphasized. The new information has formed the basis for an integrated strategy with which it is hoped that elimination of gambiense HAT will be achieved. The report also contains recommendations on the approaches that will lead to elimination of the disease.

  16. Mechanical Characterization of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Subjected to Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, David, IV

    Low back pain is a large and costly problem in the United States. Several working populations, such as miners, construction workers, forklift operators, and military personnel, have an increased risk and prevalence of low back pain compared to the general population. This is due to exposure to repeated, transient impact shocks, particularly while operating vehicles or other machinery. These shocks typically do not cause acute injury, but rather lead to pain and injury over time. The major focus in low back pain is often the intervertebral disc, due to its role as the major primary load-bearing component along the spinal column. The formation of a reliable standard for human lumbar disc exposure to repeated transient shock could potentially reduce injury risk for these working populations. The objective of this project, therefore, is to characterize the mechanical response of the lumbar intervertebral disc subjected to sub-traumatic impact loading conditions using both cadaveric and computational models, and to investigate the possible implications of this type of loading environment for low back pain. Axial, compressive impact loading events on Naval high speed boats were simulated in the laboratory and applied to human cadaveric specimen. Disc stiffness was higher and hysteresis was lower than quasi-static loading conditions. This indicates a shift in mechanical response when the disc is under impact loads and this behavior could be contributing to long-term back pain. Interstitial fluid loss and disc height changes were shown to affect disc impact mechanics in a creep study. Neutral zone increased, while energy dissipation and low-strain region stiffness decreased. This suggests that the disc has greater clinical instability during impact loading with progressive creep and fluid loss, indicating that time of day should be considered for working populations subjected to impact loads. A finite element model was developed and validated against cadaver specimen

  17. A control system for mechanical ventilation of passive and active subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fleur T

    2013-06-01

    Synchronization of spontaneous breathing with breaths supplied by the ventilator is essential for providing optimal ventilation to patients on mechanical ventilation. Some ventilation techniques such as Adaptive Support Ventilation (ASV), Proportional Assist Ventilation (PAV), and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) are designed to address this problem. In PAV, the pressure support is proportional to the patient's ongoing effort during inspiration. However, there is no guarantee that the patient receives adequate ventilation. The system described in this article is designed to automatically control the support level in PAV to guarantee delivery of patient's required ventilation. This system can also be used to control the PAV support level based on the patient's work of breathing. This technique further incorporates some of the features of ASV to deliver mandatory breaths for passive subjects. The system has been tested by using computer simulations and the controller has been implemented by using a prototype.

  18. Robust model-reference control for descriptor linear systems subject to parameter uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangren DUAN; Biao ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Robust model-reference control for descriptor linear systems with structural parameter uncertainties is investigated. A sufficient condition for existing a model-reference zero-error asymptotic tracking controller is given. It is shown that the robust model reference control problem can be decomposed into two subproblems: a robust state feedback stabilization problem for descriptor systems subject to parameter uncertainties and a robust compensation problem. The latter aims to find three coefficient matrices which satisfy four matrix equations and simultaneously minimize the effect of the uncertainties to the tracking error. Based on a complete parametric solution to a class of generalized Sylvester matrix equations, the robust compensation problem is converted into a minimization problem with quadratic cost and linear constraints. A numerical example shows the effect of the proposed approach.

  19. Controls and art inquiries at the intersection of the subjective and the objective

    CERN Document Server

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Dancing humanoids, robotic art installations, and music generated by mathematically precise methods are no longer science fiction; in fact they are the subject of this book.  This first-of-its-kind anthology assembles technical research that makes such creations possible.  In order to mechanize something as enigmatic and personal as dance, researchers must delve deeply into two distinct academic disciplines: control theory and art.  Broadly, this research uses techniques from the world of art to inspire methods in control, enables artistic endeavours using advanced control theory, and aids in the analysis of art using metrics devised by a systems theoretic approach.  To ensure that artistic influences are well represented, the individual chapters are focused so that they relate their contribution to the arts meaningfully and explicitly. Specially composed introductions set up the contributions either in terms of inspiration by artistic principles or their contribution to the arts through new analysis tool...

  20. Relationships among aging, IQ, and intracranial volume in alcoholics and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottenbauer, Michele A; Momenan, Reza; Kerick, Michael; Hommer, Daniel W

    2007-05-01

    The current article examined the relationships among aging, intelligence, intracranial volume, and brain shrinkage in alcoholics and nonalcoholic controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure intracranial and cerebral volumes in 146 subjects with alcohol use disorders and 42 comparison subjects who were not alcoholic. The authors' findings show that performance on Block Design decreases as alcoholics age, and this decrease is predicted by brain shrinkage. This is consistent with a process of cumulative brain damage related to alcohol use. However, the authors' data also show that vocabulary does not decrease with age and is correlated with premorbid brain size as measured by intracranial volume, suggesting that lower verbal ability precedes heavy alcohol use and may be a risk factor for alcoholism.

  1. Kinetics of Beta-14[14C] Carotene in a Human Subject Using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueker, S.R.; Lin, Y.; Follett, J.R.; Clifford, A.J.; Buchholz, B.A.

    2000-01-31

    {beta}-Carotene is a tetraterpenoid distributed widely throughout the plant kingdom. It is a member of a group of pigments referred to as carotenoids that have the distinction of serving as metabolic precursors to vitamin A in humans and many animals [1,2]. We used Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) [3] to determine the metabolic behavior of a physiologic oral dose of {beta}-[{sup 14}C]carotene (200 nanoCuries; 0.57 {micro}mol) in a healthy human subject. Serial blood specimens were collected for 210-d and complete urine and feces were collected for 17 and 10-d, respectively. Balance data indicated that the dose was 42% bioavailable. The absorbed {beta}-carotene was lost slowly via urine in accord with the slow body turnover of {beta}-carotene and vitamin A [4]. HPLC fractionation of plasma taken at early time points (0-24-h) showed the label was distributed between {beta}-carotene and retinyl esters (vitamin A) derived from intestinal metabolism.

  2. Population of 224 realistic human subject-based computational breast phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, David W. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Wells, Jered R., E-mail: jered.wells@duke.edu [Clinical Imaging Physics Group and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Departments of Physics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Dobbins, James T. [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Departments of Physics and Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Segars, W. Paul [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To create a database of highly realistic and anatomically variable 3D virtual breast phantoms based on dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) data. Methods: A tissue classification and segmentation algorithm was used to create realistic and detailed 3D computational breast phantoms based on 230 + dedicated bCT datasets from normal human subjects. The breast volume was identified using a coarse three-class fuzzy C-means segmentation algorithm which accounted for and removed motion blur at the breast periphery. Noise in the bCT data was reduced through application of a postreconstruction 3D bilateral filter. A 3D adipose nonuniformity (bias field) correction was then applied followed by glandular segmentation using a 3D bias-corrected fuzzy C-means algorithm. Multiple tissue classes were defined including skin, adipose, and several fractional glandular densities. Following segmentation, a skin mask was produced which preserved the interdigitated skin, adipose, and glandular boundaries of the skin interior. Finally, surface modeling was used to produce digital phantoms with methods complementary to the XCAT suite of digital human phantoms. Results: After rejecting some datasets due to artifacts, 224 virtual breast phantoms were created which emulate the complex breast parenchyma of actual human subjects. The volume breast density (with skin) ranged from 5.5% to 66.3% with a mean value of 25.3% ± 13.2%. Breast volumes ranged from 25.0 to 2099.6 ml with a mean value of 716.3 ± 386.5 ml. Three breast phantoms were selected for imaging with digital compression (using finite element modeling) and simple ray-tracing, and the results show promise in their potential to produce realistic simulated mammograms. Conclusions: This work provides a new population of 224 breast phantoms based on in vivo bCT data for imaging research. Compared to previous studies based on only a few prototype cases, this dataset provides a rich source of new cases spanning a wide range

  3. True or False, Process or Procedure: Parrhesia and a Consideration of Humanism, Subjectivity, and Ethics within Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, David; Polush, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine ethics, humanism, and the concept of "parrhesia" ("pa???s?a") in the context of educational research. More specifically, it surveys Foucault's lectures on ethics to explore a framework for educational research that disrupts subjectivity and traditional forms of humanism while retaining a relational…

  4. Lateral neck injury assessments in side impact using post mortem human subject tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank A; Wolfla, Christopher E; Maiman, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Current neck injury criteria are based on matching upper cervical spine injuries from piglet tests to airbag deployment loads and pairing kinematics from child dummies. These "child-based" scaled data together with adult human cadaver tolerances in axial loading are used to specify neck injury thresholds in axial compression and tension, and flexion and extension moment about the occipital condyles; no thresholds are specified for any other force or moment including lateral bending. The objective of this study was to develop a testing methodology and to determine the lateral bending moment injury threshold under coronal loading. Post mortem human subjects (PMHS) were used. Specimens consisted of whole body and isolated head-neck complexes with intact musculature. Intact specimen positioning included: sitting PMHS upright on a rigid seat, supporting the torso by a plate, maintaining Frankfurt plane horizontal. Isolated head-neck complexes were fixed at T1 with the occiput connected via a custom apparatus to a testing device to induce lateral bending motion. Head angular and linear accelerations and angular velocities were computed using a pyramid nine accelerometer package on the head; specimen-specific physical properties including center of gravity and moments of inertia in the three-dimensions; and equations of equilibrium. These data were used to determine neck loads at the occipital condyles. No specimens sustained injuries, identified by palpation, x-rays, CT, and autopsy. Results from 24 tests indicated that PMHS head-neck complexes can tolerate 75 Nm of coronal moment at low axial load without failure, and this level may be used as an initial estimate of the injury reference value under lateral loading to the human head-neck complex.

  5. Bio-physical characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosa of celiac patients: comparison with control subjects and effect of gluten free diet-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanacci Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal mucosa is leaky in celiac disease (CD, and this alteration may involve changes in hydrophobicity of the mucus surface barrier in addition to alteration of the epithelial barrier. The aims of our study were i to compare duodenal hydrophobicity as an index of mucus barrier integrity in CD patients studied before (n = 38 and during gluten- free diet (GFD, n = 68, and in control subjects (n = 90, and ii to check for regional differences of hydrophobicity in the gastro-intestinal tract. Methods Hydrophobicity was assessed by measurement of contact angle (CA (Rame Hart 100/10 goniometer generated by a drop of water placed on intestinal mucosal biopsies. Results CA (mean ± SD of distal duodenum was significantly lower in CD patients (56° ± 10° than in control subjects (69° ± 9°, p corpus > rectum > duodenum > oesophagus > ileum. Conclusions We conclude that the hydrophobicity of duodenal mucous layer is reduced in CD patients, and that the resulting decreased capacity to repel luminal contents may contribute to the increased intestinal permeability of CD. This alteration mirrors the severity of the mucosal lesions and is not completely reverted by gluten-free diet. Intestinal hydrophobicity exhibits regional differences in the human intestinal tract.

  6. The Serum Antioxidant Status in Chinese Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome:a Case-Control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-rong LI; Kun XUE; Hong-wei GUO; Min WU; Ming LIU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and analyze the association between serum antioxidant status and MS components.MethodsA case-control study was conducted with 221 MS cases and 329 controls aged 18-70 years. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids, as well as serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin E,β-carotene and lycopene were examined.Results Mean serum SOD activity,β-carotene level were significantly lower, and MDA higher (P<0.05) in MS subjects than in controls after adjusting for age and gender. Serum SOD, GSH-Px andβ-carotene level were also decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increased number of MS components.Conclusion Serum antioxidant status was negatively correlated with risks of MS and lower SOD activity andβ-carotene level appeared to be associated with more MS components. Serum oxidative status is useful in assessing the severity of MS.

  7. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  8. Locus Of Control - Predictor Of Health And Subjective Well – Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Popova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of a study of the relationship 'locus of control - health and subjective well-being. In a heterogeneous sample (N = 239 in the stage of youth (19-30 years shall be established: locus of control determines 11.56% of the changes in the assessment of health, changes in health contribute to 12.82% of the variation in assessment of happiness and 6.10% in the measurement of life satisfaction. Young people with an internal locus of control are healthier, happier and more satisfied with their lives than those with an external locus of control. In a study of cause - effect relationship is established that internal locus of control determines a healthier lifestyle. Inadequate health care, more severe risk factors (stress, unhealthy diet, inadequate sleep, smoking among young people with an external locus of control, outline prospects for greater vulnerability of this group of the population of the so called "Diseases of modern society." Most preferred activities of young people beneficial to their health are: walking, relaxation, hobbies and sports, and this is the way to state "flow" (activity of happiness and highlights the positive experiences in health. 

  9. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  10. In vitro evaluation of a passive radio frequency identification microchip implanted in human molars subjected to compression forces, for forensic purposes of human identification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moreno, Freddy; Vallejo, Diego; Garzón, Herney; Moreno, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro behavior of a passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) microchip implanted in human molars subjected to compression forces to determine its technical and clinical viability...

  11. Design and evaluation of automatic control for human/liquid cooling garment thermal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Karen Lujean

    An automatic control system was designed and developed to control the thermal comfort of an astronaut wearing a liquid cooling garment (LCG). Experimental trials were run with test subjects performing arm cranking exercise in an environmental chamber. The thermal control algorithm incorporates the use of carbon dioxide production as a measure of metabolic rate to initiate the control response and mean body temperature, as a function of ear canal and skin temperatures, to provide feedback of the human thermal state to the controller. Nine test subjects each completed three, ninety-minute tests in three different environmental temperatures. Subjective comfort levels were obtained from the subjects throughout each test. Evaluation of subjective comfort level and quantitative energy storage indicates good performance of the controller in maintaining thermal neutrality for the subject over a wide range of environmental and transient metabolic states. The Wissler human thermoregulation model was utilized in the control design process and was used to further analyze the experimental results following testing. Subsequent application of the model allowed evaluation of additional protocols for which the LCG thermal controller may be used in the future.

  12. Telomere length in subjects with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: Evidence of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepielewski, Leticia Sanguinetti; Massuda, Raffael; Panizzutti, Bruna; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; de Lucena, David; Macêdo, Danielle; Grun, Lucas Kich; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Gama, Clarissa Severino

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with broad burden. The clinical manifestations of SZ are related to pathophysiological alterations similar to what is seen in normal aging. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in telomere length (TL), a biomarker of cellular aging, in subjects with SZ (n=36), unaffected siblings (SB, n=36) and healthy controls (HC, n=47). SZ had shorter TL compared to HC, but no difference was found in SB comparing to SZ. These findings indicate that a pathological accelerated aging profile could be present in the course of SZ and further studies are needed to confirm TL as potential endophenotype, especially in at risk populations.

  13. Alteration of cyclic nucleotides levels and oxidative stress in saliva of human subjects with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Fereshteh; Aghahoseini, Farzaneh; Rezaie, Ali; Zamani, Mohammad J; Khorasani, Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2005-11-15

    Experimental findings suggest a protective role for cyclic nucleotides against induction of oxidative stress in saliva. Oxidative stress is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate salivary oxidative stress along with cGMP and cAMP levels in periodontitis subjects. cAMP and cGMP are second messengers that have important roles in salivary gland functions. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from periodontitis patients and age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Saliva samples were analyzed for thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) as a marker of lipid peroxidation, ferric reducing ability (total antioxidant power, TAP), and levels of cAMP and cGMP. Concentrations of cAMP and cGMP were reduced in the saliva of patients with moderate and severe periodontitis. Saliva of patients with severe periodontitis had higher TBARS and lower TAP than control subjects. The presence of oxidative stress and lower levels of salivary cGMP and cAMP in periodontitis are in association with disease severity.

  14. Short-term sertraline treatment suppresses sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, M M; Pascualy, M; Lewis, N L; Flatness, D; Veith, R C

    2001-05-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity has been associated with stress, major depression, aging, and several medical conditions. This study assessed the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sertraline, on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, norepinephrine (NE) kinetic study, in which the effects of sertraline on SNS activity were ascertained by determining NE plasma concentrations and NE plasma appearance rates and clearance rates in sertraline or placebo conditions. Subjects received 50 mg of sertraline or placebo for two days and then one week later underwent the same protocol with the other drug. By single compartmental analysis, plasma NE appearance rates were significantly lower in the sertraline compared to the placebo condition (0.26+/-0.10 vs 0.40+/-0.23 microg/m(2)/min; P=0.04). Our study found that the net effect of short-term SSRI treatment is an apparent suppression of SNS activity as indicated by a decreased plasma NE appearance rate in the sertraline condition. If this preliminary finding can be extended to long-term treatment of patients, this could have significant therapeutic relevance for treating depression in elderly patients or those with cardiac disease, in which elevated SNS activity may exacerbate underlying medical conditions.

  15. Are research subjects adequately protected? A review and discussion of studies conducted by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Nancy E; Sugarman, Jeremy

    1996-09-01

    In light of information uncovered about human radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War, an important charge for the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was to assess the current state of protections for human research subjects. This assessment was designed to enhance the Committee's ability to make informed recommendations for the improvement of future policies and practices for the protection of research subjects. The Committee's examination of current protections revealed great improvement over those from the past, yet some problems remain. Although the data collected by the Committee highlight specific areas in need of attention, the Committee's work should be viewed in part as the beginning of a series of ongoing assessments of the adequacy and effectiveness of the protections afforded to human subjects.

  16. The relationship between fear of falling and human postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Justin R; Campbell, Adam D; Adkin, Allan L; Carpenter, Mark G

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to improve the understanding of how standing at elevated surface heights and the associated changes in the visual field affect human balance control. Healthy young adults stood at four different surface heights (ground, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 m) under three different visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes open with peripheral vision occluded). Mean position, Mean Power Frequency (MPF) and Root Mean Square (RMS) of centre of pressure (COP) displacements were calculated from 60s standing trials, and psychosocial and physiological measures of fear and anxiety were also collected. When standing at a height of 3.2 m, 10 of 36 participants reported an increase in anxiety and a robust fear response while the remaining 26 participants experienced only an increase in anxiety and no fear response. A between subjects analysis of the effect of surface height on postural control revealed that fearful and non-fearful participants adopted different postural control strategies with increased heights. Non-fearful participants demonstrated a postural response characterized by increased MPF and decreased RMS of COP displacements with increasing heights. In contrast, fearful participants demonstrated both increasing MPF and RMS of COP displacements with increasing heights. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct relationship between fear of falling and the strategies used for human postural control.

  17. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia

    2010-01-01

    Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct...... association approach that compares genotype frequency between centenarians and young controls, the power has been of concern. This paper reports a power study performed on the indirect approach using computer simulation. We perform our simulation study by introducing the current Danish population life table...... and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples...

  18. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnani, P; Costabile, A; Bustillo, A G R; Gibson, G R

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal samples were collected at baseline, on the last day of treatment (days 22 and 58) and washout (days 36 and 72), respectively. Changes in faecal bacterial populations, SCFA and secretory IgA were assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, GC and ELISA, respectively. Bowel movements, stool consistencies, abdominal comfort and mood changes were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire. In parallel, the effect of agave fructans on different regions of the colon using a three-stage continuous culture simulator was studied. Predilife significantly increased faecal bifidobacteria (log10 9·6 (sd 0·4)) and lactobacilli (log10 7·7 (sd 0·8)) compared with placebo (log10 9·2 (sd 0·4); P = 0·00) (log10 7·4 (sd 0·7); P = 0·000), respectively. No change was observed for other bacterial groups tested, SCFA, secretory IgA, and PGE2 concentrations between the treatment and placebo. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that bacterial communities were randomly dispersed and no significant differences were observed between Predilife and placebo treatments. The in vitro models showed similar increases in bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations to that observed with the in vivo trial. To conclude, agave fructans are well tolerated in healthy human subjects and increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli numbers in vitro and in vivo but did not influence other products of fermentation.

