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Sample records for human consumption due

  1. Quantifying Biodiversity Losses Due to Human Consumption: A Global-Scale Footprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Harry C; Schipper, Aafke M; Bakkenes, Michel; Meijer, Johan R; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2017-03-21

    It is increasingly recognized that human consumption leads to considerable losses of biodiversity. This study is the first to systematically quantify these losses in relation to land use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production and consumption of (inter)nationally traded goods and services by presenting consumption-based biodiversity losses, in short biodiversity footprint, for 45 countries and world regions globally. Our results showed that (i) the biodiversity loss per citizen shows large variations among countries, with higher values when per-capita income increases; (ii) the share of biodiversity losses due to GHG emissions in the biodiversity footprint increases with income; (iii) food consumption is the most important driver of biodiversity loss in most of the countries and regions, with a global average of 40%; (iv) more than 50% of the biodiversity loss associated with consumption in developed economies occurs outside their territorial boundaries; and (v) the biodiversity footprint per dollar consumed is lower for wealthier countries. The insights provided by our analysis might support policymakers in developing adequate responses to avert further losses of biodiversity when population and incomes increase. Both the mitigation of GHG emissions and land use related reduction options in production and consumption should be considered in strategies to protect global biodiversity.

  2. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  3. A challenge of veterinary public health in the European Union: human trichinellosis due to horse meat consumption

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    Touratier L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis in the European Union due to insufficiently cooked horse meat consumption has been reported in France and in Italy during the past 25 years. It occurred in several outbreaks totalling more than 3,000 patients during this period, with a low mortality and a high morbidity. Causative Trichinella species or phenotypes were determined by the International Reference Laboratory for Trichinellosis in Rome, Italy. They were: Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. murelli. As the culinary habits and customs of populations cannot be changed by regulations, measures of protection of public health essentially depend on food inspection. Comprehensive studies having been conducted in the pathophysiology of Trichinella infection in horses; it was demonstrated that the localisation of larvae are quite different in horses and in pork. It resulted an instruction from the French Veterinary Service recommending that :- the sampling of muscles in horses carcasses has to be done at first in the tongue (apex, then in the diaphragm (pillars;- at least 50 g have to be sampled in each site;- examination for larvae has to be done with the digestion method.Such recommendations might be extended to other EU member countries then to the OIE Zoo-Sanitary Code.

  4. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  5. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 106, 1976: Decreased absorption of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus by humans due to increased fiber and phosphorus consumption as wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, J G; Faradji, B; Abadi, P; Ismail-Beigi, F

    1991-07-01

    During a 20 day period of high fiber consumption in the form of bread made partly from wheaten wholemeal, two men developed negative balances of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus due to increased fecal excretion of each element. The fecal losses correlated closely with fecal dry matter and phosphorus. Fecal dry matter, in turn, was directly proportional to fecal fiber excretion. Balances of nitrogen remained positive. Mineral elements were well-utilized by the same subjects during a 20 day period of white bread consumption.

  6. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  7. Assessment of possible human exposure to ochratoxin A in Croatia due to the consumption of dry-cured and fermented meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulić, Ana; Vahčić, Nada; Hengl, Brigita; Gross-Bošković, Andrea; Jurković, Martina; Kudumija, Nina; Pleadin, Jelka

    2016-09-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by the fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Data indicate a frequent OTA contamination of cereals and cereal products, and consequently also the contamination of meat and meat products. The aim of this study was to determine a possible level of meat product consumers' exposure to OTA through the consumption of dry-cured and fermented meat products available on the Croatian market. Data showed the weekly OTA intake of 90% of male dry-cured ham consumers to be a maximum of 51.9 ng kg(-1) b.w., i.e., far below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 120 ng kg(-1) b.w. weekly set out by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). OTA intake coming from the consumption of other meat products under study is lower and ranges from 0.1 to 42.1 ng kg(-1) b.w. weekly, dependent on the study. The study demonstrated that meat products in Croatia do not constitute a notable source of OTA in the human diet, so that the human health risk coming from the consumption of dry-cured and fermented meat products is negligible.

  8. Exploring human inactivity in computer power consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candrawati, Ria; Hashim, Nor Laily Binti

    2016-08-01

    Managing computer power consumption has become an important challenge in computer society and this is consistent with a trend where a computer system is more important to modern life together with a request for increased computing power and functions continuously. Unfortunately, previous approaches are still inadequately designed to handle the power consumption problem due to unpredictable workload of a system caused by unpredictable human behaviors. This is happens due to lack of knowledge in a software system and the software self-adaptation is one approach in dealing with this source of uncertainty. Human inactivity is handled by adapting the behavioral changes of the users. This paper observes human inactivity in the computer usage and finds that computer power usage can be reduced if the idle period can be intelligently sensed from the user activities. This study introduces Control, Learn and Knowledge model that adapts the Monitor, Analyze, Planning, Execute control loop integrates with Q Learning algorithm to learn human inactivity period to minimize the computer power consumption. An experiment to evaluate this model was conducted using three case studies with same activities. The result show that the proposed model obtained those 5 out of 12 activities shows the power decreasing compared to others.

  9. Resource Demand Growth and Sustainability Due to Increased World Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Balatsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater and the gross domestic product (GDP that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  10. Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    Microplastics are present throughout the marine environment and ingestion of these plastic particles (microplastics in two species of commercially grown bivalves: Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Microplastics were recovered from the soft tissues of both species. At time of human consumption, M. edulis contains on average 0.36 ± 0.07 particles g(-1) (wet weight), while a plastic load of 0.47 ± 0.16 particles g(-1) ww was detected in C. gigas. As a result, the annual dietary exposure for European shellfish consumers can amount to 11,000 microplastics per year. The presence of marine microplastics in seafood could pose a threat to food safety, however, due to the complexity of estimating microplastic toxicity, estimations of the potential risks for human health posed by microplastics in food stuffs is not (yet) possible.

  11. Possible health risks due to the consumption of aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Guerrero Villegas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sweeteners are compounds that give the sweet taste to foods, drinks and drugs. Aspartame is one of the most used today; its metabolism produces phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. The purpose of this research was to review the scientific literature about the levels of consumption considered safe, toxicology and epidemiological data of aspartame. The European Parliament approved it as a food additive in 1994 and the FDA did it in 1996. Joint FAO / WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and FDA set the Acceptable Daily Intake at 40 and 50 mg / kg bw / day, respectively. The sweetener and its degradation products have been evaluated for over 30 years with the involvement of numerous international organizations. However, there is still controversy over its use because there are researches whose results attribute to it neuropsychiatric side effects, brain tumors, carcinogenic properties for different organs, damage to the fetus during pregnancy, development of lymphomas and leukemia, while other researchers say their use is harmless to humans if consumption is less than the Acceptable Daily Intake. It is not recommended for people with phenylketonuria and pregnant women.

  12. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Wanders, N.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the peri

  13. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornish, M. Lynn; Critchley, Alan T.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2017-01-01

    Much of the content of the human head is brain matter. This functions as the epicenter of human physical existence, including a sense of well-being and the manifestation of human consciousness. The human brain is a precious and complex organ which increases from 350 to 400 g in infants to 1......, and the impacts of anti-oxidant activities in neuroprotection. These elements have the capacity to help in the defense of human cognitive disorders, such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, bipolar diseases, and adverse conditions characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Psychological benefits...... associated with the moderate consumption of a diet fortified with macroalgae are also discussed in terms of reduction of depressive symptoms and furthermore highlighting possible improvements in sexual function....

  14. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-human consumption outlet. 993.108 Section 993.108... CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.108 Non-human consumption outlet. Non-human consumption outlet means any livestock feeder or manufacturer of inedible syrup, industrial alcohol, animal...

  15. Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

    2011-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment.

  16. Spectral Analysis of Biosignals to Evaluate Heart Activity due to the Consumption of Energy Drinks

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    Md. Bashir Uddin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The heart activity is clearly evaluated in this study by analyzing spectral or frequency components of three Biosignals such as ECG, PPG and blood perfusion signal. This study is done with several healthy human subjects who are totally free from any type of cardiovascular diseases. ECG and PPG recordings were performed with electrode lead set and pulse transducer respectively connected to the same MP36 (Biopac, USA data acquisition unit. LDF measurements were performed with skin surface probe connected to LDF100C module on middle finger tip. This LDF module was connected to MP150 (Biopac, USA data acquisition unit. ECG, PPG and blood perfusion signal recordings were performed before and after having energy drinks available in Bangladesh. After consuming energy drinks, it is observed that the spectral or frequency components for ECG as well as PPG signal decreases with a significant rate from the instant of having ED. That is, the spectral parameters of heart activity decrease due to the consumption of energy drinks. The spectral analysis of LDF signal also results similar type of decrement in their spectral parameters for same type of energy drinks consumption. These results reflect adverse impacts of energy drinks consumption on heart activity.

  17. Cardiac Function Evaluation Analyzing Spectral Components due to the Consumption of Energy Drinks

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    Md. Bashir Uddin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of energy drinks consumption on cardiac function of human being by analyzing the spectral components of pulse and ECG of several healthy people. Using pulse transducer connected with MP36 (Biopac, USA data acquisition unit, pulse recordings were performed. With electrode lead set connected to the same MP36 data acquisition unit, ECG recordings were also performed. At before and after the consumption of energy drinks available in Bangladesh, pulse and ECG recordings as well as analysis were performed with Biopac software. After having energy drinks, the spectral components such as power of spectral density and amplitude of fast Fourier transform of pulse signal decreased about 47.5 and 37%, respectively. In case of ECG signal, the spectral components such as power of spectral density and amplitude of fast Fourier transform increased about 17 and 7.5% within a short interval about 0-20 min, then effective decrements about 10 and 18.5%, respectively started for long duration. Analyzing spectral parameters, the findings highlight the adverse impacts on cardiac function which may cause cardiac abnormality as well as severe cardiac disease due to the regular consumption of energy drinks.

  18. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

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    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  19. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks

  20. Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish consumption from ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... It is well known that fishes can accumulate variety of toxic chemicals including persistent ...

  1. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Income Shocks, Consumption, Wealth, and Human Capital: Evidence from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Ren

    2006-01-01

    Using the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, this article investigates how Russian households' consumption responds to income shocks and, in particular, how household wealth and human capital affect the households' ability to smooth consumption. An instrumental variable estimation method with household fixed effects is implemented. After correcting for potential problems of sample attrition using the inverse probability weighting method, the article finds that household consumption in Rus...

  3. Beer consumption increases human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes.

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    Thierry Lefèvre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes. Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours. The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures.

  4. Beer Consumption Increases Human Attractiveness to Malaria Mosquitoes

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    Lefèvre, Thierry; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Elguero, Eric; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Costantini, Carlo; Thomas, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations) as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector) before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested) or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes). Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight) and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours). The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures. PMID:20209056

  5. Potential human health risk by metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" Reservoir (Northern México).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E

    2014-06-25

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq∙kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26, 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bq∙kg-1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13-0.39, 0.005-0.126 and 0.009-0.08 mg∙kg-1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11-0.43, 0.002-0.039 and 0.02-0.26 mg∙kg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg-1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  6. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A.; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F.; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat. PMID:24968208

  7. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loids, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Y. Luna-Porres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww, respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loids in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  8. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  9. Assessment of effects on health due to consumption of bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.K.; Puri, Rajesh; Jain, Ajay; Sharma, M.P.; Sharma, Anita; Bohra, Shravan; Gupta, Y.K.; Saraya, Anoop; Dwivedi, S.; Gupta, K.C.; Prasad, Mahadeo; Pandey, Janardhan; Dohroo, Netar Prakash; Tandon, Neeraj; Sesikeran, B.; Dorle, A.K.; Tandon, Nikhil; Handa, S.S.; Toteja, G.S.; Rao, Spriha; Satyanarayana, K.; Katoch, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is popularly known as lauki, ghia or dudhi in India. Its consumption is advocated by traditional healers for controlling diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver diseases, weight loss and other associated benefits. However, in last few years there have been reports of suspected toxicity due to consumption of its juice. This led to the constitution of an Expert Committee by Department of Health Research at Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India in October 2010. The committee looked into the issues related to safety of consumption of bottle gourd juice, and this paper presents the findings. Methods: Information on cases of suspected toxicity due to consumption of bottle gourd juice was collected by internet search, advertising on website of ICMR and by writing to State and district health authorities as well as to medical colleges, hospitals and private nursing homes across the country. Results: Three deaths were reported, one from Delhi and two from Uttar Pradesh after consumption of extremely bitter bottle gourd juice. Three persons who died after consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice or juice mixed with bitter gourd (karela) juice were over 59 years of age and had diabetes since last 20 years. This juice was reported to be extremely bitter by all three. Twenty six persons were admitted to various hospitals of the country on complaint of abdominal pain and vomiting following consumption of freshly prepared bottle gourd juice. Diarrhoea and vomiting of blood (haematemesis) was reported in 18 (69.2%) and 19 (73.1%) patients, respectively. Biochemical investigations revealed elevated levels of liver enzymes. More than 50 per cent patients had hypotension. Endoscopic findings showed profusely bleeding stomach with excessive ulceration seen in distal oesophagus, stomach and duodenum in most of the cases. All these patients recovered

  10. Human intake fractions of pesticides via greenhouse tomato consumption: comparing model estimates with measurements for Captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraske, R; Antón, A; Castells, F; Huijbregts, M A J

    2007-04-01

    Human intake due to pesticide residues in food commodities can be much higher than those related to water consumption and air inhalation, stressing the importance to correctly estimate pesticide uptake into plants and predict subsequent intake by humans. We calculated the human intake fraction of captan via tomato consumption taking into account the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the absorption of spray deposit on plant surfaces, transfer properties through the cuticle, degradation inside the plant and loss due to food processing. Human population intake fractions due to ingestion were calculated for complete, washed and peeled tomatoes. The calculated intake fractions were compared with measurements derived from an experimental setup in a Mediterranean greenhouse. The fraction of captan applied in the greenhouse as plant treatment that eventually is ingested by the human population is on average 10(-2)-10(-5), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion of tomatoes and the processing step considered. Model and experimentally derived intake fractions deviated less than a factor of 2 for complete and washed tomatoes and a factor of 3 for peeled tomatoes. Intake fractions due to air inhalation and consumption of drinking water are expected to be significantly lower (5-9 orders of magnitude) than those induced by the intake of tomatoes in this case study.

  11. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.;

    2014-01-01

    is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up......Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines...... of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption...

  12. Human milk oligosaccharide consumption by intestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Marcobal, A.; Sonnenburg, J L

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) constitute the third most abundant class of molecules in breast milk. Since infants lack the enzymes required for milk glycan digestion, this group of carbohydrates passes undigested to the lower part of the intestinal tract, where they can be consumed by specific members of the infant gut microbiota. We review proposed mechanisms for the depletion and metabolism of HMO by two major bacterial genera within the infant intestinal microbiota, Bifidobacterium and...

  13. [Water for human consumption and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, G M; D'Alessandro, D

    2003-01-01

    Providing enough water of good quality to all human communities is a difficult task, which has been satisfied only recently and only for the developed world. A large part of the developing world still suffers from scarcity and/or bad quality of water supply. Examples from the past are described, including the cholera epidemics of London 1848-1853 and the chromium pollution of the Milan area, 1958. A synthetic description of the different kinds of biological and chemical pollution are also described, then the complex mechanisms of biological and chemical pollution of the waters are illustrated, which require complicated interventions for reclamation after pollution or, better, even more complicated surveillance to avoid pollution. Finally the problem of safeguard of waters during the distribution is illustrated, when a bad maintenance of the aqueducts can inactivate all the precautions taken during the supply an the treatment of waters.

  14. Food poisoning due to yam flour consumption in Kano (Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke SI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is known to occur sporadically from time to time due to poor hygienic preparations. Its occurrence rarely assumes epidemic proportion. The objective was to report the occurrence of food poisoning due to yam flour among three families which occurred almost in quick succession between March and July 2007 among three families in Kano. They presented with diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, convulsion and loss of consciousness. They all recovered within 48hours of admission. Investigations indicated that the use of certain lethal preservatives for the processing of the yam flour might be responsible. Poisoning from consumption of yam flour should be a differential diagnosis of acute seizure disorders or occurrence of vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain in the tropics. It is recommended that education on proper processing of all food products in view of the public health implication

  15. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  16. Safety of frozen liver for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada A.K. Kirrella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to ensure and evaluate the safety of imported frozen beef liver traded in supermarkets of Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, through detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidies, Escherichia coli O157:H7, antibiotic residues, and aflatoxin B1 residue. Fifty samples of imported frozen liver were randomly collected from different shops at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate for isolation of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidies, and E. coli O157:H7. The results revealed that for both microorganisms 4% of the examined samples presumed to contain Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 organisms, according to the colonial character on Harlequin Salmonella ABC agar media and Harlequin SMAC-BCIG agar media. According to biochemical and serological identifications, both organisms could not be detected in the examined samples. A total of 29 (58% samples were positive for antibiotic residues, using the Premi test (a broad-spectrum screening test for the detection of antibiotic residues in meat at or below the maximum residue limits. In addition, aflatoxin B1 was detected in one (2% samples with a concentration of 1.1 μg/kg. The results reflect that there was good hygiene practice for handling and preparation of frozen liver while selling to consumers. However, a high percentage of antibiotic residues reflect ignorance of withdrawal time before slaughtering of animals as well as misuse of antibiotics in veterinary fields. Furthermore, aflatoxin B1 residue was detected in examined frozen liver samples at a concentration below the maximum residual level, which is not enough to cause threat to humans, but it is enough to cause problem if it is eaten regularly reflect contamination of animal feed with aflatoxins.

  17. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.

    2014-01-01

    directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG...

  18. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.

    2015-01-01

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines...

  19. "Not for human consumption": a review of emerging designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Megan E; Hampton, Jeremy P

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic, or "designer" drugs, are created by manipulating the chemical structures of other psychoactive drugs so that the resulting product is structurally similar but not identical to illegal psychoactive drugs. Originally developed in the 1960s as a way to evade existing drug laws, the use of designer drugs has increased dramatically over the past few years. These drugs are deceptively packaged as "research chemicals," "incense," "bath salts," or "plant food," among other names, with labels that may contain warnings such as "not for human consumption" or "not for sale to minors." The clinical effects of most new designer drugs can be described as either hallucinogenic, stimulant, or opioid-like. They may also have a combination of these effects due to designer side-chain substitutions. The easy accessibility and rapid emergence of new designer drugs have created challenges for health care providers when treating patients presenting with acute toxicity from these substances, many of which can produce significant and/or life-threatening adverse effects. Moreover, the health care provider has no way to verify the contents and/or potency of the agent ingested because it can vary between packages and distributors. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the available designer drugs, common signs and symptoms of toxicity associated with these agents, and potential effective treatment modalities are essential to appropriately manage these patients.

  20. Benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aimed at identifying and discussing scientific evidences on the benefits and risks of fish consumption the human health. There was a systematic survey for articles published from 2003 and May 2011, at the MedLine, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar databases. The key words used were: fish, food intake, omega-3 fatty acids, fatty fish, benefits, risk, and consumption. The search produced 12,632 articles, 25 eligible cohort studies on possible benefits, 61 on risks and 10 studies that assessed the "risk/benefit" relation. Of the 25 works, 14 suggested a preventive effect of fish consumption related to cardiovascular diseases, depression, cataract and some types of cancer. Evidences of a relation between exposure to mercury and an increase in the risk of neurological disorders, but not of cardiovascular diseases, were also found. Given the importance of fish consumption, its possible risks and the lack of Brazilian studies on the topic, it is important to conduct more longitudinal studies that assess both the benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health. We also emphasize the need for policies to reduce exposure of fish and seafood to mercury and other contaminants.

  1. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  2. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  3. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  4. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides.

  5. Rsu1 regulates ethanol consumption in Drosophila and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojelade, Shamsideen A; Jia, Tianye; Rodan, Aylin R; Chenyang, Tao; Kadrmas, Julie L; Cattrell, Anna; Ruggeri, Barbara; Charoen, Pimphen; Lemaitre, Hervé; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Bokde, Arun L W; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny A; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lubbe, Steven; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomás; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; O'Reilly, Paul F; Laitinen, Jaana; Veijola, Juha M; Feng, Jianfeng; Desrivières, Sylvane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Schumann, Gunter; Rothenfluh, Adrian

    2015-07-28

    Alcohol abuse is highly prevalent, but little is understood about the molecular causes. Here, we report that Ras suppressor 1 (Rsu1) affects ethanol consumption in flies and humans. Drosophila lacking Rsu1 show reduced sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation. We show that Rsu1 is required in the adult nervous system for normal sensitivity and that it acts downstream of the integrin cell adhesion molecule and upstream of the Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) GTPase to regulate the actin cytoskeleton. In an ethanol preference assay, global loss of Rsu1 causes high naïve preference. In contrast, flies lacking Rsu1 only in the mushroom bodies of the brain show normal naïve preference but then fail to acquire ethanol preference like normal flies. Rsu1 is, thus, required in distinct neurons to modulate naïve and acquired ethanol preference. In humans, we find that polymorphisms in RSU1 are associated with brain activation in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in adolescents and alcohol consumption in both adolescents and adults. Together, these data suggest a conserved role for integrin/Rsu1/Rac1/actin signaling in modulating reward-related phenotypes, including ethanol consumption, across phyla.

  6. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  7. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  8. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Food for Human Consumption; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... additive regulations in part 173, ``Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption... ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 173 continues...

  9. 78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2011... food for human or animal consumption which were established to implement changes to the FD&C Act...

  10. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... amending its regulations on administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption. As required... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250)....

  11. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 170.50 Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. (a) Heretofore,...

  12. 78 FR 17155 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Correction AGENCY: Food and..., harvesting, packing, and holding of produce, meaning fruits and vegetables grown for human consumption. FDA..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' The document published with several...

  13. 21 CFR 172.894 - Modified cottonseed products intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 172.894 Section 172.894 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.894 Modified cottonseed products...

  14. 78 FR 48637 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods... Human Consumption,'' that appeared in the Federal Register of January 16, 2013. We are taking this... of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a 120-day comment period on the provisions of the proposed...

  15. 78 FR 69605 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods... Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' and for its information collection provisions. DATES: The FDA... for Human Consumption.'' The original comment period of 120 days was extended several times and...

  16. 78 FR 24692 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a 120-day comment period...

  17. Metal speciation in soil and health risk due to vegetables consumption in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the contamination level of heavy metals in soil and vegetables, chemical speciation, and their transfer to the edible part of vegetables. Metals were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ranges of Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb in agricultural soils were 3.7-41, 3.9-36, 3.7-46, 2.3-26, 0.6-13, and 4.5-32 mg/kg, respectively. The metals were predominantly associated with the residual fractions of 39, 41, 40, 40, 34, and 41 % for Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, respectively. Considering the metal transfer from soil to the edible part of vegetables, the mean transfer factors (TFs) were in the descending order of Cu > Ni > Cr > Pb > As > Cd. In the edible tissues of vegetables, the concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb in most vegetable samples exceeded the maximum permissible levels, indicating not safe for human consumption. Total target hazard quotient (THQ) of the studied metals (except Cr) from all vegetables were higher than 1, indicated that if people consume these types of vegetables in their diet, they might pose risk to these metals. Total values of carcinogenic risk (CR) were 3.2 for As and 0.15 for Pb which were higher than the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) threshold level (0.000001), indicating that the inhabitants consuming these vegetables are exposed to As and Pb with a lifetime cancer risk.

  18. Materialism, conspicuous consumption and the human nature.:Materialism, conspicuous consumption and the human nature.

    OpenAIRE

    Lens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    By nature, humans are social beings. We are constantly communicating and we interact with many different people in a variety of contexts. Some interactions fulfill an economic function, aimed at exchanging products,while other interactions may have an in- or explicit sexual purpose. Irrespective of the purpose of an interaction, numerous factors may shape its course, outcome, or the way the interaction is experienced by those involved in it. In four essays, this dissertation aims to investiga...

  19. On Measurement of Avoidable and Unavoidable Cost of Alcohol: An Application of Method for Estimating Costs Due To Prior Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the avoidable and unavoidable costs of alcohol-related, liver cirrhosis inpatient care, controlling for the lag structure and period of decline in disease risk. Lag structures with different lengths are applied to the exposure to risk from alcohol consumption, which allows for differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable cases due to prior consumption. A lag length of 20 (men) and 23 (women) years (expected remaining life years) gives a total cost of 592 million SEK. Given alcohol consumption is reduced to zero, 72% of cost could potentially be avoided. It is important to account for the length and structure of the risk decline following a consumption change as this substantially affects the estimates. PMID:20717547

  20. Heavy metal analysis in commercial Spirulina products for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    For consumption of health foods of Spirulina, by the general public, health food stores are increasingly offering more exotic products. Though Spirulina consumption is growing worldwide, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals/minerals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population’s health. This study reveals the concentrations of six typical heavy metals/minerals (Ni, Zn, Hg, Pt, Mg, and Mn) in 25 Spirulina products commercialized worldwide for direct human consumption. Samples were ground, digested and quantified by Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP–MS). The concentrations (mg/kg d.w.) were range from 0.001 to 0.012 (Pt) followed by 0.002–0.028 (Hg), 0.002–0.042 (Mg), 0.005–2.248 (Mn), 0.211–4.672 (Ni) and 0.533–6.225 (Zn). The inorganic elements of the present study were significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) level of heavy metal elements (mg/daily) Ni (0.4), Zn (13), Hg (0.01), Pt (0.002), Mg (400) and Mn (4). Based on this study the concentration of inorganic elements was not found to exceed the present regulation levels, and they can be considered as safe food. PMID:24235875

  1. 78 FR 11611 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Period... Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of January 16, 2013. In the preamble to the proposed rule... of Produce for Human Consumption.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Domini Bean, Office of...

  2. Quantifying area changes of internationally important wetlands due to water consumption in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-09-03

    Wetlands harbor diverse species assemblages but are among the world's most threatened ecosystems. Half of their global area was lost during the last century. No approach currently exists in life cycle impact assessment that acknowledges the vulnerability and importance of wetlands globally and provides fate factors for water consumption. We use data from 1184 inland wetlands, all designated as sites of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, to develop regionalized fate factors (FF) for consumptive water use. FFs quantify the change of wetland area caused per m(3)/yr water consumed. We distinguish between surface water-fed and groundwater-fed wetlands and develop FFs for surface water and groundwater consumption. FFs vary over 8 (surface water-fed) and 6 (groundwater-fed) orders of magnitude as a function of the site characteristics, showing the importance of local conditions. Largest FFs for surface water-fed wetlands generally occur in hyper-arid zones and smallest in humid zones, highlighting the dependency on available surface water flows. FFs for groundwater-fed wetlands depend on hydrogeological conditions and vary largely with the total amount of water consumed from the aquifer. Our FFs translate water consumption into wetland area loss and thus become compatible with life cycle assessment methodologies of land use.

  3. MODELING ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS: ACCOUNTING FOR FATIGUE AND EPOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled Individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized val...

  4. MODELING ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION IN HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS: ACCOUNTING FOR FATIGUE AND EPOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure and dose models often require a quantification of oxygen consumption for a simulated individual. Oxygen consumption is dependent on the modeled Individual's physical activity level as described in an activity diary. Activity level is quantified via standardized val...

  5. UTILIZATION OF IMPROPER APPLES FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOR BIOETANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Martello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a national preference, a big percentage of apple is discarded daily by many factors, such as rot and some aspects not acceptable for market. As this fruit presents a significant concentration of sugar, it can be utilized in the production of fermented products, like vinegar and especially ethanol. In Brazil, much attention has been given to the production of bioethanol as renewable energy, not only relieving dependence on oil as working to mitigate the effects of global warming, by the way, this project is based on an initial assessment of bioethanol production from improper apples for human consumption that are discarded in the market of Xanxerê – SC. The percentages of bioetanol produced by the apples discarded presented equivalent values to them found inside the literature, between 4.2 and 9.2%. Based on these results, the improper apples for consumption are great raw materials for the production of biofuel – bioethanol, since evaluated his level of rottenness previously on the process.

  6. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  7. Microbiological evaluation of chicken feet intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dutra Resem Brizio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken feet are products with great commercial importance for the eastern markets. Although Brazil is a large exporter of these products to those markets, little information is available on the sanitary quality of these products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of frozen chicken feet for human consumption. This study was developed in a slaughterhouse under Federal Inspection, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 98 samples of frozen chicken feet were analyzed, between January and December 2011, for the detection of Salmonella spp., total count of mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive and Clostridium perfringens. About 99% of the results were within the microbiological standards established by the Chinese (world´s largest importer and Brazilian legislation for raw chicken meat. Thus, we conclude that the samples of frozen chicken feet showed satisfactory microbiological quality and no risk to consumer health.

  8. Lipid hydroperoxides in human plasma after ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Migiwa; Nushida, Hideyuki; Adachi, Junko; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Kanako; Kuse, Azumi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of oxidative stress that is present when healthy humans consume moderate amounts of ethanol. Blood was collected from healthy volunteers before, 1 h, and 3 h after drinking 400 ml of Japanese rice wine at the rate of 100 ml per 5 min. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype and the concentrations of blood ethanol, total lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and cholesterol hydroperoxides were determined. The plasma LOOH was found to have significantly increased 1h after drinking. Cholesterol hydroperoxides were not detected in plasma, either before or after drinking. There was no relationship between the LOOH and the ethanol concentration. We showed that one-shot of moderate ethanol consumption temporarily increases the plasma LOOH in healthy volunteers but excessive plasma LOOH compounds were eliminated within a short time.

  9. [Fusarium graminearum presence in wheat samples for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Mauro; Castañares, Eliana; Dinolfo, María I; Pacheco, Walter G; Moreno, María V; Stenglein, Sebastián A

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important diseases in cereal crops is Fusarium head blight, being Fusarium graminearum the main etiological agent. This fungus has the ability to produce a wide spectrum and quantity of toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). During the last crop season (2012-2013) the climatic conditions favored Fusarium colonization. The objective of this work was to determine the presence of this fungus as well as the DON content in 50 wheat grain samples. Our results showed that 80% of the samples were contaminated with Fusarium graminearum. Twenty four percent (24%) of the samples contained ≥ 1μg/g DON, 26% ranged from 0,5 and 0,99μg/g, and the remaining 50% had values lower than 0,5μg/g. Correlation was found between the presence of Fusarium graminearum and DON. It is necessary to establish DON limit values in wheat grains for human consumption.

  10. Potential presence of trihalomethanes in water intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lasagna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s it is well known that, though water for human consumption must generally be disinfected before being distributed along the network, the use of chemicals results in the formation of many different Disinfeection By-Products (DBPs. In the case of chlorine-based disinfectants, trihalomethanes (THMs are the most widely studied: the present work first compares some national and international regulations on this subject, then, in the experimental part, compares the results of a test carried out by disinfecting water of different origin collected in three different Italian regions with different amounts of chlorine. Samples were stored at ambient temperature for seven days, then the determination of THMs was carrried out by Purge and Trap extraction coupled with gas cromatography with Electron Capture Detection (ECD. The result obtained are finally compared and discussed.

  11. Calculating energy and labor impacts of capital readjustments due to changes in personal consumption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleszkun, A.R.

    1979-05-01

    Previous work on the energy and labor impacts of energy-consumption policies has included the effect of respending of money saved, but not the capital implications of this respending. Here the capital effects are fully accounted for, and turn out to be negligible for a specified conservation scenario and a specified capital expansion model (..delta..C = kC). The robustness of this conclusion is discussed. The implication is that inclusion of only the respending effect is adequate for calculating energy and labor impacts and provides an accuracy to within +- 1% of the total impacts. Operationally, this result obviates the requirement for detailed and expensive calculations.

  12. Beer consumption and changes in stability of human serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Caspi, A; Goshev, I; Moncheva, S; Zemser, M; Weisz, M; Libman, I; Lerner, H T; Trakhtenberg, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of beer consumption (BC) on the functional and structural properties of human serum proteins (HSP). Thirty-eight volunteers (after coronary bypass) were divided into two groups: experimental (EG) and control (CG). Nineteen volunteers of the EG consumed 330 mL per day of beer (about 20 g of alcohol) for 30 consecutive days. The CG volunteers consumed mineral water instead of beer. Blood samples were collected from EG and CG patients before and after the experiment. Albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), and methanol-precipitable proteins (MPP) from human serum were denatured with 8 M urea. Fluorescence and electrophoresis were employed in order to elucidate urea-induced conformational changes and structural behavior of proteins. The measured fluorescence emission spectra were used to estimate the stability of native and denatured protein fractions before and after BC. It was found that before BC the fractions most stable to urea denaturation were Glo, Alb, and MPP fractions. After BC in most of the beer-consuming patients (EG) some changes in native and denatured protein fractions were detected: a tendency to lower stability and minor structural deviations. These qualitative changes were more profound in MPP than in Alb and Glo. Thus, Glo is more resistible to alcohol influence than Alb, which in turn is more resistible than MPP. No serum protein changes were detected in patients of CG.

  13. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an alternative source of first quality protein and considered a putative functional food, like hypocholesterolemic proprieties and contain many other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare the protein content of two sea cucumber species, Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the crude protein through the measurement of nitrogen amount in each sample. The obtained results demonstrated that both species contain high protein levels, with higher results for S. regalis, which revealed values between 19,1% and 20,4%. H. forskali showed a protein level among 12,1% and 15,4%. Holothurian protein levels reveal great potential for human consumption. Those resources can be used as a partial substitute of fish meal (eg. sea bream nutrition, either to intern market as well as for exportation to Asian countries. Sea cucumber farming could have lucrative potential in the Mediterranean, converting sea cucumbers into aquaculture value-added products bringing to this region profitable economic benefits.

  14. 78 FR 3503 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Consumption; Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for... Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption AGENCY: Food... health consequences or death from consumption of contaminated produce, the Food and Drug Administration...

  15. Regional heterogeneity in consumption due to current income shocks: New evidence from the Permanent Income Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo

    In the light of new theoretical and empirical work on the Permanent Income Hypothesis we tackle earlier findings for German data, which reject its validity given a large fraction of liquidity constrained consumers. Starting from a standard short run approach we do not find evidence for excess...... interpret this specification as a solution to a consumer’s optimization problem with habit persistence. Different from earlier findings changes of income growth measuring the excess sensitivity of consumption with respect to income changes and thus the degree of liquidity constrained households turn....... However, we find a clear distinction in the short run path of the East German states since 1991 (which nevertheless converge to the same long run co-integration as the Western counter...

  16. Assessment of Aspartame Exposure Due to Consumption of Some Imported Chewing Gums by Microwave Digestion and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rasouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener, the long-term safety of which has been controversial ever since it was accepted for human consumption. The main aim of this research is assessment of aspartame exposure due to consumption of some imported chewing gums during summer 2015 to Iran by microwave digestion and HPLC analysis. Thirty chewing gums from highly consumed imported ones were collected from retail market in Tehran. Closed vessel microwave digestion was employed for sample preparation using a three phase temperature program. An aliquot of 20 μL of prepared samples was injected into the HPLC column and the aspartame was detected at 254 nm with an on-line detector. Concentration of aspartame in chewing gum samples was between 1.9 and 30.5 μg/g with an average of 11.1 μg/g. In conclusion, despite of existing aspartame in 76.6 percent of samples, however the effective amount of this artificial sweetener is not as high as the levels that international legislations recommended for exposing due to chewing gum consumption.

  17. To evaluation of radiation safety due to consumption of species fished out in the far east region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Onishenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of safety assessment for population of the Russian Federation due to consumption of the Far East region commercial fish contaminated in consequence of the Fukushima nuclear disaster are presented. Estimation of radionuclide level in certain commercial fish species taking into account maximum 137 Cs contamination rate of ocean water on the migration path was performed. Authors worked out 3 fish products consumption scenarios and calculated respective annual 137 Cs intakes. Assessment of health risk associated with 137 Cs in fish products for Russian population was carried out. It was determined that in 2014 maximum 137 Cs dose received with fish products was no more than 365 Bq/year and considered as permissible health risk level. Cancer risk evolution modeling showed that lifetime cancer risk level is minimal. Hence, monitoring of associated with 137 Cs water pollution health risk had to be continued till complete elimination of consequences of Fukushima-1 accident.

  18. [Ecosystem services supply and consumption and their relationships with human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.

  19. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illnesses for raw milk consumers due to L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milk sold by permitted raw milk dealers, and the risk of listeriosis for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by ...

  20. The Utility of Fire Radiative Energy for Understanding Fuel Consumption due to Wildfire in Boreal Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banskota, A.; Falkowski, M. J.; Kane, E. S.; Smith, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Radiative energy from active fire has been found to correlate well with the amount of fuel consumed during the lifetime of a fire event. Fire radiative power (FRP) detected by sensors onboard MODIS satellites may therefore provide direct estimates of CO2 emissions related to biomass burning. Less known is the ability of satellite data to detect active fire from predominantly smoldering burns in boreal peatlands. Boreal peatlands store a large amount of soil carbon that is likely to become increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change lowers water tables and exposes C-rich peat to burning. In this study, we investigate the utility of fire radiative energy (FRE) to estimate fuel consumption associated with wildfire in 2004 in boreal peatlands in Alaska. FRE values are generally estimated from FRP retrieved at detected active fire locations and times by summing the FRP values multiplied by the time difference between acquisitions. One central issue in deriving reliable FRE estimates by such approach is the requirement for sufficient sampling of the FRP to capture spatiotemporal variability in the fire. Our preliminary analysis confirms that the detection of active fire in peatlands are indeed not spatially exhaustive and temporally continuous. Thus we are further investigating the fusion of instantaneous FRP from MODIS active fire detection with the MODIS burned area product to derive FRE estimates across the burned area. We are following a previously tested strategy for such fusion for temporal integration of instantaneous FRP to derive FRE and spatial extrapolation of FRE over the burned area. The FRE estimates are then related to ground-measured peatland burn depths across different wildfire locations. The results of this study will ultimately indicate the utility of MODIS fire products for providing reliable biomass burned estimates in boreal peatlands.

  1. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    -environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related...

  2. Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring and anthropic contamination of water sources limits the use of water for human consumption. Fast and representative tools, such as water quality indexes (WQI,allow performing an integral assessment of the resource, this being essential when making decisions about the management and control of sanitary risks through different purification processes. A comparative analysis of applying WQINSF,Dinius WQI, ICAUCA and UWQI indexes at five points or stations on the Cauca River located in the Salvajina–Puerto Mallarino water uptake section, gave evidence of growing river deterioration due to the different socio-economic activities carried out in the river basin. This water quality condition brings about the incorporation of additional or specific treatment operations such as activated carbon or adsorption for the destination of the resource for human consumption. The presence of pathogens and particulate material were the variables mostly affecting WQI value. It is thus recommended that the development or adaptation of an index having a similar structure to the DQWI index should be considered to make a thorough river assessment and the additional use of soil which might generate the presence of other substances causing a sanitary risk in the source, considering variation in time and space of the parameters comprising it and its comparison with current legislation.

  3. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    to optimal human performance, as has so often been assumed. According to the second law of thermodynamics, it makes sense that optimal human performance coincides with minimum human body exergy consumption and that this should occur under thermal conditions in which human thermal sensation is close...

  4. Global hotspots of water scarcity impacts due to human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J.; Ward, P.; Satoh, Y.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Masaki, Y.; Doll, P. M.; Ostberg, S.; Oki, T.; Gosling, S.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many global river basins, due to both local increases in water demand and human interventions affecting stream flow. In a novel multi-model multi-forcing assessment over the period 1971-2010, we examine how several human interventions have affected water scarcity, namely land use change, reservoir operations, and upstream water withdrawals. We show that these human interventions have caused increased water scarcity for 16% of the global population, and decreased water scarcity for 13%, and have contributed to distinct patterns of water scarcity hotspots. We also show that a combination of human interventions and changes in local water demands have led to an increase in the duration of extreme water scarcity events in 30% of the global land area, inhabited by 49% of the global population. Upstream human interventions are the main dominant driver (in 86% of the cases) of negative impacts on downstream fresh water resources and water scarcity. Therefore, adaptation measures should be embedded in integrated river basin management plans, addressing upstream effects on downstream water scarcity.This study is the first in its kind to evaluate how human interventions affected water scarcity conditions as well as the exposure to and persistence of water scarcity events, using an ensemble of five global water impact models (H08, LPJmL, MATSIRO, PCR-GLOBWB, WaterGAP) driven by three global state-of-the art observations-based historical climate data-sets (PGFv2, GSWP3, WFD/WFDEI) and a set of socio-economic proxies (GDP, population density, livestock density, land use and land cover) to model historical demands. A novelty of this research is the use of the HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset for simulating the time-varying effects of changes in irrigation and/or cropland patterns. With the incorporation of a spatially and temporally explicit indicator to describe minimum environmental flow requirements, i.e. the amount of water that ecosystems need

  5. Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane J Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report a rare case of precocious puberty (PP due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-producing germinoma located in the suprasellar region. A 10-year-old male patient presented with sexual precocity, headache, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and papilledema. Significant acceleration of bone age in relation to chronological age, high serum total testosterone levels, and hypopituitarism (unresponsiveness to stimulation test were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed a large suprasellar tumor and triventricular dilatation. High hCG levels were found in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hormone replacement therapy and transcranial surgery associated with radiotherapy were performed, with complete regression of sexual characteristics and normal laboratory tests post-operatively. Clinical and laboratory findings, in addition to MRI scans, led to the diagnosis of an hCG-producing tumor and PP, which represents a rare report in the literature.

