WorldWideScience

Sample records for human consumption collected

  1. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  2. Tissue distribution of HCH and DDT congeners and human health risk associated with consumption of fish collected from Kabul River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Nawab, Javed; Qamar, Zahir; Khan, Anwarzeb

    2016-03-01

    Distribution of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) congeners in tissues of four different fish species and their associated potential health risks to local consumers are presented in this paper. The average ∑(HCHs+DDTs) concentration in Glyptothorax punjabensis (214ngg(-1) wet weight (ww)) (carnivores) was found higher than Tor putitora (155ngg(-1) ww) (herbivores). The distribution of ∑(HCHs+DDTs) in all fish tissues was found in order of liver>muscle>stomach>gills. The profile of congeners (β-HCH/∑HCH from 0.29-0.47) indicated that all selected fish species were contaminated with HCH because of its recent usage in the study area. Furthermore, DDT profile ((DDE+DDD)/∑DDT from 0.61-0.78) showed that fish contamination with DDT originated from past usage and long-time degradation mechanism. The average estimated daily dietary intake of ∑HCHs (15.0ngkg(-1) day(-1)) was higher than ∑DDTs (12.5ngkg(-1) day(-1)) by the local consumers via fish consumption. On the basis of both 50th and 95th percentile exposure levels, the carcinogenic hazard ratios for DDT and its congeners were exceeded one (safe limit) for all fish species, indicating a great potential cancer risk for local consumers with life time consumption of contaminated fish collected from Kabul River. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Wanders, Niko; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, human water use has more than doubled and affected streamflow over various regions of the world. However, it remains unclear to what degree human water consumption intensifies hydrological drought (the occurrence of anomalously low streamflow). Here, we quantify over the period 1960–2010 the impact of human water consumption on the intensity and frequency of hydrological drought worldwide. The results show that human water consumption substantially reduced local and downstream streamflow over Europe, North America and Asia, and subsequently intensified the magnitude of hydrological droughts by 10–500%, occurring during nation- and continent-wide drought events. Also, human water consumption alone increased global drought frequency by 27 (±6)%. The intensification of drought frequency is most severe over Asia (35 ± 7%), but also substantial over North America (25 ± 6%) and Europe (20 ± 5%). Importantly, the severe drought conditions are driven primarily by human water consumption over many parts of these regions. Irrigation is responsible for the intensification of hydrological droughts over the western and central US, southern Europe and Asia, whereas the impact of industrial and households’ consumption on the intensification is considerably larger over the eastern US and western and central Europe. Our findings reveal that human water consumption is one of the more important mechanisms intensifying hydrological drought, and is likely to remain as a major factor affecting drought intensity and frequency in the coming decades. (letter)

  4. 78 FR 11611 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Period for Information Collection Provisions AGENCY..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of... ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' FOR FURTHER...

  5. Data Collection for Mobile Group Consumption: An Asynchronous Distributed Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile group consumption refers to consumption by a group of people, such as a couple, a family, colleagues and friends, based on mobile communications. It differs from consumption only involving individuals, because of the complex relations among group members. Existing data collection systems for mobile group consumption are centralized, which has the disadvantages of being a performance bottleneck, having single-point failure and increasing business and security risks. Moreover, these data collection systems are based on a synchronized clock, which is often unrealistic because of hardware constraints, privacy concerns or synchronization cost. In this paper, we propose the first asynchronous distributed approach to collecting data generated by mobile group consumption. We formally built a system model thereof based on asynchronous distributed communication. We then designed a simulation system for the model for which we propose a three-layer solution framework. After that, we describe how to detect the causality relation of two/three gathering events that happened in the system based on the collected data. Various definitions of causality relations based on asynchronous distributed communication are supported. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective for data collection relating to mobile group consumption.

  6. Data Collection for Mobile Group Consumption: An Asynchronous Distributed Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiping; Chen, Weiran; Hu, Zhejie; Li, Zuoyou; Liang, Yue; Chen, Jiaojiao

    2016-04-06

    Mobile group consumption refers to consumption by a group of people, such as a couple, a family, colleagues and friends, based on mobile communications. It differs from consumption only involving individuals, because of the complex relations among group members. Existing data collection systems for mobile group consumption are centralized, which has the disadvantages of being a performance bottleneck, having single-point failure and increasing business and security risks. Moreover, these data collection systems are based on a synchronized clock, which is often unrealistic because of hardware constraints, privacy concerns or synchronization cost. In this paper, we propose the first asynchronous distributed approach to collecting data generated by mobile group consumption. We formally built a system model thereof based on asynchronous distributed communication. We then designed a simulation system for the model for which we propose a three-layer solution framework. After that, we describe how to detect the causality relation of two/three gathering events that happened in the system based on the collected data. Various definitions of causality relations based on asynchronous distributed communication are supported. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective for data collection relating to mobile group consumption.

  7. [Diseases transmitted through water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Dentamaro, M

    2003-01-01

    The water for human consumption maintains a biological risk and can transmit diseases. The classical waterborne and the presently frequent diseases caused by protozoi Giardia and Cryptosporidium are considered and Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, is described. Many measures have been adopted by institutions to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Managers and public health operators is working in order to verify the efficiency of more suitable indicators for its monitoring.

  8. 78 FR 69605 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Consumption'' and for its information collection provisions. DATES: The FDA is extending the comment period... Consumption.'' The original comment period of 120 days was extended several times and interested persons were...

  9. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Janssen, Colin R

    2014-10-01

    Microplastics are present throughout the marine environment and ingestion of these plastic particles (microplastics in two species of commercially grown bivalves: Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Microplastics were recovered from the soft tissues of both species. At time of human consumption, M. edulis contains on average 0.36 ± 0.07 particles g(-1) (wet weight), while a plastic load of 0.47 ± 0.16 particles g(-1) ww was detected in C. gigas. As a result, the annual dietary exposure for European shellfish consumers can amount to 11,000 microplastics per year. The presence of marine microplastics in seafood could pose a threat to food safety, however, due to the complexity of estimating microplastic toxicity, estimations of the potential risks for human health posed by microplastics in food stuffs is not (yet) possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  12. Earliest evidence for human consumption of crayfish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patoka, J.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Kalous, L.; Škrdla, Petr; Kuča, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 13 (2014), s. 1578-1585 ISSN 0011-216X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Crustaceans * anthropology of food * consumption * Small game * Neolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.473, year: 2014

  13. Does apricot seeds consumption cause changes in human urine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural substances, such as amygdalin, used in alternative medicine gained high popularity. Common people as well as patients with different diseases have almost unlimited access to various natural supplements. To protect human health, it is very important to study effect of these substances. Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glucoside derived from seeds of rosaceous plants, for example seeds of bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis, or apricot, cherry, apple, peach, plum, etc. It is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, it has also been used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, leprosy and diabetes and produces a kind of antitussive and antiasthmatic effects. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin in apricot seeds has got an effect on human urine composition, pH value and urine associated health status after six weeks of oral administration. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adult volunteers (21 females and 13 males. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily (approximately 3.0 mg.kg-1 of amygdalin during 6 weeks. During the experiment, three urine collections were carried out (first collection - at the beginning of the experiment; second collection - after 21 days; third collection - after 42 days. Quantification of urine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorides (Cl-, urea and pH value after apricot seeds supplementation was performed. Statistical analysis of variance showed, that consumption of bitter apricot seeds during 42 days had a significant (p <0.01 effect on amount of calcium excreted in urine, though this decrease shifted its level from elevated mean value in control collection into normal physiological range. Significant changes were observed in urea (p <0.05 and phosphorus (p <0.01 levels in urine after apricot seed ingestion, but gender was also considered to be a source of their variation.

  14. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks

  15. Risk Perception in Young Women's Collective Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heavy episodic drinking in young women has caused concern among many groups including public health professionals. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of young women's alcohol consumption so as to facilitate better health education targeting. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examines…

  16. Consumption of seaweeds and the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornish, M. Lynn; Critchley, Alan T.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2017-01-01

    , and the impacts of anti-oxidant activities in neuroprotection. These elements have the capacity to help in the defense of human cognitive disorders, such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, bipolar diseases, and adverse conditions characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Psychological benefits...

  17. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  18. Collection of offshore human error probability data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, Gurpreet; Kirwan, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as Piper Alpha have increased concern about the effects of human errors in complex systems. Such accidents can in theory be predicted and prevented by risk assessment, and in particular human reliability assessment (HRA), but HRA ideally requires qualitative and quantitative human error data. A research initiative at the University of Birmingham led to the development of CORE-DATA, a Computerised Human Error Data Base. This system currently contains a reasonably large number of human error data points, collected from a variety of mainly nuclear-power related sources. This article outlines a recent offshore data collection study, concerned with collecting lifeboat evacuation data. Data collection methods are outlined and a selection of human error probabilities generated as a result of the study are provided. These data give insights into the type of errors and human failure rates that could be utilised to support offshore risk analyses

  19. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, C.; Hendy, J.; Speller, C.

    2014-01-01

    directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG...... is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up...

  20. A Budyko-type Model for Human Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X.; Zhao, J.; Wang, D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the expansion of human water footprint, water crisis is no longer only a conflict or competition for water between different economic sectors, but also increasingly between human and the environment. In order to describe the emergent dynamics and patterns of the interaction, a theoretical framework that encapsulates the physical and societal controls impacting human water consumption is needed. In traditional hydrology, Budyko-type models are simple but efficient descriptions of vegetation-mediated hydrologic cycle in catchments, i.e., the partitioning of mean annual precipitation into runoff and evapotranspiration. Plant water consumption plays a crucial role in the process. Hypothesized similarities between human-water and vegetation-water interactions, including water demand, constraints and system functioning, give the idea of corresponding Budyko-type framework for human water consumption at the catchment scale. Analogous to variables of Budyko-type models for hydrologic cycle, water demand, water consumption, environmental water use and available water are corresponding to potential evaporation, actual evaporation, runoff and precipitation respectively. Human water consumption data, economic and hydro-meteorological data for 51 human-impacted catchments and 10 major river basins in China are assembled to look for the existence of a Budyko-type relationship for human water consumption, and to seek explanations for the spread in the observed relationship. Guided by this, a Budyko-type analytical model is derived based on application of an optimality principle, that of maximum water benefit. The model derived has the same functional form and mathematical features as those that apply for the original Budyko model. Parameters of the new Budyko-type model for human consumption are linked to economic and social factors. The results of this paper suggest that the functioning of both social and hydrologic subsystems within catchment systems can be explored within

  1. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  2. Direct evidence of milk consumption from ancient human dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, C; Hendy, J; Speller, C; Cappellini, E; Fischer, R; Trachsel, C; Arneborg, J; Lynnerup, N; Craig, O E; Swallow, D M; Fotakis, A; Christensen, R J; Olsen, J V; Liebert, A; Montalva, N; Fiddyment, S; Charlton, S; Mackie, M; Canci, A; Bouwman, A; Rühli, F; Gilbert, M T P; Collins, M J

    2014-11-27

    Milk is a major food of global economic importance, and its consumption is regarded as a classic example of gene-culture evolution. Humans have exploited animal milk as a food resource for at least 8500 years, but the origins, spread, and scale of dairying remain poorly understood. Indirect lines of evidence, such as lipid isotopic ratios of pottery residues, faunal mortality profiles, and lactase persistence allele frequencies, provide a partial picture of this process; however, in order to understand how, where, and when humans consumed milk products, it is necessary to link evidence of consumption directly to individuals and their dairy livestock. Here we report the first direct evidence of milk consumption, the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG), preserved in human dental calculus from the Bronze Age (ca. 3000 BCE) to the present day. Using protein tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that BLG is a species-specific biomarker of dairy consumption, and we identify individuals consuming cattle, sheep, and goat milk products in the archaeological record. We then apply this method to human dental calculus from Greenland's medieval Norse colonies, and report a decline of this biomarker leading up to the abandonment of the Norse Greenland colonies in the 15(th) century CE.

  3. Socially shared mourning: construction and consumption of collective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Anu

    2015-04-01

    Social media, such as YouTube, is increasingly a site of collective remembering where personal tributes to celebrity figures become sites of public mourning. YouTube, especially, is rife with celebrity commemorations. Examining fans' online mourning practices on YouTube, this paper examines video tributes dedicated to the late Steve Jobs, with a focus on collective remembering and collective construction of memory. Combining netnography with critical discourse analysis, the analysis focuses on the user comments where the past unfolds in interaction and meanings are negotiated and contested. The paper argues that celebrity death may, for avid fans, be a source of disenfranchised grief, a type of grief characterised by inadequate social support, usually arising from lack of empathy for the loss. The paper sheds light on the functions digital memorials have for mourning fans (and fandom) and argues that social media sites have come to function as spaces of negotiation, legitimisation and alleviation of disenfranchised grief. It is also suggested that when it comes to disenfranchised grief, and grief work generally, the concept of community be widened to include communities of weak ties, a typical form of communal belonging on social media.

  4. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  5. Storying energy consumption: Collective video storytelling in energy efficiency social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ross; Waitt, Gordon; Cooper, Paul; Butler, Katherine

    2018-05-01

    Despite calls for more socio-technical research on energy, there is little practical advice to how narratives collected through qualitative research may be melded with technical knowledge from the physical sciences such as engineering and then applied in energy efficiency social action strategies. This is despite established knowledge in the environmental management literature about domestic energy use regarding the utility of social practice theory and narrative framings that socialise everyday consumption. Storytelling is positioned in this paper both as a focus for socio-technical energy research, and as one potential practical tool that can arguably enhance energy efficiency interventions. We draw upon the literature on everyday social practices, and storytelling, to present our framework called 'collective video storytelling' that combines scientific and lay knowledge about domestic energy use to offer a practical tool for energy efficiency management. Collective video storytelling is discussed in the context of Energy+Illawarra, a 3-year cross-disciplinary collaboration between social marketers, human geographers, and engineers to target energy behavioural change within older low-income households in regional NSW, Australia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Data Collection for Mobile Group Consumption: An Asynchronous Distributed Approach †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiping; Chen, Weiran; Hu, Zhejie; Li, Zuoyou; Liang, Yue; Chen, Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Mobile group consumption refers to consumption by a group of people, such as a couple, a family, colleagues and friends, based on mobile communications. It differs from consumption only involving individuals, because of the complex relations among group members. Existing data collection systems for mobile group consumption are centralized, which has the disadvantages of being a performance bottleneck, having single-point failure and increasing business and security risks. Moreover, these data collection systems are based on a synchronized clock, which is often unrealistic because of hardware constraints, privacy concerns or synchronization cost. In this paper, we propose the first asynchronous distributed approach to collecting data generated by mobile group consumption. We formally built a system model thereof based on asynchronous distributed communication. We then designed a simulation system for the model for which we propose a three-layer solution framework. After that, we describe how to detect the causality relation of two/three gathering events that happened in the system based on the collected data. Various definitions of causality relations based on asynchronous distributed communication are supported. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective for data collection relating to mobile group consumption. PMID:27058544

  7. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Bolfă, Pompei; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Oltean, Miruna; Villena, Isabelle; Spînu, Marina; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. Pairs of samples, sera and heart tissues, were collected from 82 slaughtered horses. Examination of horse sera by ELISA at a dilution of 1:10, and by modified agglutination test (MAT) at a dilution of 1:6, revealed that 32 (39%) and 31(37.8%) horses, respectively, had antibodies against T. gondii. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, T. gondii DNA was not found in any heart sample collected from horses. By bioassay in mice, we obtained viable isolates of T. gondii from two of ten horses determined to be strongly positive by serological assay/ELISA. The prevalence estimated in horses highlighted the potential risk for human contamination by consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  10. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Chee Kong, E-mail: yapckong@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheng, Wan Hee [Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Karami, Ali [Laboratory of Aquatic Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  11. 78 FR 17155 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule... fruits and vegetables grown for human consumption. FDA proposed these standards as part of our... for Human Consumption.'' The document published with several technical errors, including some errors...

  12. 21 CFR 172.894 - Modified cottonseed products intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 172.894 Section 172.894 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.894 Modified cottonseed products...

  13. 78 FR 48637 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption,'' that appeared in... ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a 120...

  14. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 170.50 Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. (a) Heretofore, the...

  15. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments... food for human or animal consumption. As required by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), FDA... provide procedures for administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption under the...

  17. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  18. Yield of two mutant lines of soybean for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Diaz V, G. E.; Valencia E, F.; Ranfla C, R.; Melendez P, M.; Cervantes S, T.; De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work has the objective of to evaluate the yield and the agronomic behavior of 2 mutant lines of soybean for human consumption, obtained by means of a process of recurrent irradiation of soybean seed ISAAEG-BM 2 with gammas of Co 60 and selection in the generation R 4 M 18 . For the variable yield significant statistical differences were not observed, but considering the rest of the evaluated agronomic characteristics the mutant lines L 6 and Bombona they were excellent with values of 3,934.6 and 3,806.8 Kg ha- 1 to 15% of grain humidity, they also possess excellent genetic characteristics result of the irradiations and selections of these new genetic materials. (Author)

  19. Energy Consumption Research of Mobile Data Collection Protocol for Underwater Nodes Using an USV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Lv

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV integrated with an acoustic modem is a novel mobile vehicle for data collection, which has an advantage in terms of mobility, efficiency, and collection cost. In the scenario of data collection, the USV is controlled autonomously along the planning trajectory and the data of underwater nodes are dynamically collected. In order to improve the efficiency of data collection and extend the life of the underwater nodes, a mobile data collection protocol for underwater nodes using the USV was proposed. In the protocol, the stop-and-wait ARQ transmission mechanism is adopted, where the duty cycle is designed considering the ratio between the sleep mode and the detection mode, and the transmission ratio is defined by the duty cycle, wake-up signal cycles, and USV’s speed. According to protocol, the evaluation index for energy consumption is constructed based on the duty cycle and the transmission ratio. The energy consumption of the protocol is simulated and analyzed using the mobile communication experiment data of USV, taking into consideration USV’s speed, data sequence length, and duty cycle. Optimized protocol parameters are identified, which in turn denotes the proposed protocol’s feasibility and effectiveness.

  20. Human reliability data collection and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The main purpose of this document is to review and outline the current state-of-the-art of the Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) used for quantitative assessment of nuclear power plants safe and economical operation. Another objective is to consider Human Performance Indicators (HPI) which can alert plant manager and regulator to departures from states of normal and acceptable operation. These two objectives are met in the three sections of this report. The first objective has been divided into two areas, based on the location of the human actions being considered. That is, the modelling and data collection associated with control room actions are addressed first in chapter 1 while actions outside the control room (including maintenance) are addressed in chapter 2. Both chapters 1 and 2 present a brief outline of the current status of HRA for these areas, and major outstanding issues. Chapter 3 discusses HPI. Such performance indicators can signal, at various levels, changes in factors which influence human performance. The final section of this report consists of papers presented by the participants of the Technical Committee Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel human body exergy consumption formula was derived strictly according to Gagge's two-node thermal transfer model. The human body exergy consumption calculated by the formula was compared with values calculated using Shukuya's formula for a typical office environment....... The results show that human body exergy consumption calculated by either of these formulas reaches a minimum under the same thermal condition. It is shown that this is in accordance with expectation. The relation between human performance and human body exergy consumption was studied by analyzing the data...... obtained in simulated office environments in winter. The results show that human body exergy consumption and human performance are inversely as operative temperature changes from 17 to 28°C or human thermal sensation changes from −1.0 to +1.4, and that optimum thermal comfort cannot be expected to lead...

  2. Stable iodine contents in human milk related to dietary algae consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1983-01-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate iodine contents in human milk with relation to dietary algae consumption by nursing women and to estimate stable iodine intake by breast-fed babies. The iodine contents in human milk collected from the Tokai-mura area showed a fairly wide variation ranging from 80 to 7,000 μg/l, though the highest frequency was around 150 μg/l. It was observed that high contents were closely related to the intake of tangle (Konbu), Laminariaceae, specifically tangle stock and/or tangle shavings (Tororokonbu) as soup. The temporal increase was followed by the rapid decrease when the mothers stopped taking the tangle stock and/or tangle shavings soup. It was observed that water-extractability of iodine from tangle was much higher than that from the other algae, and the water-extractable iodine was absorbable to the human body. (author)

  3. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  4. 78 FR 24692 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of January 16, 2013. We are taking this action in response... Consumption'' with a 120-day comment period on the provisions of the proposed rule and a 30-day comment period...

  5. "Not for human consumption": a review of emerging designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Megan E; Hampton, Jeremy P

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic, or "designer" drugs, are created by manipulating the chemical structures of other psychoactive drugs so that the resulting product is structurally similar but not identical to illegal psychoactive drugs. Originally developed in the 1960s as a way to evade existing drug laws, the use of designer drugs has increased dramatically over the past few years. These drugs are deceptively packaged as "research chemicals," "incense," "bath salts," or "plant food," among other names, with labels that may contain warnings such as "not for human consumption" or "not for sale to minors." The clinical effects of most new designer drugs can be described as either hallucinogenic, stimulant, or opioid-like. They may also have a combination of these effects due to designer side-chain substitutions. The easy accessibility and rapid emergence of new designer drugs have created challenges for health care providers when treating patients presenting with acute toxicity from these substances, many of which can produce significant and/or life-threatening adverse effects. Moreover, the health care provider has no way to verify the contents and/or potency of the agent ingested because it can vary between packages and distributors. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the available designer drugs, common signs and symptoms of toxicity associated with these agents, and potential effective treatment modalities are essential to appropriately manage these patients. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Experimental Energy Consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for Data Collection Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tuset-Peiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA and Distributed Queuing (DQ. We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  7. Experimental energy consumption of Frame Slotted ALOHA and Distributed Queuing for data collection scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

    2014-07-24

    Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA.

  8. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults—SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, w...

  9. [Ecosystem services supply and consumption and their relationships with human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.

  10. Smart Waste Collection System with Low Consumption LoRaWAN Nodes and Route Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Lozano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available New solutions for managing waste have emerged due to the rise of Smart Cities and the Internet of Things. These solutions can also be applied in rural environments, but they require the deployment of a low cost and low consumption sensor network which can be used by different applications. Wireless technologies such as LoRa and low consumption microcontrollers, such as the SAM L21 family make the implementation and deployment of this kind of sensor network possible. This paper introduces a waste monitoring and management platform used in rural environments. A prototype of a low consumption wireless node is developed to obtain measurements of the weight, filling volume and temperature of a waste container. This monitoring allows the progressive filling data of every town container to be gathered and analysed as well as creating alerts in case of incidence. The platform features a module for optimising waste collection routes. This module dynamically generates routes from data obtained through the deployed nodes to save energy, time and consequently, costs. It also features a mobile application for the collection fleet which guides every driver through the best route—previously calculated for each journey. This paper presents a case study performed in the region of Salamanca to evaluate the efficiency and the viability of the system’s implementation. Data used for this case study come from open data sources, the report of the Castilla y León waste management plan and data from public tender procedures in the region of Salamanca. The results of the case study show a developed node with a great lifetime of operation, a large coverage with small deployment of antennas in the region, and a route optimization system which uses weight and volume measured by the node, and provides savings in cost, time and workforce compared to a static collection route approach.

  11. Smart Waste Collection System with Low Consumption LoRaWAN Nodes and Route Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Álvaro; Caridad, Javier; De Paz, Juan Francisco; Villarrubia González, Gabriel; Bajo, Javier

    2018-05-08

    New solutions for managing waste have emerged due to the rise of Smart Cities and the Internet of Things. These solutions can also be applied in rural environments, but they require the deployment of a low cost and low consumption sensor network which can be used by different applications. Wireless technologies such as LoRa and low consumption microcontrollers, such as the SAM L21 family make the implementation and deployment of this kind of sensor network possible. This paper introduces a waste monitoring and management platform used in rural environments. A prototype of a low consumption wireless node is developed to obtain measurements of the weight, filling volume and temperature of a waste container. This monitoring allows the progressive filling data of every town container to be gathered and analysed as well as creating alerts in case of incidence. The platform features a module for optimising waste collection routes. This module dynamically generates routes from data obtained through the deployed nodes to save energy, time and consequently, costs. It also features a mobile application for the collection fleet which guides every driver through the best route—previously calculated for each journey. This paper presents a case study performed in the region of Salamanca to evaluate the efficiency and the viability of the system’s implementation. Data used for this case study come from open data sources, the report of the Castilla y León waste management plan and data from public tender procedures in the region of Salamanca. The results of the case study show a developed node with a great lifetime of operation, a large coverage with small deployment of antennas in the region, and a route optimization system which uses weight and volume measured by the node, and provides savings in cost, time and workforce compared to a static collection route approach.

  12. Acute Consumption of Flavan-3-ol-Enriched Dark Chocolate Affects Human Endogenous Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Philo, Mark; Colquhoun, Ian J; Tapp, Henri S; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; Kemsley, E Kate; de Roos, Baukje; Kroon, Paul A; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle

    2017-07-07

    Flavan-3-ols and methylxanthines have potential beneficial effects on human health including reducing cardiovascular risk. We performed a randomized controlled crossover intervention trial to assess the acute effects of consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark chocolate and white chocolate, on the human metabolome. We assessed the metabolome in urine and blood plasma samples collected before and at 2 and 6 h after consumption of chocolates in 42 healthy volunteers using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Plasma samples were assessed and showed differentiation between time points with no further separation among the three chocolate treatments. Multivariate statistics applied to urine samples could readily separate the postprandial time points and distinguish between the treatments. Most of the markers responsible for the multivariate discrimination between the chocolates were of dietary origin. Interestingly, small but significant level changes were also observed for a subset of endogenous metabolites. 1 H NMR revealed that flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and standard dark chocolate reduced urinary levels of creatinine, lactate, some amino acids, and related degradation products and increased the levels of pyruvate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, a phenolic compound of bacterial origin. This study demonstrates that an acute chocolate intervention can significantly affect human metabolism.

  13. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  14. Drinking water consumption patterns among adults-SMS as a novel tool for collection of repeated self-reported water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Toljander, Jonas; Mattisson, Irene; Åkesson, Agneta; Simonsson, Magnus

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that the average drinking water consumption ranges between 0.075 and 3 L/day for adults with both national and regional differences. For exposure assessment of drinking water hazards, country-specific drinking water consumption data including sources of the consumed water may therefore be warranted. To estimate the amount and source of drinking water consumed among adults in Sweden, we collected self-reported estimates using both traditional methods (telephone interviews, web questionnaire) and a novel method (Short Message Service, SMS questionnaires) in a population from an average sized Swedish municipality. Monthly SMS questionnaires were sent out during one year to obtain longitudinal information as well. SMS showed to be a promising tool for collecting self-reported consumption, as most citizens could participate and the method showed high response rate. Data collected via the SMS questionnaire shows an average consumption of cold tap water of 4.9 glasses/24 h (one glass=200 ml), while the average estimates of cold tap water collected by the traditional methods range from 4.5 to 7.0 glasses/24 h. For statistical distributions, the mean daily consumption of cold tap water for the population was best fitted to a gamma distribution. About 70% of the cold tap water is consumed at home. Based on the results from the SMS study, we suggest using 1 l/day for the average adult population and 2.5 l/day for high consumers for risk assessment of cold tap water consumption. As 46% of the tap water consumed is heated, we suggest using 1.85 l/day for total tap water consumption.

  15. Essential and toxic elements in seaweeds for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, D; Cantaluppi, C; Ceccotto, F; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Feduzi, L

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, and I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by energy-dispersive polarized x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in 14 seaweeds purchased in local specialty stores in Italy and consumed by humans. The differences in elements between the algae species reached up to 2-4 orders of magnitude. Lithothamnium calcareum showed the highest levels of Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Ti. Palmaria palmata showed the highest concentrations of K, Rb, and Cl. The highest content of S was in Chondrus crispus. Laminaria digitata contained the highest concentrations of total As, Cd, Sn, Br, and I. The highest concentration of Zn was in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Ulva lactuca displayed the highest levels of Cu, Ni, Mn, and Pb. Iodine levels ranged from 3.4 in Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 7316 mg/kg(dry) in Laminaria digitata. The nutrimental importance of essential elements was assessed using nutritional requirements. The results showed that the consumption of algae might serve as an important source of the essential elements. Health risk due to the toxic elements present in seaweed was estimated using risk estimators. Total As, Cd, and Pb concentrations ranged from <1 to 67.6, to 7.2 and to 6.7 mg/kg(dry) respectively; therefore, their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers, but the concentrations of these elements should be controlled to protect the consumer against potential adverse health risks.

  16. Economic Well-Being and Poverty Among the Elderly : An Analysis Based on a Collective Consumption Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2008-01-01

    We apply the collective consumption model of Browning, Chiappori and Lew- bel (2006) to analyse economic well-being and poverty among the elderly. The model focuses on individual preferences, a consumption technology that captures the economies of scale of living in a couple, and a sharing rule that

  17. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption outlet means any livestock feeder or manufacturer of inedible syrup, industrial alcohol, animal... FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961; 26 FR 8483, Sept. 9, 1961] Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 30613, May 27, 2005...

  18. Changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine: a human trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Muñoz-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of moderate consumption of red wine to modulate the intestinal inflammation response on healthy humans. Fecal samples from a human intervention study (n=34 were collected before and after consumption of red wine for 4 weeks, and 24 immune markers including immunoglobulins, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, were analysed. When considering the whole group of case volunteers, almost no statistically significant differences were found in the immune markers after wine consumption. However, a detailed exploration of the values differentiated a 6-volunteer subgroup that showed unusually high values of cytokines before wine consumption. For this subgroup, wine consumption significantly reduced the content of 16 out of 24 markers down to usual values, especially noticeable for cytokines related to the promotion of initial inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 6 and interferon-gamma. This study reveals, for the first time, changes in the fecal profile of inflammatory markers after moderate consumption of red wine.

  19. Declining trends in alcohol consumption among Swedish youth-does the theory of collectivity of drinking cultures apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Jonas; Livingston, Michael; Leifman, Håkan

    2014-11-01

    To analyse trends in alcohol consumption among young people in Sweden between 2004 and 2012, to test whether the theory of collectivity of drinking cultures is valid for a population of young people and to investigate the impact of an increasing proportion of abstainers on the overall per capita trends. Data were drawn from an annual survey of a nationally representative sample of students in year 11 (17-18 years old). The data covered 9 years and the total sample comprised 36,141 students. Changes in the overall per capita consumption were tested using linear regression on log-transformed data, and changes in abstention rates were tested using logistic regression. The analyses were then continued by calculating average consumption in deciles. Alcohol consumption among year 11 students declined significantly among both boys and girls between 2004 and 2012. These changes were reflected at all levels of consumption, and the same results were found when abstainers were excluded from the analyses. The increasing proportion of abstainers had a minimal effect on the overall decline in consumption; rather, this was driven by a decline in consumption among the heaviest drinkers. The theory of collectivity of drinking cultures seems valid for understanding changes in alcohol consumption among Swedish year 11 students. No support was found for a polarization of alcohol consumption in this nationally representative sample. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.T. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lee, T.K.M. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, K. [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 353, Yan-an Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310031 (China); Wong, H.L. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, J.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Giesy, J.P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lo, K.K.W. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yamashita, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), EMTECH, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Lam, P.K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhpksl@cityu.edu.hk

    2005-07-15

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China.

  1. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.T.; Lee, T.K.M.; Chen, K.; Wong, H.L.; Zheng, J.S.; Giesy, J.P.; Lo, K.K.W.; Yamashita, N.; Lam, P.K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  2. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  3. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabakoff, B.; Saba, L.; Printz, M.; Flodman, P.; Hodgkinson, C.; Goldman, D.; Koob, G.; Richardson, H.N.; Kechris, K.; Bell, R.L.; Hübner, N.; Heinig, M.; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, J.; Legault, L.; Dongier, M.; Conigrave, K.M.; Whitfield, J.B.; Saunders, J.; Grant, B.; Hoffman, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2009), s. 70-70 ISSN 1741-7007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : alcohol consumption * rat * gene expression profiles Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2009

  4. Rural Landscape, Production and Human Consumption: Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Ulf; Miliander, Sofia

    2006-01-01

    Production and consumption of food and in a rural area over the last 400 years were reconstructed for a parish in south east Sweden. This was based on a number of different data sources, including historical maps and official demographic and agricultural statistics. Changes in population (and thus consumption) and the production from arable land and livestock were calculated and used to provide an estimate of the area's supply and demand over time, and of the historical sustainability of the area. Overall food productivity was remarkably constant over time, at approximately 0.04 kgC/m 2 /y, despite recent changes in population size and the area of cultivated land. The empirical results from the past and the present, together with the future land changes due to shoreline displacement were used to predict the situation in the future. These final estimates can be used in the assessment of risk for exposure to contaminated food for the future population in the area

  5. Dietary proteins in humans: basic aspects and consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigoz, Yves

    2011-03-01

    This introductory review gives an overview on protein metabolism, and discusses protein quality, sources, and requirements as well as the results from recent studies on Swiss spontaneous protein consumption. To assess protein quality in protein mixes and foods, the "protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score" (PDCAAS) is presented as a valuable tool in addition to the biological value (BV). Considering protein intake recommendations, the lower limit recommended has been defined according to the minimal amount needed to maintain short-term nitrogen balance in healthy people with moderate activity. Evaluation of intakes in Switzerland from food consumption data is about 90 g/day of protein per person. Two-thirds of proteins consumed in Switzerland are animal proteins with high biological value [meat and meat products (28 %), milk and dairy products (28 %), fish (3 %), and eggs (3 %)] and about 1/3 of proteins are of plant origin (25 % of cereals, 3 - 4 % of vegetables). Actual spontaneous protein consumption in Switzerland by specific groups of subjects is well within the actual recommendations (10 - 20 % of energy) with only the frail elderly being at risk of not covering their requirements for protein.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED PERSONAL INTERVIEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION OF TRIBAL FISH CONSUMPTION DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Native Americans who consume seafood often have higher seafood consumption rates and consequently greater exposures to contaminants in seafood than the general U.S. population. Defensible and quantifiable tribal seafood consumption rates are needed for development of ...

  7. Effects of curcumin consumption on human chronic diseases: A narrative review of the most recent clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzorou, Maria; Pavlidou, Eleni; Vasios, George; Tsagalioti, Eftychia; Giaginis, Constantinos

    2018-06-01

    Numerous clinical trials have investigated the potential beneficial effects of curcumin supplementation against several human chronic diseases. Up to now, it has been claimed that curcumin consumption may exert beneficial effects against several chronic diseases by promoting human health and preventing diseases. In this aspect, the present review aims to critically collect and in-depth summarize the most recent, well-designed clinical studies evaluating the potential beneficial effects of curcumin consumption on human health promotion and disease prevention. According to recent and well-designed clinical studies, curcumin consumption may benefit against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Moreover, curcumin consumption seems to exert a positive effect on people suffering from various types of cancer, fatty liver disease, depression, arthritis, skin diseases, gut inflammation, and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Due to the strong heterogeneity among the clinical studies concerning the exact effective curcumin dose and formulation, as well as the recommended treatment duration for each chronic disease, no precise and definitive conclusions could be drawn. Further large-scale prospective studies are strongly recommended, being well-designed as far as follow-up times, dosage, formulation, and duration of curcumin supplementation are concerned. Moreover, potential confounders in each specific chronic disease should carefully be taken into account in future studies. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  9. Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Roof-Collected Rainwater in Urban Areas in Emergency Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Stewart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage and, once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples were analysed for E. coli, pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E. coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation’s health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.

  10. Health Hazards Associated with Consumption of Roof-Collected Rainwater in Urban Areas in Emergency Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Carol; Kim, Nick D; Johnston, David M; Nayyerloo, Mostafa

    2016-10-15

    The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage and, once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples were analysed for E. coli , pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E. coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation's health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.

  11. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  12. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  13. Prior acetaminophen consumption impacts the early adaptive cellular response of human skeletal muscle to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lugos, Andrew C; Patel, Shivam H; Ormsby, Jordan C; Curtis, Donald P; Fry, Christopher S; Carroll, Chad C; Dickinson, Jared M

    2018-04-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) is a powerful stimulus for skeletal muscle adaptation. Previous data demonstrate that cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting drugs alter the cellular mechanisms regulating the adaptive response of skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior consumption of the COX inhibitor acetaminophen (APAP) alters the immediate adaptive cellular response in human skeletal muscle after RE. In a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design, healthy young men ( n = 8, 25 ± 1 yr) performed two trials of unilateral knee extension RE (8 sets, 10 reps, 65% max strength). Subjects ingested either APAP (1,000 mg/6 h) or placebo (PLA) for 24 h before RE (final dose consumed immediately after RE). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were collected at rest and 1 h and 3 h after exercise. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 signaling was assessed through immunoblot and immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of myogenic genes was examined via RT-qPCR. At 1 h p-rpS6 Ser240/244 was increased in both groups but to a greater extent in PLA. At 3 h p-S6K1 Thr389 was elevated only in PLA. Furthermore, localization of mTOR to the lysosome (LAMP2) in myosin heavy chain (MHC) II fibers increased 3 h after exercise only in PLA. mTOR-LAMP2 colocalization in MHC I fibers was greater in PLA vs. APAP 1 h after exercise. Myostatin mRNA expression was reduced 1 h after exercise only in PLA. MYF6 mRNA expression was increased 1 h and 3 h after exercise only in APAP. APAP consumption appears to alter the early adaptive cellular response of skeletal muscle to RE. These findings further highlight the mechanisms through which COX-inhibiting drugs impact the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The extent to which the cellular reaction to acetaminophen impacts the mechanisms regulating the adaptive response of human skeletal muscle to resistance exercise is not well understood. Consumption of acetaminophen before

  14. Effects of moderate, voluntary ethanol consumption on the rat and human gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnicki, Kassi L; Penprase, Jerrold C; Cintora, Patricia; Torres, Pedro J; Harris, Greg L; Brasser, Susan M; Kelley, Scott T

    2018-05-11

    Many alcohol-induced health complications are directly attributable to the toxicity of alcohol or its metabolites, but another potential health impact of alcohol may be on the microbial communities of the human gut. Clear distinctions between healthy and diseased-state gut microbiota have been observed in subjects with metabolic diseases, and recent studies suggest that chronic alcoholism is linked to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Here, we investigated the effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption on the gut microbiome in both rats and humans. The gut microbiota of rats voluntarily consuming a 20 percent ethanol solution, on alternate days, were compared with a non-exposed control group to identify differential taxonomic and functional profiles. Gut microbial diversity profiles were determined using culture-independent amplification, next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence libraries. Our results showed that, compared with controls, ethanol-consuming rats experienced a significant decline in the biodiversity of their gut microbiomes, a state generally associated with dysbiosis. We also observed significant shifts in the overall diversity of the gut microbial communities and a dramatic change in the relative abundance of particular microbes, such as the Lactobacilli. We also compared our results to human fecal microbiome data collected as part of the citizen science American Gut Project. In contrast to the rat data, human drinkers had significantly higher gut microbial biodiversity than non-drinkers. However, we also observed that microbes that differed among the human subjects displayed similar trends in the rat model, including bacteria implicated in metabolic disease. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Consumption as investment: The theory of human capital and human capital as ethos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Javier López-Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the dilution of the conceptual border between “consumption” and “investment.” We argue that it is a key element for the understanding of capitalism in its current stage and the values guiding contemporary society. Some concepts created by Human Capital Theory – an economic theory from the 1960s – are widely viewed today as values that guide the behavior of individuals. This yields to a conceptual–axiological shift from consumption to investment that allows unusual forms of “delaying satisfaction by consuming now.” The diffuse area that is created between “consumption” and “investment” helps to understand how the Protestant work ethic is recreated as an “ethic of entrepreneurial work,” that is, of work understood in terms of “individual enterprise”.