  19. Spatial Domain Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Rotary Systems Subject to Spatially Periodic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsiu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generic spatial domain control scheme for a class of nonlinear rotary systems of variable speeds and subject to spatially periodic disturbances. The nonlinear model of the rotary system in time domain is transformed into one in spatial domain employing a coordinate transformation with respect to angular displacement. Under the circumstances that measurement of the system states is not available, a nonlinear state observer is established for providing the estimated states. A two-degree-of-freedom spatial domain control configuration is then proposed to stabilize the system and improve the tracking performance. The first control module applies adaptive backstepping with projected parametric update and concentrates on robust stabilization of the closed-loop system. The second control module introduces an internal model of the periodic disturbances cascaded with a loop-shaping filter, which not only further reduces the tracking error but also improves parametric adaptation. The overall spatial domain output feedback adaptive control system is robust to model uncertainties and state estimated error and capable of rejecting spatially periodic disturbances under varying system speeds. Stability proof of the overall system is given. A design example with simulation demonstrates the applicability of the proposed design.

  20. Nonlinear disturbance observer based spacecraft attitude control subject to disturbances and actuator faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruidong; Wu, Zhong

    2017-04-01

    To achieve high-accuracy spacecraft attitude stabiliztion subject to complex disturbances and actuator faults, a composite controller is proposed by combining a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) with an adaptive integral sliding mode controller. The effects of complex disturbances and actuator faults on the spacecraft are treated as a lumped disturbance. The lumped disturbance is estimated by NDO and the estimated result is used as a feedforward compensator. The switching gain is only required to be no less than the upper bound of disturbance estimation error rather than the disturbance, and the over estimation of switching gain, caused by the initial error, is eliminated due to the global feature of the integral sliding mode item. Finally, simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Patterns of plasma cobalamins in control subjects and in cases of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, J C; Mackenzie, H M; Wilson, J; Matthews, D M

    1969-09-01

    A method for thin-layer chromatography and bioautography of plasma cobalamins is described. It requires only 5 ml of blood. Results are reported in 35 healthy people and hospital controls, and in 14 cases of untreated pernicious anaemia. In the control group there were two major components, methylcobalamin and a component which is probably a mixture of hydroxocobalamin and deoxyadenosyl cobalamin. Many cases of untreated pernicious anaemia showed a characteristic pattern in which methylcobalamin was reduced in relation to hydroxocobalamin. This pattern was also seen in one vegan who was taking a diet without B(12) supplement. A minority of subjects showed traces of cyanocobalamin; this compound was not confined to smokers. The significance of the results and possible diagnostic utility of the technique are discussed.

  2. Subjective and objective knowledge and decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riechel C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christina Riechel,1,* Anna Christina Alegiani,1,* Sascha Köpke,2 Jürgen Kasper,3,4 Michael Rosenkranz,1,5 Götz Thomalla,1 Christoph Heesen1,4 1Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Nursing Research Unit, Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Institute of Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 5Department of Neurology, Albertinen-Krankenhaus, Hamburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Risk knowledge and active role preferences are important for patient involvement in treatment decision-making and adherence. Although knowledge about stroke warning signs and risk factors has received considerable attention, objective knowledge on secondary prevention and further self-esteem subjective knowledge have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate knowledge and treatment decisional role preferences in cerebrovascular patients compared to controls. Methods: We performed a survey on subjective and objective stroke risk knowledge and autonomy preferences in cerebrovascular patients from our stroke outpatient clinic (n=262 and from pedestrians on the street taken as controls during a “World Stroke Day” (n=274. The questionnaire includes measures for knowledge and decisional role preferences from previously published questionnaires and newly developed measures, for example, subjective knowledge, revealed on a visual analog scale. Results: The overall stroke knowledge was low to moderate, with no differences between patients and controls. Knowledge about secondary prevention was particularly low. Only 10%–15% of participants correctly estimated the stroke absolute risk reduction potential of aspirin. The medical data

  3. Elevated aspartic proteinase secretion and experimental pathogenicity of Candida albicans isolates from oral cavities of subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardis, F; Chiani, P; Ciccozzi, M; Pellegrini, G; Ceddia, T; D'Offizzi, G; Quinti, I; Sullivan, P A; Cassone, A

    1996-01-01

    Isolates of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of subjects at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or uninfected controls were examined for (i) production of aspartic proteinase(s), a putative virulence-associated factor(s); (ii) the presence in the fungal genome of two major genes (SAP1 and SAP2) of the aspartic proteinase family; and (iii) experimental pathogenicity in a murine model of systemic infection. It was found that the fungal isolates from symptomat...

  4. Effect of a Home-based Balance Training Protocol on Dynamic Postural Control in Subjects with Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, R; Willems, T M; Vanrenterghem, J; Roosen, P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the presence of postural deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and to assess the effect of an 8-week balance training program on dynamic postural control. A total of 43 subjects with CAI and 31 controls participated in this case-control study. Participants with CAI performed an 8-week home-based balance training, including 3 sessions a week. As main outcome measure, postural control was quantified after a vertical drop by means of the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). Perceptual outcomes were documented using the FADI, FADI-Sport and VAS scales. At baseline, subjects with CAI displayed higher anterior/posterior and vertical postural instability, a poorer DPSI, and lower subjective stability scores compared to the control group. After balance training, all subjective stability scores improved significantly, although no changes were noted for the stability indices. In conclusion, subjects with CAI have an impaired postural control. As a treatment modality, balance training exhibits the capability of improving the subjective feeling of instability in subjects with CAI. However, there was no effect on dynamic postural control. Further research on the explanatory mechanisms of balance training is warranted, and other training modalities should be considered.

  5. Human Homeostatic Control Matrix in Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kruglov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We undertook our research to study and systemize the relationship between hemodynamics and biochemical parameters of arterial and venous blood in healthy people. Hemodynamic and biochemical characteristics were obtained through a probe by using catheterization in various vascular areas (aorta, brain, heart, lungs, and liver. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted to study the relationship between the obtained characteristics of the regional and systemic blood flow. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results suggested that there are sets of both intra-organ and system regulatory relationships between metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. The complex of relationships among the studied parameters makes it possible to maintain the homeostatic equilibrium in the body. The psychophysiological control system includes the subsystems we described: 1 the cardiac-hepatic-pulmonary complex having properties of the metabolic and hemodynamic information field providing biological stability of the homeostasis; any significant imbalance of its elements triggers afferent information flows actualizing an afferent synthesis; 2 the mind forming gradient patterns of targeted behavior to eliminate metabolic imbalance, to achieve goals both as coded biological parameters and as the highest forms of behavior, to reach the ultimate goal: parametric, homeostatic equilibrium in the “biosphere” of the human body. By using the results of our research and the complex of dynamic relationships in human homeostasis, we built a homeostatic control matrix (HCM.

  6. Two genetic variants of CD38 in subjects with autism spectrum disorder and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munesue, Toshio; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Yamada, Kazuo; Hayashi, Kenshi; Asaka, Tomoya; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Jin, Duo; Koizumi, Keita; Islam, Mohammad Saharul; Huang, Jian-Jun; Ma, Wen-Jie; Kim, Uh-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Jun; Park, Keunwan; Kim, Dongsup; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ono, Yasuki; Nakatani, Hideo; Suda, Shiro; Miyachi, Taishi; Hirai, Hirokazu; Salmina, Alla; Pichugina, Yu A; Soumarokov, Andrei A; Takei, Nori; Mori, Norio; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryota; Taniike, Masako; Hayashi, Yutaka; Hamada, Junichiro; Suzuki, Shioto; Ooi, Akishi; Noda, Mami; Kamiyama, Yuko; Kido, Mizuho A; Lopatina, Olga; Hashii, Minako; Amina, Sarwat; Malavasi, Fabio; Huang, Eric J; Zhang, Jiasheng; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Matsushima, Akihiro; Minabe, Yoshio; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2010-06-01

    The neurobiological basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains poorly understood. Given the role of CD38 in social recognition through oxytocin (OT) release, we hypothesized that CD38 may play a role in the etiology of ASD. Here, we first examined the immunohistochemical expression of CD38 in the hypothalamus of post-mortem brains of non-ASD subjects and found that CD38 was colocalized with OT in secretory neurons. In studies of the association between CD38 and autism, we analyzed 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations of CD38 by re-sequencing DNAs mainly from a case-control study in Japan, and Caucasian cases mainly recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). The SNPs of CD38, rs6449197 (p70; designated as high-functioning autism (HFA)) in the U.S. 104 AGRE family trios, but not with Japanese 188 HFA subjects. A mutation that caused tryptophan to replace arginine at amino acid residue 140 (R140W; (rs1800561, 4693C>T)) was found in 0.6-4.6% of the Japanese population and was associated with ASD in the smaller case-control study. The SNP was clustered in pedigrees in which the fathers and brothers of T-allele-carrier probands had ASD or ASD traits. In this cohort OT plasma levels were lower in subjects with the T allele than in those without. One proband with the T allele who was taking nasal OT spray showed relief of symptoms. The two variant CD38 poloymorphysms tested may be of interest with regard of the pathophysiology of ASD.

  7. Studies on resilient control through multiagent consensus networks subject to disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-11-01

    Resiliency is one of the most critical objectives found in complex industrial applications today and designing control systems to provide resiliency is an open problem. This paper proposes resilient control design guidelines for industrial systems that can be modeled as networked multiagent consensus systems subject to disturbances or noise. We give a general analysis of multiagent consensus networks in the presence of different disturbances from the input-to-output stability point of view. Using a nonsingular linear transformation, some necessary and sufficient results are established for disturbed multiagent consensus networks by taking advantage of the input-to-state stability theory, based on which the disturbance rejection performance is analyzed in three cases separated by the spaces of disturbances and state disagreements between agents. It is shown that the linear matrix inequality technique can be adopted to determine the optimal disturbance rejection indexes for all the three cases. In addition, two illustrative numerical examples are given to demonstrate the derived consensus results for different types of directed graphs and subject to different classes of disturbances.

  8. A double blind randomized controlled trial of Maharishi Vedic vibration technology in subjects with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, T A; Smith, D E; Dillbeck, M C; Schanbacher, V; Dillbeck, S L; Gallois, P; Beall-Rougerie, S; Schneider, R H; Nidich, S I; Kaplan, G P; Belok, S

    2001-04-01

    To explore ancient Vedic medical techniques, one hundred and seventy-six subjects with arthritis participated in a controlled study through the non-pharmacologic approach known as the Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology (MVVT). Using a double-blinded and randomized experimental design, the findings showed significant reductions of pain and stiffness, and improvement in range of motion in the study sample. One hundred percent relief of symptoms was the most commonly reported category of improvement due to treatment. For the group as a whole, differences in mean response of treatment and control conditions with respect to relief of pain, limitation of motion, and reduction in stiffness were highly significant: t values ranged from a low of 5.609 in stiffness to a high of 20.950 in pain, p = 0.000009 to <10-49 respectively. Analysis by sub-categories of peripheral arthritis, painful conditions of the spine, and rheumatoid arthritis likewise produced significant results. Mechanisms of action were proposed, drawing on Maharishi Vedic Science, developments in quantum field theory, and specifically the theories of chaos and self-organizing systems as they relate to physiological functioning. The instantaneous relief of pain and improvement in function in such a high proportion of subjects with chronic arthritis is unparalleled in modern medical science

  9. Vinegar lacks antiglycemic action on enteral carbohydrate absorption in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbe, Arline D; Johnston, Carol S; Buyukbese, M Akif; Tsitouras, Panayiotis D; Harman, S Mitchell

    2009-12-01

    The antiglycemic effects of vinegar have been known for more than a century and have been demonstrated in animal as well as human studies. Although the exact mechanism of vinegar action is not known, several possibilities have been proposed including suppression of disaccharidase activity, delayed gastric emptying, enhanced glucose uptake in the periphery and conversion to glycogen, and increased satiety. We hypothesized that by suppressing endogenous insulin secretion, we could estimate the glucose absorption rate from an oral carbohydrate load and determine the effects of vinegar ingestion on this rate. To do so, 5 subjects had 4 studies at 1-week intervals, randomly receiving placebo twice (60 mL water) and vinegar twice (20 mL apple cider vinegar, 40 mL water), followed 2 minutes later by a meal of mashed potatoes (0.75 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight) that was consumed over 20 minutes. At the beginning of the meal, an oral octreotide/insulin suppression test (25-microg bolus octreotide; 180 minute infusion 5 mU/m(2) body surface area per minute regular human insulin, and 0.5 microg/min octreotide) was begun. Blood samples for insulin and glucose were drawn at 20-minute intervals. The oral octreotide/insulin suppression test suppressed endogenous insulin secretion for the first 100 minutes of the study. During this time, the rate of rise of glucose was modestly but significantly (P = .01) greater after vinegar ingestion compared to placebo, suggesting that vinegar does not act to decrease glycemia by interference with enteral carbohydrate absorption.

  10. A dynamic network of transcription in LPS-treated human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldawer Lyle L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the transcriptional regulatory networks that map out the coordinated dynamic responses of signaling proteins, transcription factors and target genes over time would represent a significant advance in the application of genome wide expression analysis. The primary challenge is monitoring transcription factor activities over time, which is not yet available at the large scale. Instead, there have been several developments to estimate activities computationally. For example, Network Component Analysis (NCA is an approach that can predict transcription factor activities over time as well as the relative regulatory influence of factors on each target gene. Results In this study, we analyzed a gene expression data set in blood leukocytes from human subjects administered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a prototypical inflammatory challenge, in the context of a reconstructed regulatory network including 10 transcription factors, 99 target genes and 149 regulatory interactions. We found that the computationally estimated activities were well correlated to their coordinated action. Furthermore, we found that clustering the genes in the context of regulatory influences greatly facilitated interpretation of the expression data, as clusters of gene expression corresponded to the activity of specific factors or more interestingly, factor combinations which suggest coordinated regulation of gene expression. The resulting clusters were therefore more biologically meaningful, and also led to identification of additional genes under the same regulation. Conclusion Using NCA, we were able to build a network that accounted for between 8–11% genes in the known transcriptional response to LPS in humans. The dynamic network illustrated changes of transcription factor activities and gene expressions as well as interactions of signaling proteins, transcription factors and target genes.

  11. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  12. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  13. From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities.

  14. Association between amebic liver abscess and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in Taiwanese subjects

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    Chen Mao-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Invasive amebiasis is an emerging parasitic disorder in Taiwan, especially in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Thirty-three Taiwanese subjects with amebic liver abscess (ALA were examined and a possible correlation between ALA and HIV infection was investigated. Results Among ALA patients, the proportion of HIV-positive individuals increased during the study period. ALA was the first major clinical presentation in 54% of HIV patients with ALA. Overall, 58% (14/24 of HIV-infected patients had a CD4+ count > 200 cells/μL and 82.1% (23/28 had no concurrent opportunistic infection or other evidence of HIV infection. There was no marked difference in clinical characteristics between HIV-positive and HIV-negative ALA patients except the level of leukocytosis. Conclusion While the clinical characteristics described herein cannot be used to determine whether ALA patients have HIV infection, routine HIV testing is recommended in patients with ALA, even in the absence of HIV symptoms.

  15. Large eddy simulation of LDL surface concentration in a subject specific human aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Jonas; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-02-02

    The development of atherosclerosis is correlated to the accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall, which, in turn, may be caused by the build-up of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) on the arterial surface. The goal of this study was to model blood flow within a subject specific human aorta, and to study how the LDL surface concentration changed during a cardiac cycle. With measured velocity profiles as boundary conditions, a scale-resolving technique (large eddy simulation, LES) was used to compute the pulsatile blood flow that was in the transitional regime. The relationship between wall shear stress (WSS) and LDL surface concentration was investigated, and it was found that the accumulation of LDL correlated well with WSS. In general, regions of low WSS corresponded to regions of increased LDL concentration and vice versa. The instantaneous LDL values changed significantly during a cardiac cycle; during systole the surface concentration was low due to increased convective fluid transport, while in diastole there was an increased accumulation of LDL on the surface. Therefore, the near-wall velocity was investigated at four representative locations, and it was concluded that in regions with disturbed flow the LDL concentration had significant temporal changes, indicating that LDL accumulation is sensitive to not only the WSS but also near-wall flow.

  16. Quantifying turbulent wall shear stress in a subject specific human aorta using large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Jonas; Gårdhagen, Roland; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-10-01

    In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is employed to calculate the disturbed flow field and the wall shear stress (WSS) in a subject specific human aorta. Velocity and geometry measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are taken as input to the model to provide accurate boundary conditions and to assure the physiological relevance. In total, 50 consecutive cardiac cycles were simulated from which a phase average was computed to get a statistically reliable result. A decomposition similar to Reynolds decomposition is introduced, where the WSS signal is divided into a pulsating part (due to the mass flow rate) and a fluctuating part (originating from the disturbed flow). Oscillatory shear index (OSI) is plotted against time-averaged WSS in a novel way, and locations on the aortic wall where elevated values existed could easily be found. In general, high and oscillating WSS values were found in the vicinity of the branches in the aortic arch, while low and oscillating WSS were present in the inner curvature of the descending aorta. The decomposition of WSS into a pulsating and a fluctuating part increases the understanding of how WSS affects the aortic wall, which enables both qualitative and quantitative comparisons.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics in pulsatile secretion of parathyroid hormone in normal human subjects

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    Prank, Klaus; Harms, Heio; Brabant, Georg; Hesch, Rolf-Dieter; Dämmig, Matthias; Mitschke, Fedor

    1995-03-01

    In many biological systems, information is transferred by hormonal ligands, and it is assumed that these hormonal signals encode developmental and regulatory programs in mammalian organisms. In contrast to the dogma of endocrine homeostasis, it could be shown that the biological information in hormonal networks is not only present as a constant hormone concentration in the circulation pool. Recently, it has become apparent that hormone pulses contribute to this hormonal pool, which modulates the responsiveness of receptors within the cell membrane by regulation of the receptor synthesis, movement within the membrane layer, coupling to signal transduction proteins and internalization. Phase space analysis of dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion allowed the definition of a (in comparison to normal subjects) relatively quiet ``low dynamic'' secretory pattern in osteoporosis, and a ``high dynamic'' state in hyperparathyroidism. We now investigate whether this pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy men exhibits characteristics of nonlinear determinism. Our findings suggest that this is conceivable, although on the basis of presently available data and techniques, no proof can be established. Nevertheless, pulsatile secretion of PTH might be a first example of nonlinear deterministic dynamics in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology.

  18. Phenolic acid metabolites as biomarkers for tea- and coffee-derived polyphenol exposure in human subjects.

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    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Chan, Shin Yee; Puddey, Ian B; Devine, Amanda; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lukito, Widjaja; Burke, Valerie; Ward, Natalie C; Prince, Richard L; Croft, Kevin D

    2004-02-01

    Tea and coffee are rich in polyphenols with a variety of biological activities. Many of the demonstrated activities are consistent with favourable effects on the risk of chronic diseases. 4-O-methylgallic acid (4OMGA) and isoferulic acid are potential biomarkers of exposure to polyphenols derived from tea and coffee respectively. 4OMGA is derived from gallic acid in tea, and isoferulic acid is derived from chlorogenic acid in coffee. Our major objective was to explore the relationships of tea and coffee intake with 24 h urinary excretion of 4OMGA and isoferulic acid in human subjects. The relationships of long-term usual (111 participants) and contemporaneously recorded current (344 participants) tea and coffee intake with 24 h urinary excretion of 4OMGA and isoferulic acid were assessed in two populations. 4OMGA was related to usual (r 0.50, Pcoffee intake. Overall, our present results are consistent with the proposal that 4OMGA is a good biomarker for black tea-derived polyphenol exposure, but isoferulic acid may be of limited usefulness as a biomarker for coffee-derived polyphenol exposure.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy and polysomnography during all-night sleep in human subjects

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    Fantini, Sergio; Aggarwal, Payal; Chen, Kathleen; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Ehrenberg, Bruce L.