  6. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... information on how to evaluate the safety of flood-affected food crops for human consumption. DATES:...

  7. Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (Final Report, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen c...

  8. Effect of simultaneous consumption of milk and coffee on chlorogenic acids' bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Giselle S; Farah, Adriana

    2011-07-27

    Different studies have shown that milk may interact with polyphenols and affect their bioavailability in humans. The present study investigated the effect of the simultaneous consumption of coffee and milk on the urinary excretion of chlorogenic acids (CGA) and metabolites. Subjects were submitted to consumption of water, instant coffee (609 mmol of CGA) dissolved in water, and instant coffee dissolved in whole milk. Urine was collected for 24 h after consumption of each treatment for analysis of CGA and metabolites by HPLC/LC-MS. The amount of CGA and metabolites recovered after consumption of combined coffee-milk (40% ± 27%) was consistently lower in all subjects compared to that of coffee alone (68% ± 20%). Concluding, the simultaneous consumption of milk and coffee may impair the bioavailability of coffee CGA in humans.

  9. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs.

  10. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    . Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...... consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 ◦C or decreases below 22 ◦C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established....... occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...

  11. 78 FR 61365 - Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... With the Consumption of Tree Nuts; Request for Comments, Scientific Data and Information; Extension of... entitled ``Assessment of the Risk of Human Salmonellosis Associated With the Consumption of Tree Nuts... of the risk of human salmonellosis associated with the consumption of tree nuts. We are taking this...

  12. Energy consumption in residential building: The effect of appliances and human behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. A.; Hariri, Azian; Leman, A. M.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Najib, M. N. M.

    2017-04-01

    Electricity is the predominant energy source used in these buildings. Therefore, energy management in residential buildings requires serious attention to ensure the energy consumption in residential building have been managed properly. Currently, the unstable of fuel price give the big impact to electricity price. Due to the issue, consumers require to use electricity more wisely. Using energy efficiently is one of the solution to reduce energy consumption. This paper aims to propose an initiative strategy for energy management system based on an analysis of energy consumption in residential building. The level of energy consumption among the occupants was found by obtaining electricity bills and distributing a questionnaire. A case study was carried out in selected areas in the Southern Zone of Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study show that energy consumption was significant increased by month and the EEES as one of energy management system was suggested.

  13. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 (formerly Docket No. 2002F-0316) Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage Preparation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; response to objections and denial of requests...

  14. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive...

  15. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in animals used for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M Tenter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans may result from exposure to different stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in particular from the ingestion of tissue cysts or tachyzoites contained in meat, primary offal (viscera or meat-derived products of many different animals, or the ingestion of sporulated oocysts that are contained in the environment and may contaminate food and water. Although the potential for transmission of the parasite to humans via food has been known for several decades, it is not known which routes are most important from a public health point of view. It is likely that transmission of the parasite to humans is influenced not only by the potential contamination of various food sources, but also by the individual behaviour of consumers in different ethnic groups and geographical regions. Most current methods for detection of T. gondii in meat-producing animals, in products of animal origin, or in the environment are insufficient because they do not allow quantification of infectious stages. Hence, most studies report only qualitative data from which it is difficult to assess the true risk of infection in individual cases. There is a need for quantitative data so that efficient strategies to reduce food-borne transmission of T. gondii to humans can be developed.

  17. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an altern...

  18. The Effect of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on Hepatic Complications Due to the Gelofen Consumption in Adult Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hejazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Gelofen is one of the anti-inflammatory drugs which is used to relieve the pain and reduce the inflammations. This drug has side effects on body's tissues. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Tribulus terrestris (Tt plant on hepatic transaminases due to the Gelofen consumption. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 56 rats were divided into 7 groups of 8 rats, including control, sham and 4 experimental groups receiving Gelofen 400mg / kg, Tt extract 80 mg / kg, Tt extract 20mg / kg and Gelofen with 400mg / kg doses, Tt extract  40mg / kg  and Gelofen 400mg / kg, and Tt extract 80mg / kg  and Gelofen 400mg / kg. Gelofen was prescribed intraperitoneal and Tt was prescribed orally for 21 days. At the end of phlebotomizing the animals, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK levels were measured, and the results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests. The significant difference in the data was considered P> 0/05. Results: The results showed that the transaminase concentration in the groups receiving Gelofen alone and with the Tt extract in doses of 20mg /kg and 40 mg /kg had a significant increase compared to the control group and the groups receiving Tt alone and Tt with the dose of 80mg/kg with Gelofen,had a significant decrease compared to the control and Gelofen alone groups (P> 0/05.  Conclusion: The results showed that the Tt extract led to prevent the negative effects of Gelofen on hepatic tissue in a dose-dependent manner and in result on the serum levels of liver transaminases.

  19. [Obesity and high health risk due to beberages consumption and obesity among high school students in méxico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravalí-Meza, NurisYohana; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Gómez-Miranda, Luis Mario

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the consumption of beverages among high school Mexican students and to determine obesity (OB) and abdominal obesity (AB). Differences in range and calorie beverage consumption between gender and BMI categories were calculated with the Mann-Whitney test. We assessed 1,677 students 15 to 17 yo. The prevalence of OB and AO was 15% and 53% in men and 12% and 47% in women. The consumption of energy, sugary drinks, and alcohol in milliliters and kilocalories per week, was higher in men (p = 0.001). More than 70% of students consumed per day more than 25 g/day of sugar from beverages, and more than 38% consumed more than 50 g/day of sugar. This high risk food consumption warrants immediate intervention.

  20. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  1. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The exergy approach to design and operation of climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, while its exploitation in connection to human perception of the indoor environment is relatively rare. As a building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants......, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...

  2. Consumptive water use to feed humanity – curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions – representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities – the paper exemplifies 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  3. Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fraser, Gary E

    2003-09-01

    Since meat products represent a major source of protein in the Western diet, findings on whether meat intake significantly contributes to the burden of fatal disease have important clinical and public health implications. The objective was to examine whether a very low meat intake (less than weekly) contributes to greater longevity. We reviewed data from 6 prospective cohort studies and report new findings on the life expectancy of long-term vegetarians from the Adventist Health Study. Our review of the 6 studies found the following trends: 1) a very low meat intake was associated with a significant decrease in risk of death in 4 studies, a nonsignificant decrease in risk of death in the fifth study, and virtually no association in the sixth study; 2) 2 of the studies in which a low meat intake significantly decreased mortality risk also indicated that a longer duration (>/= 2 decades) of adherence to this diet contributed to a significant decrease in mortality risk and a significant 3.6-y (95% CI: 1.4, 5.8 y) increase in life expectancy; and 3) the protective effect of a very low meat intake seems to attenuate after the ninth decade. Some of the variation in the survival advantage in vegetarians may have been due to marked differences between studies in adjustment for confounders, the definition of vegetarian, measurement error, age distribution, the healthy volunteer effect, and intake of specific plant foods by the vegetarians. Current prospective cohort data from adults in North America and Europe raise the possibility that a lifestyle pattern that includes a very low meat intake is associated with greater longevity.

  4. Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Morey, Robert; O'Neil, Ryan C; He, Yupeng; Daughtry, Brittany; Schultz, Matthew D; Hariharan, Manoj; Nery, Joseph R; Castanon, Rosa; Sabatini, Karen; Thiagarajan, Rathi D; Tachibana, Masahito; Kang, Eunju; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ahmed, Riffat; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Van Dyken, Crystal; Polat, Alim; Sugawara, Atsushi; Sparman, Michelle; Gokhale, Sumita; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Ecker, Joseph R; Laurent, Louise C; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-07-10

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold potential for regenerative medicine, but available cell types have significant limitations. Although embryonic stem cells (ES cells) from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF ES cells) represent the 'gold standard', they are allogeneic to patients. Autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations. To determine whether such abnormalities are intrinsic to somatic cell reprogramming or secondary to the reprogramming method, genetically matched sets of human IVF ES cells, iPS cells and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were subjected to genome-wide analyses. Both NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contained comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations. In contrast, DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells corresponded closely to those of IVF ES cells, whereas iPS cells differed and retained residual DNA methylation patterns typical of parental somatic cells. Thus, human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT and are therefore ideal for cell replacement therapies.

  5. Human health risk from hexachlorocyclohexane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane pesticides, through consumption of vegetables: estimation of daily intake and hazard quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available People are encouraged to consume more fresh vegetables due to the high nutritional value and fibre contents in vegetables. At the same time, due to pesticidal residue in vegetables, vegetable consumption is considered as an important route of pesticides uptake by human beings. Pesticides, particularly organochlorines such as Aldrin, heptachlor and isomers of dichlorodiphe - nyltrichloroethane (DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH are a major concern because of their persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and long-range environmental transport ability. Hence information on such toxic contaminants in vegetables is very essential, due to human health concern. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with vegetable consumption due to pesticidal residues of DDT and HCH, sixty four samples of commonly available vegetables were collected from a local market in West Bengal, India and analysed for DDT and HCH. In this study, estimated average daily intake of HCHs and DDTs through vegetables was ranged between 5.0x10–8–9.1x10–6 mg kg–1 day–1 with an average value of 2.0x10–6 mg kg–1 day–1. Human health risk was assessed in terms of incremental lifetime cancer risk and health hazard index was between 1.7x10–8–8.8x10–6 and 1.5x10–7– 1.7x10–2, respectively. Generated results were compared with maximum residual levels and reference values, were within acceptable limits and suggested no health risk to the human populations. Therefore, an extensive study on vegetables with the inclusion of other persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals should be carried out to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetables.

  6. Adaptive function of soil consumption: An in vitro study modeling the human stomach and small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominy, N.J.; Davoust, E.; Minekus, M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite occurring in a wide variety of taxa, deliberate soil consumption (geophagy) is a poorly understood behavior. In humans, geophagy is sometimes considered aberrant or a sign of metabolic dysfunction. However, geophagy is normally assigned an adaptive function in nonhuman primates and various

  7. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. This study has aimed to assess the potential impact of Romanian horses’ toxoplasmosis on the public health. Pairs of sam...

  8. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnadis, Thomas George; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2015-09-01

    Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models.

  9. Variable ATP yields and uncoupling of oxygen consumption in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of brain oxidative metabolism values among healthy humans is astoundingly wide for a measure that reflects normal brain function and is known to change very little with most changes of brain function. It is possible that the part of the oxygen consumption rate that is coupled to ...

  10. Adaptive function of soil consumption: An in vitro study modeling the human stomach and small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominy, N.J.; Davoust, E.; Minekus, M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite occurring in a wide variety of taxa, deliberate soil consumption (geophagy) is a poorly understood behavior. In humans, geophagy is sometimes considered aberrant or a sign of metabolic dysfunction. However, geophagy is normally assigned an adaptive function in nonhuman primates and various o

  11. Chemical composition of tempeh from soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Tempeh is a food obtained by fermentation of soybean grains by the fungus Rizophus oligosporus. It is a traditional Indonesian food that presents benefits for human health protecting against diarrhea and chronic diseases. Tempeh processing includes dehulling, cooking, inoculation, and fermentation. In this study, chemical characteristics of tempeh prepared with soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption (BRS 216, BRS 232, BRS 257, and BRS 267) were investigated. Soybean grain...

  12. Identification of human urinary biomarkers of cruciferous vegetable consumption by metabonomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmands, William M B; Beckonert, Olaf P; Stella, Cinzia; Campbell, Alison; Lake, Brian G; Lindon, John C; Holmes, Elaine; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2011-10-07

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables (CVs) is inversely correlated to many human diseases including cancer (breast, lung, and bladder), diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurological disease. Presently, there are no readily measurable biomarkers of CV consumption and intake of CVs has relied on dietary recall. Here, biomarkers of CV intake were identified in the urine of 20 healthy Caucasian adult males using (1)H NMR spectroscopy with multivariate statistical modeling. The study was separated into three phases of 14 days: a run-in period with restricted CV consumption (phase I); a high CV phase where participants consumed 250 g/day of both broccoli and Brussels sprouts (phase II); a wash-out phase with a return to restricted CV consumption (phase III). Each study participant provided a complete cumulative urine collection over 48 h at the end of each phase; a spot urine (U0), 0-10 h (U0-10), 10-24 h (U10-24), and 24-48 h (U24-48) urine samples. Urine samples obtained after consumption of CVs were differentiated from low CV diet samples by four singlet (1)H NMR spectroscopic peaks, one of which was identified as S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO) and the three other peaks were tentatively identified as other metabolites structurally related to SMCSO. These stable urinary biomarkers of CV consumption will facilitate future assessment of CVs in nutritional population screening and dietary intervention studies and may correlate to population health outcomes.

  13. Effects of Dental Methacrylates on Oxygen Consumption and Redox Status of Human Pulp Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Nocca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have already demonstrated that the incomplete polymerization of resin-based dental materials causes the release of monomers which might affect cell metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate on (1 cellular energy metabolism, evaluating oxygen consumption rate, glucose consumption, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and lactate production, and (2 cellular redox status, through the evaluation of glutathione concentration and of the activities of enzymes regulating glutathione metabolism. Methods. Human pulp cells were used and oxygen consumption was measured by means of a Clark electrode. Moreover, reactive oxygen species production was quantified. Enzymatic activity and glucose and lactate concentrations were determined through a specific kit. Results. Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate induced a decrease in oxygen consumption rate, an enhancement of glucose consumption, and lactate production, whilst glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity were not significantly modified. Moreover, the monomers induced an increase of reactive oxygen species production with a consequent increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. A depletion of both reduced and total glutathione was also observed. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that dental monomers might alter energy metabolism and glutathione redox balance in human pulp cells.

  14. Emergency room visits due to external causes and alcohol consumption - Capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to describe the profile and factors related to alcohol consumption among emergency room visits by external causes. It is a cross-sectional study with data from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency between September and October 2011, in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. Statistical analysis were performed for all cases treated in selected services, comparing the characteristics of the victims, according to the statement of alcohol consumption. 33,289 visits to emergency rooms by external causes in the population above 18 years of age were included. The prevalence of self-reported statement of alcohol consumption among these services was 14.9% for the 24 capitals and the Federal District, and was significantly higher among visits by violent causes than by accidents. For both accidents and violence the associated causes were victims male, black/brown, less educated, members of specific populations, occurrences on public roads. The results support global discussions on the importance of establishing policies and legal measures to restrict the consumption of alcohol and vehicular direction, control advertising of alcoholic beverages, and laws normalizing the functioning of sales points of alcoholic beverages.

  15. [Nosocomial infections due to human coronaviruses in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneur, A; Legrand, M C; Picard, B; Baron, R; Talbot, P J; de Parscau, L; Sizun, J

    2002-01-01

    Human coronaviruses, with two known serogroups named 229-E and OC-43, are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The large RNA is surrounded by a nucleoprotein (protein N). The envelop contains 2 or 3 glycoproteins: spike protein (or protein S), matrix protein (or protein M) and a hemagglutinin (or protein HE). Their pathogen role remains unclear because their isolation is difficult. Reliable and rapid methods as immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction allow new researches on epidemiology. Human coronaviruses can survive for as long as 6 days in suspension and 3 hours after drying on surfaces, suggesting that they could be a source of hospital-acquired infections. Two prospective studies conducted in a neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit demonstrated a significant association of coronavirus-positive nasopharyngal samples with respiratory illness in hospitalised preterm neonates. Positive samples from staff suggested either a patient-to-staff or a staff-to-patient transmission. No cross-infection were observed from community-acquired respiratory-syncitial virus or influenza-infected children to neonates. Universal precautions with hand washing and surface desinfection could be proposed to prevent coronavirus transmission.

  16. Computation of particle detachment from floors due to human walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidi, Basman; Khalifa, Ezzat

    2005-11-01

    A computational model for detachment of fine particles due to the unsteady flow under a foot is developed. As the foot approaches the floor, fluid volume is displaced laterally as a wall jet from the perimeter of the contact area at high velocity and acceleration. Unsteady aerodynamic forces on particles attached to the floor are considered. Results show that the jet velocity is ˜40 m/s for a foot idealized as a 15 cm circular disk approaching the floor at 1 m/s with a final gap of 0.8 mm. This velocity is sufficient to detach small particles (1˜μm). The flow accelerates at ˜400 m/s^2 which affects the detachment of larger sized particles (˜100 μm). As the disk is brought to rest, the unsteady jet expands outwards, advecting a vortex ring closely attached to it. At the disk edge, a counter rotating vortex is generated by the sudden deceleration of the disk. Both vortices can play a role in entrainment of the suspended particles in the flowfield. Numerical studies also show that the maximum jet velocity is ˜20 m/s for a simplified foot immediately after heel contact in the stance phase of the gait.

  17. The testis of the mice C57/BL6 offspring in adulthood have alterations due to maternal caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Silveira; Aiceles, Verônica; Moraes, Diana de Freitas Serapião; Alves-Pereira, Jorge Luiz; Faria, Tatiane Silva; Ramos, Cristiane da Fonte

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy to adult male testis mice offspring. Twenty pregnant mice were divided into control group (c) and caffeine group (cf). dams received daily saline or 20 mg/kg of caffeine subcutaneously. Male offspring were monitored daily until 13th week. The testis were used to evaluate both the proliferation (pcna) and apoptosis (bax); leptin receptor (ob-r); aromatase; follicle stimulating hormone (fshr), luteinizing hormone (lhr) and androgen receptors (ar); steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star); vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and estrogen receptors (erα and erβ) by western blotting. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and leptin were measured. There was a significant reduction in food intake and the body mass gain (pcaffeine. The serum testosterone levels in the cf offspring were 90% lower than in the c offspring (p=0.04). Maternal caffeine consumption has a role and alters the testis of the offspring in adulthood.

  18. Assessing human exposure risk to cadmium through inhalation and seafood consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ccms.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trophically available fraction in seafood and bioaccessibility is linked. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human health risk to Cd can via inhalation and seafood consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female had the higher Cd accumulation in urine and blood than male. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoking is a major determinant of human Cd intake. - Abstract: The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility. The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental data. We estimated Cd concentrations in human urine and blood via daily intake from seafood consumption and inhalation based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A Hill-based dose-response model was used to assess human renal dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease risks for long-term Cd exposure. Here we showed that fish had higher bioaccessibility ({approx}83.7%) than that of shellfish ({approx}73.2%) for human ingestion. Our results indicated that glomerular and tubular damage among different genders and smokers ranged from 18.03 to 18.18%. Our analysis showed that nonsmokers had 50% probability of peripheral arterial disease level exceeding from 3.28 to 8.80%. Smoking populations had 2-3 folds higher morbidity risk of peripheral arterial disease than those of nonsmokers. Our study concluded that the adverse effects of Cd exposure are exacerbated when high seafood consumption coincides with cigarette smoking. Our work provides a framework that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of Cd hazard.

  19. Correlation between levofloxacin consumption and the incidence of nosocomial infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Hsiu; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Yuarn-Jang

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolates causing nosocomial infection and hospital antibiotic consumption were investigated. Restriction of levofloxacin use was implemented to control the incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli in the hospital. The study was conducted from January 2004 to December 2010. Antimicrobial agent consumption was obtained from the pharmacy computer system and presented as the defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days every 6 months. The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli isolates causing nosocomial infections was obtained from the Department of Infection Control every 6 months. An antimicrobial stewardship program, restricting levofloxacain use, was implemented in July 2007. The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli causing nosocomial infections was significantly correlated with fluoroquinolone usage (p = 0.005), but not with the use of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, or carbapenems. Parenteral (p = 0.002), oral (p = 0.018), and total levofloxacin (p = 0.001) use were significantly correlated with the extent of fluoroquinolone resistance. With a reduction of levofloxacin use, a decrease of the incidence of fluoroquinolone resistance in E coli isolates was observed. There is a significant correlation between levofloxacin use and the incidence of nosocomial fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli isolates. The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli could be reduced by limiting levofloxacin consumption. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Estimate of oxygen consumption and intracellular zinc concentration of human spermatozoa in relation to motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolf-BernhardSchill; KerstinDefosse; Hans-HilhelmKoyro; NorbertWeissmann

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the human sperm oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content in relation to motility.Methods:In washed spermatozoa from 67 ejaculates,the oxygen consumption was determined.Following calculation of the total oxygen consumed by the Ideal Gas Law,the energy consumption of spermatozoa was calculated.In addition,the zinc content of the sperm was determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer.The resulting data were correlated to the vitality and motility.Results:The oxygen consumption averaged 0.24μmol/106 sperm×24h,0.28μmol/106 live sperm×24h and 0.85μmol/106 live & motile sperm×24h.Further calculations revealed that sperm motility was the most energy consuming process(164.31mJ/106 motile spermatozoa×24h),while the oxygen consumption of the total spermatozoa was 46.06mJ/106 spermatozoa ×24h.The correlation of the oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content with motility showed significant negative correlations(r=-0.759;P<0.0001 and r=-0.441;P<0.0001,respectively).However,when correlating sperm energy consumption with the zinc content,a significant positive relation(r=0.323;P=0.01)was observed.Conclusion:Poorly motile sperm are actually wasting the available energy.Moreover,our data clearly support the “Geometric Clutch Model”of the oneme function and demonstrate the importance of the outer dense fibers for the generation of sperm motility,especially progressive motility.

  1. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings – It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited...

  2. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-­‐‑scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited...

  3. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  4. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  5. Human Islet Oxygen Consumption Rate and DNA Measurements Predict Diabetes Reversal in Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Papas, K.K.; Colton, C. K.; Nelson, R. A.; Rozak, P.R.; Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Scott, W. E.; Wildey, G. M.; Pisania, A.; Weir, G. C.; Hering, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for simple, quantitative and prospective assays for islet quality assessment that are predictive of islet transplantation outcome. The current state-of-the-art athymic nude mouse bioassay is costly, technically challenging and retrospective. In this study, we report on the ability of 2 parameters characterizing human islet quality: (1) oxygen consumption rate (OCR), a measure of viable volume; and (2) OCR/DNA, a measure of fractional viability, to predict diabetes reversal in ...

  6. Social Capital in the creation of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Productive Consumption Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2006-01-01

    Social capital is a broad term containing the social networks and norms that generate shared understandings, trust and reciprocity, which underpin cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits, and creates the base for economic prosperity. This study deals with the formation of social capital through development of human capital that is created from productive consumption. This paper attempts to formalize incorporation of social capital (SK). This paper sets up a one-sector growth mod...

  7. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: need for their control in water for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Cameán Fernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial waterblooms are becoming an important water quality problem in many countries in the world, as a result of its hepatotoxic and neurotoxic cyanotoxins production, which make these toxins a health risk. Microcystins (MC are the most frequent cyanotoxins detected on superficial freshwaters. In the present work, toxic risks derived from exposure to MC have been revised, mainly due to the consumption of contaminated waters. This fact makes necessary to perform control and monitoring programs.

  8. Global Change and Human Consumption of Freshwater Driven by Flow Regulation and Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, F.; Destouni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show major uncertainties about the magnitude and key drivers of global freshwater change, historically and projected for the future. The tackling of these uncertainties should be a societal priority to understand: 1) the role of human change drivers for freshwater availability changes, 2) the global water footprint of humanity and 3) the relation of human freshwater consumption to a proposed planetary boundary. This study analyses worldwide hydroclimatic changes, as observed during 1900-2009 in 99 large hydrological basins across all continents. We test whether global freshwater change may be driven by major developments of flow regulation and irrigation (FRI) occurring over this period. Independent categorization of the variability of FRI-impact strength among the studied basins is used to identify statistical basin differences in occurrence and strength of characteristic hydroclimatic signals of FRI. Our results show dominant signals of increasing relative evapotranspiration in basins affected by flow regulation and/or irrigation, in conjunction with decreasing relative intra-annual variability of runoff in basins affected by flow regulation. The FRI-related increase in relative evapotranspiration implies an increase of 4,688 km3/yr in global annual average water flow from land to the atmosphere. This observation-based estimate extends considerably the upper quantification limits of both FRI-driven and total global human consumption of freshwater, as well as the global water footprint of humanity. Our worldwide analysis shows clear FRI-related change signals emerging directly from observations, in spite of large change variability among basins and many other coexisting change drivers in both the atmosphere and the landscape. These results highlight the importance of considering local water use as a key change driver in Earth system studies and modelling, of relevance for global change and human consumption of freshwater.

  9. Effect of Raw-Milk Cheese Consumption on the Enterococcal Flora of Human Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Gelsomino, Roberto; Vancanneyt, Marc; Cogan, Timothy M.; Swings, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Enterococci are one of the major facultative anaerobic bacterial groups that reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the composition of the enterococcal fecal flora in three healthy humans was analyzed before, during, and after the daily consumption of ∼125 g of a raw-milk Cheddar-type cheese containing 3.2 × 104 enterococci/g of cheese. Enterococcal counts ranged between 1.4 × 102 and 2.5 × 108 CFU/g of feces and differed from subject to subject and from week to wee...

  10. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Pseudoterranova azarasi LARVAE IN COD (Gadus sp.) SOLD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Juliana; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Anisakiasis and Pseudoterranovosis are human diseases caused by the ingestion of live Anisakidae larvae in raw, undercooked or lightly marinated fish. Larvae were collected from one salted cod sold for human consumption in a Sao Paulo market in 2013. One section of one brownish larva was used for molecular analyses. The partial COX2 gene sequence from the larva had a nucleotide identity of 99.8 % with Pseudoterranova azarasi, which belongs to the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex. The risk of allergy when consuming dead larvae in salted fish is not well known and should be considered.

  11. Mineral water {sup 222} Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits; Determinacao do decrescimo da atividade de radonio-222 em aguas minerais simulando habitos de consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio

    2001-07-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant {sup 222} Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata ({approx} 1000 Bql{sup -1}); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde ({approx} 400 Brq{sup -1}) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas ({approx} 290 Bql{sup -1}). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of {sup 222} Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on {sup 222} Rn activity on site. (author)

  12. Subcutaneous human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria Repens: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish S Permi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic filariasis due to Dirofilaria repens (D. repens is prevalent in several regions of the world. In view of recent rise of human D. repens infections in Europe, Africa and Asia, it is considered an emerging zoonosis in these continents. Most of the documented cases of human dirofilariasis recorded in India had ocular infections, but very few subcutaneous dirofilariasis have been reported. We hereby report two cases of subcutaneous human dirofilariasis due to D.repens with varied clinical presentations.

  13. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p tea consumption (p tea ingestion improves BA FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  14. Assessment risk to children's health due to consumption of cow's milk in polluted areas in Puebla and Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Gonzalez, Numa Pompilio; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Calderón Sánchez, Francisco; Moreno Ortega, Alicia; Juarez Meneses, Mayté

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the heavy metal content in cow's milk produced in areas irrigated with waste water and to evaluate the health risk with daily consumption of milk for children. The sample consisted of four zones in which small farmers were selected and the milk of 160 cows in two seasons of the year. On average, the metals in the milk in decreasing order were 0.36; 0.046; 0.035; 0.029; 0.015; 0.012, and 0.002 mg kg(-1) for Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Cd, respectively. The Pb exceeded the limits allowed by Codex. The values shown in the hazard quotient for the As of more than 1 and HI were higher. On the other hand, the individual risk of cancer showed a descending order As> Cd> Cr> Pb, while the total risk indicated that the combined effect of metals put girls and boys at serious risk.

  15. Health care consumption and costs due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands, 1986-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. de Boer (Annette ); T. Schepers (Tim); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Foot and ankle injuries account for a large proportion of Emergency Department attendance. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in attendances due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands since 1986, and to provide a detailed analysis of health car

  16. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  17. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  18. Effect of remifentanil on mitochondrial oxygen consumption of cultured human hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Djafarzadeh

    Full Text Available During sepsis, liver dysfunction is common, and failure of mitochondria to effectively couple oxygen consumption with energy production has been described. In addition to sepsis, pharmacological agents used to treat septic patients may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. This study addressed the hypothesis that remifentanil interacts with hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and their isolated mitochondria were exposed to remifentanil, with or without further exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured by high-resolution respirometry, Caspase-3 protein levels by Western blotting, and cytokine levels by ELISA. Inhibitory κBα (IκBα phosphorylation, measurement of the cellular ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells were analysed using commercial ELISA kits. Maximal cellular respiration increased after one hour of incubation with remifentanil, and phosphorylation of IκBα occurred, denoting stimulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. The effect on cellular respiration was not present at 2, 4, 8 or 16 hours of incubation. Remifentanil increased the isolated mitochondrial respiratory control ratio of complex-I-dependent respiration without interfering with maximal respiration. Preincubation with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone prevented a remifentanil-induced increase in cellular respiration. Remifentanil at 10× higher concentrations than therapeutic reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content without uncoupling oxygen consumption and basal respiration levels. TNF-α exposure reduced respiration of complex-I, -II and -IV, an effect which was prevented by prior remifentanil incubation. Furthermore, prior remifentanil incubation prevented TNF-α-induced IL-6 release of HepG2 cells, and attenuated fragmentation of pro-caspase-3 into cleaved active caspase 3 (an early marker of apoptosis. Our data suggest that

  19. Effect of Remifentanil on Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption of Cultured Human Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafarzadeh, Siamak; Vuda, Madhusudanarao; Takala, Jukka; Jakob, Stephan M.

    2012-01-01

    During sepsis, liver dysfunction is common, and failure of mitochondria to effectively couple oxygen consumption with energy production has been described. In addition to sepsis, pharmacological agents used to treat septic patients may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. This study addressed the hypothesis that remifentanil interacts with hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and their isolated mitochondria were exposed to remifentanil, with or without further exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured by high-resolution respirometry, Caspase-3 protein levels by Western blotting, and cytokine levels by ELISA. Inhibitory κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation, measurement of the cellular ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells were analysed using commercial ELISA kits. Maximal cellular respiration increased after one hour of incubation with remifentanil, and phosphorylation of IκBα occurred, denoting stimulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). The effect on cellular respiration was not present at 2, 4, 8 or 16 hours of incubation. Remifentanil increased the isolated mitochondrial respiratory control ratio of complex-I-dependent respiration without interfering with maximal respiration. Preincubation with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone prevented a remifentanil-induced increase in cellular respiration. Remifentanil at 10× higher concentrations than therapeutic reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content without uncoupling oxygen consumption and basal respiration levels. TNF-α exposure reduced respiration of complex-I, -II and -IV, an effect which was prevented by prior remifentanil incubation. Furthermore, prior remifentanil incubation prevented TNF-α-induced IL-6 release of HepG2 cells, and attenuated fragmentation of pro-caspase-3 into cleaved active caspase 3 (an early marker of apoptosis). Our data suggest that remifentanil

  20. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Sandra C. [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gauthier, Marie-Soleil [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02140 (United States); Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dole, William P., E-mail: bill.dole@novartis.com [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). {yields} ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. {yields} ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. {yields} Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNF{alpha}) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and

  1. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low.

  2. Acute Consumption of Flavan-3-ol-Enriched Dark Chocolate Affects Human Endogenous Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Philo, Mark; Colquhoun, Ian J; Tapp, Henri S; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; Kemsley, E Kate; de Roos, Baukje; Kroon, Paul A; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle

    2017-07-07

    Flavan-3-ols and methylxanthines have potential beneficial effects on human health including reducing cardiovascular risk. We performed a randomized controlled crossover intervention trial to assess the acute effects of consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark chocolate and white chocolate, on the human metabolome. We assessed the metabolome in urine and blood plasma samples collected before and at 2 and 6 h after consumption of chocolates in 42 healthy volunteers using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Plasma samples were assessed and showed differentiation between time points with no further separation among the three chocolate treatments. Multivariate statistics applied to urine samples could readily separate the postprandial time points and distinguish between the treatments. Most of the markers responsible for the multivariate discrimination between the chocolates were of dietary origin. Interestingly, small but significant level changes were also observed for a subset of endogenous metabolites. (1)H NMR revealed that flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and standard dark chocolate reduced urinary levels of creatinine, lactate, some amino acids, and related degradation products and increased the levels of pyruvate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, a phenolic compound of bacterial origin. This study demonstrates that an acute chocolate intervention can significantly affect human metabolism.

  3. Air-conditioning in the 21st century: impact on human productivity and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    environment on human productivity, health and comfort. The principles of excellence can be provided with moderate energy consumption. But the success of excellent indoor environments will increase the demand for improvement globally and the required energy supply will provide a challenge for the world......Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...

  4. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of annonaceous acetogenins in Annona muricata products for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champy, Pierre; Guérineau, Vincent; Laprévote, Olivier

    2009-12-15

    Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  5. MALDI-TOF MS Profiling of Annonaceous Acetogenins in Annona muricata Products for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Guérineau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  6. Human rectal mucosal gene expression after consumption of digestible and non-digestible carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauber, Jürgen; Weiler, Frank; Gostner, Andrea; Melcher, Ralph; Kudlich, Theodor; Lührs, Hardi; Scheppach, Wolfgang

    2006-11-01

    The effect of regular consumption of the low-digestible and prebiotic isomalt versus the digestible sucrose on gene expression in rectal mucosa was examined in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Nineteen healthy volunteers received 30 g isomalt per day or 30 g sucrose as part of a controlled diet over two 4-week test periods with a 4-week washout period in between. At the end of each test phase rectal biopsies were obtained. After RNA extraction mucosal gene expression was assayed using GeneChip microarrays. In addition, expression of cathelicidin hCap18/LL37, cellular detoxification enzymes GSTpi, UGT1A1 and CYP3A4, cyclooxygenase 2 and barrier factors MUC2 and ZO-1 were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Microbiological analyses of fecal samples revealed a shift of the gut flora towards an increase of bifidobacteria following consumption of the diet containing isomalt. Isomalt consumption did not affect rectal mucosal gene expression in microarray analyses as compared to sucrose. In addition, the expression of cathelicidin LL37, GSTpi, UGT1A1, CYP3A4, COX-2, MUC2 and ZO-1 was not changed in rectal biopsies. We conclude that gene expression of the human rectal mucosa can reliably be measured in biopsy material taken at endoscopy. Dietary intervention with the low digestible isomalt compared with the digestible sucrose did not affect gene expression in the lining rectal mucosa.

  7. Synergistic effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection.

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    Hea Young Oh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to examine the combined effect of viral load and alcohol consumption on the risk of persistent high-risk (HR human papillomavirus (HPV infection. METHODS: Among women undergoing health screening between 2002 and 2011 at the National Cancer Center, 284 and 122 women with HR-HPV infection and cytological findings of low-grade squamous intraepithelial or lower-grade lesions were followed up for 1 and 2 years, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI and synergy index (S were calculated. RESULTS: Among drinkers, the risks of 1-year (odds ratio [OR] 4.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05-8.18 and 2-year persistence (OR 8.08, CI 2.36-27.6 were significantly higher for high HPV loads than for low HPV loads; this association was not seen for non-drinkers. The risks for 1-year (OR 4.14, CI 1.89-9.05 and 2-year persistence (OR 6.61, CI 2.09-20.9 were significantly higher in subjects with a high HPV load who were also drinkers than in those who were non-drinkers. A high HPV load together with a longer drinking duration or higher alcohol consumption was associated with increased risks of 1-year (OR 3.07, CI 1.40-6.75 or OR 2.05, CI 0.87-4.83 and 2-year persistence (OR 6.40, CI 1.72-23.8 or OR 4.14, CI 1.18-14.6. The synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and HR-HPV load was stronger on the risk of 2-year persistence (RERI = 3.26, S = 2.38 than on the risk of 1-year persistence (RERI = 1.21, S = 1.63. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic effect of HR-HPV load and alcohol consumption was associated with the risk of HR-HPV persistence and was stronger for longer-term HR-HPV infection. Limiting alcohol consumption might be an important measure to prevent the development of cervical cancer in women with a high HR-HPV load.

  8. Health care consumption and costs due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands, 1986-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, A Siebe; Schepers, Tim; Panneman, Martien J M; Van Beeck, Ed F; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2014-04-12

    Foot and ankle injuries account for a large proportion of Emergency Department attendance. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in attendances due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands since 1986, and to provide a detailed analysis of health care costs in these patients. Age- and gender-standardized emergency attendance rates and incidence rates for hospital admission were calculated for each year of the study. Injury cases and hospital length of stay were extracted from the National Injury Surveillance System (non-hospitalized patients) and the National Medical Registration (hospitalized patients). Data were grouped into osseous and ligamentous injuries for foot and ankle separately. An incidence-based cost model was applied to calculate associated direct health care costs. Since 1986 the overall emergency attendance rate decreased from 858 to 640 per 100,000 person years. In non-admitted patients (90% of cases), ligamentous injuries approximately halved, whereas osseous injuries increased by 28% (foot) and 25% (ankle). The incidence rate for hospital admission increased by 35%, mainly due to an almost doubling of osseous injuries. Attendance rates showed a peak in adolescents and adults until ~45 years of age in males and (less pronounced) in females. The total number of hospital days decreased to 58,708 days in 2010. Hospital length of stay (HLOS) increased with age and was highest for osseous injuries. HLOS was unaffected by gender, apart for longer stay in elderly females with an osseous ankle injury. Health care costs per case were highest for osseous injuries of the ankle (€ 3,461). Costs were higher for females and increased with age to € 6,023 in elderly males and € 10,949 in elderly females. Main cost determinants were in-hospital care (56% of total costs), rehabilitation/nursing care (15%), and physical therapy (12%). Since 1986, the emergency attendance rate of foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands decreased by

  9. Coffee Consumption and Oxidative Stress: A Review of Human Intervention Studies

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    Daniela Martini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the potential protective effects of coffee and its bioactives (caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes against oxidative stress and related chronic disease risk has been increasing in the last years. The present review summarizes the main findings on the effect of coffee consumption on protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage, as well as on the modulation of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes in human studies. Twenty-six dietary intervention studies (involving acute and chronic coffee intake have been considered. Overall, the results suggest that coffee consumption can increase glutathione levels and improve protection against DNA damage, especially following regular/repeated intake. On the contrary, the effects of coffee on plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes, as well as on protein and lipid damage, are unclear following both acute and chronic exposure. The high heterogeneity in terms of type of coffee, doses and duration of the studies, the lack of information on coffee and/or brew bioactive composition, as well as the choice of biomarkers and the methods used for their evaluation, may partially explain the variability observed among findings. More robust and well-controlled intervention studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the effect of coffee on oxidative stress markers in humans.

  10. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

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    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  11. Increased susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human PrP to experimental sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy is not due to increased agent titre in sheep brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plinston, Chris; Hart, Patricia; Hunter, Nora; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2014-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans have previously been shown to be caused by the same strain of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent. It is hypothesized that the agent spread to humans following consumption of food products prepared from infected cattle. Despite evidence supporting zoonotic transmission, mouse models expressing human prion protein (HuTg) have consistently shown poor transmission rates when inoculated with cattle BSE. Higher rates of transmission have however been observed when these mice are exposed to BSE that has been experimentally transmitted through sheep or goats, indicating that humans may potentially be more susceptible to BSE from small ruminants. Here we demonstrate that increased transmissibility of small ruminant BSE to HuTg mice was not due to replication of higher levels of infectivity in sheep brain tissue, and is instead due to other specific changes in the infectious agent.

  12. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  13. Human exposure to polychlorinated naphthalenes through the consumption of edible marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, Juan M; Falcó, Gemma; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in samples of 14 edible marine species (sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel and shrimp), which are widely consumed by the population of Catalonia, Spain. The daily intake of PCNs associated with this consumption was also determined. A total of 42 composite samples were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The highest PCN levels (ng/kg of fresh weight) were found in salmon (227) followed by mackerel (95) and red mullet (68), while the lowest levels of total PCNs corresponded to shrimp (4.9) and cuttlefish (2.7). With the exception of cephalopods and shellfish species, in which tetra-CN was the predominant homologue, penta-CN (60%) was the predominant contributor to total PCNs. For a standard male adult, PCN intake through the consumption of edible marine species was 1.53 ng/day. The highest contributions to this intake (ng/day) corresponded to salmon (0.41), sole (0.28) and tuna (0.24). Concerning health risks, species-specific TEFs such as those reported by WHO and NATO for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs are not currently available for PCN congeners. Although in general terms the results of the present study do not seem to suggest specific risks derived from exposure to PCNs through fish and seafood consumption, to establish the contribution of individual PCN congeners to total TEQ is clearly necessary for the assessment of human health risks.

  14. Heavy alcohol consumption and neuropathological lesions: a post-mortem human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Leena; Karkola, Kari; Juusela, Jari; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that excessive alcohol consumption leads to cognitive impairment, but the specific pathological mechanism involved remains unknown. The present study evaluated the association between heavy alcohol intake and the neuropathological hallmark lesions of the three most common neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), in post-mortem human brains. The study cohort was sampled from the subjects who underwent a medicolegal autopsy during a 6-month period in 1999 and it included 54 heavy alcohol consumers and 54 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Immunohistochemical methodology was used to visualize the aggregation of beta-amyloid, hyperphosphorylated tau, and alpha-synuclein and the extent of infarcts. In the present study, no statistically significant influence was observed for alcohol consumption on the extent of neuropathological lesions encountered in the three most common degenerative disorders. Our results indicate that alcohol-related dementia differs from VCI, AD, and DLB; i.e., it has a different etiology and pathogenesis.