  16. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0853] Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium... dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) as an antimicrobial agent for use in wash water for fruits and vegetables...

  17. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) has... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No. FDA-2010-F-0103] Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption...

  18. Variable ATP yields and uncoupling of oxygen consumption in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Aanerud, Joel; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    normalized the metabolic rate to the population average of that region. Coefficients of variation ranged from 10 to 15% in the different regions of the human brain and the normalized regional metabolic rates ranged from 70% to 140% of the population average for each region, equal to a two-fold variation......The distribution of brain oxidative metabolism values among healthy humans is astoundingly wide for a measure that reflects normal brain function and is known to change very little with most changes of brain function. It is possible that the part of the oxygen consumption rate that is coupled...... to ATP turnover is the same in all healthy human brains, with different degrees of uncoupling explaining the variability of total oxygen consumption among people. To test the hypothesis that about 75% of the average total oxygen consumption of human brains is common to all individuals, we determined...

  19. The suitability of locally produced milk for human consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic premise of this paper is that the supply of milk and milk products from the Guildford Dairy Institute (GDI) at Egerton University (EU) in Kenya decreased drastically over the recent past as a result of a nearly six-fold increase in the human population in the area. A drop of 40 % of milk production from the university ...

  20. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  1. Development of a computer-assisted personal interview software system for collection of tribal fish consumption data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Lon; Lorenzana, Roseanne; Mittl, Beth; Lasrado, Merwyn; Iwenofu, Samuel; Olivo, Vanessa; Helba, Cynthia; Capoeman, Pauline; Williams, Ann H

    2010-12-01

    The authors developed a computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) seafood consumption survey tool from existing Pacific NW Native American seafood consumption survey methodology. The software runs on readily available hardware and software, and is easily configured for different cultures and seafood resources. The CAPI is used with a booklet of harvest location maps and species and portion size images. The use of a CAPI facilitates tribal administration of seafood consumption surveys, allowing cost-effective collection of scientifically defensible data and tribal management of data and data interpretation. Use of tribal interviewers reduces potential bias and discomfort that may be associated with nontribal interviewers. The CAPI contains a 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire, and assesses seasonal seafood consumption and temporal changes in consumption. EPA's methodology for developing ambient water quality criteria for tribes assigns a high priority to local data. The CAPI will satisfy this guidance objective. Survey results will support development of tribal water quality standards on their lands and assessment of seafood consumption-related contaminant risks and nutritional benefits. CAPI advantages over paper surveys include complex question branching without raising respondent burden, more complete interviews due to answer error and range checking, data transcription error elimination, printing and mailing cost elimination, and improved data storage. The survey instrument was pilot tested among the Quinault Nation in 2006. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Assessing human error during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the assessment method of the hydrocarbon sample collection standard operation procedure (SOP) using THERP. The Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) from THERP analyzed and assessed the human errors during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of a petrochemical refinery plant. Twenty-two ...

  3. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  4. [Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in pig livers destined for human consumption in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Martínez, Marco Antonio; Roig-Sagués, Artur Xavier; Cedillo-Rosales, Sibilina; Zamora-Ávila, Diana Elisa; Avalos-Ramírez, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Molecular detection of HEV in pig livers destined for human consumption in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 87 livers were collected from pigs slaughtered in TIF and 40 livers from butchers. A 212 pb fragment of HEV ORF2 gene was amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR. 19.54% (17) of tif's and 22.5% (9) of butcher's livers were positive for HEV. Sequencing of the amplified products showed a 94%-95% homology with the sequences reported for genotype 3. Our results indicate that HEV is circulating in swine herds in the state, constituting a probable source of contamination of pig meat products.

  5. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  6. Consumption of Camembert cheese stimulates commensal enterococci in healthy human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmesse, Olivier; Rabot, Sylvie; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Corthier, Gérard; Furet, Jean-Pierre

    2007-11-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and the main Gram-positive and facultative anaerobic cocci recovered in human faeces. They are also present in a variety of fermented dairy and meat products, and some rare isolates are responsible for severe infections such as endocarditis and meningitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Camembert cheese consumption by healthy human volunteers on the faecal enterococcal population. A highly specific real-time quantitative PCR approach was designed and used to type enterococcal species in human faeces. Two species were found, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, and only the Enterococcus faecalis population was significantly enhanced after Camembert cheese consumption, whereas Escherichia coli population and the dominant microbiota remained unaffected throughout the trial.

  7. An investigation on the assessed thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2010-01-01

    perception of the indoor environment is rare. As the building should provide healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in the building and within the human body. A relatively new approach of the relation between the exergy concept and the built......-environment research has been explored in the present work. The relationship of subjectively assessed thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to the calculated human-body exergy consumption has been analysed. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate was related......The exergy concept helps to optimize indoor climate conditioning systems to meet the requirements of sustainable building design. While the exergy approach to design and operation of indoor climate conditioning systems is relatively well established, its exploitation in connection to human...

  8. Biosafety assessment of probiotics used for human consumption: recommendations from the EU-PROSAFE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankerckhoven, V.; Huys, G.; Vancanneyt, M.; Vael, C.; Klare, I.; Romond, M.B.; Entenza, J.M.; Moreillon, P.; Wind, R.D.; Knol, J.; Wiertz, E.; Pot, B.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kahlmeter, G.; Goossens, H.

    2008-01-01

    On June 26-27, 2006, 60 academic and industry scientists gathered during the PROSAFE workshop to discuss recommendations on taxonomy, antibiotic resistance, in vitro assessment of virulence and in vivo assessment of safety of probiotics used for human consumption. For identification of lactic acid

  9. Products used for treatment of water intended for human consumption - pyrolyzed coal material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-11

    This European Standard is applicable to pyrolyzed coal material used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics of pyrolyzed coal material and specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for pyrolyzed coal material. It gives information on its use in water treatment.

  10. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kasa R N; Farhana, Nazira I; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-05-01

    Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Seropositive pigs to Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae sent to slaughter and destined for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley M. de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Almdeida W., Miranda Z.B., Flausino W., Coelho C.D., Fonseca A.B.M. & Lopes C.W.G. [Seropositive pigs to Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae sent to slaughter and destined for human consumption.] Suínos sororreagentes a Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae enviados para abate e destinados ao consumo humano. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:397-400, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária - Higiene Veterinária e Processamento Tecnológico de Produtos de Origem Animal, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: wanderleyma@yahoo.com.br This study aimed to determine the frequency of pigs seropositive to Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay with cutoff 1:16. Of blood samples collected at slaughter, 250 of them were from animals raised in the State of Minas Gerais; while 181 were from the State of Rio de Janeiro with a total of 431 examined samples. Of these, 19/250 (4.41% of MG and 39/181 (9.04% of RJ, determining a total of 13.45% seropositive animals. Regardless of slaughter be under the control of the inspection service, the precedence of the animals was highly significant (p = 0.0001 in the number of seropositive animals. Although the percentage of seropositive animals to T. gondii from both regions studied in this work, and from the point of view of a public health problem, pork and its frescal type products may continue to be considered as a source of infection of this coccidia for humans, if they are consumed as raw or undercooked.

  12. Creating the tourist product in the opposition between self-actualization and collective consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    . By use of ethnographic fieldwork methodology, this exploratory study investigated a group of Danish charter tourists traveling to Gran Canaria. Results show that the charter tourists were active in navigating between central dichotomies posed by the consumption of a mass product in an individualized...

  13. Oxygen consumption rate and mitochondrial density in human melanoma monolayer cultures and multicellular spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, M E; Rofstad, E K

    1994-05-15

    Rate of oxygen consumption per cell has been shown in previous studies to decrease with increasing depth in the viable rim of multicellular spheroids initiated from rodent cells, human colon-carcinoma cells, and human glioma cells, due to progressive accumulation of quiescent cells during spheroid growth. The purpose of our work was to determine oxygen-consumption profiles in human melanoma spheroids. Monolayer cultures of 4 lines (BEX-c, COX-c, SAX-c, and WIX-c) and spheroid cultures of 2 lines (BEX-c and WIX-c) were subjected to investigation. Spheroids were initiated from monolayer cell cultures and grown in spinner flasks. Rate of oxygen consumption was measured with a Clarke-type electrode. Mitochondrial density was determined by stereological analysis of transmission electron micrographs. Thickness of viable rim and cell packing density were assessed by light microscopy of central spheroid sections. Cell-cycle distribution was determined by analysis of DNA histograms measured by flow cytometry. Cell volume was measured by an electronic particle counter. Rate of oxygen consumption per cell differed by a factor of approximately 1.8 between the 4 cell lines and was positively correlated to total volume of mitochondria per cell. Rate of oxygen consumption per cell and total volume of mitochondria per cell were equal for monolayer cell cultures, 600-microns spheroids and 1,200-microns spheroids of the same line. Mitochondrial density and location in the cell did not differ between cells at the spheroid surface, in the middle of the viable rim and adjacent to the central necrosis. Cell-cycle distribution, cell volume, and cell-packing density in the outer and inner halves of the viable rim were not significantly different. Consequently, the rate of oxygen consumption per cell in inner regions of the viable rim was probably equal to that at the spheroid surface, suggesting that oxygen diffusion distances may be shorter in some melanomas than in many other tumor

  14. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Rafat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap % was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0 and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24 by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002. In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

  15. Glucose consumption and rate constants for sup 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-06-01

    To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author).

  16. Glucose consumption and rate constants for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author)

  17. Buy, collect and stay fashionable: reflections on child consumption and the play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Theodoro Roveri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Toys and other consumption articles are offered to children with the objective of suggesting desires of possession, distinction and social belonging to them. Advertising tries to condition behaviors to the style of the product, causing boys and girls to face a mediatic universe ruled by idols and fashion stars. These, in turn, bring indications of femininity and masculinity when they transmit life styles and goods. This article chooses Barbie doll for a discussion about childhood trying to reflect about behavior and body patterns taught to children. The target is then to discuss ideals of consumption, femininity and pleasure introduced by that doll, one of the childhood icons of girls from all around the world.

  18. Assessing human exposure risk to cadmium through inhalation and seafood consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yun-Ru; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Trophically available fraction in seafood and bioaccessibility is linked. ► Human health risk to Cd can via inhalation and seafood consumption. ► Female had the higher Cd accumulation in urine and blood than male. ► Cigarette smoking is a major determinant of human Cd intake. - Abstract: The role of cadmium (Cd) bioaccessibility in risk assessment is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess human health risk to Cd through inhalation and seafood consumption by incorporating bioaccessibility. The relationships between trophically available Cd and bioaccessibility were constructed based on available experimental data. We estimated Cd concentrations in human urine and blood via daily intake from seafood consumption and inhalation based on a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. A Hill-based dose–response model was used to assess human renal dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease risks for long-term Cd exposure. Here we showed that fish had higher bioaccessibility (∼83.7%) than that of shellfish (∼73.2%) for human ingestion. Our results indicated that glomerular and tubular damage among different genders and smokers ranged from 18.03 to 18.18%. Our analysis showed that nonsmokers had 50% probability of peripheral arterial disease level exceeding from 3.28 to 8.80%. Smoking populations had 2–3 folds higher morbidity risk of peripheral arterial disease than those of nonsmokers. Our study concluded that the adverse effects of Cd exposure are exacerbated when high seafood consumption coincides with cigarette smoking. Our work provides a framework that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of Cd hazard.

  19. Strontium-90 content of human bone collected in 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.

    1969-01-01

    This report follows report CEA-R-3381 and presents the strontium 90 content of human bones collected in 1967 in the Paris area. The main trend is much the same as during 1966; contamination levels are falling down in infants up to 5 year old. Beyond this age, the values are the same or experience a slight increase. (authors) [fr

  20. Estimate of oxygen consumption and intracellular zinc concentration of human spermatozoa in relation to motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Ralf R; Defosse, Kerstin; Koyro, Hans-Wilhelm; Weissmann, Norbert; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the human sperm oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content in relation to motility. In washed spermatozoa from 67 ejaculates, the oxygen consumption was determined. Following calculation of the total oxygen consumed by the Ideal Gas Law, the energy consumption of spermatozoa was calculated. In addition, the zinc content of the sperm was determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The resulting data were correlated to the vitality and motility. The oxygen consumption averaged 0.24 micromol/10(6) sperm x 24h, 0.28 micromol/10(6) live sperm x 24h and 0.85 micromol/10(6) live motile sperm x 24h. Further calculations revealed that sperm motility was the most energy consuming process (164.31 mJ/10(6) motile spermatozoa x 24h), while the oxygen consumption of the total spermatozoa was 46.06 mJ/10(6) spermatozoa x 24h. The correlation of the oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content with motility showed significant negative correlations (r= -0.759; P<0.0001 and r=-0.441; P<0.0001, respectively). However, when correlating sperm energy consumption with the zinc content, a significant positive relation (r=0.323; P=0.01) was observed. Poorly motile sperm are actually wasting the available energy. Moreover, our data clearly support the "Geometric Clutch Model" of the axoneme function and demonstrate the importance of the outer dense fibers for the generation of sperm motility, especially progressive motility.

  1. Effect of selective blockade of oxygen consumption, glucose transport, and Ca2+ influx on thyroxine action in human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    The effect of selective blockade of cellular glucose transporters, Ca2+ influx, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption on thyroxine (T4)-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake was examined in human mononuclear blood cells. Blockade of glucose transporters by cytochalasin B (1 x 10(-5) mol....../L) and of Ca2+ influx by alprenolol (1 x 10(-5) mol/L) and verapamil (4 x 10(-4) mol/L) inhibited T4-activated glucose uptaken and reduced T4-stimulated oxygen consumption by 20%. Uncoupling of mitochondrial oxygen consumption by azide (1 x 10(-3) mol/L) inhibited T4-stimulated oxygen consumption, but had...... no effect on glucose uptake. We conclude that T4-stimulated glucose uptake in human mononuclear blood cells is dependent on intact glucose transporters and Ca2+ influx, but not on mitochondrial oxygen consumption. However, oxygen consumption is, in part, dependent on intact glucose uptake....

  2. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  3. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  4. Human rhinovirus in experimental infection after peroral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG consumption, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiovaara, Laura; Kumpu, Minna; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Waris, Matti; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne; Winther, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    Data has emerged on possible beneficial effects of probiotics in respiratory tract viral infections, but it is unclear if the promising positive effects evidenced are due to a reduced viral load during infections. The aims of this work were to investigate the effect of peroral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC], Accession No. 53103) consumption on human rhinovirus (HRV) load in nasopharyngeal lavage samples in experimental HRV infection, and to correlate viral load to clinical symptoms. Intranasal HRV A39 inoculation was performed on 59 adults, who had consumed juice enriched with live or heat-inactivated L. rhamnosus GG or control juice for 3 weeks prior to inoculation in a randomized, controlled, pilot trial setting. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples and symptom data were analyzed on day 0 before inoculation, and on days 2 and 5. Samples were subjected to quantitative HRV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Before inoculation 9 of 59 (15%) samples presented with another HRV strain than the studied A39. There was a tendency toward the lowest HRV loads in the L. rhamnosus GG groups and the highest in placebo group (log10 copies/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20 [5.18 to 7.40] in live, 6.30 [4.91 to 7.08] in inactivated L. rhamnosus GG, and 7.25 [5.81 to 7.52] in placebo group, p = 0.57 in day 2) in the wild-type excluded population. The HRV load positively correlated with the symptom scores on days 2 and 5 (correlation coefficient 0.61 [p rhamnosus GG when compared to placebo. HRV load positively correlated with the total symptom scores. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  5. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Cristiane; Franco, Fernanda Wouters; Machado, Eduarda da Rosa; Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Quatrin, Andréia; Ramos, Vitor de Miranda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler; Penna, Neidi Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  6. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Copetti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes (Vitis labrusca in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays. Furthermore, juice inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  7. OBTENTION OF RAW FIBER FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION DERIVED OF ROASTED PEEL CACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Eduardo Perilla Ortiz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present a possible use of roasted cocoa hulls, which currently represents an industrial surplus in the grain processing industries, and is sold with companies that produce concentrates for animals. On daily processing plants will produce about 4 tons of roasted cocoa peel, this would be a great source to produce fiber for human consumption. The present investigation was consist in obtaining raw fiber from roasted cocoa peel, and through specific laboratory tests to assess their possible use for human consumption, thus able to incorporate this product into the production process. In relation to the environment, minimize the impact of the production process, because it would be taking advantage of a normal by product of production, which elsewhere is a waste that could be coming to the landfill, creating a burden on the soil resource and that despite biodegradable, while decomposition is classified as a contaminant of this medium.

  8. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  9. Neuroimmune Pathways in Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Behavioral and Genetic Studies in Rodents and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gizelle; Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    Immune or brain proinflammatory signaling has been linked to some of the behavioral effects of alcohol. Immune signaling appears to regulate voluntary ethanol intake in rodent models, and ethanol intake activates the immune system in multiple models. This bidirectional link raises the possibility that consumption increases immune signaling, which in turn further increases consumption in a feed-forward cycle. Data from animal and human studies provide overlapping support for the involvement of immune-related genes and proteins in alcohol action, and combining animal and human data is a promising approach to systematically evaluate and nominate relevant pathways. Based on rodent models, neuroimmune pathways may represent unexplored, nontraditional targets for medication development to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent relapse. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are one class of anti-inflammatory medications that demonstrate antiaddictive properties for alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Expression of immune-related genes is altered in animals and humans following chronic alcohol exposure, and the regulatory influences of specific mRNAs, microRNAs, and activated cell types are areas of intense study. Ultimately, the use of multiple datasets combined with behavioral validation will be needed to link specific neuroimmune pathways to addiction vulnerability. PMID:25175860

  10. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  11. Delay times between harvesting or collection of food products and consumption for use in radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A L; Sherwood, J C

    2009-01-01

    From a radiological protection point of view, the inclusion of delay times when carrying out assessments of dose from consumption of foods should be considered. A review of delay times has been carried out to update a report published in 1983, to take account of changes and modernisations in industrial food processes, together with changes in diet and popularity of different foods in the United Kingdom. The new review considered more foods and data for existing foods have been reconsidered to check whether manufacturing processes or procedures have changed the shelf-life of any products. For some foods there have been changes made to the recommended delay times because of changes in manufacture or handling of the fresh foodstuff. A discussion is also included on the appropriate use of delay times in dose assessments.

  12. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Portable data collection terminal in the automated power consumption measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vologdin, S. V.; Shushkov, I. D.; Bysygin, E. K.

    2018-01-01

    Aim of efficiency increasing, automation process of electric energy data collection and processing is very important at present time. High cost of classic electric energy billing systems prevent from its mass application. Udmurtenergo Branch of IDGC of Center and Volga Region developed electronic automated system called “Mobile Energy Billing” based on data collection terminals. System joins electronic components based on service-oriented architecture, WCF services. At present time all parts of Udmurtenergo Branch electric network are connected to “Mobile Energy Billing” project. System capabilities are expanded due to flexible architecture.

  14. Energy consumption habits and human health nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Imran

    2018-05-22

    This study explores the impact of fossil fuels consumption, solid fuels consumption for cooking purposes, economic growth, and carbon emissions on human health, with a key emphasis on the occurrence of tuberculosis and the high mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. For its practical insights, the study develops a system Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) for a panel of 34 middle- and lower-middle-income countries from 1995 to 2015. The study adopts a flexible methodology to tackle endogeneity in the variables. The robust results report that the use of solid fuels (charcoal, peat, wood, wood pellets, crop residues) for cooking purposes and the consumption of fossil fuels (oil, coal, gas) are significantly increasing the occurrence of tuberculosis. In addition, the results highlight that the consumption of both solid fuels and fossil fuels has adverse affects on life expectancy by increasing the mortality rate in Sub-Saharan African countries. Results report that renewable energy sources like sun, wind, and water (all with potential to prevent households from direct exposure to particulate matters and harmful gases) as well as a rise in economic growth serve as helping factors to control the occurrence of tuberculosis and to decrease the mortality rate. Moreover, the use of renewable energy sources is serving to lessen emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, and particulate matters, which can ultimately decrease the mortality rate and extend the life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as UN population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth-Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth-Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  16. Modeling Sustainability: Population, Inequality, Consumption, and Bidirectional Coupling of the Earth and Human Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motesharrei, Safa; Rivas, Jorge; Kalnay, Eugenia; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Cahalan, Robert F.; Cane, Mark A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Feng, Kuishuang; Franklin, Rachel S.; Hubacek, Klaus; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Ruth, Matthias; Sagdeev, Roald; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Shukla, Jagadish; Srebric, Jelena; Yakovenko, Victor M.; Zeng, Ning

    2016-12-11

    Over the last two centuries, the impact of the Human System has grown dramatically, becoming strongly dominant within the Earth System in many different ways. Consumption, inequality, and population have increased extremely fast, especially since about 1950, threatening to overwhelm the many critical functions and ecosystems of the Earth System. Changes in the Earth System, in turn, have important feedback effects on the Human System, with costly and potentially serious consequences. However, current models do not incorporate these critical feedbacks. We argue that in order to understand the dynamics of either system, Earth System Models must be coupled with Human System Models through bidirectional couplings representing the positive, negative, and delayed feedbacks that exist in the real systems. In particular, key Human System variables, such as demographics, inequality, economic growth, and migration, are not coupled with the Earth System but are instead driven by exogenous estimates, such as United Nations population projections. This makes current models likely to miss important feedbacks in the real Earth–Human system, especially those that may result in unexpected or counterintuitive outcomes, and thus requiring different policy interventions from current models. The importance and imminence of sustainability challenges, the dominant role of the Human System in the Earth System, and the essential roles the Earth System plays for the Human System, all call for collaboration of natural scientists, social scientists, and engineers in multidisciplinary research and modeling to develop coupled Earth–Human system models for devising effective science-based policies and measures to benefit current and future generations.

  17. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Human Trichinellosis Caused by Consumption of Pork Meat Sausages in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, G J; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S; Signorini, M L

    2016-03-01

    In Argentina, there are three known species of genus Trichinella; however, Trichinella spiralis is most commonly associated with domestic pigs and it is recognized as the main cause of human trichinellosis by the consumption of products made with raw or insufficiently cooked pork meat. In some areas of Argentina, this disease is endemic and it is thus necessary to develop a more effective programme of prevention and control. Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment of human trichinellosis following pork meat sausage consumption, which may be used to identify the stages with greater impact on the probability of acquiring the disease. The quantitative model was designed to describe the conditions in which the meat is produced, processed, transported, stored, sold and consumed in Argentina. The model predicted a risk of human trichinellosis of 4.88 × 10(-6) and an estimated annual number of trichinellosis cases of 109. The risk of human trichinellosis was sensitive to the number of Trichinella larvae that effectively survived the storage period (r = 0.89), the average probability of infection (PPinf ) (r = 0.44) and the storage time (Storage) (r = 0.08). This model allowed assessing the impact of different factors influencing the risk of acquiring trichinellosis. The model may thus help to select possible strategies to reduce the risk in the chain of by-products of pork production. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effect of remifentanil on mitochondrial oxygen consumption of cultured human hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Djafarzadeh

    Full Text Available During sepsis, liver dysfunction is common, and failure of mitochondria to effectively couple oxygen consumption with energy production has been described. In addition to sepsis, pharmacological agents used to treat septic patients may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. This study addressed the hypothesis that remifentanil interacts with hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption. The human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and their isolated mitochondria were exposed to remifentanil, with or without further exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was measured by high-resolution respirometry, Caspase-3 protein levels by Western blotting, and cytokine levels by ELISA. Inhibitory κBα (IκBα phosphorylation, measurement of the cellular ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells were analysed using commercial ELISA kits. Maximal cellular respiration increased after one hour of incubation with remifentanil, and phosphorylation of IκBα occurred, denoting stimulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. The effect on cellular respiration was not present at 2, 4, 8 or 16 hours of incubation. Remifentanil increased the isolated mitochondrial respiratory control ratio of complex-I-dependent respiration without interfering with maximal respiration. Preincubation with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone prevented a remifentanil-induced increase in cellular respiration. Remifentanil at 10× higher concentrations than therapeutic reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content without uncoupling oxygen consumption and basal respiration levels. TNF-α exposure reduced respiration of complex-I, -II and -IV, an effect which was prevented by prior remifentanil incubation. Furthermore, prior remifentanil incubation prevented TNF-α-induced IL-6 release of HepG2 cells, and attenuated fragmentation of pro-caspase-3 into cleaved active caspase 3 (an early marker of apoptosis. Our data suggest that

  19. Central and Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Consumption: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Stoianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, and its role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome has been implicated by many studies. It is most often encountered in the diet as sucrose (glucose and fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (55% fructose. At high levels, dietary exposure to fructose triggers a series of metabolic changes originating in the liver, leading to hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and decreased leptin sensitivity. Fructose has been identified to alter biological pathways in other tissues including the central nervous system (CNS, adipose tissue, and the gastrointestinal system. Unlike glucose, consumption of fructose produces smaller increases in the circulating satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, and does not attenuate levels of the appetite suppressing hormone ghrelin. In the brain, fructose contributes to increased food consumption by activating appetite and reward pathways, and stimulating hypothalamic AMPK activity, a nutrient-sensitive regulator of food intake. Recent studies investigating the neurophysiological factors linking fructose consumption and weight gain in humans have demonstrated differential activation of brain regions that govern appetite, motivation and reward processing. Compared to fructose, glucose ingestion produces a greater reduction of hypothalamic neuronal activity, and increases functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and other reward regions of the brain, indicating that these two sugars regulate feeding behavior through distinct neural circuits. This review article outlines the current findings in fructose-feeding studies in both human and animal models, and discusses the central effects on the CNS that may lead to increased appetite and food intake. Keywords: Fructose, Metabolic syndrome, Appetite, Central nervous system

  20. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2018-02-01

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo ) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Sandra C. [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gauthier, Marie-Soleil [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02140 (United States); Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper [Cardiovascular and Metabolism Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dole, William P., E-mail: bill.dole@novartis.com [Translational Sciences - Translational Medicine, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc., 220 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). {yields} ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. {yields} ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. {yields} Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNF{alpha}) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and

  2. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates lipid mobilization and oxygen consumption in human adipocytes by activating AMPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Sandra C.; Chau, Mary D.L.; Yang, Qing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Clairmont, Kevin B.; Wu, Zhidan; Gromada, Jesper; Dole, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment of differentiated human adipocytes with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increased lipolysis and oxygen consumption by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). → ANP stimulated lipid mobilization by selective activation of the alpha2 subunit of AMPK and increased energy utilization through activation of both the alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK. → ANP enhanced adipocyte mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by induction of oxidative mitochondrial genes and increase in oxygen consumption. → Exposure of human adipocytes to fatty acids and (TNFα) induced insulin resistance and decreased expression of mitochondrial genes which was restored to normal by ANP. -- Abstract: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism providing a possible link between cardiovascular function and metabolism by mediating the switch from carbohydrate to lipid mobilization and oxidation. ANP exerts a potent lipolytic effect via cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-I mediated-stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the ANP/cGK signaling cascade also promotes muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation. Here we demonstrate that ANP regulates lipid metabolism and oxygen utilization in differentiated human adipocytes by activating the alpha2 subunit of AMPK. ANP treatment increased lipolysis by seven fold and oxygen consumption by two fold, both of which were attenuated by inhibition of AMPK activity. ANP-induced lipolysis was shown to be mediated by the alpha2 subunit of AMPK as introduction of dominant-negative alpha2 subunit of AMPK attenuated ANP effects on lipolysis. ANP-induced activation of AMPK enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity as evidenced by a two fold increase in oxygen consumption and induction of mitochondrial genes, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1a) by 1.4-fold, cytochrome C (CytC) by 1.3-fold, and peroxisome proliferator

  3. Fate and effects of Camembert cheese micro-organisms in the human colonic microbiota of healthy volunteers after regular Camembert consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmesse, Olivier; Alvaro, Elise; Mogenet, Agnès; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Lemée, Riwanon; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bonhomme, Cécile; Lambert, Denis; Andrieux, Claude; Doré, Joël; Corthier, Gérard; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to determine i) if Camembert cheese micro-organisms could be detected in fecal samples after regular consumption by human subjects and ii) the consequence of this consumption on global metabolic activities of the host colonic microbiota. An open human protocol was designed where 12 healthy volunteers were included: a 2-week period of fermented products exclusion followed by a 4-weeks Camembert ingestion period where 2x40 g/day of Camembert cheese was consumed. Stools were collected from the volunteers before consumption, twice during the ingestion period (2nd and 4th week) and once after a wash out period of 2 weeks. During the consumption of Camembert cheese, high levels of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were measured in fecal samples using real-time quantitative PCR, reaching median values of 8.2 and 7.5 Log(10) genome equivalents/g of stool. For Ln. mesenteroides, persistence was observed 15 days after the end of Camembert consumption. The survival of Geotrichum candidum was also assessed and the fecal concentration reached a median level of 7.1 Log(10) CFU/g in stools. Except a decreasing trend of the nitrate reductase activity, no significant modification was shown in the metabolic activities during this study.

  4. DNA typing of Calliphorids collected from human corpses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    Estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI) is crucial for time of death determination. The advent of DNA-based identification techniques forensic entomology saw the beginning of a proliferation of molecular studies into forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera). The use of DNA to characterise morphologically indistinguishable immature calliphorids was recognised as a valuable molecular tool with enormous practical utility. The local entomofauna in most cases is important for the examination of entomological evidences. The survey of the local entomofauna has become a fundamental first step in forensic entomological studies, because different geographical distributions, seasonal and environmental factors may influence the decomposition process and the occurrence of different insect species on corpses. In this study, calliphorids were collected from 13 human corpses recovered from indoors, outdoors and aquatic conditions during the post-mortem examination by pathologists from the government hospitals in Malaysia. Only two species, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies were recovered from human corpses. DNA sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial encoded COI gene and to evaluate the suitability of the 1300 base pairs of COI fragments for identification of blow fly species collected from real crime scene. The COI gene from blow fly specimens were sequenced and deposited in GenBank to expand local databases. The sequenced COI gene was useful in identifying calliphorids retrieved from human corpses.

  5. [Quality of water for human consumption and its association with morbimortality in Colombia, 2008-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Blanca Lisseth; Nava, Gerardo; Díaz, Paula

    2015-08-01

    The quality of water for human consumption has been correlated with the occurrence of different diseases. Studying the relationship between these parameters would allow determining the impact of water quality on human health, and to direct preventative measures and promote environmental health. To analyze the quality of water intended for human consumption and its association with morbimortality in Colombia, 2008-2012. The database for surveillance of water quality was analyzed by means of descriptive statistics of the principal indicators (total coliforms, Escherichia coli , turbidity, color, pH, free residual chlorine and water quality risk index). The results were correlated with infant mortality and morbidity due to acute diarrheal diseases, foodborne diseases and hepatitis A. A risk map was prepared to identify those municipalities with the highest risk of water contamination and infant mortality. A high percentage of municipalities did not conform to existing standards for water potability values. Problems were identified that were related to presence of E. coli and total coliforms, as well as absence of free residual chlorine, a situation that was exacerbated in rural areas. Water quality showed a high correlation with infant mortality, highlighting its importance for children's health. Water quality was found to have an important impact on infant mortality. Improving water quality in Colombia will require policies that strengthen water supply systems in this country. Strengthening of environmental health surveillance programs is essential to guide actions aimed at improving water quality and exert a positive impact on health.

  6. Screening of pharmaceuticals and hormones at the regional scale, in surface and groundwaters intended to human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Cren-Olive, Cecile [Institut des Sciences Analytiques - UMR5280, Departement Service Central d' Analyse, Echangeur de Solaize, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2011-10-15

    As part of a regional screening to evaluate the risk, for the health of populations, to certain classes of emerging substances, several families of pharmaceuticals and hormones were looked for in waters intended to drinking. Thus, 52 substances were investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. Results indicate that no water was free of pollutants, regardless of its origin (surface or groundwater) and the season of collect. The pharmaceuticals most frequently detected and with the highest concentration levels were salicylic acid, carbamazepine and acetaminophen. Among hormones, testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were detected in almost all the samples. Globally the groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals frequencies and levels. On the other side, androgens and progestagens were present with comparable frequencies and levels in both compartments. The risk linked to the presence of these substances on human health is discussed. - Highlights: > Traces of 52 substances investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. > No water was free of pollutants, whatever its origin and the season of collect. > Globally groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals. > Hormones were present with comparable frequencies and levels in two compartments. - 52 pharmaceuticals and hormones investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters intended to human consumption.

  7. Screening of pharmaceuticals and hormones at the regional scale, in surface and groundwaters intended to human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle; Cren-Olive, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    As part of a regional screening to evaluate the risk, for the health of populations, to certain classes of emerging substances, several families of pharmaceuticals and hormones were looked for in waters intended to drinking. Thus, 52 substances were investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. Results indicate that no water was free of pollutants, regardless of its origin (surface or groundwater) and the season of collect. The pharmaceuticals most frequently detected and with the highest concentration levels were salicylic acid, carbamazepine and acetaminophen. Among hormones, testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were detected in almost all the samples. Globally the groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals frequencies and levels. On the other side, androgens and progestagens were present with comparable frequencies and levels in both compartments. The risk linked to the presence of these substances on human health is discussed. - Highlights: → Traces of 52 substances investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters. → No water was free of pollutants, whatever its origin and the season of collect. → Globally groundwaters were less contaminated than surface waters in regards pharmaceuticals. → Hormones were present with comparable frequencies and levels in two compartments. - 52 pharmaceuticals and hormones investigated in 71 surface waters and 70 groundwaters intended to human consumption.

  8. Human milk consumption and full enteral feeding among infants who weigh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Gruber, Kenneth J; Dillard, Robert G; O'Shea, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    Establishing enteral feeding is an important goal in the care of very low birth weight infants. In such infants, receipt of >/=50 mL/kg per day human milk during hospitalization has been associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to determine whether high proportions (>/=50%) of human milk during feeding advancement are associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding and improved feeding tolerance. This was a prospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (n = 127) who were grouped into low (/=50%; n = 93) human milk consumption groups according to their human milk proportion of enteral feeding during the time of feeding advancement. The primary outcomes of interest were ages at which 100 and 150 mL/kg per day enteral feedings were achieved. The high human milk group reached 100 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 4.5 days faster than the low human milk group. The high human milk group reached 150 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 5 days faster than the low human milk group. After adjustment for gestational age, gender, and respiratory distress syndrome, times to reach 100 and 150 mL/kg per day were significantly shorter for those in the high human milk group. Infants in the high human milk group had a greater number of stools per day; other indicators of feeding tolerance were not statistically different. In infants who weighed milk was associated with fewer days to full enteral feedings.

  9. Effects of vasopressin on the isolated perfused human collecting tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, N; Trizna, W; Bar-Khayim, Y; Fine, L G

    1981-05-01

    Cortical collecting tubules (CCT) were dissected from the surviving normal tissue of human kidneys removed at operation for either carcinoma or calculus. These CCT's were perfused in vitro shortly after the nephrectomy was performed. Transtubular potential differences in different tubules varied from +3.2 to -2.0 mV and were reduced towards zero by lowering the temperature or by adding ouabain to the bath. In the absence of vasopressin, tubules were essentially impermeable to water with extremely low net water fluxes even in the presence of a transtubular osmotic gradient. Addition of vasopressin to the bath caused the transtubular osmotic water permeability coefficient to increase to values of 125, 175, and 155 X 10(-4) cm/sec in three tubules thus studied. These results demonstrate close similarities between the human CCT and the more extensively studied rabbit CCT.

  10. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashrura Musharraf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article “Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique” (Musharraf et al., 2017 [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1 G1: high level training and 2 G2: low level training. Participants’ performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  11. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Mashrura; Smith, Jennifer; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; MacKinnon, Scott

    2017-12-01

    This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article "Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique" (Musharraf et al., 2017) [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1) G1: high level training and 2) G2: low level training. Participants' performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  12. Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

  13. Air-conditioning in the 21st century: impact on human productivity and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...... environment on human productivity, health and comfort. The principles of excellence can be provided with moderate energy consumption. But the success of excellent indoor environments will increase the demand for improvement globally and the required energy supply will provide a challenge for the world...

  14. Potential risk assessment of metals in edible fish species for human consumption from the Eastern Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazi, Idil; Gonul, L Tolga; Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Avaz, Gulsen; Tolun, Leyla; Unluoglu, Aydın; Karaaslan, Yakup; Gucver, S Mine; Koc Orhon, Aybala; Siltu, Esra; Olmez, Gulnur

    2017-07-15

    The levels of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn were measured in the tissues of four edible fish species namely: Diplodus annularis, Pagellus erythrinus, Merluccius merluccius and Mullus barbatus, collected from the Turkish Coast of the Aegean Sea. Except for D. annularis, the levels of Cd and Pb in all fish tissues sampled in Aliaga Bay in 2009 were above the tolerable limits according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Hg in P. erythrinus and M. barbatus were higher than the maximum permitted limits (FAO), while D. annularis and M. merluccius were lower than the limit for biota in the district of Aliaga. Although the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values for Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn in all fish samples were lower than 1.0, the THQ for Hg levels were higher than 1.0 for most of the samples. According to the THQ values, M. merluccius may be consumed in moderation from Aliaga Bay, while the consumption of M. barbatus and P. erythrinus collected from Aliaga Bay are potentially hazardous to human health due to the Hg concentrations. Fish collected from Izmir Bay can be consumed safely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p FMD (p FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  16. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrelli, Damiano; Rosi, Fabia

    2014-07-23

    In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower ( p raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower ( p pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower ( p milk. Leptin was correlated ( p milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT) is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  17. Effect of Technological Treatments on Human-Like Leptin Level in Bovine Milk for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, raw milk and commercially available full-cream UHT milk, semi-skimmed UHT milk, skimmed UHT milk, full-cream pasteurized milk, semi-skimmed pasteurized milk and infant formulas for babies between 6 and 12 months of age were analyzed by RIA, with a method using an antibody directed against human leptin and human leptin as reference standard. Raw milk and full-cream UHT milk did not differ for human-like leptin. Leptin content of full-cream pasteurized milk was not different to that of full-cream UHT milk, but it was 14% lower (p < 0.05 than that observed in raw milk. Human-like leptin level of semi-skimmed UHT milk was not different to that of semi-skimmed pasteurized milk, but it was 30% lower (p < 0.0001 than those of full-cream UHT and full-cream pasteurized milks. In skimmed UHT milk, leptin was 40% lower (p < 0.0001 than in full-cream UHT milk. Leptin was correlated (p < 0.001 with lipid content. Leptin level of infant formulas was not different to that of skimmed milks. Results suggest that the heat treatment (pasteurization or UHT is not a modifier of human-like leptin content of edible commercial bovine milks, whereas the skimming process significantly reduces milk leptin level.