    2003-10-01

    We have performed cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and polysomnography (electro-encephalography, electro-oculography, electro-myography, pulse oximetry, and respiratory monitoring) during all-night sleep in five human subjects. Polysomnography data were used for sleep staging, while NIRS data were used to measure the concentration and the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the frontal brain region. Immediately after sleep onset we observed a decrease in the cerebral concentration of oxy-hemoglobin ([HbO2]) and an increase in the concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]), consistent with a decrease in the cerebral blood flow velocity or an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. An opposite trend (increase in [HbO2] and decrease in [Hb]) was usually observed after transition to deep sleep (stages III and IV). During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, we observed an increase in [HbO2] and decrease in [Hb], consistent with an increase in the cerebral blood flow that overcompensates the increase in the metabolic rate of oxygen associated with REM sleep.

  20. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects

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    Aditya Mungee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. Methods: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were shown a reminder of the conditioned fearful stimulus. Shortly thereafter, they received either tDCS (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal for 20 min at 1 mA, or sham stimulation. A day later, fear responses of both groups were compared. Results: On Day 3, during fear response assessment, there were no significant differences between the tDCS and sham group (p > 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal did not influence fear memories.

  1. A second generation of physical anthropomorphic 3D breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Adam; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. P.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2014-03-01

    Previous fabrication of anthropomorphic breast phantoms has demonstrated their viability as a model for 2D (mammography) and 3D (tomosynthesis) breast imaging systems. Further development of these models will be essential for the evaluation of breast x-ray systems. There is also the potential to use them as the ground truth in virtual clinical trials. The first generation of phantoms was segmented from human subject dedicated breast computed tomography data and fabricated into physical models using highresolution 3D printing. Two variations were made. The first was a multi-material model (doublet) printed with two photopolymers to represent glandular and adipose tissues with the greatest physical contrast available, mimicking 75% and 35% glandular tissue. The second model was printed with a single 75% glandular equivalent photopolymer (singlet) to represent glandular tissue, which can be filled independently with an adipose-equivalent material such as oil. For this study, we have focused on improving the latter, the singlet phantom. First, the temporary oil filler has been replaced with a permanent adipose-equivalent urethane-based polymer. This offers more realistic contrast as compared to the multi-material approach at the expense of air bubbles and pockets that form during the filling process. Second, microcalcification clusters have been included in the singlet model via crushed eggshells, which have very similar chemical composition to calcifications in vivo. The results from these new prototypes demonstrate significant improvement over the first generation of anthropomorphic physical phantoms.

  2. Indomethacin pretreatment reduces ozone-induced pulmonary function decrements in human subjects

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    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1987-12-01

    We studied whether O/sub 3/-induced pulmonary function decrements could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, indomethacin, in healthy human subjects. Fourteen college-age males completed six 1-h exposure protocols consisting of no drug, placebo, and indomethacin (Indocin SR 75 mg every 12 h for 5 days) pretreatments, with filtered air and O/sub 3/ (0.35 ppm) exposures within each pretreatment. Pretreatments were delivered weekly in random order in a double-blind fashion. Ozone and filtered air exposures, separated by 72 h, were delivered in random order in a single-blind fashion. Exposures consisted of 1-h exercise on a bicycle ergometer with work loads set to elicit a mean minute ventilation of 60 L/min. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p less than 0.05) across pretreatment effects for FVC and FEV1, with no drug versus indomethacin and placebo versus indomethacin comparisons being significant. These findings suggest that cyclooxygenase products of arachidonic acid, which are sensitive to indomethacin inhibition, play a prominent role in the development of pulmonary function decrements consequent to acute O/sub 3/ exposure.

  3. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from postmortem human subject tests under axial impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Szabo, Aniko

    2014-01-01

    Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. The study reexamined lower leg postmortem human subjects (PMHS) data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and noninjury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the covariable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal, and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike information criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. The mean age, stature, and weight were 58.2±15.1 years, 1.74±0.08 m, and 74.9±13.8 kg, respectively. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other 2 distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-olds at 5, 25, and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45, and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 k

  4. Age-related changes in human posture control: Sensory organization tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1989-01-01

    Postural control was measured in 214 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Sensory organization tests measured the magnitude of anterior-posterior body sway during six 21 s trials in which visual and somatosensory orientation cues were altered (by rotating the visual surround and support surface in proportion to the subject's sway) or vision eliminated (eyes closed) in various combinations. No age-related increase in postural sway was found for subjects standing on a fixed support surface with eyes open or closed. However, age-related increases in sway were found for conditions involving altered visual or somatosensory cues. Subjects older than about 55 years showed the largest sway increases. Subjects younger than about 15 years were also sensitive to alteration of sensory cues. On average, the older subjects were more affected by altered visual cues whereas younger subjects had more difficulty with altered somatosensory cues.

  5. Dynamic transcriptional signatures and network responses for clinical symptoms in influenza-infected human subjects using systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linel, Patrice; Wu, Shuang; Deng, Nan; Wu, Hulin

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that human blood transcriptional signatures may be used to support diagnosis and clinical decisions for acute respiratory viral infections such as influenza. In this article, we propose to use a newly developed systems biology approach for time course gene expression data to identify significant dynamically response genes and dynamic gene network responses to viral infection. We illustrate the methodological pipeline by reanalyzing the time course gene expression data from a study with healthy human subjects challenged by live influenza virus. We observed clear differences in the number of significant dynamic response genes (DRGs) between the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and also identified DRG signatures for symptomatic subjects with influenza infection. The 505 common DRGs shared by the symptomatic subjects have high consistency with the signature genes for predicting viral infection identified in previous works. The temporal response patterns and network response features were carefully analyzed and investigated.

  6. [Dietary habits, attitudes toward weight control, and subjective symptoms of fatigue in young women in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Mai; Takayama, Tomoko; Kira, Shohei

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes dietary habits and attitudes toward body weight control of college women in Japan and examines their relationships with subjective symptoms of fatigue. We also discuss strategies to promote better diets among young adults. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 286 young women aged 18 to 25 years; 275 of these were analyzed. The study found that more than half of the women were concerned about nutritional balance and calories. Yet thirty percent ate "a single-item meal (i.e., bread, rice bowl, noodles) two or more times a day," while roughly one half skipped breakfast "sometimes" or "always." A majority ate vegetables "almost never" and consumed instant foods, confectionery, or sugary drinks "almost daily." Subjective symptoms of fatigue were significantly correlated with a higher frequency of irregular meal-taking, single-item meals, between-meal snacking, missed breakfasts, non-vegetable diets, non-fruit diets, and instant foods and confectionery. About sixty percent of the women in the study considered their bodies to be "slightly fat or overweight" while 79.5% indicated a desire to "lose weight". On average, the participants' ideal BMI was 18.7 (+/- 1.2) while the ideal body weight was 47.2 (+/- 4.1) kg, approximately 4 kg under actual average body weight. Subjective symptoms of fatigue were stronger among women who considered themselves "slightly fat or overweight". Likewise, symptoms were stronger to the extent that a participant's ideal BMI was below her actual BMI. Many women in this study desired to lose weight although they were not overweight by objective measures. The study suggests that subjective symptoms of fatigue are not the result of individual dietary habits, but rather of a lifestyle that reach to series of dietary habits connected to subjective symptoms of fatigue. The study also confirms the importance both of encouraging young women not just to eat well but to lead lifestyles in which they do not skip meals and

  7. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects

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    Rambiritch V

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virendra Rambiritch,1 Poobalan Naidoo,2 Breminand Maharaj,1 Goonaseelan Pillai3 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2Department of Internal Medicine, RK Khan Regional Hospital, Chatsworth, South Africa; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects using noncompartmental and model-based methods. Methods: A total of 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes were administered increasing doses (0 mg/d, 2.5 mg/d, 5 mg/d, 10 mg/d, and 20 mg/d of glibenclamide daily at 2-week intervals. Plasma glibenclamide, glucose, and insulin determinations were performed. Blood sampling times were 0 minute, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes (post breakfast sampling and 240 minutes, 270 minutes, 300 minutes, 330 minutes, 360 minutes, and 420 minutes (post lunch sampling on days 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 for doses of 0 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg, respectively. Blood sampling was performed after the steady state was reached.  A total of 24 individuals in the data set contributed to a total of 841 observation records. The PK was analyzed using noncompartmental analysis methods, which were implemented in WinNonLin®, and population PK analysis using NONMEM®. Glibenclamide concentration data were log transformed prior to fitting. Results: A two-compartmental disposition model was selected after evaluating one-, two-, and three-compartmental models to describe the time course of glibenclamide plasma concentration data. The one-compartment model adequately described the data; however, the two-compartment model provided a better fit. The three-compartment model failed to achieve successful convergence. A more complex model, to account for enterohepatic recirculation that was observed in the data, was unsuccessful. Conclusion: In South African diabetic subjects, glibenclamide demonstrates linear PK and was best

  8. Hysteresis of haptic vertical and straight ahead in healthy human subjects

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    Tarnutzer Alexander A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjective haptic vertical (SHV task requires subjects to adjust the roll orientation of an object, mostly in the roll plane, in such a way that it is parallel to perceived direction of gravity. Previously we found a tendency for clockwise rod rotations to deviate counter-clockwise and vice versa, indicating hysteresis. However, the contributing factors remained unclear. To clarify this we characterized the SHV in terms of handedness, hand used, direction of hand rotation, type of grasping (wrap vs. precision grip and gender, and compared findings with perceived straight-ahead (PSA. Healthy subjects repetitively performed adjustments along SHV (n = 21 and PSA (n = 10 in complete darkness. Results For both SHV and PSA significant effects of the hand used and the direction of rod/plate rotation were found. The latter effect was similar for SHV and PSA, leading to significantly larger counter-clockwise shifts (relative to true earth-vertical and objective straight-ahead for clockwise rotations compared to counter-clockwise rotations irrespective of the handedness and the type of grip. The effect of hand used, however, was opposite in the two tasks: while the SHV showed a counter-clockwise bias when the right hand was used and no bias for the left hand, in the PSA a counter-clockwise bias was obtained for the left hand without a bias for the right hand. No effects of grip and handedness (studied for SHV only on accuracy were observed, however, SHV precision was significantly (p  Conclusions Unimanual haptic tasks require control for the hand used and the type of grip as these factors significantly affect task performance. Furthermore, aligning objects with the SHV and PSA resulted in systematic direction-dependent deviations that could not be attributed to handedness, the hand used, or the type of grip. These deviations are consistent with hysteresis and are likely not related to gravitational pull, as they were

  9. Investigation of dynamic SPECT measurements of the arterial input function in human subjects using simulation, phantom and human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winant, Celeste D.; Aparici, Carina Mari; Zelnik, Yuval R.; Reutter, Bryan W.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Bacharach, Stephen L.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations, a phantom study and a human study were performed to determine whether a slowly rotating single-photon computed emission tomography (SPECT) system could provide accurate arterial input functions for quantification of myocardial perfusion imaging using kinetic models. The errors induced by data inconsistency associated with imaging with slow camera rotation during tracer injection were evaluated with an approach called SPECT/P (dynamic SPECT from positron emission tomography (PET)) and SPECT/D (dynamic SPECT from database of SPECT phantom projections). SPECT/P simulated SPECT-like dynamic projections using reprojections of reconstructed dynamic 94Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (94Tc-MIBI) PET images acquired in three human subjects (1 min infusion). This approach was used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in rate parameters K1 for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 or 54 s. Blood input and myocardium tissue time-activity curves (TACs) were estimated using spatiotemporal splines. These were fit to a one-compartment perfusion model to obtain wash-in rate parameters K1. For the second method (SPECT/D), an anthropomorphic cardiac torso phantom was used to create real SPECT dynamic projection data of a tracer distribution derived from 94Tc-MIBI PET scans in the blood pool, myocardium, liver and background. This method introduced attenuation, collimation and scatter into the modeling of dynamic SPECT projections. Both approaches were used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in parameters for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 and 54 s. Dynamic cardiac SPECT was also performed in a human subject at rest using a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner. Dynamic measurements of 99mTc-tetrofosmin in the myocardium were obtained using an infusion time of 2 min. Blood input, myocardium tissue and liver TACs were estimated using the same spatiotemporal splines. The spatiotemporal maximum

  10. Investigation of dynamic SPECT measurements of the arterial input function in human subjects using simulation, phantom and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winant, Celeste D; Aparici, Carina Mari; Zelnik, Yuval R; Reutter, Bryan W; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Bacharach, Stephen L; Gullberg, Grant T

    2012-01-21

    Computer simulations, a phantom study and a human study were performed to determine whether a slowly rotating single-photon computed emission tomography (SPECT) system could provide accurate arterial input functions for quantification of myocardial perfusion imaging using kinetic models. The errors induced by data inconsistency associated with imaging with slow camera rotation during tracer injection were evaluated with an approach called SPECT/P (dynamic SPECT from positron emission tomography (PET)) and SPECT/D (dynamic SPECT from database of SPECT phantom projections). SPECT/P simulated SPECT-like dynamic projections using reprojections of reconstructed dynamic (94)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((94)Tc-MIBI) PET images acquired in three human subjects (1 min infusion). This approach was used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in rate parameters K(1) for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 or 54 s. Blood input and myocardium tissue time-activity curves (TACs) were estimated using spatiotemporal splines. These were fit to a one-compartment perfusion model to obtain wash-in rate parameters K(1). For the second method (SPECT/D), an anthropomorphic cardiac torso phantom was used to create real SPECT dynamic projection data of a tracer distribution derived from (94)Tc-MIBI PET scans in the blood pool, myocardium, liver and background. This method introduced attenuation, collimation and scatter into the modeling of dynamic SPECT projections. Both approaches were used to evaluate the accuracy of estimating myocardial wash-in parameters for rotation speeds providing 180° of projection data every 27 and 54 s. Dynamic cardiac SPECT was also performed in a human subject at rest using a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner. Dynamic measurements of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in the myocardium were obtained using an infusion time of 2 min. Blood input, myocardium tissue and liver TACs were estimated using the same spatiotemporal splines. The

  11. From the ideal market to the ideal clinic: constructing a normative standard of fairness for human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha

    2011-02-01

    Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects research, and Ballantyne's criticisms of both the ideal market and the resulting benchmark of fairness. It argues that the criticism of this particular benchmark is on point, but the rejection of the ideal market is mistaken. After presenting a complete account of the ideal market, this paper proposes a new method for applying the ideal market to human subjects research and illustrates the proposal by considering a sample case.

  12. Subjective valuation of cushioning in a human drop landing task as quantified by trade-offs in mechanical work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nathaniel E; Zelik, Karl E; Kuo, Arthur D

    2015-07-16

    Humans can perform motor tasks in a variety of ways, yet often favor a particular strategy. Some factors governing the preferred strategy may be objective and quantifiable, (e.g. metabolic energy or mechanical work) while others may be more subjective and less measurable, (e.g. discomfort, pain, or mental effort). Subjectivity can make it challenging to explain or predict preferred movement strategies. We propose that subjective factors might nevertheless be characterized indirectly by their trade-offs against more objective measures such as work. Here we investigated whether subjective costs that influence human movement during drop landings could be indirectly assessed by quantifying mechanical work performed. When landing on rigid ground, humans typically absorb much of the collision actively by bending their knees, perhaps to avoid the discomfort of stiff-legged landings. We measured how work performed by healthy adults (N=8) changed as a function of surface cushioning for drop landings (fixed at about 0.4m) onto varying amounts of foam. Landing on more foam dissipated more energy passively in the surface, thus reducing the net dissipation required of subjects, due to relatively fixed landing energy. However, subjects actually performed even less work in the dissipative collision, as well as in the subsequent active, positive work to return to upright stance (approximately linear decrease of about 1.52 J per 1 cm of foam thickness). As foam thickness increased, there was also a corresponding reduction in center-of-mass vertical displacement after initial impact by up to 43%. Humans appear to subjectively value cushioning, revealed by the extra work they perform landing without it. Cushioning is thus worth more than the energy it dissipates, in an amount that indicates the subjective discomfort of stiff landings.

  13. Fuzzy Control Strategies in Human Operator and Sport Modeling

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    Ivancevic, Tijana T; Markovic, Sasa

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind mathematically modeling the human operator is to help explain the response characteristics of the complex dynamical system including the human manual controller. In this paper, we present two different fuzzy logic strategies for human operator and sport modeling: fixed fuzzy-logic inference control and adaptive fuzzy-logic control, including neuro-fuzzy-fractal control. As an application of the presented fuzzy strategies, we present a fuzzy-control based tennis simulator.

  14. Effects of diazepam and levodopa single doses on motor cortex plasticity modulation in healthy human subjects: A TMS study

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    Ilić Nela V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Administration of pharmacological agents with specific actions on neurotransmitter systems is a powerful driver of functional cortical reorganization. Plastic reorganization of the motor cortex in humans studies by the use of non-invasive stimulation protocols, which mimic the Hebbian model of associative plasticity. Objective. Aiming to explore pharmacological modulation on human motor cortex plasticity, we tested healthy subjects after each dosage of diazepam, levodopa i placebo administration, using paired associative stimulation protocol (PAS that induce fenomena similar to a long-term potentiation and depression, as defined on the synaptic level. Methods. We analyzed effects of benzodiazepines (10 mg, levodopa (200 mg and placebo on PAS protocol in 14 healthy volunteers, using a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. PAS consisted of electrical stimuli pairs at n.medianus and magnetic pulses over the scalp (transcranial magnetic stimulation in precisely defined intervals (ISI was 10 and 25 ms for a total of about 15 minutes (200 pairs. MEP amplitudes before and after (0, 10, 20 and 30 minutes later interventional protocols were compared. Results. When protocols were applied with placebo depending on ISI (10 ms - inhibitory, 25 ms - facilitatory effects, MEP amplitudes decreased or increased, while values in the postinterventional period (0, 10, 20 and 30 min were compared with initial values before the use of SAS. The use of benzodiazepines caused the occlusion of LTP-like effect, in contrast to amplification effects recorded after the administration of levodopa. With respect to the LTD-like protocol, the reverse was true (ANOVA for repeat measurements p<0.001. Conclusion. Administration of GABA-ergic agonist diazepam interferes with the induction of associative plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, as opposed to the use of levodopa, which stimulates these processes. The observed effects point at a

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life stress in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; McDougle, Christopher J; Malison, Robert T; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Price, Lawrence H

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have reported elevated concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in patients with major depression. Elevations of CSF CRF have also been reported in adult laboratory animals exposed to the stress of brief maternal deprivation or maternal neglect in the neonatal or preweaning period. The present study was designed to determine whether major depression and a history of perceived early adversity in childhood are independently associated with elevated CSF CRF concentrations in adults. In this case-control study, 27 medication-free adults with major depression and 25 matched controls underwent standardized lumbar puncture for collection of a single CSF sample at 1200. Subjects provided data about significant adverse early-life experiences and rated their global perceived level of stress during pre-school and preteen years on a six-point Likert scale. The mean difference in CSF CRF between depressed patients and controls did not reach statistical significance. In a regression model, perceived early-life stress was a significant predictor of CSF CRF, but depression was not. Perinatal adversity and perceived adversity in the preteen adversity years (ages 6-13 years) were both independently associated with decreasing CSF CRF concentrations. The relationship observed between perceived early-life stress and adult CSF CRF concentrations in this study closely parallels recent preclinical findings. More work is needed to elucidate the critical nature and timing of early events that may be associated with enduring neuroendocrine changes in humans.