  15. Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report

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    Gonose Thandubuhle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16 presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa.

  16. Survey for Toxoplasma gondii by PCR detection in meat for human consumption in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Hernandez, Erika N; Acosta, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2016-02-01

    The overall risk for toxoplasmosis in meat produced in Colombia is unknown. We analyzed by PCR assay meat samples for human consumption in two types of plants in Colombia: 120 samples from class I plants (60 samples from chicken, 30 from swine and 30 from beef) and 60 from class II plants (30 samples from beef and 30 from swine). Presence of Toxoplasma DNA was established by targeted B1 nested PCR assay. We detected 79 (43%) samples that were positive by B1 nested PCR (33 from chicken, 22 from beef, and 24 from pork). No differences were found by region or species. Eleven positive samples were confirmed by sequencing of the B1 repeated region. Some polymorphisms were detected without relation with clonal groups nor meat species. Food animals are highly exposed to Toxoplasma in Colombia. Detailed studies are needed to establish the reasons for differences in Toxoplasma prevalence between farms, regarding practices of animal food production.

  17. Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litter, Marta I., E-mail: litter@cnea.gov.a [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, CP 1650, San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CP 1033, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, Peatonal Belgrano 3563, 1o piso, CP 1650, San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Morgada, Maria E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, CP 1033, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bundschuh, Jochen [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Applied Research, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 mug L{sup -1} of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions. - Low-cost techniques should be urgently investigated to remove arsenic in drinking water in poor disperse rural and urban Latin American populations.

  18. Impact of acetaminophen consumption and resistance exercise on extracellular matrix gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivam H; D'Lugos, Andrew C; Eldon, Erica R; Curtis, Donald; Dickinson, Jared M; Carroll, Chad C

    2017-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) given during chronic exercise reduces skeletal muscle collagen and cross-linking in rats. We propose that the effect of APAP on muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) may, in part, be mediated by dysregulation of the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of APAP consumption during acute resistance exercise (RE) on several regulators of the ECM in human skeletal muscle. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover design, recreationally active men (n = 8, 25 ± 2 yr) performed two trials of knee extension. Placebo (PLA) or APAP (1,000 mg/6 h) was given for 24 h before and immediately following RE. Vastus lateralis biopsies were taken at baseline and 1 and 3 h post-RE. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine differences in mRNA expression. MMP-2, type I collagen, and type III collagen mRNA expression was not altered by exercise or APAP (P > 0.05). When compared with PLA, TIMP-1 expression was lower at 1 h post-RE during APAP conditions but greater than PLA at 3 h post-RE (P 0.05). Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK increased (P < 0.05) with RE but was not influenced by APAP. Our findings do not support our hypothesis and suggest that short-term APAP consumption before RE has a small impact on the measured ECM molecules in human skeletal muscle following acute RE. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine: a human trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of moderate consumption of red wine to modulate the intestinal inflammation response on healthy humans. Fecal samples from a human intervention study (n=34 were collected before and after consumption of red wine for 4 weeks, and 24 immune markers including immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, were analysed. When considering the whole group of case volunteers, almost no statistically significant differences were found in the immune markers after wine consumption. However, a detailed exploration of the values differentiated a 6-volunteer subgroup that showed unusually high values of cytokines before wine consumption. For this subgroup, wine consumption significantly reduced the content of 16 out of 24 markers down to usual values, especially noticeable for cytokines related to the promotion of initial inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6 and interferon-gamma. This study reveals, for the first time, changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine.

  20. Coffee components inhibit amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide in vitro: possible link between coffee consumption and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Biao; Liu, Xinran; Gong, Hao; Huang, Lianqi; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Xin; Li, Chuanzhou; Yang, Muyang; Ma, Bingjun; Jiao, Lihua; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2011-12-28

    Global epidemic studies have suggested that coffee consumption is reversely correlated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a metabolic disease. The misfolding of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is regarded as one of the causative factors of T2DM. Coffee extracts have three major active components: caffeine, caffeic acid (CA), and chlorogenic acid (CGA). In this study, the effects of these major coffee components, as well as dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) (a major metabolite of CGA and CA), on the amyloidogenicity of hIAPP were investigated by thioflavin-T based fluorescence emission, transmission electronic microscopy, circular dichroism, light-induced cross-linking, dynamic light scattering, and MTT-based cell viability assays. The results suggest that all components show varied inhibitory effects on the formation of toxic hIAPP amyloids, in which CA shows the highest potency in delaying the conformational transition of the hIAPP molecule with the most prolonged lag time, whereas caffeine shows the lowest potency. At a 5-fold excess molar ratio of compound to hIAPP, all coffee-derived compounds affect the secondary structures of incubated hIAPP as suggested by the circular dichroism spectra and CDPro deconvolution analysis. Further photoinduced cross-linking based oligomerization and dynamic light scattering studies suggested CA and CGA significantly suppressed the formation of hIAPP oligomers, whereas caffeine showed no significant effect on oligomerization. Cell protection effects were also observed for all three compounds, with the protection efficiency being greatest for CA and least for CGA. These findings suggest that the beneficial effects of coffee consumption on T2DM may be partly due to the ability of the major coffee components and metabolites to inhibit the toxic aggregation of hIAPP.

  1. RADIATION RISKS ASSESSMENT DUE TO CONSUMPTION OF THE FAR EAST FOOD FISH AFTER THE ACCIDENT ON “FUKUSHIMA-1” NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishсhenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the data on radioactivity releases to thePacific Oceanlevels after the Fukushima NPP accident. It is shown that the potential risk of of the seafood contamination with the long-living radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs, which continue to be released to the Pacific Ocean up to the present time. Contribution of 90Sr to the total radioactive contamination does not exceed 3%. Review of the literature data on the modeling of radioactivity spot diffusion showed that due to the flows in the Pacific Ocean the radioactivity transfer toKamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, and the ingress into theOkhotskSeawas expected in 2014. It is expected a slight increase of the cesium concentration in water and sea biota in the area of Russia fishing zone FAO 61, but not higher than the concentrations in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl accident. Data on measurements of the pollution of fish caught in the Pacific Ocean,JapanandOkhotskSeasin 2011–2014 years during the sea expeditions organized by the Russian Geographical Society, yet showed that the total content of cesium isotopes in any fish sample have not eceeded the value of 0.7 Bq/kg. The prognose risk assessment carried out for the conservative scenario of water contamination in fishing zones ofRussiaand seafood consumption characteristic for the region showed that this risk is minimal according to the WHO scale and does not exceed the risk from fish caughed in Black Sea and Baltic Sea, contaminated after theChernobylaccident, consumption

  2. Chemical composition of tempeh from soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Furlan Bavia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a food obtained by fermentation of soybean grains by the fungus Rizophus oligosporus. It is a traditional Indonesian food that presents benefits for human health protecting against diarrhea and chronic diseases. Tempeh processing includes dehulling, cooking, inoculation, and fermentation. In this study, chemical characteristics of tempeh prepared with soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption (BRS 216, BRS 232, BRS 257, and BRS 267 were investigated. Soybean grains and tempeh obtained from these cultivars were analyzed for oil, protein, antinutrional factors, and isoflavone content. Cultivar BRS 216 presented the highest protein content in the grains (36.81% and in tempeh (51.99%. On average, the protein content in tempeh increased 16% in relation to that of soybean grains. Isoflavone content was higher in the grains than in tempeh with significant differences among the cultivars. However, the aglycones content increased about 50% in tempeh (49.00 mg.100 g-1 on average compared to that of raw material (soybean grains - 21.49 mg.100 g-1, on average. The content of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KSTI reduced 83% in tempeh, on average, as compared to the value found in the grains. Phytic acid content was similar in both tempeh and the grains.

  3. Wine and oxidative stress: up-to-date evidence of the effects of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María Isabel; Gambert, Philippe; Fitó, Montserrat; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Wine and alcohol consumption has been considered to be protective against coronary heart disease development, an oxidative stress associated disease. Wine contains polyphenols displaying antioxidant properties tested in in vitro and in vivo studies. Due to this, a general consensus exists, both among the general public and the scientific community, that wine, particularly red wine, is an antioxidant beverage. Alcohol consumption, however, is associated with oxidative damage. Several studies have been carried out on the antioxidant health benefits of wine and wine polyphenols. However, adequate scientific evidence (Level I or II) is required to be provided before recommendations or statements which can reach the general public can be formulated. Here, we summarize the state of the art of the up-to-date body of knowledge, and the extent to which there exists evidence of the benefits of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans. From the available data, there is no evidence, at present, that sustained wine consumption provides antioxidant benefits in healthy volunteers other than to counteract a possible pro-oxidative effect of the alcohol. On the contrary, data on the antioxidant protective effect of red wine in oxidative stress situations are promising. In this way, the postprandial oxidative stress after a meal, despite the diversity of biomarkers used for its evaluation, is counteracted by the ingestion of wine. Further studies are warranted.

  4. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  5. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  6. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady......-state thermal environments. Therefore, the first objective of the current paper was to compare a recently introduced unsteady-state model with previously used steady-state model using data obtained under both constant and transient temperature conditions. The second objective was to explore a relationship...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  7. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... regulations to provide for the safe use of vitamin D 2 bakers yeast as a source of vitamin D 2 and as a... vitamin D 2 per 100 grams (g) in the finished food. This action is in response to a petition filed...

  8. Possible benefits of tomato juice consumption: a pilot study on irradiated human lymphocytes from healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ayumi; Itaki, Chieko; Saito, Ayako; Yonezawa, Toko; Aizawa, Koichi; Hirai, Ayumi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Miura, Tomisato; Mariya, Yasushi; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2017-05-12

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate much of the DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. Among carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, present in tomato juice, are known to be strong radical scavengers. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of tomato juice intake on the levels of DNA damage and oxidative stress in human whole blood induced by in vitro exposure to X-rays. Ten healthy adults were asked to drink 190 g of tomato juice, containing 17 mg lycopene and 0.25 mg β-carotene, per day for 3 weeks and then refrain from drinking it for 3 weeks. Peripheral whole blood samples were collected before and after the intake period of tomato juice and after the washout period. The blood samples were exposed in vitro to X-ray doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 2 Gy. Cytogenetic damage was measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and the dicentrics (DIC) assay. The level of oxidative stress was determined using serum 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and plasma reactive oxygen metabolite-derived compounds (d-ROMs). The concentration of carotenoids in plasma was measured at the three time points. The levels of 8-oxo-dG tended to decrease during the intake period and increase during the washout period. A non-significant inverse correlation was noted between the plasma concentration of lycopene plus β-carotene and the level of 8-oxo-dG (P = 0.064). The radiation-induced MN and DIC frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner, and when compared at the same dose, the MN and DIC frequencies decreased during the intake period compared with those at baseline and then increased during the washout period. The results suggest that continuous tomato juice consumption non-significantly decreases extracellular 8-oxo-dG, d-ROMs, and MN. Tomato juice intake had minimal or no effect on radiation-induced 8-oxo-dG and d-ROMs. For most radiation doses, continuously tomato juice intake lowered the levels of MN and DIC. Tomato juice

  9. [The effect of kefir consumption on human immune system: a cytokine study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiloğlu, Ali Kudret; Gönülateş, Nurettin; Işler, Mehmet; Senol, Altuğ

    2013-04-01

    6th weeks (pkefir consumption (p= 0.046) but the increase was insignificant in paired comparisons and the level was borderline between 0th and 6th weeks (p= 0.013). IL-5 and TNF-α levels returned to their original levels (0th week) at 9th week. Levels of the other cytokines (IL-1 and TGF-β) did not change significantly with kefir usage. These results indicated that kefir use increased polarization of the immune response towards TH1 type and decreased TH2 type response and accordingly allergic response. The decrease in IL-8 level due to kefir use, might control the inflammatory response by suppressing neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. On the other hand it was also concluded that increased IL-5 might stimulate secretory IgA at gastrointestinal mucosa leading to a more efficient immune response in the intestinal lumen.

  10. CONSUMPTION OF SATURATED ANIMAL FATS IN THE DIET OF HUMANS MAY DECREASE THE RATE OF HEART DISEASE IN THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush Niknamian; Mehrandokht Nekavand

    2017-01-01

    Fats, as part of the human dietary regime are a concentrated source of energy. Animals contain saturated and plants contain unsaturated type of fatty acids. In this prospective research, the role of animal saturated fatty acids is highlighted and is proven to be a rational dietary source for the human diet. Saturated fats consumption is a wise choice in order to reduce the coronary heart disease risk, although it is believed in an opposite way. Researching through the healthiest tribes and kn...

  11. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and methylmercury on child's brain development due to consumption of fish by Finnish mother during pregnancy: a probabilistic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, O; Karjalainen, A K; Tuomisto, J T

    2013-04-01

    Fish contains both beneficial substances e.g. docosahexaenoic acids but also harmful compounds e.g. methylmercury. Importantly, the health effects caused by these two substances can be evaluated in one common end point, intelligence quotient (IQ), providing a more transparent analysis. We estimated health effects of maternal fish consumption on child's central nervous system by creating a model with three alternative maternal fish consumption scenarios (lean fish, fatty fish, and current fish consumption). Additionally, we analyzed impacts of both regular fish consumption and extreme fish consumption habits. At the individual level, the simulated net effects were small, encompassing a range of one IQ point in all scenarios. Fatty fish consumption, however, clearly generated a beneficial net IQ effect, and lean fish consumption evoked an adverse net IQ effect. In view of the current fish consumption pattern of Finnish mothers the benefits and risks seem to more or less compensate each other. This study clearly shows the significance of which fish species are consumed during pregnancy and lactation, and the results can be generalized to apply to typical western population fish consumption habits.

  12. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  13. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to the consumption of raw milk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bertasi, Barbara; Bilei, Stefano; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative risk assessment (RA) models were developed to describe the risk of salmonellosis and listeriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment considered the official microbiological records monitoring raw milk samples from vending machines performed by the regional veterinary authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, and consumption preference. Two separate RA models were developed: one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk. The RA models predicted no human listeriosis cases per year either in the best or worst storage conditions and with or without boiling raw milk, whereas the annual estimated cases of salmonellosis depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model, the milk storage conditions, and consumer behavior in relation to boiling raw milk or not. For example, the estimated salmonellosis cases ranged from no expected cases, assuming that the entire population boiled milk before consumption, to a maximum of 980,128 cases, assuming that the entire population drank raw milk without boiling, in the worst milk storage conditions, and with the lowest dose-response model. The findings of this study clearly show how consumer behavior could affect the probability and number of salmonellosis cases and in general, the risk of illness. Hence, the proposed RA models emphasize yet again that boiling milk before drinking is a simple yet effective tool to protect consumers against the risk of illness inherent in the consumption of raw milk. The models may also offer risk managers a useful tool to identify or implement appropriate measures to control the risk of acquiring foodborne pathogens. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective.

  14. Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2016-0001 Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures James E. Parker General...them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th ABW Public Affairs Office and is available to the general public, including foreign ...This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange , and its

  15. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference.

  16. [Determination of processing conditions for obtaining a pepitona (Arca zebra) hydrolysate for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixeras, S; Luna, G

    1985-12-01

    For the purpose of obtaining two protein hydrolysates from peptiona (Arca zebra), to be used as nutritional ingredients in accepted food items destined for human consumption, the enzymes bromelain and papain were studied. The effect of adding each of these proteases, on the rate of hydrolysis and conversion extent of insoluble pepitona protein to soluble nitrogen, were examined. Distilled water was added to the raw material to give a 2:1 ratio of solvent to pepitona, and mixed to produce a slurry at a pH of 6.4-6.5, with a total nitrogen value of 0.97% (w/v). Optimum conditions of hydrolysis were found to be two hours at 40 degrees C for both enzymes, at a pH of 7 and 0.3 g enzyme/100 g pepitona for papain, and a 0.2 g enzyme/100 g pepitona at pH 6.4 normally found in pepitona in the case of bromelain.

  17. Oral sensitivity to fatty acids, food consumption and BMI in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jessica E; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Golding, Matthew; Delahunty, Conor; Clifton, Peter M; Keast, Russell S J

    2010-07-01

    Fatty acids are the chemical moieties that are thought to stimulate oral nutrient sensors, which detect the fat content of foods. In animals, oral hypersensitivity to fatty acids is associated with decreased fat intake and body weight. The aims of the present study were to investigate oral fatty acid sensitivity, food selection and BMI in human subjects. The study included two parts; study 1 established in thirty-one subjects (29 (sem 1.4) years, 22.8 (sem 0.5) kg/m2) taste thresholds using 3-AFC (3-Alternate Forced Choice Methodology) for oleic, linoleic and lauric acids, and quantified oral lipase activity. During study 2, fifty-four subjects (20 (sem 0.3) years, 21.5 (sem 0.4) kg/m2) were screened for oral fatty acid sensitivity using oleic acid (1.4 mm), and they were defined as hypo- or hypersensitive via triplicate triangle tests. Habitual energy and macronutrient intakes were quantified from 2 d diet records, and BMI was calculated from height and weight. Subjects also completed a fat ranking task using custard containing varying amounts (0, 2, 6 and 10 %) of fat. Study 1 reported median lipase activity as 2 mumol fatty acids/min per l, and detection thresholds for oleic, linoleic and lauric acids were 2.2 (sem 0.1), 1.5 (sem 0.1) and 2.6 (sem 0.3) mm. Study 2 identified twelve hypersensitive subjects, and hypersensitivity was associated with lower energy and fat intakes, lower BMI (P acid was correlated to performance in the fat ranking task (r 0.4, P fatty acid hypersensitivity is associated with lower energy and fat intakes and BMI, and it may serve as a factor that influences fat consumption in human subjects.

  18. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kasa R N; Farhana, Nazira I; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-05-01

    Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia.

  19. Phylogenetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence traits of Aeromonas spp. from untreated waters for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria João; Martínez-Murcia, Antonio; Esteves, Ana Cristina; Correia, António; Saavedra, Maria José

    2012-10-15

    It is well known that water constitutes an important contamination route for microorganisms. This is especially true for Aeromonas which are widespread in untreated and treated waters. In this study, Portuguese untreated waters not regularly monitored were screened for the presence and diversity of aeromonads. A total of 206 isolates were discriminated by RAPD-PCR and 80 distinct strains were identified by gyrB based phylogenetic analysis. The most frequently detected species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas bestiarum and Aeromonas media. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of these strains was determined and showed a typical profile of the genus. Nonetheless, the percentage of resistant strains to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and/or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was lower than that reported for clinical isolates and isolates recovered from aquacultures and other environments historically subjected to antibiotic contamination. This suggests that the existence of such pressures in those environments selects for resistant Aeromonas. A similar trend for integron presence was found. Genes coding for CphA and TEM, and tet(A), (E), (C) or (D) genes were found in 28%, 1%, and 10% of the strains, respectively. 10% of the strains contained an integron. Variable regions of seven class 1 integrons and one class 2 integron were characterised. Furthermore, strains displayed virulence related phenotypes such as extracellular lipolytic and proteolytic activities as well as aerolysin related genes (43% of strains). The ascV and aexT genes were found in 16% and 3% of strains respectively and, in some cases, concomitantly in the same specimen. This study shows that diverse Aeromonas spp. presenting distinct antibiotic resistance features and putative virulence traits are frequently present in waters for human and animal consumption in Portugal. Genes associated to antibiotic resistance and microbial virulence previously identified in organisms with human health significance

  20. Oxygen consumption and blood flow coupling in human motor cortex during intense finger tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi Vafaee, Manouchehr; Vang, Kim; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Rates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMR(glc)) rise in cerebral cortex during continuous stimulation, while the oxygen-glucose index (OGI) declines as an index of mismatched coupling of oxygen consumption (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen-CMRO(2)) to CBF and CMR...

  1. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-08-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An empirical study of the impact of human activity on long-term temperature change in China: A perspective from energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Xinyi

    2012-09-01

    Human activity is an important contributor to local temperature change, especially in urban areas. Energy consumption is treated here as an index of the intensity of human induced local thermal forcing. The relationship between energy consumption and temperature change is analyzed in China by Observation Minus Reanalysis (OMR) method. Temperature trends for observation, reanalysis and OMR are estimated from meteorological records and 2 m-temperature from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 for the period 1979-2007. A spatial mapping scheme based on the spatial and temporal relationship between energy consumption and Gross Domestic Production (GDP) is developed to derive the spatial distribution of energy consumption of China in 2003. A positive relationship between energy consumption and OMR trends is found in high and mid energy consumption region. OMR trends decline with the decreasing intensity of human activity from 0.20°C/decade in high energy consumption region to 0.13°C/decade in mid energy consumption region. Forty-four stations in high energy consumption region that are exposed to the largest human impact are selected to investigate the impact of energy consumption spatial pattern on temperature change. Results show human impact on temperature trends is highly dependent on spatial pattern of energy consumption. OMR trends decline from energy consumption center to surrounding areas (0.26 to 0.04°C/decade) and get strengthened as the spatial extent of high energy consumption area expands (0.14 to 0.25°C/decade).

  3. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  4. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  5. Myocardial oxygen consumption change predicts left ventricular relaxation improvement in obese humans after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Huie; Kurup, Suraj; Herrero, Pilar; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Eagon, J Christopher; Klein, Samuel; Dávila-Román, Víctor G; Stein, Richard I; Dorn, Gerald W; Gropler, Robert J; Waggoner, Alan D; Peterson, Linda R

    2011-09-01

    Obesity adversely affects myocardial metabolism, efficiency, and diastolic function. Our objective was to determine whether weight loss can ameliorate obesity-related myocardial metabolism and efficiency derangements and that these improvements directly relate to improved diastolic function in humans. We studied 30 obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) subjects with positron emission tomography (PET) (myocardial metabolism, blood flow) and echocardiography (structure, function) before and after marked weight loss from gastric bypass surgery (N = 10) or moderate weight loss from diet (N = 20). Baseline BMI, insulin resistance, hemodynamics, left ventricular (LV) mass, systolic function, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and fatty acid (FA) metabolism were similar between the groups. MVO2/g decreased after diet-induced weight loss (P = 0.009). Total MVO2 decreased after dietary (P = 0.02) and surgical weight loss (P = 0.0006) and was related to decreased BMI (P = 0.006). Total myocardial FA utilization decreased (P = 0.03), and FA oxidation trended lower (P = 0.06) only after surgery. FA esterification and LV efficiency were unchanged. After surgical weight loss, LV mass decreased by 23% (Doppler-derived) E/E' by 33%, and relaxation increased (improved) by 28%. Improved LV relaxation related significantly to decreased BMI, insulin resistance, total MVO2, and LV mass but not FA utilization. Decreased total MVO(2) predicted LV relaxation improvement independent of BMI change (P = 0.02). Weight loss can ameliorate the obesity-related derangements in myocardial metabolism and LV structure and diastolic function. Decreased total MVO2 independently predicted improved LV relaxation, suggesting that myocardial oxygen metabolism may be mechanistically important in determining cardiac relaxation.

  6. Data Mining of Historical Human Data to Assess the Risk of Injury due to Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jesica; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, N.; Gernhardt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    deflection was determined from motion capture video of the impact test. HIC- 15 and BRIC were calculated from head acceleration responses. Given the number of human subjects for each test condition a confidence interval of injury probability will be obtained. RESULTS: Results will be discussed in terms of injury-risk probability estimates based on the human data set evaluated. Also, gaps in the data set will be identified. These gaps could be one of two types. One is areas where additional THOR testing would increase the comparable human data set, thereby improving confidence in the injury probability rate. The other is where additional human testing would assist in obtaining information on other acceleration levels or directions. DISCUSSION: The historical human data showed validity of the THOR ATD for supplemental testing. The historical human data are limited in scope, however. Further data are needed to characterize the effects of sex, age, anthropometry, and deconditioning due to spaceflight on risk of injury

  7. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    , research on the root causes of environmentally harmful human behavior is reviewed. Why is there no satiation of consumption in sight, even in the most affluent countries, and why do people continue to make choices that are known to be environmentally harmful? While potentially catastrophic, the harms from...

  8. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  9. Human infections due to Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, an emerging zoonosis of canine origin: report of 24 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, R; Priyantha, M A R; Rubin, J E; Church, D

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has been recently identified as a novel species within the genus Staphylococcus, and is commonly associated with infections in dogs. Currently, there are few reports of human infections due to this bacterium. To use a population-based approach to describe the characteristics of human S. pseudintermedius infections in a large Canadian healthcare region. All adult cases aged ≥18 years identified at a large regional laboratory from April 1, 2013 to April 1, 2015 who had at least one positive culture for S. pseudintermedius were retrospectively reviewed. A combination of phenotypic methods, mass spectrometry (i.e., MALDI-TOF), and cpn60 sequencing were used to identify S. pseudintermedius. Chart review was conducted, and cases were analysed descriptively. Twenty-seven isolates of S. pseudintermedius from 24 human cases were included for analysis. 58.3% were male with median age of 61 years (IQR 55-70.5). Most patients [22 (92.1%)] had confirmed contact with dogs at time of infection. S. pseudintermedius was isolated in 18 cases (75.0%) of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and 2 invasive cases (8.3%) including a prosthetic joint and bloodstream infection. The other 4 patients were considered to be colonized (skin - 3; lung - 1). Methicillin resistance was identified in 3 cases with 6 total isolates (22.2%); multi-drug resistance was also demonstrated commonly. S. pseudintermedius is most commonly associated with SSTIs in humans. Transmission probably occurs from a pet dog. Species-level identification of S. pseudintermedius is important due to the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance, particularly to methicillin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatic expression of detoxification enzymes is decreased in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chai

    Full Text Available Levels of bile acid metabolic enzymes and membrane transporters have been reported to change in cholestasis. These alterations (e.g. CYP7A1 repression and MRP4 induction are thought to be adaptive responses that attenuate cholestatic liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms of these adaptive responses in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction remain unclear.We collected liver samples from cholestatic patients with biliary obstruction due to gallstones and from control patients without liver disease (n = 22 per group. The expression levels of bile acid synthetic and detoxification enzymes, membrane transporters, and the related nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors were measured.The levels of bile acid synthetic enzymes, CYP7B1 and CYP8B1, and the detoxification enzyme CYP2B6 were increased in cholestatic livers by 2.4-fold, 2.8-fold, and 1.9-fold, respectively (p<0.05. Conversely, the expression levels of liver detoxification enzymes, UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1-4, and GSTM1-4, were reduced by approximately 50% (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. The levels of membrane transporters, OSTβ and OCT1, were increased 10.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively, (p<0.05, whereas those of OSTα, ABCG2 and ABCG8 were all decreased by approximately 40%, (p<0.05 in human cholestatic livers. Hepatic nuclear receptors, VDR, HNF4α, RXRα and RARα, were induced (approximately 2.0-fold, (p<0.05 whereas FXR levels were markedly reduced to 44% of control, (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. There was a significantly positive correlation between the reduction in FXR mRNA and UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1, ABCG2/8 mRNA levels in livers of obstructive cholestatic patients (p<0.05.The levels of hepatic detoxification enzymes were significantly decreased in human obstructive cholestasis, and these decreases were positively associated with a marked reduction of FXR levels. These findings are consistent with impaired

  11. The Human Carbon Budget: An Estimate of the Spatial Distribution of Metabolic Carbon Consumption and Release in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is taken up by agricultural crops and released soon after during the consumption of agricultural commodities. The global net impact of this process on carbon flux to the atmosphere is negligible, but impact on the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide uptake and release across regions and continents is significant. To estimate the consumption and release of carbon by humans over the landscape, we developed a carbon budget for humans in the United States. The budget was derived from food commodity intake data for the US and from algorithms representing the metabolic processing of carbon by humans. Data on consumption, respiration, and waste of carbon by humans were distributed over the US using geospatial population data with a resolution of approximately 450 x 450 m. The average adult in the US contains about 21 kg C and consumes about 67 kg C yr-1 which is balanced by the annual release of about 59 kg C as expired CO2, 7 kg C as feces and urine, and less than 1 kg C as flatus, sweat, and aromatic compounds. In 2000, an estimated 17.2 Tg C were consumed by the US population and 15.2 Tg C were expired to the atmosphere as CO2. Historically, carbon stock in the US human population has increased between 1790-2006 from 0.06 Tg to 5.37 Tg. Displacement and release of total harvested carbon per capita in the US is nearly 12% of per capita fossil fuel emissions. Humans are using, storing, and transporting carbon about the Earth s surface. Inclusion of these carbon dynamics in regional carbon budgets can improve our understanding of carbon sources and sinks.

  12. Chronic ethanol consumption increases the levels of chemerin in the serum and adipose tissue of humans and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-zhen REN; Xu ZHANG; Jin XU; Hai-qing ZHANG; Chun-xiao YU; Ming-feng CAO; Ling GAO; Qing-bo GUAN; Jia-jun ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    Chemerin is a new adipokine involved in adipogenesis and insulin resistance.Since ethanol affects the insulin sensitivity that is closely associated with adipokines.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol on chemerin in humans and rats.Methods:In the human study,148 men who consumed alcohol for more than 3 years and 55 men who abstained from alcohol were included.Based on ethanol consumption per day,the drinkers were classified into 3 groups:low-dose (<15 g/d),middle-dose (15-47.9 g/d) and high-dose (≥48 g/d).Anthropometric measurementsand serum parameters were collected.In the rat study,27 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups administered water or ethanol (0.5,2.5,or 5 g·kg-1·d-1) for 22 weeks.The chemerin levels in the sera,visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver were measured using ELISA.Results:In the high-dose group of humans and middle- and high-dose groups of rats,chronic ethanol consumption significantly increased the serum chemerin level.Both the middle- and high-dose ethanol significantly increased the chemerin level in the VAT of rats.In humans,triglyceride,fasting glucose,insulin and HOMA-IR were independently associated with chemerin.In rats,the serum chemerin level was positively correlated with chemerin in the VAT after adjustments for the liver chemerin (r=+0.768).High-dose ethanol significantly increased the body fat in humans and the VAT in rats.Conclusion:Chronic ethanol consumption dose-dependently increases the chemerin levels in the serum and VAT.The serum chemerin level is associated with metabolic parameters in humans.The increased serum chemerin level is mainly attributed to an elevation of chemerin in the VAT after the ethanol treatment.

  13. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates

  14. Isothiocyanate concentrations and interconversion of sulforaphane to erucin in human subjects after consumption of commercial frozen broccoli compared to fresh broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shikha; Hollands, Wendy; Teucher, Birgit; Needs, Paul W; Narbad, Arjan; Ortori, Catharine A; Barrett, David A; Rossiter, John T; Mithen, Richard F; Kroon, Paul A

    2012-12-01

    Sulforaphane (a potent anticarcinogenic isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphanin) is widely considered responsible for the protective effects of broccoli consumption. Broccoli is typically purchased fresh or frozen and cooked before consumption. We compared the bioavailability and metabolism of sulforaphane from portions of lightly cooked fresh or frozen broccoli, and investigated the bioconversion of sulforaphane to erucin. Eighteen healthy volunteers consumed broccoli soups produced from fresh or frozen broccoli florets that had been lightly cooked and sulforaphane thio-conjugates quantified in plasma and urine. Sulforaphane bioavailability was about tenfold higher for the soups made from fresh compared to frozen broccoli, and the reduction was shown to be due to destruction of myrosinase activity by the commercial blanching-freezing process. Sulforaphane appeared in plasma and urine in its free form and as several thio-conjugates forms. Erucin N-acetyl-cysteine conjugate was a significant urinary metabolite, and it was shown that human gut microflora can produce sulforaphane, erucin, and their nitriles from glucoraphanin. The short period of blanching used to produce commercial frozen broccoli destroys myrosinase and substantially reduces sulforaphane bioavailability. Sulforaphane was converted to erucin and excreted in urine, and it was shown that human colonic flora were capable of this conversion. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. ESTIMATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES FROM NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RADIONUCLIDES DUE TO DRINKING-WATER CONSUMPTION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF DIFFERENT AREAS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju. N. Goncharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The report contains data on specific activity values of natural and artificial radionuclides in the water of underground and surface sources in 19 areas of Russian Federation and data on population internal exposure doses from drinking water consumption in these areas.

  16. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P < 0.05). Again, increased periodontal destruction was not necessarily followed by a decrease in the amount of dentin- and pulp-like tissue formed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that periodontally compromised teeth might

  17. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Krista S; Siebrant, Sarah M; Brown, Gregory A; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move, and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a "physically active" home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system.

  18. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified. Agenera

  19. Effects of consumption of Brussels sprouts on intestinal and lymphocytic glutathione S-transferases in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, W.A.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verhagen, H.; Poppel, G. van; Peters, W.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    A high intake of glucosinolate-containing cruciferous vegetables, such as Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleraceae), has been linked to a decreased cancer risk, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal possible modulating effects of consumption of Brussels sprou

  20. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2013-09-17

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.

  1. An experimental investigation of composite floor vibration due to human activities. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser G. Mohamed Fahmy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite steel floor decks are used in a large variety of constructions with long spans, such as administration and commercial buildings, hotels and bridges. Due to decreased floor mass and longer span lengths, floor vibrations have become an area of concern. Floor decks with low frequencies may be in resonance with the vibrations due to human activities and the resulting acceleration may exceed human comfort levels. The design of slender floor structures, with steel or composite cross sections, is often limited by the serviceability criteria such as deflection limits and vibration behavior, rather than the strength criteria. Control of deflections under AISC specifications requirement is not enough to satisfy the serviceability requirements of the floor systems for vibration. In addition, vibration analysis procedures introduced by AISC design Guide No. 11 are based on regularly-shaped structures and simple boundary conditions. In this paper, a case study for full scale testing of a composite floor system proposed for a tower at Kuwait state that was tested prior to construction. The heel-drop and walking tests are performed on floor systems with and without raised floor respectively. Since heel-drop and walking test results would vary in light of person performance, both tests are carried out three or four times to reduce uncertainty. The fundamental frequencies and damping ratio of the floor system are measured. Comparison of the experimental results with results based on the AISC hand calculations shows that there is no significant difference; therefore the results based on AISC are generally acceptable.

  2. Bioavailability of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following consumption of raspberries by healthy humans and subjects with an ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, Rocío; Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-04-14

    The fate of anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and ellagitannins was studied following the consumption of 300 g of raspberries by healthy human volunteers and subjects with an ileostomy. Postingestion plasma and urine from the former and ileal fluid and urine from the latter group were collected and analyzed by HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Plasma from the healthy volunteers did not contain detectable quantities of either the native raspberry polyphenolics or their metabolites. The three main raspberry anthocyanins were excreted in urine in both healthy and ileostomy volunteers 0-7 h after ingestion, in quantities corresponding to urolithin A-O-glucuronide, two of its isomers, and urolithin B-O-glucuronide in urine collected 7-48 h after raspberry consumption. There was marked variation in the urolithin profile of individual volunteers, indicating differences in the colonic microflora responsible for ellagitannin degradation.

  3. Computational dosimetry for grounded and ungrounded human models due to contact current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok Hung; Hattori, Junya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Taki, Masao

    2013-08-01

    This study presents the computational dosimetry of contact currents for grounded and ungrounded human models. The uncertainty of the quasi-static (QS) approximation of the in situ electric field induced in a grounded/ungrounded human body due to the contact current is first estimated. Different scenarios of cylindrical and anatomical human body models are considered, and the results are compared with the full-wave analysis. In the QS analysis, the induced field in the grounded cylindrical model is calculated by the QS finite-difference time-domain (QS-FDTD) method, and compared with the analytical solution. Because no analytical solution is available for the grounded/ungrounded anatomical human body model, the results of the QS-FDTD method are then compared with those of the conventional FDTD method. The upper frequency limit for the QS approximation in the contact current dosimetry is found to be 3 MHz, with a relative local error of less than 10%. The error increases above this frequency, which can be attributed to the neglect of the displacement current. The QS or conventional FDTD method is used for the dosimetry of induced electric field and/or specific absorption rate (SAR) for a contact current injected into the index finger of a human body model in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 MHz. The in situ electric fields or SAR are compared with the basic restrictions in the international guidelines/standards. The maximum electric field or the 99th percentile value of the electric fields appear not only in the fat and muscle tissues of the finger, but also around the wrist, forearm, and the upper arm. Some discrepancies are observed between the basic restrictions for the electric field and SAR and the reference levels for the contact current, especially in the extremities. These discrepancies are shown by an equation that relates the current density, tissue conductivity, and induced electric field in the finger with a cross-sectional area of 1 cm2.

  4. Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.

  5. Association between sodium bicarbonate consumption and human health: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadolah Fakhri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda is a chemical compound dissolved in water which is widely used as an additive in foods and mineral water and as a medicine. In Iran, due to the introduction of harmful effects of this compound, using it in baking is prohibited. Therefore, we tried to search and evaluate all health effects of using this compound with a systematic review. In this study, all available evidences on the beneficial and harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate were searched. The method was based on systematic study of reputable databases including Embase, Ovid, Scopus, Pubmed and ISI Web of science. Invalid studies were found that shows the relationship of harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate on general health. In addition to that, the studies showed therapeutic aspects and useful effects of this material. Some studies showed the harmful effects of therapeutic using of sodium bicarbonate with high dose that randomly happened. Reviewing of credible studies showed that not only using sodium bicarbonate is not harmful for human health, but also using it as a drug can be useful in treatment and relief of some diseases

  6. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of

  7. A discrete-event model to simulate the effect of truck bunching due to payload variance on cycle time, hauled mine materials and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Soofastaei; S.M. Aminossadati; M.S. Kizil; P. Knights

    2016-01-01

    Data collected from truck payload management systems at various surface mines shows that the payload variance is significant and must be considered in analysing the mine productivity, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and associated cost. Payload variance causes significant differences in gross vehicle weights. Heavily loaded trucks travel slower up ramps than lightly loaded trucks. Faster trucks are slowed by the presence of slower trucks, resulting in‘bunching’, production losses and increasing fuel consumptions. This paper simulates the truck bunching phenomena in large surface mines to improve truck and shovel systems’ efficiency and minimise fuel consumption. The study concentrated on complet-ing a practical simulation model based on a discrete event method which is most commonly used in this field of research in other industries. The simulation model has been validated by a dataset collected from a large surface mine in Arizona state, USA. The results have shown that there is a good agreement between the actual and estimated values of investigated parameters.

  8. Consumption patterns and levels among households with HIV positive members and economic impoverishment due to medical spending in Pune city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Krishnaswamy, Divya; Mulay, Sanjeevanee

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection poses a serious threat to the economy of a household. Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can be prohibitive and can drag households below poverty level. Based on the data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 401 households with HIV+ members in Pune city, India, this paper examines the consumption levels and patterns among households, and comments on the economic impoverishment resulting from OOP medical spending. Analysis reveals that households with HIV members spend a major portion of their monthly consumption expenditure on food items. Medical expenditure constitutes a large portion of their total consumption spending. Expenditure on children's education constitutes a minor proportion of total monthly spending. A high proportion of medical expenditure has a bearing on the economic condition of households with HIV members. Poverty increases by 20% among the studied HIV households when OOP health spending is adjusted. It increases 18% among male-headed households and 26% among female-headed households. The results reiterate the need of greater support from the government in terms of accessibility and affordability of health care to save households with HIV members from economic catastrophe.

  9. Human values and the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern: A panel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2002-01-01

    In this study, data from a random sample of Danish consumers are used to test the hypothesis that the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern is influenced by individual value priorities. By the use of a cross-lagged panel design and structural equation modelling it is possible to draw fir...... firmer conclusions about the direction of causality than has been possible in previous research. Udgivelsesdato: OCT...

  10. Coffee consumption is associated with DNA methylation levels of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Quach, Austin; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles; Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate

    2017-05-01

    Beneficial health effects have been attributed to coffee consumption, but it is not yet known whether epigenetics may have a role in this process. Here we associate epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels to habitual coffee consumption from two studies with blood (2100 and 215 participants), and one with saliva samples (256 participants). Adjusting for age, gender, and blood cell composition, one CpG (cg21566642 near ALPPL2) surpassed genome-wide significance (P=3.7 × 10(-10)) and from among 10 additional CpGs significant at P≤5.0 × 10(-6), six were located within 1500 bps of a transcriptional start site. Results for these 11 top-ranked CpGs remained significant after further adjusting for smoking. Also, methylation levels of another 135 CpGs were influenced by both coffee drinking and smoking (P≤1.0 × 10(-7)). Functional enrichment analysis suggested that coffee-associated CpGs were located near transcription factor binding (P=1.2 × 10(-6)) and protein kinase activity genes (P=2.9 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, when we stratified by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), methylation differences with coffee consumption were observed only in women who never used MHT. We did not replicate any of the associations found in blood in our saliva samples, suggesting that coffee may affect DNA methylation levels in immune cells of the blood but not in saliva.

  11. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001–100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  12. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Dynamics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Craig, Theodore A.; Folmes, Clifford D.; Wang, Xuewei; Ian R. Lanza; Schaible, Niccole S.; Salisbury, Jeffrey L.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Terzic, Andre; Sieck, Gary C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Muscle weakness and myopathy are observed in vitamin D deficiency and chronic renal failure, where concentrations of the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), are low. To evaluate the mechanism of action of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in skeletal muscle, we examined mitochondrial oxygen consumption, dynamics, and biogenesis and changes in expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle cells following treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3. The mit...