  18. Local flow regulation and irrigation raise global human water consumption and footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Fernando; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-12-04

    Flow regulation and irrigation alter local freshwater conditions, but their global effects are highly uncertain. We investigated these global effects from 1901 to 2008, using hydroclimatic observations in 100 large hydrological basins. Globally, we find consistent and dominant effects of increasing relative evapotranspiration from both activities, and decreasing temporal runoff variability from flow regulation. The evapotranspiration effect increases the long-term average human consumption of fresh water by 3563 ± 979 km(3)/year from 1901-1954 to 1955-2008. This increase raises a recent estimate of the current global water footprint of humanity by around 18%, to 10,688 ± 979 km(3)/year. The results highlight the global impact of local water-use activities and call for their relevant account in Earth system modeling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. The ecologic products and the importance of their consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanța Sîrbu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to analyze the perception of young people regarding the ecologic products, their consumption and implicitly the awareness of their effect on the human health. The geographic area where we realized the study wasTimisoaraby distributing a questionnaire in different places: universities, super-markets, mall. After analyzing the results, we noticed that 80% of the young people consider that the food is very important for a healthy life. The majority of the young people questioned, even knowing the characteristics of the bio products, consumed fruits and vegetables bought from stores specialized in ecologic products. From our study, we can say that the young people are interested in the ecologic products sold inTimisoaraand they are aware about their impact on the human health.

  20. Variation in consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated strains of Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Totten, Sarah M; Garrido, Daniel A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2013-10-01

    Human milk contains a high concentration of complex oligosaccharides that influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in breast-fed infants. Previous studies have indicated that select species such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum can utilize human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) in vitro as the sole carbon source, while the relatively few B. longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium breve isolates tested appear less adapted to these substrates. Considering the high frequency at which B. breve is isolated from breast-fed infant feces, we postulated that some B. breve strains can more vigorously consume HMO and thus are enriched in the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract. To examine this, a number of B. breve isolates from breast-fed infant feces were characterized for the presence of different glycosyl hydrolases that participate in HMO utilization, as well as by their ability to grow on HMO or specific HMO species such as lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and fucosyllactose. All B. breve strains showed high levels of growth on LNT and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), and, in general, growth on total HMO was moderate for most of the strains, with several strain differences. Growth and consumption of fucosylated HMO were strain dependent, mostly in isolates possessing a glycosyl hydrolase family 29 α-fucosidase. Glycoprofiling of the spent supernatant after HMO fermentation by select strains revealed that all B. breve strains can utilize sialylated HMO to a certain extent, especially sialyl-lacto-N-tetraose. Interestingly, this specific oligosaccharide was depleted before neutral LNT by strain SC95. In aggregate, this work indicates that the HMO consumption phenotype in B. breve is variable; however, some strains display specific adaptations to these substrates, enabling more vigorous consumption of fucosylated and sialylated HMO. These results provide a rationale for the predominance of this species in breast-fed infant feces and

  1. Consideration of insects as a source of dietary protein for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Pinckaers, Philippe J M; van Loon, Joop J A; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of sufficient dietary protein is fundamental to muscle mass maintenance and overall health. Conventional animal-based protein sources such as meat (ie, beef, pork, lamb), poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy are generally considered high-quality sources of dietary protein because they meet all of the indispensable amino-acid requirements for humans and are highly digestible. However, the production of sufficient amounts of conventional animal-based protein to meet future global food demands represents a challenge. Edible insects have recently been proposed as an alternative source of dietary protein that may be produced on a more viable and sustainable commercial scale and, as such, may contribute to ensuring global food security. This review evaluates the protein content, amino-acid composition, and digestibility of edible insects and considers their proposed quality and potential as an alternative protein source for human consumption. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  3. Assisted selection in the improvement of soy for human consumption in the State of Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristoteles Capone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy in human food has several health benefits, but finds resistance to its consumption by the western ones due to the flavor caused by the lipoxygenases enzymes. The objective of this study was to select soybean TN (Triple Null hybrids in a population of the fourth self-fertilization cycle (F4 using techniques that use molecular markers. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the Federal University of Tocantins Campus Gurupi - TO. Hybridizations between soybean progenitors adapted to Tocantins and TN were performed. Obtained the F1 population in the greenhouse, F2, F3 and F4 were planted in the field, in the F4 generation was selection of superior hybrid for DNA analysis in order to identify hybrids with the trait complete absence of Lox2 and 3. We selected one hundred seventy-one hybrid, made up of DNA extraction and PCR of all. It was concluded that the highest percentage of TN hybrids was obtained at the intersection BRSMG 790A (TN X GB874. Lox2 and Lox3 amplification primers confirmed as an essential tool in a soybean breeding program for human consumption. We selected 34 TN hybrids with the desired agronomic characteristics.

  4. Modeling vehicle fuel consumption and emissions at signalized intersection approaches : integrating field-collected data into microscopic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Microscopic models produce emissions and fuel consumption estimates with higher temporal resolution than other scales of : models. Most emissions and fuel consumption models were developed with data from dynamometer testing which are : sufficiently a...

  5. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0733] Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  6. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, Rifaat K.; Sam, A.K.; Osman, O.I.; Sirelkhatim, D.A.; LaRosa, J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing 210 Po and 137 Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of 210 Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of 210 Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for 137 Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of 137 Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po

  7. Assessment of committed effective dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, R. K; Sam, A. K; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing ''2''1''0Po and ''1''3''7Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of 2 ''1''0Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7- 5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weigh, which were several times lower than those of ''2''1''0Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/Yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for ''1'''3''7Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For ''2''1''0Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81and 4.14 (μSv/Yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish ). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of ''1''3''7Cs is negligible compared to ''2''1''0Po.(Author)

  8. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Rifaat K; Sam, A K; Osman, O I; Sirelkhatim, D A; LaRosa, J

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing (210)Po and (137)Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of (210)Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of (210)Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for (137)Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For (210)Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (microSv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of (137)Cs is negligible compared to (210)Po.

  9. Assessment of Committed Effective Dose due to consumption of Red Sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassona, Rifaat K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan)], E-mail: rifaatk@yahoo.com; Sam, A.K. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan); Osman, O.I. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum (Sudan); Sirelkhatim, D.A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum, P.O. Box 3001 (Sudan); LaRosa, J. [Formerly at IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco)

    2008-04-15

    An assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of Red Sea fish containing {sup 210}Po and {sup 137}Cs was performed for 23 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan. The fish were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Measured activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po were found in the ranges 0.25-6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight. In the same study, activity concentrations of Cs-137 were determined to be in the ranges 0.1-0.46 (carnivores), 0.09-0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09-0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh weight, which were several times lower than those of {sup 210}Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED, which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 ({mu}Sv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for {sup 137}Cs. This contributes about 0.4% of the total dose exclusively by ingestion of fish. For {sup 210}Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 ({mu}Sv/yr) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, which represents 99.6% of the total dose (exclusively by ingestion of fish). The results of CED calculations suggest that the dose received by the Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fish is rather small and that the contribution of {sup 137}Cs is negligible compared to {sup 210}Po.

  10. Confirmed low prevalence of Listeria mastitis in she-camel milk delivers a safe, alternative milk for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed; Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2014-02-01

    She-camel milk is an alternative solution for people allergic to milk; unfortunately, potential harmful bacteria have not been tested in she-camel milk. Listeria monocytogenes is one harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if chronically or acutely ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, characterize the phenotypic, genetic characterization, virulence factors, and antibiopotential harmful bacteria resistance profile of Listeria isolated from the milk of she-camel. Udder milk samples were collected from 100 she-camels and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (46 healthy female camels, 24 subclinical mastitic animals and 30 clinical mastitic animals). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if located, the isolation of Listeria was completed using the International Organization for Standards technique to test for pathogenicity. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence-associated genes. Listeria spp. were isolated from 4% of samples and only 1.0% was confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence for the low prevalence of intramammary Listeria infection; additionally, this study concludes she-camel milk in healthy camels milked and harvested in proper hygienic conditions may be used as alternative milk for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Groundwater Quality Analysis for Human Consumption: A Case Study of Sukkur City, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Laghari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quantity and quality is of the utmost importance. If the drinking water gets contaminated, it can result in severe health problems. For example, the continuous consumption of drinking water containing more than permissible amounts of fluoride can lead to bone deterioration and increased risk of bone fracture [1]. The present study was carried out to check the quality of underground water of Sukkur city. The analyzed parameters were fluoride, sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, arsenic, TDS, pH, conductivity, odor, color and taste. World Health Organization (WHO standards were followed in present study. Underground water samples were collected from 20 different populated locations of Sukkur city. Only arsenic, pH, iron and potassium were found to be within health safe limits while the rest of the parameters exceeded the permissible standards set out by WHO. The TDS, sodium, fluoride and magnesium were over the limits at some locations.

  12. Effect of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) consumption on cardiovascular risk factors in humans: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cynthia de Souza; Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima de Sousa; Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo da; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. Aim: to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, e...

  13. Scarce Evidence of Yogurt Lactic Acid Bacteria in Human Feces after Daily Yogurt Consumption by Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Rosa; Bravo, Daniel; Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Montesi-Libois, Alejandra; Yuste, Francisco-Javier; Abraira, Victor; Baquero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind prospective study including 114 healthy young volunteers, the presence in human feces of the yogurt organisms Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus after repeated yogurt consumption (15 days) was analyzed by culture, specific PCR, and DNA hybridization of total fecal DNA. Detection of yogurt lactic acid bacteria in total fecal DNA by bacterial culture and PCR assay was consistently negative. DNA compatible with yogurt bacteria was found by hybridization experiments in only 10 (10.52%) of 96 individuals after consumption of fresh yogurt and in 2 (2.10%) of 96 individuals after consumption of pasteurized yogurt (P = 0.01). PMID:15640233

  14. Assessment of Water Quality for Human Consumption in the Venezuelan Community of San Valentin, Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irguin A. Bracho-Fernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the suitability of the water for human consumption in the community of San Valentin which is located in the sector of Ancon Bajo II, in the municipality of Maracaibo in Venezuela. Ten samples of different water supply sources were tested and evaluated from the physical, chemical and bacteriological points of view. The standard method was used for the analysis. The test results were compared with the values set by Venezuelan Drinking Water Quality Standards and water quality catalogues issued by the World Health Organization. It is concluded that the water supply pipe requires an overall conventional treatment for purification while pit water requires desalinization treatment. Irragorry ravine is highly contaminated so it is not an alternative water supply source.

  15. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero-Campos, Virginia; Quesada-Kimsey, Jaime; Ledezma-Espinoza, Aura; Sandoval-Mora, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author) [es

  16. Human consumption of a vagrant South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis (Carnivora: Otariidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siciliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis is one of the most widely distributed South American otariid species. In Brazil, during austral winter months specimens of A. australis are regularly found along the Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina coasts. Occasionally, vagrants have been recorded along the southeastern coast but rarely moves north of Rio de Janeiro, at 23°S. On 01 May 2015, fishermen noticed in the surf zone an unidentified large animal in Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Severely wounded, it was still alive when first spotted. Numerous shark bites were observed in the rostrum and flippers, the peduncle was severely lacerated and the intestines were protruding. The specimen was identified as an adult of South American Fur Seal based on the combination of the characteristic coloration of the pelage, head shape, body size, the relatively large eye size, and mainly due to the pronounced three cusped teeth in post canines. Fishermen decided to butcher the carcass and share the meat among their companions. The present record, however, is of special concern as human consumption South American Fur Seal seems to be unusual in Brazil. Pieces of meat were shared among fishermen. In addition, small pieces of blubber were used as bait in the local shark long-line fishery. Consumption of an injured and presumably weak marine mammal carcass points to an increasing risk of contact between potentially harmful viruses, bacteria and fungi and humans. This note represents an alert to public health specialists and wildlife authorities in Brazil. It calls the urgency of an outreach campaign advertising to the potential risks of ingesting bushmeat either from land or aquatic sources. 

  17. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    behaviors believed responsible for these actions. The final category of inefficient energy behaviors analyzed is vehicle use. Vehicles consume 70...transitions to a summary of collected data that includes where energy is consumed and inefficient uses resulting from human behavior . The data is...tropical areas of Southeast Asia were gathered that captured the employment of energy producing and consuming devices as well as related user behaviors

  18. 77 FR 33774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Collection: Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance. OMB... States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR), a unit within NSF...

  19. Human exposure to trace metals and arsenic via consumption of fish from river Chenab, Pakistan and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Hanif, Nida; Ali, Syeda Maria; Fasola, Mauro; Bokhari, Habib; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Shen, Heqing

    2017-02-01

    This study provided the first hand data of trace elements into fish muscles (N = 65) collected from river Chenab in Pakistan during 2013, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We monitored the health risk associated with consumption of contaminated fish of river Chenab, by the local population. The mean concentrations (μg/g, wet weight), in descending order were: Zn (35.5-54.4), Cu (1.38-4.57), Mn (2.43-4.5), As (0.23-1.21), Cr (0.21-0.67), Ni (0.14-0.34), Pb (0.14-0.31), Co (0.09-0.12), Cd (0.07-0.12) with higher concentration to be observed in the herbivore fish species (i.e., Cirrhinus reba and Catla catla). The levels of trace elements in different fish species found in this study were compared with similar data worldwide, and with the international standards for consumption. The concentration (μg/g) of arsenic in many cases (>65%) exceeded the FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives permissible limits. From the human health point of view, this study highlights that the local inhabitants, (i.e., fisher folk communities and population frequently consuming fish at about 100 g/day) along the river Chenab are exposed chronically to arsenic pollution with carcinogenic (10 -4 to 10 -6 ) and non-carcinogenic (THQ>1) risks, especially from the intake of Cirrhinus reba. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Influence of food consumption patterns and Galician lifestyle on human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Penalonga, María; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Porto-Arias, Jose Julio; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The proportion of different microbial populations in the human gut is an important factor that in recent years has been linked to obesity and numerous metabolic diseases. Because there are many factors that can affect the composition of human gut microbiota, it is of interest to have information about what is the composition of the gut microbiota in different populations in order to better understand the possibilities for improving nutritional management. A group of 31 volunteers were selected according to established inclusion and exclusion criteria and were asked about their diet history, lifestyle patterns, and adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet. Fecal samples were taken and subsequently analyzed by real-time PCR. The results indicated different dietary patterns for subjects who consumed a higher amount of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and fish and a lower amount of bakery foods and precooked foods and snacks compared to Spanish consumption data. Most participants showed intermediate or high adherence to Southern European Atlantic Diet, and an analysis of gut microbiota showed high numbers of total bacteria and Actinobacteria, as well as high amounts of bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. A subsequent statistical comparison also revealed differences in gut microbiota depending on the subject's body weight, age, or degree of adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet.

  2. Chemical composition of tempeh from soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Furlan Bavia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a food obtained by fermentation of soybean grains by the fungus Rizophus oligosporus. It is a traditional Indonesian food that presents benefits for human health protecting against diarrhea and chronic diseases. Tempeh processing includes dehulling, cooking, inoculation, and fermentation. In this study, chemical characteristics of tempeh prepared with soybean cultivars specially developed for human consumption (BRS 216, BRS 232, BRS 257, and BRS 267 were investigated. Soybean grains and tempeh obtained from these cultivars were analyzed for oil, protein, antinutrional factors, and isoflavone content. Cultivar BRS 216 presented the highest protein content in the grains (36.81% and in tempeh (51.99%. On average, the protein content in tempeh increased 16% in relation to that of soybean grains. Isoflavone content was higher in the grains than in tempeh with significant differences among the cultivars. However, the aglycones content increased about 50% in tempeh (49.00 mg.100 g-1 on average compared to that of raw material (soybean grains - 21.49 mg.100 g-1, on average. The content of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KSTI reduced 83% in tempeh, on average, as compared to the value found in the grains. Phytic acid content was similar in both tempeh and the grains.

  3. Hypaphorine is present in human milk in association with consumption of legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Bernd O; Wu, Brian T F; Li, Stephanie S J; Monga, Vishakha; Innis, Sheila M

    2013-08-07

    In metabolomic analysis of human milk amines, we found a previously unidentified compound. This was tentatively identified as hypaphorine, an indole alkaloid composed of tryptophan and three methyls, and with neurological and glucose-lowering effects in rodents. Hypaphorine identity was confirmed by hypaphorine synthesis, and then a fluorometric method was developed to quantify hypaphorine in milk and foods. Using dietary records, we identified peanut products as probable sources of hypaphorine. Milk from 24 lactating women showed widely varying hypaphorine, with a mean ± SD 0.34 ± 0.33 μM, and the highest concentration of 1.24 μM. Peanuts showed high hypaphorine of 70 μg/g compared to 60 and 100 μg/g in dried chickpeas and lentils. Dietary challenge in lactating women with hypaphorine-rich foods demonstrated transfer of hypaphorine into milk with hypaphorine appearance peaking 5-18 h after consumption and prolonged disappearance indicative of slow excretion or metabolism. The potential functional roles of hypaphorine in human nutrition remain to be addressed.

  4. Alcohol consumption decreases the protection efficiency of the antioxidant network and increases the risk of sunburn in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, M E; Sterry, W; Lademann, J; Patzelt, A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological data has demonstrated that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for sunburn, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. We hypothesized that if the concentration of the antioxidants in the skin has already decreased due to alcohol consumption, then an adequate neutralization of the free radicals induced by ultraviolet light cannot be performed. Based on this hypothesis, we determined the carotenoid concentration in the skin and the minimal erythema dose (MED) of 6 male human volunteers before and after consumption of alcohol or alcohol and orange juice combined. The results showed a significant decrease in the carotenoid concentration in the skin and the MED after alcohol consumption, but no significant decrease after a combined intake of alcohol and orange juice. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Barcoded pyrosequencing reveals that consumption of galactooligosaccharides results in a highly specific bifidogenic response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M G Davis

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that allow specific changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confer health benefits to the host. However, the effects of prebiotics on the human gut microbiota are incomplete as most studies have relied on methods that fail to cover the breadth of the bacterial community. The goal of this research was to use high throughput multiplex community sequencing of 16S rDNA tags to gain a community wide perspective of the impact of prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (GOS on the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects. Fecal samples from eighteen healthy adults were previously obtained during a feeding trial in which each subject consumed a GOS-containing product for twelve weeks, with four increasing dosages (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 gram of GOS. Multiplex sequencing of the 16S rDNA tags revealed that GOS induced significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbiota, principally by increasing the abundance of organisms within the Actinobacteria. Specifically, several distinct lineages of Bifidobacterium were enriched. Consumption of GOS led to five- to ten-fold increases in bifidobacteria in half of the subjects. Increases in Firmicutes were also observed, however, these changes were detectable in only a few individuals. The enrichment of bifidobacteria was generally at the expense of one group of bacteria, the Bacteroides. The responses to GOS and the magnitude of the response varied between individuals, were reversible, and were in accordance with dosage. The bifidobacteria were the only bacteria that were consistently and significantly enriched by GOS, although this substrate supported the growth of diverse colonic bacteria in mono-culture experiments. These results suggest that GOS can be used to enrich bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract with remarkable specificity, and that the bifidogenic properties of GOS that occur in vivo are caused by selective fermentation as well as by

  6. Effects of water collection and mulching combinations on water infiltration and consumption in a semiarid rainfed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongchen; Zhao, Xining; Gao, Xiaodong; Ren, Kemeng; Wu, Pute

    2018-03-01

    Soil water and its efficient use are critical to sustainable productivity of rainfed orchards under the context of climate change in water-limited areas. Here, we combined micro-catchments for collecting hillslope runoff, named fish-scale pits, with mulches to examine water infiltration and water consumption of fruit trees using in situ soil moisture monitoring, the micro-lysimeter and sap flow methods via a two-year experiment in a rainfed jujube orchard on China's Loess Plateau. This experiment included four treatments: fish-scale pit with branch mulching (FB), fish-scale pit with straw mulching (FS), fish-scale pit without mulching (F), and bare land treatment (CK). The results showed that only about 50% of the rainfall infiltrated the soil for CK during the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The fish-scale pit without mulching experienced significantly increased rainfall infiltration by 41.38 and 27.30%, respectively, but also increased evaporation by 42.28 and 65.59%, respectively, compared to CK during the two growing seasons. The jujube transpiration significantly increased by 45.64-53.10% over CK, and the evaporation decreased by 42.47-53.50% when fish-scale pits were mulched with branches or straw. Taken together, the results show that the fish-scale pits and mulching combinations efficiently increased rainfall infiltration and jujube evapotranspiration in the experimental jujube orchard. The findings here provide an insight into the field water management for hillslope orchards in water-limited regions.

  7. Bat consumption in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  8. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  9. [The effect of kefir consumption on human immune system: a cytokine study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiloğlu, Ali Kudret; Gönülateş, Nurettin; Işler, Mehmet; Senol, Altuğ

    2013-04-01

    The systemic effects of bioactive peptides which are produced by the fermentation of milk via the microorganisms found in kefir have been the subject of interest in recent years. Bioactive peptides activate innate immunity by stimulating macrophages, increasing phagocytosis, augmenting NO and cytokine production and boosting the lumen levels of IgG and IgA+ B-lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum cytokine profiles of healthy volunteers after kefir consumption to evaluate helper T (TH) cell polarization and to bring out the effects on native and allergic immune responses. The study was designed as a prospective and self-controlled study. A total of 18 healthy volunteers (age range: 20-40 yrs, mean age: 35.5 ± 7.38 yrs) from a university hospital staff were recruited to the study, with the approval of ethical board and informed consent. The body mass indices of all participants were between normal range (20.10-25.70 kg/m2). After two weeks of a diet free from fermented products, the participants consumed 200 mL kefir daily, for six weeks. Kefir product was prepared by using kefir starter culture (Danisco Biolacta Sp - 05223B 10001, Poland) which contains Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Streptococcus termophilus, an overnight incubation at 26°C, and consumed freshly. Fasting blood samples of subjects were collected just before kefir use (0th week), at the end of the 3rd and 6th weeks of kefir consumption, and three weeks after cessation of kefir usage (9th week). Serum TNF-a, IL-1, IL-5, IL-8 and TGF-β levels were measured by using commercial ELISA kits (BioSource, Belgium and Invitrogen, USA). Hemoglobin, serum creatinine and ALT levels of all subjects were also determined for follow-up. All volunteers completed the study period without any problem and declared no complaint. Hemoglobin, creatinine and ALT levels did not change with kefir consumption. Serum IL-8 levels were decreased at 3rd and

  10. Order of 17 july 1991 on treatment by ionizing radiation of casein and casein products for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Order authorizes and fixes the conditions for the sale and marketing of casein (one of the chief constituents of milk which forms the basis of cheese), which is treated by ionizing radiation, for human consumption. The absorbed radiation dose must not exceed 6 kGy [fr

  11. Towards a protocol for the assessment of site-specific human health risks for consumption of vegetables from contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Otte PF; Beelen P van; Rikken MGJ; Tuinstra J; Spijker J; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    RIVM has developed an approach which allows human health risks of vegetable consumption from contaminated sites to be assessed. A tiered approach was used to guarantee the scientific basis and efficient use in practice. The underlying principle is: simple when possible and complex when necessary. If

  12. Application of electronic business in monitoring marketing and consumption of human medicines in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešić Danka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of electronic business (e-business in monitoring marketing and consumption of medicines, as one of e-government services (e-services of the Republic of Serbia (Serbia. It shows methodological framework for development of e-services, through use of RUP (Rational Unified Process methodology. The Unified Modelling Language (UML notation was used for description of the system model. The paper presents modeling of the process of marketing of medications for human use, as well as development of the information subsystem underpinning it. The analysis of the marketing of medications in Serbia was carried out in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, by the Medicines and Medical Devices Agency of Serbia, which was authorized to collect and analyze data on the marketing and consumption of medicines and medical devices. Data gathered for a particular time period were analyzed using Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification and the Defined Daily Doses methodology. The amount of medicines consumed was translated into the DDD by 1000 individuals per day, and gave an insight into the number of individuals (out of 1000 who used the medicine under observation and were under its effect during a single day. The data extracted are correlated with the number of individuals who took the medication during the period under observation. In the year 2006 total marketing of medications for human use amounted to € 510.833.609,54, in 2007 it stood at € 687.588.174,80, in 2008 it was € 799.082.221,05, while the overall marketing of medicines in the year 2009 was € 741.981.960,19. By processing the data by methodology of DDD, the following results were obtained: 1013,70 DDD/1000 individuals/day in year 2006; in year 2007, 1084,34 DDD/1000 individuals/day; in year 2008, 1219,57 DDD/1000 individuals/day and in year 2009, 1177,72 DDD/1000 individuals/day. The implementation of such system produces a series of technological, functional and

  13. CONSUMPTION OF SATURATED ANIMAL FATS IN THE DIET OF HUMANS MAY DECREASE THE RATE OF HEART DISEASE IN THE FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    Fats, as part of the human dietary regime are a concentrated source of energy. Animals contain saturated and plants contain unsaturated type of fatty acids. In this prospective research, the role of animal saturated fatty acids is highlighted and is proven to be a rational dietary source for the human diet. Saturated fats consumption is a wise choice in order to reduce the coronary heart disease risk, although it is believed in an opposite way. Researching through the healthiest tribes and kn...

  14. Microbial dynamics during production of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus) for human consumption at industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynants, E; Crauwels, S; Verreth, C; Gianotten, N; Lievens, B; Claes, J; Van Campenhout, L

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the microbial dynamics during an industrial production cyle of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus), sold for human consumption, were characterised. The microbial numbers as well as the microbial diversity were generally higher for the substrate, existing of remaining feed, faeces and exuviae, than for the larvae. Most of the species-level operational taxonomic units, identified using Illumina MiSeq sequencing, that were present in the feed were also detected in the larvae and vice versa. However, bacterial diversity decreased in the larvae during rearing. These results suggested that the feed is an important determinant of the insect bacterial community, but that some bacterial species show a competitive advantage inside the insect gut and become dominant. A blanching treatment of the larvae after harvest reduced most microbial counts, but the number of aerobic endospores remained at 4.0 log cfu/g. Whereas food pathogens Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus or coagulase-positive staphylococci were not detected in our study, fungal isolates corresponding to the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium were recovered. Therefore, it cannot be excluded that mycotoxins were present. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the microbial dynamics and food safety aspects during the production of edible insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

    2010-02-01

    A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed.

  16. Electrical stimulation of human lower extremities enhances energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Taku; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kazuwa; Moritani, Toshio

    2004-03-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that low-frequency electrical stimulation (ES) of quadriceps muscles alone significantly enhanced glucose disposal rate (GDR) during euglycemic clamp (Hamada T, Sasaki H, Hayashi T, Moritani T, and Nakao K. J Appl Physiol 94: 2107-2112, 2003). The present study is further follow-up to examine the acute metabolic effects of ES to lower extremities compared with voluntary cycle exercise (VE) at identical intensity. In eight male subjects lying in the supine position, both lower leg (tibialis anterior and triceps surae) and thigh (quadriceps and hamstrings) muscles were sequentially stimulated to cocontract in an isometric manner at 20 Hz with a 1-s on-off duty cycle for 20 min. Despite small elevation of oxygen uptake by 7.3 +/- 0.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) during ES, the blood lactate concentration was significantly increased by 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l in initial period (5 min) after the onset of the ES (P increased anaerobic glycolysis by ES. Furthermore, whole body glucose uptake determined by GDR during euglycemic clamp demonstrated a significant increase during and after the cessation of ES for at least 90 min (P energy consumption, carbohydrate oxidation, and whole body glucose uptake at low intensity of exercise. Percutaneous ES may become a therapeutic utility to enhance glucose metabolism in humans.

  17. Use of hydra for chronic toxicity assessment of waters intended for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, Victor V.; Blaise, Christian; Malinovskaya, Maria V.

    2006-01-01

    Methods developed with the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata (Pallas), have proven effective for screening acute toxicity in aqueous samples, whereas their use in revealing (sub)chronic toxic effects have had mitigated success. We therefore sought to explore manifestations of hydra mortality and abnormal morphological changes, as well as the reproductive capacity of hydras to further enhance the bioassay sensitivity and to assess (sub)chronic toxicity. These parameters were recorded following the onset of experiments after 8, 12 and 19-21 days of hydra exposure. Results obtained with potable waters (30 brands of bottled waters and artesian waters from 9 wells) showed chronic sublethal and lethal effects or reproduction rate inhibition for most samples. The effectiveness of the hydra toxicity test was demonstrated in comparison with other widely used bioassays. Our previous and present investigations suggest that hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic water toxicity. - Hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic toxicity of waters intended for human consumption

  18. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... made between students' lives, their African identities and local natural places. Introduction to the Think Piece Collection: 'Collective Learning and Change ... is increasingly recognised in the social-ecological and global change sciences. For example, ..... processes that allow for the change agent to act.

  19. A new method to measure local oxygen consumption in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Cooper, Chris E; Wittekind, Anna L; Beneke, Ralph; Elwell, Clare E; Leung, Terence S; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can readily report on changes in blood volume and oxygenation. However, it has proved more problematic to measure real-time changes in blood flow and oxygen consumption. Here we report the development of a novel method using NIRS to measure local oxygen consumption in human muscle. The method utilizes the blood volume changes induced by the muscle pump during rhythmically contracting exercising skeletal muscle. We found that the saturation of the blood during the contraction phase was lower than that during the relaxation phase. The calculated oxygen drop was then divided by the contraction time to generate a value for the muscle oxygen consumption in the optical region of interest. As a test we measured the muscle oxygen consumption in the human vastus lateralis during exercise on a cycle ergometer by 11 trained male athletes (32 ± 11 years old) at 40% and 110% peak aerobic power. We saw an increase from 13.78 µmol 100 g −1 min −1 to 19.72 µmol 100 g −1 min −1 with the increase in power. The measurements are theoretically exempt from usual NIRS confounders such as myoglobin and adipose tissue and could provide a useful tool for studying human physiology

  20. Oxygen consumption and blood flow coupling in human motor cortex during intense finger tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi Vafaee, Manouchehr; Vang, Kim; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Rates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMR(glc)) rise in cerebral cortex during continuous stimulation, while the oxygen-glucose index (OGI) declines as an index of mismatched coupling of oxygen consumption (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen-CMRO(2)) to CBF and CMR(glc). To t...

  1. [Collections of human biological resources for research purposes: from regulations to the need of a guide of good collection practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, N; de Montgolfier, S; di Donato, J-H; Boccon-Gibod, L; Teillac, P; Hervé, C; Berthon, P

    2003-12-01

    In France, collections of human biological resources are regulated by the "Bioethics Law", currently in revision. Hence, we analyse the regulatory and ethical issues of these practices in the context of scientific research. The ultimate aim of such collections is to improve biological and medical knowledge. We think that the French regulatory system is quite complicated and non-explicit for "collection holders". The multiplicity of legal texts concerning this activity has made their application difficult, especially in the absence of application decrees. The project amending the actual law has clarified the legal status of collections but it did not shed light on the status of human body detached parts. Furthermore, the text is still very far from the international bioethical recommendations, and does not reflect the actual collection's implementation. The establishment of a guideline of Good Collection Practices, based on clear principles, should help to simplify the situation, especially when it is imbedded in the regulation and linked to control procedures. It would allow a balance between collective interests and the protection of individuals, taking into account of the international highly competitive scientific and economical constraints. The major issue is to preserve and to perpetuate the existing and future collections because of their precious value as an important tool for biomedical knowledge. The efficiency of a regulation depends on its legibility and accessibility, two requirements that seem to determine the acceptance of the regulatory tool and its application allowing subsequently to reach fairness in proceedings.

  2. Coffee consumption and human health--beneficial or detrimental?--Mechanisms for effects of coffee consumption on different risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranheim, Trine; Halvorsen, Bente

    2005-03-01

    Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  4. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  5. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... new social systems that are more sustainable and socially just. ... collection to these international deliberations about the role of education in enabling ... learning can foster and contribute to the development of change agents ...

  6. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in chil...... health risks resulting from human consumption....... in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based...... on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential...

  7. [Nutritional characterization of produced fish for human consumption in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Aide; Gómez, Elieth; Mayorga, Yamile; Triana, Cora Yohanna

    2008-03-01

    This research involves the nutritional characterization of the most commonly cultivated fish in the region. The species under study were: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), tilapia roja (Oreocliromis sp), cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma faciatum). A sea fish, coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), was used as reference because it is the imported species most used in the region, and it also contains n-3 fatty acids. For each fish sample moisture, ash, protein content, total fat, minerals (iron, calcium and phosphorous) and a fatty acid profile were determined. Results show a total protein content in between 16.4 and 22.6 g/100 g fillet for fresh water fish. Total fat amounts for trout are the highest (8.1 g/100 g fillet), while catfish has the lowest fat content (0.4 g/100 g fillet). Trout was found to be the most important source of n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) and phosphorous, with values ranging from 0.25% to 0.52%, and 250 to 346 mg/100 g fillet, respectively. Catfish and trout exhibited the highest iron content, with values ranging from 3 to 6mg/100 g fillet. Salmon, on the other hand, showed a high n-3 fatty acid content of 1.16% to 2.25%, when compared to fresh water fish. Calcium content is low in all species under scrutiny. Fresh water fish, other than trout, show no significant amount of n-3 fatty acids. However, all of them are a good source of protein. The obtained results allowed to determine the profile of oily acids of produced fish for human consumption in the region, demonstrating that the trout is the species with major quantity of oily acids n-3 specially DHA and of the minerals the phosphorus. Other species (kinds) catfish, bocachico, tilapia and cachama, are not a source of oily acids n-3, but they are an important source of protein.

  8. [Physical and chemical characterization of industrial nixtamalized corn flour for human consumption in Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani, R; Turcios, J C; Reyes, L; Mérida, R

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was the characterization of industrial nixtamalized maize flour for human consumption and which are marketed in Central America for some selected physical and chemical properties which may contribute to food composition information and help nutrition and micronutrient fortification programs. A total of 12 brands purchased in triplicate were obtained from supermarkets in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. These samples were kept under refrigeration until analyzed. The physical parameters measured and results were the following: particle size with most samples having a high percentage of particles greater than 60 mesh, pH (5.4-7.5), water absorption index (WAI) (3.4-4.0 g gel/g sample), water soluble index (WSI) (4.8-7.8 g/100 g) and flour density (0.410-0.547 g/ml). The differences were statistically significant for all parameters measured, except for WAI. The chemical characteristics included, moisture, protein, fat, ash and dietetic fiber. Differences between flour samples were statistically significant except for fat content. Protein content was low, ranging between 6.7-8.1 g/100 g and total dietary fiber varied between 7.7-12.0 g/100 g. The samples were analyzed for phytic acid with a variation from 632 to 903 mg/100 g, with statistical significant differences. The samples were also analyzed for total and soluble (pH 7.5) iron, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, zinc, copper, manganese, and magnesium. The difference in the iron and calcium content between flour samples were statistically significant. The physical and chemical variability found between flour samples of nixtamalized maize was relatively high and it is recommended to establish quality standards through raw material and process standardization for greater effectiveness of nutrition programs and activities on micronutrient fortification which may be pursued in the future.

  9. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption enhances exercise-induced executive function improvements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Aya; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige; Ebi, Kumiko; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery. Ten healthy young men received either an HCF (563 mg of CF) or energy-matched low CF (LCF; 38 mg of CF) beverage 70 min before exercise in a single-blind counterbalanced manner. The men then performed moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min. The participants performed a color-word Stroop task and face-name matching task to evaluate EF and MF, respectively, during six time periods throughout the experimental session. EF significantly improved immediately after exercise compared with before exercise in both conditions. However, EF was higher after HCF consumption than after LCF consumption during all time periods because HCF consumption improved EF before exercise. In contrast, HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise did not improve MF throughout the experiment. The present findings demonstrated that HCF consumption before moderate-intensity exercise could enhance exercise-induced improvement in EF, but not in MF. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of HCF consumption and aerobic exercise may be beneficial for improving EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie-Kanu, O. Josephine; Ezenduka, E. Vivienne; Okorie-Kanu, C. Onwuchokwe; Ugwu, L. Chinweokwu; Nnamani, U. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014). The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. Results: About 37 (54.4%) and 7 (10.3%) of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p0.05). The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonella spp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline. Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the raw table eggs marketed for human consumption in Enugu State, Nigeria is contaminated with pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species that showed multiple drug resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in veterinary and human

  11. Cadmium transfer from contaminated soils to the human body through rice consumption in southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Chang, Qing; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Jizhou; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Chen, Hongyan; Zhang, Xinjian; Song, Yinxian; Song, Wenzhi

    2017-06-21

    Consumption of crops grown in cadmium-contaminated soils is an important Cd exposure route to humans. The present study utilizes statistical analysis and in vitro digestion experiments to uncover the transfer processes of Cd from soils to the human body through rice consumption. Here, a model was created to predict the levels of bioaccessible Cd in rice grains using phytoavailable Cd quantities in the soil. During the in vitro digestion, a relatively constant ratio between the total and bioaccessible Cd in rice was observed. About 14.89% of Cd in soils was found to be transferred into rice grains and up to 3.19% could be transferred from rice grains to the human body. This model was able to sufficiently predict rice grain cadmium concentrations based on CaCl 2 extracted zinc and cadmium concentrations in soils (R 2 = 0.862). The bioaccessible Cd concentration in rice grains was also able to be predicted using CaCl 2 extracted cadmium from soil (R 2 = 0.892). The models established in this study demonstrated that CaCl 2 is a suitable indicator of total rice Cd concentrations and bioaccessible rice grain Cd concentrations. The chain model approach proposed in this study can be used for the fast and accurate evaluation of human Cd exposure through rice consumption based on the soil conditions in contaminated regions.

  12. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R.; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. - Highlights: • Trace metals in wild marine fish from the Persian Gulf were investigated. • Metal concentrations descended in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb ≈ Ni > Cd > . • The Cd and Pb may be potential risk to human. • No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption.

  13. 78 FR 41403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... these topics: (1) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance... (b) also requires recording and justification of any deviation from the written procedures. Section 1270.33(a) requires records to be maintained concurrently with the performance of each significant step...

  14. 75 FR 9226 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Human Tissue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of FDA's functions, including whether the... of any deviation from the written procedures. Section 1270.33(a) requires records to be maintained concurrently with the performance of each significant step in the performance of infectious disease screening...

  15. Scarce Evidence of Yogurt Lactic Acid Bacteria in Human Feces after Daily Yogurt Consumption by Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    del Campo, Rosa; Bravo, Daniel; Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Montesi-Libois, Alejandra; Yuste, Francisco-Javier; Abraira, Victor; Baquero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind prospective study including 114 healthy young volunteers, the presence in human feces of the yogurt organisms Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus after repeated yogurt consumption (15 days) was analyzed by culture, specific PCR, and DNA hybridization of total fecal DNA. Detection of yogurt lactic acid bacteria in total fecal DNA by bacterial culture and PCR assay was consistently negative. DNA compatible with yogurt bacteria was found by hybridization ex...