  16. THE HUMAN SUBJECTIVITY BETWEEN THE SUPERIOR AND INFERIOR TYPES A SUBJETIVIDADE HUMANA ENTRE OS TIPOS SUPERIORES E INFERIORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to solve the following contradiction of Nietzsche's thought: man has a subjective drive constitution, these drives, however, are individuals, and its being (the being of the drives, is constituted for more power fight (the will to power. Nietzsche's superior man (educated and cultivated man is that one, in which there is harmony in the drives, who can give greater freedom to its most terrible drives, without, however, loses the control over them. That is the contradiction: if man has to control the drives, they are not harmonics. There is incompatibility between harmony and control. In other words, the superior man is indeed the man of culture and cultivated man of Nietzsche? If the answer to this question is yes, then, in this man, reigns the drives harmony. If, on the other hand, the answer is no, then, for this man does not become a barbarian destroyer, dangerous to himself and to others it is necessary that a drive dominates the others. However it is not possible to escape the contradiction: either there is harmony in human drive or control.Este artigo busca resolver a seguinte contradição do pensamento de Nietzsche: o homem possui uma constituição subjetiva pulsional, estas pulsões, porém, são individuais, e o seu ser, o das pulsões, constitui-se da luta por mais poder (vontade de poder. O homem superior de Nietzsche (homem culto e cultivado é aquele no qual há harmonia nas pulsões, aquele que pode dar mais liberdade às suas mais terríveis pulsões, sem, no entanto, perder o controle sobre elas. Eis a contradição: se o homem superior exerce controle sobre as pulsões então elas não são harmônicas. Há, aqui, a incompatibilidade entre harmonia e controle. Em outros termos: o homem superior é de fato o homem culto e cultivado de Nietzsche? Se a resposta para esta pergunta for sim, então neste homem reina a harmonia pulsional. Se, por outro lado, a resposta for não, então, para que este homem n

  17. Rapid processing of haptic cues for postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieppati, Marco; Schmid, Monica; Sozzi, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    Vision and touch rapidly lead to postural stabilization in sighted subjects. Is touch-induced stabilization more rapid in blind than in sighted subjects, owing to cross-modal reorganization of function in the blind? We estimated the time-period elapsing from onset of availability of haptic support to onset of lateral stabilization in a group of early- and late-onset blinds. Eleven blind (age 39.4 years±11.7SD) and eleven sighted subjects (age 30.0 years±10.0SD), standing eyes closed with feet in tandem position, touched a pad with their index finger and withdrew the finger from the pad in sequence. EMG of postural muscles and displacement of centre of foot pressure were recorded. The task was repeated fifty times, to allow statistical evaluation of the latency of EMG and sway changes following the haptic shift. Steady-state sway (with or without contact with pad, no haptic shift) did not differ between blind and sighted. On adding the haptic stimulus, EMG and sway diminished in both groups, but at an earlier latency (by about 0.5 s) in the blinds (p haptic stimulus was withdrawn, both groups increased EMG and sway at equally short delays. Blinds are rapid in implementing adaptive postural modifications when granted an external haptic reference. Fast processing of the stabilizing haptic spatial-orientation cues may be favoured by cortical plasticity in blinds. These findings add new information to the field of sensory-guided dynamic control of equilibrium in man. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Can orthotic insoles prevent lower limb overuse injuries? A randomized-controlled trial of 228 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, V M; Sillanpää, P J; Salo, T; Laine, H-J; Mäenpää, H; Pihlajamäki, H

    2011-12-01

    Lower limb overuse injuries are common among people who are exposed to physical stress. Orthotic shoe insoles are widely used to prevent lower limb overuse injuries. Here, we conducted a randomized-controlled study to examine whether the use of orthotic insoles prevents lower limb overuse injuries. Participants (n=228) were randomly assigned to use (n=73) or not to use (n=147) orthotic insoles. The insoles were molded to the shape of the foot to provide support during physical activity. The main outcome measure in the present study was the physician-diagnosed lower limb overuse injury. Thirty-four (46.6%) subjects in the insole group were diagnosed with a lower limb overuse injury compared with 56 (38.1%) in the control group (P=0.29) during the 6-month study period. When body mass index and the results of a 12-min running test and muscle strength were adjusted in a Cox's regression model, the hazard ratio for lower limb overuse injury in the insole group was 1.3 (95% confidence intervals: 0.8-2.1) compared with the control group. Use of orthotic insoles was not associated with a decrease in lower limb overuse injuries. Our findings suggest that routine use of orthotic insoles does not prevent physical-stress-related lower limb injuries in healthy young male adults.

  20. Cholesterol Metabolism and Weight Reduction in Subjects with Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Randomised, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether parameters of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA associate with cholesterol metabolism before and after weight reduction, 42 middle-aged overweight subjects with mild OSA were randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (N=23 or to control group (N=18 with routine lifestyle counselling only. Cholesterol metabolism was evaluated with serum noncholesterol sterol ratios to cholesterol, surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols and synthesis (cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol at baseline and after 1-year intervention. At baseline, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 was associated with serum campesterol (P<0.05 and inversely with desmosterol ratios (P<0.001 independently of gender, BMI, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI was not associated with cholesterol metabolism. Weight reduction significantly increased SaO2and serum cholestanol and decreased AHI and serum cholestenol ratios. In the groups combined, the changes in AHI were inversely associated with changes of cholestanol and positively with cholestenol ratios independent of gender and the changes of BMI and HOMA-IR (P<0.05. In conclusion, mild OSA seemed to be associated with cholesterol metabolism independent of BMI and HOMA-IR. Weight reduction increased the markers of cholesterol absorption and decreased those of cholesterol synthesis in the overweight subjects with mild OSA.

  1. Relative dynamics and control of spacecraft formations subject to lorentz force perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia; Shoaib, Muhammad

    A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in the Earth magnetic field will be subject to a perturbative Lorentz force. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft’s orbit. We develop Lorentz force as a function of the orbital elements. The orbital perturbations of a charged spacecraft by Lorentz force in the Earth’s magnetic field are investigated using the Gauss variation of the Lagrange planetary Equations. The Earth’s magnetic field is modeled as a tilted dipole. The perturbations in the orbital elements depend on the value of the charge to mass ratio (q/m). The dynamical model of relative motion developed leads to approximate analytical solutions for the motion of a charged spacecraft subject to Lorentz force. The chief spacecraft’s reference orbit is taken to be either circular or elliptical. The deputy spacecraft is capable of accumulating electrostatic charge. The numerical results show that Lorentz force can be used to change the in-track position and plane orbit of the spacecraft. The numerical analysis shows that the target trajectory of the Lorentz spacecraft can be reached by varying the ratio (q/m) in different Low Earth Orbits.

  2. Detecting method of subjects' 3D positions and experimental advanced camera control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Daiichiro; Abe, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Akio; Yamada, Mitsuho; Suzuki, Takahito; Kuwashima, Shigesumi

    1997-04-01

    Steady progress is being made in the development of an intelligent robot camera capable of automatically shooting pictures with a powerful sense of reality or tracking objects whose shooting requires advanced techniques. Currently, only experienced broadcasting cameramen can provide these pictures.TO develop an intelligent robot camera with these abilities, we need to clearly understand how a broadcasting cameraman assesses his shooting situation and how his camera is moved during shooting. We use a real- time analyzer to study a cameraman's work and his gaze movements at studios and during sports broadcasts. This time, we have developed a detecting method of subjects' 3D positions and an experimental camera control system to help us further understand the movements required for an intelligent robot camera. The features are as follows: (1) Two sensor cameras shoot a moving subject and detect colors, producing its 3D coordinates. (2) Capable of driving a camera based on camera movement data obtained by a real-time analyzer. 'Moving shoot' is the name we have given to the object position detection technology on which this system is based. We used it in a soccer game, producing computer graphics showing how players moved. These results will also be reported.

  3. Subjective annoyance caused by indoor low-level and low frequency noise and control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Guo-qing; ZHANG Bang-jun; SHANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    The influence of low-level noise has not been widely noticed. This paper discovered that low-level and low frequency noise(Aweighted equivalent level Leq < 45 dB) causes higher probability of subjective annoyance. The fuzzy mathematic principle was applied to deal with the threshold level of subjective annoyance from noise in this study; there is preferable relationship between the indoor noise and noise annoyance at low frequency noise level. Study indicated at the same centered noise level, the change of annoyance probability is mainly caused by the change of the frequency spectrum characteristic of the indoor noise. Under low noise level environment, without change of the medium-low frequency noise, the slight increase of medium-high frequency noise level with the help of noise sheltering effect can significantly reduce the noise annoyance. This discovery brings a new resolution on how to improve the environmental quality of working or living places. A noise control model is given in this study according to the acoustic analysis.

  4. Separation of Parkinson's patients in early and mature stages from control subjects using one EOG channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie A.E.; Frandsen, Rune; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    different reconstructed detail subbands across all sleep epochs during a whole night of sleep. A subset of features was chosen based on a cross validated Shrunken Centroids Regularized Discriminant Analysis, where the controls were treated as one group and the patients as another. Classification...... of the subjects was done by a leave-one-out validation approach using same method, and reached a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 70% and an accuracy of 86.7%. It was found that in the optimal subset of features, two hold lower frequencies reflecting the rapid eye movements and two hold higher frequencies...... reflecting EMG activity. This study demonstrates that both analysis of eye movements during sleep as well as EMG activity measured at the EOG channel hold potential of being biomarkers for Parkinson's disease....

  5. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  6. Pituitary hormone responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in panic disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R S; Wetzler, S; Asnis, G M; Kling, M A; Suckow, R F; van Praag, H M

    1991-04-01

    The present study reports adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin responses after oral administration of 0.25 mg/kg of the serotonin agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), in patients with panic disorder (PD) and in healthy subjects. MCPP blood levels were similar for the two groups, but almost twice as high in males as in females. Female patients had augmented ACTH and prolactin release as compared to healthy females, while ACTH and prolactin release in male patients was similar to that of male controls. These results suggest that female PD patients have hypersensitive serotonin receptors. Moreover, they indicate that pharmacokinetic gender differences may affect challenge studies, and that different doses may be required to study neuroendocrine responses in males and females.

  7. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady......-state thermal environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current paper was to compare a recently introduced unsteady-state model with previously used steady-state model using data obtained under both constant and transient temperature conditions. The second objective was to explore a relationship...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Tsuji, Tomoko

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans by a double- blind, randomized, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled trial. In the Active group, eleven subjects ingested a supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil (docosahexaenoic acid 783 mg/day, eicosapentaenoic acid 162 mg/day), bilberry extract (anthocyanidin 59 mg/day), and lutein (17.5 mg/day) in soft gel capsule form, every day for 4 weeks. In the Placebo group, nine subjects ingested placebo capsules. Before and after supplementation, subjects completed a questionnaire to determine their asthenopia symptoms and were also assessed for mental fatigue symptom by the visual analog scale (VAS) test. Asthenopia symptoms such as "stiff shoulder, low back pain", "frustration", "dry-eye", and "stuffy head" were improved in the Active group. Furthermore, a score of mental fatigue was improved after 4 weeks of supplementation, and no side effects were observed after the 4-week supplementation and a 2-week washout period in the Active group. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with the combination of omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein may safely improve subjective symptoms of asthenopia and mental fatigue in humans.

  9. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia; Kruse, Torben A; Christensen, Kaare

    2010-07-01

    Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct association approach that compares genotype frequency between centenarians and young controls, the power has been of concern. This paper reports a power study performed on the indirect approach using computer simulation. We perform our simulation study by introducing the current Danish population life table and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples for each setting of the specified allele risk and frequency parameters under different modes of inheritance and for different sample sizes. The indirect genetic association analysis is a valid approach for studying gene-longevity association, but the sample size requirement is about 3-4 time larger than the direct approach. It also has low power in detecting non-additive effect genes. Indirect genetic association using offspring from families with both parents as nonagenarians is nearly as powerful as using offspring from families with one centenarian parent. In conclusion, the indirect design can be a good choice for studying longevity in comparison with other alternatives, when relatively large sample size is available.

  10. Magnesium absorption in human subjects from leafy vegetables, intrinsically labeled with stable /sup 26/Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.; Spencer, H.; Welsh, J.J.

    1984-04-01

    Collards, turnip greens, leaf lettuce, and spinach, grown in nutrient solution so that their Mg content was 80 to 90% /sup 26/Mg, were tested in ambulant male volunteers stabilized on a constant metabolic diet. The freeze-dried vegetables were incorporated in bran muffins in which the vegetables replaced part of the bran. Bran muffins without vegetables were consumed for breakfast each day. They were also used as a standard test meal to which the vegetable muffins were compared. All subjects participated in three consecutive isotope absorption tests: one of the standard test meal and two of the vegetables. The standard test was carried out after at least 30 days on the controlled diet. Subsequent tests of vegetables followed at 4-wk intervals. Each test meal contained 30 microCi /sup 28/MgCl2 and 50 mg stable /sup 26/Mg, the latter either as the intrinsic label of a test vegetable or as /sup 26/MgCl/sub 2/ in solution taken with the standard bran muffins. Net absorption of both isotopes was measured to establish exchangeability and to determine relative Mg absorption from the vegetables. Exchangeability was 90% or higher from all meals tested. Relative Mg absorption was highest from collards and least from the standard test meal. Net absorption values ranged from 40 to 60%.

  11. The response of endocrine system to stress loads during space flight in human subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Pacak, K; Hoff, T; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Vigas, M; Kvetnansky, R

    2003-01-01

    The responses of endocrine system to the exposure to stress-work load and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance tests were studied in the Slovak astronaut before (three weeks before flight), during (on the 4th and the 6th days of space flight), and after space flight (1-3 days and 15-17 days after space flight) on board of space station MIR. Blood samples during the tests were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transferred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Preflight workload produced an increase of plasma norepinephrine and a moderate elevation of epinephrine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol were not markedly changed immediately or 10 min after the end of work load. The higher increases of plasma growth hormone, prolactin and catecholamine levels were noted after workload during space flight as compared to preflight response. The higher plasma glucose and insulin levels were noted during the oral glucose tolerance test in space flight and also in the post flight period. Plasma epinephrine levels were slightly decreasing during glucose tolerance test; however, plasma norepinephrine levels were not changed. The similar patterns of catecholamine levels during glucose tolerance test were found when compared the preflight, in-flight and post flight values. These data demonstrate the changes of the dynamic responses of endocrine system to stress-work and metabolic loads during space flight in human subject.

  12. The response of endocrine system to stress loads during space flight in human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Koška, J.; Kšinantová, L.; Pacak, K.; Hoff, T.; Noskov, V. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Vigaš, M.; Kvetňanský, R.

    The responses of endocrine system to the exposure to stress-work load and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance tests were studied in the Slovak astronaut before (three weeks before flight), during (on the 4th and the 6th days of space flight), and after space flight (1-3 days and 15-17 days after space flight) on board of space station MIR. Blood samples during the tests were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transforred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Preflight workload produced an increase of plasma norepinephrine and a moderate elevation of epinephrine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol were not markedly changed immediately or 10 min after the end of work load. The higher increases of plasma growth hormone, prolactin and catecholamine levels were noted after workload during space flight as compared to preflight response. The higher plasma glucose and insulin levels were noted during the oral glucose tolerance test in space flight and also in the post flight period. Plasma epinephrine levels were slightly decreasing during glucose tolerance test; however, plasma norepinephrine levels were not changed. The similar patterns of catecholamine levels during glucose tolerance test were found when compared the preflight, in-flight and post flight values. These data demonstrate the changes of the dynamic responses of endocrine system to stress-work and metabolic loads during space flight in human subject.

  13. Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebarbé, Matthieu; Baudrit, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Compigne, Sabine; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Fujii, Takumi; Douard, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50(th) dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS. Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries. In the second configuration, four specimens out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. Two of them presented sacroiliac joint fractures associated with pubic area injuries. The other two presented injuries at the pubic area and acetabulum only. The strain gauges signals suggested that the pubic fractures occurred before the sacroiliac joint fractures in the great majority of the cases (five cases out of seven). Conclusions - Even in the oblique impact conditions of the present study, the pubic symphysis area was observed to be the weakest zone of the pelvis and its failure the predominant cause of sacroiliac joint injuries. It was hypothesized that the failure of the pubic rami allowed the hemi-pelvis to rotate inward, and that this closing-book motion induced the failure of the sacroiliac joint.

  14. HOW TO SELECT APPROPRIATE HUMAN RESOURCE CONTROLLING INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dugelova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human resource controlling represents a company’s strategic method to support its role is planning, checking, and managing—including information supplement for human resources department. Human resource controlling helps with optimization and transformation of human resource functions and with general human resource management. Our survey deals with the implementation of human resource controlling in information technology companies. The selection of appropriate human resource controlling tools is the most important part of implementation. This article deals with the problem of human resource indicators selection as the most frequently used human resource controlling tool. Many international authors have solved the problem of performance appraisal measurement, and there are numerous demonstrations on how to choose key performance indicators. Our motivation to draft the complex methodology of human resource indicators selection is based on non-existing solution among the authors. To solve the problem and find appropriate methodology, we use the methods comparison, abstraction, and concretization. The result is a creation of the right human resource indicators selection in line with human resource controlling aim. We use the Balanced Scorecard, Deloitte human resource strategy framework, and partial solution of Kleinhempel (2010. These results constitute the basis for our future research and for drafting the whole methodology of human resource controlling implementation in information technology companies.

  15. Human and environmental controls over aboveground carbon storage in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asner Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate, high-resolution mapping of aboveground carbon density (ACD, Mg C ha-1 could provide insight into human and environmental controls over ecosystem state and functioning, and could support conservation and climate policy development. However, mapping ACD has proven challenging, particularly in spatially complex regions harboring a mosaic of land use activities, or in remote montane areas that are difficult to access and poorly understood ecologically. Using a combination of field measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and satellite data, we present the first large-scale, high-resolution estimates of aboveground carbon stocks in Madagascar. Results We found that elevation and the fraction of photosynthetic vegetation (PV cover, analyzed throughout forests of widely varying structure and condition, account for 27-67% of the spatial variation in ACD. This finding facilitated spatial extrapolation of LiDAR-based carbon estimates to a total of 2,372,680 ha using satellite data. Remote, humid sub-montane forests harbored the highest carbon densities, while ACD was suppressed in dry spiny forests and in montane humid ecosystems, as well as in most lowland areas with heightened human activity. Independent of human activity, aboveground carbon stocks were subject to strong physiographic controls expressed through variation in tropical forest canopy structure measured using airborne LiDAR. Conclusions High-resolution mapping of carbon stocks is possible in remote regions, with or without human activity, and thus carbon monitoring can be brought to highly endangered Malagasy forests as a climate-change mitigation and biological conservation strategy.

  16. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities.

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis - Neuropsychology, Depression and Anxiety. A case - control study -120 Portuguese Female subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Maia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis in cognitive functions has not been well acknowledged in Portugal. With this original article we intended to elucidate this problem in this specific country. Methods: We measured the results of 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis female patients (study group, comparing every patient in a case control paired plan (years in school and age, with control subjects (n = 60, in a total of 120 subjects. All participants were evaluated with Paced Auditory Selective Attention Test, Word List Generation Test, Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, a Portuguese depressive screening test (IACLIDE, STAI (anxiety trace and trait test and the Mini Mental state examination.Results: The outcomes demonstrate, for the first conclusive time in Portuguese patients, the occurrence of main deficits in terms of cognitive functioning (measured by a variety ofneuropsychological tests, and depressive and anxietysymptomatology. Conclusion: This article asset the need to pay attention in psychoeducational, psychotherapeutic and cognitive stimulation, and reinforcement of neuropsychological intervention in these types of patients.Objectivos: O impacto da artrite reumatóide nas funçõescognitivas não tem sido bem reconhecido em Portugal. Com este artigo original pretendemos elucidar este problema neste país específico.Métodos: Avaliámos os resultados de 60 pacientes femininos com artrite reumatóide (grupo de estudo, comparando cada paciente num estudo de caso-controle, emparelhando ossujeitos com Artrite Reumatóide (60 sujeitos com 60 pacientes Artrite Reumatóide, nas variáveis anos de escolaridade eidade (a variável género era uma constante = feminino.Todos os participantes foram avaliados com o Teste de Atenção Auditiva Selectiva (PASAT, teste de geração de lista de palavras, Bateria Neuropsicológica de Luria Nebraska, um teste português de despistagem de sintomatologia depressiva (IACLIDE, um teste de rastreamento de tra

  18. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the tau PET radiotracer [18F]T807 ([18F]AV-1451) in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Dustin; Guehl, Nicolas J; Verwer, Eline E; Shoup, Timothy M; Yokell, Daniel L; Zubcevik, Nevena; Vasdev, Neil; Zafonte, Ross D; Johnson, Keith A; El Fakhri, Georges; Normandin, Marc David

    2016-09-22

    [(18)F]T807 is a PET radiotracer developed for imaging tau protein aggregates, which are implicated in neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study characterizes [(18)F]T807 pharmacokinetics in human subjects using dynamic PET imaging and metabolite-corrected arterial input functions.