  13. Decarbonization of the German energy system due to falling or rising power consumption?; Dekarbonisierung des deutschen Energiesystems durch sinkenden oder steigenden Stromverbrauch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guminski, Andrej; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Since the publication of the draft ''Climate Protection Plan 2050'' and the ''Green Paper on Energy Efficiency'', it is clear that the Federal Government is focusing on the electrification of the heat and transport sector in order to increase the share of renewable energies in these sectors. This step is not uncontroversial, and represents a paradigm shift in science and politics, because the reduction of the cross electricity consumption move into the background. It is now necessary to clearly distinguish between the conventional power consumption, which must continue to be tested for energy savings and efficiency potential, and the new power consumption, here referred to as the coupling current, which is accepted in order to achieve the objectives of the energy transition. Since the consideration of the energy transition as a purely national project is too short, possible positive and negative effects of the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) deserve particular attention with regard to this reorientation. [German] Spaetestens seit der Veroeffentlichung des Entwurfs zum ''Klimaschutzplan 2050'' und des ''Gruenbuch Energieeffizienz'' ist klar, dass die Bundesregierung auf die Elektrifizierung des Waerme- und Verkehrssektors setzt, um den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in diesen Sektoren zu steigern. Dieser Schritt ist nicht unumstritten und stellt einen Paradigmenwechsel in Wissenschaft und Politik dar, denn auf einmal rueckt die Senkung des Bruttostromverbrauchs in den Hintergrund. Es gilt jetzt, klar zu trennen zwischen dem herkoemmlichen Stromverbrauch, der weiterhin auf Energieeinspar- und -effizienzpotenziale hin untersucht werden muss, und dem neuen, hier Koppelstrom genannten Stromverbrauch, welcher in Kauf genommen wird, um die Ziele der Energiewende zu erreichen. Da die Betrachtung der Energiewende als rein nationales Projekt zu kurz greift, verdienen moegliche

  14. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption.

  15. Characteristics of the vibratory reflex in humans with reduced suprasegmental influence due to spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, A M; Dimitrijevic, M R; Bacia, T; McKay, W B

    1993-01-01

    The tonic stretch reflex elicited by vibration of a muscle or tendon provides a means of studying segmental reflex activity in humans with impaired volitional motor activity due to spinal cord injury (SCI). Vibration applied to the achilles or patellar tendon in a group of 51 SCI subjects elicited motor unit activity different from that found in 12 healthy subjects. Four distinct features of motor unit responses to vibration of a single tendon (achilles or patellar) could be seen in the SCI subjects: (i) a rapid onset, tonic response, frequently beginning with a single burst analogous to a tendon jerk, in 72% of vibrated sites; (ii) repetitive, phasic bursts of activity or vibratory-induced clonus in 23% of the tonic responses; (iii) spread of activity to muscles distant from the vibration in 44% of the tonic responses; and vibratory-induced withdrawal reflexes (VWR) which occurred after vibration of 37% of the sites. Overall, 81% of stimulated sites responded to vibration in SCI subjects. In contrast, only 54% of vibrated sites responded in control subjects, always with a gradual onset tonic response, never accompanied by a VWR. The VWR in SCI subjects was typically of much larger amplitude than the tonic responses and involved a mean of 5 muscles (41% bilaterally). Features of these responses provide an insight into underlying neurocontrol mechanisms which may provide guidance in the selection of appropriate intervention or management strategies.

  16. Acute liver failure due to Human Herpesvirus 6 in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tronconi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus, drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6 genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases’ review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus’s genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  17. [Acute liver failure due to human herpesvirus 6 in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronconi, G M; Mariani, B; Pajno, R; Fomasi, M; Cococcioni, L; Biffi, V; Bove, M; Corsin, P; Garbetta, G; Barera, G

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF) with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus), drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases' review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus's genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  18. Malignancies and infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus. Are these emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Ortega, M E

    2017-09-02

    Since the start of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, tumour disease among patients has been significant. The collection of malignancies can be divided primarily into 2 groups: those associated with HIV (all of which are related to viral diseases) and those not associated with HIV (only some of which are associated with viral diseases). The origin of these malignancies is multifactorial, and the main causes that have led to an increase in tumour disease are immunosuppression, coinfection with oncogenic viruses and life prolongation secondary to the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing the general characteristics of the undiagnosed AIDS tumours is difficult, mainly because they are a highly heterogeneous group formed by malignancies of a diverse nature. The treatments do not differ from those used in the general population, although the management can be more difficult due to the late diagnosis, drug interactions and associated comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. Human exposure to mercury, lead and cadmium through consumption of canned mackerel, tuna, pilchard and sardine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, H; Voegborlo, R B; Agorku, S E

    2015-07-15

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were determined in canned fish on the Ghanaian market. Total mercury was determined using an automatic mercury analyzer while cadmium and lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in μg g(-1) (wet weight), varied from canned fish from the Ghanaian market have concentrations well below the permissible FAO/WHO for these toxic metals. Thus considering the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Hg, Pb and Cd the levels obtained in this study are unlikely to constitute a significant exposure to the public through consumption of moderate amounts.

  20. Quantitative risk assessment for human salmonellosis through the consumption of pork sausage in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürmann, Lisandra; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Collor, Alexandre Ávila; Cardoso, Marisa

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative microbiology risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the risk of Salmonella infection to consumers of fresh pork sausages prepared at barbecues in Porto Alegre, Brazil. For the analysis, a prevalence of 24.4% positive pork sausages with a level of contamination between 0.03 and 460 CFU g(-1) was assumed. Data related to frequency and habits of consumption were obtained by a questionnaire survey given to 424 people. A second-order Monte Carlo simulation separating the uncertain parameter of cooking time from the variable parameters was run. Of the people interviewed, 87.5% consumed pork sausage, and 85.4% ate it at barbecues. The average risk of salmonellosis per barbecue at a minimum cooking time of 15.6 min (worst-case scenario) was 6.24 × 10(-4), and the risk assessed per month was 1.61 × 10(-3). Cooking for 19 min would fully inactivate Salmonella in 99.9% of the cases. At this cooking time, the sausage reached a mean internal temperature of 75.7°C. The results of the quantitative microbiology risk assessment revealed that the consumption of fresh pork sausage is safe when cooking time is approximately 19 min, whereas undercooked pork sausage may represent a nonnegligible health risk for consumers.

  1. Regular consumption of fresh orange juice increases human skin carotenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenti, Roberto; Perrone, Anna; Livrea, Maria Antonietta; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status in the body. This study aimed to determine whether regular consumption of orange juice could increase dermal carotenoids. Two types of orange juice, obtained from regularly (CI) and partially (PRD) irrigated trees, were tested to reveal any possible association between juice and dermal carotenoids. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total carotenoids were quantified in the juice; skin carotenoid score (SCS) was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoid content was 7.3% higher in PRD than in CI juice, inducing no difference in SCS. In a first trial with daily juice intakes for 25 days, SCS increased linearly (10%) in the individual with higher initial SCS, and exponentially (15%) in the individual with lower initial SCS. In a second trial, SCS showed a 6.5% increase after 18 days of drinking juice every other day, but returned to initial values three days after last intake. Skin carotenoids can be increased by regular consumption of fresh orange juice, while their persistence may depend on the accumulation level, environmental conditions or living habits.

  2. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap % was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0 and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24 by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002. In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

  3. Effect of a synbiotic food consumption on human gut metabolic profiles evaluated by (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagijimana, Maurice; Laghi, Luca; Vitali, Beatrice; Placucci, Giuseppe; Brigidi, Patrizia; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta

    2009-08-31

    The capacity of human lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to produce metabolites under conditions that may prevail in the human intestine has been studied "in vitro". However, the effect of systematic probiotic consumption on human metabolic phenotype has not been investigated in faeces. This paper shows the potential for the use of (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy for studying the changes of the metabolic profiles of human faecal slurries. Faeces of 16 subjects, characterized by different natural levels of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were recovered before and after 1 month of supplementation with a synbiotic food based on Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum and fructooligosaccharides, and analyzed by (1)H NMR. Multivariate statistical approach has been applied to the data obtained and particularly Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP). More than 150 molecules belonging to short chain fatty acids, organic acids, esters, alcohols and amino acids were detected and quantified in the samples considered. The number and the extent of these molecules in faecal slurries were strongly affected by the synbiotic food consumption and gave rise to characteristic metabolic signature. In particular, the short chain fatty acid concentrations significantly increased while the amino acids contents decreased. The comparison of the data indicated that the intake of the synbiotic food alters the host metabolism in a measure dependent on the initial level of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria detected in the faecal specimens. The analysis of (1)H NMR profiles with CAP allowed a separation of faecal samples of the subjects on the basis of the synbiotic food intake. The multivariate statistical approach used demonstrated the potential of NMR metabolic profiles to provide biomarkers of the gut-microbial activity related to dietary supplementation of probiotics.

  4. Hydro-ecological degradation due to human impacts in the Twin Streams Watershed, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    wide range of impacts due to human actions which will exacerbated by future development as the population in the watershed is forecast to increase by at least 65% and the likely impacts of global warming. The rural watershed generates sediment which smothers the streams and harbor, while the urban watershed is the source of point and diffuse contamination with heavy metals which damage ecosystems. Evidence of impacts is given by the extent of flooding, reduced ecological flows and sampling results showing that more than 50% of the sites do not comply with environmental guidelines for: water clarity, turbidity, suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, zinc, conductivity, Dieldrin, DDT, Dissolved Oxygen, E.Coli, macroinvertebrates ,etc. , with water quality deteriorating progressively downstream where there is greater urbanization. But perhaps the most stunning evidence of the impacts was established by comparing aerial photographs of the 1940s and 2006 and seeing the build-up of sediments in the estuaries, the change in vegetation cover and discolored water. It is highly likely that the tipping point was reached before urbanization started but there is no doubt that urban development has accelerated the impacts, which has been corroborated by studies in other watersheds in Auckland.

  5. The influence of human behaviour on the energy consumption in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2010-01-01

    Occupant behaviour influences the amount of energy consumed to sustain a comfortable indoor environment. However, the extent to which occupant behaviour affects building energy consumption is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of this influence. This paper...... describes two studies using dynamic computer simulations of occupant behaviour in dwellings. The first study included simulations of a naïve and a rational behaving occupant. The naïve occupant controlled the indoor climate using an energy expensive behaviour, while the rational occupant controlled...... the indoor climate in an energy efficient way. The simulated occupant could manipulate six controls, such as turning on or off the heat and adjusting clothing. All control actions were carried out with the aim of keeping the PMV value within predefined limits. An energy consuming and an energy efficient...

  6. Consumption of human milk glycoconjugates by infant-associated bifidobacteria: mechanisms and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Daniel; Dallas, David C; Mills, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a rich source of nutrients and energy, shaped by mammalian evolution to provide all the nutritive requirements of the newborn. In addition, several molecules in breast milk act as bioactive agents, playing an important role in infant protection and guiding a proper development. While major breast milk nutrients such as lactose, lipids and proteins are readily digested and consumed by the infant, other molecules, such as human milk oligosaccharides and glycosylated proteins and l...

  7. Use of colony-based bacterial strain typing for tracking the fate of Lactobacillus strains during human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drevinek Pavel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are important components of the healthy gut flora and have been used extensively as probiotics. Understanding the cultivable diversity of LAB before and after probiotic administration, and being able to track the fate of administered probiotic isolates during feeding are important parameters to consider in the design of clinical trials to assess probiotic efficacy. Several methods may be used to identify bacteria at the strain level, however, PCR-based methods such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD are particularly suited to rapid analysis. We examined the cultivable diversity of LAB in the human gut before and after feeding with two Lactobacillus strains, and also tracked the fate of these two administered strains using a RAPD technique. Results A RAPD typing scheme was developed to genetically type LAB isolates from a wide range of species, and optimised for direct application to bacterial colony growth. A high-throughput strategy for fingerprinting the cultivable diversity of human faeces was developed and used to determine: (i the initial cultivable LAB strain diversity in the human gut, and (ii the fate of two Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius NCIMB 30211 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30156 contained within a capsule that was administered in a small-scale human feeding study. The L. salivarius strain was not cultivated from the faeces of any of the 12 volunteers prior to capsule administration, but appeared post-feeding in four. Strains matching the L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 feeding strain were found in the faeces of three volunteers prior to consumption; after taking the Lactobacillus capsule, 10 of the 12 volunteers were culture positive for this strain. The appearance of both Lactobacillus strains during capsule consumption was statistically significant (p Conclusion We have shown that genetic strain typing of the cultivable human gut microbiota can be

  8. Mercury and selenium concentrations in the internal organs of toothed whales and dolphins marketed for human consumption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi; Sakata, Masakatsu

    2002-12-02

    Small cetaceans (toothed whales odontoceti and dolphins delphinidae) have been traditionally hunted along the coast of Japan and fresh red meat and blubber, as well as boiled internal organs such as liver, kidney, lung and small intestine, are still being sold for human consumption. We surveyed mercury contamination in boiled liver, kidney and lung products marketed in Japan between 1999-2001. The average +/- S.D. of total mercury (T-Hg) was 370 +/- 525 (range: 7.60 approximately 1980, n = 26) microg/g in liver, 40.5 +/- 48.5 (7.30-95.1, n = 15) microg/g in kidney and 42.8 +/- 43.8 (2.10-79.6, n = 23) microg/g in lung. A high correlation was observed between T-Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in these organs, supporting the formation of a Hg-Se complex. The formation of a Hg-Se complex probably contribute to the detoxification of Hg for cetaceans and allows a very large accumulation of Hg in livers. The provisional permitted level of T-Hg in marine foods set by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is 0.4 microg/ g, and the provisional permitted weekly intake (PTWI) set by WHO is 5 microg/kg bw/week. The maximal T-Hg detected in boiled liver (1,980 microg/g) exceeds the permitted level by approximately 5,000 times and the consumption of only 0.15 g of liver exceeds the PTWI of 60 kg of body weight of the consumer, suggesting the possibility of an acute intoxication by T-Hg even after a single consumption of the product.

  9. Energy Dissipation from Vibrating Floor Slabs due to Human-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M.W. Brownjohn

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight pre-cast flooring systems using post-tensioning to increase strength but not stiffness are increasingly popular, and vibration serviceability problems tend to govern design of such floors where human occupants are increasingly concerned with vibrations. At the same time as inducing response, stationary human observers can also participate in the response as mitigating influence and it is clear that a human behaves as a highly effective damper, even when seated.

  10. Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risks due to shellfish consumption; Epidemiologie des risques toxiques et infectieux lies a la consommation de coquillages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desenclos, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are resent in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: typhoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plankton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are concentrated. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh. This surveillance allows the classification o growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved surveillance, the development of more sensitive indicators, the responsibleness of the industry and the information of the public on the health hazards associated with shellfish consumption are the key issues for the improvement of shellfish-borne disease prevention. (author) 106 refs.

  11. Spatial decoupling of agricultural production and consumption: quantifying dependences of countries on food imports due to domestic land and water constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Gerten, Dieter; Krause, Michael; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    In our globalizing world, the geographical locations of food production and consumption are becoming increasingly disconnected, which increases reliance on external resources and their trade. We quantified to what extent water and land constraints limit countries’ capacities, at present and by 2050, to produce on their own territory the crop products that they currently import from other countries. Scenarios of increased crop productivity and water use, cropland expansion (excluding areas prioritized for other uses) and population change are accounted for. We found that currently 16% of the world population use the opportunities of international trade to cover their demand for agricultural products. Population change may strongly increase the number of people depending on ex situ land and water resources up to about 5.2 billion (51% of world population) in the SRES A2r scenario. International trade will thus have to intensify if population growth is not accompanied by dietary change towards less resource-intensive products, by cropland expansion, or by productivity improvements, mainly in Africa and the Middle East. Up to 1.3 billion people may be at risk of food insecurity in 2050 in present low-income economies (mainly in Africa), if their economic development does not allow them to afford productivity increases, cropland expansion and/or imports from other countries.

  12. A Review of Human Health and Ecological Risks due to CO2 Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R. P.; Benson, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    Nyos in Cameroon, Mammoth Mountain in California, Dieng Volcanic Complex in Java, Indonesia, and industrial accidents with CO2 fire suppression systems teach that slow leakage rates and effective dilution must be proven to ensure human and environmental safety. Monitoring CO2 levels in occupational settings is done with reliable IR sensors. Remote sensing of low levels of CO2 over long distances cannot be done easily yet, although LIDAR, an airborne laser technique under development, may have good potential. The environmental impacts of elevated CO2 levels on vegetation are being investigated now in free-air CO2 enrichment studies. In general, persistent elevated CO2 levels cause a change in species composition, favoring C3 plants over C4 or CAM. The ecological effects of catastrophic releases are severe but depend upon (a) release rate and amount, (b) surface topography and rate of atmospheric mixing (c) exposure concentrations and duration, (d) the respiratory mechanism of the form of life under discussion, (e) its tolerance for oxygen deprivation, and (f) its ability to maintain homeostatic pH levels. Suppression of root respiration due to elevated soil-gas CO2 concentrations and acidifiction of the root zone are known mechanisms of tree-kill. Soil-gas CO2 in the tree-kill areas at Mammoth Mountain exceeded 20-30% at 15 cm depth. Surface masses of concentrated CO2 probably smother the canopy through oxygen deprivation, but the precise mechanism is not known. Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain reveal that catastrophic releases can result in complete dead zones.

  13. Experimental response of Salix cuttings to different flow regimes due to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Turberg, Pascal; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower production and other human activities change the natural flow regime of rivers, in turn impacting the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define eco-sustainable flows is to quantify the effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem adaptation. We present 2-years controlled experiments to investigate riparian vegetation (Salix Viminalis) response to forced water table changing dynamics, from one water regime to another, in a temperate region (Switzerland). Three synthetic flow regimes have been simulated and applied to three batteries of Salix cuttings growing outdoor within plastic pots, each about 1 meter tall. In 2012 one treatment simulated a minimal flow policy for small run-of-river hydropower plants, which drastically impacts the low and the medium-low components of the hydrograph, but not the extremes. In 2013 we confirmed and completed some of 2012 results, by reproducing typical hydropeaking effects due to dam management and focusing on daily water table variations and offsets. For both the seasons, after an initial period where all pots undergone the same oscillations in order to uniform the plants initial conditions, the experiment started, and the water dynamic was changed. Cuttings transitory response dynamics has been quantified by continuous sap flow and water potential measurements, and by regularly collecting growth parameters, as well as leaves photosynthesis, fluorescence, and pictures of each plant. At the end of the experiment, all cuttings were carefully removed and the both above and below ground biomass analyzed in detail. Particularly, the 3D root structure was obtained by High Resolution Computer Tomography. Our analyses revealed a clear dependence between roots distribution and water regime reflecting the need for adaptation, in agreement with field observations of Pasquale et al. (2012). In particular, an initial strong difference in terms of stress and growth performances was then followed by a later

  14. EFFECT OF CHIA SEED (SALVIA HISPANICA L.) CONSUMPTION ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Cynthia; dd Sousa Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima; da Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, either milled or whole, has in the prevention/control of cardiovascular risk factors in humans. this is a systematic literature review (SLR) with no meta-analysis. The articles scrutinizedwere identified in the electronic databases Lilacs, Medline (Pub- Med version), Cochrane, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science under the keywords"dyslipidemia" or "dislipidemia", "hyperlipidemia" or "hiperlipidemia", "obesity" or "obesidade", "salvia"or"salviahispanica", "Lamiaceae" or "chia", "hypertension" or "hipertensão", "hypertrygliceridemia" or "hipertrigliceridemia", and "riscocardiovascular" or "cardiovascularrisk." We chose for our selection English-, Portuguese- or Spanish-language articles about clinical trials on humans and published within the last ten years. The biases of risk analysis were carried out considering 6 of the 8 criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. seven studies (n = 200) fit our inclusion criteria. Of the chosen clinical trials, only one was not randomized. Five of the studies were blind experiments. Two of the studies were acute trials, both of them randomized. Of the chia seed interventions, one study showed a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inflammatory markers, yet there was no change in body mass, lipid profile or blood sugar. In four of the studies reviewed there was a significant spike in ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with no significant change to other parameters. In the acute trials, post

  15. Should the amazigh diet (regular and moderate argan-oil consumption) have a beneficial impact on human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Virgin argan oil, cosmetic or dietary grade, is prepared by cold-pressing the kernels of argan fruits. Both types of oil, traditionally used by the amazighs (the argan grove traditional dwellers), are now available on the shelves of the most-developed country stores. Argan oil contains a high level of oleic and linoleic acid and is also particularly rich in phenols. Since these metabolites are currently considered as essential to explain some of the protective effects against cancer and coronary heart disease attributed to other oils, similar effects can be expected from argan oil consumption as suggested by the amazigh medicine claims. Interestingly, argan oil content in gamma -tocopherol is much higher than that of any other oils. gamma -Tocopherol has recently been shown to possess strong chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. This indicates that argan oil should readily find a place of choice amid the most profitable oils for human health. Because of its reduced geographical origin, the chemical composition (major as well as minor components) of argan oil is also highly reproducible. Therefore argan oil consumption should confer health benefits in a reliable and efficient manner.

  16. The collaboration of Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier and the first measurements of human oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2013-12-01

    Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) was one of the most eminent scientists of the late 18th century. He is often referred to as the father of chemistry, in part because of his book Elementary Treatise on Chemistry. In addition he was a major figure in respiratory physiology, being the first person to recognize the true nature of oxygen, elucidating the similarities between respiration and combustion, and making the first measurements of human oxygen consumption under various conditions. Less well known are the contributions made by his wife, Marie-Anne Lavoisier. However, she was responsible for drawings of the experiments on oxygen consumption when the French revolution was imminent. These are of great interest because written descriptions are not available. Possible interpretations of the experiments are given here. In addition, her translations from English to French of papers by Priestley and others were critical in Lavoisier's demolition of the erroneous phlogiston theory. She also provided the engravings for her husband's textbook, thus documenting the extensive new equipment that he developed. In addition she undertook editorial work, for example in preparing his posthumous memoirs. The scientific collaboration of this husband-wife team is perhaps unique among the giants of respiratory physiology.

  17. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects.

  18. Presence of Enniatins and Beauvericin in Romanian Wheat Samples: From Raw Material to Products for Direct Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Stanciu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1 and beauvericin (BEA. For the wheat samples, the influence of agricultural practices was assessed, whereas the results for the wheat-based products were used to calculate the estimated daily intake of emerging mycotoxins through wheat consumption for the Romanian population. ENB presented the highest incidence (41% in wheat and 32% in wheat-based products, with its maximum levels of 815 μg kg−1 and 170 μg kg−1 in wheat and wheat-based products, respectively. The correlation between the concentrations of ENB and ENB1 in wheat grain samples and farm practices (organic or conventional was confirmed statistically (p < 0.05. This is the first study that provides comprehensive information about the influence of agricultural practice on emerging Fusarium mycotoxin presence in Romanian wheat samples and the estimated daily intake of ENs and BEA present in wheat-based products for human consumption commercialized in Romania.

  19. Validation of measurement protocols to assess oxygen consumption and blood flow in the human forearm by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beekvelt, Mireille C. P.; Colier, Willy N.; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Wevers, Ron A.; Oeseburg, Berend

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to monitor oxygenation changes in muscle. Quantitative values for O2 consumption, blood flow and venous saturation have been reported by several investigators. The amount of these measurements is, however, still limited and complete validation has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the different NIRS methods to calculate O2 consumption (VO2) and forearm blood flow (FBF) and to validate the data with the accepted method of strain-gauge plethysmography and blood sampling. Thirteen subjects were tested in rest and during static isometric handgrip exercise at 10% MVC. The NIRS optodes were positioned on the flexor region of the arm. A significant correlation was found between plethysmograph data and NIRS [tHb] during venous occlusion in rest (r EQ 0.925 - 0.994, P exercise (r equals 0.895 - 0.990, P exercise. It seems that although NIRS is a good qualitative monitoring technique, quantification is difficult due to the great variability that is found between the subjects.

  20. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfoundland destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboiron, Max; Liboiron, France; Wells, Emily; Richárd, Natalie; Zahara, Alexander; Mather, Charles; Bradshaw, Hillary; Murichi, Judyannet

    2016-12-15

    Marine microplastics are a contaminant of concern because their small size allows ingestion by a wide range of marine life. Using citizen science during the Newfoundland recreational cod fishery, we sampled 205 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) destined for human consumption and found that 5 had eaten plastic, an ingestion prevalence rate of 2.4%. This ingestion rate for Atlantic cod is the second lowest recorded rate in the reviewed published literature (the lowest is 1.4%), and the lowest for any fish in the North Atlantic. This is the first report for plastic ingestion in fish in Newfoundland, Canada, a province dependent on fish for sustenance and livelihoods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [The global and national context regarding the challenges involved in ensuring adequate access to water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas; Câmara Neto, Henrique Fernandes; de Melo, Carlos Henrique; Costa, André Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the challenges involved in ensuring access to water for human consumption taking the international and national context into consideration. Based on the UN declaration that access to safe and clean drinking water is a fundamental human right, vulnerabilities are identified that can consist in restrictions to access to adequate supplies. The distribution of water and the population across the planet, pollution, inadequate policies and management lead to environmental injustice. The iniquity of access to water constitutes the contemporary water crisis. From the 1980s onwards, the transnational water market emerged for private control that occurs at three main levels: surface and underground water sources; bottled water; and public water supply services. The conflicts of the multiple uses of water resources, the market and environmental problems have contributed to rendering the health of the population and ecosystems vulnerable. Adequate public policies are essential to ensure the basic human right to access to safe and clean drinking water.

  3. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  4. Artificial Sweeteners in a Large Canadian River Reflect Human Consumption in the Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    John Spoelstra; Sherry L Schiff; Brown, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners ...

  5. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Nandy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi′s sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis.

  6. Health Consumption, Health Human Capital, and Economic Growth%健康型消费、健康人力资本和经济增长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟若愚; 林滨

    2014-01-01

    消费是健康人力资本积累的主要途径,但此前对经济增长与健康人力资本之间关系的研究,没有考虑消费的健康类型对健康人力资本积累的影响。在拉姆齐模型基础上构建包含健康人力资本和最终产品的两部门模型,将消费区分为健康型消费和非健康型消费,分析健康型消费份额对经济增长的影响。对模型的分析表明:均衡状态时的人均消费、人均资本存量和健康人力资本存量都与健康型消费份额成正比。该结论有助于解释富国具有高健康消费份额,而穷国相反;对穷国的健康援助,有助于其摆脱贫困状态。将政府税收纳入模型后发现,税收不影响均衡状态时的健康型消费份额,但降低均衡状态水平。%Consumption is the main way of health human capital accumulation, but previous studies on the relationship between economic growth and health human capital fail to consider the impact of different types of consumption on health human capital accumulation. Dividing consumption into health and non -health consumption, this study analyses the impact of the share of health consumption on economic growth by constructing two-sector model that contains health human capital and the final product in the Ramsey model. We find that per capita consumption, per capita capital stock and per capita human health capital stock are directly proportional to the share of health consumption in total consumption. This conclusion helps to explain why rich countries have a higher share of health consumption, while the poor ones lower; and health assistance to poor countries can help them get rid of poverty. With taxation factored in, we find that taxation does not affect the share of health consumption, but it lowers the equilibrium level.

  7. RADIATION RISKS ASSESSMENT DUE TO CONSUMPTION OF THE FAR EAST FOOD FISH AFTER THE ACCIDENT ON “FUKUSHIMA-1” NPP

    OpenAIRE

    G. G. Onishсhenko; V. S. Repin; I. K. Romanovich

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the data on radioactivity releases to thePacific Oceanlevels after the Fukushima NPP accident. It is shown that the potential risk of of the seafood contamination with the long-living radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs, which continue to be released to the Pacific Ocean up to the present time. Contribution of 90Sr to the total radioactive contamination does not exceed 3%. Review of the literature data on the modeling of radioactivity spot diffusion showed that due to...

  8. 城市居住区内家庭直接能耗碳排放差异研究%Research on the Difference in Carbon Emissions Due to Direct Household Energy Consumption in the Same Urban Residential Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 秦耀辰

    2012-01-01

    家庭能源消费对环境的影响已经成为可持续发展领域热点研究课题之一.基于微观视角,采用多段抽取的方法从南阳市一商业居住区内选取128户家庭进行住户的调研,针对具有不同的家庭规模、家庭收入、房屋所有权、家庭成员节能意识及能源知识掌握程度的家庭,分别分析了其直接能耗CO2排放量和结构上的差异.用多元逐步回归的方法,得到了家庭成员节能意识强烈度、家庭人口、家庭成年人平均文化程度、能源知识掌握程度等是造成同一居住区内家庭CO2排放差异的显著性因子,家庭成员节能意识的强烈程度、能源知识的掌握程度与家庭直接能耗CO2排放量呈负相关,因此,加强对居民的能源知识的普及和节能意识的强化可以降低家庭直接能耗的CO2排放量.%The impact on the environment due to household energy consumption has become one of the hotspot issues in the field of sustainable development. In order to study the difference in carbon emissions due to direct household energy consumption in the same urban residential community, 128 households are selected from a commercial residential community by multy selection. The difference in households CO2 emissions due to direct energy consumption are analyzed according to the different family numbers, different income, house droit, energy saving consciousness, energy knowledge. The analysis shows that energy saving consciousness, family numbers, family income, energy knowledge are the most important sources of household CO2 emissions due to direct energy consumption.

  9. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant tissue due to biosolids and manure amendments, and wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-02-01

    Amending soil with biosolids or livestock manure provides essential nutrients in agriculture. Irrigation with wastewater allows for agriculture in regions where water resources are limited. However, biosolids, manure and wastewater have all been shown to contain pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have shown that PPCPs can accumulate in the tissues of plants but the risk that accumulated residues may pose to humans via consumption of edible portions is not well documented. This study reviewed the literature for studies that reported residues of PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants grown in biosolids- or manure-amended soils or irrigated with wastewater. These residues were used to determine the estimated daily intake of PPCPs for an adult and toddler. Estimated daily intake values were compared to acceptable daily intakes to determine whether PPCPs in plant tissue pose a hazard to human health. For all three amendment practices, the majority of reported residues resulted in hazard quotients <0.1. Amendment with biosolids or manure resulted in hazard quotients ≥0.1 for carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, salbutamol, triclosan, and sulfamethazine. Irrigation with wastewater resulted in hazard quotients of ≥0.1 for ambrettolid, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flunixin, lamotrigine, metoprolol, naproxen, sildenafil and tonalide. [corrected]. Many of the residues that resulted in hazard quotients ≥0.1 were due to exposing plants to concentrations of PPCPs that would not be considered relevant based on concentrations reported in biosolids and manure or unrealistic methods of exposure, which lead to artificially elevated plant residues. Our assessment indicates that the majority of individual PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants due to biosolids or manure amendment or wastewater irrigation represent a de minimis risk to human health. Assuming additivity, the mixture of PPCPs could potentially present a hazard. Further work needs to be done to assess

  10. Impact of consumption of probiotic lactobacilli-containing yogurt on microbial composition in human feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeno, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-02-29

    An in vivo study was carried out to determine the effect of consuming probiotic lactobacilli-containing yogurt on the composition of microbiota in the human gut. Fifteen healthy adults ingested a daily serving of one of three commercial yogurts (two of the products contained a probiotic lactobacilli strain) for 20 days. Fecal samples at defined time points before, during, and after the period of yogurt ingestion were collected and analyzed. The fecal population of lactobacilli was determined by a culture-based method and subsequent colony PCR for the identification of species. Six predominant bacterial groups in the fecal samples were quantitatively determined based on a sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method coupled with a suite of oligonucleotide probes, which was optimized for the target-specific detection of bacterial groups inhabiting human feces. In the ingestion period, one probiotic strain was detected in the feces of all five subjects who consumed the yogurt containing the strain, while the other strain was detected in three of another five subjects. The population levels of the two major groups (Bacteroides and Prevotella, and the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group) in the fecal samples tended to change in response to the ingestion but the change did not seem to be dependent on the product-specific property of each yogurt. These results suggest that the human fecal bacterial community could be altered by ingesting yogurt, although whether probiotic lactobacilli are present or absent in the yogurt does not seem to be a factor in this change.

  11. Biochemical and biomolecular aspects of oxidative stress due to acute and severe hypoxia in human muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbucci, G G; Sessego, R; Velluti, C; Salvi, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress was investigated in severe and acute hypoxia and in reperfusion applied to human muscle tissues. The biochemical and biomolecular relationship between the response of the respiratory-chain enzymic complexes and the metabolism of specific hypoxia stress proteins (HSP) suggest an adaptive mechanism which antagonizes the oxidative damage due to acute and severe tissue hypoxia.

  12. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action. Although not without exception, results from animal and human studies suggest a moderate cholesterol-lowering action of dairy products fermented with appropriate strain(s) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mechanistically, probiotic bacteria ferment food-derived indigestible carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which can then cause a decrease in the systemic levels of blood lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis and/or redistributing cholesterol from plasma to the liver. Furthermore, some bacteria may interfere with cholesterol absorption from the gut by deconjugating bile salts and therefore affecting the metabolism of cholesterol, or by directly assimilating cholesterol. For prebiotic substances, the majority of studies have been done with the fructooligosaccharides inulin and oligofructose, and although convincing lipid-lowering effects have been observed in animals, high dose levels had to be used. Reports in humans are few in number. In studies conducted in normal-lipidemic subjects, two reported no effect of inulin or oligofructose on serum lipids, whereas two others reported a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (19 and 27%, respectively) with more modest changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol. At present, data suggest that in hyperlipidemic subjects, any effects that do occur result primarily in reductions in cholesterol, whereas in normal lipidemic subjects, effects on serum triglycerides are the dominant feature.

  13. Global alteration of ocean ecosystem functioning due to increasing human CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Connell, Sean D

    2015-10-27

    Rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions are anticipated to drive change to ocean ecosystems, but a conceptualization of biological change derived from quantitative analyses is lacking. Derived from multiple ecosystems and latitudes, our metaanalysis of 632 published experiments quantified the direction and magnitude of ecological change resulting from ocean acidification and warming to conceptualize broadly based change. Primary production by temperate noncalcifying plankton increases with elevated temperature and CO2, whereas tropical plankton decreases productivity because of acidification. Temperature increases consumption by and metabolic rates of herbivores, but this response does not translate into greater secondary production, which instead decreases with acidification in calcifying and noncalcifying species. This effect creates a mismatch with carnivores whose metabolic and foraging costs increase with temperature. Species diversity and abundances of tropical as well as temperate species decline with acidification, with shifts favoring novel community compositions dominated by noncalcifiers and microorganisms. Both warming and acidification instigate reduced calcification in tropical and temperate reef-building species. Acidification leads to a decline in dimethylsulfide production by ocean plankton, which as a climate gas, contributes to cloud formation and maintenance of the Earth's heat budget. Analysis of responses in short- and long-term experiments and of studies at natural CO2 vents reveals little evidence of acclimation to acidification or temperature changes, except for microbes. This conceptualization of change across whole communities and their trophic linkages forecast a reduction in diversity and abundances of various key species that underpin current functioning of marine ecosystems.

  14. Antibacterial susceptibility of enterobacteriaceae isolated from raw horsemeat isolated for human consumption (basashi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Drug susceptibility testing was carried out using 14 antibiotics in order to identify trends in the antibiotic tolerance of 142 strains of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from horsemeat commercially available for raw consumption (basashi). A comparison of the sensitivity to the 14 antibiotics using the 90% MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values (MIC90) showed the strongest tolerance to ampicillin (ABPC) at a concentration of > 128 μg/mL, followed by that to fosfomycin (FOM) at a concentration of 128 μg/mL. When the sensitivity to these antibiotics was examined for each individual genus of tested bacteria, Hafnia spp. exhibited relative tolerance to ceftazidime (CAZ) and ceftriaxone (CTRX) at a concentration of 4 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively, which was high in comparison to that observed for the other strains. Furthermore, Raoultella spp. and Serratia spp. were found to be highly resistant to tetracycline (TC) at a concentration of 128 μg/mL and 64 μg/mL, respectively. Of the 142 strains of test bacteria, 140 (98.6%) demonstrated resistance to ABPC, with the exception of Hafnia alvei and Klebsiella pneumonia. In addition, a total of eight strains (5.6%), seven Serratia marcescens strains and one Raoultella terrigena strain, were found to be resistant to TC. Furthermore, one strain of Citrobacter freundii exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (NA), while another displayed resistance to ofloxacin (OFLX) (0.7% each), and one strain (0.7%) each of Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Citrobacter youngae demonstrated resistance to fosfomycin (FOM), streptomycin (SM) and kanamycin (KM), respectively. A single strain of C. freundii was found to be resistant to three antibiotics, ABPC, NA and OFLX. Resistance to two antibiotics was confirmed in 11 strains, including seven strains of S. marcescens and one strain of R. terrigena (a total of eight strains) resistant to ABPC and TC, and one strain each of C. youngae, S. marcescens and E. cloacae resistant

  15. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures (bottled water was much lower than the reference value. However, the lowest MOE was estimated for high water consumers (preschooler > children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  16. Cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate consumption in humans driven by adrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas S; Brassard, Patrice; Jørgensen, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    (1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist metroprolol. These observations suggest involvement of a beta(2)-adrenergic mechanism in non-oxidative metabolism for the brain. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of adrenaline (0.08 microg kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 15 min) and noradrenaline (0.5, 0.1 and 0.15 microg...... kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 20 min) on the arterial to internal jugular venous concentration differences (a-v diff) of O(2), glucose and lactate in healthy humans. Adrenaline (n = 10) increased the arterial concentrations of O(2), glucose and lactate (P ... from 0.6 +/- 0.1 to 0.8 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/- s.d.; P adrenaline...

  17. Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk for Human Consumption in Palestinian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahmoud AL ZUHEIR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The absences or insufficient food control program result in the occurrence of mycotoxin in milk and milk products, which poses a serious risk for humans and can be a public health concern. This study was conducted to highlight the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in Palestine raw milk collected at farms from Tulkarm, Nablus and Jenin. Aflatoxin M1 was determined by direct competitive ELISA technique. 85 % (34 of 40 of the total examined raw milk samples tested were positive. The aflatoxin M1 contamination levels were between 3 - 80 ppt with a mean of 29.57 ppt. There was a high incidence rate with 92 % (11 of 12 and the highest means of contaminated with aflatoxin M1 in the samples tested in Tulkarm city (P ≤ 0.05. 20 % of the analyzed samples (8 of 40 exceeded the maximum permissible limit (50 ppt in European Codex, with a range of 2 - 80 ppt.

  18. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with ra

  19. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with

  20. Severe respiratory failure due to co-infection with human metapneumovirus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Seki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old male patient was admitted with respiratory failure, although chest X-rays revealed only mild bronchiolitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae, which usually presents as massive lobular pneumonia, was isolated from sputum, however, pan-pathogen screening using a next-generation sequencer also detected human metapneumovirus genome fragments.

  1. Artificial sweeteners in a large Canadian river reflect human consumption in the watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelstra, John; Schiff, Sherry L; Brown, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L), cyclamate (2.4 µg/L) [corrected], and saccharin (7.2 µg/L) are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota in rivers and in

  2. Artificial sweeteners in a large Canadian river reflect human consumption in the watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Spoelstra

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L, cyclamate (2.4 µg/L [corrected], and saccharin (7.2 µg/L are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota

  3. A Review on Level of Specific Absorption Rate Due to High Power Transmission Lines: Analysis toward Human Position Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main contribution of this project is the development of a homogeneous model of a man to presents the specific absorption rate (SAR due to high power transmission line. As a low frequency application under high power transmission line of 50 Hz in electrical engineering, to studies the influence of human’s posture on specific absorption rate. This project designs two types of human body which one design uses most cylinder block and another design use brick block where both blocks have a different value of mesh cells. For each design has four types of posture are standing, sitting, arms up and arms out by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST Studio Software. This analysis does toward for four types of the human position postures because each posture has different value of specific absorption rate (SAR based on the size of the mesh cells of the design. Based on two designs of the human body, the lowest of the mesh cells value will reduce time to simulate SAR. For each posture has different value of SAR for each part of the human body because the whole human body has different types of tissues. Therefore, the CST studio software uses extremely to simulate the SAR value toward human position posture due to high power transmission line.

  4. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  6. Screening of pharmaceuticals and hormones at the regional scale, in surface and groundwaters intended to human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Cren-Olive, Cecile [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2011-10-15

    As part of a regional screening to evaluate the risk, for the health of populations, to certain classes of emerging substances, several families of pharmaceuticals and hormones were looked for in waters intended to drinking. Thus, 52 substances were investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. Results indicate that no water was free of pollutants, regardless of its origin (surface or groundwater) and the season of collect. The pharmaceuticals most frequently detected and with the highest concentration levels were salicylic acid, carbamazepine and acetaminophen. Among hormones, testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were detected in almost all the samples. Globally the groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals frequencies and levels. On the other side, androgens and progestagens were present with comparable frequencies and levels in both compartments. The risk linked to the presence of these substances on human health is discussed. - Highlights: > Traces of 52 substances investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. > No water was free of pollutants, whatever its origin and the season of collect. > Globally groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals. > Hormones were present with comparable frequencies and levels in two compartments. - 52 pharmaceuticals and hormones investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters intended to human consumption.