  16. Human Saliva Collection Devices for Proteomics: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area of saliva specimen collection devices and applications that will advance the field of proteomics.

  17. Quantifying the Risk of Human Toxoplasma gondii Infection Due to Consumption of Domestically Produced Lamb in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a prevalent protozoan parasite worldwide. Human toxoplasmosis is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and meat products have been identified as an important source of T. gondii infections in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a farm-to-table quantitative microbial risk assessment model to predict the public health burden in the United States associated with consumption of U.S. domestically produced lamb. T. gondii prevalence in market lambs was pooled from the 2011 National Animal Health Monitoring System survey, and the concentration of the infectious life stage (bradyzoites) was calculated in the developed model. A log-linear regression and an exponential doseresponse model were used to model the reduction of T. gondii during home cooking and to predict the probability of infection, respectively. The mean probability of infection per serving of lamb was estimated to be 1.5 cases per 100,000 servings, corresponding to ∼6,300 new infections per year in the U.S. Based on the sensitivity analysis, we identified cooking as the most effective method to influence human health risk. This study provided a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework for T. gondii infection through consumption of lamb and quantified the infection risk and public health burden associated with lamb consumption.

  18. Urbanization and Access Inequality to Collective Consumption Goods & Services related to Sanitation & Solid Waste in the cities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, C. D. A.; Feitosa, F. D. F.; Monteiro, A. M. V.

    2016-12-01

    Cities are mainly a product of collective consumption and there is a pressing need to expand and deepen the discussion about the quality of access to collective goods and services in the urban world: the availability of electricity and potable water and its interrelation with the lack of solid waste management and wastewater treatment leading to pollution of water sources.This study attempts to measure urban stratification through access conditions to collective goods in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo State (SPS) by contributing with a research method that incorporates collective consumption as a core component of the population-environment relationship. The use of spatial analysis allows the examination of the structure and distribution of accessibility to sanitation services and basic urban infrastructure.The water stress situation in SPS is dramatic. The average water loss within these distribution systems is 34,3% and a 39% average sewage treatment rate of all wastewater generated. The SPS also imports 60,6% of electricity from other states that use mostly hydroelectric power which imposes greater pressure on the country's water resources. The energy and water crisis has harmed a number of essential rights related mostly to resource access and service continuity as suburban residents of poor municipalities are the ones most affected by disruptions.SPS is the most populous state of Brazil and this region of study is responsible for 75% of total State population with 83% of State GDP. There has been a major increase in water use conflicts such as power generation, urban water supply (including the Rio de Janeiro water demand) and the dilution of urban sewage and solid waste disposal. These collective consumption access problems demonstrate the urgent need for better integrated metropolitan management of natural resources and the urban commons.

  19. SHERLOCK: Simple Human Experiments Regarding Locally Observed Collective Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to... aware approach in coalition decision making at or near the network edge. The studies, named SHERLOCK (for Simple Human Experiments Regarding Locally...character’s location, shirt colour , preferred fruit, and hobby — are discoverable by visiting a set of locations around a university building. In

  20. Muscle contraction duration and fibre recruitment influence blood flow and oxygen consumption independent of contractile work during steady-state exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer C; Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2012-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, among conditions of matched contractile work, shorter contraction durations and greater muscle fibre recruitment result in augmented skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption ( ) during steady-state exercise in humans. To do so, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound) during 4 min of rhythmic hand-grip exercise in 24 healthy young adults and calculated forearm oxygen consumption ( ) via blood samples obtained from a catheter placed in retrograde fashion into a deep vein draining the forearm muscle. In protocol 1 (n = 11), subjects performed rhythmic isometric hand-grip exercise at mild and moderate intensities during conditions in which time-tension index (isometric analogue of work) was held constant but contraction duration was manipulated. In this protocol, shorter contraction durations led to greater FBF (184 ± 25 versus 164 ± 25 ml min(-1)) and (23 ± 3 versus 17 ± 2 ml min(-1); both P flow. Our collective data indicate that, among matched workloads, shorter contraction duration and greater muscle fibre recruitment augment FBF and during mild-intensity forearm exercise, and that muscle blood flow is more closely related to metabolic cost ( ) rather than contractile work per se during steady-state exercise in humans.

  1. Methodological aspects for metabolome visualization and characterization: a metabolomic evaluation of the 24 h evolution of human urine after cocoa powder consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach-Asunción, R; Jauregui, O; Urpi-Sarda, M; Andres-Lacueva, C

    2010-01-20

    The LC-MS based metabolomics studies are characterized by the capacity to produce a large and complex dataset being mandatory to use the appropriate tools to recover and to interpret as maximum information as possible. In this context, a combined partial least square discriminat analysis (PLS-DA) and two-way hierarchical clustering (two-way HCA) using Bonferroni correction as filter is proposed to improve analysis in human urinary metabolome modifications in a nutritional intervention context. After overnight fasting, 10 subjects consumed cocoa powder with milk. Urine samples were collected before the ingestion product and at 0-6, 6-12, 12-24 h after test-meal consumption and analysed by LC-Q-ToF. The PLS-DA analysis showed a clear pattern related to the differences between before consumption period and the other three periods revealing relevant mass features in this separation, however, a weaker association between mass features and the three periods after cocoa consumption was observed. On the other hand, two-way HCA showed a separation of four urine time periods and point out the mass features associated with the corresponding urine times. The correlation matrix revealed complex relations between the mass features that could be used for metabolite identifications and to infer the possible metabolite origin. The reported results prove that combining visualization strategies would be an excellent way to produce new bioinformatic applications that help the scientific community to unravel the complex relations between the consumption of phytochemicals and their expected effects on health.

  2. Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Michelle; Lexis, Louise; Lewandowski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Red wine contains a naturally rich source of antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress, a determinant of age-related disease. The current study set out to determine the in vivo effects of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in the circulation. Methods 20 young (18–30 yrs) and 20 older (≥ 50 yrs) volunteers were recruited. Each age group was randomly divided into treatment subjects who consumed 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, or control subjects who abstained from alcohol for two weeks, after which they crossed over into the other group. Blood samples were collected before and after red wine consumption and were used for analysis of whole blood glutathione (GSH), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum total antioxidant status. Results Results from this study show consumption of red wine induced significant increases in plasma total antioxidant status (P < 0.03), and significant decreases in plasma MDA (P < 0.001) and GSH (P < 0.004) in young and old subjects. The results show that the consumption of 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, significantly increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation Conclusion It may be implied from this data that red wine provides general oxidative protection and to lipid systems in circulation via the increase in antioxidant status. PMID:17888186

  3. Characterization of antibiotic resistant enterococci isolated from untreated waters for human consumption in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ana S; Freitas, Ana R; Abreu, Cristina; Machado, Elisabete; Peixe, Luísa; Sousa, João C; Novais, Carla

    2011-01-31

    Untreated drinking water is frequently overlooked as a source of antibiotic resistance in developed countries. To gain further insight on this topic, we isolated the indicator bacteria Enterococcus spp. from water samples collected in wells, fountains and natural springs supplying different communities across Portugal, and characterized their antibiotic resistance profile with both phenotypic and genetic approaches. We found various rates of resistance to seven antibiotic families. Over 50% of the isolates were resistant to at least ciprofloxacin, tetracyclines or quinupristin-dalfopristin and 57% were multidrug resistant to ≥3 antibiotics from different families. Multiple enterococcal species (E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, E. casseliflavus and other Enterococcus spp) from different water samples harbored genes encoding resistance to tetracyclines, erythromycin or gentamicin [tet(M)-46%, tet(L)-14%, tet(S)-5%, erm(B)-22%, aac(6´)-Ie-aph(2″)-12%] and putative virulence factors [gel-28%, asa1-16%]. The present study positions untreated drinking water within the spectrum of ecological niches that may be reservoirs of or vehicles for antibiotic resistant enterococci/genes. These findings are worthy of attention as spread of antibiotic resistant enterococci to humans and animals through water ingestion cannot be dismissed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract derived from Arthrospira platensis is associated with reduction of chronic pain: results from two human clinical pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen GS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Victoria L Attridge,1 Steve G Carter,1 Jesse Guthrie,2 Axel Ehmann,2 Kathleen F Benson1 1NIS Labs, 2Cerule LLC, Klamath Falls, OR, USA Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of an aqueous cyanophyta extract (ACE from Arthrospira platensis on chronic pain in humans, in two clinical pilot studies. Design and interventions: The two pilot studies each involved 12 subjects experiencing chronic pain. The initial study followed an open-label 4-week study design involving consumption of 1 g ACE per day. A subsequent placebo-controlled, single-blind, crossover study involved consumption of 500 mg ACE, 250 mg ACE, or 0 mg ACE (placebo per day for 1-week duration, separated by 1-week washout period. Subjects: Adult subjects of both sexes, with chronic joint-related pain for at least 6 months prior to enrollment, were recruited after obtaining written informed consent. Outcome measures: Visual analog scales were used to score pain at rest and during physical activity for each person's primary and secondary areas of chronic pain. An activities of daily living questionnaire was used to collect data on physical functioning. Results: The data showed rapid reduction of chronic pain in people consuming ACE, where the reduction in pain scores for each person's primary pain area reached a high level of statistical significance after 2 weeks of consumption (P<0.01, both when at rest and when being physically active. Secondary pain areas when physically active showed highly significant improvements within 1 week of consumption of 1 g/d (P<0.001 and borderline significant improvements within 1 week of consuming 500 mg/d (P<0.065 and 250 mg/d (P<0.05. This was accompanied by an increased ability to perform daily activities (P<0.05. A small but significant weight loss was observed during the 4-week study, as the average body mass index dropped from 31.4 to 29.4 (P<0.01. Conclusion: Consumption of ACE was associated

  5. Accumulation of organic and inorganic contaminants in shellfish collected in estuarine waters near Pensacola, Florida: Contamination profiles and risks to human consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew G.; Ranga Rao, K.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a screening level assessment of contaminants in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from bays and bayous in the Pensacola, FL area. Tissue samples were analyzed for 17 dioxins/furans, 12 dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCBs) congeners, mercury, and various metals. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. EPA recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. All sampling locations exceeded the SV (0.098 pg g -1 ) for dioxins/furans/DL-PCBs, based on a Florida-specific consumption rate (46 g day -1 ). Arsenic (inorganic), mercury, cadmium, and zinc levels exceeded SVs in samples from select locations, and with the exception of mercury, these locations were generally downstream of known contaminated areas. We also assessed potential human health risks from consumption of these species. Risks to human health were greatest from consumption of crab hepatopancreas, suggesting that consumption of hepatopancreas, whether directly or indirectly, from crabs collected anywhere in the Pensacola Bay region should be avoided. - Elevated levels of dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs were detected in blue crabs and oysters from select locations in the Pensacola Bay region

  6. Crowdfunding and Cultural Industry: The new relations between production and consumption based on the culture of participation and collective funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amália Dalpizol Valiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The configuration of a new standard of consumption and cultural production based on the participation of consumers through the Internet has become a feature of modern society (Jenkins, 2009; Shirky, 2011. Based on this premise, we intend to analyze the process of crowd funding, in which a mass of staff is united in the realization of cultural projects and to create a unique product, under the bias of the culturological theory. This work is also raising questions as to the timeliness of the concept of cultural industry in the face of new practices allowed by digital networks and a potential democratization, focusing the brazilian website Catarse.

  7. Human values and the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern: A panel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2002-01-01

    In this study, data from a random sample of Danish consumers are used to test the hypothesis that the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern is influenced by individual value priorities. By the use of a cross-lagged panel design and structural equation modelling it is possible to draw...

  8. Consideration of insects as a source of dietary protein for human consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churchward-Venne, T.A.; Pinckaers, P.J.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of sufficient dietary protein is fundamental to muscle mass maintenance and overall health. Conventional animal-based protein sources such as meat (ie, beef, pork, lamb), poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy are generally considered high-quality sources of dietary protein because they meet all

  9. The Tedeschi collection: A collection of documented and undocumented human skeletal remains at the Museum of Anthropology, Padua University (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Nicola; Scaggion, Cinzia; Holland, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Documented and undocumented skeletal collections offer unique windows into life in the past and are integral for research in biological anthropology. The objective of this article is to describe the documented and undocumented collections curated by the Museum of Anthropology at Padua University (Italy) to demonstrate their potential for research and encourage researchers to consider them for future projects. The collection was established by Prof. Enrico Tedeschi at the beginning of 20th century, and dates to the late 19th and early 20th century. The collection consists primarily of individuals excavated from cemeteries, ossarios, or unclaimed individuals donated by hospitals or other institutions. Both documented and undocumented human skeletal remains are included in the collection, totalling 1,580 individuals. Associated documented information including age at death, date of death, sex, occupation, and cause of death is available in different combinations for 293 individuals of varying completeness (188 crania only, 93 crania and postcranial, 12 postcranial only). Origin and chronological period are known for the remaining 1,287 individuals. Overall, this little studied collection could be particularly useful for researchers interested in craniometrics, dentition, and 19th and 20th century health and demography in Italy. The documented skeletons will be especially useful for forensic anthropological research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Water for human and livestock consumption in rural settings of Ethiopia: assessments of quality and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenu, Kebede; Markemann, André; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2013-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the quality and health aspects of water intended for human and livestock consumption in two rural districts of the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The study involved two parts: the first consisted of a questionnaire survey and farmers' group discussions, complemented by secondary health data, and the second part determined the chemical (total dissolved solids, pH, manganese, hexa-valent chromium, fluoride) and microbiological quality of different water sources during dry and wet seasons. The result showed a lack of sustainable access to safe water in the communities. Industrial pollution and mismanagement of water sources by human and livestock was found to be a source of potential health risk. Potentially linked human health problems like malaria, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal parasites were common in the districts. Overall, 76% of the assessed water sources (n = 25) failed to comply with World Health Organization guidelines for human drinking water, for at least one assessed parameter, mostly irrespective of the season. The non-compliance was mainly attributed to Escherichia coli contamination and/or high fluoride concentration. At least 20% of the water samples were also found to be unfit for livestock consumption based on assessed chemical parameters in both dry and wet seasons. To minimize the health risk associated with mismanagement and poor quality of water sources in the area, targeted action in the protection of surface water sources should be given priority.

  11. Sugar cane consumption on Rapanui (Easter Island) and the indicence of caries : evidence from stable isotope values of human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Seelenfreund, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-European people on Rapanui are known to have had a high rate of dental caries. One proposed explanation for this is that the people consumed a considerable amount of sugar cane, as a thirst quencher, since fresh water is scarce on the island. Human bone samples were analysed by isotope analysis to see if this explanation could be sustained. Results for three isotopes δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S were then used in a stochastic model to estimate the proportions of five main food types in the diet of these people. This indicated that daily consumption of dry raw sugar cane was only about 32 to 42 g per day. This is very low and sugar cane consumption is therefore unlikely to be the only cause of the high rate of dental caries. (author).

  12. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  13. Association of fructose consumption and components of metabolic syndrome in human studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mansourian, Marjan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review the current corpus of human studies to determine the association of various doses and durations of fructose consumption on metabolic syndrome. We searched human studies in PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar databases. We searched for the following keywords in each paper: metabolic syndrome x, insulin resistance, blood glucose, blood sugar, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, lipoproteins, HDL, cholesterol, LDL, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hypertens*, waist circumference, and fructose, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, or sugar. Overall, 3102 articles were gathered. We excluded studies on natural fructose content of foods, non-clinical trials, and trials in which fructose was recommended exclusively as sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup. Overall, 3069 articles were excluded. After review by independent reviewers, 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fructose consumption was positively associated with increased fasting blood sugar (FBS; summary mean difference, 0.307; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.149-0.465; P = 0.002), elevated triglycerides (TG; 0.275; 95% CI, 0.014-0.408; P = 0.002); and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP; 0.297; 95% CI, 0.144-0.451; P = 0.002). The corresponding figure was inverse for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-0.267; 95% CI, -0.406 to -0.128; P = 0.001). Significant heterogeneity existed between studies, except for FBS. After excluding studies that led to the highest effect on the heterogeneity test, the association between fructose consumption and TG, SBP, and HDL became non-significant. The results did not show any evidence of publication bias. No missing studies were identified with the trim-and-fill method. Fructose consumption from industrialized foods has significant effects on most components of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Collection and use of individual behavioral and consumption rate data to improve reconstruction of thyroid doses from nuclear weapons tests in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Bouville, Andre; Land, Charles; Luckyanov, Nick; Simon, Steven L.; Schwerin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Historical behavioral and consumption rate data were collected from residents of Kazakhstan exposed to nuclear weapons testing fallout using a focus group data collection strategy. These data will enable improved thyroid dose estimation in a radiation epidemiological study being carried out the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The study on the relationship of radiation exposure from weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a cohort of 2,994 subjects is now in a stage of improving earlier dose estimates based on individual information collected from a basic questionnaire administered to the study population in 1998. The study subjects of both Kazakh and Russian origin were exposed during childhood to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site between 1949 and 1962. Due to the long time since exposure, a well developed strategy is necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. Limitations of the data collected in 1998 suggested the need to obtain reliable information that is tailored specific to the requirements of the dose reconstruction algorithm and to the evaluation of individual dose uncertainties. Focus group data collection in Kazakhstan in 2007 involved four 8-person focus groups (three of women and one of men) in each of four exposed settlements where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Age-specific data on relevant childhood behaviour, including time spent indoors and consumption of milk and other dairy products from cows, goats, horses, and sheep, were collected from women's groups. Men's focus groups were interviewed about construction materials of houses and schools as well as animal grazing patterns and supplemental feed to animals. Information obtained from the focus groups are being used to derive the settlement-, ethnicity-, age-, and gender-specific (where appropriate) probability density distributions on individual consumption rates of milk and dairy products

  16. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  17. 78 FR 8192 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice... study will assess the implementation of resources, models, and technologies to determine how and why...

  18. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product portion of the HANPP Collection contains tabular data on carbon-equivalents of...

  19. Use of COTS Infrared Camera Arrays for Enhanced Human in the Loop Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate the use of one or more Microsoft Kinect infrared cameras for the application of passive data collection during human in the loop (HITL) tests. By using...

  20. Early consumption of human milk oligosaccharides is inversely related to subsequent risk of respiratory and enteric disease in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepans, Mary Beth Flanders; Wilhelm, Susan L; Hertzog, Melody; Rodehorst, T Kim Callahan; Blaney, Susan; Clemens, Beth; Polak, Josef J; Newburg, David S

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study tested the relationship between human milk oligosaccharide consumption, oligosaccharide content of feces, and subsequent disease in breastfed infants. Forty-nine (49) mother-infant pairs provided milk and fecal samples 2 weeks postpartum; infant health was assessed through 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. LNF-II (lacto-N-fucopentaose II), a major human milk oligosaccharide, was measured to represent levels of total oligosaccharides consumed in milk and remaining in feces. LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks postpartum were associated with fewer infant respiratory problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.010), as were LNF-II levels in infant feces (p = 0.003). LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks were also associated with fewer respiratory problems by 12 weeks (p = 0.038), and fewer enteric problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.004) and 12 weeks (p = 0.045). Thus, consumption of human milk oligosaccharides through breastfeeding, represented by LNF-II, was associated with less reported respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in infants.

  1. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Anjan Panneer; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  2. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  3. Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexis Louise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red wine contains a naturally rich source of antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress, a determinant of age-related disease. The current study set out to determine the in vivo effects of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in the circulation. Methods 20 young (18–30 yrs and 20 older (≥ 50 yrs volunteers were recruited. Each age group was randomly divided into treatment subjects who consumed 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, or control subjects who abstained from alcohol for two weeks, after which they crossed over into the other group. Blood samples were collected before and after red wine consumption and were used for analysis of whole blood glutathione (GSH, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA and serum total antioxidant status. Results Results from this study show consumption of red wine induced significant increases in plasma total antioxidant status (P Conclusion It may be implied from this data that red wine provides general oxidative protection and to lipid systems in circulation via the increase in antioxidant status.

  4. The Zagreb Collection of human brains: a unique, versatile, but underexploited resource for the neuroscience community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaš, Miloš; Šimić, Goran; Petanjek, Zdravko; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša; Pletikos, Mihovil; Vasung, Lana; Vukšić, Mario; Kostović, Ivica

    2011-05-01

    The Zagreb Collection of developing and adult human brains was founded in 1974 by Ivica Kostović and consists of 1,278 developing and adult human brains, including 610 fetal, 317 children, and 359 adult brains. It is one of the largest collections of developing human brains. The collection serves as a key resource for many focused research projects and has led to several seminal contributions on mammalian cortical development, such as the discovery of the transient fetal subplate zone and of early bilaminar synaptogenesis in the embryonic and fetal human cerebral cortex, and the first description of growing afferent pathways in the human fetal telencephalon. The Zagreb Collection also serves as a core resource for ever-growing networks of international collaboration and represents the starting point for many young investigators who now pursue independent research careers at leading international institutions. The Zagreb Collection, however, remains underexploited owing to a lack of adequate funding in Croatia. Funding could establish an online catalog of the collection and modern virtual microscopy scanning methods to make the collection internationally more accessible. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Social collective intelligence: combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorandi, Daniele; Maltese, Vincenzo; Rovatsos, Michael; Nijholt, Antinus; Stewart, James

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and

  6. Weeds as a source for human consumption. A comparison between tropical and temperate Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Díaz-Betancourt

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Weeds abound in urban and agricultural environments. Depending on region and site, up to 66% of weed species are edible, and may constitute an additional food source for humans. Based on 400 samples, ¼ m² each, collected in tropical areas (e.g., roadsides, urban vacant lots, streets, sugar cane and coffee plantations in Coatepec, Mexico, average figures of edible fresh biomass vary between 1277 and 3582 kg/ha. A similar survey performed in a temperate area (739 samples in Bariloche, Argentina showed mean values between 287 and 2939 kg/ha. A total of 43 species were sampled in Coatepec and 32 species in Bariloche. The general means were 2.1 and 1.3 tons/ha, respectively. At a greater geographic scale, a comparison between Mexican and Argentine weeds shows that, proportionately, the food parts vary a little between regions. In general, from higher to lower, the order of uses goes from leaves, seeds, roots, fruits, herbals, flowers and condiments. Edible roots (including bulbs and rhizomes appear to be more common among perennials than among annuals.Las malezas abundan en ambientes urbanos y rurales. Según la región y lugar, hasta el 66% de las especies de malezas pueden ser comestibles y constituir un recurso alimentario adicional para el ser humano. Sobre la base de 400 muestras de ¼ m² cada una, recolectadas en áreas tropicales (rutas, terrenos baldíos, calles y plantaciones en Coatepec, México el promedio de la biomasa en peso fresco varió entre 1 277 y 3 582 kg/ha. Un muestreo similar en un área templada (739 muestras en Bariloche, Argentina arrojó valores medios entre 287 y 2 939 kg/ha. En total se registraron 43 especies en Coatepec y 32 especies en Bariloche. La media general (total fue de 2.1 y 1.3 ton/ha, respectivamente. A una escala geográfica mayor, una comparación entre las malezas mexicanas y argentinas no mostró mayores variaciones regionales en cuanto a qué partes u órganos son los comestibles. En ambos lugares, el

  7. Human health risks related to the consumption of foodstuffs of animal origin contaminated by bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, Sébastien; Bemrah, Nawel; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Marchioni, Eric; Le Bizec, Bruno; Faivre, Franck; Kadawathagedara, Manik; Botton, Jérémie; Rivière, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a wide variety of products and objects for consumers use (digital media such as CD's and DVD's, sport equipment, food and beverage containers, medical equipment). For humans, the main route of exposure to BPA is food. Based on previous estimates, almost 20% of the dietary exposure to BPA in the French population would be from food of animal origin. However, due to the use of composite samples, the source of the contamination had not been identified. Therefore, 322 individual samples of non-canned foods of animal origin were collected with the objectives of first updating the estimation of the exposure of the French population and second identifying the source of contamination of these foodstuffs using a specific analytical method. Compared to previous estimates in France, a decline in the contamination of the samples was observed, in particular with regard to meat. The estimated mean dietary exposures ranged from 0.048 to 0.050 μg (kg bw) -1 d -1 for 3-17 year children and adolescents, from 0.034 to 0.035 μg (kg bw) -1 d -1 for adults and from 0.047 to 0.049 μg (kg bw) -1 d -1 for pregnant women. The contribution of meat to total dietary exposure of pregnant women, adults and children was up to three times lower than the previous estimates. Despite this downward trend in contamination, the toxicological values were observed to have been exceeded for the population of pregnant women. With the aim of acquiring more knowledge about the origin the potential source(s) of contamination of non-canned foods of animal origin, a specific analytical method was developed to directly identify and quantify the presence of conjugated BPA (BPA-monoglucuronide, BPA-diglucuronide and sulphate forms) in 50 samples. No conjugated forms of BPAs were detected in the analysed samples, indicating clearly that BPA content in animal food was not due to metabolism but arise post mortem in food. This contamination may occur during food production. However

  8. Cow milk consumption, insulin-like growth factor-I, and human biology: a life history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the life history consequences of cow milk consumption at different stages in early life (prenatal to adolescence), especially with regard to linear growth and age at menarche and the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in mediating a relationship among milk, growth and development, and long-term biological outcomes. United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and review of existing literature. The literature tends to support milk's role in enhancing growth early in life (prior to age 5 years), but there is less support for this relationship during middle childhood. Milk has been associated with early menarche and with acceleration of linear growth in adolescence. NHANES data show a positive relationship between milk intake and linear growth in early childhood and adolescence, but not middle childhood, a period of relatively slow growth. IGF-I is a candidate bioactive molecule linking milk consumption to more rapid growth and development, although the mechanism by which it may exert such effects is unknown. Routine milk consumption is an evolutionarily novel dietary behavior that has the potential to alter human life history parameters, especially vis-à-vis linear growth, which in turn may have negative long-term biological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Resilience of the Nexus of Competitive Water Consumption between Human Society and Environment Development: Regime Shifts and Early Warning Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Liu, P.; Feng, M.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the modeling of the water supply, power generation and environment (WPE) nexus by Feng et al. (2016), a refined theoretical model of competitive water consumption between human society and environment has been presented in this study, examining the role of technology advancement and social environmental awareness growth-induced pollution mitigation to the environment as a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of the coexistence of both higher social water consumption and improved environment condition. By coupling environmental and social dynamics, both of which are represented by water consumption quantity, this study shows the possibility of sustainable situation of the social-environmental system when the benefit of technology offsets the side effect (pollution) of social development to the environment. Additionally, regime shifts could be triggered by gradually increased pollution rate, climate change-induced natural resources reduction and breakdown of the social environmental awareness. Therefore, in order to foresee the pending abrupt regime shifts of the system, early warning signals, including increasing variance and autocorrelation, have been examined when the system is undergoing stochastic disturbance. ADDIN EN.REFLIST Feng, M. et al., 2016. Modeling the nexus across water supply, power generation and environment systems using the system dynamics approach: Hehuang Region, China. J. Hydrol., 543: 344-359.

  10. Hydroxylated phenylacetamides derived from bioactive benzoxazinoids are bioavailable in humans after habitual consumption of whole grain sourdough rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Manfred; Lloyd, Amanda J; Haldar, Sumanto; Seal, Chris; Brandt, Kirsten; Draper, John

    2013-10-01

    Understanding relationships between dietary whole grain and health is hindered by incomplete knowledge of potentially bioactive metabolites derived from these foods. We aimed to discover compounds in urine correlated with changes in amounts of whole grain rye consumption. After a wash-out period, volunteers consumed 48-g whole grain rye foods per day for 4 wk and then doubled their intake for a further 4 wk. Samples of 24-h urines were analyzed by flow infusion electrospray MS followed by supervised multivariate data analysis. Urine samples from participants who reported high intakes of rye flakes, rye pasta, or total whole grain rye products could not be discriminated adequately from their wash-out samples. However, discrimination was seen in urine samples from participants who reported high whole grain sourdough rye bread consumption. Accurate mass analysis of explanatory signals followed by fragmentation identified conjugates of the benzoxazinoid lactam 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one and hydroxylated phenyl acetamide derivatives. Statistical validation showed sensitivities of 84-96% and specificities of 70-81% (p values bread consumption. Several potentially bioactive alkaloids have been identified in humans consuming fermented whole grain sourdough rye bread. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Privacy in Sensor-Driven Human Data Collection: A Guide for Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Pietri, Riccardo; Pentland, Alex; Lazer, David; Lehmann, Sune

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the amount of information collected about human beings has increased dramatically. This development has been partially driven by individuals posting and storing data about themselves and friends using online social networks or collecting their data for self-tracking purposes (quantified-self movement). Across the sciences, researchers conduct studies collecting data with an unprecedented resolution and scale. Using computational power combined with mathematical models, such r...

  12. 78 FR 26639 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Comment Request: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking (NCI) Summary: In compliance with the... techniques or other forms of information technology. To Submit Comments and for Further Information: To... this publication. Proposed Collection: Financial Sustainability of Human Tissue Biobanking, 0925-NEW...

  13. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-12-01

    To investigate consumption of ultra-processed products in Canada and to assess their association with dietary quality. Application of a classification of foodstuffs based on the nature, extent and purpose of food processing to data from a national household food budget survey. Foods are classified as unprocessed/minimally processed foods (Group 1), processed culinary ingredients (Group 2) or ultra-processed products (Group 3). All provinces and territories of Canada, 2001. Households (n 5643). Food purchases provided a mean per capita energy availability of 8908 (se 81) kJ/d (2129 (se 19) kcal/d). Over 61·7 % of dietary energy came from ultra-processed products (Group 3), 25·6 % from Group 1 and 12·7 % from Group 2. The overall diet exceeded WHO upper limits for fat, saturated fat, free sugars and Na density, with less fibre than recommended. It also exceeded the average energy density target of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Group 3 products taken together are more fatty, sugary, salty and energy-dense than a combination of Group 1 and Group 2 items. Only the 20 % lowest consumers of ultra-processed products (who consumed 33·2 % of energy from these products) were anywhere near reaching all nutrient goals for the prevention of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases. The 2001 Canadian diet was dominated by ultra-processed products. As a group, these products are unhealthy. The present analysis indicates that any substantial improvement of the diet would involve much lower consumption of ultra-processed products and much higher consumption of meals and dishes prepared from minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients.

  14. Positron tomography investigation in humans of the local coupling among CBF, oxygen consumption and glucose utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J C; Rougemont, D; Soussaline, F; Crouzel, C; Bousser, M G; Comar, D

    1983-06-01

    Positron tomography investigation of the local coupling among cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen consumption (CMRO/sub 2/) and glucose utilization (CMRGlc) was performed in 5 controls and 6 ischemic stroke patients, using oxygen 15 inhalation technique immediately followed by I.V. injection of /sup 18/F-Fluoro-Desoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG). The normal couple among all 3 variables was demonstrated; but on the other hand significant disruption of either or both the CBF-CMRGlc and the CMRO/sub 2/-CMRGlc couples was found in all 6 stroke patients. Comments on these new findings were made.

  15. Horse-meat for human consumption - Current research and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaunzaran, Xabier; Bessa, Rui J B; Lavín, Paz; Mantecón, Angel R; Kramer, John K G; Aldai, Noelia

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of horse-meat is currently not popular in most countries, but because of its availability and recognized nutritional value consumption is slowly increasing in several western European countries based on claims that it could be an alternative red meat. In this review, horse-meat production, trade and supply values have been summarized. In addition, the advantage of horse production is noted because of its lower methane emissions and increased uptake, particularly of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which is based on its digestive physiology. Of particular interest in this review is the unique fatty acid composition of horse-meat with its high level of the nutritionally desirable PUFAs in both the adipose and muscle fat. Because of its large frame size and digestive physiology, the horse can be considered an alternative to bovine meat, with large advantages regarding the maintenance of less favored mountain grazing areas and its facility to transfer PUFA from feed to meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of moderate walnut consumption on lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, J N; Aftab, S M; Jubb, A W; Carnegy, F H; Lyall, K; Sarma, J; Newby, D E; Flapan, A D

    2011-02-01

    A large intake of walnuts may improve lipid profile and endothelial function. The effect of moderate walnut consumption is not known. We investigated whether a moderate intake of walnuts would affect lipid profile, arterial stiffness and platelet activation in healthy volunteers. A total of 30 healthy males were recruited into a single-blind randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation (15 g/day) and 4 weeks of control (no walnuts). Arterial stiffness was assessed using pulse waveform analysis to determine the augmentation index and augmented pressure. Platelet activation was determined using flow cytometry to measure circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates. There were no differences in lipid profile after 4 weeks of walnut supplementation compared with control. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was increased during the walnut diet (2.1±0.4 g/day versus 0.7±0.4 g/day, Pprofile, arterial stiffness or platelet activation in man. Our results suggest that the potentially beneficial cardiac effects of walnuts may not be apparent at lower and more practical levels of consumption.

  17. Cocoa consumption reduces NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Agell, M; Urpi-Sarda, M; Sacanella, E; Camino-López, S; Chiva-Blanch, G; Llorente-Cortés, V; Tobias, E; Roura, E; Andres-Lacueva, C; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Badimon, L; Estruch, R

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between high-polyphenol intake and reduced incidence of atherosclerosis. The healthy effects of cocoa-polyphenols may be due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, although the exact mechanisms are unknown and depend on the matrix in which cocoa-polyphenols are delivered. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a key molecule in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis involved in the regulation of adhesion molecules(AM) and cytokine expression and its activation is the first step in triggering the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute cocoa consumption in different matrices related to the bioavailability of cocoa-polyphenols in NF-κB activation and the expression of AM. Eighteen healthy volunteers randomly received 3 interventions: 40g of cocoa powder with milk (CM), with water (CW), and only milk (M). NF-κB activation in leukocytes and AM (sICAM, sVCAM, E-selectin) were measured before and 6h after each intervention. Consumption of CW significantly decreased NF-κB activation compared to baseline and to CM (P cocoa intake may depend on the bioavailability of bioactive compounds and may be mediated at least in part by the modulation of NF-κB activation and downstream molecules reinforcing the link between cocoa intake and health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic theories of sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The term `sustainable consumption' denotes the search for consumption patterns that reduce human pressure on the environment and nature. This searchinvolves three levels of research. First, the relationship between consumption, lifestyles and environmental sustainability has to be clarified.

  19. Explanation of asymmetric dynamics of human water consumption in arid regions: prospect theory versus expected utility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F.; Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Based on socioeconomic and hydrological data in three arid inland basins and error analysis, the dynamics of human water consumption (HWC) are analyzed to be asymmetric, i.e., HWC increase rapidly in wet periods while maintain or decrease slightly in dry periods. Besides the qualitative analysis that in wet periods great water availability inspires HWC to grow fast but the now expanded economy is managed to sustain by over-exploitation in dry periods, two quantitative models are established and tested, based on expected utility theory (EUT) and prospect theory (PT) respectively. EUT states that humans make decisions based on the total expected utility, namely the sum of utility function multiplied by probability of each result, while PT states that the utility function is defined over gains and losses separately, and probability should be replaced by probability weighting function.

  20. Influence of Camembert consumption on the composition and metabolism of intestinal microbiota: a study in human microbiota-associated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christophe; Sutren, Malène; Lepercq, Pascale; Juste, Catherine; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Lhoste, Evelyne; Lemée, Riwanon; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Doré, Joël; Andrieux, Claude

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the consequence of Camembert consumption on the composition and metabolism of human intestinal microbiota. Camembert cheese was compared with milk fermented by yoghurt starters and Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic reference. The experimental model was the human microbiota-associated (HM) rat. HM rats were fed a basal diet (HMB group), a diet containing Camembert made from pasteurised milk (HMCp group) or a diet containing fermented milk (HMfm group). The level of micro-organisms from dairy products was measured in faeces using cultures on a specific medium and PCR-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. The metabolic characteristics of the caecal microbiota were also studied: SCFA, NH3, glycosidase and reductase activities, and bile acid degradations. The results showed that micro-organisms from cheese comprised 10(5)-10(8) bacteria/g faecal sample in the HMCp group. Lactobacillus species from fermented milk were detected in HMfm rats. Consumption of cheese and fermented milk led to similar changes in bacterial metabolism: a decrease in azoreductase activity and NH3 concentration and an increase in mucolytic activities. However, specific changes were observed: in HMCp rats, the proportion of ursodeoxycholic resulting from chenodeoxycholic epimerisation was higher; in HMfm rats, alpha and beta-galactosidases were higher than in other groups and both azoreductases and nitrate reductases were lower. The results show that, as for fermented milk, Camembert consumption did not greatly modify the microbiota profile or its major metabolic activities. Ingested micro-organisms were able to survive in part during intestinal transit. These dairy products exert a potentially beneficial influence on intestinal metabolism.