  19. Comparisons of synthetic 1-18 ACTH (Organon 2001) and 1-39 ACTH of animal origin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danowski, T S; Fisher, E R; Robinson, S M

    The studies in human subjects herein reported provide data on the relative effects of 1-18 ACTH (Organon 2001) and commercial 1-39 ACTH of animal origin on plasma cortisol, serum non-esterified fatty acids, and certain urinary steroids.

  20. Metric Selection for Evaluation of Human Supervisory Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Conceptual model of human-supervisory control (modified from Pina , Cummings et al. (2008...42  4 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Human supervisory control metric classes ( Pina , Donmez...literature in terms of human- autonomous vehicle interaction (Crandall & Cummings, 2007; Olsen & Goodrich, 2003; Pina , Cummings, Crandall, & Della Penna

  1. Controlled toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronets, J; Jaeggi, T; Buergin, W; Lussi, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare toothbrush abrasion of softened enamel after brushing with two (soft and hard) toothbrushes. One hundred and fifty-six human enamel specimens were indented with a Knoop diamond. Salivary pellicle was formed in vitro over a period of 3 h. Erosive lesions were produced by means of 1% citric acid. A force-measuring device allowed a controlled toothbrushing force of 1.5 N. The specimens were brushed either in toothpaste slurry or with toothpaste in artificial saliva for 15 s. Enamel loss was calculated from the change in indentation depth of the same indent before and after abrasion. Mean surface losses (95% CI) were recorded in ten treatment groups: (1) soft toothbrush only [28 (17-39) nm]; (2) hard toothbrush only [25 (16-34) nm]; (3) soft toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [46 (27-65) nm]; (4) hard toothbrush in Sensodyne MultiCare slurry [45 (24-66) nm]; (5) soft toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [71 (55-87) nm]; (6) hard toothbrush in Colgate sensation white slurry [85 (60-110) nm]; (7) soft toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [48 (39-57) nm]; (8) hard toothbrush with Sensodyne MultiCare [40 (29-51) nm]; (9) soft toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [51 (37-65) nm]; (10) hard toothbrush with Colgate sensation white [52 (36-68) nm]. Neither soft nor hard toothbrushes produced significantly different toothbrush abrasion of softened human enamel in this model (p > 0.05). Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Role of the vestibular system in the arterial pressure response to parabolic-flight-induced gravitational changes in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Chihiro; Abe, Chikara; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Morita, Hironobu

    2011-05-16

    Arterial pressure (AP) is known to fluctuate during parabolic-flight-induced gravitational changes in human subjects, increasing during hypergravity and decreasing during microgravity. In this study, we examined whether the vestibular system participates in the AP response to the gravitational changes induced by parabolic flight in human subjects. Eight subjects performed parabolic flights in a supine position as their AP was measured. Their vestibular inputs during the gravitational changes were reversibly masked by artificial electrical stimulation (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS). The AP responses during the parabolas were then compared between the GVS-off and GVS-on conditions. AP increased during hypergravity and decreased during microgravity. The AP responses at the onset of hypergravity and microgravity were abolished by GVS. These results indicate that the vestibular system elicits pressor and depressor responses during parabolic-flight-induced hypergravity and microgravity, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Cocoa Beans Subjected to Different Processing Conditions in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the western world. Phenolic cocoa ingredients have a strong antioxidative activity and the potential to have a protective effect against cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of cocoa beans subjected to different processing conditions on cell viability and apoptosis of human lung cancer cells (A549. We measured the viability of lung cells treated with cocoa beans, unroasted slates (US, roasted slates (RS, unroasted well fermented (UWF cocoa, and roasted well fermented (RWF cocoa for 24 h. Using an MTT assay, we observed a decrease in the viability of A549 cells after treatment with cocoa bean extracts. Flow cytometer analysis revealed that cocoa beans increased the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase and promoted up to twofold increase of apoptotic cells when compared to the control group. Taken together, the present study suggests that cocoa beans may have a protective effect against lung cancer.

  4. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Cocoa Beans Subjected to Different Processing Conditions in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Deborah; de Abreu, Joel Pimentel; Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Goes-Neto, Aristoteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the western world. Phenolic cocoa ingredients have a strong antioxidative activity and the potential to have a protective effect against cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of cocoa beans subjected to different processing conditions on cell viability and apoptosis of human lung cancer cells (A549). We measured the viability of lung cells treated with cocoa beans, unroasted slates (US), roasted slates (RS), unroasted well fermented (UWF) cocoa, and roasted well fermented (RWF) cocoa for 24 h. Using an MTT assay, we observed a decrease in the viability of A549 cells after treatment with cocoa bean extracts. Flow cytometer analysis revealed that cocoa beans increased the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase and promoted up to twofold increase of apoptotic cells when compared to the control group. Taken together, the present study suggests that cocoa beans may have a protective effect against lung cancer. PMID:27034742

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum fruit juice in Chinese older healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagase, Harunobu; Sun, Bixuang; Nance, Dwight M

    2009-10-01

    Lycium barbarum has been traditionally used in combination with several herbs for medicinal properties, but systematic modern clinical evaluation as a single herb has not been reported. To examine the systematic effects of L. barbarum on immune function, general well-being, and safety, we tested the effects of a standardized L. barbarum fruit juice (GoChi, FreeLife International, Phoenix, AZ, USA) at 120 mL/day, equivalent to at least 150 g of fresh fruit, the amount traditionally used, or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 60 older healthy adults (55-72 years old). The GoChi group showed a statistically significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and levels of interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G compared to pre-intervention and the placebo group, whereas the number of CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells or levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin A were not significantly altered. The placebo group showed no significant changes in any immune measures. Whereas the GoChi group showed a significant increase in general feelings of well-being, such as fatigue and sleep, and showed a tendency for increased short-term memory and focus between pre- and post-intervention, the placebo group showed no significant positive changes in these measures. No adverse reactions, abnormal symptoms, or changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, visual acuity, urine, stool, or blood biochemistry were seen in either group. In conclusion, daily consumption of GoChi significantly increased several immunological responses and subjective feelings of general well-being without any adverse reactions.

  6. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöver Timo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vardenafil (Levitra® represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21 or matching placebo tablets (N = 21 administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication, and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ, the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36, audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA. Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36, objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil

  7. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Birgit; Haupt, Heidemarie; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Sandmann, Jörg; Gross, Johann; Klapp, Burghard F; Kiesewetter, Holger; Kalus, Ulrich; Stöver, Timo; Caffier, Philipp P

    2009-01-01

    Background Vardenafil (Levitra®) represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21) or matching placebo tablets (N = 21) administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication), and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ), the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36), audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds) and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status). Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA). Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36), objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil studies. Conclusion

  8. 76 FR 5735 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... requirement that human studies be ``designed and based on the results of animal experimentation.'' Finally... the principles of the Nuremberg Code with respect to human experimentation; and shall establish an... Nuremberg Code pertaining to human experimentation. Petitioners argued that the 2006 rule was...

  9. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction. METHODOLOGY: 23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations

  10. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  11. Cortical Recruitment Patterns in Children Born Prematurely Compared with Control Subjects During a Passive Listening Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, Laura R.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Vohr, Betty; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Pugh, Kenneth; Duncan, Charles C.; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative systems for processing language. Study design Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 14; 600-1250 g birthweight) without neonatal brain injury and 10 matched term control subjects were examined with a fMRI passive listening task of language, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and portions of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). The fMRI task was evaluated for both phonologic and semantic processing. Results Although there were differences in CELF scores between the subjects born prematurely and control subjects, there were no significant differences in the CTOPP measures in the 2 groups. fMRI studies demonstrated that the groups differentially engaged neural systems known to process language. Children born at term were significantly more likely to activate systems for the semantic processing of language, whereas subjects born prematurely preferentially engaged regions that subserve phonology. Conclusions At 12 years of age, children born prematurely and children born at term activate neural systems for the auditory processing of language differently. Subjects born prematurely engage different networks for phonologic processing; this strategy is associated with phonologic language scores that are similar to those of control subjects. These biologically based developmental strategies may provide the substrate for the improving language skills noted in children who are born prematurely. PMID:17011320

  12. Near-surface structural examination of human tooth enamel subject to in vitro demineralization and remineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Carmen Veronica

    The early stages of chemical tooth decay are governed by dynamic processes of demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel that initiates along the surface of the tooth. Conventional diagnostic techniques lack the spatial resolution required to analyze near-surface structural changes in enamel at the submicron level. In this study, slabs of highly-polished, decay-free human enamel were subjected to 0.12M EDTA and buffered lactic acid demineralizing agents and MI Paste(TM) and calcifying (0.1 ppm F) remineralizing treatments in vitro. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), a technique typically used for thin film analysis, provided depth profiles of crystallinity changes in surface enamel with a resolution better than 100 nm. In conjunction with nanoindentation, a technique gaining acceptance as a means of examining the mechanical properties of sound enamel, these results were corroborated with well-established microscopy and Raman techniques to assess the nanohardness, morphologies and chemical nature of treated enamel. Interestingly, the average crystallite size of surface enamel along its c-axis dimension increased by nearly 40% after a 60 min EDTA treatment as detected by GIXD. This result was in direct contrast to the obvious surface degradation observed by microscopic and confocal Raman imaging. A decrease in nanohardness from 4.86 +/- 0.44 GPa to 0.28 +/- 0.10 GPa was observed. Collective results suggest that mineral dissolution characteristics evident on the micron scale may not be fully translated to the nanoscale in assessing the integrity of chemically-modified tooth enamel. While an intuitive decrease in enamel crystallinity was observed with buffered lactic acid-treated samples, demineralization was too slow to adequately quantify the enamel property changes seen. MI Paste(TM) treatment of EDTA-demineralized enamel showed preferential growth along the a-axis direction. Calcifying solution treatments of both demineralized sample types

  13. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  14. Reproduction (II): Human Control of Reproductive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Alfred

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods of intervening in reproduction of animals and humans (artificial insemination, contraception, ovular and blastodisc transplants, pre selection of sex, cloning) and discusses the social implications of their use with humans. (AL)

  15. Balance control enhancement using sub-sensory stimulation and visual-auditory biofeedback strategies for amputee subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Yih; Lin, Chih-Feng; Soon, Kok-Soon

    2007-12-01

    Sub-sensory electrical or mechanical stimulation can enhance the sensitivity of the human somatosensory system to improve the balance control capabilities of elderly. In addition, clinical studies suggest that visual-auditory biofeedback can improve sensory compensation for the elderly. This study hypothesizes that the static balance and gait performance of single leg quiet standing and treadmill walking could be improved for providing proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation using sub-sensory stimulation and visual-auditory biofeedback in amputee subjects. To test this, a computerized foot pressure biofeedback sensory compensation system using sub-threshold low-level electrical stimulation combined with visual-auditory biofeedback was developed. Seven unilateral trans-tibial amputees who wore prostheses over 2 years were recruited. The subjects performed multiple single leg quiet standing trials with sub-sensory electrical stimulation applied at the quadriceps muscle during half of the trials. Static balance performance was characterized by using a Zebris motion analysis system to measure the sway distance and duration of the centre of mass on the second sacral (S2) of the subjects. In addition, multiple treadmill ambulatory trials with or without visual-auditory biofeedback was performed. Dynamic gait performance was characterized with a Zebris instrumented insole to measure the temporal responses of foot pressure sensors. Experimental results showed an improvement in three balance performance indices (Holding Time Index, HTI, Maximum Sway Distance Index, MSDI, and Average Sway Distance Index, ASDI) during single leg quiet standing by applying sub-sensory stimulation. The improvement ratio of these balance performance indices across subjects for single leg quiet standing tests resulted in 132.34% in HTI, 44.61% in MSDI, and 61.45% in ASDI. With visual-auditory biofeedback as a cue for heel contact and toe push-off condition during treadmill ambulation, the

  16. Generation of a suite of 3D computer-generated breast phantoms from a limited set of human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Christina M. L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Palmeri, Mark L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, W. Paul [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Veress, Alexander I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dobbins, James T. III [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously reported on a three-dimensional computer-generated breast phantom, based on empirical human image data, including a realistic finite-element based compression model that was capable of simulating multimodality imaging data. The computerized breast phantoms are a hybrid of two phantom generation techniques, combining empirical breast CT (bCT) data with flexible computer graphics techniques. However, to date, these phantoms have been based on single human subjects. In this paper, the authors report on a new method to generate multiple phantoms, simulating additional subjects from the limited set of original dedicated breast CT data. The authors developed an image morphing technique to construct new phantoms by gradually transitioning between two human subject datasets, with the potential to generate hundreds of additional pseudoindependent phantoms from the limited bCT cases. The authors conducted a preliminary subjective assessment with a limited number of observers (n= 4) to illustrate how realistic the simulated images generated with the pseudoindependent phantoms appeared. Methods: Several mesh-based geometric transformations were developed to generate distorted breast datasets from the original human subject data. Segmented bCT data from two different human subjects were used as the 'base' and 'target' for morphing. Several combinations of transformations were applied to morph between the 'base' and 'target' datasets such as changing the breast shape, rotating the glandular data, and changing the distribution of the glandular tissue. Following the morphing, regions of skin and fat were assigned to the morphed dataset in order to appropriately assign mechanical properties during the compression simulation. The resulting morphed breast was compressed using a finite element algorithm and simulated mammograms were generated using techniques described previously. Sixty-two simulated mammograms

  17. Translational neuroendocrinology: control of human growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, P E; Gill, M S; Tillmann, V; Westwood, M

    2014-06-01

    Human growth is driven by both basic cell processes as well as hormones, in particular the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis. Understanding how these mechanisms are coordinated is not only critical to achieving a normal growth rate, but also to recognising potential new causes of disordered growth and how they might be treated. We have demonstrated in healthy children that height is gained by periods of rapid growth interspersed by periods of very slow growth or even stasis. We have also shown that a lower order organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, grows in a similar manner. By contrast, secretion of GH from somatotrophs occurs on a daily basis in discrete pulses over a 24-h period. We have used the measurement of GH in urine as a surrogate marker of GH secretion to show that there are rhythms of GH output with frequencies of several days. We then assessed which attributes of these GH profiles were related to growth and found that disorderliness in the GH profile (as measured by approximate entropy) was related to better growth rate. This feature was then tested in the dwarf rat using different GH regimens to introduce variation into the administration of daily GH injections. Better long bone growth was associated with week-to-week or even random dose variation compared to the same amount of GH delivered as a standard daily dose. Understanding the control of growth has implications in clinical practice for modelling GH treatment regimens based on physiological principles.

  18. The Human-Fostered Gorilla Koko Shows Breath Control in Play with Wind Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Perlman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Breath control is critical to the production of spoken language and commonly postulated as a unique human adaptation specifically for this function. In contrast, non-human primates are often assumed to lack volitional control over their vocalizations, and implicitly, their breath. This paper takes an embodied perspective on the development of breath control in a human-fostered gorilla, examining her sound play with musical wind instruments. The subject Koko was video recorded in her play with plastic recorders, harmonicas and whistles. The results show that Koko exercises volitional control over her breath during instrument play. More generally, the findings suggest that all great apes share the potential to develop breath control, and that the original adaptive value of breath control was its flexible development for the service of behaviors that happened to be useful within particular sociocultural and physical environments.

  19. The musical brain: brain waves reveal the neurophysiological basis of musicality in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, M; Ilvonen, T; Karma, K; Alho, K; Näätänen, R

    1997-04-18

    To reveal neurophysiological prerequisites of musicality, auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from musical and non-musical subjects, musicality being here defined as the ability to temporally structure auditory information. Instructed to read a book and to ignore sounds, subjects were presented with a repetitive sound pattern with occasional changes in its temporal structure. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of ERPs, indexing the cortical preattentive detection of change in these stimulus patterns, was larger in amplitude in musical than non-musical subjects. This amplitude enhancement, indicating more accurate sensory memory function in musical subjects, suggests that even the cognitive component of musicality, traditionally regarded as depending on attention-related brain processes, in fact, is based on neural mechanisms present already at the preattentive level.

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SUBJECTIVE POSITION OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of health care in the system of continuous professional education in the conditions of optimization of activities of the health system. Professional and subject position reflects the position of individual managers in a professional environment, its relationship to the quality of professional activity, to himself, to patients and colleagues to level their skills.Purpose/objectives: analysis of core competencies, forming the professional and subject position of heads of medical organizations; identify possible ways of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of the public health based on the use of modern technologies and active methods of training in system of continuous professional education. Methodology. In conducting the present study used data from official sources, literature review, scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative analysis and modeling. The results of the study indicate the necessity of actualization of the subject position of heads of medical organizations. Conclusions /Significance. The necessity of formation and development of professional subjective position of the heads due to the needs of society and the health care system with modern requirements for quality management training of health. Professional and subject position is a characteristic feature of a highly qualified specialist in the area of governance, reflecting its active attitude toward self and professional activity, factor of efficiency of activity of medical organizations. The real practice of activity of medical organizations requires improved approaches in the preparation of healthcare managers. Most of the leaders are having difficulties, associated not only with necessity of development of universal and professional competences, but also the necessity of development of professional-subjective position

  1. Efficacy of Ipomoea batatas (Caiapo) on diabetes control in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvik, Bernhard; Neuffer, Beatrice; Pacini, Giovanni

    2004-02-01

    To investigate the tolerability, efficacy, and mode of action of Caiapo, an extract of white sweet potatoes, on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 61 type 2 diabetic patients treated by diet were given 4 g Caiapo (n = 30; mean age 55.2 +/- 2.1 years; BMI 28.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) or placebo (n = 31; mean age 55.6 +/- 1.5 years; BMI 27.6 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)) once daily for 12 weeks. Each subject underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 1, 2, and 3 months to assess 2-h glucose levels. Additionally, fasting blood glucose, HbA(1c), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. After treatment with Caiapo, HbA(1c) decreased significantly (P < 0.001) from 7.21 +/- 0.15 to 6.68 +/- 0.14%, whereas it remained unchanged (P = 0.23) in subjects given placebo (7.04 +/- 0.17 vs. 7.10 +/- 0.19%). Fasting blood glucose levels decreased (P < 0.001) in the Caiapo group (143.7 +/- 1.9 vs. 128.5 +/- 1.7 mg/dl) and did not change in the placebo group (144.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 138.2 +/- 2.1 mg/dl; P = 0.052). A decrease in body weight was observed in both the placebo group (P = 0.0027) and in the Caiapo group (P < 0.0001), probably due to a better- controlled lifestyle. In the Caiapo group, body weight was related to the improvement in glucose control (r = 0.618; P < 0.0002). Two-hour glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in the Caiapo group (193.3 +/- 10.4 vs. 162.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dl) compared with the placebo group (191.7 +/- 9.2 vs. 181.0 +/- 7.1 mg/dl). Mean cholesterol at the end of the treatment was significantly lower in the Caiapo group (214.6 +/- 11.2 mg/dl) than in the placebo group (248.7 +/- 11.2 mg/dl; P < 0.05). No significant changes in triglyceride levels or blood pressure were observed, and Caiapo was well tolerated without significant adverse effects. This study confirms the beneficial effects of Caiapo on plasma glucose as well as cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. For the first time

  2. Usage and Impact of Controlled Vocabularies in a Subject Repository for Indexing and Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Borst

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, the German National Library for Economics (ZBW supports both indexing and retrieval of Open Access scientific publications like working papers, postprint articles and conference papers by means of a terminology web service. This web service is based on concepts organized as a ‘Standard Thesaurus for Economics’ (STW, which is modelled and regularly published as Linked Open Data. Moreover, it is integrated into the institution’s subject repository for automatically suggesting appropriate key words while indexing and retrieving documents, and for automatically expanding search queries on demand to gain better search results. While this approach looks promising to augment ‘off the shelf’ repository software systems in a lightweight manner with a disciplinary profile, there is still significant uncertainty about the effective usage and impact of controlled terms in the realm of these systems. To cope with this, we analyze the repository’s logfiles to get evidence of search behaviour which is potentially influenced by auto suggestion and expansion of scientific terms derived from a discipline’s literature.