  7. Aclarubicin, an anthracycline anti-cancer drug, fluorescently contrasts mitochondria and reduces the oxygen consumption rate in living human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iihoshi, Haruka; Ishihara, Takaya; Kuroda, Shogo; Ishihara, Naotada; Saitoh, Hisato

    2017-08-05

    Aclarubicin (Acla), an effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent for hematologic cancers and solid tumors, is documented to perturb chromatin function via histone eviction and DNA topoisomerase inhibition in the nucleus, but much less attention has been paid to cytotoxic function in the cytoplasm. Here, we showed that Acla emitted fluorescence and that human cervical cancer HeLa cells exposed to Acla exhibited bright fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm when fluorescence microscopy was performed using the red filter (excitation 530-550nm/emission 575nm). Intriguingly, most of the signals appeared to be partitioned and enriched in entangled tubule-like structures; moreover, these signals merged with the mitochondria-specific MitoTracker signals. Notably, analysis of mitochondrial respiratory activity revealed that the oxygen consumption rate was decreased in Acla-treated cells. These findings suggest that Acla accumulates efficiently in the mitochondria of living human cells and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, implying a previously overlooked cytotoxicity of Acla in the cytoplasm and adding mechanistic insight of the anti-cancer activity, as well as the side effects, of Acla/anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption.

  9. Isolation and genotyping of viable Toxoplasma gondii from sheep and goats in Ethiopia destined for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay; Tilahun, Getachew; Cox, Eric; Goddeeris, Bruno; Dorny, Pierre; De Craeye, Stephane; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Ajzenberg, Daniel

    2014-09-04

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects humans and a broad spectrum of warm-blooded vertebrates. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of isolation and determining the genotypes of T. gondii strains from sheep and goats slaughtered in East and West Shewa Zones of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia. Hearts of 47 sheep and 44 goats that were seropositive in the Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) were bioassayed in mice. A multiplex PCR assay with 15 microsatellite markers was employed for genotyping of T. gondii isolates from sheep and goats. Viable T. gondii were isolated from 47 (51.65%) animals, 27 sheep and 20 goats. Most isolates caused sub-clinical infections in mice, however, 2 sheep and 1 goat isolates were mouse-virulent, killing mice between 19-27 days post-inoculation. The success of T. gondii isolation in mice increased significantly (P = 0.0001) with higher DAT antibody titers in sheep and goats. Genotyping revealed that 29 (87.88%) of the 33 isolates were Type II, 3 (9.09%) were Type III and 1 (3.03%) was atypical. Three strains (one type II, one type III, and the atypical genotype) were virulent for mice. T. gondii tissue cysts in sheep and goats slaughtered for human consumption are widespread. This is the first report on isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from sheep and goats of Ethiopia.

  10. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriou Matina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system and its external impacts. Thus, taking for granted that Europe will eventually achieve “sustainable recovery” from the crisis, the current period presents an opportunity for promoting sustainable mobility policies and interventions in the most affected by the crisis European cities. Towards this goal, it is essential to capitalise on contemporary techniques for the monitoring of changes in transport external costs. The purpose of the paper is the development of a methodology for the estimation of external costs due to congestion, air pollution, climate change and accidents, based on road traffic data. The methodology is applied along road arteries in Thessaloniki for the period “before and after” the emergence of the crisis. As a result, an overall decrease in external costs is observed, creating an unforeseen “surplus” for the society during the crisis.

  11. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  12. Cadmium bioaccumulation in Mediterranean spider crab (Maya squinado): human consumption and health implications for exposure in Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Roberto; Binato, Giovanni; Guidotti, Marco; Morelli, Stefania; Pastorelli, Augusto Alberto; Sagratella, Elisabetta; Ciardullo, Silvia; Stacchini, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Cd bioaccumulation pattern was investigated in Mediterranean spider crab (Maya squinado, Herbst, 1788) collected from the northern Adriatic Sea. Specimens were caught in the framework of a monitoring plan in order to quantify the Cd distribution into different organs and tissues of crab. For this purpose, Cd level was studied in appendages, cephalothorax, abdomen as well as gonads. Cd concentrations were found largely below the Maximum Level (ML) established at the European Union (EU) level for muscle from crab appendages (found mean 0.011 mg kg(-1)) and approximately amounted to 2% of the EU ML (0.50 mg kg(-1)). The higher Cd concentrations were found in organs and tissues included in crab body such as abdomen, chephalotorax and gonads with respect to appendages. Chephalotorax showed the highest metal concentration (mean value of 1.19 mg kg(-1)). The possible differences in Cd bioaccumulation rate among crab organs and tissues were also investigated applying a parametric linear regression. A major Cd bioaccumulation rate was revealed in chephalotorax with respect to other analyzed organs and tissues. Furthermore, the evaluation of health risk related to human consumption of the Mediterranean spider crab has been studied for median of total population, median and 95th percentile of consumers of Italy. The observed results highlighted that the consumption of organs and tissues included in crab body such as abdomen, gonads and, in particular, chephalotorax substantially increased the Cd intake reaching also alarming Estimated Weekly Intake (EWI) values especially for median and 95th percentile of Italian consumers.

  13. Concentrations of Cd, Ni, V and Zn in Muscle and Caviar of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus with Emphasis on Risk Assessment Due to Consumption of Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulreza Mashroofeh

    2014-03-01

    Material and Methods: A total number of 24 samples of Persian sturgeon were collected from two important sturgeon fishery zones in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces and were stored at −20°C until chemical analysis. About one gram of each sample dried was added to 10 ml of concentrated (65% supra-pure HNO3 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany in a Teflon PTFE tube and then it was incubated for 1 h at 40 °C in a hot block digester, followed by heating at 140 °C for 3 h. The samples digested were diluted to a measured volume using double deionized water. Samples were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper, and the filtrate was stored until metal determination. Results: Mean Cd, Ni, V and Zn concentrations in muscle tissues were 0.005 ± 0.002, 0.06 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.04 and 7.49 ± 3.07 µg/g wet weight basis respectively. The mean Cd, Ni, V and Zn concentrations in caviar samples were 0.007 ± 0.006, 0.09 ± 0.07, 0.12 ± 0.15 and 21.23 ± 5.75 µg/g wet weight basis respectively. Conculation: The mean concentrations of Zn, Cd and V in caviar and muscle samples were less than the permissible limits proposed by the United Kingdom's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF 2000 and World Health Organization (W.H.O.. The guidelines for Cd, V and Zn are 0.2, 0.5 and 50 µg/g wet weight respectively. Therefore, the measured concentrations for these particular metals are below the published guidelines, and the levels would appear not to constitute any threat to the human population that may consume sturgeon or caviar obtained from these study locations.

  14. Risk of Illness with Salmonella due to Consumption of Raw Unwashed Vegetables Irrigated with Water from the Bogotá River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Herreño, Laura X; López-Tamayo, Ana M; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Haas, Charles N; Husserl, Johana

    2016-06-27

    The Bogotá River receives untreated wastewater from the city of Bogotá and many other towns. Downstream from Bogotá, water from the river is used for irrigation of crops. Concentrations of indicator organisms in the river are high, which is consistent with fecal contamination. To investigate the probability of illness due to exposure to enteric pathogens from the river, specifically Salmonella, we took water samples from the Bogotá River at six sampling locations in an area where untreated water from the river is used for irrigation of lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage. Salmonella concentrations were quantified by direct isolation and qPCR. Concentrations differed, depending on the quantification technique used, ranging between 10(7.7) and 10(9.9) number of copies of gene invA per L and 10(5.3) and 10(8.4) CFU/L, for qPCR and direct isolation, respectively. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model that estimates the daily risk of illness with Salmonella resulting from consuming raw unwashed vegetables irrigated with water from the Bogotá River was constructed using the Salmonella concentration data. The daily probability of illness from eating raw unwashed vegetables ranged between 0.62 and 0.85, 0.64 and 0.86, and 0.64 and 0.85 based on concentrations estimated by qPCR (0.47-0.85, 0.47-0.86, and 0.41-0.85 based on concentrations estimated by direct isolation) for lettuce, cabbage, and broccoli, respectively, which are all above the commonly propounded benchmark of 10(-4) per year. Results obtained in this study highlight the necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in the region, and emphasize the importance of postharvest practices, such as washing, disinfecting, and cooking.

  15. Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswaldi, Ihsan; Arráez-Román, David; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Contreras, María Del Mar; Uberos, José; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-β-d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software.

  16. Prevention of Infection Due to Pneumocystis spp. in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Immunocompromised Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Martin; Fishman, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis infection in humans was originally described in 1942. The organism was initially thought to be a protozoan, but more recent data suggest that it is more closely related to the fungi. Patients with cellular immune deficiencies are at risk for the development of symptomatic Pneumocystis infection. Populations at risk also include patients with hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, solid-organ recipients, and patients receiving i...

  17. The origin and foot condition of horses slaughtered in Australia for the human consumption market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, A; Cross, N; Robins, A; Phillips, C J C

    2009-11-01

    There are ethical concerns regarding the loss of horses from various equine industries and their corresponding slaughter. However, to date, no empirical evidence regarding the extent of this loss, nor of the condition of horses involved, exists within Australia. To determine the approximate ages, brand type and condition of feet of horses relinquished to an export abattoir in Australia. Data were collected from 340 horses processed at an Australian abattoir from November 2007-January 2008. Foot abnormalities, injuries and hoof indicators of overgrown and untrimmed hooves were assessed together with a dental inspection. Observations of brand were used to determine horse origin. The dental age of 60% of horses was 57 years, and 53% originated from the racing industry (40% Thoroughbred and 13% Standardbred). A total of 81% of the horses had overgrown or untrimmed hooves. Standardbred horses had fewer grass cracks and more injuries to the coronary band than Thoroughbreds, probably due to pacing and trotting activities. Just over half of the horses slaughtered at an Australian abattoir on 3 working days were aged (7 years and emanated from the racing industry. Foot problems were common. Future research should identify means of reducing the number of horses slaughtered and preventative measures for foot disorders.

  18. Energy consumption and human factors. Residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses; Energy shohi to human factor. Jutaku ni okeru kyojusha no ishiki sumaikata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, N. [Kyoto Prefectural Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Living Science

    1996-09-05

    Energy consumption and human factors, which mean residents` style of living and consciousness of the residential houses, are considered on the basis of the survey results for residents living in residential houses with the same specifications in the Kansai district in 1994. The outside climate condition is loosened through the shelter performance of building, solar radiation, and clothes, to form the climate under clothes. Additionally, as a result of physiological control of body heat, the warm, cool, and comfortable sensations are formed. Various factors affect this process. Conception of satisfaction was considered as upper criteria. There are residents satisfying the non-use of air-conditioner, even though it is not comfortable. The concept of satisfaction determines dissatisfaction, patience, and otherwise satisfaction of environment modification action and escape action from environment. Concrete examples of the life style are illustrated based on the survey. Dispersion of room temperature and the various consciousness and styles of living are also illustrated, qualitatively, on the basis of the field survey. For the investigation of domestic energy consumption items, it is not avoidable to illustrate the common actual conditions of living. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Theodor; Endo, Akihito; Gueimonde, Miguel; Vinderola, Gabriel; Kneifel, Wolfgang; de Vos, Willem M; Salminen, Seppo; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU) regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available), publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  20. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Brodmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available, publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  1. New methods for dete rmining the relative load due to physical effort of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szubert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relative physical load (% VO2max is the quotient of oxygen uptake (Vo2 during physical effort and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max by the human body. For this purpose the stress test must be performed. The relative load shows a high correlation with minute ventilation, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, increased concentrations of catecholamines in the blood, inner temperature, weight, height and human body surface area. The relative load is a criterion for the maximum workloads admissible for healthy and sick workers. Besides, the classification of effort can be more precise when based on the relative load than on the energy output. Material and Methods: Based on our own and international empirical evidence and the laws of heat transfer and fluid mechanics, a model of temperature control system has been developed, involving the elements of human cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Using this model, we have been able to develop our own methods of determining the relative load, applying only the body core temperature (TW or heart rate within one minute (HR, body mass (m, height (H, and body surface area (AD instead of VO2max. Results: The values of the relative physical load (% VO2max obtained by using our own methods do not differ significantly from those obtained by other methods and by other researchers. Conclusions: The developed methods for determining the relative physical load (% VO2max do not require the exercise test to be performed, therefore, they may be considered (after verification in an experimental study a feasible alternative to current methods. Med Pr 2014;65(2:189–195

  2. No evidence for clonal selection due to lentiviral integration sites in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Cantilena, Amy; Métais, Jean-Yves; Xu, Xiuli; Nguyen, Anh-Dao; Borate, Bhavesh; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica E; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Thomson, James A; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2010-04-01

    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells requires the expression of defined transcription factors (among Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28) in the targeted cells. Lentiviral or standard retroviral gene transfer remains the most robust and commonly used approach. Low reprogramming frequency overall, and the higher efficiency of derivation utilizing integrating vectors compared to more recent nonviral approaches, suggests that gene activation or disruption via proviral integration sites (IS) may play a role in obtaining the pluripotent phenotype. We provide for the first time an extensive analysis of the lentiviral integration profile in human iPS cells. We identified a total of 78 independent IS in eight recently established iPS cell lines derived from either human fetal fibroblasts or newborn foreskin fibroblasts after lentiviral gene transfer of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. The number of IS ranged from 5 to 15 IS per individual iPS clone, and 75 IS could be assigned to a unique chromosomal location. The different iPS clones had no IS in common. Expression analysis as well as extensive bioinformatic analysis did not reveal functional concordance of the lentiviral targeted genes between the different clones. Interestingly, in six of the eight iPS clones, some of the IS were found in pairs, integrated into the same chromosomal location within six base pairs of each other or in very close proximity. Our study supports recent reports that efficient reprogramming of human somatic cells is not dependent on insertional activation or deactivation of specific genes or gene classes.

  3. The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanhaak, S.; Havenaar, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (L. casei Shirota) on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora, and immune parameters in humans. Subjects: Twenty healthy male subjects aged 40-65 years were selecte

  4. Weeds as a source for human consumption. A comparison between tropical and temperate Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Díaz-Betancourt

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Weeds abound in urban and agricultural environments. Depending on region and site, up to 66% of weed species are edible, and may constitute an additional food source for humans. Based on 400 samples, ¼ m² each, collected in tropical areas (e.g., roadsides, urban vacant lots, streets, sugar cane and coffee plantations in Coatepec, Mexico, average figures of edible fresh biomass vary between 1277 and 3582 kg/ha. A similar survey performed in a temperate area (739 samples in Bariloche, Argentina showed mean values between 287 and 2939 kg/ha. A total of 43 species were sampled in Coatepec and 32 species in Bariloche. The general means were 2.1 and 1.3 tons/ha, respectively. At a greater geographic scale, a comparison between Mexican and Argentine weeds shows that, proportionately, the food parts vary a little between regions. In general, from higher to lower, the order of uses goes from leaves, seeds, roots, fruits, herbals, flowers and condiments. Edible roots (including bulbs and rhizomes appear to be more common among perennials than among annuals.Las malezas abundan en ambientes urbanos y rurales. Según la región y lugar, hasta el 66% de las especies de malezas pueden ser comestibles y constituir un recurso alimentario adicional para el ser humano. Sobre la base de 400 muestras de ¼ m² cada una, recolectadas en áreas tropicales (rutas, terrenos baldíos, calles y plantaciones en Coatepec, México el promedio de la biomasa en peso fresco varió entre 1 277 y 3 582 kg/ha. Un muestreo similar en un área templada (739 muestras en Bariloche, Argentina arrojó valores medios entre 287 y 2 939 kg/ha. En total se registraron 43 especies en Coatepec y 32 especies en Bariloche. La media general (total fue de 2.1 y 1.3 ton/ha, respectivamente. A una escala geográfica mayor, una comparación entre las malezas mexicanas y argentinas no mostró mayores variaciones regionales en cuanto a qué partes u órganos son los comestibles. En ambos lugares, el

  5. [Pseudo-tumoral human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma gambiense. Clinical and tomodensitometry study (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, M; Bleibel, J M; Regnier, A; Mashaly, R; Le Bigot, P; Danis, M; Buge, A

    The authors report an observation of african trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma Gambiense, clinical signs included massive and progressive hemiplegia, papillary edema and vascular shift from median line at arteriography. These pseudo tumoral clinical features are unusual in this disease. Asymetrical heterogenous hypodensities of the centrum semioval are dominant in the initial CT scanner aspect. The confrontation of CT scanner images to the clinical and evolutive data suggests the presence of associated cerebral edema and demyelination. With treatment, hypodensities were regressing while images of subcortical atrophy appeared. Lastly, in spite of severe general signs and the importance of neurological deficit, arsenical treatment associated with high doses of corticotherapy lead to a rapid improvement.

  6. Contact-independent cell death of human microglial cells due to pathogenic Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-12-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increase of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death.

  7. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Adam; DeStefano, Jackson; Ye, Mao; Wong, Andrew D; Searson, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial cells in straight sections of vessels are known to elongate and align in the direction of flow. This phenotype has been replicated in confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture under physiological shear stress. Here we report on the morphological response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in confluent monolayers in response to shear stress. Using a microfluidic platform we image confluent monolayers of HBMECs and HUVECs under shear stresses up to 16 dyne cm(-2). From live-cell imaging we quantitatively analyze the cell morphology and cell speed as a function of time. We show that HBMECs do not undergo a classical transition from cobblestone to spindle-like morphology in response to shear stress. We further show that under shear stress, actin fibers are randomly oriented in the cells indicating that there is no cytoskeletal remodeling. These results suggest that HBMECs are programmed to resist elongation and alignment under shear stress, a phenotype that may be associated with the unique properties of the blood-brain barrier.

  8. A Kinetic Study of Accumulation and Elimination of Microcystin-LR in Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Tissue and Implications for Human Fish Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Donna R. Kashian; Peter Landrum; Duane Gossiaux; Julianne Dyble; Steven Pothoven

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is a potential route of human exposure to the hepatotoxic microcystins, especially in lakes and reservoirs that routinely experience significant toxic Microcystis blooms. Understanding the rates of uptake and elimination for microcystins as well as the transfer efficiency into tissues of consumers are important for determining the potential for microcystins to be transferred up the food web and for predicting potential human health impacts. The main objective of this work was...

  9. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  10. Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency/microwave exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2003-01-01

    electromagnetic pulses similar to those after a nuclear explosion. In all studies (except one that used a qualitative job-exposure-matrix) either the duration of occupational work as an approximation to actual exposure was determined or a simple yes/no differentiation was used based on a definition of high......We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million...... person years). As exposures were defined: dielectric heaters in a plastic manufacturing plant, working with radio devices (professional and amateur), production of wireless communication technologies, radar devices of the Canadian police, radar units used by the military as well as artificially produced...

  11. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Emerging infections due to filamentous fungi in humans and animals: only the tip of the iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourgogne, Anne; Dorin, Joséphine; Machouart, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Over the last few decades, the number of patients susceptible to invasive filamentous fungal infections has steadily increased, especially in populations suffering from hematological diseases. The pathogens responsible for such mycoses are now quite well characterized, such as Aspergillus spp. - the most commonly isolated mold -, Mucorales, Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. or melanized fungi. An increase in the incidence of this category of 'emerging' fungi has been recently highlighted, evoking a shift in fungal ecology. Starting from these medical findings, taking a step back and adopt a wider perspective offers possible explanations of this phenomenon on an even larger scale than previously reported. In this review, we illustrate the link between emerging fungi in medicine and changes in ecology or human behaviours, and we encourage integrative approaches to apprehend the adverse effects of progress and develop preventive measures in vast domains, such as agriculture or medicine. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevention of infection due to Pneumocystis spp. in human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Martin; Fishman, Jay A

    2004-10-01

    Pneumocystis infection in humans was originally described in 1942. The organism was initially thought to be a protozoan, but more recent data suggest that it is more closely related to the fungi. Patients with cellular immune deficiencies are at risk for the development of symptomatic Pneumocystis infection. Populations at risk also include patients with hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, solid-organ recipients, and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies for connective tissue disorders and vasculitides. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the agent of choice for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis unless a clear contraindication is identified. Other options include pentamidine, dapsone, dapsone-pyrimethamine, and atovaquone. The risk for PCP varies based on individual immune defects, regional differences, and immunosuppressive regimens. Prophylactic strategies must be linked to an ongoing assessment of the patient's risk for disease.

  14. Kalilo river pollution due to limited land settlement and human behavior along the Kalilo riverbanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suprihatin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalilo River is one of the sights that is always visible to the people who come cross to Banyuwangi. However, there are many trash and animal (human defecation in the Kalilo river that may impair the beautiful scenery of the river. This study was aimed to measure whether or not the physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of the river water meets the criteria of Class II Water Quality Standard. River water samples were collected from upstream, midstream and downstream of the Kalilo river for suspended solid, sulfate, total phosphate, BOD, COD, DO, anionic detergent, total coliforms. Results of water analysis showed that the suspended solid, sulfate, total phosphate, BOD, COD, DO, anionic detergent, total coliform contents exceeded standard limit of the of Class II Water Quality Standard. Such conditions affect physical, environmental and economic development of the district. A Communal Waste Treatment Plant, Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR, is recommended to overcome the problems.

  15. Physical geography and the study of human vulnerability due to natural and other hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical geography in Slovenia has achieved a significant level of knowledge on natural and other hazards, after studying these phenomena since 1950s. These extremely complex features are clearly showing the interconnections between the nature and man and the increasing vulnerability of modern societies. The article is based on geographical approach to hazards, which does not consider them as casual events, but as constituent parts of the environment, including very different ways of human adaptation. The rapid development of science and technology have even increased our vulnerability and direct exposure to hazards, what is considered as new challenge to physical geographers in looking for new approaches to increase the possibilities of sustainable 'co-existence' with natural and other hazards.

  16. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in Ukraine, an emergent zoonosis: epidemiological report of 1465 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałamatin, Rusłan V; Pavlikovska, Tamara M; Sagach, Olga S; Nikolayenko, Svitlana M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O; Masny, Aleksander; Cielecka, Danuta; Konieczna-Sałamatin, Joanna; Conn, David Bruce; Golab, Elzbieta

    2013-12-01

    The filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens is currently considered to be one of the most extensively spreading human and animal parasites in Europe. In Ukraine, reporting cases of dirofilariasis has been mandatory since 1975, and the disease was included in the national surveillance system for notifiable diseases. Up until December 31st 2012, a total of 1533 cases have been registered, with 1465 cases occurring within the previous 16 years. Most of the cases of dirofilariasis were registered in 6 regions: Kyiv, and the Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson and Chernihiv oblasts. In the years 1997-2002 the highest incidence rate was noted in the Kherson oblast in the south of the country (9.79 per 100 000 people), and the lowest in western Ukraine (0.07-1.68 per 100 000 people). D. repens infections were registered in all oblasts. Parasitic lesions were most often located in the head, the subconjunctival tissue and around the eyes. D. repens lesions were also found in the limbs, torso, male sexual organs, and female mammary glands. Dirofilariasis was diagnosed in persons aged from 11 months to 90 years old, most often among people between 21-40 years of age. Most patients had only one parasitic skin lesion; the majority of isolated nematodes were female. The results of our analysis point to a constant increase in D. repens dirofilariasis incidence in humans in Ukraine. Despite educational efforts, infections have become more frequent and the territory in which the disease occurs has enlarged to encompass the whole of Ukraine. Nevertheless, the Ukrainian sanitary-epidemiological services managed to achieve some measure of success, e.g. by creating a registration system for D. repens infections and establishing proper diagnostics for the disease.

  17. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Penvironmental sustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  18. Virulence, bacterocin genes and antibacterial susceptibility in Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water wells for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Carlos; Lobos, Olga

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to detect genes for virulence and bacteriocins in addition to studying the antimicrobial susceptibility of 78 strains of E. faecalis isolated from water wells for human consumption. The virulence and bacteriocin genes of 78 E. faecalis were amplified by PCR and visualized in agarose gels. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined through diffusion agar tests and the MIC through microdilution. It was observed that the major percentage of virulence genes in the E. faecalis strains corresponds to aggA (93.5%). The bacteriocin gene entA (64.1%) is the most frequently detected. The studied strains exhibited different virulence and bacteriocin genes, and an important antibacterial resistance. The most common resistant phenotype (n = 14) corresponds to tetracycline and chloramphenicol and the less frequent (n = 2) to ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Eight different genetic profiles were observed for virulence y bacteriocin genes. It was determined a statistical association between the bacterial resistance and some of the genetic profiles detected.

  19. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Unfit for human consumption': a study of the contamination of formula milk fed to young children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Sahanggamu, Daniel; Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Curtis, Val; White, Sian

    2017-10-01

    To examine levels of bacterial contamination in formula feeding bottles in Sidoarjo, East Java, and to assess the preparation practices that may have been responsible. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 92 randomly selected households with children under the age of two who were bottle-fed formula. In each household, we carried out video observation of mothers/caregivers preparing bottles, and examined samples of formula for coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli). In-depth interviews were conducted with a subsample of 20 mothers. A total of 88% of the formula feeds were contaminated with total coliforms at a level >10 MPN/ml, and 45% contained E. coli. These feeds were defined as 'unfit for human consumption'. In the video observations, none of the mothers complied with all five WHO-recommended measures of hygienic formula feed preparation. Only two mothers washed their hands with soap prior to formula preparation. Most mothers also failed to clean or sterilise the bottle and clean the preparation area. In-depth interviews confirmed that such suboptimal hygiene practices were common. The high levels of contamination found highlight that bottles are an important faecal-oral exposure pathway resulting from poor hygiene practices during bottle preparation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human Auditory Communication Disturbances Due To Road Traffic Noise Pollution in Calabar City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Obisung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Study on auditory communication disturbances due to road transportation noise in Calabar Urban City, Nigeria was carried out. Both subjective (psycho-social and objective (acoustical measurements were made for a period of twelve months. Questionnaire/interview schedules containing pertinent questions were administered randomly to 500 respondents of age 15 year and above, who were also with a good level of literacy skills (reading writing and leaving in houses sited along or parallel to busy road, with heavy traffic volume for at least three (3 years. The questionnaires provided the psycho-social responses of respondents used in this study, their reactions to road traffic noise effect on communication activities (listening to radio, listening and watching television, verbal communication between individuals, speech communication and telephone/GSM communication. Acoustical measurements were made at the facades of respondents' houses facing the road using precision digital sound level meter, Bruel and Kjaer (B & K type 732 following ISO standards 1996. The meter read the road traffic noise levels at measurement sites (facades of respondents' houses. From the results obtained in this study residents of Calabar City suffer serious communication interferences as a result of excessive road traffic noise levels. The noise indices used for this study were LAeq and Ldn. Noise levels obtained were over 93 dB(A (daytime and 60 dB(A, (nighttime for LAeq and 80 dB(A for Ldn. These far exceeded the recommended theoretical values of 45-55 and 70 dB(A, for LAeqand Ldn respectively. A-weighted sound pressure level (SPLS range between 87.0 and 100.0 dB(A. In this study it was also observed that over 98% of the respondents reported their television watching/radio listening disturbed, 99% recorded telephone/GSM disturbed, and 98% reported face-to-face verbal conversation disturbed, and 98% reported speech communication disturbed. The background noise levels (BNLs of

  2. Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, P; Savinainen, A; Hänninen, Osmo; Myllylä, R

    2011-06-01

    Finland TRACT Involuntary movements of hands in a moving van on a public road were studied to clarify the possible role of frequency modulated radio waves on driving. The signals were measured in a direct 2 km test segment of an international road during repeated drives to both directions. Test subjects (n=4) had an ability to sense radio frequency field intensity variations of the environment. They were sitting in a minivan with arm movement detectors in their hands. A potentiometer was used to register the hand movements to a computer which simultaneously collected data on the amplitude of the RF signal of the local FM tower 30 km distance at a frequency of about 100 MHz. Involuntary hand movements of the test subjects correlated with electromagnetic field, i.e. FM radio wave intensity measured. They reacted also on the place of a geomagnetic anomaly crossing the road, which was found on the basis of these recordings and confirmed by the public geological maps of the area.In conclusion, RF irradiation seems to affect the human hand reflexes of sensitive persons in a moving van along a normal public road which may have significance in traffic safety.

  3. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Dynamics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Craig, Theodore A.; Folmes, Clifford D.; Wang, Xuewei; Lanza, Ian R.; Schaible, Niccole S.; Salisbury, Jeffrey L.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Terzic, Andre; Sieck, Gary C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Muscle weakness and myopathy are observed in vitamin D deficiency and chronic renal failure, where concentrations of the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), are low. To evaluate the mechanism of action of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in skeletal muscle, we examined mitochondrial oxygen consumption, dynamics, and biogenesis and changes in expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle cells following treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Vitamin D3 metabolites lacking a 1α-hydroxyl group (vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) decreased or failed to increase OCR. 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D3 did not increase OCR. In 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells, mitochondrial volume and branching and expression of the pro-fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1) increased, whereas expression of the pro-fission proteins Fis1 (fission 1) and Drp1 (dynamin 1-like) decreased. Phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) (Ser-293) and PDH kinase 4 (PDK4) decreased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. There was a trend to increased PDH activity in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells (p = 0.09). 83 nuclear mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were changed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment; notably, PDK4 mRNA decreased, and PDP2 mRNA increased. MYC, MAPK13, and EPAS1 mRNAs, which encode proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, were increased following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Vitamin D receptor-dependent changes in the expression of 1947 mRNAs encoding proteins involved in muscle contraction, focal adhesion, integrin, JAK/STAT, MAPK, growth factor, and p53 signaling pathways were observed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Five micro-RNAs were induced or repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 regulates mitochondrial function, dynamics, and enzyme function, which are likely to influence muscle strength. PMID:26601949

  4. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Dynamics in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Zachary C; Craig, Theodore A; Folmes, Clifford D; Wang, Xuewei; Lanza, Ian R; Schaible, Niccole S; Salisbury, Jeffrey L; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Terzic, Andre; Sieck, Gary C; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-01-15

    Muscle weakness and myopathy are observed in vitamin D deficiency and chronic renal failure, where concentrations of the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), are low. To evaluate the mechanism of action of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in skeletal muscle, we examined mitochondrial oxygen consumption, dynamics, and biogenesis and changes in expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle cells following treatment with 1α,25(OH)2D3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Vitamin D3 metabolites lacking a 1α-hydroxyl group (vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) decreased or failed to increase OCR. 1α-Hydroxyvitamin D3 did not increase OCR. In 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells, mitochondrial volume and branching and expression of the pro-fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1) increased, whereas expression of the pro-fission proteins Fis1 (fission 1) and Drp1 (dynamin 1-like) decreased. Phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) (Ser-293) and PDH kinase 4 (PDK4) decreased in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. There was a trend to increased PDH activity in 1α,25(OH)2D3-treated cells (p = 0.09). 83 nuclear mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were changed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment; notably, PDK4 mRNA decreased, and PDP2 mRNA increased. MYC, MAPK13, and EPAS1 mRNAs, which encode proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, were increased following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Vitamin D receptor-dependent changes in the expression of 1947 mRNAs encoding proteins involved in muscle contraction, focal adhesion, integrin, JAK/STAT, MAPK, growth factor, and p53 signaling pathways were observed following 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Five micro-RNAs were induced or repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 regulates mitochondrial function, dynamics, and enzyme function, which are likely to influence muscle strength. © 2016 by The American Society

  5. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  6. Parotid enlargement due to adenovirus infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irma Seixas Duarte

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of adenovirus- induced enlargement of the parotid gland involving a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Physical examination revealed good general condition, no fever and bilateral enlargement of the parotid region, which was of increased consistency and slightly tender to palpation. Histological examination of the parotid gland demonstrated a slight periductal lymphomononuclear inflammatory infiltrate with the presence of focal points of necrosis. Tests to determine the presence of fungi and alcohol-acid resistent bacilli were negative. Immunohistochemistry for cytomegalovirus, heipes simplex, HIV p24 antigen and adenovirus showed positivity only for adenovirus in the epithelial nuclei of numerous gland ducts. Tins is the third case of this type reported in the literature, indicating the importance of including adenovirus in the differential diagnosis of this condition.Os autores relatam um caso de aumento da glândula parótida ocasionado por adenovirus, em paciente infectado pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Ao exame físico, este se apresentava em bom estado geral, afebril e com aumento bilateral de parõtidas, de consistência aumentada e discretamente dolorosas ã palpação. O exame histológico da parótida demonstrou discreto infiltrado inflamatório linfomononuclear periductal com presença de focos de necrose, as pesquisas para fungos e bacilos ãlcool ãcido resistentes foram negativas. A técnica de imuno-histoquímica para citomegalovírus, beipes simples, antígeno p24 do HIVe adenovirus, somente evidenciou posítividade para o último. Este é o terceiro caso descrito na literatura, destacando a importância de incluir o adenovíms, no diagnóstico diferencial, deste acometimento.

  7. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Greyling, A.; Draijer, R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention

  8. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Greyling, A.; Draijer, R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention

  9. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction.

  10. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Objective To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI) from 1970 onwards. Methods Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. Results In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. Conclusion The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions. PMID:27849263

  11. ECDC/EFSA/EMA first joint report on the integrated analysis of the consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECDC, the EFSA and the EMA have for the first time jointly explored associations between consumption of antimicrobials in humans and food-producing animals, and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals, using 2011 and 2012 data currently available from their relevant five EU monitoring networks. Combined data on antimicrobial consumption and corresponding resistance in animals and humans for EU MSs and reporting countries were analysed using logistic regression models for selected combinations of bacteria and antimicrobials. A summary indicator of the proportion of resistant bacteria in the main food-producing animal species was calculated for the analysis, as consumption data in food-producing animals were not available at the species level. Comparison of antimicrobial consumption data in animals and humans in 2012, both expressed in milligrams per kilogram of estimated biomass, revealed that overall antimicrobial consumption was higher in animals than in humans, although contrasting situations were observed between countries. The consumption of several antimicrobials extensively used in animal husbandry was higher in animals than in humans, while consumption of antimicrobials critically important for human medicine (such as fluoroquinolones and 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins was higher in humans. In both humans and animals, positive associations between consumption of antimicrobials and the corresponding resistance in bacteria were observed for most of the combinations investigated. In some cases, a positive association was also found between antimicrobial consumption in animals and resistance in bacteria from humans. While highlighting findings of concern, these results should be interpreted with caution owing to current data limitations and the complexity of the AMR phenomenon, which is influenced by several factors besides antimicrobial consumption. Recommendations to address current data

  12. Quantification of Hydrological Responses Due to Climate Change and Human Activities over Various Time Scales in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological responses are being impacted by both climate change and human activities. In particular, climate change and regional human activities have accelerated significantly during the last three decades in South Korea. The variation in runoff due to the two types of factors should be quantitatively investigated to aid effective water resources’ planning and management. In water resources’ planning, analysis using various time scales is useful where rainfall is unevenly distributed. However, few studies analyzed the impacts of these two factors over different time scales. In this study, hydrologic model-based approach and hydrologic sensitivity were used to separate the relative impacts of these two factors at monthly, seasonal and annual time scales in the Soyang Dam upper basin and the Seom River basin in South Korea. After trend analysis using the Mann–Kendall nonparametric test to identify the causes of gradual change, three techniques, such as the double mass curve method, Pettitt’s test and the BCP (Bayesian change point analysis, were used to detect change points caused by abrupt changes in the collected observed runoff. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT models calibrated from the natural periods were used to calculate the impacts of human activities. Additionally, six Budyko-based methods were used to verify the results obtained from the hydrological-based approach. The results show that impacts of climate change have been stronger than those of human activities in the Soyang Dam upper basin, while the impacts of human activities have been stronger than those of climate change in the Seom River basin. Additionally, the quantitative characteristics of relative impacts due to these two factors were identified at the monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. Finally, we suggest that the procedure used in this study can be used as a reference for regional water resources’ planning and management.

  13. In Vitro Drug Transfer Due to Drug Retention in Human Epidermis Pretreated with Application of Marketed Estradiol Transdermal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Pavurala, Naresh; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Katragadda, Usha; Yang, Yongsheng; Shah, Rakhi; Fang, Guodong; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-12-27

    Study objective was to assess skin-to-skin drug transfer potential that may occur due to drug retention in human epidermis (DRE) pretreated with application of estradiol transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) and other estradiol transdermal dosage forms (gels and sprays). TDDS (products-A, B, and C) with varying formulation design and composition, and other estradiol transdermal products (gel and spray) were applied to heat separated human epidermis (HSE) and subjected to in vitro drug permeation study. Amounts of DRE were quantified after 24 h. The DRE with product-B was significantly (P  0.05) amounts of DRE. A separate in vitro permeation study was carried out to determine amounts of drug transferred from drug-retaining epidermis to untreated HSE. The amounts of drug transferred, due to DRE after 8 h, with product-C were significantly (P drug transfer due to the DRE after labeled period of using estradiol TDDS, though the clinical relevance of these findings is yet to be determined.

  14. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  15. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  16. Raw milk consumption and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  17. Colloquium paper: human adaptations to diet, subsistence, and ecoregion are due to subtle shifts in allele frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Angela M; Witonsky, David B; Ehler, Edvard; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Beall, Cynthia; Gebremedhin, Amha; Sukernik, Rem; Utermann, Gerd; Pritchard, Jonathan; Coop, Graham; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2010-05-11

    Human populations use a variety of subsistence strategies to exploit an exceptionally broad range of ecoregions and dietary components. These aspects of human environments have changed dramatically during human evolution, giving rise to new selective pressures. To understand the genetic basis of human adaptations, we combine population genetics data with ecological information to detect variants that increased in frequency in response to new selective pressures. Our approach detects SNPs that show concordant differences in allele frequencies across populations with respect to specific aspects of the environment. Genic and especially nonsynonymous SNPs are overrepresented among those most strongly correlated with environmental variables. This provides genome-wide evidence for selection due to changes in ecoregion, diet, and subsistence. We find particularly strong signals associated with polar ecoregions, with foraging, and with a diet rich in roots and tubers. Interestingly, several of the strongest signals overlap with those implicated in energy metabolism phenotypes from genome-wide association studies, including SNPs influencing glucose levels and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, several pathways, including those of starch and sucrose metabolism, are enriched for strong signals of adaptations to a diet rich in roots and tubers, whereas signals associated with polar ecoregions are overrepresented in genes associated with energy metabolism pathways.

  18. First report of a human case of polycystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from neotropical area of Peru, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somocurcio, José R; Sánchez, Elizabeth L; Náquira, César; Schilder, José; Rojas, Francisco; Chacón, Pedro; Yabar, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    We report a human case of polycystic hidatidosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from Contamana (Department of Loreto) village located in the central jungle of Peru. The patient is a 44 year-old lady, teacher, who carried a painless liver mass since a year ago. She was submitted to abdominal surgery and the liver mass was removed and showed multiple cysts containing colorless liquid as is showed in the polycystic hidatidosis. The morphology and measure of the hooks obtained from the liquid contained in the cysts are from Echinococcus vogeli. It is the first report of this parasitism in Perú.

  19. Acute post-infectious cerebellar ataxia due to co-infection of human herpesvirus-6 and adenovirus mimicking myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naselli, Aldo; Pala, Giovanna; Cresta, Federico; Finetti, Martina; Biancheri, Roberta; Renna, Salvatore

    2014-11-26

    Acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) is a relatively common neurological disease in children. Most common types of ACA are acute post-infectious (APCA) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Less common but important causes include opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and acute cerebellitis. Cerebellar neoplasms and acute hydrocephalus are additional causes of paediatric ataxia. APCA is the most common cause of ACA in children, comprising about 30-50% of total cases. This is a report about an immunocompetent 4-yrs-old male affected by APCA, due to co-infection by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and adenovirus, with symptoms mimicking myositis.

  20. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable-group-consumption

  1. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulens, J W J; van Loon, L J C; Kok, F J; Pelsers, M; Bobbert, T; Spranger, J; Helander, A; Hendriks, H F J

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight (BMI >or=27 kg/m(2)) men consumed 100 ml whisky ( approximately 32 g alcohol) or water daily for 4 weeks in a randomised, controlled, crossover trial. After each treatment period, muscle biopsies and fasting blood samples were collected. Adiponectin concentrations increased (p < 0.001) by 12.5% after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption. Moderate alcohol consumption tended to increase HMW adiponectin by 57% (p = 0.07) and medium molecular weight adiponectin by 12.5% (p = 0.07), but not low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase and beta-3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity were not changed after moderate alcohol consumption, but an interaction between alcohol consumption and BMI was observed for cytochrome c oxidase (p = 0.072) and citrate synthase (p = 0.102) activity. Among lean men, moderate alcohol consumption tended to increase cytochrome c oxidase (p = 0.08) and citrate synthase activity (p = 0.12) by 23 and 26%, respectively, but not among overweight men. In particular, plasma HMW adiponectin correlated positively with activities of skeletal muscle citrate synthase (r = 0.64, p = 0.009), cytochrome c oxidase (p = 0.59, p = 0.009) and beta-HAD (r = 0.46, p = 0.056), while such correlation was not present for LMW adiponectin. Whole-body insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content were not affected by moderate alcohol consumption. Moderate alcohol consumption increases adiponectin concentrations, and in particular HMW adiponectin. Concentrations of HMW adiponectin in particular were positively associated with skeletal muscle oxidative capacity.