  1. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  2. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  4. Use of colony-based bacterial strain typing for tracking the fate of Lactobacillus strains during human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drevinek Pavel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are important components of the healthy gut flora and have been used extensively as probiotics. Understanding the cultivable diversity of LAB before and after probiotic administration, and being able to track the fate of administered probiotic isolates during feeding are important parameters to consider in the design of clinical trials to assess probiotic efficacy. Several methods may be used to identify bacteria at the strain level, however, PCR-based methods such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD are particularly suited to rapid analysis. We examined the cultivable diversity of LAB in the human gut before and after feeding with two Lactobacillus strains, and also tracked the fate of these two administered strains using a RAPD technique. Results A RAPD typing scheme was developed to genetically type LAB isolates from a wide range of species, and optimised for direct application to bacterial colony growth. A high-throughput strategy for fingerprinting the cultivable diversity of human faeces was developed and used to determine: (i the initial cultivable LAB strain diversity in the human gut, and (ii the fate of two Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus salivarius NCIMB 30211 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30156 contained within a capsule that was administered in a small-scale human feeding study. The L. salivarius strain was not cultivated from the faeces of any of the 12 volunteers prior to capsule administration, but appeared post-feeding in four. Strains matching the L. acidophilus NCIMB 30156 feeding strain were found in the faeces of three volunteers prior to consumption; after taking the Lactobacillus capsule, 10 of the 12 volunteers were culture positive for this strain. The appearance of both Lactobacillus strains during capsule consumption was statistically significant (p Conclusion We have shown that genetic strain typing of the cultivable human gut microbiota can be

  5. 137Cs And 210Po Dose Assessment Due To Consumption Of Red Sea Coral Reef Fishes Collected From The Local Market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, R. K.; Sam, A. K.; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea area) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Activity concentrations of 210 Po and 137 Cs were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. for 210 Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.3 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 137 Cs which are several times lower than those of 210 Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for 137 Cs, this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 137 Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po. (Authors)

  6. Collection and classification of human error and human reliability data from Indian nuclear power plants for use in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, K.; Saraf, R.K.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Venkat Raj, V.; Venkatraman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Complex systems such as NPPs involve a large number of Human Interactions (HIs) in every phase of plant operations. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of a PSA, attempts to model the HIs and evaluate/predict their impact on safety and reliability using human error/human reliability data. A large number of HRA techniques have been developed for modelling and integrating HIs into PSA but there is a significant lack of HAR data. In the face of insufficient data, human reliability analysts have had to resort to expert judgement methods in order to extend the insufficient data sets. In this situation, the generation of data from plant operating experience assumes importance. The development of a HRA data bank for Indian nuclear power plants was therefore initiated as part of the programme of work on HRA. Later, with the establishment of the coordinated research programme (CRP) on collection of human reliability data and use in PSA by IAEA in 1994-95, the development was carried out under the aegis of the IAEA research contract No. 8239/RB. The work described in this report covers the activities of development of a data taxonomy and a human error reporting form (HERF) based on it, data structuring, review and analysis of plant event reports, collection of data on human errors, analysis of the data and calculation of human error probabilities (HEPs). Analysis of plant operating experience does yield a good amount of qualitative data but obtaining quantitative data on human reliability in the form of HEPs is seen to be more difficult. The difficulties have been highlighted and some ways to bring about improvements in the data situation have been discussed. The implementation of a data system for HRA is described and useful features that can be incorporated in future systems are also discussed. (author)

  7. Chemometric analysis of the consumption of oral rinse chlorite (ClO2-) by human salivary biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hubert; Blackburn, John; Grootveld, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Oral rinse formulations containing chlorite anion (ClO(2)(-)) as an active agent exert a range of valuable oral healthcare activities. However, salivary biomolecules which chemically react with this oxidant can, at least in principle, serve as potentially significant barriers to these therapeutic properties in the oral environment. Therefore, in this investigation, we have explored the extent of ClO(2)(-) consumption by biomolecules which scavenge this agent in human salivary supernatants (HSSs) in vitro. HSS samples were equilibrated with oral rinse formulations containing this active agent (30 s at 35 °C in order to mimic oral rinsing episodes). Differential spectrophotometric and ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses were employed to determine residual ClO(2)(-) in these admixtures. Bioanalytical data acquired revealed the rapid consumption of ClO(2)(-) by biomolecular electron donors and/or antioxidants present in HSS samples. Mean ± 95 % confidence interval (CI) consumption levels of 7.14 ± 0.69 and 5.34 ± 0.69 % of the total ClO(2)(-) available were found for oral rinse products containing 0.10 and 0.40 % (w/v) ClO(2)(-), respectively. A mixed model analysis-of-variance performed on experimental data acquired demonstrated highly-significant differences between oral rinse ClO(2)(-) contents (p biomolecules for both oral rinse formulations investigated. These observations are of much clinical significance in view of the retention of these products' active agent, i.e. biomolecules within recommended 30 s oral rinsing episodes, and hence, the bulk of this oxyhalogen oxidant (>90 %) may effectively exert its essential microbicidal, anti-periodontal and oral malodour-neutralising actions.

  8. EFFECT OF CHIA SEED (SALVIA HISPANICA L.) CONSUMPTION ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Cynthia; dd Sousa Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima; da Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, either milled or whole, has in the prevention/control of cardiovascular risk factors in humans. this is a systematic literature review (SLR) with no meta-analysis. The articles scrutinizedwere identified in the electronic databases Lilacs, Medline (Pub- Med version), Cochrane, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science under the keywords"dyslipidemia" or "dislipidemia", "hyperlipidemia" or "hiperlipidemia", "obesity" or "obesidade", "salvia"or"salviahispanica", "Lamiaceae" or "chia", "hypertension" or "hipertensão", "hypertrygliceridemia" or "hipertrigliceridemia", and "riscocardiovascular" or "cardiovascularrisk." We chose for our selection English-, Portuguese- or Spanish-language articles about clinical trials on humans and published within the last ten years. The biases of risk analysis were carried out considering 6 of the 8 criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. seven studies (n = 200) fit our inclusion criteria. Of the chosen clinical trials, only one was not randomized. Five of the studies were blind experiments. Two of the studies were acute trials, both of them randomized. Of the chia seed interventions, one study showed a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inflammatory markers, yet there was no change in body mass, lipid profile or blood sugar. In four of the studies reviewed there was a significant spike in ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with no significant change to other parameters. In the acute trials, post

  9. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cystein upon garlic consumption by human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, B.M.; Boogaard, P.J.; Rijksen, D.A.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    N-Acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (allylmercapturic acid, ALMA) was previously detected in urine from humans consuming garlic. Exposure of rats to allyl halides is also known to lead to excretion of ALMA in urine. ALMA is a potential biomarker for exposure assessment of workers exposed to allyl halides.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors for se...

  11. Impact of consumption of oligosaccharide-containing biscuits on the fecal microbiota of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tannock, G.W.; Munro, K.; Bibiloni, R.; Simon, M.A.; Hargreaves, P.; Gopal, P.; Harmsen, H.J.M.; Welling, Gjalt

    Human subjects consumed biscuits containing either galacto-oligosaccharides or fructo-oligosaccharides in a double-blinded, crossover study. The impact of supplementing the diet with three biscuits per day on the fecal microbiota was evaluated by selective culture of particular bacterial groups,

  12. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Possibilities of collecting evidences about crime act of sexual exploitation in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.

  14. Optimising land use and consumption of livestock products in the human diet with an increasing human population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Land use related to food production is generally quantified using product-based life cycle assessments. We, however, quantified land use of diet scenarios with a land use optimization model. Energy and protein requirement of human populations, varying from 15 to 30 mil-lion people, were met with the

  15. Microbial community assessment of mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) and grasshoppers (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) sold for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, J; Crauwels, S; Waud, M; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2016-02-01

    In Western countries, the popularity of edible insects as an alternative animal protein source is increasing. Nevertheless, there is a lack of profound insight into the microbial safety and shelf life of living insects sold for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to characterise the microflora of fresh edible mealworm larvae and grasshoppers in a quantitative and qualitative way. Therefore, culture-dependent analyses (the total viable aerobic count, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and bacterial endospores) and next-generation sequencing (454amplicon pyrosequencing) were performed. High microbial counts were obtained for both insect species. Different insect batches resulted in quite similar microbial numbers, except for bacterial endospores. However, the bacterial community composition differed between both insect species. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in mealworm larvae was Propionibacterium. Also members of the genera Haemophilus, Staphylococcus and Clostridium were found. Grasshoppers were mainly dominated by Weissella, Lactococcus and Yersinia/Rahnella. Overall, a variety of potential spoilage bacteria and food pathogens were characterised. The results of this study suggest that a processing step with a microbiocidal effect is required to avoid or minimize risks involved with the consumption of edible insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decree of the 12. may 2004 giving the modes of monitoring the radiation quality of waters specified to human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The present decree settles the modes of radiation quality monitoring of waters specified for human consumption. It defines the radionuclides to be taken into account for the calculation of the total indicative dose. The total indicative dose corresponds to the involved efficient dose resulted from an intake during one year of every natural radionuclide, radon and its short lived daughters excepted ( specified in present annexe). The calculation of dose is made for adults on the base of a consumption of 730 liters of water by year. The coefficients of doses used to allow the dose calculation from the measured activity, expressed in SvBq -1 , are these ones taken in application of the article R.13333-10 of the code of Public Health. The alpha and beta activities, tritium and potassium activities have to be measured whatever the case. According to the results of the reference analysis and the type of installation in proximity it is proceeding to the research of other radioactive elements such 234 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Po, 210 Pb, 14 C, 90 Sr, gamma emitters radionuclides in particular 60 Co, 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs and alpha emitters radionuclides in particular 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am. (N.C.)

  17. Increased ethanol consumption despite taste aversion in mice with a human tryptophan hydroxylase 2 loss of function mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Francis; Doré, François Y; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2015-11-16

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the brain serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, with co-morbidity of substance use disorder. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on addiction. Mice expressing a human Tph2 loss of function variant were used to investigate consequences of aversive conditions on ethanol intake. Mice were familiarized either with ethanol or a solution containing both ethanol and the bittering agent quinine. Effect of familiarization to ethanol or an ethanol-quinine solution was then evaluated using a two-bottles preference test in Tph2-KI and control littermates. Mice from both genotypes displayed similar levels of ethanol consumption and quinine avoidance when habituated to ethanol alone. In contrast, addition of quinine to ethanol during the familiarization period resulted in a reduction of avoidance for the quinine-ethanol solution only in mutant mice. These results indicate that loss of function mutation in Tph2 results in greater motivation for ethanol consumption under aversive conditions and may confer enhanced sensitivity to alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-06

    conversational agent with information exchange disabled until the end of the experiment run. The meaning of the indicator in the top- right of the agent... Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language Alun Preece∗, William...email: PreeceAD@cardiff.ac.uk †Emerging Technology Services, IBM United Kingdom Ltd, Hursley Park, Winchester, UK ‡US Army Research Laboratory, Human

  19. An expected outbreak of human trichinellosis for the consumption of horsemeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamburrini A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In late February 1998, an outbreak of human trichinellosis occurred in the town of Piacenza (northern Italy among 92 persons who had eaten raw horsemeat. The source of infection was a horse imported to the abattoir of Brescia one month previously. Although the horse had been found to be positive for trichinellosis upon routine examination, the head of an uninfected horse was exchanged with the head of the infected animal, which was mistakenly placed on the market.

  20. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  1. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit.

  2. Social collective intelligence combining the powers of humans and machines to build a smarter society

    CERN Document Server

    Miorandi, Daniele; Rovatsos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on Social Collective Intelligence, a term used to denote a class of socio-technical systems that combine, in a coordinated way, the strengths of humans, machines and collectives in terms of competences, knowledge and problem solving capabilities with the communication, computing and storage capabilities of advanced ICT.Social Collective Intelligence opens a number of challenges for researchers in both computer science and social sciences; at the same time it provides an innovative approach to solve challenges in diverse application domains, ranging from health to education

  3. Human error data collection analysis program undertaken since 1982 by Electricite de France with INPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghertman, F.; Dietz, P.

    1985-01-01

    The preoccupation for reducing in frequency and importance events which harm at various degrees the availability, the safety and the security of nuclear power plants lead Electricite de France, in cooperation with INPO (Institute of Nuclear Power Operations) to launch a Human Error Collection and Analysis Program. On account with the difficulties met to develop such a program, it has been decided to begin with a pilot data collection limited to a six months period (October 1982 to April 1983) and three nuclear power plants (three US units and two French units). This pilot data collection followed four steps: (1) elaboration of the collection methodology; (2) sensitization and related training of the power plant personnel; (3) data collection in the power plant; and (4) analysis of the data and results. Each of the steps are discussed in the paper

  4. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  5. Cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate consumption in humans driven by adrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas S; Brassard, Patrice; Jørgensen, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    infusion (P glucose (P neurons an abundant provision......During brain activation, the decrease in the ratio between cerebral oxygen and carbohydrate uptake (6 O(2)/(glucose + (1)/(2) lactate); the oxygen-carbohydrate index, OCI) is attenuated by the non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, whereas OCI remains unaffected by the beta...... kg(-1) min(-1) i.v. for 20 min) on the arterial to internal jugular venous concentration differences (a-v diff) of O(2), glucose and lactate in healthy humans. Adrenaline (n = 10) increased the arterial concentrations of O(2), glucose and lactate (P glucose...

  6. An Animal Model for Collective Behavior in Humans: The Impact of Manipulated Trust and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    political choice, in consumer preferences , etc.). Numerous terms and theories have been posited in order to explain this group effect (‘Herd morality’; ‘Herd...human collective behavior (e.g. in the stock market, in political choice, in consumer preferences , etc), as well as disclosing the underlying

  7. A methodology for collection and analysis of human error data based on a cognitive model: IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, S.-H.; Smidts, C.; Mosleh, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based human error taxonomy and data collection. The underlying model, IDA (described in two companion papers), is a cognitive model of behavior developed for analysis of the actions of nuclear power plant operating crew during abnormal situations. The taxonomy is established with reference to three external reference points (i.e. plant status, procedures, and crew) and four reference points internal to the model (i.e. information collected, diagnosis, decision, action). The taxonomy helps the analyst: (1) recognize errors as such; (2) categorize the error in terms of generic characteristics such as 'error in selection of problem solving strategies' and (3) identify the root causes of the error. The data collection methodology is summarized in post event operator interview and analysis summary forms. The root cause analysis methodology is illustrated using a subset of an actual event. Statistics, which extract generic characteristics of error prone behaviors and error prone situations are presented. Finally, applications of the human error data collection are reviewed. A primary benefit of this methodology is to define better symptom-based and other auxiliary procedures with associated training to minimize or preclude certain human errors. It also helps in design of control rooms, and in assessment of human error probabilities in the probabilistic risk assessment framework. (orig.)

  8. Strontium-90 content of human bones collected from 1962 to 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.

    1967-01-01

    The aim of this report is essentially to present results of 90 Sr determination made on human bones collected in the Paris region from 1962 to 1966. The results are classified according to the year and the age-group in, two tables and one figure which show the general evolution of the contamination during this period. (author) [fr

  9. Collective violence caused by climate change and how it threatens health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2014-06-14

    The weight of scientific evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence. This evidence arises from individual studies over wide ranges of time and geographic location, and from two extensive meta-analyses. Complex pathways that underlie this association are not fully understood; however, increased ambient temperatures and extremes of rainfall, with their resultant adverse impacts on the environment and risk factors for violence, appear to play key roles. Collective violence due to climate change poses serious threats to health and human rights, including by causing morbidity and mortality directly and also indirectly by damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of society, forcing people to migrate from their homes and communities, damaging the environment, and diverting human and financial resources. This paper also briefly addresses issues for future research on the relationship between climate change and collective violence, the prevention of collective violence due to climate change, and States' obligations to protect human rights, to prevent collective violence, and to promote and support measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Copyright © 2014 Levy and Sidel. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  10. High human exposure to lead through consumption of birds hunted with lead shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, P.; Asmund, G.; Riget, F.

    2004-01-01

    Lead shot contaminates the edible parts of birds so that tolerable human lead intake is exceeded. - We assess lead contamination of Greenland seabirds killed with lead shot having studied thick-billed murre and common eider, the two most important species in the diet. The lead concentration is very high in meat of eiders killed with lead shot (mean 6.1 μg/g-wet wt, 95% CL 2.1-12). This level is about 44 times higher than in drowned eiders and eight times higher than in shot murres. Analyzing whole breasts instead of sub-samples reveals about seven times higher lead levels in birds' meat. We conclude that in some cases the lead intake by Greenland bird eaters will largely exceed the FAO/WHO tolerable lead intake guideline and that lead shot is a more important source of lead in the diet than previously estimated

  11. Artificial sweeteners in a large Canadian river reflect human consumption in the watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Spoelstra

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L, cyclamate (2.4 µg/L [corrected], and saccharin (7.2 µg/L are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota

  12. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassona, R K; Sam, A K; Sirelkhatim, D A [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan); Osman, O I [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Larosa, J [Marine Environment Laboratory, IAEA (Monaco)

    2004-12-15

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 2{sup 10P}o and 1{sup 37C}s were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For {sup 210}Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 1{sup 37C}s which are several times lower than those of 2{sup 10P}o. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 ({mu}Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for {sup 137}Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for {sup 210}Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 ({mu}Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of {sup 13}'7Cs is negligible compared to {sup 210}Po.(Author)

  13. 137Cs and 210Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassona, R. K.; Sam, A. K.; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Osman, O. I.; Larosa, J.

    2004-12-01

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 2 10P o and 1 37C s were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 210 Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 1 37C s which are several times lower than those of 2 10P o. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for 137 Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210 Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 13 '7Cs is negligible compared to 210 Po.(Author)

  14. CONTAMINATION RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOURCES OF WATER INTENDED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION WITH AEROMONAS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available mportance of Aeromonas spp as emerging pathogens in recent years has been a considerable increase, beingincluded by the World Health Organization (WHO and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA in the etiology ofwaterborne epidemics. We aimed to investigate the distribution of Aeromonas spp. in various aquatic ecosystems whichcan become potential sources of gastrointestinal infections. Simultaneously, the presence of this pathogen was evaluatedin relation to microbiological indicators set out in EU Directive 98/83/EC. Between March 2009 and May 2011 wereanalyzed by membrane filter technique untreated water samples, collected from surface sources (lakes, ponds andgroundwater (wells drilled, captured springs, wells and chlorinated water that coming from local distribution network,located in rural areas of Moldova (North-East Romania. The information was processed and interpreted statisticallyusing EpiInfo 3.5.1 software. The presence of Aeromonas spp. was detected in half of the 220 samples tested, especially,in surface waters (84% and captured springs (80.8% (χ 2=51.39; GL=4; p0.8, being influenced by exogenous humanimpact. The results of this study confirms that untreated water used in rural areas can affect public health andmicrobiological indicators have predictive value for the presence of Aeromonas spp only reporting to surface sources.

  15. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico slaughtered for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Alvarado-Esquivel, Domingo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-01-17

    Nothing is known about Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in donkeys in Mexico. Meat from donkey is consumed by humans in Mexico and also exported to other countries. We sought to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) for slaughter in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Donkeys were sampled in four premises (trade centers) where donkeys were gather for shipment to abattoirs in other Mexican states. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 26 (10.9%) of 239 donkeys, with MAT titers of 1:25 in 7, 1:50 in 11, 1:100 in 6, and 1:200 in 2. Seropositive donkeys were found in three (75%) of the four gathering premises studied. Seroprevalence in donkeys varied from 0% to 23.1% among gathering premises. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was comparable among donkeys regardless their age, sex or health status. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found in donkeys between 1 to 12 years old. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with the gathering premises (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.11-2.24; P = 0.009). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in donkeys in Mexico. Results indicate that consumption of undercooked or raw meat from T. gondii-infected donkeys is potentially a source of T. gondii infection for humans.

  16. Association between sodium bicarbonate consumption and human health: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadolah Fakhri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda is a chemical compound dissolved in water which is widely used as an additive in foods and mineral water and as a medicine. In Iran, due to the introduction of harmful effects of this compound, using it in baking is prohibited. Therefore, we tried to search and evaluate all health effects of using this compound with a systematic review. In this study, all available evidences on the beneficial and harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate were searched. The method was based on systematic study of reputable databases including Embase, Ovid, Scopus, Pubmed and ISI Web of science. Invalid studies were found that shows the relationship of harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate on general health. In addition to that, the studies showed therapeutic aspects and useful effects of this material. Some studies showed the harmful effects of therapeutic using of sodium bicarbonate with high dose that randomly happened. Reviewing of credible studies showed that not only using sodium bicarbonate is not harmful for human health, but also using it as a drug can be useful in treatment and relief of some diseases

  17. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals.

  18. Regional myocardial oxygen consumption determined noninvasively in humans with [1-11C]acetate and dynamic positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbrecht, J.J.; Buxton, D.B.; Brunken, R.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies of animals have previously demonstrated the validity of [1-11C]acetate as a tracer of oxidative metabolism for use with positron emission tomography. The present study was undertaken to define in normal human volunteers the relation between myocardial clearance kinetics of [1-11C]acetate, and the rate-pressure product as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption. Twenty-two studies were performed of 12 volunteers. The rate-pressure product was increased with continuous supine bicycle exercise in six studies. Of the 16 resting studies, seven were performed in the fasted state and nine following an oral glucose load, to define possible effects of substrate availability on the tracer-tissue kinetics. Myocardial tissue time-activity curves were biexponential. Clearance of activity was homogeneous throughout the myocardium. The rate constants k1, obtained from biexponential fitting, and kmono, obtained by monoexponential fitting of the initial linear portion of the time-activity curves, correlated well with the rate-pressure product. Although the correlation coefficient was higher for k1 than for kmono (0.95 vs. 0.91), analysis on a sectorial basis showed less regional variability in kmono. This suggests that kmono, which is more practical than k1 because it requires shorter acquisition times, may be more clinically and experimentally useful for detection of myocardial segments with abnormal oxygen consumption. Overall, changes in myocardial substrate supply were without significant effect on the relation between the rate constants (k1 and kmono) and the rate-pressure product, although a small decrease in kmono/rate-pressure product was observed following oral glucose by paired analysis in four subjects

  19. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Brodmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available, publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  20. Collective cognition in humans: groups outperform their best members in a sentence reconstruction task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain J G Clément

    Full Text Available Group-living is widespread among animals and one of the major advantages of group-living is the ability of groups to solve cognitive problems that exceed individual ability. Humans also make use of collective cognition and have simultaneously developed a highly complex language to exchange information. Here we investigated collective cognition of human groups regarding language use in a realistic situation. Individuals listened to a public announcement and had to reconstruct the sentence alone or in groups. This situation is often encountered by humans, for instance at train stations or airports. Using recent developments in machine speech recognition, we analysed how well individuals and groups reconstructed the sentences from a syntactic (i.e., the number of errors and semantic (i.e., the quality of the retrieved information perspective. We show that groups perform better both on a syntactic and semantic level than even their best members. Groups made fewer errors and were able to retrieve more information when reconstructing the sentences, outcompeting even their best group members. Our study takes collective cognition studies to the more complex level of language use in humans.

  1. Changes in cultural consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......, particularly when showing them being used). Results support understanding of online heritage consumption and emerging dynamics, particularly outside of an institutional environment, such as Wikipedia. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  2. Evaluation of home collection performed by a human milk bank in a university hospital in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Menezes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation of procedures during household milking and transport of human milk associated with their quality control. Materials and methods. 48 donors registered in the Human Milk Bank of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University at Uberlândia. Observations were made during home visits. A checklist was elaborated according to the technical standards for human milk banks, been associated with  physical-chemical, and microbiological controls. The chi-square test, logistic regression and Spearman test (p menor que 0.05 were used for data analysis. Results. The results suggest that most donors assimilated the guidelines of the milk bank staff and procedures were satisfactorily performed. Conclusion. It could be demonstrated that milking and home collection are safe and effective ways for obtaining donated human milk.

  3. Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area.

  4. Imaging of a large collection of human embryo using a super-parallel MR microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Ono, Shinya; Otake, Yosuke; Handa, Shinya; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Shigeto; Uwabe, Chikako; Shiota, Kohei

    2007-01-01

    Using 4 and 8-channel super-parallel magnetic resonance (MR) microscopes with a horizontal bore 2.34T superconducting magnet developed for 3-dimensional MR microscopy of the large Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos, we acquired T 1 -weighted 3D images of 1204 embryos at a spatial resolution of (40 μm) 3 to (150 μm) 3 in about 2 years. Similarity of image contrast between the T 1 -weighted images and stained anatomical sections indicated that T 1 -weighted 3D images could be used for an anatomical 3D image database for human embryology. (author)

  5. Correlation between carbapenem consumption and resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from patients with intra-abdominal infections at five medical centers in Taiwan, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Mao; Ho, Mao-Wang; Liu, Yung-Ching; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the trend in resistance to carbapenems among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that had been collected from patients with intra-abdominal infections at five medical centers in Taiwan from 2006 to 2010 and evaluated the correlation between resistance to carbapenems and consumption of said agents as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). During the study period, the usage of ertapenem and that of total carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem) increased significantly from 6.13 to 13.38 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days for ertapenem and from 20.43 to 34.25 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days for total carbapenems. The most common species were Escherichia coli (n = 1095), Klebsiella spp. (n = 663), and Enterobacter spp. (n = 202). The susceptibility of all isolates to ertapenem and to imipenem varied during the study period. For ertapenem, the rates of nonsusceptibility ranged from 3.5% to 10.3% and those for imipenem ranged from 3.5% to 10.7%. Although the use of carbapenems increased during the study period, there was no marked increase in resistance to carbapenems. Continuous monitoring of resistance trends is necessary so that antimicrobial prescription policies can be adjusted and infection control intervention programs can be implemented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk assessment of exposure to aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A through consumption of different Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars collected from four geographical regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Rezaee, Ramin; Davarynejad, Gholamhossein; Asili, Javad; Nemati, Seyed Hossein; Goumenou, Marina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Shirani, Kobra; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2018-07-01

    Iran is one of the main suppliers of pistachio for the European market accounting for over 90% of its demands; hence, efficient analytical methods are required for detection of mycotoxins contamination in pistachio kernels before exporting them. In this study, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) levels in five pistachio cultivars collected from four sites of Iran, were measured by HPLC. Based on the results, risk assessment for AFB1 and OTA residues was done. The highest mean concentrations of AFB1 and OTA were found in Ahmad-aghaei (4.33 and 2.19 ng/g, respectively) and Akbari (4.08 and 1.943 ng/g, respectively) cultivars from Rafsanjan, Iran. Even the highest concentrations of AFB1 and OTA in analyzed samples were lower than the corresponding maximum limits set by EU authorities. The hazard index (HI) value for consumers of Iranian pistachio is below one. It could be concluded that consumption of pistachio cultivated in these regions poses no health risk of mycotoxins exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human error data collection as a precursor to the development of a human reliability assessment capability in air traffic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, Barry; Gibson, W. Huw; Hickling, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Quantified risk and safety assessments are now required for safety cases for European air traffic management (ATM) services. Since ATM is highly human-dependent for its safety, this suggests a need for formal human reliability assessment (HRA), as carried out in other industries such as nuclear power. Since the fundamental aspect of HRA is human error data, in the form of human error probabilities (HEPs), it was decided to take a first step towards development of an ATM HRA approach by deriving some HEPs in an ATM context. This paper reports a study, which collected HEPs via analysing the results of a real-time simulation involving air traffic controllers (ATCOs) and pilots, with a focus on communication errors. This study did indeed derive HEPs that were found to be concordant with other known communication human error data. This is a first step, and shows promise for HRA in ATM, since HEPs have been derived which could be used in safety assessments, although these HEPs are for only one (albeit critical) aspect of ATCOs' tasks (communications). The paper discusses options and potential ways forward for the development of a full HRA capability in ATM

  8. Human exposure to metals due to consumption of fish from an artificial lake basin close to an active mining area in Katanga (D.R. Congo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Burioli, E.; Monaco, G.; Koya, M.K.; Prearo, M.; Gennero, S.; Dominici, A.; Abete, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of 14 essential and nonessential trace elements were determined in fish from Lake Tshangalele, Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo. This province has been a place of intensive mining activities for centuries, which have increased in recent years, due to the use of metals such as copper and cobalt for the industries of fast-growing countries. Lake Tshangalele, which receives effluents from metallurgical and mining plants in Likasi, is home to several fish species that are an important part of the diet of the local population, and, therefore, it constitutes a relevant site for documenting the human exposure to metals as a result of a fish diet. The highest concentrations (median levels, dry weight) of cobalt (7.25 mg kg"− "1), copper (88.1 mg kg"− "1), iron (197.5 mg kg"− "1), manganese (65.35 mg kg"− "1), zinc (122.9 mg kg"− "1) and aluminum (135.4 mg kg"− "1) were found in fish collected closest to the copper mining plant, with decreasing concentrations along the lake, up to the dam. In the most contaminated fish samples, values of up to 270.1 mg kg"− "1 for Al, 173.1 mg kg"− "1 for Cu, 220.9 mg kg"− "1 for Zn, 211.0 mg kg"− "1 for Mn, 324.2 mg kg"− "1 for Fe, 15.1 mg kg"− "1 for Co, 4.2 mg kg"− "1 for Cr, 1.6 mg kg"− "1 for Cd, 1.9 mg kg"− "1 for Pb, and 1.8 mg kg"− "1 for Ni were found. Metal contamination from mining activity resulted in being of great concern because of potential health risks to the local inhabitants due to the consumption of heavily contaminated fish. Capsule: High levels of metals, especially cobalt, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc and cadmium were found in fish from Tshangalele water system. - Highlights: • Metal contamination from mining activity is of great concern for human exposure. • We analyzed metal content in fish from Lake Tshangalele (Katanga Copperbelt). • Fish consumption largely contributes to intake of Co and other metals. • In some samples, Co, Cu, Mn, Al

  9. Human exposure to metals due to consumption of fish from an artificial lake basin close to an active mining area in Katanga (D.R. Congo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squadrone, S., E-mail: stefania.squadrone@izsto.it [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Burioli, E.; Monaco, G. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Koya, M.K. [Institut Supérieur d' Etudes Agronomiques (ISEA) de Kaseya/Kongolo (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Prearo, M.; Gennero, S. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy); Dominici, A. [Independent Veterinarian Researcher, Turin (Italy); Abete, M.C. [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d' Aosta, via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The concentrations of 14 essential and nonessential trace elements were determined in fish from Lake Tshangalele, Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo. This province has been a place of intensive mining activities for centuries, which have increased in recent years, due to the use of metals such as copper and cobalt for the industries of fast-growing countries. Lake Tshangalele, which receives effluents from metallurgical and mining plants in Likasi, is home to several fish species that are an important part of the diet of the local population, and, therefore, it constitutes a relevant site for documenting the human exposure to metals as a result of a fish diet. The highest concentrations (median levels, dry weight) of cobalt (7.25 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), copper (88.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), iron (197.5 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), manganese (65.35 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}), zinc (122.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}) and aluminum (135.4 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1}) were found in fish collected closest to the copper mining plant, with decreasing concentrations along the lake, up to the dam. In the most contaminated fish samples, values of up to 270.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Al, 173.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cu, 220.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Zn, 211.0 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Mn, 324.2 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Fe, 15.1 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Co, 4.2 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cr, 1.6 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Cd, 1.9 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Pb, and 1.8 mg kg{sup −} {sup 1} for Ni were found. Metal contamination from mining activity resulted in being of great concern because of potential health risks to the local inhabitants due to the consumption of heavily contaminated fish. Capsule: High levels of metals, especially cobalt, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc and cadmium were found in fish from Tshangalele water system. - Highlights: • Metal contamination from mining activity is of great concern for human exposure. • We analyzed metal content in

  10. PRESENCE OF NITRATES AND NITRITES IN WATER FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND THEIR IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH IN SUGARCANE-PRODUCING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Itzel Galaviz-Villa; Cesáreo Landeros-Sánchez; Ma. del Refugio Castañeda Chávez; Fabiola Lango-Reynoso; Juan Pablo Martínez-Dávila; Arturo Pérez-Vázquez; Iourii Nikolskii-Gavrilov

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution has emerged as a consequence of human settlements, as well as from specific rural, agricultural, forestry and industrial activities within a region. It has been found that increasing use of nitrogen fertilizers also increases water pollution. Nitrates and nitrites that are dissolved in groundwater used for human consumption cause adverse health effects, such as production of nitrosamines (cause of cancer) and decrease of oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, known as blue bab...

  11. Preliminary perspectives on DNA collection in anti-human trafficking efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, Sara H; Kim, Joyce; Minear, Mollie A; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Wagner, Jennifer K

    2014-01-01

    Forensic DNA methodologies have potential applications in the investigation of human trafficking cases. DNA and relationship testing may be useful for confirmation of biological relationship claims in immigration, identification of trafficked individuals who are missing persons, and family reunification of displaced individuals after mass disasters and conflicts. As these applications rely on the collection of DNA from non-criminals and potentially vulnerable individuals, questions arise as to how to address the ethical challenges of collection, security, and privacy of collected samples and DNA profiles. We administered a survey targeted to victims' advocates to gain preliminary understanding of perspectives regarding human trafficking definitions, DNA and sex workers, and perceived trust of authorities potentially involved in DNA collection. We asked respondents to consider the use of DNA for investigating adoption fraud, sex trafficking, and post-conflict child soldier cases. We found some key differences in perspectives on defining what qualifies as "trafficking." When we varied terminology between "sex worker" and "sex trafficking victim" we detected differences in perception on which authorities can be trusted. Respondents were supportive of the hypothetical models proposed to collect DNA. Most were favorable of DNA specimens being controlled by an authority outside of law enforcement. Participants voiced concerns focused on privacy, misuse of DNA samples and data, unintentional harms, data security, and infrastructure. These preliminary data indicate that while there is perceived value in programs to use DNA for investigating cases of human trafficking, these programs may need to consider levels of trust in authorities as their logistics are developed and implemented.

  12. Detection of Escherichia coli Shiga toxin-producing in viscera of animals bovine and chicken intended for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotta, Claudio Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli producing-Shiga toxin (STEC is associated with foodborne illness (ETA. It can cause bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of STEC in samples of organs (offal of bovine animals and chicken intended for human consumption. Between 2008-2009, 76 samples bovine entrails and 22 chicken viscera samples, were processed and underwent, as screening technique, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of multiple genes coding for the factors virulence: Shiga toxin (stx1, stx2 and rfbO157 gene coding for capsular O157 lipopolysaccharide LPS. Samples from bovine offal development showed 84.2% for coliform bacteria. These isolates showed no virulence factor that characterized as STEC or Escherichia coli O157. The chicken offal samples showed 95.5% of development for coliform bacteria, being negative for the presence of genes encoding the Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (stx1, stx2 and rfbO157 gene. While this work does not STEC was detected, the presence of coliform bacteria in the samples studied makes these foods should be considered as potentially hazardous to consume undercooked with the consequent possibility of filing ETA.

  13. 'Unfit for human consumption': a study of the contamination of formula milk fed to young children in East Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Sahanggamu, Daniel; Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Curtis, Val; White, Sian

    2017-10-01

    To examine levels of bacterial contamination in formula feeding bottles in Sidoarjo, East Java, and to assess the preparation practices that may have been responsible. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 92 randomly selected households with children under the age of two who were bottle-fed formula. In each household, we carried out video observation of mothers/caregivers preparing bottles, and examined samples of formula for coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli). In-depth interviews were conducted with a subsample of 20 mothers. A total of 88% of the formula feeds were contaminated with total coliforms at a level >10 MPN/ml, and 45% contained E. coli. These feeds were defined as 'unfit for human consumption'. In the video observations, none of the mothers complied with all five WHO-recommended measures of hygienic formula feed preparation. Only two mothers washed their hands with soap prior to formula preparation. Most mothers also failed to clean or sterilise the bottle and clean the preparation area. In-depth interviews confirmed that such suboptimal hygiene practices were common. The high levels of contamination found highlight that bottles are an important faecal-oral exposure pathway resulting from poor hygiene practices during bottle preparation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce Retailed for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global problem exacerbated by the dissemination of resistant bacteria via uncooked food, such as green leafy vegetables. New strains of bacteria are emerging on a daily basis with novel expanded antibiotic resistance profiles. In this pilot study, we examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria against five classes of antibiotics on iceberg lettuce retailed in local convenience stores in Rochester, Michigan. In this study, 138 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies from 9 iceberg lettuce samples were randomly picked and tested for antibiotic resistance. Among these isolates, the vast majority (86% demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, and among the resistant bacteria, the majority showed multiple drug resistance, particularly against cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Three bacterial isolates (2.17% out of 138 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers. Two ESBL producers (T1 and T5 were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen with transferable sulfhydryl variable- (SHV- and TEM-type ESBLs, respectively. The DNA sequence analysis of the blaSHV detected in K. pneumoniae isolate T1 revealed 99% relatedness to blaSHV genes found in clinical isolates. This implies that iceberg lettuce is a potential reservoir of newly emerging and evolving antibiotic resistant bacteria and its consumption poses serious threat to human health.

  15. A challenge of veterinary public health in the European Union: human trichinellosis due to horse meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touratier L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis in the European Union due to insufficiently cooked horse meat consumption has been reported in France and in Italy during the past 25 years. It occurred in several outbreaks totalling more than 3,000 patients during this period, with a low mortality and a high morbidity. Causative Trichinella species or phenotypes were determined by the International Reference Laboratory for Trichinellosis in Rome, Italy. They were: Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. murelli. As the culinary habits and customs of populations cannot be changed by regulations, measures of protection of public health essentially depend on food inspection. Comprehensive studies having been conducted in the pathophysiology of Trichinella infection in horses; it was demonstrated that the localisation of larvae are quite different in horses and in pork. It resulted an instruction from the French Veterinary Service recommending that :- the sampling of muscles in horses carcasses has to be done at first in the tongue (apex, then in the diaphragm (pillars;- at least 50 g have to be sampled in each site;- examination for larvae has to be done with the digestion method.Such recommendations might be extended to other EU member countries then to the OIE Zoo-Sanitary Code.