  3. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Loren S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated a specialized whey fraction (Prolibra™, high in leucine, bioactive peptides and milk calcium for use as a dietary supplement to enhance weight loss. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm, 12-week study. Caloric intake was reduced 500 calories per day. Subjects consumed Prolibra or an isocaloric ready-to-mix beverage 20 minutes before breakfast and 20 minutes before dinner. Body fat and lean muscle tissue were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Body weight and anthropometric measurements were recorded every 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of the study. Statistical analyses were performed on all subjects that completed (completer analysis and all subjects that lost at least 2.25 kg of body weight (responder analysis. Within group significance was determined at P Results Both groups lost a significant amount of weight and the Prolibra group tended to lose more weight than the control group; however the amount of weight loss was not significantly different between groups after 12 weeks. Prolibra subjects lost significantly more body fat compared to control subjects for both the completer (2.81 vs. 1.62 kg P = 0.03 and responder (3.63 vs. 2.11 kg, P = 0.01 groups. Prolibra subjects lost significantly less lean muscle mass in the responder group (1.07 vs. 2.41 kg, P = 0.02. The ratio of fat to lean loss (kg fat lost/kg lean lost was much larger for Prolibra subjects for both completer (3.75 vs. 1.05 and responder (3.39 vs. 0.88 groups. Conclusion Subjects in both the control and treatment group lost a significant amount of weight with a 500 calorie reduced diet. Subjects taking Prolibra lost significantly more body fat and showed a greater preservation of lean muscle compared to subjects consuming the control beverage. Because subjects taking Prolibra lost 6.1% of their body fat mass, and because a 5% reduction of body fat mass has been shown to

  4. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell-Derived Factors from Severe Asthmatic Subjects Stimulate Eosinophil Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brittany M A; Smith, Steven G; Mukherjee, Manali; Plante, Sophie; Krisna, Sakktee; Nusca, Graeme; Oliveria, John Paul; Irshad, Anam; Gauvreau, Gail M; Chakir, Jamila; Nair, Parameswaran; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-08-30

    Activated bronchial epithelial cells release alarmins, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) that drive type 2 inflammatory responses. We hypothesize that bronchial epithelial-derived factors enhance in situ eosinophil differentiation and maturation from myeloid precursors, a process that is driven by an IL-5 rich micro-environment within asthma airways. To assess the eosinophilopoietic potential of epithelial-derived factors, eosinophil/basophil colony forming units (Eo/B-CFU) were enumerated in 14-day methylcellulose cultures of blood-derived mononuclear cells (NAMNCs) incubated with bronchial epithelial cell supernatants (BECSN) from healthy non-atopic controls (NC; n = 8), mild atopic asthmatics (MA; n = 9) and severe asthmatics (SA; n = 5). Receptor blocking antibodies were used to evaluate the contribution of alarmins. Modulation of mRNA expression of transcription factors crucial for eosinophil differentiation was evaluated. BECSN stimulated the clonogenic expansion of eosinophil progenitors, in vitro. In the presence of IL-5, Eo/B-CFU growth was significantly greater in co-cultures of BESCN from SA, compared to MA and NC. This effect was attenuated by a TSLP receptor blocking antibody but not by an ST2 antibody. Recombinant human TSLP (optimal at 100 pg/ml) stimulated significant Eo/B-CFU growth, which was significantly enhanced in presence of IL-5 (1 ng/ml). Overnight culture of CD34+ cells with IL-5 and TSLP synergistically increased GATA-2 and CEBP-alpha mRNA expression. The eosinophilopoietic potential of factors derived from bronchial epithelial cells is increased in severe asthma. Our data suggest that TSLP is a key alarmin produced by bronchial epithelial cells, which promotes in situ eosinophilopoiesis in a type 2 rich microenvironment.

  5. An In Vitro Evaluation of Human Enamel Surfaces Subjected to Erosive Challenge After Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Carvalho Vasconcelos, Maria; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa; de França, Adílis Kalina Alexandria; de Medeiros, Urubatan Vieira; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Queiroz, Celso Silva

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether tooth enamel bleached with hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is more susceptible to erosion when compared with unbleached tooth enamel; and whether the presence of calcium (Ca) in the bleaching gel influenced this process. Enamel blocks were prepared from human molars, and submitted to surface microhardness analysis (baseline). Blocks were prepared and randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 20): G1 and G2-bleached with 7.5% H2 O2 , with and without Ca, respectively; G3 and G4-bleached with 35% H2 O2 , with and without Ca, respectively. After bleaching, these groups were submitted to an erosive challenge with 1% citric acid. G5 and G6 (n = 20, each) were the negative (without bleaching) and positive controls (without bleaching, but with erosion), respectively. The percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL), the 3D non-contact profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed. G2 showed the highest %SHL after bleaching. G1 presented the lowest %SHL in comparison with G2, G3, G4, and G6 after erosion (p < 0.05), which was confirmed only by the SEM analysis. It is suggested that low concentration of H2 O2 with calcium can be recommended for at-home bleaching agents, which may avoid the mineral loss of bleached enamel after an erosive challenge. Low concentration of H2 02 with calcium can be recommended for at-home bleaching agents, which may avoid the mineral loss of bleached enamel after an erosive challenge. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:128-136, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Indirect detection of an epitope-specific response to HIV-1 gp120 immunization in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Shmelkov

    Full Text Available A specific response of human serum neutralizing antibodies (nAb to a conformational epitope as a result of vaccination of human subjects with the surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120 of HIV-1 has not previously been documented. Here, we used computational analysis to assess the epitope-specific responses of human subjects, which were immunized with recombinant gp120 immunogens in the VAX003 and VAX004 clinical trials. Our computational methodology--a variation of sieve analysis--compares the occurrence of specific nAb targeted conformational 3D epitopes on viruses from infected individuals who received vaccination to the occurrence of matched epitopes in the viruses infecting placebo subjects. We specifically studied seven crystallographically defined nAb targeted conformational epitopes in the V3 loop, an immunogenic region of gp120. Of the six epitopes present in the immunogens and targeted by known monoclonal neutralizing antibodies, only the one targeted by the anti-V3 nAb 2219 exhibited a significant reduction in occurrence in vaccinated subjects compared to the placebo group. This difference occurred only in the VAX003 Thailand cohort. No difference was seen between vaccinated and placebo groups for the occurrence of an epitope that was not present in the immunogen. Thus, it can be theorized that a specific 2219-like human neutralizing antibody immune response to AIDSVAX immunization occurred in the VAX003 cohort, and that this response protected subjects from a narrow subset of HIV-1 viruses circulating in Thailand in the 1990s and bearing the conformational epitope targeted by the neutralizing antibody 2219.

  7. Non-Agricultural Databases and Thesauri: Retrieval of Subject Headings and Non-Controlled Terms in Relation to Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to assess the utility of non-agriculture-specific information systems, databases, and respective controlled vocabularies (thesauri) in organising and retrieving agricultural information. The purpose is to identify thesaurus-linked tree structures, controlled subject headings/terms (heading words, descriptors), and principal…

  8. Non-Agricultural Databases and Thesauri: Retrieval of Subject Headings and Non-Controlled Terms in Relation to Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to assess the utility of non-agriculture-specific information systems, databases, and respective controlled vocabularies (thesauri) in organising and retrieving agricultural information. The purpose is to identify thesaurus-linked tree structures, controlled subject headings/terms (heading words, descriptors), and principal…

  9. Bootstrap Signal-to-Noise Confidence Intervals: An Objective Method for Subject Exclusion and Quality Control in ERP Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nathan A.; Gannon, Matthew A.; Long, Stephanie M.; Young, Madeleine E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of event-related potential (ERP) data includes several steps to ensure that ERPs meet an appropriate level of signal quality. One such step, subject exclusion, rejects subject data if ERP waveforms fail to meet an appropriate level of signal quality. Subject exclusion is an important quality control step in the ERP analysis pipeline as it ensures that statistical inference is based only upon those subjects exhibiting clear evoked brain responses. This critical quality control step is most often performed simply through visual inspection of subject-level ERPs by investigators. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective, and susceptible to investigator bias, as there are no standards as to what constitutes an ERP of sufficient signal quality. Here, we describe a standardized and objective method for quantifying waveform quality in individual subjects and establishing criteria for subject exclusion. The approach uses bootstrap resampling of ERP waveforms (from a pool of all available trials) to compute a signal-to-noise ratio confidence interval (SNR-CI) for individual subject waveforms. The lower bound of this SNR-CI (SNRLB) yields an effective and objective measure of signal quality as it ensures that ERP waveforms statistically exceed a desired signal-to-noise criterion. SNRLB provides a quantifiable metric of individual subject ERP quality and eliminates the need for subjective evaluation of waveform quality by the investigator. We detail the SNR-CI methodology, establish the efficacy of employing this approach with Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate its utility in practice when applied to ERP datasets. PMID:26903849

  10. Delta Inulin Adjuvant Enhances Plasmablast Generation, Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase and B-Cell Affinity Maturation in Human Subjects Receiving Seasonal Influenza Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available There is a major need for new adjuvants to improve the efficacy of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. Advax is a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin that has been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in animal models and human clinical trials. To better understand the mechanism for this enhancement, we sought to assess its effect on the plasmablast response in human subjects. This pilot study utilised cryopreserved 7 day post-vaccination (7dpv peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples obtained from a subset of 25 adult subjects from the FLU006-12 trial who had been immunized intramuscularly with a standard dose of 2012 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV alone (n=9 subjects or combined with 5mg (n=8 or 10mg (n=8 of Advax adjuvant. Subjects receiving Advax adjuvant had increased 7dpv plasmablasts, which in turn exhibited a 2-3 fold higher rate of non-silent mutations in the B-cell receptor CDR3 region associated with higher expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, the major enzyme controlling BCR affinity maturation. Together, these data suggest that Advax adjuvant enhances influenza immunity in immunized subjects via multiple mechanisms including increased plasmablast generation, AID expression and CDR3 mutagenesis resulting in enhanced BCR affinity maturation and increased production of high avidity antibody. How Advax adjuvant achieves these beneficial effects on plasmablasts remains the subject of ongoing investigation.Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12612000709842 https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=362709.

  11. Reconstruction of individual doses for the subjects of a case-control study of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdovitch, V.; Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Doyon, F.; Vathaire, F. de [National Institute for Health and Medical Research, INSERM Unit 605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Bouville, A. [Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div.) (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated b y the Unit 605 I.N.S.E.R.M. as carried out in French Polynesia. Forty-six atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (including five safety tests) were conducted in French Polynesia between 966 and 1974. The study includes 600 subjects both cases and controls all aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing. Under the normal conditions following testing the radioactive debris was moved to the east from he test site (atolls Moruroa or Fangataufa) over the uninhabited regions of the Pacific. However, some of the radioactive debris in troposphere was caught in anticyclones eddies and were transferred back to the central South Pacific area in a few days. Radioactive clouds with changed direction result ed in the local deposition of radionuclides on the ground of inhabited islands of French Polynesia. Radiation doses to the thyroids of the subjects were assessed based on the available historical results of radiometric measurements and meteorological data. These included annual reports on the radiological situation in French Polynesia that had been sent to the Secretariat of UNSCEAR. Results of measurements of exposure rate and of total activity in filtered air were used to evaluate the ground depositions of specific radionuclides. Radiation monitoring also included measurements of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs in cows milk produced in Tahiti and measurements of radioactivity in foodstuffs produced on the selected islands. For each atmospheric nuclear weapons test that contributed substantially to the local deposition of radionuclides, the radiation dose to the thyroid from {sup 131}I intake via inhalation and ingestion was estimated. In additional, thyroid doses from the intake of short-lived radio iodines (132, 133, 135 I) and {sup 132}Te, external exposure from gamma-emitted radionuclides deposited on the ground, and ingestion of long-lived {sup 137}Cs were reconstructed. The assessment of individual thyroid

  12. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribalan Kumar

    Full Text Available Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics.

  13. EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION ON OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY IN HUMAN SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological, in vitro and animal studies suggest that dietary antioxidants can modulate the cellular and physiologic effects of ozone (O3) inhalation in humans. To determine whether antioxidants can influence human susceptibility to O3-induced changes in lung function and a...

  14. Generalization Gradients in Human Predictive Learning: Effects of Discrimination Training and within-Subjects Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervliet, Bram; Iberico, Carlos; Vervoort, Ellen; Baeyens, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Generalization gradients have been investigated widely in animal conditioning experiments, but much less so in human predictive learning tasks. Here, we apply the experimental design of a recent study on conditioned fear generalization in humans (Lissek et al., 2008) to a predictive learning task, and examine the effects of a number of relevant…

  15. Attempting to train a digital human model to reproduce human subject reach capabilities in an ejection seat aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehner, G.F.; Hudson, J.A.; Oudenhuijzen, A.

    2006-01-01

    From 1997 through 2002, the Air Force Research Lab and TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Business Unit Human Factors) were involved in a series of tests to quantify the accuracy of five Human Modeling Systems (HMSs) in determining accommodation limits of ejection seat aircraft. The results of these

  16. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davegårdh, Cajsa; Broholm, Christa; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA......BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity...... methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals. Functional follow-up experiments were performed using siRNA mediated gene silencing in primary human myoblasts and a transgenic mouse model. RESULTS: We observed genome...

  17. Intrinsic, Identified, and Controlled Types of Motivation for School Subjects in Young Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frederic; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school…

  18. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett eWagner Mackenzie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human gut contains dense and diverse microbial communities which have profound influences on human health. Gaining meaningful insights into these communities requires provision of high quality microbial nucleic acids from human fecal samples, as well as an understanding of the sources of variation and their impacts on the experimental model. We present here a systematic analysis of commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods, and identify significant sources of variation. Five extraction methods (Human Microbiome Project protocol, MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation were evaluated based on the following criteria: DNA yield, quality and integrity, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Our results indicate that the largest portion of variation within the model was attributed to differences between subjects (biological variation, with a smaller proportion of variation associated with DNA extraction method (technical variation and intra-subject variation. A comprehensive understanding of the potential impact of technical variation on the human gut microbiota will help limit preventable bias, enabling more accurate diversity estimates.

  19. Comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in plasma between patients with ischemic stroke and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Yoshimori; Fukuyama, Naoto; Kitajima, Waichi; Ogushi, Yoichi; Mori, Hidezo

    2013-01-01

    ω-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevent ischemic stroke. However, the clinical importance of EPA for ischemic stroke and its subtype has not been fully elucidated. In a cross-sectional study, we determined whether ω-3 fatty acids were predictive factors for ischemic stroke. We compared common clinical parameters among 65 patients with ischemic stroke and 65 control subjects. The parameters included blood chemistry data; concentrations of EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid (AA); EPA/AA ratio; smoking; alcohol intake; fish consumption more than four times per week; and the incidence of underlying diseases. The comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, and multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to the significant factors in the non-parametric test. We also applied the same approach to the ischemic stroke subtypes, cardioembolism and large-artery atherosclerosis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis after the Mann-Whitney U test, a lower EPA concentration was one of the significant risk factors for ischemic stroke, as were a lower body mass index, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking (sensitivity 0.846, specificity 0.831, positive predictive value 0.833). In the analysis of subtypes, a lower EPA/AA ratio and a lower body mass index were the significant risk factors for cardioembolism (sensitivity 0.800, specificity 0.733, positive predictive value 0.750). However, large-artery atherosclerosis was not related to the EPA concentration or the EPA/AA ratio. In this study, the plasma EPA concentration and the EPA/AA ratio were potential predictive risk factors for ischemic stroke, especially for cardioembolism. Further prospective studies are necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly subjects: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Laín, Susana; Webster, A. L., Mrs.; Cañete, Silvia; San Juan, Alejandro F.; López Mojares, Luis Miguel; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Chicharro García, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve exercise capacity in diseased populations. We chose to examine the effects of eight weeks of IMT on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly individuals. Eighteen moderately active elderly subjects (68.1 +/- 6.8 years [mean +/- SD]; range 58 - 78 years) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9) in a double-blind manner. All subjects underwent inspiratory muscle tes...

  1. Specificity of neuropsychological impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison with social phobic and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L J; Hollander, E; DeCaria, C M; Stein, D J; Simeon, D; Liebowitz, M R; Aronowitz, B R

    1996-01-01

    Specificity of neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was assessed by comparing neuropsychological performance in 65 OCD patients, 17 social phobic patients, and 32 normal control subjects. Although both patient groups showed visual constructional impairment relative to normal subjects, only patients with social phobia showed executive dysfunction. Nonconcurrent state anxiety did not correlate with neuropsychological performance. Among anxiety disorders, neuropsychological dysfunction may not be specific to OCD, but the functions implicated may differ across patient groups.

  2. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control

    OpenAIRE

    Berberian,Ana Paula; Hopker,Christiane; Mazzarotto,Ingrid; Cunha, Jenane; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi,Giselle; Crippa, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data...

  3. Human response to individually controlled micro environment generated with localized chilled beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Simon C.; Nygaard, Linette; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment in a single-office room created by a localised chilled beam with individual control of the primary air flow was studied. Response of 24 human subjects when exposed to the environment generated by the chilled beam was collected via questionnaires under a 2-hour exposure including...... and local thermal sensation reported by the subjects with the two systems. Both systems were equally acceptable. At 26°C the individual control of the localised chilled beam lead to higher acceptability of the work environment. At 28°C the acceptability decreased with the two systems. It was not acceptable...

  4. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries... apply to: (1) Treatment for injuries due to noncompliance by a subject with study procedures, or (2... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of...

  5. Effect of carbohydrate ingestion on brain exchange of amino acids during sustained exercise in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, Eva; Møller, Kirsten; Secher, Niels Henry

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated the effect of prolonged exercise with and without carbohydrate intake on the brain exchange of amino acids, especially focussing on tryptophan and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). METHODS: Five male subjects exercised for 3 h on a cycle ergometer at 200 +/- 7 W on t...

  6. Inter-subject alignment of human cortical anatomy using functional connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, Bryan R.; Singer, Benjamin D.; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Ramadge, Peter J.; Haxby, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-subject alignment of functional MRI (fMRI) data is necessary for group analyses. The standard approach to this problem matches anatomical features of the brain, such as major anatomical landmarks or cortical curvature. Precise alignment of functional cortical topographies, however, cannot be derived using only anatomical features.

  7. His majesty's subjects: from laboratory to human experiment in pneumatic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Larry

    2009-09-20

    Experiments in pneumatic chemistry paved the way for medical innovation in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. Thomas Beddoes and James Watt were instrumental in the spread of the use of new gas chemistry in pneumatic therapy, but they were far from alone. There was no shortage of experimental subjects, as the practice was quickly taken up by medics throughout Britain.

  8. Does an onion-enriched diet beneficially affect the microbiotal composition in healthy human subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Borg, Birgitte; Marin, Eduvigis Roldán

    are considered to have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of onion consumption on the gut microbiotal profile. In this project, five male and five female subjects were randomized to two 14 days intervention periods including one onion...

  9. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... as a result of a settlement agreement resolving a judicial challenge to the promulgation of these... considerations to be addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research...