  2. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  3. Metabolic fingerprint after acute and under sustained consumption of a functional beverage based on grape skin extract in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khymenets, Olha; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Vazquez-Fresno, Rosa; Mart, Mercè Mercader; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Grape-derived polyphenols are considered to be one of the most promising ingredients for functional foods due to their health-promoting activities. We applied a HPLC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic approach in order to evaluate the impact of a functional food based on grape skin polyphenols on the urinary metabolome of healthy subjects. Thirty-one volunteers participated in two dietary crossover randomized intervention studies: with a single-dose intake (187 mL) and with a 15-day sustained consumption (twice per day, 187 mL per day in total) of a functional beverage (FB). Postprandial (4-hour) and 24-hour urine samples collected after acute consumption and on the last day of sustained FB consumption, respectively, were analysed using an untargeted HPLC-qTOF-MS approach. Multivariate modelling with subsequent application of an S-plot revealed differential mass features related to acute and prolonged consumption of FB. More than half of the mass features were shared between the two types of samples, among which several phase II metabolites of grape-derived polyphenols were identified at confidence level II. Prolonged consumption of FB was specifically reflected in urine metabolome by the presence of first-stage microbial metabolites of flavanols: hydroxyvaleric acid and hydroxyvalerolactone derivatives. Overall, several epicatechin and phenolic acid metabolites both of tissular and microbiota origin were the most representative markers of FB consumption. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies where an untargeted LC-MS metabolomic approach has been applied in nutrition research on a grape-derived FB.

  4. The impact of point source pollution on shallow groundwater used for human consumption in a threshold country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Cacciabue, Dolores Gutiérrez; Gil, José F; Gamboni, Oscar; Vicente, María Soledad; Wuertz, Stefan; Gonzo, Elio; Rajal, Verónica B

    2012-09-01

    Many developing and threshold countries rely on shallow groundwater wells for their water supply whilst pit latrines are used for sanitation. We employed a unified strategy involving satellite images and environmental monitoring of 16 physico-chemical and microbiological water quality parameters to identify significant land uses that can lead to unacceptable deterioration of source water, in a region with a subtropical climate and seasonally restricted torrential rainfall in Northern Argentina. Agricultural and non-agricultural sources of nitrate were illustrated in satellite images and used to assess the organic load discharged. The estimated human organic load per year was 28.5 BOD(5) tons and the N load was 7.5 tons, while for poultry farms it was 9940-BOD(5) tons and 1037-N tons, respectively. Concentrations of nitrates and organics were significantly different between seasons in well water (p values of 0.026 and 0.039, respectively). The onset of the wet season had an extraordinarily negative impact on well water due in part to the high permeability of soils made up of fine gravels and coarse sand. Discriminant analysis showed that land uses had a pronounced seasonal influence on nitrates and introduced additional microbial contamination, causing nitrification and denitrification in shallow groundwater. P-well was highly impacted by a poultry farm while S-well was affected by anthropogenic pollution and background load, as revealed by Principal Component Analysis. The application of microbial source tracking techniques is recommended to corroborate local sources of human versus animal origin.

  5. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals via consumption of contaminated vegetables collected from different irrigation sources in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution with heavy metals due to discharge of untreated urban and industrial wastewater is a major threat to ecological integrity and human well-being. The presenting study aimed to determine human health risks associated via food chain contamination of heavy metals routing from irrigation of urban and industrial wastewater. Irrigated water, soil and vegetables were analyzed for Cr2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+; transfer factor (TF, daily intake of metals (DIM and health risk index (HRI were also calculated. Cr2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ in vegetables cultivated by wastewater exceeded the permissible limits (European Union, 2002 while TF was lower for all metals except Co2+ and HRI was found to be maximum for Spinacia oleracea (2.42 mg/kg and Brassica campestris (2.22 mg/kg cultivated by wastewater. S. oleracea, B. campestris, Coriandrum sativum posed a severe health risk with respect to Cd and Mn.

  6. Economic growth, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fossil fuels consumption in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotfalipour, Mohammad Reza; Falahi, Mohammad Ali; Ashena, Malihe [Department of Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Environmental issues have attracted renewed interest and more attention during recent years due to climatic problems associated with the increased levels of pollution and the deterioration of the environmental quality as a result of increased human activity. This paper investigates the causal relationships between economic growth, carbon emission, and fossil fuels consumption, using the relatively new time series technique known as the Toda-Yamamoto method for Iran during the period 1967-2007. Total fossil fuels, petroleum products, and natural gas consumption are used as three proxies for energy consumption. Empirical results suggest a unidirectional Granger causality running from GDP and two proxies of energy consumption (petroleum products and natural gas consumption) to carbon emissions, and no Granger causality running from total fossil fuels consumption to carbon emissions in the long run. The results also show that carbon emissions, petroleum products, and total fossil fuels consumption do not lead to economic growth, though gas consumption does. (author)

  7. Dairy products consumption versus type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment: a review of recent findings from human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Silva Ton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been claimed that the appropriate consumption of dairy products can be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Objective: The objective of this review is to critically analyze the main scientific evidence about this topic. Methods: MEDLINE, PubMEd, Science Direct, SCIELO and LILACS were searched for studies published over the past 12 years exploring the effects of the consumption of dairy products or its components (calcium, vitamin D and magnesium on T2DM. Results and discussion: Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of at least three servings of low-fat dairy products per day as a part of a healthy diet is crucial to reduce the risk of developing T2DM. The majority of the analyzed intervention studies reported beneficial effects of increased calcium and vitamin D ingestion on insulin sensitivity improvement and T2DM prevention. Conclusions: Although the impact of dairy consumption to treat T2DM needs further investigation, the consumption of low-fat dairy products may be an important strategy to prevent and control T2DM.

  8. Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Weiß, Stefanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2016-02-18

    A plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) omega (n)-3 PUFA supply in humans involves dietary supplementation with oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA) alone or in combination with stearidonic acid (SDA). The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers. In two double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled studies, all volunteers started with 17 g/d run-in oil (2 weeks). Thereafter, subjects received diets enriched in study 1 with EO (5 g ALA + 2 g SDA; n = 59) or in study 2 with LO (5 g ALA; n =  9) daily for 8 weeks. The smaller control groups received fish oil (FO; n = 19) or olive oil (OO; n = 18). Participants were instructed to restrict their dietary n-3 PUFA intake throughout the studies (e.g., no fish). To investigate the influence of age and BMI on the conversion of ALA and SDA as well as clinical markers, the subjects recruited for EO and LO treatment were divided into three subgroups (two age groups 20-35 y; 49-69 y with BMI 18-25 kg/m(2) and one group with older, overweight subjects (age 49-69 y; BMI >25 kg/m(2)). In plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were ~25 % higher following EO compared to LO. Comparing all treatments, the effectiveness of increasing EPA and DPA in plasma, RBC, and PBMC was on average 100:25:10:0 and 100:50:25:0 for FO:EO:LO:OO, respectively. EO led to a lower arachidonic acid/EPA-ratio compared to LO in plasma, RBC, and PBMC. Following EO, final DHA was not greater compared to LO. Higher BMI correlated negatively with increases in plasma EPA and DPA after EO supplementation, but not after LO supplementation. Decreasing effect on plasma LDL-C and serum insulin was greater with EO than with LO. Daily intake of SDA-containing EO is a better supplement than LO for increasing EPA and DPA in blood. However, neither EO nor LO maintained blood DHA status in

  9. La ocratoxina A en alimentos de consumo humano: revisión Ochratoxin A in foods for human consumption: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravelo Abreu

    2011-12-01

    . The levels of Ochratoxin A in food are closely related with the production and conservation conditions. Objetive: This review aims to assess the presence of OTA in different food groups, and to update the knowledge about its toxicity, mechanism of action, methods of analysis used for detection and quantification, and different aspects about regulations. Methods: References and publications related to the mechanism of action, toxicity, analysis and regulations about OTA in foods were searched and selected based on inclusion criteria. MEDLINE/PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Ebscohost were used as databases. Results: The presence of OTA keeps on being observed in different food groups. The detected OTA levels are below those permitted by limits set by the regulations However, inadequate agrotechnological production practices and improper storage of foods remain as critical control points to avoid the toxic hazards resulting from human exposure to this toxin. Conclusions: It's recommended to promote the correct use of agrotechnological practices for raw materials and processed products to reduce the concentration of OTA in foods and to avoid the toxicity resulting from the consumption of OTA contaminated foods.

  10. A Two Dimensional Infinite Element Model to Study Temperature Distribution in Human Dermal Regions due to Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. pardasani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.

  11. Isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Gharai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 30-year-old man presented to our outpatient department with sudden loss of visibility in his left visual field. He had no other systemic symptoms. Perimetry showed left-sided incongruous homonymous hemianopsia denser above the horizontal meridian. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed irregular well-marginated lobulated lesions right temporo-occipital cerebral hemisphere and left high fronto-parietal cerebral hemisphere suggestive of brain tubercular abscess. Serological tests for HIV were reactive, and the patient was started only on anti-tubercular drugs with the presumptive diagnosis of cerebral tubercular abscess. Therapeutic response confirmed the diagnosis. Atypical ophthalmic manifestations may be the initial presenting feature in patients with HIV infection. This highlights the need for increased index of suspicion for HIV infection in young patients with atypical ophthalmic manifestations.

  12. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: A human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods: Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml

  13. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18 - 25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight ( BMI >= 27 kg/m(2)) men consumed

  14. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: A human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods: Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml whis

  15. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18 - 25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight ( BMI >= 27 kg/m(2)) men consumed 1

  16. Human Health Risk from Metals in Fish from Saudi Arabia: Consumption Patterns for Some Species Exceed Allowable Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-10-06

    ABSTRACT: Fish are a healthful source of protein, but contaminants in some fish pose a risk. While there are multiple risk assessments from Europe and North America, there are far fewer for other parts of the world. We examined the risks from mercury, arsenic, lead, and other metals in fish consumed by people in Jeddah area, Saudi Arabia, using site-specific data on consumption patterns and metal levels in fish. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s Hazard Quotient (HQ) and cumulative Hazard Index (HI) for non-cancer endpoints and Carcinogenic Index for cancer were used to determine the health risk based on fish consumption rates. Of the 13 fish species examined, HQ was greater than 1 (indicating elevated risk) in two species for arsenic, and seven species for methylmercury. The cumulative HI for all metals was above 1 for all but three species of fish at the mean consumption rates. Generally, fish species with HI above 1 for one sampling location, had HI above 1 for all sampling locations. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of strategies for reducing risk from fish consumption while encouraging dietary intakes of fish with low mercury and arsenic levels.

  17. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Luis F; da Silva, Ana R Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I; Aguilella, M; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (P(O2) ) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors. (1) METHODS: Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low P(O2)) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  18. Probiotic yogurt consumption may improve gastrointestinal symptoms, productivity, and nutritional intake of people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Mwanza, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irvine, Stephanie L.; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh

    2011-01-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effe

  19. Cruciferous vegetable consumption alters the metabolism of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David G; Young, Philip J; Agus, Cynthia; Knize, Mark G; Boobis, Alan R; Gooderham, Nigel J; Lake, Brian G

    2004-09-01

    Consumption of red meat is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, whereas cruciferous vegetable consumption reduces cancer risk. While the mechanisms remain to be determined, cruciferous vegetables may act by altering the metabolism of carcinogens present in cooked food, such as the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption on the metabolism of PhIP in 20 non-smoking Caucasian male subjects. The study consisted of three 12-day phases, namely two periods of avoidance of cruciferous vegetables (phases 1 and 3) and a high cruciferous vegetable diet period (phase 2), when subjects ingested 250 g each of Brussels sprouts and broccoli per day. At the end of each study phase, the subjects consumed a cooked meat meal containing 4.90 microg PhIP and urine samples were collected for up to 48 h. Cruciferous vegetable consumption significantly increased hepatic CYP1A2, as demonstrated by changes in saliva caffeine kinetics. Samples of N(2)-hydroxy-PhIP-N(2)-glucuronide (the major urinary metabolite of PhIP in humans), N(2)-hydroxy-PhIP-N(3)-glucuronide and their trideuterated derivatives (to serve as internal standards) were synthesized and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry method developed for their analysis. In phases 1 and 3, the excretion of N(2)-hydroxy-N(2)-PhIP-glucuronide in 0-48 h urine samples was six times that of N(2)-hydroxy-PhIP-N(3)-glucuronide. Cruciferous vegetable consumption significantly increased the urinary excretion of N(2)-hydroxy-PhIP-N(2)-glucuronide in 0-48 h urine samples to 127 and 136% of levels observed in phases 1 and 3, respectively. In contrast, the urinary excretion of N(2)-hydroxy-PhIP-N(3)-glucuronide was unchanged. While the urinary excretion of both PhIP metabolites accounted for approximately 39% of the PhIP dose in phases 1 and 3, they accounted for approximately 49% of the

  20. Human campylobacteriosis related to the consumption of raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy: Quantitative risk assessment based on official controls over four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Losio, Marina Nadia; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk

  1. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...

  2. Conspicuous Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China validated a new consumption tax policy on April 1 that levies higher taxes on luxury goods such as yachts and limousines, as well as wooden disposable chopsticks and wooden flooring. This marked the most profound change in the consumption tax since 1994 and is thought to be the first step in an overall tax reform in the country. Consumer tariffs, which are handed over to state coffers, consist of excise taxes and the taxes on imported goods collected by customs agencies.

  3. Association between aflatoxin M1 excreted in human urine samples with the consumption of milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, Abdul Mutalib; Nurul Aqilah, Abdul Rahman

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to find the association between urinary aflatoxin M(1) level and milk and dairy products consumption. Of 160 morning urine samples collected, aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 61.3 % samples (n = 98) [mean ± SD = 0.0234 ± 0.0177 ng/mL; range = 0-0.0747 ng/mL]. Of these positive samples, 67.3 % (n = 66) had levels above the limit of detection. Respondents with intake of milk and dairy products above median (67.79 g/day) had significantly high level of AFM(1) compared to those with low intake. A significant and positive association (φ = 0.286) was found between milk and dairy products consumption and urinary aflatoxin M(1) level.

  4. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects...... in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based...... on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential...

  5. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2016-01-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  6. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2017-05-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  7. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M; West, J Jason

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration-response function for ozone and an integrated exposure-response model for PM2.5. We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally-675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year-and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution-related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA, Adelman Z, Fry MM, West JJ. 2016. The impact of individual

  8. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; West, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. Objectives: We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. Methods: We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration–response function for ozone and an integrated exposure–response model for PM2.5. Results: We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally—675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year—and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). Conclusions: The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution–related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA

  9. Impact of increased economic burden due to human echinococcosis in an underdeveloped rural community of the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ningxia is located in western People's Republic of China, which is hyperendemic for human cystic echinococcosis (CE throughout the entire area with alveolar echinococcosis (AE hyperendemic in the south. This is in part due to its underdeveloped economy. Despite the recent rapid growth in P.R. China's economy, medical expenditure for hospitalization of echinococcosis cases has become one of the major poverty generators in rural Ningxia, resulting in a significant social problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the 2000 inpatient records with liver CE in surgical departments of hospitals from north, central and south Ningxia for the period 1996-2002. We carried out an analysis of health care expenditure of inpatient treatment in public hospitals, and examined the financial inequalities relating to human echinococcosis and the variation in per capita income between various socioeconomic groups with different levels of gross domestic product for different years. Hospital charges for Yinchuan, NHAR's capital city in the north, increased approximately 35-fold more than the annual income of rural farmers with the result that they preferred to seek health care in local county hospitals, despite higher quality and more efficient treatment and diagnosis available in the city. Household income levels thus strongly influenced the choice of health care provider and the additional expense impeded access of poor people to better quality treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Information on socioeconomic problems arising from echinococcosis, which adds considerably to the burden on patient families and communities, needs to be collected as a prerequisite for developing policies to tackle the disease in rural Ningxia.

  10. Decreased carotenoid concentrations due to dietary sucrose polyesters do not affect possible markers of disease risk in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Weststrate, J.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Poppel, G. van; Vink, A.A.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Bots, M.L.; Castenmiller, W.A.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive consumption of energy and fat increases the risk for obesity. Snacks containing sucrose polyesters (SPE) as a dietary fat replacer are on the market in the United States. SPE products have been shown to lower concentrations of serum carotenoids in short-term studies. Experimental studies o

  11. Decreased carotenoid concentrations due to dietary sucrose polyesters do not affect possible markers of disease risk in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Weststrate, J.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Poppel, G. van; Vink, A.A.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Bots, M.L.; Castenmiller, W.A.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive consumption of energy and fat increases the risk for obesity. Snacks containing sucrose polyesters (SPE) as a dietary fat replacer are on the market in the United States. SPE products have been shown to lower concentrations of serum carotenoids in short-term studies. Experimental studies

  12. Detecting patterns in household electricity consumption after behavioural interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhushan, Nitin; Albers, Casper; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The global consensus on climate change today agrees that climate warming trends are very likely due to human activities. Households account for 26% of the total primary energy consumption in Europe. The relevance of households in the climate change mitigation debate is reflected in the rising intere

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ are linked with alcohol consumption in mice and withdrawal and dependence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Benavidez, Jillian M; Black, Mendy; Ferguson, Laura B; Schoenhard, Grant L; Goate, Alison M; Edenberg, Howard J; Wetherill, Leah; Hesselbrock, Victor; Foroud, Tatiana; Harris, R Adron

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists reduce voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption in rat models and are promising therapeutics in the treatment for drug addictions. We studied the effects of different classes of PPAR agonists on chronic EtOH intake and preference in mice with a genetic predisposition for high alcohol consumption and then examined human genomewide association data for polymorphisms in PPAR genes in alcohol-dependent subjects. Two different behavioral tests were used to measure intake of 15% EtOH in C57BL/6J male mice: 24-hour 2-bottle choice and limited access (3-hour) 2-bottle choice, drinking in the dark. We measured the effects of pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg), fenofibrate (50 and 150 mg/kg), GW0742 (10 mg/kg), tesaglitazar (1.5 mg/kg), and bezafibrate (25 and 75 mg/kg) on EtOH intake and preference. Fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, was quantified in mouse plasma, liver, and brain by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Data from a human genome-wide association study (GWAS) completed in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) were then used to analyze the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different PPAR genes (PPARA, PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A) with 2 phenotypes: DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) and the DSM-IV criterion of withdrawal. Activation of 2 isoforms of PPARs, α and γ, reduced EtOH intake and preference in the 2 different consumption tests in mice. However, a selective PPARδ agonist or a pan agonist for all 3 PPAR isoforms did not decrease EtOH consumption. Fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate, was detected in liver, plasma, and brain after 1 or 8 days of oral treatment. The GWAS from COGA supported an association of SNPs in PPARA and PPARG with alcohol withdrawal and PPARGC1A with AD but found no association for PPARD with either phenotype. We provide convergent evidence using both mouse and human

  14. Effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects: evidence for passive and active over-consumption of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2004-08-01

    The effects of alcohol on food and energy intake in human subjects have been the subject of a number of controlled studies recently. Unlike the evidence for other macronutrients, there is minimal evidence for any compensatory reduction in food intake in response to energy ingested as alcohol. In contrast, all studies testing intake within 1 h of preload ingestion report a higher intake of food following alcohol relative to energy-matched controls, although this short-term stimulatory effect is not evident if the test meal is delayed beyond 1 h. This time-course suggests that short-term stimulation of appetite may be mediated by the pharmacological action of alcohol on the appetite control system, either through enhanced orosensory reward or impaired satiety. In the long term, energy ingested as alcohol is additive to energy from other sources, suggesting that moderate alcohol consumption results in long-term passive over-consumption alongside short-term active over-consumption of energy through appetite stimulation. Despite the consistency of enhanced energy intake after moderate alcohol, evidence of an association between alcohol in the diet and obesity remains contentious, although the most recent results suggest that alcohol intake correlates with BMI. Future research needs to address this issue and clarify the mechanisms underlying appetite stimulation by alcohol.

  15. Consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract derived from Arthrospira platensis is associated with reduction of chronic pain: results from two human clinical pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen GS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Victoria L Attridge,1 Steve G Carter,1 Jesse Guthrie,2 Axel Ehmann,2 Kathleen F Benson1 1NIS Labs, 2Cerule LLC, Klamath Falls, OR, USA Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE from Arthrospira platensis on chronic pain in humans, in two clinical pilot studies. Design and interventions: The two pilot studies each involved 12 subjects experiencing chronic pain. The initial study followed an open-label 4-week study design involving consumption of 1 g ACE per day. A subsequent placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover study involved consumption of 500 mg ACE, 250 mg ACE, or 0 mg ACE (placebo per day for 1-week duration, separated by 1-week washout period. Subjects: Adult subjects of both sexes, with chronic joint-related pain for at least 6 months prior to enrollment, were recruited after obtaining written informed consent. Outcome measures: Visual analog scales were used to score pain at rest and during physical activity for each person's primary and secondary areas of chronic pain. An activities of daily living questionnaire was used to collect data on physical functioning. Results: The data showed rapid reduction of chronic pain in people consuming ACE, where the reduction in pain scores for each person's primary pain area reached a high level of statistical significance after 2 weeks of consumption (P<0.01, both when at rest and when being physically active. Secondary pain areas when physically active showed highly significant improvements within 1 week of consumption of 1 g/d (P<0.001 and borderline significant improvements within 1 week of consuming 500 mg/d (P<0.065 and 250 mg/d (P<0.05. This was accompanied by an increased ability to perform daily activities (P<0.05. A small but significant weight loss was observed during the 4-week study, as the average body mass index dropped from 31.4 to 29.4 (P<0.01. Conclusion: Consumption of ACE was associated

  16. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N; Simons, Robin R L; Hill, Andrew A; Snary, Emma L; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    In response to the European Food Safety Authority's wish to assess the reduction of human cases of salmonellosis by implementing control measures at different points in the farm-to-consumption chain for pork products, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed. The model simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready-to-eat sausage, respectively, and a dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose values are changed according to the E.U. member state (MS) of interest. In this article we demonstrate the use of the QMRA in four MSs, representing different types of countries. The predicted probability of illness from the QMRA was between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million per serving across all three product types. Fermented ready-to-eat sausage imposed the highest probability of illness per serving in all countries, whereas the risks per serving of minced meat and pork chops were similar within each MS. For each of the products, the risk varied by a factor of 100 between the four MSs. The influence of lack of information for different variables was assessed by rerunning the model with alternative, more extreme, values. Out of the large number of uncertain variables, only a few of them have a strong influence on the probability of illness, in particular those describing the preparation at home and consumption.

  17. Salmon consumption during pregnancy alters fatty acid composition and secretory IgA concentration in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Heidi J; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Vlachava, Maria; Diaper, Norma D; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-08-01

    Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy alters breast milk composition, but there is little information about the impact of oily fish consumption. We determined whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy alters breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors. Women (n = 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to consume their habitual diet or to consume 2 portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 wk of pregnancy until delivery. The salmon provided 3.45 g long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA/wk. Breast milk fatty acid composition and immune factors [soluble CD14, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)1, TGFβ2, and secretory IgA] were analyzed at 1, 5, 14, and 28 d postpartum (PP). Breast milk from the salmon group had higher proportions of EPA (80%), docosapentaenoic acid (30%), and DHA (90%) on d 5 PP compared with controls (P < 0.01). The LC (n-6) PUFA:LC (n-3) PUFA ratio was lower for the salmon group on all days of PP sampling (P ≤ 0.004), although individual (n-6) PUFA proportions, including arachidonic acid, did not differ. All breast milk immune factors decreased between d 1 and 28 PP (P < 0.001). Breast milk secretory IgA (sIgA) was lower in the salmon group (d 1-28 PP; P = 0.006). Salmon consumption during pregnancy, at the current recommended intakes, increases the LC (n-3) PUFA concentration of breast milk in early lactation, thus improving the supply of these important fatty acids to the breast-fed neonate. The consequence of the lower breast milk concentration of sIgA in the salmon group is not clear.

  18. Effect of meal composition and cooking duration on the fate of sulforaphane following consumption of broccoli by healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungapamestry, Vanessa; Duncan, Alan J; Fuller, Zoë; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2007-04-01

    The isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, has been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of brassica vegetables. When broccoli is consumed, sulforaphane is released from hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by plant myrosinase and/or colonic microbiota. The influence of meal composition and broccoli-cooking duration on isothiocyanate uptake was investigated in a designed experiment. Volunteers (n 12) were each offered a meal, with or without beef, together with 150 g lightly cooked broccoli (microwaved 2.0 min) or fully cooked broccoli (microwaved 5.5 min), or a broccoli seed extract. They received 3 g mustard containing pre-formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) with each meal. Urinary output of allyl (AMA) and sulforaphane (SFMA) mercapturic acids, the biomarkers of production of AITC and sulforaphane respectively, were measured for 24 h after meal consumption. The estimated yield of sulforaphane in vivo was about 3-fold higher after consumption of lightly cooked broccoli than fully cooked broccoli. Absorption of AITC from mustard was about 1.3-fold higher following consumption of the meat-containing meal compared with the non meat-containing alternative. The meal matrix did not significantly influence the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin and its excretion as SFMA from broccoli. Isothiocyanates may interact with the meal matrix to a greater extent if they are ingested pre-formed rather than after their production from hydrolysis of glucosinolates in vivo. The main influence on the production of isothiocyanates in vivo is the way in which brassica vegetables are cooked, rather than the effect of the meal matrix.

  19. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  20. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  1. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Anna Crescenti

    Full Text Available DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, p<0.001. Additionally, we found an association between the cocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process.Clinicaltrials.govNCT00511420 and NCT00502047.

  2. Endurance Exercise Increases Intestinal Uptake of the Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 after Peanut Consumption in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke M. JanssenDuijghuijsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled studies on the effect of exercise on intestinal uptake of protein are scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unclear. We studied the uptake of the major allergen Ara h 6 following peanut consumption in an exercise model and compared this with changes in markers of intestinal permeability and integrity. Ten overnight-fasted healthy non-allergic men (n = 4 and women (n = 6 (23 ± 4 years ingested 100 g of peanuts together with a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R solution, followed by rest or by 60 min cycling at 70% of their maximal workload. Significantly higher, though variable, levels of Ara h 6 in serum were found during exercise compared to rest (Peak p = 0.03; area under the curve p = 0.006, with individual fold changes ranging from no increase to an increase of over 150-fold in the uptake of Ara h 6. Similarly, uptake of lactulose (2–18 fold change, p = 0.0009 and L/R ratios (0.4–7.9 fold change, p = 0.04 were significantly increased which indicates an increase in intestinal permeability. Intestinal permeability and uptake of Ara h 6 were strongly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001 for lactulose and Ara h 6. Endurance exercise after consumption may lead to increased paracellular intestinal uptake of food proteins.

  3. Endurance Exercise Increases Intestinal Uptake of the Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 after Peanut Consumption in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M.; van Norren, Klaske; Grefte, Sander; Koppelman, Stef J.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Keijer, Jaap; Witkamp, Renger F.; Wichers, Harry J.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled studies on the effect of exercise on intestinal uptake of protein are scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unclear. We studied the uptake of the major allergen Ara h 6 following peanut consumption in an exercise model and compared this with changes in markers of intestinal permeability and integrity. Ten overnight-fasted healthy non-allergic men (n = 4) and women (n = 6) (23 ± 4 years) ingested 100 g of peanuts together with a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R) solution, followed by rest or by 60 min cycling at 70% of their maximal workload. Significantly higher, though variable, levels of Ara h 6 in serum were found during exercise compared to rest (Peak p = 0.03; area under the curve p = 0.006), with individual fold changes ranging from no increase to an increase of over 150-fold in the uptake of Ara h 6. Similarly, uptake of lactulose (2–18 fold change, p = 0.0009) and L/R ratios (0.4–7.9 fold change, p = 0.04) were significantly increased which indicates an increase in intestinal permeability. Intestinal permeability and uptake of Ara h 6 were strongly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001 for lactulose and Ara h 6). Endurance exercise after consumption may lead to increased paracellular intestinal uptake of food proteins. PMID:28117717

  4. Cardiovascular determinants of maximal oxygen consumption in upright and supine posture at the end of prolonged bed rest in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringard, Aurélien; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Adami, Alessandra; De Roia, Gabriela; Lador, Frédéric; Lucini, Daniela; Pizzinelli, Paolo; Capelli, Carlo; Ferretti, Guido

    2010-06-30

    We tested the hypothesis that, after bed rest, maximal oxygen consumption ( VO₂max ) decreases more upright than supine, because of adequate cardiovascular response supine, but not upright. On 9 subjects, we determined VO₂max and maximal cardiac output (Q ) upright and supine, before and after (reambulation day upright, the following day supine) 35-day bed rest, by classical steady state protocol. Oxygen consumption, heart rate (f(H)) and stroke volume (Q(st)) were measured by a metabolic cart, electrocardiography and Modelflow from pulse pressure profiles, respectively. We computed Q as f(H) times Q(st), and systemic oxygen flow ( QaO₂) as Q. times arterial oxygen concentration, obtained after haemoglobin and arterial oxygen saturation measurements. Before bed rest, all parameters at maximal exercise were similar upright and supine. After bed rest, VO₂max was lower (pcardiovascular response (i) did not affect VO₂max supine, (ii) partially explained the VO₂max decrease upright, and (iii) caused the VO₂max differences between postures. We speculate that impaired peripheral oxygen transfer and/or utilisation may explain the VO₂max decrease supine and the fraction of VO₂max decrease upright unexplained by cardiovascular responses.

  5. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  6. Wax Ester Rich Oil From The Marine Crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus, is a Bioavailable Source of EPA and DHA for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad M; Larsen, Terje S; Derrig, Linda D; Kelly, Kathleen M; Tande, Kurt S

    2016-10-01

    Oil from the marine copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, which contains >86 % of fatty acids present as wax esters, is a novel source of n-3 fatty acids for human consumption. In a randomized, two-period crossover study, 18 healthy adults consumed 8 capsules providing 4 g of Calanus(®) Oil supplying a total of 260 mg EPA and 156 mg DHA primarily as wax esters, or 1 capsule of Lovaza(®) providing 465 mg EPA and 375 mg DHA as ethyl esters, each with an EPA- and DHA-free breakfast. Plasma EPA and DHA were measured over a 72 h period (t = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). The positive incremental area under the curve over the 72 h test period (iAUC0-72 h) for both EPA and DHA was significantly different from zero (p wax ester rich marine oil is a suitable alternative source of EPA and DHA for human consumption.

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie-Kanu, O. Josephine; Ezenduka, E. Vivienne; Okorie-Kanu, C. Onwuchokwe; Ugwu, L. Chinweokwu; Nnamani, U. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014). The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. Results: About 37 (54.4%) and 7 (10.3%) of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p0.05). The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonella spp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline. Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the raw table eggs marketed for human consumption in Enugu State, Nigeria is contaminated with pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species that showed multiple drug resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in veterinary and human

  8. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Josephine Okorie-Kanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014. The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. Results: About 37 (54.4% and 7 (10.3% of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p0.05. The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonella spp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline. Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the raw table eggs marketed for human consumption in Enugu State, Nigeria is contaminated with pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species that showed multiple drug resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in

  9. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...

  10. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  11. Acidic pH retards the fibrillization of human islet amyloid polypeptide due to electrostatic repulsion of histidines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Weixin; Mu, Yuguang; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major constituent of amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type-II diabetes. IAPP is secreted together with insulin from the acidic secretory granules at a low pH of approximately 5.5 to the extracellular environment at a neutral pH. The increased accumulation of extracellular hIAPP in diabetes indicates that changes in pH may promote amyloid formation. To gain insights and underlying mechanisms of the pH effect on hIAPP fibrillogenesis, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent model were performed to study the structural properties of five hIAPP protofibrillar oligomers, under acidic and neutral pH, respectively. In consistent with experimental findings, simulation results show that acidic pH is not conducive to the structural stability of these oligomers. This provides a direct evidence for a recent experiment [L. Khemtemourian, E. Domenech, J. P. F. Doux, M. C. Koorengevel, and J. A. Killian, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 15598 (2011)], 10.1021/ja205007j, which suggests that acidic pH inhibits the fibril formation of hIAPP. In addition, a complementary coarse-grained simulation shows the repulsive electrostatic interactions among charged His18 residues slow down the dimerization process of hIAPP by twofold. Besides, our all-atom simulations reveal acidic pH mainly affects the local structure around residue His18 by destroying the surrounding hydrogen-bonding network, due to the repulsive interactions between protonated interchain His18 residues at acidic pH. It is also disclosed that the local interactions nearby His18 operating between adjacent β-strands trigger the structural transition, which gives hints to the experimental findings that the rate of hIAPP fibril formation and the morphologies of the fibrillar structures are strongly pH-dependent.

  12. Effect of Biometric Characteristics on the Change of Biomechanical Properties of the Human Cornea due to Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the impact of biometric characteristics on changes of biomechanical properties of the human cornea due to standard cataract surgery using biomechanical analysis. Patients and Methods. This prospective consecutive cross-sectional study comprised 54 eyes with cataract in stages I or II that underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. CH, CRF, IOPg, and IOPcc intraocular pressure were measured by biomechanical analysis preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Changes (Δ were calculated as preoperative value versus postoperative value. Biometrical data were extracted from TMS-5 (CSI and SAI, IOLMaster (AL, and EM-3000 (CCT and ECC preoperatively. Results. The average values of the changes were ΔCH=-0.45±1.27 mmHg, ΔCRF=-0.88±1.1 mmHg, ΔIOPg=-1.58±3.15 mmHg, and ΔIOPcc=-1.45±3.93 mmHg. The higher the CSI the smaller the decrease in CH (r=0.302, P=0.028. The higher the CCT the larger the decrease in CRF (r=-0.371, P=0.013. The higher the AL the smaller the decrease in IOPg (r=0.417, P=0.005. The higher the AL, SAI, and EEC the smaller the decrease in IOPcc (r=0.351, P=0.001; r=-0.478, P<0.001; r=0.339, P=0.013. Conclusions. Corneal biomechanical properties were affected by comprehensive factors after cataract surgery, including corneal endothelium properties, biometry, and geometrical characteristics.

  13. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  14. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans in the south-west region of Ireland: is there a relationship with infection prevalence in cattle?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans to the prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle in south-west Ireland and discuss possible links between them. SETTING: In the south-west region of Ireland, a mixed urban and rural community (pop. 536,000), there is a residuum of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the incidence of culture-positive M. bovis disease in humans in south-west Ireland from 1983 to 1994 and of the results of tuberculin testing in cattle from 1978 to 1994 for the same region. RESULTS: One to five cases of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis were recorded per year while the overall prevalence of bovine infection fell gradually during the period of study from 467 tuberculin-positive animals per 100,000 cattle tested in 1983 to 158 per 100,000 in 1994. CONCLUSION: The low incidence plateau of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis together with the decline in prevalence of animal infection in the overall period studied suggest a cut-off in the animal to human chain of infection at two points; the animal source and the ingestion of (now pasteurized) milk. This would suggest that disease in humans is now due to reactivation of previous foci of infection which were acquired when milk pasteurization was not compulsory. Based on this, we would anticipate a further reduction and possible elimination of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis in this region in the next 10-15 years.

  15. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....

  16. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  17. 基于技术进步的中国能源消耗与经济增长:前后两个30年的比较%Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China Due to Technological Progress:A Comparison of Two Phases (1953-1977 and 1978-2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳旭; 孙根年; 李静

    2011-01-01

    Based on statistical data of energy consumption and GDP during the period 1953-2009,it can be divided into two phases (1953-1977 and 1978-2009) according to the index of energy consumption per unit.Then,the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth was compared.Results show that for the first phase,the energy consumption per capita grew with increasing the GDP per capita.When the energy consumption per capita increased from 6.67 tec to 17.9 tec,the elasticity of energy consumption decreased from 3.59 to-0.58.The relationship between the two variables is negatively correlated.For the second phrase,with increasing the GDP per capita,the energy consumption per capita grew with fluctuation.When the energy consumption per unit decreased from 17.5 tec to 5.05 tec,the elasticity of energy consumption fluctuated more greatly.The problem of energy consumption can be taken as an environmental problem as more environmental problems are caused by energy consumption.Therefore,the Impact Population Affluence Technology (IPAT) equation can be made use of to analyze the problem.Using the IPAT equation,energy consumption is decomposed into three parts,i.e.,population,economy,and technology.Then,the relation that the growth rate of energy consumption is concerned with the growth rate of population,economy,and technology progress is shown.The growth rate of energy consumption per unit can be taken as technology progress.With technology progress,the reason why the energy consumption and economic growth between the two phases are different was analyzed.Results show that 1) there was a positive correlation between energy consumption and economic growth during 1953-1977 due to technological progress.Economic growth improves energy consumption and energy consumption pushes economic growth.However,during the period 1978-2009,the economic growth was less dependent on energy consumption and the growth of energy consumption is suppressed.Technological change and

  18. Consumption of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland results in the modulation of intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Elizabeth A; Walker, Richard L; Anderson, Gary B; Murray, James D

    2006-08-01

    Lysozyme is a key antimicrobial component of human milk that has several health-promoting functions including the development of a healthy intestinal tract. However, levels of lysozyme in the milk of dairy animals are negligible. We have generated transgenic dairy goats that express human lysozyme (HLZ) in their milk in an attempt to deliver the benefits of human milk in a continual fashion. To test the feasibility of this transgenic approach to achieve a biological impact at the level of the intestine, feeding trials were conducted in two animal models. Pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic animals was fed to both kid goats (ruminant model) and young pigs (human model), and the numbers of total coliforms and Escherichia coli present in the small intestine were determined. Data from this proof-of-principle study demonstrate that milk from transgenic animals was capable of modulating the bacterial population of the gut in both animal models. Pigs that consumed pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic goats had fewer numbers of coliforms and E. coli in their intestine than did those receiving milk from non-transgenic control animals. The opposite effect was seen in goats. Milk from these transgenic animals not only represent one of the first transgenic food products with the potential of benefiting human health, but are also a unique model to study the development and role of intestinal microflora on health, well-being and resistance to disease.

  19. Occurrence of urolithins, gut microbiota ellagic acid metabolites and proliferation markers expression response in the human prostate gland upon consumption of walnuts and pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Giménez-Bastida, Juan A; García-Conesa, María T; Gómez-Sánchez, María B; García-Talavera, Noelia V; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Sánchez-Alvarez, Carmen; Fontana-Compiano, Luis O; Morga-Egea, Juan P; Pastor-Quirante, Francisco A; Martínez-Díaz, Francisco; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiology supports the important role of nutrition in prostate cancer (PCa) prevention. Pomegranate juice (PJ) exerts protective effects against PCa, mainly attributed to PJ ellagitannins (ETs). Our aim was to assess whether ETs or their metabolites ellagic acid and urolithins reach the human prostate upon consumption of ET-rich foods and to evaluate the effect on the expression of three proliferation biomarkers. Sixty-three patients with BPH or PCa were divided into controls and consumers of walnuts (35 g walnuts/day) or pomegranate (200 mL PJ/day) for 3 days before surgery. Independently of the ETs source, the main metabolite detected was urolithin A glucuronide, (3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one glucuronide) (up to 2 ng/g) together with the traces of urolithin B glucuronide, (3-hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one glucuronide) and dimethyl ellagic acid. The small number of prostates containing metabolites was likely caused by clearance of the compounds during the fasting. This was corroborated in a parallel rat study and thus the presence of higher quantities of metabolites at earlier time points cannot be discarded. No apparent changes in the expression of CDKN1A, MKi-67 or c-Myc were found after consumption of the walnuts or PJ. Our results suggest that urolithin glucuronides and dimethyl ellagic acid may be the molecules responsible for the beneficial effects of PJ against PCa.

  20. Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative evaluation of the pharmacokinetic data in humans after consumption of single doses of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary; Dionisi, Fabiola; Renouf, Mathieu

    2011-06-01

    Coffee contains a complex mixture of chlorogenic acids, which are mainly ferulic and caffeic acids ester-linked to quinic acid. Green tea contains flavanols, mainly (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC). For healthy humans, we identified seven studies on green tea in liquid form and five on coffee beverage reporting single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics. Weighted averages, based on the number of subjects, and elimination of outliers, allowed estimation of some pharmacokinetic parameters. After consumption of an "average" cup of green tea containing 112 mg of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, 51 mg of EGC and 15 mg of EC in 200 mL, the predicted C(max) values (total free and sulfate/glucuronide conjugates) in plasma are 125, 181 and 76 nM, respectively, together with 94 nM methyl-EGC and 51 nM methyl-EC (standard deviation <20%). After consumption of an "average" cup of coffee (160 mg total chlorogenic acids (0.46 mmol)/200 mL), predicted C(max) values of caffeic, ferulic, isoferulic, dihydrocaffeic and dihydroferulic acids are 114, 96, 50, 384 and 594 nM, respectively (too few studies to calculate standard deviation). Most studies report a very low amount of intact chlorogenic acids in plasma, with one exception. More studies on absorption of chlorogenic acids from coffee are required, including dose-response studies.