  16. Potential human health risks from metals and As via Odontesthes bonariensis consumption and ecological risk assessments in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monferran, Magdalena V; Garnero, Paola Lorena; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Bistoni, María de los Angeles

    2016-07-01

    The concentration of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Pb and As was analyzed in water, sediment, and muscle of Odontesthes bonariensis from the eutrophic San Roque Lake (Córdoba-Argentina). The monitoring campaign was performed during the wet, dry and intermediate season. The concentration of Cr, Fe, Pb, Zn, Al and Cd in water exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life. The highest metal concentrations were observed in sediment, intermediate concentrations, in fish muscle, and the lowest in water, with the exception of Cr, Zn, As and Hg, which were the highest in fish muscle. Potential ecological risk analysis of heavy metal concentrations in sediment indicated that the San Roque Lake posed a low ecological risk in all sampling periods. The target hazard quotients (THQs) and carcinogenic risk (CR) for individual metals showed that As in muscle was particularly hazardous, posing a potential risk for fishermen and the general population during all sampling periods. Hg poses a potential risk for fishermen only in the intermediate season. It is important to highlight that none of these two elements exceeded the limits considered as hazardous for aquatic life in water and sediment. This result proves the importance of performing measurements of contaminants, in both abiotic and biotic compartments, to assess the quality of food resources. These results suggest that the consumption of this fish species from this reservoir is not completely safe for human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  18. Effect of the dimetilsulfoxido in the response chemiluminescent and the consumption of oxygen of neutrophils activated human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2001-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), a hydroxyl radical scavenger, exerted a dose dependent inhibition on the luminol and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescent responses of human neutrophils activated with soluble and particulate stimulants. DMSO inhibition of the luminol chemiluminescense induced by calcium ionophore A23187 was probably due to OH scavenging, whereas inhibition of the lucigenin chemiluminescence suggested DMSO negatively affects the NADPH-dependent membrane oxidase of neutrophils. In agreement with this, DMSO moderately inhibited O2 consumption in PMN suspensions stimulated with chemotactic peptide and opsonized zymosan-induced luminol chemiluminescense was observed only when added before or in conjunction with stimulants, whereas A23187-induced chemiluminescense was inhibited by DMSO regardless of time of addition. Washing of DMSO-treated PMN resulted in increased luminol enhanced chemiluminescense in response to chemotactic peptide and opsonized zymosan. This is consistent with the idea that DMSO may be interfering with activation of the membrane subunits of the oxidase by translocation and docking of the cytoplasmic, regulatory subunits. These data imply that DMSO inhibits neutrophil chemiluminescense both by OH scavenging and interfering with oxidase activation. Key words:Dimethylsulfoxide, chemiluminescent, luminol, lucigenin,neutrophils [es

  19. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Psustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  20. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Someya, Masayuki; Kayama, Fujio; Jin Yihe; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China during 2002. In addition, dioxins and related compounds in pooled samples of human breast milk from Dalian and Shenyang were also analyzed. OCs were detected in all the human breast milk samples analyzed in this study. The predominant contaminants in human breast milk were HCHs, DDTs and HCB, and the levels were relatively higher than those in other countries. On the other hand, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds, PCBs, and CHLs were relatively low. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk from Dalian, which is located along the coast of Bo Hai Strait, were significantly higher than those from Shenyang, implying that the residents in Dalian might be mainly exposed to these contaminants from seafood. When the relationship between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of primiparae was examined, no significant correlation was observed. This might be caused by the limited sample numbers and narrow range of mother's age and/or recent ban of DDT and HCH production and use. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in the Chinese population. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, human breast milk from Dalian showed significantly higher contribution than Shenyang, implying that infants in Dalian might be at higher risk by these contaminants

  1. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. A retrospective study of the characterization of Rickettsia species in ticks collected from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanda, Valeria; Torina, Alessandra; La Russa, Francesco; D'Agostino, Rosalia; Randazzo, Kety; Scimeca, Salvatore; Giudice, Elisabetta; Caracappa, Santo; Cascio, Antonio; de la Fuente, José

    2017-06-01

    Rickettsiae (family Rickettsiaceae, order Rickettsiales) are obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by arthropod vectors. Several Rickettsia species causing vector-borne rickettsioses belong to the spotted fever group (SFG). Traditionally, Rickettsia conorii has been considered as the main etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever. However, the molecular characterization of rickettsiae allowed identifying other species involved in spotted fever in the Mediterranean region. In this study, 42 ticks collected from humans were subjected to morphological identification and molecular characterization of Rickettsia species potentially involved in human rickettsiosis in Sicily. Fourteen ticks positive to at least two Rickettsia spp. molecular markers were used in the study. Identified Rickettsia spp. included R. conorii, found in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rickettsia aeschlimannii found in Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes ricinus, Rickettsia massiliae found in R. turanicus and R. sanguineus s.l., and Rickettsia slovaca found in D. marginatus and R. sanguineus s.l. Our results showed a great variety of zoonotic Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from humans in Sicily. The Rickettsia spp. reported in this study were identified in previously recognized or new potential tick vectors in Europe, highlighting the risk of infection by different Rickettsia spp. for humans bitten by ticks in Sicily. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  3. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Greyling, A.; Draijer, R.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention

  5. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: V. Quantitative properties of human collective knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Wazny, Kerri; Chan, Kit Yee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The CHNRI method for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component. It uses the collective opinion of a group of experts to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. It is difficult to compare the accuracy of human individual and collective opinions in predicting uncertain future outcomes before the outcomes are known. However, this limitation does not apply to existing knowledge, which is an important component underlying opinion. In this paper, we report several experiments to explore the quantitative properties of human collective knowledge and discuss their relevance to the CHNRI method. We conducted a series of experiments in groups of about 160 (range: 122-175) undergraduate Year 2 medical students to compare their collective knowledge to their individual knowledge. We asked them to answer 10 questions on each of the following: (i) an area in which they have a degree of expertise (undergraduate Year 1 medical curriculum); (ii) an area in which they likely have some knowledge (general knowledge); and (iii) an area in which they are not expected to have any knowledge (astronomy). We also presented them with 20 pairs of well-known celebrities and asked them to identify the older person of the pair. In all these experiments our goal was to examine how the collective answer compares to the distribution of students' individual answers. When answering the questions in their own area of expertise, the collective answer (the median) was in the top 20.83% of the most accurate individual responses; in general knowledge, it was in the top 11.93%; and in an area with no expertise, the group answer was in the top 7.02%. However, the collective answer based on mean values fared much worse, ranging from top 75.60% to top 95.91%. Also, when confronted with guessing the older of the two celebrities, the collective response was correct in 18/20 cases (90%), while the 8 most successful individuals among the

  6. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Vasey, Katie; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Nare, Prince; Maseko, Sian; Chersich, Matthew F

    2013-07-26

    Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers' human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If

  7. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N.

    2016-01-01

    simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage, respectively, and a dose‐response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose...... product types. Fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage imposed the highest probability of illness per serving in all countries, whereas the risks per serving of minced meat and pork chops were similar within each MS. For each of the products, the risk varied by a factor of 100 between the four MSs. The influence......In response to the European Food Safety Authority's wish to assess the reduction of human cases of salmonellosis by implementing control measures at different points in the farm‐to‐consumption chain for pork products, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed. The model...

  8. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    Full Text Available Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p0.05. In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  10. Analysis of the risk of disease associated with arsenic exposure in water supply systems for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas Gonzalez, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The risk of disease associated with arsenic exposure is analyzed in water supply systems for human consumption, as well as the control of pollution and effects on health, in the community known as Barrio Hotel of Canas in comparison with the community of San Miguel in Canas, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. A spatial analysis, temporal and classification are realized by an ecological design of the country in the following zones of exposure: without exposure, low (≥3 μg/L and ≤10 μg/L) and medium to high (≥11 μg/L and ≤187 μg/L). The transversal design is tackled through the perceived morbidity. Spatial analysis has found in the districts of Bebedero, Los Chiles, Bagaces and Canas with Standardized Morbidity Index (EMI) by age in the the greatest national range of chronic renal failure (CRF). The protection of skin cancer risk is observed in the communities of Bagaces, Canas, El Amparo and La Cruz. A temporal trend of increase in IME of CRF and skin cancer is identified in Los Chiles. The classification by zone of exposure, the unexposed areas have been protected of kidney cancer, lung and bronchus, bladder and skin. The of low exposure have presented excess risk of CRF and have been protected of skin cancer. The of medium to high are protected of bladder cancer and have maintained the trend of excess in CRF and protection of skin cancer. The transversal design has found in the exposed community the risk to suffer kidneys diseases. Arsenic exposure has increased in men the risk of renal failure and anemia, in women the decrease of vision, and age groups under of 10 years and of 40-69 years of hypopigmentation and keratoses respectively. Multivariate analysis has showed a weak association of arsenic exposure time with the risk of hypertension [es

  11. Pharmacokinetics of resveratrol metabolic profile in healthy humans after moderate consumption of red wine and grape extract tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon; Escribano, Elvira; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia

    2012-11-01

    A pharmacokinetic study of the metabolic profile of resveratrol has been performed in healthy men after moderate red wine (RW) consumption. The bioavailability of resveratrol is highly influenced by several factors such as the food matrix and, therefore, this study has been compared with a pilot study in which men ingested grape extract (GE) tablets as a nutraceutical, containing similar total amounts of resveratrol than RW. Blood and urine samples were taken before and at several time points after intervention and then analyzed by SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Up to 17 resveratrol and piceid derivatives were identified, including those formed by the intestinal microbiota. Resveratrol glucosides were found in plasma as intact forms and reached the lowest maximum concentrations 1h after both interventions. Higher plasma concentrations and longer times (t(max)) were observed for resveratrol glucuronides due to phase II metabolism and even higher values for conjugates derived from microbiota, such as dihydroresveratrol-glucuronides. The same trend was observed for total excreted amounts in urine samples. When both treatments were compared, statistically significant differences for some metabolites were obtained, which may be due to the different composition of resveratrol and piceid in both sources. However, GE formulation seems to delay resveratrol absorption, staying longer in the gut where could be metabolized to a greater degree, since 2.1-3.6-fold higher urinary concentrations of microbial metabolites were observed after GE intervention at 12-24h urinary fraction. Therefore, supplement intake could be also a way to bring resveratrol benefits to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption.

  13. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; de Boeck, Gudrun; De Cock, Hilde; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  14. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain); Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Figueras, María J., E-mail: mariajose.figueras@urv.cat [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  15. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  16. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  17. Alcohol consumption and prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men in the HPV in Men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Thompson, Zachary J; Egan, Kathleen M; Torres, B Nelson; Nguyen, Anthony; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-02-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption can impair host defence against viral infections. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men enrolled in the HPV in Men (HIM) study using quantitative alcohol intake measured from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The HIM study is a prospective, multinational study of the natural history of HPV infection. For this report, we restricted our analyses to men from the US cohort (N = 1313). Samples from the corona of glans penis, penile shaft and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Self-reported alcohol intake was quantified by grams of alcohol intake per day. Multivariable prevalence ratios (mPRs) were used to assess the association between alcohol intake and HPV infections. Prevalent infections were significantly higher among men in the highest quartile of alcohol intake and multivariable models revealed that the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks for any (mPR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.27) HPV types and oncogenic (mPR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) HPV types. The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never-smokers and current smokers, but not among former smokers. These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiological data exist, especially among men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoetter, Robert; Masson, Valéry; Bourgeois, Alexis; Pellegrino, Margot; Lévy, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP), such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB), parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  19. Parametrisation of the variety of human behaviour related to building energy consumption in the Town Energy Balance (SURFEX-TEB v. 8.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schoetter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic heat flux can be an important part of the urban surface energy balance. Some of it is due to energy consumption inside buildings, which depends on building use and human behaviour, both of which are very heterogeneous in most urban areas. Urban canopy parametrisations (UCP, such as the Town Energy Balance (TEB, parametrise the effect of the buildings on the urban surface energy balance. They contain a simple building energy model. However, the variety of building use and human behaviour at grid point scale has not yet been represented in state of the art UCPs. In this study, we describe how we enhance the Town Energy Balance in order to take fractional building use and human behaviour into account. We describe how we parametrise different behaviours and initialise the model for applications in France. We evaluate the spatio-temporal variability of the simulated building energy consumption for the city of Toulouse. We show that a more detailed description of building use and human behaviour enhances the simulation results. The model developments lay the groundwork for simulations of coupled urban climate and building energy consumption which are relevant for both the urban climate and the climate change mitigation and adaptation communities.

  20. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartjes, Frank A.; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable-group-consumption

  2. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable-group-consumption

  3. Ministerial Order of 29 September 1983 amending Ministerial Order of 16 July 1980 on the treatment by ionizing radiation of food for human or animal consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Order was issued by the Minister of Public Health and the Family and amends the annex to the Order of 16th July 1980 which regulates the treatment by ionizing radiation of food for human and animal consumption. Certain spices and vegetables have now been included for purposes of irradiation; the Order also prescribes the technical specifications to be complied with in their respect. (NEA) [fr

  4. 77 FR 25533 - Agency Requests for Approval of a New Information Collection(s): Human Subjects Experiments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... collection involves recruitment of participants, balancing the subject sample and debriefing questionnaires...Rulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Fax... information consists of: (1) Recruitment material and a brief eligibility questionnaire for applicants and (2...

  5. Moderate Champagne consumption promotes an acute improvement in acute endothelial-independent vascular function in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Houseman, Emily J; George, Trevor W; Corona, Giulia; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jackson, Kim G; Sellier, Christelle; Gillery, Philippe; Kennedy, Orla B; Lovegrove, Julie A; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between red wine consumption and the incidence of CVD. However, Champagne wine has not been fully investigated for its cardioprotective potential. In order to assess whether acute and moderate Champagne wine consumption is capable of modulating vascular function, we performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention trial. We show that consumption of Champagne wine, but not a control matched for alcohol, carbohydrate and fruit-derived acid content, induced an acute change in endothelium-independent vasodilatation at 4 and 8 h post-consumption. Although both Champagne wine and the control also induced an increase in endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity at 4 h, there was no significant difference between the vascular effects induced by Champagne or the control at any time point. These effects were accompanied by an acute decrease in the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9), a significant decrease in plasma levels of oxidising species and an increase in urinary excretion of a number of phenolic metabolites. In particular, the mean total excretion of hippuric acid, protocatechuic acid and isoferulic acid were all significantly greater following the Champagne wine intervention compared with the control intervention. Our data suggest that a daily moderate consumption of Champagne wine may improve vascular performance via the delivery of phenolic constituents capable of improving NO bioavailability and reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity.

  6. Human Development IX: A Model of the Wholeness of Man, His Consciousness, and Collective Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we look at the rational and the emotional interpretation of reality in the human brain and being, and discuss the representation of the brain-mind (ego, the body-mind (Id, and the outer world in the human wholeness (the I or “soul”. Based on this we discuss a number of factors including the coherence between perception, attention and consciousness, and the relation between thought, fantasies, visions and dreams. We discuss and explain concepts as intent, will, morals and ethics. The Jungian concept of the human collective conscious and unconscious is also analyzed. We also hypothesis on the nature of intuition and consider the source of religious experience of man. These phenomena are explained based on the concept of deep quantum chemistry and infinite dancing fractal spirals making up the energetic backbone of the world. In this paper we consider man as a real wholeness and debate the concepts of subjectivity, consciousness and intent that can be deduced from such a perspective.

  7. Classifying Human Activity Patterns from Smartphone Collected GPS data: a Fuzzy Classification and Aggregation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Lin, Ge

    2016-12-01

    Smartphones have emerged as a promising type of equipment for monitoring human activities in environmental health studies. However, degraded location accuracy and inconsistency of smartphone-measured GPS data have limited its effectiveness for classifying human activity patterns. This study proposes a fuzzy classification scheme for differentiating human activity patterns from smartphone-collected GPS data. Specifically, a fuzzy logic reasoning was adopted to overcome the influence of location uncertainty by estimating the probability of different activity types for single GPS points. Based on that approach, a segment aggregation method was developed to infer activity patterns, while adjusting for uncertainties of point attributes. Validations of the proposed methods were carried out based on a convenient sample of three subjects with different types of smartphones. The results indicate desirable accuracy (e.g., up to 96% in activity identification) with use of this method. Two examples were provided in the appendix to illustrate how the proposed methods could be applied in environmental health studies. Researchers could tailor this scheme to fit a variety of research topics.

  8. Wine and oxidative stress: up-to-date evidence of the effects of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, María Isabel; Gambert, Philippe; Fitó, Montserrat; de la Torre, Rafael

    2010-02-01

    Wine and alcohol consumption has been considered to be protective against coronary heart disease development, an oxidative stress associated disease. Wine contains polyphenols displaying antioxidant properties tested in in vitro and in vivo studies. Due to this, a general consensus exists, both among the general public and the scientific community, that wine, particularly red wine, is an antioxidant beverage. Alcohol consumption, however, is associated with oxidative damage. Several studies have been carried out on the antioxidant health benefits of wine and wine polyphenols. However, adequate scientific evidence (Level I or II) is required to be provided before recommendations or statements which can reach the general public can be formulated. Here, we summarize the state of the art of the up-to-date body of knowledge, and the extent to which there exists evidence of the benefits of moderate wine consumption on oxidative damage in humans. From the available data, there is no evidence, at present, that sustained wine consumption provides antioxidant benefits in healthy volunteers other than to counteract a possible pro-oxidative effect of the alcohol. On the contrary, data on the antioxidant protective effect of red wine in oxidative stress situations are promising. In this way, the postprandial oxidative stress after a meal, despite the diversity of biomarkers used for its evaluation, is counteracted by the ingestion of wine. Further studies are warranted. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noninvasive determination of myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption and efficiency in normal humans by carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porenta, G.; Cherry, S.; Czernin, J.; Brunken, R.; Kuhle, W.; Hashimoto, T.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to measure noninvasively and near simultaneously myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption, and contractile function and (2) to analyze myocardial energy expenditure and efficiency at rest and during dobutamine stress in normal humans. Dynamic and gated carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed in 11 normal subjects. The initial uptake of 11 C-acetate was measured to estimate myocardial blood flow. Oxygen consumption was derived from the monoexponential slope of the 11 C-clearance curve recorded during myocardial washout. ECG-gated systolic and diastolic images were acquired during the peak myocardial 11 C activity to measure left ventricular radius, myocardial wall thickness, and long axis length. Myocardial oxygen consumption and parameters of cardiac geometry were used to determine myocardial energetics and cardiac efficiency by tension-area area analysis. Myocardial blood flow averaged 0.8±0.06 ml min -1 g -1 at rest and 1.48±0.15 ml min -1 g -1 during dobutamine stress. Oxygen delivery and consumption were 151±13 and 88±15 μl O 2 min -1 g -1 at rest and increased to 291±31 and 216±31 μl O 2 min -1 g -1 , respectively, during pharmacological stress (P 11 C acetate imaging provides the unique capability to study noninvasively determinants of myocardial energy delivery, expenditure, and efficiency. (orig.)

  10. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Andriessen, R.; Rijk, de M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles

  11. Human Health Risk from Metals in Fish from Saudi Arabia: Consumption Patterns for Some Species Exceed Allowable Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-10-06

    ABSTRACT: Fish are a healthful source of protein, but contaminants in some fish pose a risk. While there are multiple risk assessments from Europe and North America, there are far fewer for other parts of the world. We examined the risks from mercury, arsenic, lead, and other metals in fish consumed by people in Jeddah area, Saudi Arabia, using site-specific data on consumption patterns and metal levels in fish. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s Hazard Quotient (HQ) and cumulative Hazard Index (HI) for non-cancer endpoints and Carcinogenic Index for cancer were used to determine the health risk based on fish consumption rates. Of the 13 fish species examined, HQ was greater than 1 (indicating elevated risk) in two species for arsenic, and seven species for methylmercury. The cumulative HI for all metals was above 1 for all but three species of fish at the mean consumption rates. Generally, fish species with HI above 1 for one sampling location, had HI above 1 for all sampling locations. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of strategies for reducing risk from fish consumption while encouraging dietary intakes of fish with low mercury and arsenic levels.

  12. Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Doris M.; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; Roo, de Niels; Trautwein, Elke A.; Duynhoven, van John; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP)

  13. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: A human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods: Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml

  14. Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD): A collection of plants with anti-human cancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Ateeq Ahmed

    2018-01-30

    Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD). The database contains most of the reported information about the naturally growing Saudi anticancer plants. SACPD comprises the scientific and local names of 91 plant species that grow naturally in Saudi Arabia. These species belong to 38 different taxonomic families. In Addition, 18 species that represent16 family of medicinal plants and are intensively sold in the local markets in Saudi Arabia were added to the database. The website provides interesting details, including plant part containing the anticancer bioactive compounds, plants locations and cancer/cell type against which they exhibit their anticancer activity. Our survey revealed that breast, liver and leukemia were the most studied cancer cell lines in Saudi Arabia with percentages of 27%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The current SACPD represents a nucleus around which more development efforts can expand to accommodate all future submissions about new Saudi plant species with anticancer activities. SACPD will provide an excellent starting point for researchers and pharmaceutical companies who are interested in developing new anticancer drugs. SACPD is available online at https://teeqrani1.wixsite.com/sapd.

  15. 78 FR 13688 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Comment Request: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research... Embryonic Stem Cell Line to be Approved for Use in NIH Funded Research. OMB No. 0925-0601-- Expiration Date... and Use of Information Collection: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem...

  16. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-01-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states. (paper)

  17. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-10-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states.

  18. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  19. Toxoplasma gondii in wild ruminants bred in game preserves and farms with production destined for human consumption in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lorencova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of the most common parasitic infection in humans. Almost all warm-blooded animals, as well as humans, can act as intermediate hosts that harbour infective cysts in their tissues. Felids act as definitive hosts excreting oocysts in faeces. In humans, T. gondii can cause subclinical infection but also severe clinical disease with a wide range of symptoms, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The infection is usually asymptomatic in animals and is not recognized at either ante- or post-mortem inspection. The consumption of undercooked meat from infected animals is one of the most important routes by which the infection can be transmitted to humans. Handling of the organs and other tissues of game animals and eating their undercooked meat have been described as a risk of T. gondii infection. For diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, the combination of serological and molecular methods has been described as a suitable approach. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 20.8%, 50.0%, 23.1%, and 24.4% of red deer, sika deer, fallow deer and mouflons, respectively, coming from game preserves and farms in the Czech Republic. T. gondii DNA was found in the muscle tissue of red deer (8.3% and mouflons (14.6%. The lower prevalence rates based on molecular screening could be due to the random distribution and low density of cysts in tissues of infected animals. Bearing in mind the increase in the number of hunted animals and the growing trend in game consumption, it is important to educate hunters and game meat consumers about the risk of exposure to this zoonotic infection during handling and consumption of the meat.

  20. Collective Hunger in the Vision of Amartya Sen as One of the Impeditive Factors of Sustainable Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Torres Roberti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at collective hunger in the vision of Amartya Sen as one of the impeding factors of Sustainable Human Development. In the economist's view, collective hunger goes beyond chronic hunger, involves a sudden outbreak of deprivation for a portion of the population. To eliminate hunger in the modern world, it is crucial to understand the cause of collective hunger in a broad way, and not just because of some mechanical imbalance between food and population. By illustrating the deprivation of liberty, child labor is included as one of the impediments to sustainable human development.

  1. Determination of changes to TFWT and OBT concentrations in potatoes and Swiss chard as a result of preparation for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Bredlaw, M.; Farrow, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion is one of the most important pathways to consider for calculating tritium dose to human beings. The objective of this study is to determine changes to TFWT and OBT concentrations in food as a result of its preparation for consumption. The contribution of OBT to the total tritium dose can be reduced by the oxidation of OBT during food preparation. The results show that preparation for consumption can result in reductions of up to 46% in TFWT concentration and 54% in OBT concentration in potato, and 22% in TFWT concentration and 57% in OBT concentration in Swiss chard. - Highlights: • Determine changes to TFWT and OBT concentrations in potatoes and Swiss chard. • The contribution of OBT to the total tritium dose can be reduced by the oxidation of OBT during food preparation. • Reductions were up to 46% in TFWT and 57% in OBT

  2. [The origin and quality of water for human consumption: the health of the population residing in the Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Malena; Cipponeri, Marcos; Angelaccio, Carlos; Gianuzzi, Leda

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the origin and quality of water used for consumption in a sample of households in Matanza-Riachuelo river basin area in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results of drinking water by source indicated that 9% of water samples from the public water system, 45% of bottled water samples and 80% of well water samples were not safe for drinking due to excess content of coliforms, Escherichia coli or nitrates. Individuals living in households where well water is the main source of drinking water have a 55% higher chance of suffering a water-borne disease; in the cases of diarrheas, the probability is 87% higher and in the case of dermatitis, 160% higher. The water for human consumption in this region should be provided by centralized sources that assure control over the quality of the water.

  3. Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

  4. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  5. Human campylobacteriosis related to the consumption of raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy: Quantitative risk assessment based on official controls over four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Losio, Marina Nadia; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk

  6. Characterization and treatment of water used for human consumption from six sources located in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Kollar, Robert; Nad, Karlo; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Kollar, Iris

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was the characterization and improvement of the quality of water used for human consumption of unregulated/regulated water sources located in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area (NE Arizona, western edge of the Navajo Nation). Samples were collected at six water sources which included regulated sources: Wind Mill (Tank 3T-538), Badger Springs and Paddock Well as well as unregulated sources: Willy Spring, Water Wall and Water Hole. Samples taken from Wind Mill, Water Wall and Water Hole were characterized with high turbidity and color as well as high level of manganese, iron and nickel and elevated value of molybdenum. High level of iron was also found in Badger Spring, Willy Spring, and Paddock Well. These three water sources were also characterized with elevated values of fluoride and vanadium. Significant amounts of zinc were found in Water Wall and Water Hole samples. Water Wall sample was also characterized with high level of Cr(VI). Compared to primary or secondary Navajo Nation Environmental Protection Agency (NNEPA) water quality standard the highest enrichment was found for turbidity (50.000 times), color (up to 1.796 times) and manganese (71 times), Cr(VI) (17.5 times), iron (7.4 times) and arsenic (5.2 times). Activities of (226)Ra and (238)U in water samples were still in agreement with the maximum contaminant levels. In order to comply with NNEPA water quality standard water samples were subjected to electrochemical treatment. This method was selected due to its high removal efficiency for heavy metals and uranium, lower settlement time, production of smaller volume of waste mud and higher stability of waste mud compared to physico-chemical treatment. Following the treatment, concentrations of heavy metals and activities of radionuclides in all samples were significantly lower compared to NNEPA or WHO regulated values. The maximum removal efficiencies for color, turbidity, arsenic, manganese, molybdenum and

  7. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-28

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (Pfruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (Pfruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota.

  8. PRESENCE OF NITRATES AND NITRITES IN WATER FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND THEIR IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH IN SUGARCANE-PRODUCING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Galaviz-Villa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution has emerged as a consequence of human settlements, as well as from specific rural, agricultural, forestry and industrial activities within a region. It has been found that increasing use of nitrogen fertilizers also increases water pollution. Nitrates and nitrites that are dissolved in groundwater used for human consumption cause adverse health effects, such as production of nitrosamines (cause of cancer and decrease of oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, known as blue baby syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of dissolved nitrates and nitrites in drinking water, and the incidence of esophagus and stomach cancer in the population living close to agricultural areas. The maximum concentration of nitrates (NO3- in water for human consumption was 7.5 mg L-1. A total of 45 cases of esophagus and stomach cancer were identified, distributed in six agricultural municipalities studied. A weak correlation (r = 0.46, p < 0.05 was found between the factor of rational use of nitrogen in sugarcane cultivation and the number of cancer cases recorded in the area of study.

  9. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  10. Collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data for analysis of cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Brůha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, excessive drinking, overeating and physical inactivity are well-established risk factors decreasing human physical performance. Moreover, epidemiological work has identified modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor diet and physical and cognitive inactivity that are associated with the risk of reduced cognitive performance. Definition, collection and annotation of human reaction times and suitable health related data and metadata provides researchers with a necessary source for further analysis of human physical and cognitive performance. The collection of human reaction times and supporting health related data was obtained from two groups comprising together 349 people of all ages - the visitors of the Days of Science and Technology 2016 held on the Pilsen central square and members of the Mensa Czech Republic visiting the neuroinformatics lab at the University of West Bohemia. Each provided dataset contains a complete or partial set of data obtained from the following measurements: hands and legs reaction times, color vision, spirometry, electrocardiography, blood pressure, blood glucose, body proportions and flexibility. It also provides a sufficient set of metadata (age, gender and summary of the participant's current life style and health to allow researchers to perform further analysis. This article has two main aims. The first aim is to provide a well annotated collection of human reaction times and health related data that is suitable for further analysis of lifestyle and human cognitive and physical performance. This data collection is complemented with a preliminarily statistical evaluation. The second aim is to present a procedure of efficient acquisition of human reaction times and supporting health related data in non-lab and lab conditions. Keywords: Reaction time, Health related data, Cognitive and physical performance, Chronic disease, Data acquisition, Data collection, Software for data collection

  11. Survival of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the human gastrointestinal tract with daily consumption of a low-fat probiotic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommels, Yvonne E M; Kemperman, Robèr A; Zebregs, Yvonne E M P; Draaisma, René B; Jol, Arne; Wolvers, Danielle A W; Vaughan, Elaine E; Albers, Ruud

    2009-10-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Therefore, probiotic strains should be able to survive passage through the human gastrointestinal tract. Human gastrointestinal tract survival of probiotics in a low-fat spread matrix has, however, never been tested. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human intervention study was to test the human gastrointestinal tract survival of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG after daily consumption of a low-fat probiotic spread by using traditional culturing, as well as molecular methods. Forty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups provided with 20 g of placebo spread (n = 13), 20 g of spread with a target dose of 1 x 10(9) CFU of L. reuteri DSM 17938 (n = 13), or 20 g of spread with a target dose of 5 x 10(9) CFU of L. rhamnosus GG (n = 16) daily for 3 weeks. Fecal samples were obtained before and after the intervention period. A significant increase, compared to the baseline, in the recovery of viable probiotic lactobacilli in fecal samples was demonstrated after 3 weeks of daily consumption of the spread containing either L. reuteri DSM 17938 or L. rhamnosus GG by selective enumeration. In the placebo group, no increase was detected. The results of selective enumeration were supported by quantitative PCR, detecting a significant increase in DNA resulting from the probiotics after intervention. Overall, our results indicate for the first time that low-fat spread is a suitable carrier for these probiotic strains.

  12. Applying Multiple Data Collection Tools to Quantify Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Communication on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip M; Leader, Amy; Yom-Tov, Elad; Budenz, Alexandra; Fisher, Kara; Klassen, Ann C

    2016-12-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are several vaccines that protect against strains of HPV most associated with cervical and other cancers. Thus, HPV vaccination has become an important component of adolescent preventive health care. As media evolves, more information about HPV vaccination is shifting to social media platforms such as Twitter. Health information consumed on social media may be especially influential for segments of society such as younger populations, as well as ethnic and racial minorities. The objectives of our study were to quantify HPV vaccine communication on Twitter, and to develop a novel methodology to improve the collection and analysis of Twitter data. We collected Twitter data using 10 keywords related to HPV vaccination from August 1, 2014 to July 31, 2015. Prospective data collection used the Twitter Search API and retrospective data collection used Twitter Firehose. Using a codebook to characterize tweet sentiment and content, we coded a subsample of tweets by hand to develop classification models to code the entire sample using machine learning procedures. We also documented the words in the 140-character tweet text most associated with each keyword. We used chi-square tests, analysis of variance, and nonparametric equality of medians to test for significant differences in tweet characteristic by sentiment. A total of 193,379 English-language tweets were collected, classified, and analyzed. Associated words varied with each keyword, with more positive and preventive words associated with "HPV vaccine" and more negative words associated with name-brand vaccines. Positive sentiment was the largest type of sentiment in the sample, with 75,393 positive tweets (38.99% of the sample), followed by negative sentiment with 48,940 tweets (25.31% of the sample). Positive and neutral tweets constituted the largest percentage of tweets mentioning prevention or protection (20

  13. Bacterial and protozoal pathogens found in ticks collected from humans in Corum province of Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djursun Karasartova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are increasing all over the word, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial and protozoan vector-borne pathogens in ticks infesting humans in the Corum province of Turkey.From March to November 2014 a total of 322 ticks were collected from patients who attended the local hospitals with tick bites. Ticks were screened by real time-PCR and PCR, and obtained amplicons were sequenced. The dedected tick was belonging to the genus Hyalomma, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor and Ixodes. A total of 17 microorganism species were identified in ticks. The most prevalent Rickettsia spp. were: R. aeschlimannii (19.5%, R. slovaca (4.5%, R. raoultii (2.2%, R. hoogstraalii (1.9%, R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae (1.2%, R. monacensis (0.31%, and Rickettsia spp. (1.2%. In addition, the following pathogens were identified: Borrelia afzelii (0.31%, Anaplasma spp. (0.31%, Ehrlichia spp. (0.93%, Babesia microti (0.93%, Babesia ovis (0.31%, Babesia occultans (3.4%, Theileria spp. (1.6%, Hepatozoon felis (0.31%, Hepatozoon canis (0.31%, and Hemolivia mauritanica (2.1%. All samples were negative for Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp.Ticks in Corum carry a large variety of human and zoonotic pathogens that were detected not only in known vectors, but showed a wider vector diversity. There is an increase in the prevalence of ticks infected with the spotted fever group and lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, while Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were reported for the first time from this region. B. microti was detected for the first time in Hyalomma marginatum infesting humans. The detection of B. occultans, B. ovis, Hepatozoon spp., Theileria spp. and Hemolivia mauritanica indicate the importance of these ticks as vectors of pathogens of veterinary importance, therefore patients with a tick infestation should be followed for a variety of pathogens

  14. HOCOMOCO: a comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Schaefer, Ulf; Kasianov, Artem S.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. PMID:23175603

  15. HOCOMOCO: A comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Schaefer, Ulf; Kasianov, Artem S.; Vorontsov, Ilya E.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. The Author(s) 2012.

  16. HOCOMOCO: A comprehensive collection of human transcription factor binding sites models

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2012-11-21

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site (TFBS) models are crucial for computational reconstruction of transcription regulatory networks. In existing repositories, a TF often has several models (also called binding profiles or motifs), obtained from different experimental data. Having a single TFBS model for a TF is more pragmatic for practical applications. We show that integration of TFBS data from various types of experiments into a single model typically results in the improved model quality probably due to partial correction of source specific technique bias. We present the Homo sapiens comprehensive model collection (HOCOMOCO, http://autosome.ru/HOCOMOCO/, http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ hocomoco/) containing carefully hand-curated TFBS models constructed by integration of binding sequences obtained by both low- and high-throughput methods. To construct position weight matrices to represent these TFBS models, we used ChIPMunk software in four computational modes, including newly developed periodic positional prior mode associated with DNA helix pitch. We selected only one TFBS model per TF, unless there was a clear experimental evidence for two rather distinct TFBS models. We assigned a quality rating to each model. HOCOMOCO contains 426 systematically curated TFBS models for 401 human TFs, where 172 models are based on more than one data source. The Author(s) 2012.

  17. From single cilia to collective waves in human airway ciliated tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuta, Pietro; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Feriani, Luigi; Pellicciotta, Nicola; Kotar, Jurij

    I will present experimental results on activity of motile cilia on various scales: from waveforms on individual cilia to the synchronised motion in cilia carpets of airway cells. Model synthetic experiments have given us an understanding of how cilia could couple with each other through forces transmitted by the fluid, and thus coordinate to beat into well organized waves (previous work is reviewed in Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 7, 1-26 (2016)). Working with live imaging of airway human cells at the different scales, we can now test whether the biological system satisfies the ``simple'' behavior expected of the fluid flow coupling, or if other factors of mechanical forces transmission need to be accounted for. In general being able to link from the scale of molecular biological activity up to the phenomenology of collective dynamics requires to understand the relevant physical mechanism. This understanding then allows informed diagnostics (and perhaps therapeutic) approaches to a variety of diseases where mucociliary clearance in the airways is compromised. We have started exploring particularly cystic fibrosis, where the rheological properties of the mucus are affected and prevent efficient cilia synchronization. ERC Grant HydroSync.

  18. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  19. Endurance Exercise Increases Intestinal Uptake of the Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 after Peanut Consumption in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke M. JanssenDuijghuijsen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled studies on the effect of exercise on intestinal uptake of protein are scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unclear. We studied the uptake of the major allergen Ara h 6 following peanut consumption in an exercise model and compared this with changes in markers of intestinal permeability and integrity. Ten overnight-fasted healthy non-allergic men (n = 4 and women (n = 6 (23 ± 4 years ingested 100 g of peanuts together with a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R solution, followed by rest or by 60 min cycling at 70% of their maximal workload. Significantly higher, though variable, levels of Ara h 6 in serum were found during exercise compared to rest (Peak p = 0.03; area under the curve p = 0.006, with individual fold changes ranging from no increase to an increase of over 150-fold in the uptake of Ara h 6. Similarly, uptake of lactulose (2–18 fold change, p = 0.0009 and L/R ratios (0.4–7.9 fold change, p = 0.04 were significantly increased which indicates an increase in intestinal permeability. Intestinal permeability and uptake of Ara h 6 were strongly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001 for lactulose and Ara h 6. Endurance exercise after consumption may lead to increased paracellular intestinal uptake of food proteins.

  20. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenti, Anna; Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M; Caimari, Antoni; Del Bas, Josep M; Anguera, Anna; Anglés, Neus; Arola, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d) for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, pcocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process. Clinicaltrials.govNCT00511420 and NCT00502047.

  1. Cocoa Consumption Alters the Global DNA Methylation of Peripheral Leukocytes in Humans with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Crescenti

    Full Text Available DNA methylation regulates gene expression and can be modified by different bioactive compounds in foods, such as polyphenols. Cocoa is a rich source of polyphenols, but its role in DNA methylation is still unknown. The objective was to assess the effect of cocoa consumption on DNA methylation and to determine whether the enzymes involved in the DNA methylation process participate in the mechanisms by which cocoa exerts these effects in humans. The global DNA methylation levels in the peripheral blood were evaluated in 214 volunteers who were pre-hypertensive, stage-1 hypertensive or hypercholesterolemic. The volunteers were divided into two groups: 110 subjects who consumed cocoa (6 g/d for two weeks and 104 control subjects. In addition, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six subjects were treated with a cocoa extract to analyze the mRNA levels of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR genes. Cocoa consumption significantly reduced the DNA methylation levels (2.991±0.366 vs. 3.909±0.380, p<0.001. Additionally, we found an association between the cocoa effects on DNA methylation and three polymorphisms located in the MTHFR, MTRR, and DNMT3B genes. Furthermore, in PBMCs, the cocoa extract significantly lowered the mRNA levels of the DNMTs, MTHFR, and MTRR. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the consumption of cocoa decreases the global DNA methylation of peripheral leukocytes in humans with cardiovascular risk factors. In vitro experiments with PBMCs suggest that cocoa may exert this effect partially via the down-regulation of DNMTs, MTHFR and MTRR, which are key genes involved in this epigenetic process.Clinicaltrials.govNCT00511420 and NCT00502047.

  2. Good agreements between self and clinician-collected specimens for the detection of human papillomavirus in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lopes Mandu de Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV are at a higher risk of developing cervical lesions. In the current study, self and clinician-collected vaginal and cervical samples from women were processed to detect HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR with PGMY09/11 primers. HPV genotypes were determined using type-specific PCR. HPV DNA detection showed good concordance between self and clinician-collected samples (84.6%; kappa = 0.72. HPV infection was found in 30% women and genotyping was more concordant among high-risk HPV (HR-HPV than low-risk HPV (HR-HPV. HPV16 was the most frequently detected among the HR-HPV types. LR-HPV was detected at a higher frequency in self-collected; however, HR-HPV types were more frequently identified in clinician-collected samples than in self-collected samples. HPV infections of multiple types were detected in 20.5% of clinician-collected samples and 15.5% of self-collected samples. In this study, we demonstrated that the HPV DNA detection rate in self-collected samples has good agreement with that of clinician-collected samples. Self-collected sampling, as a primary prevention strategy in countries with few resources, could be effective for identifying cases of HR-HPV, being more acceptable. The use of this method would enhance the coverage of screening programs for cervical cancer.

  3. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  4. A comparison of human papillomavirus testing of clinician-collected and self-collected samples during follow-up after screen-and-treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sylvia; Wang, Chunhui; Wright, Thomas C; Denny, Lynette; Kuhn, Louise

    2011-08-15

    Screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention programs based on high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cryotherapy have been shown to be effective in resource-limited settings. However, because cryotherapy is not 100% effective, follow-up is needed after treatment to detect post-treatment failures. We compared the test performances of high-risk HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2) using self-collected and clinician-collected samples as well as cervical cytology for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or 3 or invasive cervical cancer (CIN2+) among women who did (n=812) and did not (n=1858) undergo cryotherapy in a South African screen-and-treat trial. At 6 months after enrolment (and after cryotherapy, if performed), women were tested using all three screening methods and then underwent colposcopy/biopsy. A predefined subset of women (n=1,455) had extended follow-up with colposcopy/biopsy at 12 months. A total of 33 and 91 cases of CIN2+ were detected among treated and untreated women, respectively. The sensitivity of HPV testing using clinician-collected samples and cervical cytology did not differ by treatment status. HPV testing of clinician-collected samples detected the most cases of CIN2+ among both treated (85%) and untreated (91%) women (p=0.31). Cytology (at a cutoff of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater) detected 76% of cases among both treated and untreated women. However, the sensitivity of HPV testing using self-collected samples was significantly lower among treated versus untreated women (55% vs. 78%, p=0.01). HPV testing using self-collected vaginal specimens may be useful in primary screening but performs poorly for detecting post-treatment failures. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  5. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Hiwat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus aquasalis mosquitoes. Of 13,549 total mosquitoes collected, 1,019 (7.52% were An. aquasalis. Large numbers of Culex spp were also collected, in particular with the (BG-Sentinel. The majority of An. aquasalis (83.8% were collected by the human landing collection (HLC. None of the trap catches correlated with HLC in the number of An. aquasalis captured over time. The high efficiency of the HLC method indicates that this malaria vector was anthropophilic at this site, especially as carbon dioxide was insufficiently attractive as stand-alone bait. Traps using carbon dioxide in combination with human odorants may provide better results.