  10. [THE LEGAL STATUS OF ELEMENTS AND PRODUCTS OF THE HUMAN BODY: OBJECT OR SUBJECT OF LAW?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lameigné, Anaïs Gayte-Papon

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Act on bioethics has amended the 1994 Act regarding the donation and the use of elements and products of the human body, medically assisted procreation and prenatal diagnosis. The very purpose of these laws led the legislature not to attempt the summa divisio order distinguishing the object to the person. The analysis of bioethical laws reveals the consecration of the non-commercialization of the human body at the expense of its unavailability. Bioethical laws appear to be catalysts of biological scientific advances releasing the status of the components and the products of the human body while framing it. By limiting scientific opportunities, they prevent human beings from trying to play the sorcerer's apprentice.

  11. Using Human Panels for Subjective Evaluation of Emissions from Indoor Activities and Materials: Principles and State of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses the topic of sensory evaluation of indoor air through the use of human subjects. It begins by discussing the chemical senses involved in such evaluation, specifically the senses of smell (olfaction) and chemical sensory irritation (common chemical sense, CCS, now called chemesthesis). An analysis of similarities and differences between these two sensory modalities regarding key measurements and issues follows. Later, the report discusses the quantification of sensory rea...

  12. Habitual physical activity is associated with circulating irisin in healthy controls but not in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alokail, Majed S; Rahman, Shakilur; Amer, Osama E; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alfawaz, Hanan; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P; McTernan, Philip G; Piya, Milan K

    2015-08-01

    Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in 'browning' of white adipocytes, thus increasing energy expenditure. The role of irisin in exercise and energy expenditure in subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) remains largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating irisin and habitual physical activity in subjects with and without DMT2. In this cross-sectional study, 164 Saudi adults: 81 non-DMT2 controls [age: (mean ± SD) 51.6 ± 10.9; BMI: 29.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2) ] and 83 DMT2 subjects [age: 54.3 ± 10.3 year; BMI: 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2) ] were studied. Anthropometric and fasting serum biochemical data were collected. Circulating irisin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Frequency intensity time (FIT) index was used to assess the level of habitual physical activity. We observed significantly higher levels of irisin in DMT2 subjects than in controls (P physical activity was observed in DMT2 subjects. This cross-sectional study has shown a weak association of irisin with physical activity levels in healthy controls but not in DMT2 subjects, suggesting the possibility of discordant regulation in the condition of DMT2. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  13. Time to Separate the Men From the Beasts: Symbolic Anticipation as the Typically Human Subjective Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Dieter

    2004-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that the dividing line that runs between the human psyche as opposed to any other complex system is made up by symbolic anticipation. The functionality of the human mind as an anticipatory system is entirely caught up in the crucial role that finiteness, shortage or lack plays for human beings. Anticipation for us is the way by which this negative finiteness or lack is translated into a positive longing, want or desire. We take a look at the three dimensional view of Jacques Lacan regarding these matters in a sophistical example and we illustrate how anticipation as a Symbolic phenomenon is distinct from the Imaginary or the Real register. As Lacan points out anticipation creates a symbolic social link which binds two or more interacting humans together in an anticipatory relationship. Beliefs, expectations and convictions are the typically human social links which ground human interaction and set it apart from other forms of social interaction we can observe in other complex biological entities.

  14. Mallaby’s car: colonial subjects, imperial actors, and the representation of human suffering in postcolonial exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Legêne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The iconic photograph of Mallaby’s car shows the wreckage of the vehicle of British brigadier A.S. Mallaby, which was destroyed in Surabaya in Indonesia on 30 October 1945 during the Indonesian uprising against the restoration of Dutch colonial rule. The streets show military vehicles, in control of the situation; however the billboard with ‘Once and forever – The Indonesia Republic’ indicate that the nationalists did not give up their political aspirations. The photograph is iconic in the fragile balance it depicts; a balance between violence and negotiations with many stakeholders, symbolised in the balancing car, with its front wheels, hood and left front door up and open. This photograph triggered my investigation into the impact of decolonisation on the representation of colonial subjects and ‘imperial actors’ in museums in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The image of the car appears in a recorded interview with the two sons of Mallaby, who in minute detail recount the events that resulted in their father’s death. The car points at a history of decolonisation that thoroughly changed the strong or weak citizenship entitlements of everyone involved. What role could they play, at the time, and how is this diverging agency now represented in historical or ethnographic displays? This theme is explored with close reference to the scholarly models provided by Asma Abbas in Liberalism and Human Suffering (2010, specifically the notion of re-presentation as ‘making present again’. I argue that distinct national frames, within which common histories of colonialism and decolonisation today are represented, create notions of ‘historical citizenship’ that discipline the victims of decolonisation, and refrain from challenging the legacies of the ethnographic categorisation in colonial museum displays.

  15. Identification of direct and indirect social network effects in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H C A Henning

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent different social network mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin-resistance. DESIGN: We used nonparametric and parametric regression models to analyse whether individual BMI and HOMA-IR are determined by social network characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 677 probands (EGO and 3033 social network partners (ALTER were included in the study. Data gathered from the probands include anthropometric measures, HOMA-IR index, health attitudes, behavioural and socio-economic variables and social network data. RESULTS: We found significant treatment effects for ALTERs frequent dieting (p<0.001 and ALTERs health oriented nutritional attitudes (p<0.001 on EGO's BMI, establishing a significant indirect network effect also on EGO's insulin resistance. Most importantly, we also found significant direct social network effects on EGO's insulin resistance, evidenced by an effect of ALTERs frequent dieting (p = 0.033 and ALTERs sport activities (p = 0.041 to decrease EGO's HOMA-IR index independently of EGO's BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Social network phenomena appear not only to be relevant for the spread of obesity, but also for the spread of insulin resistance as the basis for type 2 diabetes. Attitudes and behaviour of peer groups influence EGO's health status not only via social mechanisms, but also via socio-biological mechanisms, i.e. higher brain areas might be influenced not only by biological signals from the own organism, but also by behaviour and knowledge from different human individuals. Our approach allows the identification of peer group influence controlling for potential homophily even when using cross-sectional observational data.

  16. Depressive Symptoms are the Main Predictor for Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment--A Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Seidel

    Full Text Available Controlled data on predictors of subjective sleep quality in patients with memory complaints are sparse. To improve the amount of comprehensive data on this topic, we assessed factors associated with subjective sleep quality in patients from our memory clinic and healthy individuals.Between February 2012 and August 2014 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subjective cognitive decline (SCD from our memory clinic and healthy controls were recruited. Apart from a detailed neuropsychological assessment, the subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.One hundred fifty eight consecutive patients (132 (84% MCI patients and 26 (16% SCD patients and 75 healthy controls were included in the study. Pairwise comparison of PSQI scores showed that non-amnestic MCI (naMCI patients (5.4 ± 3.5 had significantly higher PSQI scores than controls (4.3 ± 2.8, p = .003 Pairwise comparison of PSQI subscores showed that naMCI patients (1.1 ± 0.4 had significantly more "sleep disturbances" than controls (0.9 ± 0.5, p = .003. Amnestic MCI (aMCI (0.8 ± 1.2, p = .006 and naMCI patients (0.7 ± 1.2, p = .002 used "sleep medication" significantly more often than controls (0.1 ± 0.6 Both, aMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 and naMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 patients showed significantly higher BDI-II scores than healthy controls (6.1 ± 5.3. Linear regression analysis showed that the subjective sleep quality was predicted by depressive symptoms in aMCI (p < .0001 and naMCI (p < .0001 patients as well as controls (p < .0001. This means, that more depressive symptoms worsened subjective sleep quality. In aMCI patients we also found a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and global cognitive function (p = .002.Depressive symptoms were the main predictor of subjective sleep quality in MCI

  17. Salivary and microbiological parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto CORTELLI

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the differences in salivary parameters and microbial composition between diabetic and non-diabetic patients, however, specific differences are still not clear mainly due to the effects of confounder. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the salivary and microbial parameters of chronic periodontitis subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and method: This case-control study included 60 chronic periodontitis subjects, 30 diabetics (case group and 30 non-diabetics (control group, paired according to periodontitis severity, gender and age. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from all volunteers to measure the salivary pH and the salivary flow rate. Bacterial samples were collected with paper points from periodontal sites showing the deepest periodontal pocket depth associated with the highest clinical attachment loss. The frequency of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and C. rectus was evaluated by PCR. Data was statistically analyzed by Student's t, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square (p<0.05. Result: Diabetic subjects showed higher salivary glucose levels and lower stimulated flow rates in comparison to non-diabetic controls. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were the most frequent pathogens (p<0.05. Bacterial frequency did not differ between case and control groups. Conclusion: Diabetes status influenced salivary glucose levels and flow rate. Within the same severity of chronic periodontitis, diabetic subjects did not show higher frequency of periodontal pathogens in comparison to their paired controls.

  18. Induced Opening of the Gastroesophageal Junction Occurs at a Lower Gastric Pressure in Gerd Patients and in Hiatal Hernia Subjects than in Normal Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Vegesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine intragastric pressure threshold for inducing gastroesophageal junction (GEJ opening in normal control subjects with and without hiatal hernia, and in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods. This study was performed in 13 normal volunteers, 5 volunteers with hiatal hernia, and 3 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. During endoscopy a pressure transducer was used to measure baseline gastric pressures. The pressure in the stomach was measured while air was insufflated into the stomach until the gastroesophageal junction opened on endoscopic view. Results. There were two patterns of GEJ opening in normal volunteers. The mean opening pressure for Gastroesophageal junction in normal pattern-I, normal pattern-II, hiatal hernia, and Gastroesophageal reflux patients was 11.5, 12.6, 3.4, and 1.3 mmHg, respectively. Conclusions. GEJ opening is induced at a significantly lower pressure in subjects with hiatal hernia and in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease than in normal volunteers.

  19. Fuzzy Simulation Human Intelligent Control System Design on Gyratory Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen,Ruchun; Zhao,Shuling; Zhu,Jianwu; Wang,Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    In order to deal with the complex process that incurs serious time delay, enormous inertia and nonlinear problems,fuzzy simulation human intelligent control algorithm rules are established. The fuzzy simulation human intelligent controller and the hardware with the single-chip microcomputer are designed and the anti-interference measures to the whole system are provided.

  20. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  1. Uniquely Human Self-Control Begins at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Esther; Misch, Antonia; Hernandez-Lloreda, Victoria; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have remarkable skills of self-control, but the evolutionary origins of these skills are unknown. Here we compare children at 3 and 6 years of age with one of humans' two nearest relatives, chimpanzees, on a battery of reactivity and self-control tasks. Three-year-old children and chimpanzees were very similar in their abilities to…

  2. Behavioral responses to intravenous meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in patients with seasonal affective disorder and control subjects before and after phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, F M; Mueller, E A; Rosenthal, N E; Rogers, S; Hill, J L; Murphy, D L

    1994-05-01

    A comparison of the baseline and post-infusion effects of the serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) in 10 patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and 11 healthy control subjects revealed significantly different subjective response profiles between the groups. Several baseline and m-CPP-stimulated responses in symptoms putatively related to serotonergic function changed significantly after a week's exposure to phototherapy in the SAD patients but not the control subjects. Before phototherapy, depressed patients with SAD reported activation-euphoria responses to m-CPP and significant decreases in carbohydrate hunger, but insignificant changes in feeling slowed or sleepy, while control subjects reported no mood or appetite changes but significant increases in feeling slowed down following m-CPP. After phototherapy, which led to a significant reduction in baseline depressive symptom rating to near-euthymic levels in the SAD patients, almost all of the patients' responses to m-CPP were normalized and no longer differed from the control subjects' responses. These results provide evidence of a possible dysregulation in serotonergic neurotransmission in depressed SAD patients that normalizes following treatment with phototherapy.

  3. Human control of an inverted pendulum: is continuous control necessary? Is intermittent control effective? Is intermittent control physiological?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Ian D; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin; Gawthrop, Peter J

    2011-01-15

    Human motor control is often explained in terms of engineering 'servo' theory. Recently, continuous, optimal control using internal models has emerged as a leading paradigm for voluntary movement. However, these engineering paradigms are designed for high band-width, inflexible, consistent systems whereas human control is low bandwidth and flexible using noisy sensors and actuators. By contrast, engineering intermittent control was designed for bandwidth-limited applications. Our general interest is whether intermittent rather than continuous control is generic to human motor control. Currently, it would be assumed that continuous control is the superior and physiologically natural choice for controlling unstable loads, for example as required for maintaining human balance. Using visuo-manual tracking of an unstable load, we show that control using gentle, intermittent taps is entirely natural and effective. The gentle tapping method resulted in slightly superior position control and velocity minimisation, a reduced feedback time delay, greater robustness to changing actuator gain and equal or greater linearity with respect to the external disturbance. Control was possible with a median contact rate of 0.8±0.3 s(-1). However, when optimising position or velocity regulation, a modal contact rate of 2 s(-1) was observed. This modal rate was consistent with insignificant disturbance-joystick coherence beyond 1-2 Hz in both tapping and continuous contact methods. For this load, these results demonstrate a motor control process of serial ballistic trajectories limited to an optimum rate of 2 s(-1). Consistent with theoretical reasoning, our results suggest that intermittent open loop action is a natural consequence of human physiology.

  4. Adaptive tracking control for double-pendulum overhead cranes subject to tracking error limitation, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghua; Ma, Xin; Rong, Xuewen; Tian, Xincheng; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    In a practical application, overhead cranes are usually subjected to system parameter uncertainties, such as uncertain payload masses, cable lengths, frictions, and external disturbances, such as air resistance. Most existing crane control methods treat the payload swing as that of a single-pendulum. However, certain types of payloads and hoisting mechanisms result in double-pendulum dynamics. The double-pendulum effects will make most existing crane control methods fail to work normally. Therefore, an adaptive tracking controller for double-pendulum overhead cranes subject to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances is developed in this paper. The proposed adaptive tracking control method guarantees that the trolley tracking error is always within a prior set of boundary conditions and converges to zero rapidly. The asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system's equilibrium point is assured by Lyapunov techniques and Barbalat's Lemma. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive tracking control method is robust with respect to system parametric uncertainties and external disturbances.

  5. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  6. Comparison of Human and Humanoid Robot Control of Upright Stance

    OpenAIRE

    Peterka, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study we limit ourselves to considering the problem of maintaining upright stance. Human stance control is compared to a sugges...

  7. Ethical Standards of Scientific Research Involving Human Subjects in Brazil: Perspectives Concerning Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBrazilian associations for research in human, social and applied social sciences have long sought ethical aspects regulation compatible with the epistemological, theoretical and methodological specificities of these sciences. Consequently, the Brazilian regulatory system (Research Ethics Committees/CEPs of the National Research Ethics Commission/CONEP is currently undergoing an important review process. This article presents the positions taken by the National Association of Research and Postgraduate Studies in Psychology - ANPEPP. The article: (1 highlights the origins of the current ethics review model, based on biomedical research; (2 summarizes criticisms recurrent to this model; (3 identifies the directions required for the improvement of the system; and (4 lists the challenges to be overcome in the current process of creating specific regulations for the human and social sciences. The considerations presented highlight two crucial points that challenge the construction of a specific resolution for research ethics in the human and social sciences: (1 the clear characterization of what is meant by 'research in the human and social sciences' - and that would, therefore, have its ethical review regulated from the perspective of the specific resolution for the human and social sciences; and (2 the definition of parameters from which different risk levels in studies can be identified.

  8. MUNIX and incremental stimulation MUNE in ALS patients and control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furtula, Jasna; Johnsen, Birger; Christensen, Peter Broegger;

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS.......This study compares the new Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) technique, MUNIX, with the more common incremental stimulation MUNE (IS-MUNE) with respect to reproducibility in healthy subjects and as potential biomarker of disease progression in patients with ALS....

  9. Experimental control of superstitious responding in humans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A. Charles; Cutts, David

    1963-01-01

    Superstitions were demonstrated with human subjects when presses on one button were reinforced on a VI 30-sec schedule while presses on a second were never reinforced. Superstitious responding, on the second button, was often maintained because presses on that button were frequently followed by reinforcement for a subsequent press on the first button. The introduction of a changeover delay (COD), which separated in time presses on the second button and subsequent reinforced presses on the first button, reduced or eliminated the superstitious responding of these subjects. Some complex superstitions were also demonstrated with other subjects for which the COD was in effect from the beginning of the session. PMID:14019310

  10. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Siepmann, N

    2003-01-01

    secretion under normoglycaemic conditions. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (9 men, 1 woman; age 33+/-11; BMI 26.8+/-2.2 kg/m(2)) received three different doses of intravenous GIP (7, 20, and 60 pmol/kg body weight) and placebo. Venous blood samples were drawn over 30 min for glucagon and GIP concentrations...... (specific radioimmunoassays). In addition, 31 healthy subjects (16 men, 15 women; 42+/-11 years; BMI 24.4+/-2.7 kg/m(2)) were studied with 20 pmol GIP/kg. Statistics were done with RM-ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc tests. RESULTS: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide dose-dependently stimulated glucagon secretion...... ( p=0.019) with a maximal increment after 10 min. Incremental glucagon concentrations (Delta(10-0 min)) were 0.1+/-0.7, 1.4+/-0.5, 2.4+/-0.5, and 3.4+/-0.8 pmol/l (for placebo and for 7, 20, and 60 pmol GIP/kg, respectively; p=0.017). After the injection of 20 pmol GIP/kg b.w. in 31 healthy subjects...

  11. Acute ozone exposure increases plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha in ozone-sensitive human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Giri, S.N.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1989-07-01

    Twenty O/sub 3/-sensitive and /sup 2/O O/sub 3/-nonsensitive subjects participated in a study to investigate the effects of disparate O/sub 3/ sensitivity on plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha responses consequent to exposure to ambient O3 concentrations. Subjects were selected from a pool of 75 normal healthy college-aged males who had been previously exposed to 0.35 ppm O3 for 1 h at an exercising VE of 60 L/min. The selection criterion used was the observed decrement in FEV1 after the O/sub 3/ exposure: O/sub 3/-sensitive, FEV1 decrement greater than 24%; O/sub 3/-nonsensitive, FEV1 decrement less than 11%. Each subject was exposed to filtered air and to 0.20 and 0.35 ppm O/sub 3/ for 80 min while exercising at a VE of 50 L/min. These experimental protocols were divided into two 40-min sessions separated by a period of 4 to 10 min. PGF2 alpha, FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 were evaluated before, during, and after each protocol. SGaw and Vtg were measured before and after each protocol. Plasma PGF2 alpha was significantly increased in the O/sub 3/-sensitive group during and after the 0.35-ppm O/sub 3/ exposure.

  12. Frequency of null allele of Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) locus in subjects to recurrent miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Nazila; Mosaferi, Elnaz; Farzadi, Laya; Majidi, Jafar; Monfaredan, Amir; Yousefi, Bahman; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classical class I molecule highly expressed by extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. Due to a single base pair deletion, its function can be compensated by other isoforms. Investigating the frequency of null allele in Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) subjects could be useful in understanding the relationship between frequency of this allele and RM in a given population. Objective: This study aimed to determine the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele and its potential association with down-regulation of HLA-G in subjects with RM. Materials and Methods: Western blotting was used to assess the level of HLA-G protein expression. For investigating the frequency of HLA-G*0105N null allele in RM subjects, PCR-RFLP method was used. Exon 3 of HLA-G gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, PpuM-1 enzyme was employed to digest the PCR products and fragments were analyzed using gel electrophoresis. Results: Digestion using restriction enzyme showed the presence of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele in 10% of the test population. Western blotting results confirmed the decrease in expression of HLA-G in the placental tissue of subjects with RM compared to subjects who could give normal birth. Conclusion: The frequency of heterozygous HLA-G*0105N null allele was high to some extent in subjects with RM. The mutation rate in subjects suggested that there is a significant association between RM and frequency of mutations in this allele. PMID:27525330

  13. A computer simulation approach to measurement of human control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.; Davenport, E. L.; Engler, H. F.; Sears, W. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Human control strategy is measured through use of a psychologically-based computer simulation which reflects a broader theory of control behavior. The simulation is called the human operator performance emulator, or HOPE. HOPE was designed to emulate control learning in a one-dimensional preview tracking task and to measure control strategy in that setting. When given a numerical representation of a track and information about current position in relation to that track, HOPE generates positions for a stick controlling the cursor to be moved along the track. In other words, HOPE generates control stick behavior corresponding to that which might be used by a person learning preview tracking.