  1. Human exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs through consumption of fish and seafood in Catalonia (Spain): Temporal trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Díaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Llobet, Juan M; Castell, Victòria; Vicente, Emilio; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and 18 PCBs (DL- and NDL-) were analyzed in 16 fish and seafood species widely consumed in Catalonia (Spain). The exposure of these pollutants was subsequently estimated according to various groups of population. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed an important decrease in relation to the baseline study (2000) and our last survey (2008). Sardine and red mullet were the species showing the highest pollutant concentrations, while canned tuna and cuttlefish presented the lowest levels. Sardine was the main contributor to the exposure of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. In contrast, swordfish was the species with the lowest contribution to the exposure of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs+DL-PCBs, while clam was the minor contributor for NDL-PCBs and total PCBs. For all groups of population, the current intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were lower than the TDI (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/day), being children the group with the highest exposure. However, this exposure should not mean a health risk for this group of population. The current intake of PCDD/Fs and PCBs through fish and seafood consumption was similar or even lower than most values reported in recent studies all over the world.

  2. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  3. An Outbreak of Human Listeriosis in England between 2010 and 2012 Associated with the Consumption of Pork Pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofisayo-Okuyelu, A; Arunachalam, N; Dallman, T; Grant, K A; Aird, H; McLauchlin, J; Painset, A; Amar, C

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in England affecting 14 people between 2010 and 2012 and linked to the consumption of pork pies was investigated. All 14 individuals were older than 55 years, 12 were men, and 10 reported the presence of an underlying condition. All were resident in or had visited either of two English regions and were infected with the same strain of Listeria monocytogenes. In interviews with 12 patients, 9 reported eating pork pies, and individuals that consumed pork pies were significantly more likely to be infected with an outbreak strain than were individuals with sporadic cases of listeriosis infections in England from 2010 to 2012. Pork pies were purchased from seven retailers in South Yorkshire or the East Midlands, and the outbreak strain was recovered from pork pies supplied by only the producer in South Yorkshire. The outbreak strain was also recovered from samples of finished product and from environmental samples collected from the manufacturer. The likely source of contamination was environmental sites within the manufacturing environment, and the contamination was associated with the process of adding gelatin to the pies after cooking. Inadequate temperature control and poor hygienic practices at one of the retailers were also identified as possible contributory factors allowing growth of the pathogen. Following improvements in manufacturing practices and implementation of additional control measures at the retailers' premises, L. monocytogenes was not recovered from subsequent food and environmental samples, and the outbreak strain was not detected in further individuals with listeriosis in England.

  4. Human exposure to trace metals and possible public health risks via consumption of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Adriatic coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Mihajlo; Stanković, Slavka

    2014-08-01

    Considering the growing concern due to different levels of anthropogenic loadings, the main purpose of this study was to identify the levels of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg) in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled along the marine coast of Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro. In comparison with the permissible limits set by the EU and the US FDA, all trace metal concentrations found in the mussels from the coastal area of Boka Kotorska Bay were lower than the prescribed limits. Generally, the trace metal concentrations found in Montenegrin mussels are within the range of trace metal concentrations determined in low to moderately polluted Adriatic areas. Based on these and other available literature data published by other authors for Adriatic region, the public health risks associated with the consumption of mussels in relation to reported trace metal concentrations were evaluated. In terms of the obtained trace metals concentrations in mussels and the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the JECFA and oral reference doses by the US EPA, the Pb and Cd concentrations and the Co and Cd concentrations were recognized as the limiting factor for the consumption of mussels from some Adriatic areas, respectively.

  5. Short-term acetaminophen consumption enhances the exercise-induced increase in Achilles peritendinous IL-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gump, Brian S; McMullan, David R; Cauthon, David J;

    2013-01-01

    Through an unknown mechanism the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor acetaminophen (APAP) alters tendon mechanical properties in humans when consumed during exercise. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by tendon during exercise and is a potent stimulator of collagen synthesis. In non-tendon tissue, IL-6...

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico slaughtered for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nothing is known about Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in donkeys in Mexico. Meat from donkey is consumed by humans in Mexico and also exported to other countries. We sought to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) for slaughter in Dur...

  7. A review of current methods using bacteriophages in live animals, food and animal products intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ian R

    2016-11-01

    Bacteriophages are utilised in the food industry as biocontrol agents to reduce the load of bacteria, and thus reduce potential for human infection. This review focuses on current methods using bacteriophages within the food chain. Limitations of research will be discussed, and the potential for future food-based bacteriophage research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of mood inductions by meal ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.; Ripken, Dina; Stafleu, Annette; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, Henk F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcoho

  9. Coffee Oil Consumption Increases Plasma Levels of 7alpha-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekschoten, M.V.; Hofman, M.K.; Buytenhek, R.; Schouten, E.G.; Princen, H.M.G.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Unfiltered coffee brews such as French press and espresso contain a lipid from coffee beans named cafestol that raises serum cholesterol in humans. Cafestol decreases the expression and activity of cholesterol 7-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classical pathway of bile acid synthesis, i

  10. Health problems associated with consumption of fish and the role of aquatic environments in the transmission of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The majority of the numerous fish parasites are harmless to man and many domestic animals because when eaten with their fish hosts, they are digested. However, some of the fish parasites with larval stages in freshwater or marine teleosts have zoonotic potential if eaten raw or partially cooked. These are usually parasites, which have a piscivorous mammalian carnivore as their normal final host and are able to infect man because of the low host specificity of the adult stage. The major groups of fish parasite that are known as potentially dangerous pathogens of man belong to the helminth groups cestoda, trematoda, nematoda and rarely acanthocephala. However, bacterial and viral disease of man transmitted through fish are not uncommon. Toxic substances, metals and insecticides used to control human diseases in aquatic environments may accumulate in fish in po1lluted waters at such levels as to constitute a health risk to the consumer. Other health problems associated with fish arise from its perishable nature for example, in adequate handling, processing and storage, which may lead to the accumulation of microbes enhancing the risk of food poisoning. The aquatic environment in Africa constitutes a breeding habitat to several vectors of human diseases such as mosquitoes, snails and black flies. This paper reviews the role played by fish in transmitting diseases to humans as well as the importance of the aquatic environments in the transmission of human diseases such as Malaria, Schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis.

  11. Yield of two mutant lines of soybean for human consumption;Rendimiento de dos lineas mutantes de soya para consumo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Diaz V, G. E.; Valencia E, F.; Ranfla C, R.; Melendez P, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Vicente Guerrero No. 81, Col. Centro, 40000 Iguala, Guerrero (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco Km. 36.5, Montecillo, 56230 Texcoco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T., E-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The present work has the objective of to evaluate the yield and the agronomic behavior of 2 mutant lines of soybean for human consumption, obtained by means of a process of recurrent irradiation of soybean seed ISAAEG-BM{sub 2} with gammas of Co{sup 60} and selection in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 18}. For the variable yield significant statistical differences were not observed, but considering the rest of the evaluated agronomic characteristics the mutant lines L{sub 6} and Bombona they were excellent with values of 3,934.6 and 3,806.8 Kg ha-{sup 1} to 15% of grain humidity, they also possess excellent genetic characteristics result of the irradiations and selections of these new genetic materials. (Author)

  12. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  13. Human health risks related to the consumption of foodstuffs of plant and animal origin produced on a site polluted by chemical munitions of the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, Sébastien; Nesslany, Fabrice; Hubé, Daniel; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Vasseur, Paule; Marchioni, Eric; Camel, Valérie; Noël, Laurent; Le Bizec, Bruno; Guérin, Thierry; Feidt, Cyril; Archer, Xavier; Mahe, Aurélie; Rivière, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Shells fired during World War I exhibited different explosive compounds and some of these weapons also contained a wide variety of chemical warfare agents. At the end of the war, for safety purposes, the large quantity of weapons remaining on the former front needed to be dismantled and destroyed. A large amount of the remaining shells was destroyed in specific sites which led to the contamination of the surroundings in Belgium and France. In the 1920s, 1.5 million chemical shells and 30,000 explosive shells were destroyed in a place close to the city of Verdun, in the East of France. In this paper, the risk for human health related to the consumption of foodstuffs produced on this site was assessed. To this end, food products of plant and animal origin were sampled in 2015-2016 and contaminant analyses were conducted. Human exposure was assessed using a specifically built methodology. The contaminants considered in this study were trace elements (TEs - primarily Zn, As, Pb and Cd), nitroaromatic explosives (trinitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitroluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), phenylarsenic compounds including diphenylarsinic acid and triphenylarsine, perchlorate, tetrabromoethane and vinyl bromide. Depending on the compound, different approaches were used to assess the risk for both adults and children. Exposure to these contaminants through the consumption of foodstuffs produced locally on the considered site was unlikely to be a health concern. However, as for inorganic arsenic, given the presence of highly contaminated zones, it was suggested that cereals should not be grown on certain plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of mood inductions by meal ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in humans: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Schrieks

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on plasma ECs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, anandamide (AEA, and some N-acylethanolamine (NAE congeners in humans.Healthy women (n = 28 participated in a randomized cross-over study. They consumed sparkling white wine (340 mL; 30 g alcohol or alcohol-free sparkling white wine (340 mL; <2 g alcohol as part of a standard evening meal in a room with either a pleasant or an unpleasant ambiance.Plasma concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and stearoylethanolamide (SEA increased after 30 min in the unpleasant ambiance, while they decreased in the pleasant ambiance. Changes in ECs and their NAE congeners correlated with mood states, such as happiness and fatigue, but in the pleasant ambiance without alcohol only. ECs and their NAE congeners were correlated with serum free fatty acids and cortisol.This is the first human study to demonstrate that plasma NAEs are responsive to an unpleasant meal ambiance. Furthermore, associations between mood states and ECs and their NAE congeners were observed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  15. Red wine consumption may affect sperm biology: the effects of different concentrations of the phytoestrogen myricetin on human male gamete function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; Santoro, Marta; De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Perrotta, Ida; Sisci, Diego; Morelli, Catia

    2013-02-01

    Myricetin is a natural flavonoid, particularly enriched in red wines, whose occurrence is widespread among plants. Despite extensive research, the beneficial effects of Myricetin on human health are still controversial. Here, we tested the estrogen-like effect of the phytoestrogen Myricetin on human ejaculated sperm biology. To this aim, human normozoospermic samples were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, and 1 µM) of Myricetin. Motility, viability, capacitation-associated biochemical changes (i.e., cholesterol efflux and tyrosine phosphorylation), acrosin activity, as well as glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation (i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism) were all significantly increased by low doses of Myricetin. Importantly, both estrogen receptors α and β (ERs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are activated in the presence of Myricetin since these were both abrogated by specific inhibitors of each pathway. Our results show how Myricetin, through ERs and PI3K/AKT signalings, potentiates sperm function. This effect is dose-dependent at low concentrations of Myricetin (up to 100 nM), whereas higher amounts do not seem to improve any further sperm motility, viability, or other tested features, and, in some cases, they reduced or even abrogated the efficacy exerted by lower doses. Further studies are needed to elucidate if high levels of Myricetin, which could be attained even with moderate wine consumption, could synergize with endogenous estrogens in the female reproductive tract, interfering with the physiological sperm fertilization process.

  16. Iodinated contrast media inhibit oxygen consumption in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells from elderly humans and diabetic rats: Influence of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Per; Hansell, Peter; Fasching, Angelica; Palm, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mechanisms underlying contrast medium (CM)-induced nephropathy remain elusive, but recent attention has been directed to oxygen availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the low-osmolar CM iopromide and the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol on oxygen consumption (QO2) in freshly isolated proximal tubular cells (PTC) from kidneys ablated from elderly humans undergoing nephrectomy for renal carcinomas and from normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Materials PTC were isolated from human kidneys, or kidneys of normoglycemic or streptozotocin-diabetic rats. QO2 was measured with Clark-type microelectrodes in a gas-tight chamber with and without each CM (10 mg I/mL medium). L-NAME was used to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production caused by nitric oxide synthase. Results Both CM reduced QO2 in human PTC (about -35%) which was prevented by L-NAME. PTC from normoglycemic rats were unaffected by iopromide, whereas iodixanol decreased QO2 (-34%). Both CM decreased QO2 in PTC from diabetic rats (-38% and -36%, respectively). L-NAME only prevented the effect of iopromide in the diabetic rat PTC. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that CM can induce NO release from isolated PTC in vitro, which affects QO2. Our results suggest that the induction of NO release and subsequent effect on the cellular oxygen metabolism are dependent on several factors, including CM type and pre-existing risk factors for the development of CM-induced nephropathy.

  17. Emergence in China of human disease due to avian influenza A(H10N8)--cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Tsang, Alan K L; Chan, Jasper F W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-03-01

    In December 2013, China reported the first human case of avian influenza A(H10N8). A 73-year-old female with chronic diseases who had visited a live poultry market succumbed with community-acquired pneumonia. While human infections with avian influenza viruses are usually associated with subtypes prevalent in poultries, A(H10N8) isolates were mostly found in migratory birds and only recently in poultries. Although not possible to predict whether this single intrusion by A(H10N8) is an accident or the start of another epidemic like the preceding A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), several features suggest that A(H10N8) is a potential threat to humans. Recombinant H10 could attach to human respiratory epithelium, and A(H10N4) virus could cause severe infections in minks and chickens. A(H10N8) viruses contain genetic markers for mammalian adaptation and virulence in the haemagglutinin (A135T, S138A[H3 numbering]), M1(N30D, T215A), NS1(P42S) and PB2(E627K) protein. Studies on this human A(H10N8) isolate will reveal its adaptability to humans. Clinicians should alert the laboratory to test for A(H5,6,7,9,10) viruses in patients with epidemiological exposure in endemic geographical areas especially when human influenza A(H1,3) and B are negative. Vigilant virological and serological surveillance for A(H10N8) in human, poultry and wild bird is important for following the trajectory of this emerging influenza virus.

  18. Consumption and Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    of the cultural and psychological dynamics behind the need for increased consumption i modern societies. It implies discussions of the fallback from citizen to consumer, the trend toward individualization and the experience of lack of time. The point is that urban ecology has to be revised in order to take th...... socio-cultural and life qualitative demands into account. As a conclusion the author outlines some ideals with regard to how to integrate human the dimension in urban ecological design....

  19. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett eWagner Mackenzie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human gut contains dense and diverse microbial communities which have profound influences on human health. Gaining meaningful insights into these communities requires provision of high quality microbial nucleic acids from human fecal samples, as well as an understanding of the sources of variation and their impacts on the experimental model. We present here a systematic analysis of commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods, and identify significant sources of variation. Five extraction methods (Human Microbiome Project protocol, MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation were evaluated based on the following criteria: DNA yield, quality and integrity, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Our results indicate that the largest portion of variation within the model was attributed to differences between subjects (biological variation, with a smaller proportion of variation associated with DNA extraction method (technical variation and intra-subject variation. A comprehensive understanding of the potential impact of technical variation on the human gut microbiota will help limit preventable bias, enabling more accurate diversity estimates.

  20. [Anaphylactic shock due to recombinant human insulin: follow-up of a desensitization protocol by basophil activation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyasu, S; Hougardy, N; Hasdenteufel, F; Jacquenet, S; Weber, E; Moneret-Vautrin, A; Kanny, G

    2011-01-01

    Despite the occurrence of a severe allergic reaction including an anaphylactic shock, a drug may remain essential and impossible to replace. This may be the case of insulin in a diabetic patient. We describe the case of an anaphylactic shock to human insulin in whom a desensitization protocol was successfully achieved. A 50-year-old type 2 diabetic man presented one year after initiation of the insulin therapy an anaphylactic shock following the subcutaneous administration of a human insulin containing protamine (Insulatard®). A desensitization protocol to human insulin was performed and allowed to use two human insulin analogues containing no protamine (asparte and glargine), with a two-year event-free follow-up. Positive skin tests with insulin and protamine, and the presence of insulin specific IgE were evidenced of an IgE-mediated mechanism. Desensitization was monitored by skin tests, Maunsell's test, measurement of specific IgE and IgG4, and the basophil activation test. The decrease of basophil sensitivity to insulin is an early marker for tolerance induction. The effectiveness of the desensitization to human insulin underlines the importance to define the modalities of such desensitization protocol and of the monitoring of the tolerance induction. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  2. Krüppeling erythropoiesis: an unexpected broad spectrum of human red blood cell disorders due to KLF1 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Andrew; Xu, Xiangmin; Higgs, Douglas R; Patrinos, George P; Arnaud, Lionel; Bieker, James J; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2016-04-14

    Until recently our approach to analyzing human genetic diseases has been to accurately phenotype patients and sequence the genes known to be associated with those phenotypes; for example, in thalassemia, the globin loci are analyzed. Sequencing has become increasingly accessible, and thus a larger panel of genes can be analyzed and whole exome and/or whole genome sequencing can be used when no variants are found in the candidate genes. By using such approaches in patients with unexplained anemias, we have discovered that a broad range of hitherto unrelated human red cell disorders are caused by variants in KLF1, a master regulator of erythropoiesis, which were previously considered to be extremely rare causes of human genetic disease.

  3. Detection of orchitis and sacroiliitis due to brucellosis by 99mTc polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanali, Ayten; Uslu, Hatice; Bayraktar, Rezan; Varoglu, Erhan

    2012-07-01

    Here, we report 1 case of Brucella orchitis detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy and confirmed by testicular ultrasound. A 29-year-old farmer was admitted to our hospital with fever, fatigue, arthralgia, and painful scrotal swelling that had appeared 12 days before admission. Clinically, right sacroiliitis was recorded through the Fabere test Unilateral sacroiliitis and orchitis were detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy. Hypoechoic left testicular lesions and swelling of the concurrent epididymis were seen on a testicular ultrasound examination. Wright agglutination test and blood specimen culture for Brucella species were positive.

  4. EyePhy: Detecting Dependencies in Cyber-Physical System Apps due to Human-in-the-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajum Munir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As app based paradigms are becoming popular, millions of apps are developed from many domains including energy, health, security, and entertainment. The US FDA expects that there will be 500 million smart phone users downloading healthcare related apps by 2015. Many of these apps are Cyber-Physical System (CPS apps. In addition to sensing, communication, and computation, they perform interventions to control human physiological parameters, which can cause dependency problems as multiple interventions of multiple apps can increase or decrease each others effects, some of which can be harmful to the user. Such dependency problems occur mainly because each app is unaware about how other apps work and when an app performs an intervention to control its target parameters, it may affect other physiological parameters without even knowing it. We present EyePhy, a system that detects dependencies across interventions by having a closer eye on the physiological parameters of the human in the loop. To do that, EyePhy uses a physiological simulator HumMod that can model the complex interactions of the human physiology using over 7800 variables. EyePhy reduces app developers’ efforts in specifying dependency metadata compared to state of the art solutions and offers personalized dependency analysis for the user. We demonstrate the magnitude of dependencies that arise during multiple interventions in a human body and the significant ability of detecting these dependencies using EyePhy.

  5. Krüppeling erythropoiesis: An unexpected broad spectrum of human red blood cell disorders due to KLF1 variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Perkins (Andrew); X. Xu (Xiangmin); D. Higgs (Doug); G.P. Patrinos (George P.); L. Arnaud (Lionel); J.J. Bieker (James J.); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUntil recently our approach to analyzing human genetic diseases has been to accurately phenotype patients and sequence the genes known to be associated with those phenotypes; for example, in thalassemia, the globin loci are analyzed. Sequencing has become increasingly accessible, and thu

  6. Spatial distribution and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in cattle slaughtered for human consumption in Rondônia, North region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Bianca Rocha; Soares, Vando Edésio; Maia, Maerle Oliveira; Pereira, Cleidiane Magalhães; Ferraudo, Antônio Sergio; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Pires Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Gonçalves, Walter Antonio; da Costa, Alvimar José; Zanetti Lopes, Welber Daniel

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in cattle slaughtered for human consumption from rural properties in the state of Rondônia, North region, Brazil; the seroprevalence was determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFATs). Additionally, spatial distribution and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis were also analyzed. Of the 1000 cattle serum samples examined, 53 (5.3%) were determined to be seropositive for T. gondii with antibody titers (IgG) ≥64. In regard to results of the studied risk factors (presence of cats, cats with free access to cattle, breeding system, animal's gender, consumption of raw milk by humans on the property and cattle abortion in the last 12 months) and the odds ratio (OR) of each of these factors influencing cattle to acquire toxoplasmosis, only animals raised on a feeder/stocker/backgrounder system presented a higher probability of being seropositive for T. gondii (OR≥1, P=0.04) than cattle raised only in a feeder/stocker system. There was no association between the occurrence of reproductive problems and T. gondii seropositivity. Based on results obtained in the Brazilian state of Rondônia, it could be concluded that the presence of cats and their contact with cattle on each property, cattle breeding purpose and cattle abortion in the last 12 months were not considered risk factors for T. gondii infection in cattle. Considering that the presence of T. gondii was detected in animals slaughtered in the state of Rondônia, consuming raw or undercooked meat from seropositive cattle should be considered a route of transmission of T. gondii to humans. However, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis diagnosed in cattle from this state (5.30%) is lower than the prevalence of toxoplasmosis observed in South, Southeast and Center-West regions of Brazil, which may vary between 48.5% and 71.0%. The low prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle is highlighted in Rondônia, which is the sixth largest state

  7. Salmonella Detection and Aerobic Colony Count in Deep-Frozen Carcasses of House Sparrow (Passer Domesticus) and Starling (Sturnus Vulgaris) Intended for Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Braggio, Simonetta; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds are potential vehicles of zoonotic pathogen transmission to humans. The zoonotic concern increases for small wild birds like house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) which are hunted in developing countries and commercialised in Italy for human consumption. From June to October 2011, 330 house sparrows and 140 starlings were hunted and slaughtered. Deep-frozen carcasses were transported to Italy and stored for 6-8 months at -18°C. Aerobic colony count and Salmonella detection in carcasses were assessed following standard microbiological methods (ISO 4833:2003 and ISO 6579:2004, respectively). Carcasses of house sparrows showed higher levels of aerobic bacteria in comparison to starling carcasses (5.7 vs 3.2 log10 CFU/g). Moreover, 7 out of 11 lots of carcasses of house sparrows were positive for Salmonella. Among the 18 isolates of Salmonella, 14 were S. Typhimurium, 2 were S. Enteritidis, and 2 were not distinguishable. All of them were susceptible to antibiotics. All tested carcasses of starling were Salmonella negative. Deep-freezing was not efficient as a decontamination technique on carcasses of house sparrows.

  8. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: Individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Balancing risk versus benefits to humans and other organisms from consuming fish is a national concern in the USA, as well as in many other parts of the world. Protecting public health is both a federal and state responsibility, and states respond by issuing fish consumption advisories, particularly for mercury. Recently it has been emphasized that the protective role of selenium against mercury toxicity depends on their molar ratios, which should be evaluated as an indication of selenium’s protective capacity, and incorporated in risk assessments for fish consumption. However, there is no single “protective” ratio agreed upon. In this paper we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in a wide range of saltwater fish caught and eaten by recreational fishers along the New Jersey coast. We were particularly interested in interspecific and intraspecific variability, and whether the molar ratios were consistent within a species, allowing for its use in managing risk. The selenium–mercury molar ratio showed significant variation among and within fish species. The molar ratio decreased with the size of the fish species, decreased with the mercury levels, and within a fish species, the selenium:mercury ratio decreased with fish size. As an essential element, selenium undergoes some homeostatic regulation, but it is also highly toxic. Within species, mercury level tends to increase with size, accounting for the negative relationship between size and ratio. This variability may make it difficult to use the selenium:mercury molar ratio in risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication at this time, and more information is needed on how mercury and selenium actually interact and on the relationship between the molar ratios and health outcomes. PMID:22405995

  9. Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 μg L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults.

  10. Viable Ednra (Y129F) mice feature human mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA) syndrome due to the homologue mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Sandholzer, Michael A; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Brommage, Robert; Przemeck, Gerhard; Vargas Panesso, Ingrid L; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Garrett, Lillian; Baron, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali O; Rozman, Jan; Rathkolb, Birgit; Gau, Christine; Hans, Wolfgang; Hoelter, Sabine M; Marschall, Susan; Stoeger, Claudia; Becker, Lore; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lengger, Christoph; Stefanie, Leuchtenberger; Wolf, Eckhard; Strom, Tim M; Wurst, Wolfgang; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě

    2016-12-01

    Animal models resembling human mutations are valuable tools to research the features of complex human craniofacial syndromes. This is the first report on a viable dominant mouse model carrying a non-synonymous sequence variation within the endothelin receptor type A gene (Ednra c.386A>T, p.Tyr129Phe) derived by an ENU mutagenesis program. The identical amino acid substitution was reported recently as disease causing in three individuals with the mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA, OMIM 616367) syndrome. We performed standardized phenotyping of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous Ednra (Y129F) mice within the German Mouse Clinic. Mutant mice mimic the craniofacial phenotypes of jaw dysplasia, micrognathia, dysplastic temporomandibular joints, auricular dysmorphism, and missing of the squamosal zygomatic process as described for MFDA-affected individuals. As observed in MFDA-affected individuals, mutant Ednra (Y129F) mice exhibit hearing impairment in line with strong abnormalities of the ossicles and further, reduction of some lung volumetric parameters. In general, heterozygous and homozygous mice demonstrated inter-individual diversity of expression of the craniofacial phenotypes as observed in MFDA patients but without showing any cleft palates, eyelid defects, or alopecia. Mutant Ednra (Y129F) mice represent a valuable viable model for complex human syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches and for further studies and analysis of impaired endothelin 1 (EDN1)-endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) signaling. Above all, Ednra (Y129F) mice model the recently published human MFDA syndrome and may be helpful for further disease understanding and development of therapeutic interventions.

  11. Site controlled transgenic mice validating increased expression from human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) promoter due to a naturally occurring SNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Charles I; Fiering, Steven; Gaudet, Justin; Wyatt, Colby A; Brinckerhoff, Constance E

    2009-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of more than 20 members, each with the ability to degrade components of the extracellular matrix. The interstitial collagenases have the unique capacity to degrade the stromal collagens, types I, II and III, the body's most abundant proteins. These collagenases include MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13 and MMP-14. MMP-1, with a very broad expression pattern, has major roles in mediating matrix destruction in many diseases. We have described a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MMP-1 promoter that augments transcription. This SNP is the presence or absence of an extra guanine (G) at -1607 bp, which creates the sequence 5'-GGAA-3'(2G allele), and which is an ETS binding site. Compared to the 1G allele (5'-GAA-3'), the 2G SNP is associated with enhanced transcription of MMP-1 and increased enzymatic activity. Although murine systems are often used to model human diseases, mice have only distant homologues of human MMP-1. Therefore, we used a technique for the targeted insertion of a single copy of a gene at the HPRT locus to compare expression of the 1G and 2G alleles. We generated transgenic mice with -4372 bp of the human MMP-1 promoter containing either the 1G or 2G SNP in front of the lac Z (E.coli ss-galactosidase) gene. We measured the relative expression of the transgenes in vitro in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in fibroblasts derived from embryonic mice. Our data show modest constitutive expression of ss-galactosidase mRNA and protein from these alleles, with the 2G allele more transcriptionally active than the 1G allele. We conclude that these mice represent a model for integration of a single copy of the human MMP-1 promoter into the murine genome, and could be used to study MMP-1 gene expression in a murine system.

  12. Changes in anxiety and cognition due to reproductive experience: a review of data from rodent and human mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Luine, Victoria N

    2010-03-01

    Rodent research suggests that pregnancy, motherhood and attendant offspring care affect changes in neural function and behaviors that are not directly maternal in nature, but involve cognition, affect, and responses to stress. Thus, female rats having had one pregnancy and bout of rearing (primiparous), or multiple pregnancies and bouts of rearing (multiparous), generally show greater resilience to stress, decreased anxiety, and better memory abilities than female rats that have never experienced motherhood (virgin or nulliparous). Moreover, some studies show that these neural changes remain long after the last pregnancy, persisting even into old age. In the current review, we will begin by discussing these behavioral and neural changes in rodents and provide some information concerning their possible mechanisms. Then we will review data from studies examining anxiety and cognition in postpartum human mothers. While this data is less conclusive than that from non-human animals, it appears that reproductive experience may confer some beneficial changes to human mothers in terms of lowering the anxiety/stress response and enhancing certain aspects of memory.

  13. Particle Deposition in Human Lungs due to Varying Cross-Sectional Ellipticity of Left and Right Main Bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Steven; Oakes, Jessica; Shadden, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Particle deposition in the human lungs can occur with every breathe. Airbourne particles can range from toxic constituents (e.g. tobacco smoke and air pollution) to aerosolized particles designed for drug treatment (e.g. insulin to treat diabetes). The effect of various realistic airway geometries on complex flow structures, and thus particle deposition sites, has yet to be extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work, we created an image-based geometric airway model of the human lung and performed CFD simulations by employing multi-domain methods. Following the flow simulations, Lagrangian particle tracking was used to study the effect of cross-sectional shape on deposition sites in the conducting airways. From a single human lung model, the cross-sectional ellipticity (the ratio of major and minor diameters) of the left and right main bronchi was varied systematically from 2:1 to 1:1. The influence of the airway ellipticity on the surrounding flow field and particle deposition was determined.

  14. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.

  15. Investigation into Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalve mollusks farmed in Sardinia region and destined for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tedde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites transmitted by fecal-oral ingestion of (oocysts, and are responsible for enteritis in several animal species and humans worldwide. These (oocysts can survive for over a year in aquatic environments and can accumulate in bivalve mollusks, which filter large volumes of water. The aim of this study is to evaluate the natural occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in different specimens of edible bivalves mollusks from farming sites of the western and north-eastern coasts of Sardinia. From April 2011 to February 2012, 1095 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis and 240 of Crassostrea gigas were sampled from Olbia and Oristano gulf and San Teodoro pond. Hepatopancreas and gills, including the labial palp, were examined for oocysts and cysts after pooling and homogenisation using different techniques: i staining for light and fluorescence microscopy; ii direct immunofluorescence (IF Merifluor® test Cryptosporidium/ Giardia (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; and iii molecular procedures. However, in the context under study, all mollusks examined with the three main diagnostic techniques were negative for both parasites pointing out the hypothetically low zoonotic risk related to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalves, especially Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas.

  16. High consumption of farmed salmon does not disrupt the steady state of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in human plasma and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Trygve; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Polder, Anuschka; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Julshamn, Kåre; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K; Skorve, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine any changes in the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and mercury (Hg) in human plasma and adipose tissue and (2) examine associations between plasma levels of pollutants and dietary fat intake. Outpatients with different metabolic disorders (n = 42) consumed 380 g of farmed Atlantic salmon fillets or 60 g of salmon oil per week in two study periods of 15 wk each, and were compared with a control group (n = 14). Concentrations of POP and Hg were measured in salmon fillets, salmon oil capsules, plasma and abdominal fat biopsies from patients before and after intervention. Mean concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-DDE, sum of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (id-PCB), and sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in abdominal fat at intervention start were 21, 191, 267, and 4.2 ng/g lipid weight. After 15 or 30 wk of salmon consumption no significant changes in concentrations of POP and Hg in samples of human plasma and abdominal fat were observed, indicating that steady-state levels of these pollutants were not markedly affected. The lack of significant changes may partly be attributed to a limited number of samples, large interindividual variation in POP levels, and a large age span (20-70 yr). After adjusting for age, significant associations were found between different plasma long-chain fatty acid concentrations, including n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and oleic acid, and some of the POP. The results indicate that the latter have different food products as their main sources of human exposure.

  17. Water Scarcity Hotspots Travel Downstream Due to Human Interventions in the 20th and 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Doell, P.; Gosling, S. N.; Liu, J.; Masaki, Y.; Oki, T.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971 - 2010. Here we show that HI drastically change the critical dimensions of water scarcity, aggravating water scarcity for 8.8%(7.4 - 16.5 %) ) of the global population but alleviating it for another 8.3 % (6.4 -15.8 %). Positive impacts of HI mostly occur upstream, whereas HI aggravate water scarcity downstream; HI cause water scarcity to travel downstream. Attribution of water scarcity changes to HI components is complex and varies among the hydrological models. Seasonal variation in impacts and dominant HI components is also substantial. A thorough consideration of the spatially and temporally varying interactions among HI components and of uncertainties is therefore crucial for the success of water scarcity adaptation by HI.

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Indian Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general masses as well as the dentist. Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world now-a-days. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. It is believed t...

  19. Alcohol Consumption in Indian Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general masses as well as the dentist. Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world now-a-days. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. It is believed that in all professions, there are unique problems and problematic circumstances facing the people who are involved. Dentistry is not excluded from this phenomenon.

  20. Price and consumption of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...

  1. Humans lack iGb3 due to the absence of functional iGb3-synthase: implications for NKT cell development and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Christiansen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The glycosphingolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide, or isogloboside 3 (iGb3, is believed to be critical for natural killer T (NKT cell development and self-recognition in mice and humans. Furthermore, iGb3 may represent an important obstacle in xenotransplantation, in which this lipid represents the only other form of the major xenoepitope Galalpha(1,3Gal. The role of iGb3 in NKT cell development is controversial, particularly with one study that suggested that NKT cell development is normal in mice that were rendered deficient for the enzyme iGb3 synthase (iGb3S. We demonstrate that spliced iGb3S mRNA was not detected after extensive analysis of human tissues, and furthermore, the iGb3S gene contains several mutations that render this product nonfunctional. We directly tested the potential functional activity of human iGb3S by expressing chimeric molecules containing the catalytic domain of human iGb3S. These hybrid molecules were unable to synthesize iGb3, due to at least one amino acid substitution. We also demonstrate that purified normal human anti-Gal immunoglobulin G can bind iGb3 lipid and mediate complement lysis of transfected human cells expressing iGb3. Collectively, our data suggest that iGb3S is not expressed in humans, and even if it were expressed, this enzyme would be inactive. Consequently, iGb3 is unlikely to represent a primary natural ligand for NKT cells in humans. Furthermore, the absence of iGb3 in humans implies that it is another source of foreign Galalpha(1,3Gal xenoantigen, with obvious significance in the field of xenotransplantation.

  2. Epidemiological investigation of the first human brucellosis case in Spain due to Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compés Dea, Cecilia; Guimbao Bescós, Joaquín; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Muñoz Álvaro, Pilar María; Blasco Martínez, José María; Villuendas Usón, María Cruz

    2017-03-01

    No cases of human brucellosis caused by Brucella suis has been reported in Spain. This study involved interviews with the case and his co-workers, inspection of their workplace, checking infection control measures, and typing the Brucella strain isolated in the blood culture. Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330 was isolated from a patient who worked in a waste treatment plant. Food borne transmission, contact with animals, and risk jobs were ruled out. An accidental inoculation with a contaminated needle from a research laboratory waste container was identified as the most probable mode of transmission. There should be controls to ensure that waste containers are sealed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Human health and pollution due to solid waste incinetators (SWI: a selection of two recent well conducted studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gennaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators reduce the volume of visible waste, turning it into ashes and smoke which can cause local and global environmental pollution due to particulate matter (PM, dioxins, furans, hydrochloric acid, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sulfur and nitrogen dioxides. In order to describe cancers and non-neoplastic diseases in populations exposed to incinerator pollution, the scientific literature available since 1987 has been selected on the basis of the best epidemiological evidences. In Italy, women who lived for at least 5 years in areas that were likely to be the most polluted by heavy metals, showed increased risk of death from all causes (relative risk, RR=1.17-1.54. In France, an incidence study found increases in all cancer risks both in males (RR=1.06 who resided in areas where dioxin pollution was estimated to be higher than it was in the referent areas (less dioxin polluted.

  4. Mutism and auditory agnosia due to bilateral insular damage--role of the insula in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M; Daquin, G; Milandre, L; Royere, M L; Rey, M; Lanteri, A; Salamon, G; Khalil, R

    1995-03-01

    We report a case of transient mutism and persistent auditory agnosia due to two successive ischemic infarcts mainly involving the insular cortex on both hemispheres. During the 'mutic' period, which lasted about 1 month, the patient did not respond to any auditory stimuli and made no effort to communicate. On follow-up examinations, language competences had re-appeared almost intact, but a massive auditory agnosia for non-verbal sounds was observed. From close inspection of lesion site, as determined with brain resonance imaging, and from a study of auditory evoked potentials, it is concluded that bilateral insular damage was crucial to both expressive and receptive components of the syndrome. The role of the insula in verbal and non-verbal communication is discussed in the light of anatomical descriptions of the pattern of connectivity of the insular cortex.

  5. A (p)ppGpp-null mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi is partially attenuated in humans due to multiple conflicting phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Concerta; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R; Janowicz, Diane M; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2014-08-01

    (p)ppGpp responds to nutrient limitation through a global change in gene regulation patterns to increase survival. The stringent response has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacterial species. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, has homologs of both relA and spoT, which primarily synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli. We constructed relA and relA spoT deletion mutants to assess the contribution of (p)ppGpp to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. Both the relA single mutant and the relA spoT double mutant failed to synthesize (p)ppGpp, suggesting that relA is the primary synthetase of (p)ppGpp in H. ducreyi. Compared to the parent strain, the double mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. The double mutant had several phenotypes that favored attenuation, including increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The increased sensitivity to oxidative stress could be complemented in trans. However, the double mutant also exhibited phenotypes that favored virulence. When grown to the mid-log phase, the double mutant was significantly more resistant than its parent to being taken up by human macrophages and exhibited increased transcription of lspB, which is involved in resistance to phagocytosis. Additionally, compared to the parent, the double mutant also exhibited prolonged survival in the stationary phase. In E. coli, overexpression of DksA compensates for the loss of (p)ppGpp; the H. ducreyi double mutant expressed higher transcript levels of dksA than the parent strain. These data suggest that the partial attenuation of the double mutant is likely the net result of multiple conflicting phenotypes.

  6. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic (As exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ and target cancer risk (TR established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  7. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  8. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process. PMID:28098817

  9. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong-Rin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  10. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-14

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan's Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  11. 企业并购中的人力资源尽职调查研究%The Study of Enterprise Merger's Human Resources Due Diligence Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏; 吴元民

    2011-01-01

    随着经济全球化的到来,企业间的并购愈加频繁,通过人力资源尽职调查,可以大大提高企业成功并购的概率。本文首先分析了人力资源尽职调查的内涵及主要形式,接着分别从企业文化、人事基础信息、培训与发展、薪酬与福利、员工劳动关系管理等方面分析其主要内容,最后总结出人力资源尽职调查的必要性。%As the advent of economic globalization,more and more mergers and acquisitions occurred among enterprises,It can greatly enhance the probability of business successfully merger through human resource due diligence. Firstly this article analyzes the meaning of human resources due dilligenee and its main methods, and then, analyzes the main content from corporate culture, personnel basic information, training and development, compensation and benefits, employee labor relations management separately. Finally, this article eoncluds the necessity of human resource due diligence.

  12. Nut consumption and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, G; Estruch, R

    2016-02-01

    Current knowledge on the effects of nut consumption on human health has rapidly increased in recent years and it now appears that nuts may play a role in the prevention of chronic age-related diseases. Frequent nut consumption has been associated with better metabolic status, decreased body weight as well as lower body weight gain over time and thus reduce the risk of obesity. The effect of nuts on glucose metabolism, blood lipids, and blood pressure is still controversial. However, significant decreased cardiovascular risk has been reported in a number of observational and clinical intervention studies. Thus, findings from cohort studies show that increased nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality (especially that due to cardiovascular-related causes). Similarly, nut consumption has been also associated with reduced risk of certain cancers, such as colorectal, endometrial, and pancreatic neoplasms. Evidence regarding nut consumption and neurological or psychiatric disorders is scarce, but a number of studies suggest significant protective effects against depression, mild cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanisms appear to include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, particularly related to their mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as vitamin and polyphenol content). MUFA have been demonstrated to improve pancreatic beta-cell function and regulation of postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. PUFA may act on the central nervous system protecting neuronal and cell-signaling function and maintenance. The fiber and mineral content of nuts may also confer health benefits. Nuts therefore show promise as useful adjuvants to prevent, delay or ameliorate a number of chronic conditions in older people. Their association with decreased mortality suggests a potential in reducing disease burden, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive impairments.