  6. A new model with an anatomically accurate human renal collecting system for training in fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Benjamin W

    2014-03-01

    Obtaining renal access is one of the most important and complex steps in learning percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Ideally, this skill should be practiced outside the operating room. There is a need for anatomically accurate and cheap models for simulated training. The objective was to develop a cost-effective, anatomically accurate, nonbiologic training model for simulated PCNL access under fluoroscopic guidance. Collecting systems from routine computed tomography urograms were extracted and reformatted using specialized software. These images were printed in a water-soluble plastic on a three-dimensional (3D) printer to create biomodels. These models were embedded in silicone and then the models were dissolved in water to leave a hollow collecting system within a silicone model. These PCNL models were filled with contrast medium and sealed. A layer of dense foam acted as a spacer to replicate the tissues between skin and kidney. 3D printed models of human collecting systems are a useful adjunct in planning PCNL access. The PCNL access training model is relatively low cost and reproduces the anatomy of the renal collecting system faithfully. A range of models reflecting the variety and complexity of human collecting systems can be reproduced. The fluoroscopic triangulation process needed to target the calix of choice can be practiced successfully in this model. This silicone PCNL training model accurately replicates the anatomic architecture and orientation of the human renal collecting system. It provides a safe, clean, and effective model for training in accurate fluoroscopy-guided PCNL access.

  7. New methods for field collection of human skin volatiles and perspectives for their application in the chemical ecology of human-pathogen-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, Laurent; Bessière, Jean-Marie; McKey, Doyle; Cohuet, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Odours emitted by human skin are of great interest to biologists in many fields, with practical applications in forensics, health diagnostic tools and the ecology of blood-sucking insect vectors of human disease. Convenient methods are required for sampling human skin volatiles under field conditions. We experimentally compared four modern methods for sampling skin odours: solvent extraction, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), and two new techniques not previously used for the study of mammal volatiles, contact SPME and dynamic headspace with a chromatoprobe design. These methods were tested and compared both on European subjects under laboratory conditions and on young African subjects under field conditions. All four methods permitted effective trapping of skin odours, including the major known human skin volatile compounds. In both laboratory and field experiments, contact SPME, in which the time of collection was restricted to 3 min, provided results very similar to those obtained with classical headspace SPME, a method that requires 45 min of collection. Chromatoprobe sampling also proved to be very sensitive, rapid and convenient for the collection of human-produced volatiles in natural settings. Both contact SPME and chromatoprobe design may considerably facilitate the study of human skin volatiles under field conditions, opening new possibilities for examining the olfactory cues mediating the host-seeking behaviour of mosquito vectors implicated in the transmission of major diseases.

  8. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  9. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  10. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  11. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  12. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-contamination in the food production process, FDA investigations concluded that no peanut protein was present... . (c) The ingredient is used in food in accordance with good manufacturing practices under the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 [Docket No...

  13. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  14. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  15. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  16. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  17. Energy consumption, human well-being and economic development in central and eastern European nations: A cautionary tale of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies

  18. Oxygen (average seabed consumption) data collected using pressure gauge from the Drake Passage in part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Southern Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage from 1976-02-08 to 1982-03-19 (NODC Accession 9000027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oxygen (average seabed consumption) data were collected using pressure gauge from the Drake Passage from February 8, 1976 to March 19, 1982. Data were submitted by...

  19. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  20. Short-term acetaminophen consumption enhances the exercise-induced increase in Achilles peritendinous IL-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gump, Brian S; McMullan, David R; Cauthon, David J

    2013-01-01

    Through an unknown mechanism the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor acetaminophen (APAP) alters tendon mechanical properties in humans when consumed during exercise. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by tendon during exercise and is a potent stimulator of collagen synthesis. In non-tendon tissue, IL-6...... is upregulated in presence of COX-inhibitors and may contribute to alterations in extracellular matrix turnover, possibly due to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). We evaluated the effects of APAP on IL-6 and PGE2 in human Achilles peritendinous tissue after 1-hour of treadmill exercise. Subjects were...... randomly assigned to a placebo (n=8, 26±1 y) or APAP (n=8, 25±1 y) group. Each subject completed a non-exercise and exercise experiment consisting of 6-hours of microdialysis. Drug (APAP, 1000 mg) or placebo was administered in a double-blind manner during both experiments. PGE2 and IL-6 were determined...

  1. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico slaughtered for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Alvarado-Esquivel, Domingo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-01-01

    Background Nothing is known about Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in donkeys in Mexico. Meat from donkey is consumed by humans in Mexico and also exported to other countries. We sought to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) for slaughter in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Donkeys were sampled in four premises (trade centers) where donkeys were gather for shipment to abattoirs in other Mexican states. Results A...

  2. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Black, C.R.; Craigon, J.; Young, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal ‘hazard quotient’ (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 ‘site-vegetable’ combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed. - Highlights: ► Solubility of toxic metals in soils used for urban agriculture is highly variable. ► Washing leafy vegetables prior to cooking reduces consumption of Cr, Pb, As and Ni. ► Lead (Pb) presents the greatest hazard in produce from agriculture in Kampala City. ► Agriculture in East African cities can be practiced safely with the right choices. ► Soil screening to predict hazard to consumers may be useful in site surveys. - Peri-urban agriculture requires careful consideration of vegetable choice and site characteristics.

  3. Water quality of springs and water wells which are used in human consumption, in the Jocotitlan volcano region at State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Seidel, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this work are presented the results of water quality of seven springs (San Antonio Enchisi, Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Pasteje, Los Reyes, Santa Cruz and Tiacaque) and two water wells (Jocotitlan No. 2 and La Providencia No. 35) which are used for human consumption and that are located surrounding area to Jocotitlan volcano, state of Mexico. It was determined the 222 Rn concentration through liquid scintillation, the 226 Ra by Gamma spectroscopy, the physical-chemical parameters (major elements) and bacteriological, using standardized methods. The minor elements and trace in solution were determined by Icp-Ms mass spectroscopy. The water quality was established in function of the standing standards. Therefore Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Santa Cruz, Tiacaque springs and the Jocotitlan No. 2 well, are drinkable water. So, Pasteje, Los Reyes, San Antonio Enchisi springs and the La Providencia No. 35 well are chemically drinkable but presenting bacteriological pollution. (Author)

  4. Yield of two mutant lines of soybean for human consumption;Rendimiento de dos lineas mutantes de soya para consumo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Diaz V, G. E.; Valencia E, F.; Ranfla C, R.; Melendez P, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Vicente Guerrero No. 81, Col. Centro, 40000 Iguala, Guerrero (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco Km. 36.5, Montecillo, 56230 Texcoco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T., E-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The present work has the objective of to evaluate the yield and the agronomic behavior of 2 mutant lines of soybean for human consumption, obtained by means of a process of recurrent irradiation of soybean seed ISAAEG-BM{sub 2} with gammas of Co{sup 60} and selection in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 18}. For the variable yield significant statistical differences were not observed, but considering the rest of the evaluated agronomic characteristics the mutant lines L{sub 6} and Bombona they were excellent with values of 3,934.6 and 3,806.8 Kg ha-{sup 1} to 15% of grain humidity, they also possess excellent genetic characteristics result of the irradiations and selections of these new genetic materials. (Author)

  5. Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Karen M; Bell, Phillip G; Lodge, John K; Constantinou, Costas L; Jenkinson, Sarah E; Bass, Rosemary; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of selected phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a randomised, double-blinded, crossover design, 12 healthy males consumed either 30 or 60 mL of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate. Following analysis of the juice composition, venous blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-consumption of the beverage. In addition to examining some aspects of the concentrate contents, plasma concentrations of protocatechuic acid (PCA), vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic (CHL) acid were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array for quantitation and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS) for qualitative purposes. Vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation were also assessed in vitro. Both the 30 and 60 mL doses of Montmorency cherry concentrate contained high amounts of total phenolics (71.37 ± 0.11; 142.73 ± 0.22 mg/L) and total anthocyanins (62.47 ± 0.31; 31.24 ± 0.16 mg/L), as well as large quantities of CHL (0.205 ± 0.24; 0.410 ± 0.48 mg/L) and VA (0.253 ± 0.84; 0.506 ± 1.68 mg/L). HPLC/LCMS identified two dihydroxybenzoic acids (PCA and VA) in plasma following MC concentrate consumption. Both compounds were most abundant 1-2 h post-initial ingestion with traces detectable at 8 h post-ingestion. Cell migration was significantly influenced by the combination of PCA and VA, but not in isolation. There was no effect of the compounds on cell proliferation. These data show new information that phenolic compounds thought to exert vasoactive properties are bioavailable in vivo following MC consumption and subsequently can influence cell behaviour. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of Montmorency cherries.

  6. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...

  7. Consumption bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of consumption in relation to the growing world population. Over the past 25 years, world population increased by 53%, while world consumption per person increased by only 39%. If consumption continues to grow at 1.4%, the world consumption per person will rise by 100% over the next 50 years with the population increasing by only half that amount. The burden of reducing the environmental impact brought about by this increase lies on technology. Technology needs to deliver major changes in improving resource productivity, and decreasing the amount of waste created. Productivity such as global food production has kept up with demand. Malnutrition persists due to poverty, and not because of the inability of the world to produce enough food. However, the prospects are much worse for resources that are not traded on markets or subject to sustainable management such as groundwater, state forests, ocean fish, and communal waste sinks like rivers, lakes, and the global atmosphere. These resources are not under the direct control of people affected by shortage. People who want to change the way these resources are used or managed have to pass through the legal or political system. Usually, political responses are slow and there has to be a very widespread environmental damage before action is taken.

  8. Effects of mood inductions by meal ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in humans: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Schrieks

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on plasma ECs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, anandamide (AEA, and some N-acylethanolamine (NAE congeners in humans.Healthy women (n = 28 participated in a randomized cross-over study. They consumed sparkling white wine (340 mL; 30 g alcohol or alcohol-free sparkling white wine (340 mL; <2 g alcohol as part of a standard evening meal in a room with either a pleasant or an unpleasant ambiance.Plasma concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA and stearoylethanolamide (SEA increased after 30 min in the unpleasant ambiance, while they decreased in the pleasant ambiance. Changes in ECs and their NAE congeners correlated with mood states, such as happiness and fatigue, but in the pleasant ambiance without alcohol only. ECs and their NAE congeners were correlated with serum free fatty acids and cortisol.This is the first human study to demonstrate that plasma NAEs are responsive to an unpleasant meal ambiance. Furthermore, associations between mood states and ECs and their NAE congeners were observed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  9. Transmission and Toxigenic Potential of Vibrio cholerae in Hilsha Fish (Tenualosa ilisha) for Human Consumption in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zenat Z.; Farhana, Israt; Tulsiani, Suhella M.

    2018-01-01

    fish were analyzed. The fish were collected both at local markets in the capital city Dhaka and directly from fishermen at the river. PCR analysis by targeting V. cholerae species-specific ompW gene revealed that 39 of 48 (81%) fish were positive in at least one of the sample types. Real-time PCR......Fish have been considered natural reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae, the deadly diarrheal pathogen. However, little is known about the role of fish in the transmission of V. cholerae from the Bay of Bengal to the households of rural and urban Bangladesh. This study analyzes the incidence and pathogenic...

  10. NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

  11. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  12. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the Porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Allaye-Chan, A. C.; White, R. G.; Holleman, D. F.; Russell, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value s...

  13. Evaluation of the Use of Periodicals Collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation and Online Search Center: Arts and Humanities Periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Özbudak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the use perodicals collections in libraries is important as perodicals report the results of the latest scientific research and they are usually more expensive than other types of library materials. In this study we evaluate the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals in the collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation Center. Although the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals was found to be lower than, say, Biomedical periodicals collection, the number of journal titles in Arts and Humanities appears to be quite satisfactory. Some suggestions are made so as to increase the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals collection.

  14. Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Using GPS Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihan Kan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles’ mobile activities (MA and stationary activities (SA. First, we build space-time paths of individual vehicles, extract moving parameters, and identify MA and SA from each space-time path segment (STPS. Then we present an N-Dimensional framework for estimating and visualizing fuel consumption/emissions. For each STPS, fuel consumption, hot emissions, and cold start emissions are estimated based on activity type, i.e., MA, SA with engine-on and SA with engine-off. In the case study, fuel consumption and emissions of a single vehicle and a road network are estimated and visualized with GPS data. The estimation accuracy of the proposed approach is 88.6%. We also analyze the types of activities that produced fuel consumption on each road segment to explore the patterns and mechanisms of fuel consumption in the study area. The results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in estimating fuel consumption/emissions but also indicate their advantages for uncovering the relationships between fuel consumption and vehicles’ activities in road networks.

  15. Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Using GPS Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Zihan; Tang, Luliang; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhang, Xia

    2018-03-21

    The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles' mobile activities ( MA ) and stationary activities ( SA ). First, we build space-time paths of individual vehicles, extract moving parameters, and identify MA and SA from each space-time path segment (STPS). Then we present an N-Dimensional framework for estimating and visualizing fuel consumption/emissions. For each STPS, fuel consumption, hot emissions, and cold start emissions are estimated based on activity type, i.e., MA , SA with engine-on and SA with engine-off. In the case study, fuel consumption and emissions of a single vehicle and a road network are estimated and visualized with GPS data. The estimation accuracy of the proposed approach is 88.6%. We also analyze the types of activities that produced fuel consumption on each road segment to explore the patterns and mechanisms of fuel consumption in the study area. The results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in estimating fuel consumption/emissions but also indicate their advantages for uncovering the relationships between fuel consumption and vehicles' activities in road networks.

  16. 77 FR 14530 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... efficiency (measured by scientific robustness, participant and infrastructure burden, and cost) of...), neurodevelopmental (pending clearance), and study logistic (pending clearance) information collection. Separate and... assess the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of the recruitment strategy, study procedures, and...

  17. High throughput DNA damage quantification of human tissue with home-based collection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Tang, Jonathan; Yannone, Steven M.

    2018-04-03

    Kits, methods and systems for providing a service to provide a subject with information regarding the state of a subject's DNA damage. Collection, processing and analysis of samples are also described.

  18. High throughput DNA damage quantification of human tissue with home-based collection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Sylvain V.; Tang, Jonathan; Yannone, Steven M.

    2018-04-03

    Kits, methods and systems for providing a service to provide a subject with information regarding the state of a subject's DNA damage. Collection, processing and analysis of samples are also described.

  19. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. estimating consumption-based poverty in the ethiopia demographic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    compares consumption with poverty lines, but consumption surveys often do not collect detailed health .... One or more electric mitads. 0.23539 ...... was greater for the asset index than for predicted consumption from a scorecard. In the end ...

  1. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  2. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... differentiate among cell lines, as described in Designation: ASN-0002 Authentication of Human Cell Lines... NIST (contact information above). III. Data OMB Control Number: None. Form Number: None. Type of Review...

  3. A geographically-diverse collection of 418 human gut microbiome pathway genome databases

    KAUST Repository

    Hahn, Aria S.; Altman, Tomer; Konwar, Kishori M.; Hanson, Niels W.; Kim, Dongjae; Relman, David A.; Dill, David L.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    the Pathway Tools software, empowering researchers and clinicians interested in visualizing and interpreting metabolic pathways encoded by the human gut microbiome. For the first time, GutCyc provides consistent annotations and metabolic pathway predictions

  4. Fructose containing sugars do not raise blood pressure or uric acid at normal levels of human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Rippe, James M

    2015-02-01

    The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added to milk. Groups 3 and 4 had 18% of estimated caloric intake from high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, respectively, added to the milk. Blood pressure and uric acid were determined prior to and after the 10-week intervention. There was no effect of sugar type on either blood pressure or uric acid (interaction P>.05), and a significant time effect for blood pressure was noted (Pfructose at the 50th percentile level, whether consumed as pure fructose or with fructose-glucose-containing sugars, does not promote hyperuricemia or increase blood pressure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  6. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  7. Collaborative Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben; Netter, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allow...

  8. Multisite recruitment and data collection among older adults: exploring methods to conserve human and financial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Valerie Lander; Cassidy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe strategies that were effective in recruitment and data collection among older adults in 3 quantitative studies while decreasing costs in terms of time and money. Factors effective in reducing use of investigators' time and expenses included limiting exclusion of data because of abnormal Mini-Cog scores by careful initial screening and avoiding repeated reminders or follow-up, collecting data in small groups, collapsing consent, dementia screening, and data collection into single sessions, as well as accommodating for sensory and literacy deficits. The cross-sectional, descriptive studies were conducted among community-dwelling older adults attending senior citizen centers and among older adults in independent or assisted living apartments within continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs). In the latest study, a convenience sample (N=152) was recruited and data collection was completed in 4 weeks at a total cost of less than $5,000. Methods common to qualitative research and those commonly used in community-based research were adapted to reduce time and costs for recruitment, screening, and data collection. Given limited availability of research funding, other nursing researchers may find one or more of these methods useful.

  9. Increased preoperative collection of autologous blood with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in tertiary care hospitals of Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study whether the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases the amount of autologous blood that can be collected before orthopaedic surgery. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of recombinant human erythropoietin in 68 adults scheduled for elective orthopedic procedures. The patients received either erythropoietin 600 units/kg of body weight or placebo intravenously every 5 th day prior to each phlebotomy for 21 days during which time up to 5 units of blood was collected. Patients were excluded from donation when their hematocrit values were less than 33%. All patients received iron sulphate 325mg orally 3 times daily. The mean number of units collected per patient was 4.33 ± 0.4 for erythropoietin group and 3.05± 0.71 for the placebo group. Results: The mean packed red cell volume donated by patients who received erythropoietin was 32% greater than that donated by patients who received placebo (196.3 vs. 169.4 ml, p<0.05. 68% in the placebo group and 9% of patients treated with erythropoietin were unable to donate ≥4 units. No adverse effects were attributed to erythropoietin. While participating in the study, complications developed in 2 patients one in each group necessitating their removal from the study. Conclusion: We conclude that recombinant human erythropoietin increases the ability of the patients about to undergo elective surgery to donate autologous blood units.

  10. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times) compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression. PMID:22988904

  11. Validation of Cyanoacrylate Method for Collection of Stratum Corneum in Human Skin for Lipid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, JM; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method for the col......Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method...

  12. Investigation into Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalve mollusks farmed in Sardinia region and destined for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tedde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites transmitted by fecal-oral ingestion of (oocysts, and are responsible for enteritis in several animal species and humans worldwide. These (oocysts can survive for over a year in aquatic environments and can accumulate in bivalve mollusks, which filter large volumes of water. The aim of this study is to evaluate the natural occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in different specimens of edible bivalves mollusks from farming sites of the western and north-eastern coasts of Sardinia. From April 2011 to February 2012, 1095 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis and 240 of Crassostrea gigas were sampled from Olbia and Oristano gulf and San Teodoro pond. Hepatopancreas and gills, including the labial palp, were examined for oocysts and cysts after pooling and homogenisation using different techniques: i staining for light and fluorescence microscopy; ii direct immunofluorescence (IF Merifluor® test Cryptosporidium/ Giardia (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; and iii molecular procedures. However, in the context under study, all mollusks examined with the three main diagnostic techniques were negative for both parasites pointing out the hypothetically low zoonotic risk related to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalves, especially Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas.

  13. Decree No 73-138 of 12 February 1973 in implementation of the Act of 1 August 1905 on repression of fraud concerning chemical products in human foodstuffs and articles in contact with food and beverages for human and animal consumption, as well as processes and products used for cleaning such articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    For purposes of health protection, this Decree prescribes detailed conditions governing trade in foods and beverages containing chemical products for human and animal consumption, including irradiated food. (NEA) [fr

  14. Adaptive metabolic response to 4 weeks of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in healthy, lightly active individuals and chronic high glucose availability in primary human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Jackson, Matthew J; Squillace, Cesare; Shepherd, Anthony; Moore, Jonathan P; Ayer, Donald E; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-01

    Chronic sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycaemia contributes to metabolic alterations observed in T2DM, such as reduced oxidative capacity and elevated glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme expressions in skeletal muscle tissue. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alterations induced by SSB supplementation in healthy individuals and to compare these with the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on primary muscle cell cultures. Lightly active, healthy, lean subjects (n = 11) with sporadic soft drink consumption underwent a 4-week SSB supplementation (140 ± 15 g/day, ~2 g glucose/kg body weight/day, glucose syrup). Before and after the intervention, body composition, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), insulin sensitivity, muscle metabolic gene and protein expression were assessed. Adaptive responses to hyperglycaemia (7 days, 15 mM) were tested in primary human myotubes. SSB supplementation increased fat mass (+1.0 kg, P < 0.05), fasting RER (+0.12, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (+0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and muscle GAPDH mRNA expressions (+0.94 AU, P < 0.05). PGC1α mRNA was reduced (-0.20 AU, P < 0.05). Trends were found for insulin resistance (+0.16 mU/L, P = 0.09), and MondoA protein levels (+1.58 AU, P = 0.08). Primary myotubes showed elevations in GAPDH, ACC, MondoA and TXNIP protein expressions (P < 0.05). Four weeks of SSB supplementation in healthy individuals shifted substrate metabolism towards carbohydrates, increasing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression and reducing mitochondrial markers. Glucose-sensing protein MondoA might contribute to this shift, although further in vivo evidence is needed to corroborate this.

  15. Consumption of freshwater fish by recreational and native freshwater anglers in the upper St-Maurice (Quebec, Canada) and estimation of the intake of methylmercury in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loranger, S.; Houde, L.; Schetagne, R.

    1995-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is planning to build two hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper Saint-Maurice River, which would flood about 80% of the surrounding area. The methylmercury (MeHg) content in freshwater fish will therefore tend to increase during the first few years. This development will have a direct impact on the amount of MeHg that the actual users of this river section are exposed to. The objective of this study is to assess the consumption of local fish of these target groups using a Monte-Carlo approach. This study is part of a larger research project aimed at assessing human exposure and the health risks related to MeHg contamination in local fish. The fish consumption rate for recreational freshwater anglers was calculated using the duration of the average annual fishing trip, the average number of catches per species, the average fish weight per species exceeding a specific length of fish usually caught, and the edible portion of fish consumed. This rate was calculated for the native communities based on the total number of meals per year per species, the average fish weight per species, and the edible portion. Based on these calculations, average intake for sport fishermen is estimated at 6.9 g/day (sd = 6.4). This value is 5 to 25 times lower on average than for other North American native communities. However, it must be pointed out that the food habits of the native population were very similar to those of non-native populations; less than 30% of the food comes from traditional sources

  16. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: Individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Balancing risk versus benefits to humans and other organisms from consuming fish is a national concern in the USA, as well as in many other parts of the world. Protecting public health is both a federal and state responsibility, and states respond by issuing fish consumption advisories, particularly for mercury. Recently it has been emphasized that the protective role of selenium against mercury toxicity depends on their molar ratios, which should be evaluated as an indication of selenium’s protective capacity, and incorporated in risk assessments for fish consumption. However, there is no single “protective” ratio agreed upon. In this paper we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in a wide range of saltwater fish caught and eaten by recreational fishers along the New Jersey coast. We were particularly interested in interspecific and intraspecific variability, and whether the molar ratios were consistent within a species, allowing for its use in managing risk. The selenium–mercury molar ratio showed significant variation among and within fish species. The molar ratio decreased with the size of the fish species, decreased with the mercury levels, and within a fish species, the selenium:mercury ratio decreased with fish size. As an essential element, selenium undergoes some homeostatic regulation, but it is also highly toxic. Within species, mercury level tends to increase with size, accounting for the negative relationship between size and ratio. This variability may make it difficult to use the selenium:mercury molar ratio in risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication at this time, and more information is needed on how mercury and selenium actually interact and on the relationship between the molar ratios and health outcomes. PMID:22405995

  17. 75 FR 32474 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... more streamlined recruitment process; A provider based recruitment strategy that relies on health care... Study (NCS), Vanguard (Pilot) Study, Recruitment Substudy Phase 1 SUMMARY: Under the provisions of... questioned the value and utility of the proposed data collection, stating that this type of research is not...

  18. Human Rights as Practice: Dalit Women's Collective Action to Secure Livelihood Entitlements in rural South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangubhai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how Dalit women in rural South India secure livelihood entitlements by analysing processes of social exclusion as well as collective action by these women through their perspectives. This problematic requires focus on how caste, class and gender mutually construct

  19. Red wine consumption may affect sperm biology: the effects of different concentrations of the phytoestrogen myricetin on human male gamete function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Saveria; Santoro, Marta; De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Perrotta, Ida; Sisci, Diego; Morelli, Catia

    2013-02-01

    Myricetin is a natural flavonoid, particularly enriched in red wines, whose occurrence is widespread among plants. Despite extensive research, the beneficial effects of Myricetin on human health are still controversial. Here, we tested the estrogen-like effect of the phytoestrogen Myricetin on human ejaculated sperm biology. To this aim, human normozoospermic samples were exposed to increasing concentrations (10 nM, 100 nM, and 1 µM) of Myricetin. Motility, viability, capacitation-associated biochemical changes (i.e., cholesterol efflux and tyrosine phosphorylation), acrosin activity, as well as glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation (i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism) were all significantly increased by low doses of Myricetin. Importantly, both estrogen receptors α and β (ERs) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are activated in the presence of Myricetin since these were both abrogated by specific inhibitors of each pathway. Our results show how Myricetin, through ERs and PI3K/AKT signalings, potentiates sperm function. This effect is dose-dependent at low concentrations of Myricetin (up to 100 nM), whereas higher amounts do not seem to improve any further sperm motility, viability, or other tested features, and, in some cases, they reduced or even abrogated the efficacy exerted by lower doses. Further studies are needed to elucidate if high levels of Myricetin, which could be attained even with moderate wine consumption, could synergize with endogenous estrogens in the female reproductive tract, interfering with the physiological sperm fertilization process. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A geographically-diverse collection of 418 human gut microbiome pathway genome databases

    KAUST Repository

    Hahn, Aria S.

    2017-04-11

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing are reshaping how we perceive microbial communities inhabiting the human body, with implications for therapeutic interventions. Several large-scale datasets derived from hundreds of human microbiome samples sourced from multiple studies are now publicly available. However, idiosyncratic data processing methods between studies introduce systematic differences that confound comparative analyses. To overcome these challenges, we developed GutCyc, a compendium of environmental pathway genome databases (ePGDBs) constructed from 418 assembled human microbiome datasets using MetaPathways, enabling reproducible functional metagenomic annotation. We also generated metabolic network reconstructions for each metagenome using the Pathway Tools software, empowering researchers and clinicians interested in visualizing and interpreting metabolic pathways encoded by the human gut microbiome. For the first time, GutCyc provides consistent annotations and metabolic pathway predictions, making possible comparative community analyses between health and disease states in inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and type 2 diabetes. GutCyc data products are searchable online, or may be downloaded and explored locally using MetaPathways and Pathway Tools.

  1. Toward Improved Collections in Medical Humanities: Fiction in Academic Health Sciences Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dali, Keren; Dilevko, Juris

    2006-01-01

    Although fiction plays a prominent role in the interdisciplinary field of medical humanities (MH), it is physically and intellectually isolated from non-fiction in academic health sciences libraries. Using the Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database (LAMD) as a tool for selection and subject analysis, we suggest a method of integrating fiction…

  2. Human circadian phase estimation from signals collected in ambulatory conditions using an autoregressive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, Enrique A; Aubert, Xavier L; Møst, Els I S; Beersma, Domien G M

    Phase estimation of the human circadian rhythm is a topic that has been explored using various modeling approaches. The current models range from physiological to mathematical, all attempting to estimate the circadian phase from different physiological or behavioral signals. Here, we have focused on

  3. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  4. Collecting big datasets of human activity one checkin at a time

    OpenAIRE

    Hossmann, Theus; Efstratiou, Christos; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    A variety of cutting edge applications for mobile phones exploit the availability of phone sensors to accurately infer the user activity and location to offer more effective services. To validate and evaluate these new applications, appropriate and extensive datasets are needed: in particular, large sets of traces of sensor data (accelerometer, GPS, micro- phone, etc.), labelled with corresponding user activities. So far, such traces have only been collected in short-lived, small-scale setups...

  5. Human exposure to mercury in artisanal small-scale gold mining areas of Kedougou region, Senegal, as a function of occupational activity and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niane, Birane; Guédron, Stéphane; Moritz, Robert; Cosio, Claudia; Ngom, Papa Malick; Deverajan, Naresh; Pfeifer, Hans Rudolf; Poté, John

    2015-05-01

    We investigated mercury (Hg) exposure of food web and humans in the region of Kedougou, Senegal, where Hg is used for gold amalgamation in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM). For this purpose, total mercury (THg) concentration was determined in eight fish species and two shellfish species from Gambia River and in human hair from 111 volunteers of different age and sex, living in urban locations (Kedougou and Samekouta) or in ASGM areas (Tinkoto and Bantako). THg concentrations in fish samples range from 0.03 to 0.51 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and 0.5 to 1.05 mg kg(-1) ww for shellfish. THg concentrations in fish are below the WHO guideline of 0.5 mg kg(-1) ww, whereas 100 % of shellfish are above this safety guideline. In the entire set of fish and shellfish samples, we documented a decrease of THg concentrations with increasing selenium to mercury (Se:Hg) ratio suggesting a protection of Se against Hg. However, local population consuming fish from the Gambia River in the two ASGM areas have higher THg concentrations (median = 1.45 and 1.5 mg kg(-1) at Bantako and Tinkoto) in hair than those from others localities (median = 0.42 and 0.32 mg kg(-1) at Kedougou town and Samekouta) who have diverse diets. At ASGM sites, about 30 % of the local population present Hg concentrations in hair exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), defined as the reference concentration of Hg in hair. We also evidence a higher exposure of women to Hg in the Tinkoto ASGM site due to the traditional distribution of daily tasks where women are more involved in the burning of amalgams. The discrepancy between the calculated moderate exposure through fish consumption and the high Hg concentrations measured in hair suggest that fish consumption is not the only source of Hg exposure and that further studies should focus on direct exposure to elemental Hg of population living at ASGM sites.

  6. Consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Dubuisson-Quellier, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    This article deliberates on strategies of consumption governance toward more sustainable consumption. We discuss theoretical concepts stemming from various social science perspectives to (1) promote more sustainable consumption, (2) compare strategies stemming from individualist understanding of

  7. Evaluation of the Use of Periodicals Collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation and Online Search Center: Arts and Humanities Periodicals

    OpenAIRE

    Elçin Özbudak

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of the use perodicals collections in libraries is important as perodicals report the results of the latest scientific research and they are usually more expensive than other types of library materials. In this study we evaluate the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals in the collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation Center. Although the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals was found to be lower than, say, Biomedical periodicals collection, the number of journal t...

  8. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM 10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM 10 collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM 10 exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  9. Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkoski, Timothy E.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-03-01

    With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary.

  10. Electricity consumption in Geneva's businesses and administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassand, M.; Malatesta, D.; Chevalier, H.

    1999-01-01

    The article describes a data-collection project that gave an overview of energy consumption in Geneva's businesses and the canton's administration. For the first time, data on the patterns of use of electrical equipment were collected. The development of the sampling process is discussed, and the development of the categories defined for the analysis of the results is described. The role of various types of objects and their typical electricity consumption is discussed and trends in consumption are described. Results discussed include electricity consumption per employee and the degree of awareness regarding costs and consumption in various business types

  11. Spontaneous and α-adrenoceptor-induced contractility in human collecting lymphatic vessels require chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanakumar, Sheyanth; Majgaard, Jens; Telinius, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    - with the impermeant anion aspartate and inhibition of Cl- transport and channels with the clinical diuretics furosemide and bendroflumethiazide, as well as DIDS and NPPB. The molecular expression of calcium-activated chloride channels was investigated by RT-PCR and proteins localized using immunoreactivity....... Spontaneous and norepinephrine-induced contractility in human lymphatic vessels was highly abrogated after Cl- substitution with aspartate. 100‒300µM DIDS or NPPB inhibited spontaneous contractile behavior. Norepinephrine-stimulated tone was furthermore markedly abrogated by 200µM DIDS. Furosemide lowered...

  12. Strategies for protecting ground water used for human consumption in the Guadalquivir basin; Estrategias de proteccion del agua subterranea destinada al consumo humano en la cuenca del Guadalquivir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Madrid, A.; Martinez, C.; Luque, J. a.; Rubio-Campos, J. C.; Carrasco, F.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a way of defining safeguard zones for groundwater protection according to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Taking into account the peculiarities of the groundwater bodies in the region of the Mediterranean arch, we chose to conduct our study in the Guadalquivir basin in southern Spain, an area of special interest because it combines the influence of rain fronts and the mixed characteristics of both Mediterranean and Atlantic climates, together with the fact that a large percentage of water for human consumption is provided by groundwater, especially at the head of the basin, where this percentage may account for up to 80%. Safeguard zones are defined by an initial delimitation of quality-protection perimeters using the Reduced DRASTIC and COP methods, designed specifically for detrital and karstic aquifers respectively, to assess the potential impact of the existing pressures upon them and study their intrinsic vulnerability. An analysis of all this spatial information using a geographical information system allowed us to test and validate the method used and to obtain an initial definition of safeguard zones in the basin in question. (Author) 37 refs.

  13. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified wick method using Weck-Cel sponges for collection of human rectal secretions and analysis of mucosal HIV antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P A; Lynch, R M; Patterson, R R; Cu-Uvin, S; Flanigan, T P; Neutra, M R

    2000-08-01

    Weck-Cel sponges were examined for suitability as an absorbent material for nontraumatic collection of rectal secretions in humans. Sponges were tested in vitro and determined by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of releasing 100% of absorbed albumin and all immunoglobulin subtypes after treatment with detergent-supplemented buffer. Protein composition in rectal secretions collected from normal women with dry sponges (DS) or with sponges previously softened by moistening with saline (MS) was subsequently compared. DS secretions showed evidence of contamination with blood and interstitial fluid-derived albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and monomeric IgA. MS secretions appeared to represent local mucosal secretions more accurately because they contained negligible blood, a greater percentage of secretory IgA within the total IgA, and both lower albumin/IgG ratios and more dramatic alterations in IgG subclass distribution compared with corresponding serum. Anti-HIV IgG, IgM, IgA, and antibodies with secretory component could be demonstrated by ELISA in rectal secretions collected with moist sponges from 8 of 8, 1 of 8, 5 of 8, and 3 of 8 HIV-infected women, respectively. The data show that Weck-Cel sponges, if premoistened, can be used to collect rectal fluids nontraumatically and to obtain quantitative information about concentrations of immunoglobulins and specific antibodies on rectal mucosal surfaces.

  15. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...... and systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  16. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures ( children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  17. Setting health research priorities using the CHNRI method: VI. Quantitative properties of human collective opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachiyo; Rudan, Igor; Cousens, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourcing has become an increasingly important tool to address many problems - from government elections in democracies, stock market prices, to modern online tools such as TripAdvisor or Internet Movie Database (IMDB). The CHNRI method (the acronym for the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) for setting health research priorities has crowdsourcing as the major component, which it uses to generate, assess and prioritize between many competing health research ideas. We conducted a series of analyses using data from a group of 91 scorers to explore the quantitative properties of their collective opinion. We were interested in the stability of their collective opinion as the sample size increases from 15 to 90. From a pool of 91 scorers who took part in a previous CHNRI exercise, we used sampling with replacement to generate multiple random samples of different size. First, for each sample generated, we identified the top 20 ranked research ideas, among 205 that were proposed and scored, and calculated the concordance with the ranking generated by the 91 original scorers. Second, we used rank correlation coefficients to compare the ranks assigned to all 205 proposed research ideas when samples of different size are used. We also analysed the original pool of 91 scorers to to look for evidence of scoring variations based on scorers' characteristics. The sample sizes investigated ranged from 15 to 90. The concordance for the top 20 scored research ideas increased with sample sizes up to about 55 experts. At this point, the median level of concordance stabilized at 15/20 top ranked questions (75%), with the interquartile range also generally stable (14-16). There was little further increase in overlap when the sample size increased from 55 to 90. When analysing the ranking of all 205 ideas, the rank correlation coefficient increased as the sample size increased, with a median correlation of 0.95 reached at the sample size of 45 experts (median of the rank

  18. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Pack Sheffield

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a moderate approach, balancing suggestions for when open peer review can benefit scholarship in the humanities, while offering important concerns authors and editors must consider before deciding to implement the process. I focus on online commenting functions and how they have been—and can be—used for open peer review to help improve the quality of an author’s scholarly work and change the way publishers go about their peer review processes. While open peer review is not necessarily digital, digital technologies allow for a broader range of participants and faster dissemination of knowledge, which is why this article focuses on online open peer review. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities, by Jenna Pack Sheffield

  19. From Collective Adaptive Systems to Human Centric Computation and Back: Spatial Model Checking for Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Belmonte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on formal verification for Collective Adaptive Systems (CAS pushed advancements in spatial and spatio-temporal model checking, and as a side result provided novel image analysis methodologies, rooted in logical methods for topological spaces. Medical Imaging (MI is a field where such technologies show potential for ground-breaking innovation. In this position paper, we present a preliminary investigation centred on applications of spatial model checking to MI. The focus is shifted from pure logics to a mixture of logical, statistical and algorithmic approaches, driven by the logical nature intrinsic to the specification of the properties of interest in the field. As a result, novel operators are introduced, that could as well be brought back to the setting of CAS.

  20. Collection and identification of human remains volatiles by non-contact, dynamic airflow sampling and SPME-GC/MS using various sorbent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGreeff, Lauryn E; Furton, Kenneth G

    2011-09-01

    Human remains detection canines are used in locating deceased humans in diverse scenarios and environments based on odor produced during the decay process of the human body. It has been established that human remains detection canines are capable of locating human remains specifically, as opposed to living humans or animal remains, thus suggesting a difference in odor between the different sources. This work explores the collection and determination of such odors using a dynamic headspace concentration device. The airflow rate and three sorbent materials-Dukal cotton gauze, Johnson & Johnson cotton-blend gauze, and polyester material-used for odor collection were evaluated using standard compounds. It was determined that higher airflow rates and openly woven material, e.g., Dukal cotton gauze, yielded significantly less total volatile compounds due to compound breakthrough through the sorbent material. Collection from polymer- and cellulose-based materials demonstrated that the molecular backbone of the material is a factor in compound collection as well. Volatiles, including cyclic and straight-chain hydrocarbons, organic acids, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols, were collected from a population of 27 deceased bodies from two collection locations. The common compounds between the subjects were compared and the odor profiles were determined. These odor profiles were compared with those of animal remains and living human subjects collected in the same manner. Principal component analysis showed that the odor profiles of the three sample types were distinct.