  14. Human Adipose Tissue Conditioned Media from Lean Subjects Is Protective against H2O2 Induced Neurotoxicity in Human SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxiao Wan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue secretes numerous hormone-like factors, which are known as adipokines. Adipokine receptors have been identified in the central nervous system but the potential role of adipokine signaling in neuroprotection is unclear. The aim of this study is to determine (1 Whether adipokines secreted from cultured adipose tissue of lean humans is protective against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and (2 To explore potential signaling pathways involved in these processes. Adipose tissue conditioned media (ATCM from healthy lean subjects completely prevented H2O2 induced neurotoxicity, while this effect is lost after heating ATCM. ATCM activated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and Akt at serine 308 in SH-SY5Y cells. PD98059 (25 µM, SP600125 (5 µM and LY29400 (20 µM partially blocked the protective effects of ATCM against H2O2 induced neurotoxicity. Findings demonstrate that heat-sensitive factors secreted from human adipose tissue of lean subjects are protective against H2O2 induced neurotoxicity and ERK1/2, JNK, and PI3K signaling pathways are involved in these processes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates preliminary but encouraging data to further support that adipose tissue secreted factors from lean human subjects might possess neuroprotective properties and unravel the specific roles of ERK1/2, JNK and PI3K in these processes.

  15. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  16. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  17. Issues in human/computer control of dexterous remote hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K.

    1987-01-01

    Much research on dexterous robot hands has been aimed at the design and control problems associated with their autonomous operation, while relatively little research has addressed the problem of direct human control. It is likely that these two modes can be combined in a complementary manner yielding more capability than either alone could provide. While many of the issues in mixed computer/human control of dexterous hands parallel those found in supervisory control of traditional remote manipulators, the unique geometry and capabilities of dexterous hands pose many new problems. Among these are the control of redundant degrees of freedom, grasp stabilization and specification of non-anthropomorphic behavior. An overview is given of progress made at the MIT AI Laboratory in control of the Salisbury 3 finger hand, including experiments in grasp planning and manipulation via controlled slip. It is also suggested how we might introduce human control into the process at a variety of functional levels.

  18. Comparison of human and humanoid robot control of upright stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study we limit ourselves to considering the problem of maintaining upright stance. Human stance control is compared to a suggested method for robot stance control called zero moment point (ZMP) compensation. Results from experimental and modeling studies suggest there are two important subsystems that account for the low- and mid-frequency (DC to approximately 1Hz) dynamic characteristics of human stance control. These subsystems are (1) a "sensory integration" mechanism whereby orientation information from multiple sensory systems encoding body kinematics (i.e. position, velocity) is flexibly combined to provide an overall estimate of body orientation while allowing adjustments (sensory re-weighting) that compensate for changing environmental conditions and (2) an "effort control" mechanism that uses kinetic-related (i.e., force-related) sensory information to reduce the mean deviation of body orientation from upright. Functionally, ZMP compensation is directly analogous to how humans appear to use kinetic feedback to modify the main sensory integration feedback loop controlling body orientation. However, a flexible sensory integration mechanism is missing from robot control leaving the robot vulnerable to instability in conditions where humans are able to maintain stance. We suggest the addition of a simple form of sensory integration to improve robot stance control. We also investigate how the biological constraint of feedback time delay influences the human stance control design. The human system may serve as a guide for improved robot control, but should not be directly copied because the

  19. Keys to an open lock : Subject specific biomechanical modelling of luxations of the human temporomandibular joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijt, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the aims are to: • increase the understanding of the interplay of morphological aspects, such as joint shape and muscle orientation, in open locks of the human temporomandibular joint. • increase the understanding of the biomechanics behind open locks of the temporomandibular joint.

  20. Postmortem succession of gut microbial communities in deceased human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. DeBruyn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiome has demonstrated an importance for the health and functioning in living individuals. However, the fate of the microbiome after death is less understood. In addition to a better understanding of microbe-mediated decomposition processes, postmortem succession of human-associated microbial communities has been suggested as a possible forensic tool for estimating time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI. The objective of our study was to document postmortem changes in human gut bacterial communities. Gut microflora were repeatedly sampled from the caeca of cadavers as they decayed under natural environmental conditions. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed that over time, bacterial richness significantly increased (rs = 0.449 while diversity decreased (rs =  − 0.701. The composition of gut bacterial communities changed in a similar manner over time towards a common decay community. OTUs belonging to Bacteroidales (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides significantly declined while Clostridiales (Clostridium, Anaerosphaera and the fly-associated Gammaproteobacteria Ignatzschineria and Wohlfahrtiimonas increased. Our examination of human caeca microflora in decomposing cadavers adds to the growing literature on postmortem microbial communities, which will ultimately contribute to a better understanding of decomposition processes.

  1. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Measured Below 300 Hz in Normal-Hearing Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, ...

  2. The subject matters: the ICJ and human rights, rights of shareholders, and the Diallo case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vermeer-Künzli

    2011-01-01

    On 30 November 2010, the International Court of Justice issued its decision in the merits phase of the Ahmadou Sadio Diallo case. This decision turned on the questions of whether the DRC had violated Mr Diallo's human rights and his rights as a shareholder and manager in two corporations he owned in

  3. Design of Robust AMB Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Varying and Uncertain Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    , and experimental results. Three controllers are synthesized: I) AnH∞ controller based on nominal plant representation, II) A µ controller, designed to be robust against uncertaintiesin the dynamic seal model and III) a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) controller, designed to provide a unifiedperformance over a large...

  4. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation.

  5. Resistant starches types 2 and 4 have differential effects on the composition of the fecal microbiota in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Martínez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To systematically develop dietary strategies based on resistant starch (RS that modulate the human gut microbiome, detailed in vivo studies that evaluate the effects of different forms of RS on the community structure and population dynamics of the gut microbiota are necessary. The aim of the present study was to gain a community wide perspective of the effects of RS types 2 (RS2 and 4 (RS4 on the fecal microbiota in human individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ten human subjects consumed crackers for three weeks each containing either RS2, RS4, or native starch in a double-blind, crossover design. Multiplex sequencing of 16S rRNA tags revealed that both types of RS induced several significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbial populations, with differential effects on community structure. RS4 but not RS2 induced phylum-level changes, significantly increasing Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes while decreasing Firmicutes. At the species level, the changes evoked by RS4 were increases in Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Parabacteroides distasonis, while RS2 significantly raised the proportions of Ruminococcus bromii and Eubacterium rectale when compared to RS4. The population shifts caused by RS4 were numerically substantial for several taxa, leading for example, to a ten-fold increase in bifidobacteria in three of the subjects, enriching them to 18-30% of the fecal microbial community. The responses to RS and their magnitudes varied between individuals, and they were reversible and tightly associated with the consumption of RS. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that RS2 and RS4 show functional differences in their effect on human fecal microbiota composition, indicating that the chemical structure of RS determines its accessibility by groups of colonic bacteria. The findings imply that specific bacterial populations could be selectively targeted by well designed functional carbohydrates, but the inter-subject variations in

  6. Effects of dietary salt levels on monocytic cells and immune responses in healthy human subjects: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Titze, Jens; Rykova, Marina; Feuerecker, Matthias; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Schelling, Gustav; Morukov, Boris; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicated that excess salt consumption can impose risks on human health and a reduction in daily salt intake from the current average of approximately 12 g/d to 5-6 g/d was suggested by public health authorities. The studies on mice have revealed that sodium chloride plays a role in the modulation of the immune system and a high-salt diet can promote tissue inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, translational evidence of dietary salt on human immunity is scarce. We used an experimental approach of fixing salt intake of healthy human subjects at 12, 9, and 6 g/d for months and examined the relationship between salt-intake levels and changes in the immune system. Blood samples were taken from the end point of each salt intake period. Immune phenotype changes were monitored through peripheral leukocyte phenotype analysis. We assessed immune function changes through the characterization of cytokine profiles in response to mitogen stimulation. The results showed that subjects on the high-salt diet of 12 g/d displayed a significantly higher number of immune cell monocytes compared with the same subjects on a lower-salt diet, and correlation test revealed a strong positive association between salt-intake levels and monocyte numbers. The decrease in salt intake was accompanied by reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23, along with enhanced producing ability of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results suggest that in healthy humans high-salt diet has a potential to bring about excessive immune response, which can be damaging to immune homeostasis, and a reduction in habitual dietary salt intake may induce potentially beneficial immune alterations.

  7. Molecular identification of bacteria by total sequence screening: determining the cause of death in ancient human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Thèves

    Full Text Available Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern Siberia, dating from the end of 17(th to the 19(th century, we propose a methodology that includes the: 1 amplification of all 16S rDNA gene sequences present in each sample; 2 identification of all bacterial DNA sequences with a degree of identity ≥ 95%, according to quality criteria; 3 identification and confirmation of bacterial pathogens by the amplification of the rpoB gene; and 4 establishment of authenticity criteria for ancient DNA. This study demonstrates that from teeth samples originating from ancient human subjects, we can realise: 1 the correct identification of bacterial molecular sequence signatures by quality criteria; 2 the separation of environmental and pathogenic bacterial 16S rDNA sequences; 3 the distribution of bacterial species for each subject and for each burial; and 4 the characterisation of bacteria specific to the permafrost. Moreover, we identified three pathogens in different teeth samples by 16S rDNA sequence amplification: Bordetella sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae. We tested for the presence of these pathogens by amplifying the rpoB gene. For the first time, we confirmed sequences from Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of an ancient male Siberian subject, whose grave dated from the end of the 17(th century to the early 18(th century.

  8. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma

    2012-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies......OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk...

  9. How chaosity and randomness control human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, Renat M.; Yulmetyeva, Dinara; Gafarov, Fail M.

    2005-08-01

    We discuss the fundamental role that chaosity and randomness play in the determination of quality and efficiency of medical treatment. The statistical parameter of non-Markovity from non-equilibrium statistical physics of condensed matters is offered as a quantitative information measure of chaosity and randomness. The role of chaosity and randomness is determined by the phenomenological property, which includes quantitative informational measures of chaosity and randomness and pathology (disease) in a covariant form. Manifestations of the statistical informational behavior of chaosity and randomness are examined while analyzing the chaotic dynamics of RR intervals from human ECG's, the electric signals of a human muscle's tremor of legs in a normal state and at Parkinson disease, the electric potentials of the human brain core from EEG's during epileptic seizure and a human hand finger tremor in Parkinson's disease. The existence of the above stated informational measure allows to introduce the quantitative factor of the quality of treatment. The above-stated examples confirm the existence of new phenomenological property, which is important not only for the decision of medical problems, but also for the analysis of the wide range of problems of physics of complex systems of life and lifeless nature.

  10. Alternative Control Technologies: Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    vertical vibration to the 29,4, 1980, pp 462-466. head and shoulders of seated men", Royal Aircraft Lee, J. M.; Chartier , V. L.; Hartmann, D. P.; Lee, G...Suarez, P. F., Rogers , S., K., Ruck, D. W., for Effective Human-Computer Interaction", 2nd edition, Arndt, C., and Kabrisky, M., "A facial feature

  11. Normotension, prehypertension, and hypertension in urban middle-class subjects in India: prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Deedwania, Prakash C; Achari, Vijay; Bhansali, Anil; Gupta, Bal Kishan; Gupta, Arvind; Mahanta, Tulika G; Asirvatham, Arthur J; Gupta, Sunil; Maheshwari, Anuj; Saboo, Banshi; Jali, Mallikarjuna V; Singh, Jitendra; Guptha, Soneil; Sharma, Krishna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a multisite study to determine the prevalence and determinants of normotension, prehypertension, and hypertension, and awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among urban middle-class subjects in India. We evaluated 6,106 middle-class urban subjects (men 3,371; women, 2,735; response rate, 62%) in 11 cities for sociodemographic and biological factors. The subjects were classified as having normotension (BP middle-class urban Asian Indians. Significant associations of hypertension were found with age, dietary fat, consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking, and obesity. Normotensive individuals had a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors than did members of the prehypertensive or hypertensive groups. Half of the hypertensive group were aware of having hypertension, a third were receiving treatment for it, and quarter had a controlled BP.

  12. On the incremental validity of irrational beliefs to predict subjective well-being while controlling for personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Strobel, Maria; Tumasjan, Andranik

    2010-11-01

    This research examines the incremental validity of irrational thinking as conceptualized by Albert Ellis to predict diverse aspects of subjective well-being while controlling for the influence of personality factors. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) argues that irrational beliefs result in maladaptive emotions leading to reduced well-being. Although there is some early scientific evidence for this relation, it has never been investigated whether this connection would still persist when statistically controlling for the Big Five personality factors, which were consistently found to be important determinants of well-being. Regression analyses revealed significant incremental validity of irrationality over personality factors when predicting life satisfaction, but not when predicting subjective happiness. Results are discussed with respect to conceptual differences between these two aspects of subjective well-being.

  13. Growth Hormone signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Poul Frølund; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Pedersen, Steen Bønnelykke

    2014-01-01

    '>60 years (5F/5M)) were studied after: i) an i.v. GH bolus (0.5 mg) and ii) saline. METHODS: Muscle and fat biopsies were obtained after 30 and 120 min. Total and phosphorylated STAT5B proteins, gene expression of IGF1, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH, body composition, VO2max, and muscle strength were...... measured. RESULTS: In the GH-unstimulated state, women displayed significantly elevated levels of CISH mRNA in muscle (P=0.002) and fat (P=0.05) and reduced levels of IGF1 mRNA in fat. Phosphorylated STAT5B (pSTAT5b) was maximally increased in all subjects 30 min after GH exposure and more pronounced...... in women when compared with men (P=0.01). IGF1, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, and CISH mRNA expression increased significantly in muscle after 120 min in all subjects with no impact of age and gender. GH-induced pSTAT5b correlated inversely with lean body mass (LBM; r=-0.56, P=0.01) and positively with the CISH m...

  14. Is Wildlife Fertility Control Always Humane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan O. Hampton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of fertility control techniques to reduce reproductive rates in wildlife populations has been the source of much research. Techniques targeting wildlife fertility have been diverse. Most research into fertility control methods has focused upon efficacy, with few studies rigorously assessing animal welfare beyond opportunistic anecdote. However, fertility control techniques represent several very different mechanisms of action (modalities, each with their own different animal welfare risks. We provide a review of the mechanisms of action for fertility control methods, and consider the role of manipulation of reproductive hormones (“endocrine suppression” for the long-term ability of animals to behave normally. We consider the potential welfare costs of animal manipulation techniques that are required to administer fertility treatments, including capture, restraint, surgery and drug delivery, and the requirement for repeated administration within the lifetime of an animal. We challenge the assumption that fertility control modalities generate similar and desirable animal welfare outcomes, and we argue that knowledge of reproductive physiology and behaviour should be more adeptly applied to wild animal management decisions. We encourage wildlife managers to carefully assess long-term behavioural risks, associated animal handling techniques, and the importance of positive welfare states when selecting fertility control methods as a means of population control.

  15. Congenital candidiasis as a subject of research in medicine and human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Michał M; Walat, Anna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Loniewska, Beata; Rudnicki, Jacek; Maleszka, Romuald; Torbé, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is a severe complication of candidal vulvovaginitis. It occurs in two forms,congenital mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital systemic candidiasis. Also newborns are in age group the most vulnerable to invasive candidiasis. Congenital candidiasis should be considered as an interdisciplinary problem including maternal and fetal condition (including antibiotic therapy during pregnancy), birth age and rare genetic predispositions as severe combined immunodeficiency or neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. Environmental factors are no less important to investigate in diagnosing, treatment and prevention. External factors (e.g., food) and microenvironment of human organism (microflora of the mouth, intestine and genitalia) are important for solving clinical problems connected to congenital candidiasis. Physician knowledge about microorganisms in a specific compartments of the microenvironment of human organism and in the course of defined disorders of homeostasis makes it easier to predict the course of the disease and allows the development of procedures that can be extremely helpful in individualized diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  16. Correlation of Respirator Fit Measured on Human Subjects and a Static Advanced Headform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Ziqing Zhuang1, Brian K. Heimbuch2, Ronald E. Shaffer1, Melanie Choe3, and Joseph D. Wander4 1National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory...FF and MFF values to assess the relationship between the values obtained from humans and the StAH. This is the first study to report a positive...correlation between FF and MFF. For all respirators the geometric mean (GM) FF values were consistently higher than those of the GM MFF. For 50% of

  17. The surface area of human V1 predicts the subjective experience of object size

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel; Song, Chen; Rees, Geraint

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The surface area of human primary visual cortex (V1) varies substantially between individuals for unknown reasons. Here, we show that this variability is strongly and negatively correlated with the magnitude of two common visual illusions, where two physically identical objects appear different in size due to their context. Because such illusions dissociate conscious perception from physical stimulation, our findings indicate that the surface area of V1 predicts variabilit...

  18. Human herpesvirus 8 DNA load in leukocytes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects: correlation with the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma and response to anticytomegalovirus therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, G; Gaudreau, A; Toma, E; Lalonde, R; Routy, J P; Murray, G; Handfield, J; Bergeron, M G

    1999-02-01

    Specific human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA sequences were found in leukocytes of 12 of 29 (41.4%) AIDS subjects with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), whereas they were found in 4 of 43 (9.3%) AIDS subjects without KS (P = 0.003), although the peak HHV-8 DNA load in PCR-positive subjects with KS (mean, 425 copies per 0.2 microgram of DNA) did not significantly differ from the one found in PCR-positive patients without KS (mean, 218 copies). The use of intravenous ganciclovir or foscarnet therapy to treat cytomegalovirus disease did not affect the HHV-8 DNA load in seven patients for whom serial samples were analyzed.

  19. Human Herpesvirus 8 DNA Load in Leukocytes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Subjects: Correlation with the Presence of Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Response to Anticytomegalovirus Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Guy; Gaudreau, Annie; Toma, Emil; Lalonde, Richard; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Murray, Gilles; Handfield, Julie; Bergeron, Michel G.

    1999-01-01

    Specific human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA sequences were found in leukocytes of 12 of 29 (41.4%) AIDS subjects with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), whereas they were found in 4 of 43 (9.3%) AIDS subjects without KS (P = 0.003), although the peak HHV-8 DNA load in PCR-positive subjects with KS (mean, 425 copies per 0.2 μg of DNA) did not significantly differ from the one found in PCR-positive patients without KS (mean, 218 copies). The use of intravenous ganciclovir or foscarnet therapy to treat cytomegalovirus disease did not affect the HHV-8 DNA load in seven patients for whom serial samples were analyzed. PMID:9925538

  20. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin monotherapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlöf, K; Cefalu, W T; Kim, K-A; Alba, M; Usiskin, K; Tong, C; Canovatchel, W; Meininger, G

    2013-01-01

    Aims Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor in development for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin were evaluated in subjects with T2DM inadequately controlled with diet and exercise. Methods In this 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, subjects (N = 584) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo once daily. Primary endpoint was the change from baseline in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at week 26. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of subjects achieving HbA1c canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg compared with placebo (−0.77, −1.03 and 0.14%, respectively; p canagliflozin doses significantly decreased FPG, 2-h PPG, body weight and systolic BP (p canagliflozin versus placebo; rates of serious AEs and AE-related discontinuations were low and similar across groups. Incidences of genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were higher with canagliflozin; these led to few discontinuations. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was low across groups. Conclusion Canagliflozin treatment improved glycaemic control, reduced body weight and was generally well tolerated in subjects with T2DM inadequately controlled with diet and exercise. PMID:23279307