  13. Systemic and extraintestinal forms of human infection due to non-typhoid salmonellae in Bulgaria, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseva, G; Petrov, P; Ivanova, K; Kantardjiev, T

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to review the clinical cases diagnosed as systemic or extraintestinal salmonellosis between 2005 and 2010 in Bulgaria, to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the causative salmonellae, and to analyze the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of extraintestinal Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Culture, biochemical tests, and serotyping were performed. Resistance to 12 antimicrobial agents was studied with the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method. The double-disk synergy method was used for the screening of the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). PFGE typing and analysis of the dendrogram was performed for the comparative investigation of Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Between 2005 and 2010, 2,227 human non-typhoid Salmonella isolates were investigated at the National Reference Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, Sofia, Bulgaria. Thirty-three strains (1.48 %) from nine national regions were isolated from patients with systemic and extraintestinal forms of salmonellosis. The serotype distribution was as follows: S. enteritidis (n = 21), S. choleraesuis (diphasic n = 3; monophasic n = 3), S. typhimurium (n = 2), Salmonella Corvallis (n = 2), Salmonella Montevideo (n = 1), and S. javiana (n = 1). Eight patients developed severe forms of infections: sepsis (n = 2), septic shock (n = 1 with fatal outcome), meningitis (n = 3), and acute renal failure (n = 2). Twenty-two percent of isolates were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin, 17.64 % to tetracycline, 14.28 % to nalidixic acid, and 10 % to chloramphenicol. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. One Salmonella Corvallis isolate recovered from a patient with chronic hemolytic anemia produced an ESBL and its PFGE profile demonstrated less than 96 % similarity to fecal and wound Salmonella Corvallis with susceptible phenotypes. S. enteritidis was the most common cause of systemic and

  14. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serotypes of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated from water supplies for human consumption in Campeche, México and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Eslava-Campos, C; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Cravioto-Quintana, A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 in water supplies for human consumption in the city of Campeche and rural locality of Bécal was investigated. V. cholerae non-O1 was detected in 5.9% of the samples obtained in deep pools of Campeche. Studies conducted in Bécal and neighbourhood of Morelos in Campeche indicated that collected samples harbored V. cholerae non-O1 in 31.5% and 8.7% respectively. There was a particular pattern of distribution of V. cholerae non-O1 serotypes among different studied regions. Accordingly, V. cholerae non-O1 serotype O14 predominated in the deep pools of Campeche and together with V. cholerae non-O1, O155 were preferentially founds in samples taken from intradomiciliary faucets in the neighbourhood of Morelos. Samples from Bécal predominantly presented the serotype O112. 60% and 53.8% of all studied strains of V. cholerae non-O1 proved to be resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin. 3.1%, 7.7% and 6.2% presented resistant to doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin respectively. The study showed the necessity of performing a strong epidemiologic surveillance for emergence and distribution of V. cholerae non-O1.

  16. Statistical Survey of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Risk Estimations to Humans and Wildlife through Consumption of Fish from U.S. Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Angela L; Wathen, John B; Lazorchak, James M; Olsen, Anthony R; Kincaid, Thomas M

    2017-02-23

    U.S. EPA conducted a national statistical survey of fish tissue contamination at 540 river sites (representing 82 954 river km) in 2008-2009, and analyzed samples for 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including 21 PCB congeners, 8 PBDE congeners, and 21 organochlorine pesticides. The survey results were used to provide national estimates of contamination for these POPs. PCBs were the most abundant, being measured in 93.5% of samples. Summed concentrations of the 21 PCB congeners had a national weighted mean of 32.7 μg/kg and a maximum concentration of 857 μg/kg, and exceeded the human health cancer screening value of 12 μg/kg in 48% of the national sampled population of river km, and in 70% of the urban sampled population. PBDEs (92.0%), chlordane (88.5%) and DDT (98.7%) were also detected frequently, although at lower concentrations. Results were examined by subpopulations of rivers, including urban or nonurban and three defined ecoregions. PCBs, PBDEs, and DDT occur at significantly higher concentrations in fish from urban rivers versus nonurban; however, the distribution varied more among the ecoregions. Wildlife screening values previously published for bird and mammalian species were converted from whole fish to fillet screening values, and used to estimate risk for wildlife through fish consumption.

  17. Strategies for protecting ground water used for human consumption in the Guadalquivir basin; Estrategias de proteccion del agua subterranea destinada al consumo humano en la cuenca del Guadalquivir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Madrid, A.; Martinez, C.; Luque, J. a.; Rubio-Campos, J. C.; Carrasco, F.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a way of defining safeguard zones for groundwater protection according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Taking into account the peculiarities of the groundwater bodies in the region of the Mediterranean arch, we chose to conduct our study in the Guadalquivir basin in southern Spain, an area of special interest because it combines the influence of rain fronts and the mixed characteristics of both Mediterranean and Atlantic climates, together with the fact that a large percentage of water for human consumption is provided by groundwater, especially at the head of the basin, where this percentage may account for up to 80%. Safeguard zones are defined by an initial delimitation of quality-protection perimeters using the Reduced DRASTIC and COP methods, designed specifically for detrital and karstic aquifers respectively, to assess the potential impact of the existing pressures upon them and study their intrinsic vulnerability. An analysis of all this spatial information using a geographical information system allowed us to test and validate the method used and to obtain an initial definition of safeguard zones in the basin in question. (Author) 37 refs.

  18. Cianobacterias y cianotoxinas: necesidad de su control en el agua de consumo humano Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins: need for their control in water for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Prieto Ortega

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las floraciones de cianobacterias se están convirtiendo en un importante problema en la calidad del agua en muchos países del mundo, debido a la producción de cianotoxinas, con actividad hepatotóxica y neurotóxica, que las convierten en un riesgo para la salud. Entre ellas, las microcistinas (MC son las toxinas más frecuentemente detectadas en aguas superficiales. En este trabajo revisamos de forma sucinta los posibles riesgos tóxicos derivados de la exposición a MC, fundamentalmente por consumo de aguas contaminadas, lo que justifica en definitiva la necesidad de llevar a cabo programas de monitorización y control de las mismas.Cyanobacterial waterblooms are becoming an important water quality problem in many countries in the world, as a result of its hepatotoxic and neurotoxic cyanotoxins production, which make these toxins a health risk. Microcystins (MC are the most frequent cyanotoxins detected on superficial freshwaters. In the present work, toxic risks derived from exposure to MC have been revised, mainly due to the consumption of contaminated waters. This fact makes necessary to perform control and monitoring programs.

  19. Deaths during general anesthesia: technology-related, due to human error, or unavoidable? An ECRI technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    More than 2,000 healthy Americans die each year during general anesthesia, and at least half of these deaths may be preventable. Anesthetists and equipment manufacturers have made considerable progress in improving anesthesia safety. However, much more needs to be done, especially in "human-factors" areas such as improved training, consistent use of preanesthesia checklists, and anesthetists' willingness to enhance their vigilance by using appropriate monitoring equipment. While defective equipment and supplies are the direct cause of relatively few deaths, inexpensive oxygen analyzers and disconnect alarms could, if available in more ORs, warn anesthetists in time to convert many deaths to near misses. Some anesthetists are using other monitoring technologies that are more costly, but can detect a wider range of problems. The anesthesia community could expand its anesthesia-safety leadership and guidance, by improving technology-related training and by developing practice standards for anesthetists and safety standards for equipment. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals could impose specific safety requirements on hospitals; malpractice insurance carriers could require anesthetists and hospitals to use monitors and alarms during all procedures; and the Food and Drug Administration could actively stimulate and oversee these efforts and perhaps provide seed money for some of them. The necessary equipment costs would likely be offset by long-term savings in malpractice premiums, as anesthesia incidents are the most costly of all types of malpractice claims. Concerted efforts such as these could greatly reduce the number of avoidable anesthesia-related deaths.

  20. Automatic shape recognition of human limbs to avoid errors due to skin marker shifting in motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1991-12-01

    A new method in human motion analysis is presented for overcoming the problem of the shifting of skin-mounted position markers relative to the skeleton. The present version of the method is based on two-dimensional video processing and involves the recording of subjects wearing special clothing. The clothing is designed in such a way as to permit the unambiguous spatial shape recognition of each of the 17 body segments by means of an edge detection algorithm. The latter and the algorithms for the computation of segment translation and rotation constitute improved versions of previously used algorithms, especially with respect to the execution times of the respective computer program on ordinary PCs. From the recognized shapes, the translation and rotation of each segment relative to its initial configuration is computed by using positional information from the previous frames. For the first frame to be analyzed, a starting algorithm has to be applied. Finally, the configurational coordinates of the body model are calculated from the respective spatial linear and angular positions.

  1. Net loss of CaCO3 from coral reef communities due to human induced seawater acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, A.J.; Kuffner, I.B.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Tan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production – dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates), and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  2. Net loss of CaCO3 from coral reef communities due to human induced seawater acidification

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    K. S. Rodgers

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns for its adverse effects on corals, coral reefs and carbonate communities in general. Here we demonstrate a transition from net accumulation towards net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 material owing to decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3 incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to present and future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC = CaCO3 production – dissolution was positive at 4.5 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.1 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century.

  3. Air pollution episodes in Stockholm regional background air due to sources in Europe and their effects on human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoping (Sweden)], E-mail: camilla.andersson@smhi.se; Joensson, O. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Forsberg, B. [Umea Univ. (Sweden), Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Johansson, C. [Environmental and Health Administration, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Using air quality measurements, we categorized air pollution according to source sectors in a rural background environment in southern Sweden based on hourly air-mass backward trajectories during 1997-2010. Concentrations of fine (PM{sub 2.5}) and sum of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), accumulation mode particle number, black carbon and surface ozone were 4.0, 3.9, 4.5, 6.8 and 1.3 times higher, respectively, in air masses from the southeast as compared with those in air masses from the cleanest sector in the northwest, consistent with air-mass transport over areas with relatively high emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors. The highest ultrafine particle numbers were associated with clean air from the northwest. We estimate that almost 7.8% and 0.6% higher premature human mortality is caused by PM{sub 2.5} and ozone exposure, respectively, when air originates from the southeast as compared with that when air originates from the northwest. Reductions of emissions in eastern Europe would reduce the highest air pollution concentrations and associated health risks. However, since air masses from the southwest are more frequent, emissions in the western part of Europe are more important for annual mean premature mortality. (orig.)

  4. Investigación de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis en leche ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano Research of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption

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    G. G Magnano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se vincula al Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis como potencial agente etiológico implicado en la enfermedad de Crohn en humanos. Una de las vías de ingreso sería a través de la ingestión de leche contaminada. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de Map en leche comercial homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano en supermercados de la ciudad de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Se muestrearon 98 envases de 1 litro de leche entera homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada de seis marcas comerciales. Previa descontaminación con el método de Cornell modificado, se sembraron en medio de cultivo Herrold con y sin micobactina. Todas las muestras fueron negativas. Como posibles causas de estos resultados se discuten: el origen de la leche y su probable muy baja carga de micobacterias, la eficacia de la pasteurización, el proceso en el laboratorio, entre otras.Currently, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is linked to Crohn's disease in humans as a potential etiologic agent. One route of infection to be considered is by the ingestion of contaminated milk. The objective of the present work was to evaluate Map's presence in commercial homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption in supermarkets in the city of Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Ninety eight packages of 1 liter of entire, homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk of six commercial brands were sampled. After decontamination by the modified Cornell's method, the samples were cultured in Herrold's medium with and without micobactin. All samples were negative. Possible causes of this result such as the origin of the milk and its probable very low amount of micobacterias, the efficiency of the pasteurization, the processing in the laboratory, among others are here discussed.

  5. The MitCHAP-60 disease is due to entropic destabilization of the human mitochondrial Hsp60 oligomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Avital; Nadler, Michal; Nisemblat, Shahar; Horovitz, Amnon; Mandel, Hanna; Azem, Abdussalam

    2009-10-01

    The 60-kDa heat shock protein (mHsp60) is a vital cellular complex that mediates the folding of many of the mitochondrial proteins. Its function is executed in cooperation with the co-chaperonin, mHsp10, and requires ATP. Recently, the discovery of a new mHsp60-associated neurodegenerative disorder, MitCHAP-60 disease, has been reported. The disease is caused by a point mutation at position 3 (D3G) of the mature mitochondrial Hsp60 protein, which renders it unable to complement the deletion of the homologous bacterial protein in Escherichia coli (Magen, D., Georgopoulos, C., Bross, P., Ang, D., Segev, Y., Goldsher, D., Nemirovski, A., Shahar, E., Ravid, S., Luder, A., Heno, B., Gershoni-Baruch, R., Skorecki, K., and Mandel, H. (2008) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 83, 30-42). The molecular basis of the MitCHAP-60 disease is still unknown. In this study, we present an in vitro structural and functional analysis of the purified wild-type human mHsp60 and the MitCHAP-60 mutant. We show that the D3G mutation leads to destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer and causes its disassembly at low protein concentrations. We also show that the mutant protein has impaired protein folding and ATPase activities. An additional mutant that lacks the first three amino acids (N-del), including Asp-3, is similarly impaired in refolding activity. Surprisingly, however, this mutant exhibits profound stabilization of its oligomeric structure. These results suggest that the D3G mutation leads to entropic destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer, which severely impairs its chaperone function, thereby causing the disease.

  6. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on...

  7. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Valle, Fernando; Calvo, Cristina; Martinez-Rienda, Inés; Cilla, Amaia; Romero, María P; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Reis-Iglesias, Leticia; Roda, Diana; Pena, María J; Rabella, Nuria; Portugués de la Red, María Del Mar; Megías, Gregoria; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Cabrerizo, María

    2017-03-29

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%), with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%) for HPeV, with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae CONCLUSIONS: HPeV circulates in our country, mainly during spring and summer, and affects young infants with a FUO and clinical sepsis. Molecular diagnostic techniques in all hospitals could help in improving the management of patients with these infections. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

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    Marcelino Hernandez Valencia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficultto- treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral and topical (spray - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74% (P<0.001. However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL, treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used

  9. Low levels of human HIP14 are sufficient to rescue neuropathological, behavioural, and enzymatic defects due to loss of murine HIP14 in Hip14-/- mice.

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    Fiona B Young

    Full Text Available Huntingtin Interacting Protein 14 (HIP14 is a palmitoyl acyl transferase (PAT that was first identified due to altered interaction with mutant huntingtin, the protein responsible for Huntington Disease (HD. HIP14 palmitoylates a specific set of neuronal substrates critical at the synapse, and downregulation of HIP14 by siRNA in vitro results in increased cell death in neurons. We previously reported that mice lacking murine Hip14 (Hip14-/- share features of HD. In the current study, we have generated human HIP14 BAC transgenic mice and crossed them to the Hip14-/- model in order to confirm that the defects seen in Hip14-/- mice are in fact due to loss of Hip14. In addition, we sought to determine whether human HIP14 can provide functional compensation for loss of murine Hip14. We demonstrate that despite a relative low level of expression, as assessed via Western blot, BAC-derived human HIP14 compensates for deficits in neuropathology, behavior, and PAT enzyme function seen in the Hip14-/- model. Our findings yield important insights into HIP14 function in vivo.

  10. Human Rights Due Diligence (HRDD and Human Rights Impact Assessment (HRIA Best Practices to Corporate Shared Value (CSV: A Case of British Petroleum Tangguh Project In Papua

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    Carolina Martha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tangguh Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Project is a planned natural gas development project located in the remote area of Berau-Bintuni Bay in Papua Province, Indonesia. British Petroleum (BP Tangguh project aims tobe the pioneer in producing natural gas. It can be concluded that BP contributes an innovative approach, bearing in mind to sustainable development, cultural preservation and biodiversity conservation. Therefore, in each of its corporate actions, BP always integrates the value of community, partnership, consultation and corporate responsibility. It is mentioned that through experience and observation, BP as an extractive company, haveestimated the costs of not finding a better mechanism to adjust to social challenges can be higher than the costs of the uncertainties inherent in the trial of new ideas. However, according to international Non-GovernmentalOrganization (NGO, Down to Earth, BP has conducted a series of human rights violations by exploiting natural resources in Papua and restricting Papuans in enjoying their fundamental human rights. If only the BP keeps this Tangguh project in line with its aim to accommodate concerns from the affected surroundings, thus, will surely bring positive changes in BP’s corporate shared value.

  11. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and passive sampling: powerful tools for the determination of emerging pollutants in water for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirasole, Cristiana; Di Carro, Marina; Tanwar, Shivani; Magi, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Among the wide range of emerging pollutants, perfluorinated compounds and various pharmaceuticals, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are showing growing concern. These contaminants can be found in freshwater ecosystems because of their incomplete removal during wastewater treatments so, their water solubility and poor degradability result in their continuous discharge and pseudo-persistent contamination. Usually, expected levels of these analytes are particularly low; therefore, sensitive and selective analytical techniques are required for their determination. Moreover, sampling and preconcentration are fundamental steps to reach the low detection limits required. The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) represents a modern sampling approach that allows the in-situ preconcentration of ultra-trace pollutants. In this work, a fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of diclofenac, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, ibuprofen, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate and caffeine in water for human consumption. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved in less than 6 min. Quantitative analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode using ketoprofen-d3 as internal standard. Two different sites of Northern Italy were studied deploying POCIS for four weeks in both inlet and outlet of two drinking water treatment plants. The evaluation of time-weighted average concentration of contaminants was accomplished after the calibration of POCIS; to this aim, the sampling rate values for each compound were obtained by means of a simple calibration system developed in our laboratory. Ketoprofen, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate and caffeine were measured in both sites at the ng l(-1) level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Suitability for human consumption and agriculture purposes of Sminja aquifer groundwater in Zaghouan (north-east of Tunisia) using GIS and geochemistry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Meriem; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Gueddari, Moncef

    2016-10-01

    In Tunisia, the water resources are limited, partially renewable and unequally distributed between the wet north and the dry south of the country. The Sminja aquifer in Zaghouan city is located in north-east of Tunisia, between latitudes 36°38' and 36°47' and longitudes 9°95' and 10°12'. This aquifer is used to satisfy the population needs for their domestic purposes and agricultural activities. Water analyses results are expressed by many methods, among which are geochemical methods combined with the geographic information system (GIS) (all schematic presentations of the diagram software (Piper, Riverside, Wilcox…), which can be used to assess the suitability of the Sminja aquifer groundwater for human consumption and irrigation purposes. A total of 23 wells were sampled in January 2013, and the concentrations of major cations (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+)), major anions (Cl(-), SO4 (2-) and HCO3 (-)), electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were analysed. In the Sminja groundwater, the order of the cations dominance was Na > Ca > Mg > K and that of the anions was Cl > HCO3 > SO4. All of the analysed samples of the study area exceed chemical values recommended by the World Health Organisation guidelines and Tunisian Standards (NT.09.14) for potability but with different percentages. The aquifer spatial distribution of saturation indices reveals that all groundwater samples are under-saturated with gypsum, halite and anhydrite and are over-saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite based on water quality evaluation parameters for irrigation purposes; here, 87 % of samples in Sminja aquifer groundwater are suitable, whereas 13 % are unsuitable for irrigation uses.

  13. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  14. Potential Health Risk Assessment of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn for Human Population via Consumption of Commercial Spices; a Case Study of Hamedan City, Iran

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    Sobhanardakani S.* PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Spices are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the taste of food as well as affecting the digestion and metabolism. Along with that, they may also contain some substances as heavy metals, which have harmful effects on the body. The aim of present study was to assess the potential health risk of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods: 18 industrially packaged and weighted spice samples (cardamom, curry powder and turmeric belonging to 6 famous brands were bought from different supermarkets of Hamedan City, Iran, in 2015. The human health risks posed by chronic exposure to the heavy metals were assessed by computing the average daily intake of metal. The health risk index (HRI for the local population through the consumption of spice was assessed using DIM/RfD formula. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, DMS post-hoc, Tukey HSD and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests. Findings: Cr was detected in spice samples in 0.08-1.67mg/kg, Cu 0.05-1.28mg/kg, Fe 1.04-6.89mg/kg and Zn 0.40-2.25mg/kg. The mean concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn were lower than MPL. The DIM values for the examined spice samples were below the recommended values. Conclusion: The levels of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn are less than the MPL in cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran.

  15. A variety of the contract of purchase and sale. The contract of consumption

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    Radu Ursanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to consumption, which is imposed as a new law branch, corresponds to the increased need for juridical security felt by the modern world. Its imposition is also due to the “thirst” for goods manifested by the contemporary human individual, for whose protection are imposed new juridical regulations at national and community level.Keyword: consumer, rules, community.

  16. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

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    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  17. Morbidade hospitalar por ingestão de esteroides anabólico-androgênicos (EAA no Brasil Hospital morbidity due to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consumption in Brazil

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    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2013-04-01

    ária de 15-29 anos possuíram as maiores taxas no período estudado.INTRODUCTION: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are male sex hormones, developers and maintainers of sexual characteristics associated with masculinity and the anabolic status of somatic tissues. The physical and mental effects of AAS abuse are rare and it is almost impossible to say with certainty what adverse effects may become evident after their self-administration; however, they constitute risk of death for the individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of morbidity by AAS ingestion in Brazil in the 2000/2010 period. METHODS: Information on hospitalizations was obtained from computerized databases of the Ministry of Health. In the analysis of AAS consumption as primary or secondary diagnosis for hospital admission, the E28.1 (androgen excess, E34.5 (androgen insensitivity syndrome, T38.7 (adverse effect of and underdosing of androgens and anabolic congeners and Y42.7 (adverse effects in the therapeutic use of androgens and anabolic congeners codes of the ICD-10 were used. RESULTS: Hospitalizations by AAS were responsible for 0.001% of total admissions in the country. 1,319 admissions (mean = 119.9, SD = 99.01 were accounted. The Androgen insensitivity syndrome was the primary cause, corresponding to 55.8% of total admissions. Of of all hospitalizations, 1% of patients died and the maximum stay was of 47 days (mean = 3.8, SD = 4.7. Minas Gerais, Maranhão and Espírito Santo presented the highest rates of hospital admissions per 1,000,000 inhabitants from 2002 to 2007. Women and people aged 15-29 presented the highest hospitalization rate 82.5% and 37.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the hospitalization rate was relatively low for AAS intake; women and individuals aged 15-29 years possessed the highest rates in the period studied.

  18. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

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    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  19. Price and consumption of tobacco

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    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  20. Post-transfusion purpura in an African-American man due to human platelet antigen-5b alloantibody: a case report

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    Lynce Filipa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-transfusion purpura is a rare immunohematological disorder characterized by severe thrombocytopenia following transfusion of blood components and induced by an alloantibody against a donor platelet antigen. It occurs primarily in women sensitized by pregnancy and is most commonly caused by anti-human platelet antigen-1a antibodies. Here, we describe what we believe to be the first documented case of an African-American man who developed post-transfusion purpura due to an anti-human platelet antigen-5b alloantibody after receiving multiple blood products. Case presentation A 68-year-old African-American man initially admitted with atrial flutter was started on anticoagulation treatment, which was complicated by severe hematemesis. On days 4 and 5 of hospitalization, he received six units of packed red blood cells, and on days 4, 13 and 14 he received plasma. His platelet count began to drop on day 25 and on day 32 reached a nadir of 7 × 109/L. His platelet count increased after receiving intravenous immune globulin. An antibody with reactivity to human platelet antigen-5b was detected by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay. Our patient was homozygous for human platelet antigen-5a. Conclusion This case emphasizes the importance of including post-transfusion purpura in the differential diagnosis for both men and women with acute onset of thrombocytopenia following transfusion of blood products. The prompt recognition of this entity is crucial for initiation of the appropriate management.

  1. Temporal Variation of Faecal Shedding of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in A Dairy Herd Producing Raw Milk for Direct Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Stancampiano, Laura; Taddei, Roberta; Delogu, Mauro; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Guarniero, Ilaria; Grilli, Ester; Fustini, Mattia; Bonfante, Elena; Giacometti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse over time the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 faecal shedding in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption. The study was performed between October 2012 and September 2013 in an average size Italian dairy farm where animals are housed inside the barn all over the year. The farm housed about 140 animals during the study – 70 cows and 70 calves and heifers. Twenty-six animals were randomly selected from both the cows and young animals group, and faecal sampling was performed rectally six times two months apart in each animal. Eleven animals were culled during the study and a total of 285 faecal samples were collected. At each faecal sampling, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples were also collected for a total of 36 water samples and 24 feed samples. Samples were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture. Overall, 16 (5.6%) faecal samples were positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR. Cultural examination found 9 (3.1%) samples positive for E. coli O157; all the isolates were positive for stx1, stx 2 and eae genes. One (4.1%) feed sample was positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR; none of the water samples was positive for E. coli O157. The model highlighted a general significant reduction of the number of positive samples observed during the study from the first to the sixth sampling (P=0.000) and a positive relation between the presence of positive samples and average environmental temperature (P=0.003). The results of the study showed that in an Italian dairy farm housing animals all year, faecal shedding of E. coli O157 followed the same temporal trend reported for other types of farming. The enhanced faecal shedding during warmer months may have a significant impact on environmental contamination and the safety of raw milk and its byproducts.

  2. Temporal variation of faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Merialdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse over time the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 faecal shedding in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption. The study was performed between October 2012 and September 2013 in an average size Italian dairy farm where animals are housed inside the barn all over the year. The farm housed about 140 animals during the study – 70 cows and 70 calves and heifers. Twenty-six animals were randomly selected from both the cows and young animals group, and faecal sampling was performed rectally six times two months apart in each animal. Eleven animals were culled during the study and a total of 285 faecal samples were collected. At each faecal sampling, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples were also collected for a total of 36 water samples and 24 feed samples. Samples were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and culture. Overall, 16 (5.6% faecal samples were positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR. Cultural examination found 9 (3.1% samples positive for E. coli O157; all the isolates were positive for stx1, stx 2 and eae genes. One (4.1% feed sample was positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR; none of the water samples was positive for E. coli O157. The model highlighted a general significant reduction of the number of positive samples observed during the study from the first to the sixth sampling (P=0.000 and a positive relation between the presence of positive samples and average environmental temperature (P=0.003. The results of the study showed that in an Italian dairy farm housing animals all year, faecal shedding of E. coli O157 followed the same temporal trend reported for other types of farming. The enhanced faecal shedding during warmer months may have a significant impact on environmental contamination and the safety of raw milk and its byproducts.

  3. Adult Tobacco Consumption In The U.S., 2000-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000 to Present. Adult Tobacco Consumption in the U.S. This dataset highlights critical trends in adult total and per capita consumption of both combustible...

  4. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Efforts over the last Two Decades to Reduce Human Losses due to Natural Hazards, and A Proposal for Future Efforts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Chakos, A.

    2009-12-01

    While there is evidence that efforts over the last 20 years to reduce human and fiscal losses due to natural hazards have been effective, there is also evidence that, despite these efforts, we can expect large and, perhaps, even increasing losses in the future. If this conclusion is correct—and unacceptable—then what should be done differently to reduce these losses? One piece of the answer can be found through analyzing why the efforts to date have not been more effective. Another piece can be found through examining the characteristics of successful social movements. For a social movement is what we are talking about when we advocate changing human behavior in order to reduce risk from natural hazards. We cannot attribute the disappointingly modest success of past risk reduction efforts to inadequate science or engineering: the reduction of natural disaster losses in both the U.S. and Japan over the last century indicates that humans possess the required scientific and engineering expertise to reduce the risk of natural hazards, and reduce it significantly. If the problem is that this expertise is not being applied outside of Japan and the U.S., where the risk is concentrated, then we need to understand why. There are numerous examples, after all, of widespread, rapid adoption of modern technologies (such as the internet), once these technologies were perceived to be beneficial. Yet not only have earthquake engineering advances failed to be adopted where they are needed, even existing building codes are often not followed. To understand this behavioral paradox better, we turn to human psychology. In the last several years, Nicholas Kristof of the New York Times has invoked the work of psychologists, in order to explore how our brains may not have yet evolved to respond properly to certain types of modern risks. Kristof refers, for example, to Professor Daniel Gilbert, who argues that threats that will catch our attention will either be personalized, imminent

  5. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  6. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  7. Disentangling practices, carriers and production-consumption systems : a mixed-method study of (sustainable) food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, Julia; Wieser, Harald; Kemp, René; Huddart Kennedy, Emily; Cohen, Maurie J.; Krogman, Naomi T.

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on food consumption practices, this chapter provides conceptual contributions and methodological reflections. The central question is how far practice-based approaches help understanding human behavior, both conceptually and analytically. Food consumption is tied to family traditions,

  8. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  9. Feasibility of mapping the tissue mass corrected bioscale of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption using 17-oxygen and 23-sodium MR imaging in a human brain at 9.4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ian C; Thulborn, Keith R

    2010-06-01

    The reduction of molecular oxygen to water is the final step of oxidative phosphorylation that couples adenosine triphosphate production to the reoxidation of reducing equivalents formed during the oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide. This coupling makes the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) an excellent reflection of the metabolic health of the brain. A multi-nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) imaging based method for CMRO(2) mapping is proposed. Oxygen consumption is determined by applying a new three-phase metabolic model for water generation and clearance to the changing 17-oxygen ((17)O) labeled water MR signal measured using quantitative (17)O MR imaging during inhalation of (17)O-enriched oxygen gas. These CMRO(2) data are corrected for the regional brain tissue mass computed from quantitative 23-sodium MR imaging of endogenous tissue sodium ions to derive quantitative results of oxygen consumption in micromoles O(2)/g tissue/minute that agree with literature results reported from positron emission tomography. The proposed technique is demonstrated in the human brain using a 9.4 T MR scanner optimized for human brain imaging.

  10. Aplicación de índices de calidad de agua - ICA orientados al uso de la fuente para consumo humano Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Andrea

    2010-12-01

    ,Dinius WQI, ICAUCA and UWQI indexes at five points or stations on the Cauca River located in the Salvajina–Puerto Mallarino water uptake section, gave evidence of growing river deterioration due to the different socio-economic activities carried out in the river basin. This water quality condition brings about the incorporation of additional or specific treatment operations such as activated carbon or adsorption for the destination of the resource for human consumption. The presence of pathogens and particulate material were the variables mostly affecting WQI value. It is thus recommended that the development or adaptation of an index having a similar structure to the DQWI index should be considered to make a thorough river assessment and the additional use of soil which might generate the presence of other substances causing a sanitary risk in the source, considering variation in time and space of the parameters comprising it and its comparison with current legislation.

  11. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria due to a mutation in GATA1: the first trans-acting mutation causative for a human porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John D; Steensma, David P; Pulsipher, Michael A; Spangrude, Gerald J; Kushner, James P

    2007-03-15

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), an autosomal recessive disorder, is due to mutations of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS). Deficiency of UROS results in excess uroporphyrin I, which causes photosensitization. We evaluated a 3-year-old boy with CEP. A hypochromic, microcytic anemia was present from birth, and platelet counts averaged 70 x 10(9)/L (70,000/microL). Erythrocyte UROS activity was 21% of controls. Red cell morphology and globin chain labeling studies were compatible with beta-thalassemia. Hb electrophoresis revealed 36.3% A, 2.4% A(2), 59.5% F, and 1.8% of an unidentified peak. No UROS or alpha- and beta-globin mutations were found in the child or the parents. The molecular basis of the phenotype proved to be a mutation of GATA1, an X-linked transcription factor common to globin genes and heme biosynthetic enzymes in erythrocytes. A mutation at codon 216 in the child and on one allele of his mother changed arginine to tryptophan (R216W). This is the first report of a human porphyria due to a mutation in a trans-acting factor and the first association of CEP with thalassemia and thrombocytopenia. The Hb F level of 59.5% suggests a role for GATA-1 in globin switching. A bone marrow allograft corrected both the porphyria and the thalassemia.

  12. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  13. Quercetin Glucuronides but Not Glucosides Are Present in Human Plasma after Consumption of Quercetin-3-Glucoside or Quercetin-4'-Glucoside 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.A.; O'Leary, K.A.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2001-01-01

    The nature of quercetin conjugates present in blood after consumption of quercetin glucosides is still unclear. In this study, we analyzed plasma of volunteers that had consumed 325 ?mol of either quercetin-3-glucoside or quercetin-4'-glucoside as an oral solution. Quercetin metabolites were extract

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2016-01-01

    ... (186.19 mg/kg dry weight), Ni (58.98 mg/kg dry weight), Cu (41.36 mg/kg dry weight), Co (9.06 mg/kg dry weight) and Mn (9.03 mg/kg dry weight). Estimated daily intake of heavy metals was calculated by mean fish consumption rate...

  15. Cassava production and consumption: Health implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr A. O. Akinpelu

    The paper examined health issues on production and consumption of cassava. It was revealed .... This is potential cocoa output lost due to ineffective ..... Productive Benefit of improving Health: Evidence from low income countries. Mimeo ...

  16. Consumption of fructose- but not glucose-sweetened beverages for 10 weeks increases circulating concentrations of uric acid, retinol binding protein-4, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in overweight/obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Chad L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies in humans examining the effects of fructose consumption on biological markers associated with the development of metabolic syndrome are lacking. Therefore we investigated the relative effects of 10 wks of fructose or glucose consumption on plasma uric acid and RBP-4 concentrations, as well as liver enzyme (AST, ALT, and GGT activities in men and women. Methods As part of a parallel arm study, older (age 40–72, overweight and obese male and female subjects (BMI 25–35 kg/m2 consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks. Fasting and 24-h blood collections were performed at baseline and following 10 wks of intervention and plasma concentrations of uric acid, RBP-4 and liver enzyme activities were measured. Results Consumption of fructose, but not glucose, led to significant increases of 24-h uric acid profiles (P P = 0.012, as well as plasma GGT activity (P = 0.04. Fasting plasma uric acid concentrations increased in both groups; however, the response was significantly greater in subjects consuming fructose (P = 0.002 for effect of sugar. Within the fructose group male subjects exhibited larger increases of RBP-4 levels than women (P = 0.024. Conclusions These findings suggest that consumption of fructose at 25% of energy requirements for 10 wks, compared with isocaloric consumption of glucose, may contribute to the development of components of the metabolic syndrome by increasing circulating uric acid, GGT activity, suggesting alteration of hepatic function, and the production of RBP-4.

  17. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently.

  18. Outbreak of methylmercury poisoning due to consumption of contaminated grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, T.W.; Amin-Zaki, L.; Al-Tikriti, S.K.

    1976-10-01

    An outbreak of methylmercury poisoning took place in the fall and winter of 1971 to 1972 in Iraq. Six thousand five hundred and thirty cases were admitted to hospitals throughout the country and 459 died in hospital. The outbreak was the result of eating homemade bread prepared from wheat treated with a methylmercury fungicide. The wheat was intended for planting purposes only. Signs and symptoms of poisonings in adults indicate that the major site of action of this form of mercury is the central nervous system. Severe brain damage also resulted from prenatal exposure when the mother ingested large amounts of the contaminated bread. The frequency of signs and symptoms in an exposed population was found to be related to the estimated maximum blood levels, i.e., the concentration in blood at the end of exposure. A small percentage of the population exhibited a significant increase in complaints of paresthesia at maximum blood levels in the range of 240 to 480 ng Hg/ml. At higher blood levels a greater proportion of the population complained of paresthesia and other signs and symptoms became apparent.

  19. Probiotic yogurt consumption may improve gastrointestinal symptoms, productivity, and nutritional intake of people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Stephanie L; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh

    2011-12-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effects at the level of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A probiotic yogurt initiative was thus established in Mwanza, Tanzania, to improve gastrointestinal (GI) integrity and reduce the incidence and severity of opportunistic infections among people with HIV. The research objective was to retrospectively evaluate the effects of yogurt supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as an adjunct to the diet of people living with HIV on systemic and GI symptoms, daily routine activities, and nutritional intake. Eighty-five people with HIV consuming probiotic yogurt and 86 controls were interviewed. Demographics and HIV disease stage were comparable between groups. Probiotic yogurt consumers reported an ability to work a median of 2 hours more daily (P = .01), experienced a lower fever incidence (P = .01), and were more likely to achieve daily nutrient requirements for vitamin A, several B complex vitamins, and calcium (P = .02). Antiretroviral users experienced less drug-induced stomach pain (P = .02) and a lower overall impact of GI symptoms on routine activities (P = .03). The results of this study need be further substantiated because of limits imposed by the observational, retrospective study design; however, results suggest that yogurt supplemented with L rhamnosus may effectively alleviate GI symptoms and improve productivity, nutritional intake, and tolerance to antiretroviral treatment among people with HIV in Mwanza.

  20. MDI Consumption Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaobao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The consumption of MDI (diphenylmethane diisocyanate) in China was 631 thousand tons in 2006, an increase of 36.6% over 2005. The consumption of pure MDI was 231 thousand tons, an increase of 38.3% and the consumption of polymerized MDI was 400 thousand tons, an increase of 35.6%.

  1. PERSPECTIVES OF ETHICAL CONSUMPTION DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yevtushevska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Universal principles of ethical consumption are lightened. Five main principles are definite, in particular: principle of caring treatment to environment, principle of human rights keeping, principle of human treatment to animals, principle of domestic producers support, principle of ethical treatment to other buyers. Main reasons of undeveloped consumer culture in Ukraine are analyzed, namely historical peculiarities of consumption, poor information, ineffective legislation, undeveloped ecological culture, poor experience of total boycott of goods and services. Perspectives of ethical consumption development under domestic conditions are opened.

  2. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Zaccaroni, Annalisa [Large Pelagic Vertebrate Group, Veterinary Faculty, University of Bologna, Viale Vespucci 2, Cesenatico (FC) 47042 (Italy); Zumbado, Manuel [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P{sub eq})), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P{sub eq,} which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated

  3. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori via water for human consumption. Determination by means of the molecular method using PCR; Helicobacter pylori, su transmision a traves de las aguas para el consumo humano. Determinacion por metodo molecular con la PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, A. J.; Moreno, C.; Apraiz, D.; Catalan, V. [LABAQUA. Alicante (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Helicobacter pylori is the cause of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcers and stomach cancer. Its natural reservoirs and transmission mechanisms are still little understood. The gastro-oral route-especially vomiting and regurgitation-is one transmission path, especially in young children and babies. It has been found in some patients saliva and dental plaque, which suggests a possible oral-oral contagion route. The discovery of H. Pylori human excrement points to a faecal-oral route as the main transmission pathway via water for human consumption. It is therefore important to develop detection methods such as isolation by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to effectively monitor this pathogen in human drinking water. (Author) 30 refs.

  4. Purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) fruit and their effects on glucose consumption in human HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Yan, Youyou; Chen, Qingjun; Luo, Fenglei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-12-01

    Huyou (Citrus changshanensis) is rich in naringin and neohesperidin, which are natural flavanone glycosides with a range of biological activities. Among the different fruit parts, i.e. flavedo, albedo, segment membrane (SM), and juice sacs (JS), albedo showed the highest contents of both compounds, with 27.00 and 19.09mg/g DW for naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. Efficient simultaneous purification of naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou albedo was established by the combination of macroporous D101 resin chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified naringin and neohesperidin were identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and their effects on glucose consumption were investigated in HepG2 cells. Cells treated with naringin and neohesperidin showed increased consumption of glucose, and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Therefore, naringin and neohesperidin from Huyou may act as potential hypoglycaemic agents through regulation of glucose metabolism.

  5. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N.

    2016-01-01

    simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage, respectively, and a dose‐response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose...... values are changed according to the E.U. member state (MS) of interest. In this article we demonstrate the use of the QMRA in four MSs, representing different types of countries. The predicted probability of illness from the QMRA was between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million per serving across all three...... product types. Fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage imposed the highest probability of illness per serving in all countries, whereas the risks per serving of minced meat and pork chops were similar within each MS. For each of the products, the risk varied by a factor of 100 between the four MSs. The influence...

  6. Human dimensions in energy consumption. Scientific research front from a national and international perspective; Maenskliga dimensioner vid energianvaendning. Vetenskaplig forskningsfront ur nationellt och internationellt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketola, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to make an inventory of earlier studies of energy consumption in buildings where consideration has been taken to behaviour related and among all socio-cultural aspects. The literature study is focused on publications from 1980s and 1990s, and mainly concentrated to socio-cultural analyses. The report catches the national and international scientific discussion that have been conducted, and the debate of today within this field.

  7. Maternal uniparental disomy for human chromosome 14, due to loss of a chromosome 14 from somatic cells with t(13;14) trisomy 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, S E; Blouin, J L; Maher, J; Avramopoulos, D; Thomas, G; Talbot, C C

    1993-06-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) for particular chromosomes is increasingly recognized as a cause of abnormal phenotypes in humans. We recently studied a 9-year-old female with a de novo Robertsonian translocation t(13;14), short stature, mild developmental delay, scoliosis, hyperextensible joints, hydrocephalus that resolved spontaneously during the first year of life, and hypercholesterolemia. To determine the parental origin of chromosomes 13 and 14 in the proband, we have studied the genotypes of DNA polymorphic markers due to (GT)n repeats in the patient and her parents' blood DNA. The genotypes of markers D14S43, D14S45, D14S49, and D14S54 indicated maternal UPD for chromosome 14. There was isodisomy for proximal markers and heterodisomy for distal markers, suggesting a recombination event on maternal chromosomes 14. In addition, DNA analysis first revealed--and subsequent cytogenetic analysis confirmed--that there was mosaic trisomy 14 in 5% of blood lymphocytes. There was normal (biparental) inheritance for chromosome 13, and there was no evidence of false paternity in genotypes of 11 highly polymorphic markers on human chromosome 21. Two cases of maternal UPD for chromosome 14 have previously been reported, one with a familial rob t(13;14) and the other with a t(14;14). There are several similarities among these patients, and a "maternal UPD chromosome 14 syndrome" is emerging; however, the contribution of the mosaic trisomy 14 to the phenotype cannot be evaluated. The study of de novo Robertsonian translocations of the type reported here should reveal both the extent of UPD in these events and the contribution of particular chromosomes involved in certain phenotypes.

  8. Maternal uniparental disomy for human chromosome 14, due to loss of a