  1. Water Chlorination for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenti, A.; Giacosa, D.; Segatori, M.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning from this issue, an initiative of Federgasacqua (Federal association dealing with the gas and the water) takes place through the activities of the Task Forces Water Quality Control and Materials and Processes, which aim is to offer to the water industry operators and updated information concerning some main subjects, emphasizing in particular the technical and management applied topics. The paper deals with the chlorination processes in drinking water treatment. An overview of the italian situation is presented, concerning disinfection as well as other oxidation processes, together with an historical background on chlorination. Concerning the applications, the chemical technologies and the main processes, the disinfectant effectiveness and the byproducts formation have been described. Further, the regulations in force have been reported and discussed on national and international bases [it

  2. Dynamic response and transfer function of social systems: A neuro-inspired model of collective human activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulos, Ilias N

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of social networks with the external environment gives rise to non-stationary activity patterns reflecting the temporal structure and strength of exogenous influences that drive social dynamical processes far from an equilibrium state. Following a neuro-inspired approach, based on the dynamics of a passive neuronal membrane, and the firing rate dynamics of single neurons and neuronal populations, we build a state-of-the-art model of the collective social response to exogenous interventions. In this regard, we analyze online activity patterns with a view to determining the transfer function of social systems, that is, the dynamic relationship between external influences and the resulting activity. To this end, first we estimate the impulse response (Green's function) of collective activity, and then we show that the convolution of the impulse response with a time-varying external influence field accurately reproduces empirical activity patterns. To capture the dynamics of collective activity when the generating process is in a state of statistical equilibrium, we incorporate into the model a noisy input convolved with the impulse response function, thus precisely reproducing the fluctuations of stationary collective activity around a resting value. The outstanding goodness-of-fit of the model results to empirical observations, indicates that the model explains human activity patterns generated by time-dependent external influences in various socio-economic contexts. The proposed model can be used for inferring the temporal structure and strength of external influences, as well as the inertia of collective social activity. Furthermore, it can potentially predict social activity patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity assessment of the water used for human consumption from the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area prior/after the combined electrochemical treatment/advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Gerić, Marko; Kollar, Robert; Lovrenčić Mikelić, Ivanka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was detailed physicochemical, radiological, and toxicological characterization of the composite sample of water intended for human consumption in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area before and after a combined electrochemical/advanced oxidation treatment. Toxicological characterization was conducted on human lymphocytes using a battery of bioassays. On the bases of the tested parameters, it could be concluded that water used for drinking from the tested water sources must be strictly forbidden for human and/or animal consumption since it is extremely cytogenotoxic, with high oxidative stress potential. A combined electrochemical treatment and posttreatment with ozone and UV light decreased the level of all physicochemical and radiological parameters below the regulated values. Consequently, the purified sample was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic, indicating that the presented method could be used for the improvement of water quality from the sites highly contaminated with the mixture of heavy metals and radionuclides.

  4. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on...

  5. Monitoring cell line identity in collections of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sarafian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs has led to the generation of large collections of cell lines from thousands of individuals with specific phenotypes, many of which will be shared among different research groups as invaluable tools for biomedical research. As hiPSC-based research involves extensive culture of many cell lines, the issue periodic cell line identification is particularly important to ensure that cell line identity remains accurate. Here we analyzed the different commercially available genotyping methods considering ease of in-house genotyping, cost and informativeness, and applied one of them in our workflow for hiPSC generation. We show that the chosen STR method was able to establish a unique DNA profile for each of the 35 individuals/hiPSC lines at the examined sites, as well as identify two discrepancies resulting from inadvertently exchanged samples. Our results highlight the importance of hiPSC line genotyping by an in-house method that allows periodic cell line identification and demonstrate that STR is a useful approach to supplement less frequent karyotyping and epigenetic evaluations. Keywords: Induced pluripotent stem cells, Genotyping, Cell line identification, Short tandem repeats, Quality control

  6. A curated transcriptome dataset collection to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Boughorbel, Sabri; Presnell, Scott; Quinn, Charlie; Cugno, Chiara; Chaussabel, Damien; Marr, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Compendia of large-scale datasets made available in public repositories provide an opportunity to identify and fill gaps in biomedical knowledge. But first, these data need to be made readily accessible to research investigators for interpretation. Here we make available a collection of transcriptome datasets to investigate the functional programming of human hematopoietic cells in early life. Thirty two datasets were retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and loaded in a custom web application called the Gene Expression Browser (GXB), which was designed for interactive query and visualization of integrated large-scale data. Quality control checks were performed. Multiple sample groupings and gene rank lists were created allowing users to reveal age-related differences in transcriptome profiles, changes in the gene expression of neonatal hematopoietic cells to a variety of immune stimulators and modulators, as well as during cell differentiation. Available demographic, clinical, and cell phenotypic information can be overlaid with the gene expression data and used to sort samples. Web links to customized graphical views can be generated and subsequently inserted in manuscripts to report novel findings. GXB also enables browsing of a single gene across projects, thereby providing new perspectives on age- and developmental stage-specific expression of a given gene across the human hematopoietic system. This dataset collection is available at: http://developmentalimmunology.gxbsidra.org/dm3/geneBrowser/list.

  7. Computer simulation of leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a crowd simulation model developed by the authors by reproducing Dyer et al.'s experiments (published in Philosophical Transactions in 2009 on human leadership and consensus decision making in a computer-based environment. The theoretical crowd model of the simulation environment is presented, and its results are compared and analysed against Dyer et al.'s original experiments. It is concluded that the simulation results are largely consistent with the experiments, which demonstrates the reliability of the crowd model. Furthermore, the simulation data also reveals several additional new findings, namely: 1 the phenomena of sacrificing accuracy to reach a quicker consensus decision found in ants colonies was also discovered in the simulation; 2 the ability of reaching consensus in groups has a direct impact on the time and accuracy of arriving at the target position; 3 the positions of the informed individuals or leaders in the crowd could have significant impact on the overall crowd movement; and 4 the simulation also confirmed Dyer et al.'s anecdotal evidence of the proportion of the leadership in large crowds and its effect on crowd movement. The potential applications of these findings are highlighted in the final discussion of this paper.

  8. Consumption and Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    1996-01-01

    The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some of the cu...... socio-cultural and life qualitative demands into account. As a conclusion the author outlines some ideals with regard to how to integrate human the dimension in urban ecological design.......The contribution takes its point of departure in the relation between the many resource savings initiatives and the lack of interest for the growth in consumption. It argues that what we make up on the roundabouts, we risk to loose on the swings. In order to prevent that it reveals some...

  9. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  10. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day -1 , which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day -1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  11. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  12. Risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via shrimp (Macrobrachium felicinum) consumption along the Imo River catchments, SE Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosunmu, Miranda I; Oyo-Ita, Inyang O; Oyo-Ita, Orok E

    2016-12-01

    Shrimp species (Macrobrachium felicinum) collected from estuarine mangrove area of the Imo River is an important route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The estuarine associated sediment (EAS) composited sample showed higher TPAH, ΣAlkyl, ΣPAH carc and ΣPAH EPA concentrations (550.84, 172.36, 413.17 and 482.11 ng/g dry weight-dw) than their mean concentrations in shrimp samples (509.39 ± 354.21, 31.38 ± 18.49, 52.10 ± 1.35 and 460.06 ± 330.76 ng/g wet weight-ww), respectively. Among the individual PAHs congeners, phenanthrene was the dominant species detected in the EAS accounting for 21.02 % of the total PAH load and the decreasing order of 3- > 2- > 5- > 4- > 6-ring contamination was found. A different pattern predominated by naphthalene was observed for the shrimp species, suggesting that the organisms have different selectivity for a range of PAHs congeners. These variations may be attributed to different degree of bioavailability of these compounds, characteristic sandy lithology of the EAS and the protective capacity of soot particles associated with liquid fossil fuel combustion masking the uptake of high molecular weight PAHs by the organisms. Cancer risk associated with consumption of shrimps in the region was assessed using estimated daily intake (EDI) and compared with standards. The EDI values for naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene and ∑PAH carc were lower than the USEPA benchmarks and EFSA levels of concern values for adult and children population, suggesting low probability of developing cancer.

  13. Hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of mercury: experimental study of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Murata, Katsuyuki; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Nakai, Kunihiko; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    The hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of methylmercury in a one-compartment model seem to differ between past and recent studies. To reevaluate them, 27 healthy volunteers were exposed to methylmercury at the provisional tolerable weekly intake (3.4 µg/kg body weight/week) for adults through fish consumption for 14 weeks, followed by a 15-week washout period after the cessation of exposure. Blood was collected every 1 or 2 weeks, and hair was cut every 4 weeks. Total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were analyzed in blood and hair. The T-Hg levels of blood and hair changed with time (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations increased from 6.7 ng/g at week 0 to 26.9 ng/g at week 14 in blood, and from 2.3 to 8.8 µg/g in hair. The mean hair-to-blood ratio after the adjustment for the time lag from blood to hair was 344 ± 54 (S.D.) for the entire period. The half-lives of T-Hg were calculated from raw data to be 94 ± 23 days for blood and 102 ± 31 days for hair, but the half-lives recalculated after subtracting the background levels from the raw data were 57 ± 18 and 64 ± 22 days, respectively. In conclusion, the hair-to-blood ratio of methylmercury, based on past studies, appears to be underestimated in light of recent studies. The crude half-life may be preferred rather than the recalculated one because of the practicability and uncertainties of the background level, though the latter half-life may approximate the conventional one.

  14. Potential Health Risk Assessment of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn for Human Population via Consumption of Commercial Spices; a Case Study of Hamedan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhanardakani S.* PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Spices are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the taste of food as well as affecting the digestion and metabolism. Along with that, they may also contain some substances as heavy metals, which have harmful effects on the body. The aim of present study was to assess the potential health risk of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn contents of cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods: 18 industrially packaged and weighted spice samples (cardamom, curry powder and turmeric belonging to 6 famous brands were bought from different supermarkets of Hamedan City, Iran, in 2015. The human health risks posed by chronic exposure to the heavy metals were assessed by computing the average daily intake of metal. The health risk index (HRI for the local population through the consumption of spice was assessed using DIM/RfD formula. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, DMS post-hoc, Tukey HSD and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests. Findings: Cr was detected in spice samples in 0.08-1.67mg/kg, Cu 0.05-1.28mg/kg, Fe 1.04-6.89mg/kg and Zn 0.40-2.25mg/kg. The mean concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn were lower than MPL. The DIM values for the examined spice samples were below the recommended values. Conclusion: The levels of Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn are less than the MPL in cardamom, curry powder and turmeric in Hamedan City, Iran.

  15. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and passive sampling: powerful tools for the determination of emerging pollutants in water for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirasole, Cristiana; Di Carro, Marina; Tanwar, Shivani; Magi, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    Among the wide range of emerging pollutants, perfluorinated compounds and various pharmaceuticals, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are showing growing concern. These contaminants can be found in freshwater ecosystems because of their incomplete removal during wastewater treatments so, their water solubility and poor degradability result in their continuous discharge and pseudo-persistent contamination. Usually, expected levels of these analytes are particularly low; therefore, sensitive and selective analytical techniques are required for their determination. Moreover, sampling and preconcentration are fundamental steps to reach the low detection limits required. The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) represents a modern sampling approach that allows the in-situ preconcentration of ultra-trace pollutants. In this work, a fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of diclofenac, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, ibuprofen, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate and caffeine in water for human consumption. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved in less than 6 min. Quantitative analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode using ketoprofen-d3 as internal standard. Two different sites of Northern Italy were studied deploying POCIS for four weeks in both inlet and outlet of two drinking water treatment plants. The evaluation of time-weighted average concentration of contaminants was accomplished after the calibration of POCIS; to this aim, the sampling rate values for each compound were obtained by means of a simple calibration system developed in our laboratory. Ketoprofen, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate and caffeine were measured in both sites at the ng l(-1) level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. National ethics guidance in Sub-Saharan Africa on the collection and use of human biological specimens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Francis; Little, Madison T

    2016-10-22

    Ethical and regulatory guidance on the collection and use of human biospecimens (HBS) for research forms an essential component of national health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where rapid advances in genetic- and genomic-based technologies are fueling clinical trials involving HBS and the establishment of large-scale biobanks. An extensive multi-level search for publicly available ethics regulatory guidance was conducted for each SSA country. A second review documented active trials listed in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform as of January 2015 in which HBS collection was specified in the protocol. Findings were combined to determine the extent to which countries that are study sites for HBS-related research are supported by regulatory guidance language on the collection, use, ownership and storage of biospecimens. Of the 49 SSA countries, 29 had some form of national ethics guidance, yet only 17 provided language relating to HBS-related research, with specific guidance on consent (14), ownership (6), reuse (10), storage (9), and export/import/transfer (13). Ten countries accounted for 84 % of the active clinical trials involving the collection of HBS in SSA. All except one of these countries were found to have some national guidance in the form of regulations, codes of ethics, and/or standard operating procedures; however, only seven of the ten offered any language specific to HBS. Despite the fact that the bulk of registered clinical trials in SSA involving HBS, as well as existing and proposed sites for biorepositories under the H3Africa Initiative, are currently situated in countries with the most complete ethics and regulatory guidance, variability in the regulations themselves may create challenges for planned and future pan-African collaborations and may require legislative action at the national level to revise. Countries in SSA that still lack regulatory guidance on HBS will require extensive health system strengthening in

  18. Resource consumption analysis of online activity recognition on mobile phones and smartwatches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, M.; Durmaz, O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Scholten, J.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the studies on human activity recognition using smartphones and smartwatches are performed in an offline manner. In such studies, collected data is analyzed in machine learning tools with less focus on the resource consumption of these devices for running an activity recognition system. In

  19. The history and composition of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Manisha R; Kegley, Anthony D T; Strkalj, Goran; Bidmos, Mubarak A; Kuykendall, Kevin L

    2009-10-01

    The Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons (Dart Collection) is housed in the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, and comprises one of the largest documented cadaver-derived human skeletal assemblages in the world. This collection originated in the early 1920s as a result of the efforts of Raymond Dart and continues to grow. The skeletons included represent varied indigenous and immigrant populations from southern Africa, Europe and Asia. This contribution documents the history of the collection and provides an updated inventory and demographic assessment of this valuable research collection. According to a recent inventory the Dart Collection currently comprises 2,605 skeletons representing individuals from regional SA African (76%), White (15%), Coloured (4%) and Indian (0.3%) populations. A large proportion of the skeletons (71%) represent males. The recorded ages at death range from the first year to over 100 years of age, but the majority of individuals died between the ages of 20 and 70. The Dart Collection has been affected by collection procedures based on availability. All of the cadavers collected before 1958, and large proportions subsequently, were derived from unclaimed bodies in regional South African hospitals. Some details of documentation (age at death, population group) are estimates and some aspects of the collection demographics (sex ratios) do not closely reflect any living South African population. Our inventory and analysis of the Dart Collection is aimed to assist researchers planning research on the materials from this collection.

  20. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaye-Chan, A.C.; White, R.G.; Holleman, D.F.; Russell, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value should not prove hazardous to human health. Radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle (wet weight) ranged from approximately 22 to 50% of radiocesium concentrations in rumen contents (dry weight), and from approximately 15 to 37% of radiocesium concentrations in feces (dry weight). Radioactivity in feces was significantly correlated with radioactivity in rumen contents. Computer simulations relating lichen intake rates to radiocesium body burdens are presented for 3 scenarios: (1) when seasonal intakes were adjusted to provide the optimum fit between simulated and observed radiocesium body burdens (2) when seasonal intakes were based on empirical data, and (3) when seasonal intakes were adjusted to yield a ''conventional'' radiocesium curve of a slow fall build-up prior to a late winter plateau

  1. Seasonal concentrations of cesium-137 in rumen content, skeletal muscles and feces of caribou from the Porcupine herd: lichen ingestion rates and implications for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Allaye-Chan

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The Porcupine caribou herd was monitored for cesium-137 during 1987 to address human health concerns over potential meat contamination by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and to determine lichen intake rates based on body burdens of radiocesium. A total of 36 caribou were collected from northwestern Alaska and the Yukon Territories in March, June, September, and November. Mean radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle peaked in March at 133 Bq/kg fresh weight. This value should not prove hazardous to human health. Radiocesium concentrations in skeletal muscle (wet weight ranged from approximately 22 to 50% of radiocesium concentrations in rumen contents (dry weight, and from approximately 15 to 37% of radiocesium concentrations in feces (dry weight. Radioactivity in feces was significantly correlated with radioactivity in rumen contents. Computer simulations relating lichen intake rates to radiocesium body burdens are presented for 3 scenarios: (1 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to provide the optimum fit between simulated and observed radiocesium body burdens (2 when seasonal intakes were based on empirical data, and (3 when seasonal intakes were adjusted to yield a "conventional" radiocesium curve of a slow fall build-up prior to a late winter plateau.

  2. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  3. A Systematic Review on Exposure to Toxic and Essential Elements through Black Tea Consumption in Iran: Could It be a Major Risk for Human Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rezaee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The hazard of excessive element intake through black tea consumption should be considered as negligible in Iran. However, related risk for manganese appeared to be more than toxic metals.

  4. Alcohol consumption and awareness of its effects on health among secondary school students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ngozi M; Njoku, Helen Amaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Akubue, Benedette Nwanneamaka; Ezeanwu, Amaka Bibian; Ugwu, Uchenna Cosmas; Ofuebe, Justina Ifeoma

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol consumption among secondary school students is a major public health issue worldwide; however, the extent of consumption among secondary school students and their understanding of its effects on human health remain relatively unknown in many Nigerian States. This study aimed to determine the extent of alcohol consumption and of the awareness of its negative effects on human health among secondary school students.The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Self-report questionnaire developed by the researchers was administered to representative sample (N = 1302) of secondary school students in the study area. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using means and t test.The results showed that male secondary school students moderately consumed beer (55.2%) and local cocktails (51.5%), whereas their female counterparts reported rare consumption of these 2 alcoholic drinks (44.8%; 48.5% respectively). The findings also indicated rare consumption of distilled spirits among both male and female students in the investigated area, whereas wine, liquor, local spirits, and palm wine were consumed moderately, regardless of gender. Finally, male and female secondary school students differed significantly in their awareness of the negative effects of alcohol consumption on health.There is a need to intensify efforts to further curtail the extent of alcohol consumption and increase awareness of the negative effects of alcohol use on human health among secondary school students.

  5. Developing More Insights on Sustainable Consumption in China Based on Q Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Qu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Being an important aspect of sustainable development, sustainable consumption has attracted great attention among Chinese politicians and academia, and Chinese governments have established policies that encourage sustainable consumption behaviors. However, unsustainable consumption behavior still remains predominant in China. This paper aims to classify consumers with similar traits, in terms of the characteristics of practicing sustainable consumption, into one group, so that their traits can be clearly understood, to enable governments to establish pointed policies for different groups of consumers. Q methodology, generally used to reveal the subjectivity of human beings involved in any situation, is applied in this paper to classify Chinese consumers based on Q sample design and data collection and analysis. Next, the traits of each group are analyzed in detail and comparison analyses are also conducted to compare the common and differentiating factors among the three groups. The results show that Chinese consumers can be classified into three groups: sustainable (Group 1, potential sustainable (Group 2 and unsustainable consumers (Group 3, according to their values and attitudes towards sustainable consumption. As such, Group 1 cares for the environment and has strong environmental values. They understand sustainable consumption and its functions. Group 2 needs more enlightenments and external stimuli to motivate them to consume sustainably. Group 3 needs to be informed about and educated on sustainable consumption to enable them to change their consumption behavior from unsustainable to sustainable. Suggestions and implications of encouraging each group of consumers to engage in sustainable consumption are also provided.

  6. Fuelwood consumption in Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This study was undertaken to get a first estimate of fuelwood consumption for the island of Newfoundland for the period April 1, 1977 to March 31, 1978. Available literature was reviewed and an assessment made on the existing data collection systems on fuelwood consumption used by the various forestry agencies in the province. A personal interview telephone survey on fuelwood use was conducted for most parts of the Island that had access to wood supplies. Householders were asked how much wood they burned, when they started burning wood, type of wood burning unit used, other sources of heat used, reasons for burning wood, employment, distance travelled to obtain wood, and expected consumption in 1978-79 compared to 1977-78. It was found that the estimated number of households burning wood increased to ca 32,000 in 1977-78. There was a further estimated increase to about 39,500 in 1978-79. In 1977-78, it was estimated that 461,571 stacked cubic metres of fuelwood were consumed on the Island. This was broken down into 318,916 m/sup 3/ of softwood and 142,655 m/sup 3/ of hardwood. Although the statistical methodology used may have led to an overestimate of the volume of wood consumed, the criteria used in the selection of households had the opposite effect in that the volume consumed by a large number of casual wood burners (less than 3 stacked m/sup 3/) was omitted from the estimate. Fuelwood consumption accounted for anywhere from 1% to 77% of the calculated allowable annual cut for the various forest management units on the Island for 1977-78. Overall, fuelwood consumption estimated by the survey accounted for 8% of the estimated allowable annual cut. Use of wood as a fuel is expected to continue increasing and it is recommended that estimates of consumption be periodically updated so that forest management plans can make adequate provision for this demand in future. 5 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrah K. Sleeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling. However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138, including conventions for extrathoracic (ET deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1 and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2. For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  8. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-07

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  9. [Nursing school students' perception of legal and illegal drugs consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Herrera, Azucena; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Priotto, Elis Maria Teixeira; Sampaio, Julliane Messias Cordeiro

    2011-06-01

    Drugs consumption is as ancient as humanity. It has always existed and is associated with culture, in its historical and social context. The aim of this research is to know and analyze the perception of students from the Nursing School at the University of Guayaquil about legal and illegal drugs consumption. The methodological approach was qualitative, descriptive and exploratory. The sample consisted of eleven first-year students from the Nursing School. Individual and semi structured interviews were used for data collection. Thematic content analysis was adopted, in which five themes were identified: The economic situation, domestic violence, migration of close relatives, influence of the media that surround us, and ignorance about the topic. With a view to enhancing awareness on this hard reality that hurts and prejudices humanity, knowing students' perceptions contributes to identify their needs and create possibilities for health care interventions, particularly health promotion.

  10. Population growth and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, K

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation is complex. The rise in "greenhouse gases" that will cause climatic change is clearly due to human activity, and pollutants are often concentrated in densely populated areas. However, even an area with a negative population growth, such as Russia, can experience severe environmental degradation due to poor management. Consumption patterns have the most effect on ozone depletion, while population growth threatens biodiversity of and within species through the destruction of ecosystems. Migration joins population growth and social factors, such as land inequality, as major causes of deforestation, and global demand for water is expected to increase faster than the rate of population growth. Coastal development and over-fishing threaten to deplete the oceans, while soil quality is threatened by inappropriate land use. Estimates of the earth's carrying capacity range from less than 3 billion to more than 44 billion people, indicating how difficult it is to assess this figure. Development efforts throughout the world may lead to human gains that will ultimately be negated by environmental losses. These factors have led to growing support for environmentally sustainable development.

  11. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  12. Ecological Footprint Analysis Based on Changing Food Consumption in a Poorly Developed Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The per capita ecological footprint (EF is a useful tool to compare consumption with nature's ability to support this consumption. Guyuan is an economically impoverished region in China, where EF provides important insights into whether human consumption can be sustained by the local per capita biological capacity (BC, which represents the environment’s ability to support resource use. We estimated the EF of food consumption using local equivalence and yield factors, and compared EF in 1998 and 2013 with BC, which represented the existing biologically productive area (including cultivated land, grassland, forest, and water bodies that supports this consumption. Data were collected from household surveys, government statistics, and land use maps. We found that food consumption changed, with decreasing consumption of staple foods and increasing consumption of meat, eggs, milk, edible oils, fruit, and vegetables. Decreased staple food consumption decreased the EF for this food group, but the large increase in meat consumption greatly increased EF from meat production (to more than 41 times the 1998 value. Cultivated land contributed greatly to both EF and BC, and staple foods and vegetables were the main EF components for this land. Overall, EF from food consumption decreased from 1998 to 2013, but local BC remained 188,356 ha below EF (i.e., current consumption is not sustainable based on local resources. The Grain for Green program, which focuses on increasing the BC of forest and grassland by replacing degraded cultivated land with these land use types, decreased the BC of cultivated land, leading to wide spatial variation in both EF and BC. These results will inform policy development by revealing the condition of each region’s use of the locally available production resources.

  13. Human dietary exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus Gmelin 1791) from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Adele L.H.; Raumati Hook, G.; Greening, Gail E.; Gibbs-Smith, Emma; Gardner, Jonathan P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) concentrations were determined using ICP-MS in soft tissues (wet wt.) from whole greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) collected from Urapukapuka-Rawhiti Island, Opua Marina, Waitangi Bridge and Opua Wharf from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand (NZ). All samples had metal concentrations well below the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) maximum limits and were comparable to, or less than, concentrations observed in previous NZ studies. Based on the average values detected in the current study, the concentrations of heavy metals ingested in a 'typical diet' containing greenshell mussels are below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). However, Maori (indigenous people of New Zealand), Pacific Islanders and Asians consume a far greater quantity of seafood (and therefore heavy metals) than the general public of New Zealand and could potentially consume enough shellfish to exceed the PTWI for Cd (but not for Hg, As, Pb or Sn). Although our results, based on the current PTWIs, indicate no significant health risk to greenshell mussel consumers in this region, PTWIs change over time; concentrations which were thought to be safe are later found to be harmful. Additionally, differences in individual human susceptibilities to various toxins could increase the risk of harm for consumers with low tolerance to heavy metals. We suggest that a survey of the frequency, amount and species consumed by groups whose diet may be largely shellfish-based is required to enable a more comprehensive risk assessment to be made.

  14. Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Clotilde; Botella-Carretero, José I; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Pozuelo, María J; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Baquero, Fernando; Baltadjieva, María A; del Campo, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity and resistance of Lactobacillus bulgaricus sbsp. delbrueckii collection with 100 isolates from different home-made yogurt in rural Bulgarian areas were determined. The strain K98 was the most resistant to bile salts and low pH. Survival and effects on short chain fatty acids production were tested in 20 healthy volunteers. High genetic diversity was observed in the L. bulgaricus collection by RAPD, whereas the ability of tolerate high deoxycholic acid concentrations, and different acid pHs was variable. The strain K98 was selected and used to prepare a homemade yogurt which was administered to 20 healthy volunteers (500 ml/day during 15d). A basal faecal sample and another after yogurt intake were recovered. DGGE experiments, using both universal and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) primers, demonstrated no significant changes in the qualitative composition of gut microbiota. A band corresponding to L. bulgaricus was observed in all 20 samples. Viable L. bulgaricus K98 strain was only recovered in one volunteer. After yogurt intake we found an increase of LAB and Clostridium perfringens, and a decrease of Bacteroides- Prevotella-Porphyromonas. In addition, increases of acetic, butyric and 2-hydroxy-butyric acids in faeces were detected. Genetic diversity of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus especie is high We have isolated a probiotic resistant strain to bile and high acidity, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus-K98. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal microbiota are found after ingestion of a homemade yogurt containing this strain, with a concomitant increase in faecal SCFA. Our findings support the interest in developing further studies providing different amounts of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus-K98, and should evaluate its clinical effects in human disease. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of Organic Products Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wemerson Gomes Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased environmental awareness and the growing desire for safer foods to health made the organic products category one of the most growing in the food sector. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most significant socioeconomic variables that influence the frequency of organic products consumption, and for that, it was based on a quantitative-descriptive study with a probability sample of 400 individuals, residing of the urban area of Campo Grande/MS, Brazil, responsible, alone or not, for food purchasing in family. As a tool for data collection, was used a structured questionnaire developed from socioeconomic variables and frequency of consumption of organic products. For the data analysis was performed statistical/econometric tests with the STATA 11.0 statistical software, using Multinomial Logit model (MNL, addition to verification of the explanatory variables effect on the probability of the consumption frequency levels of organic products through the Relative Risk Ratio (RRR, and was analyzed the Marginal Effect (ME exercised by the explanatory variables in each frequency level of organic products consumption. The results showed that the explanatory variables gender, education and economic class were statistically significant in the probability of an individual belong to some of the levels of consumption (rare, occasional and frequent over never having consumed organic products, being higher frequency of consumption when the consumer is female, have higher education or is of higher economic class.

  16. Illicit drug consumption in school populations measured by wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccato, Ettore; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Parabiaghi, Alberto; Senta, Ivan; Riva, Francesco; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of student consumption of illicit drugs (ID) by school population surveys (SPS) provides information useful for prevention, but the results may be influenced by subjective factors. We explored wastewater (WW) analysis to improve the information. We used WW analysis to measure ID consumption in eight secondary schools in Italy in 2010-13 (students aged 15-19). Samples were collected from the sewage pipes of the schools during lessons for one week each year. Samples were analysed by mass spectrometry to measure ID and consumption by students was compared to that of the general population. We found THCCOOH (human metabolite of THC) concentrations in 2010 indicating significant consumption of cannabis in all the schools and benzoylecgonine (human metabolite of cocaine) suggesting a limited consumption of cocaine in all but one school. Morphine was only found in traces, and amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone were not detectable. Repeated analysis showed cannabis stable until 2012 with increases in 2013, low cocaine and morphine levels, and none of the other ID. WW analysis suggested that students used amounts of cannabis comparable to the general population, with low, sporadic use of cocaine and opioids, but excluded the use of significant amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone. WW analysis was useful to confirm SPS figures and provides complementary findings for effective prevention strategies. This is the first time WW analysis has been used to investigate consumption of a large number of ID and new psychoactive substances (NPS) in schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring the environment and human sentiment on the Great Barrier Reef: Assessing the potential of collective sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becken, Susanne; Stantic, Bela; Chen, Jinyan; Alaei, Ali Reza; Connolly, Rod M

    2017-12-01

    With the growth of smartphone usage the number of social media posts has significantly increased and represents potentially valuable information for management, including of natural resources and the environment. Already, evidence of using 'human sensor' in crises management suggests that collective knowledge could be used to complement traditional monitoring. This research uses Twitter data posted from the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia, to assess whether the extent and type of data could be used to Great Barrier Reef organisations as part of their monitoring program. The analysis reveals that large amounts of tweets, covering the geographic area of interest, are available and that the pool of information providers is greatly enhanced by the large number of tourists to this region. A keyword and sentiment analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the Twitter data, but also highlights that the actual number of Reef-related tweets is comparatively small and lacks specificity. Suggestions for further steps towards the development of an integrative data platform that incorporates social media are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for on-line characterization, monitoring and isotopic profiling of the main selenium-metabolite in human urine after consumption of Se-rich and Se-enriched food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Emmie; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita

    2006-01-01

    The metabolism of selenium (Se) in the human body has yet not completely been unravelled and hence, an efficient method for characterization and on-line monitoring of the main Se-compound in human urine after consumption of Se-rich food was developed. Total Se-concentration in human urine after consumption of several Se-rich products was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest Se concentration in urine was observed after 4-10 h. The urine samples were brought onto a reversed phase column and the Se was detected by ICP-MS. Parameters for liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) measurements were optimized by using commercially available sugars, because it is known that some of the urinary metabolites contain a sugar moiety. In order to characterize the predominant Se-metabolite, it was necessary to extensively clean-up the sample and preconcentrate the species. The main metabolite was measured on its precursor ion on three different m/z according to three isotopes of Se. Relative peak surfaces matched the relative abundances of the isotopes. The product ions could be measured in a human urine sample in accordance to the product ions of the commercially available sugars. Moreover, the evidence of a selenosugar was demonstrated by the use of the Se-isotopes when measuring the product ions. LC-ESI-MS-MS was proven to be very efficient for the characterization of the main urinary Se-metabolite and can be used for on-line monitoring of the compound in urine samples. The method can be extended for clinical screening after consumption of Se-(en)rich(ed) food by use of the Se-isotopic profile and/or of the typical product ions of (methyl)-N-acetyl-hexosamines

  19. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  20. Water Collection from Air Humidity in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahman. Nidal A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Bahrain falls geographically in one of the driest regions in the world. Conventional fresh surface water bodies, such as rivers and lakes, are nonexistent and for water consumption, Bahrain prominently relies on the desalination of sea water. This paper presents an ongoing project that is being pursued by a group of student and their advising professors to investigate the viability of extracting water from air humidity. Dehumidifiers have been utilized as water extraction devices. Those devices have been distributed on six areas that were selected based on a rigorous geospatial modeling of historical meteorological data. The areas fall in residential and industrial neighborhoods that are located in the main island and the island of Muharraq. Water samples have been collected three times every week since May of 2016 and the collection process will continue until May of 2017. The collected water samples have been analyzed against numerous variables individually and in combinations including: amount of water collected per hour versus geographical location, amount of water collected per hour versus meteorological factors, suitability of collected water for potable human consumption, detection of air pollution in the areas of collection and the economy of this method of water collection in comparison to other nonconventional methods. An overview of the completed analysis results is presented in this paper.

  1. [A case study regarding the technical and public health feasibility of collecting water from fog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ubaque, César A; Vaca-Bohórquez, Martha L; García-Ubaque, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the collection of water for human consumption from fog nets in San Antonio (Cundinamarca department). Water was collected from fog using a prototype 6 m²sensor unit which was installed In the area for 53 days; this water was analysed to assess its quality regarding human consumption. The collection area's average daily volume was 43.26 L/day and the parameters evaluated met the minimum values established by local regulations for drinking water (RAS 2000), except for pH. This technique represents an alternative for obtaining water fit for human consumption and can be scaled-up to produce the quantity needed for communities living in low rainfall areas. It can thereby lead to improving such populations' health conditions. Its economic feasibility should thus be assessed regarding its implementation and sustainability.

  2. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Zaccaroni, Annalisa [Large Pelagic Vertebrate Group, Veterinary Faculty, University of Bologna, Viale Vespucci 2, Cesenatico (FC) 47042 (Italy); Zumbado, Manuel [Toxicology Unit, Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences (IUIBS), University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigación del Cáncer (ICIC), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBERObn), Plaza Dr. Pasteur s/n, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P{sub eq})), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P{sub eq,} which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated

  3. Assessment of human health hazards associated with the dietary exposure to organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángel; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Boada, Luis D.; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Almeida González, Maira; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Zumbado, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]P_e_q)), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]P_e_q_, which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. - Highlights: • The daily intake of persistent pollutants through fish consumption is estimated • Dietary

  4. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori via water for human consumption. Determination by means of the molecular method using PCR; Helicobacter pylori, su transmision a traves de las aguas para el consumo humano. Determinacion por metodo molecular con la PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, A. J.; Moreno, C.; Apraiz, D.; Catalan, V. [LABAQUA. Alicante (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Helicobacter pylori is the cause of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcers and stomach cancer. Its natural reservoirs and transmission mechanisms are still little understood. The gastro-oral route-especially vomiting and regurgitation-is one transmission path, especially in young children and babies. It has been found in some patients saliva and dental plaque, which suggests a possible oral-oral contagion route. The discovery of H. Pylori human excrement points to a faecal-oral route as the main transmission pathway via water for human consumption. It is therefore important to develop detection methods such as isolation by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to effectively monitor this pathogen in human drinking water. (Author) 30 refs.

  5. Adult Tobacco Consumption In The U.S., 2000-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000 to Present. Adult Tobacco Consumption in the U.S. This dataset highlights critical trends in adult total and per capita consumption of both combustible...

  6. Survival of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract with Daily Consumption of a Low-Fat Probiotic Spread▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dommels, Yvonne E. M.; Kemperman, Robèr A.; Zebregs, Yvonne E. M. P.; Draaisma, René B.; Jol, Arne; Wolvers, Danielle A. W.; Vaughan, Elaine E.; Albers, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Therefore, probiotic strains should be able to survive passage through the human gastrointestinal tract. Human gastrointestinal tract survival of probiotics in a low-fat spread matrix has, however, never been tested. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human intervention study was to test the human gastrointestinal tract survival of Lactobacillus...

  7. Human dimensions in energy consumption. Scientific research front from a national and international perspective; Maenskliga dimensioner vid energianvaendning. Vetenskaplig forskningsfront ur nationellt och internationellt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketola, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this report is to make an inventory of earlier studies of energy consumption in buildings where consideration has been taken to behaviour related and among all socio-cultural aspects. The literature study is focused on publications from 1980s and 1990s, and mainly concentrated to socio-cultural analyses. The report catches the national and international scientific discussion that have been conducted, and the debate of today within this field.

  8. Mercury concentrations in Northwest Atlantic winter-caught, male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): A geographic mercury comparison and risk-reward framework for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Gelais, Adam T; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) contamination testing was conducted on winter-caught male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in southern New England and results compared to available data on Hg concentrations for this species. A limited risk-reward assessment for EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) lipid concentrations of spiny dogfish was completed in comparison with other commonly consumed marine fish. Mean Hg concentrations were 0.19 ppm (±0.30) wet weight. In comparison, mean Hg concentrations in S. acanthias varied geographically ranging from 0.05 ppm (Celtic Sea) to 2.07 ppm (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). A risk-reward assessment for Hg and DHA+EPA placed S. acanthias in both "low-risk, high-reward" and "high-risk, high-reward" categories for consumption dependent on locations of the catch. Our results are limited and are not intended as consumption advisories but serve to illustrate the need for making more nuanced, geo-specific, consumption guidance for spiny dogfish that is inclusive of seafood traceability and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute consumption of walnuts and walnut components differentially affect postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cholesterol efflux in humans with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Grieger, Jessica A; West, Sheila G; Chen, Chung-Yen O; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Rothblat, George H; Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2013-06-01

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.

  10. Invasive human brucellosis infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Heather M; Williams, David N; Hansen, Glen T

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the commonest zoonosis worldwide and typically results from ingestion of unpasteurized goat and sheep milk and cheese. Consumption of camel milk is common in the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, but is an infrequently reported source of brucellosis. We report three immigrant patients seen in one hospital system between 2007 and 2013 with brucellosis due to the consumption of camel milk. The case patients presented after 3-14 days of symptoms following travel to countries where Brucella is endemic. All three patients were bacteremic. One patient had definite infective endocarditis, one had possible endocarditis and one patient presented with acute brucellosis. The diagnoses were made expeditiously and appropriate treatment initiated. Knowledge of travel, local customs and immigration patterns are keys to early Brucella diagnosis and optimal treatment. Previous reports implicating camel milk as the source of Brucella infection have been limited to patients living in or traveling to and from the Middle East. This report highlights the acquisition of Brucella infection in travelers to and immigrants from the Horn of Africa related to the consumption of camel milk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Disentangling practices, carriers and production-consumption systems : a mixed-method study of (sustainable) food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, Julia; Wieser, Harald; Kemp, René; Huddart Kennedy, Emily; Cohen, Maurie J.; Krogman, Naomi T.

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on food consumption practices, this chapter provides conceptual contributions and methodological reflections. The central question is how far practice-based approaches help understanding human behavior, both conceptually and analytically. Food consumption is tied to family traditions,

  12. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit