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Sample records for human congenital toxoplasmosis

  1. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feces, or things that could be contaminated by insects exposed to cat feces (cockroaches, flies, etc.). Also, ... More Anemia Bleeding into the skin Blindness and vision loss Hepatomegaly Intrauterine growth restriction Retina Toxoplasmosis Review ...

  2. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La toxoplasmosis causada por el Toxoplasma gondii se transmite a los humanos de manera transplacentaria, entre otras. Se estima que infecta a un tercio de la población mundial y está asociado con infección congénita y abortos. Solo son sintomáticos del 10 al 20% de los casos. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido pretérmino referido a un hospital de mayor complejidad. Durante la hospitalización se realiza el diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis congénita con diversas...

  3. Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Marissa Martinez

    2015-01-01

    Acute infection of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is detrimental to the developing fetus. In the United States, approximately 1 in 10,000 live births are affected by congenital toxoplasmosis. Although multifactorial in etiology, maternal infection is primarily attributed to the consumption of contaminated meat or water. Infection and transmission to the fetus may result in devastating neurologic impairment. Screening methods for all pregnant women should be implemented in routine prenatal care. This article will highlight the inherent dangers of congenital toxoplasmosis, while including general care of the fetus for prevention of transmission, medical management, and long-term outcomes.

  4. Laboratory Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis during gestation result in a decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae. Early treatment was associated with improved outcomes. Thus, laboratory methods should aim for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Diagnostic approaches should include, at least, detection of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA and a comprehensive review of maternal history, including the gestational age ...

  5. Unrecognized Ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Leads to Congenital Toxoplasmosis and Causes Epidemics in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Kenneth; Hill, Dolores; Mui, Ernest; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Dubey, J. P.; SAUTTER, MARI; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Withers, Shawn; Swisher, Charles; Heydemann, Peter; Hosten, Tiffany; Babiarz, Jane; Lee, Daniel; Meier, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Undetected contamination of food and water by oocysts causes human infections in North America. Risks often are unrecognized. Education alone cannot prevent suffering and economic consequences associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Prenatal screening can facilitate prevention and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  6. Laboratory Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, Christelle; Montoya, Jose G

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis during gestation result in a decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae. Early treatment was associated with improved outcomes. Thus, laboratory methods should aim for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Diagnostic approaches should include, at least, detection of Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA and a comprehensive review of maternal history, including the gestational age at which the mother was infected and treatment. Here, we review laboratory methods for the diagnosis of CT, with emphasis on serological tools. A diagnostic algorithm that takes into account maternal history is presented.

  7. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  8. [Congenital toxoplasmosis: severe ocular and neurological complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.; Buzing, C.; Sporken, J.M.J.; Erasmus, C.E.; Flier, M. van der; Semmekrot, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are presented. A girl born prematurely was treated postnatally after the mother had received antimicrobial treatment during pregnancy for acute toxoplasmosis. Apart from being small for gestational age, she remained without symptoms and treatment was ceased

  9. [Congenital toxoplasmosis: severe ocular and neurological complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.; Buzing, C.; Sporken, J.M.J.; Erasmus, C.E.; Flier, M. van der; Semmekrot, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are presented. A girl born prematurely was treated postnatally after the mother had received antimicrobial treatment during pregnancy for acute toxoplasmosis. Apart from being small for gestational age, she remained without symptoms and treatment was ceased

  10. CONGENITAL TOXOPLASMOSIS: CLINICAL COURSE AND RESIDUAL OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barycheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 69 infants with clinically manifested forms of congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosed in theStavropolregion in the period from 1992 to 2012. The clinical course was characterized by a predominance of severe forms of congenial toxoplasmosis, high mortality rate (39,1%, predominant damage the central nervous system (100% and adverse neurological outcome. Surviving children developed disabilities at the outcome of congenital toxoplasmosis such as hydrocephaly (71,4%, microcephaly (9,5%, cerebral palsy (52,4%, episindroma (16,7%, mental retardation (19,0 % complete or partial blindness (28,6%. 

  11. Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima McLeod

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that prevention, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis is beneficial developed as follows: anti-parasitic agents abrogate Toxoplasma gondiitachyzoite growth, preventing destruction of infected, cultured, mammalian cells and cure active infections in experimental animals, including primates. They treat active infections in persons who are immune-compromised, limit destruction of retina by replicating parasites and thereby treat ocular toxoplasmosis and treat active infection in the fetus and infant. Outcomes of untreated congenital toxoplasmosis include adverse ocular and neurologic sequelae described in different countries and decades. Better outcomes are associated with treatment of infected infants throughout their first year of life. Shorter intervals between diagnosis and treatment in utero improve outcomes. A French approach for diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus and infant can prevent toxoplasmosis and limit adverse sequelae. In addition, new data demonstrate that this French approach results in favorable outcomes with some early gestation infections. A standardized approach to diagnosis and treatment during gestation has not yet been applied generally in the USA. Nonetheless, a small, similar experience confirms that this French approach is feasible, safe, and results in favorable outcomes in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study cohort. Prompt diagnosis, prevention and treatment reduce adverse sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  12. Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Mariza M; Amaral, Waldemar N; Rodrigues, Isolina M X; Rassi, Alan R; Gomes, Maria B F; Costa, Tatiane L; Castro, Ana M

    2014-01-18

    Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the severity of congenital infection in the

  13. First isolation and genetic characterization of a Toxoplasma gondii strain from a symptomatic human case of congenital toxoplasmosis in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Carmen Anca; Colosi, Horaţiu Alexandru; Blaga, Ligia; Györke, Adriana; Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Colosi, Ioana Alina; Ajzenberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Very limited data exists on the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii from Eastern Europe. We present the first Romanian case of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis in which the T. gondii strain was isolated after inoculation in mice of a cerebrospinal fluid sample from a living neonate. The T. gondii strain was genotyped with 15 microsatellite markers distributed on 10 of the 14 chromosomes of T. gondii. The strain had a type II genotype. PMID:23537840

  14. A review on human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Geita; Golkar, Majid

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population are infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the foetus, or even cause death in uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of retinochoroiditis, especially in individuals with an impaired immune system. Despite the usually 'asymptomatic' nature of the infection, a significant burden imposed by the parasite necessitates the implementation of effective means for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. PCR and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. Here, we briefly review general aspects of Toxoplasma infection and focus on the diagnostic methods currently used in medical laboratories for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection.

  15. Pathological changes in acute experimental toxoplasmosis with Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from human cases of congenital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Breno Veloso; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes Meirelles; Cunha, Mariana Maciel; Tavares, Alice Thomaz; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of studies using Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from human patients. Here, we present a pathological study of three strains obtained from human cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil using inbred mice after oral infection with 10 tissue cysts. Multiplex-nested PCR-RFLP of eleven loci revealed atypical genotypes commonly found in Brazil: toxodb #8 for TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains and toxodb #11 for the TgCTBr9 strain. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were evaluated for survival and histological changes during the acute phase of the disease. All mice inoculated with the non-virulent TgCTBR5 strain survived after 30 days, although irreversible tissue damage was found. In contrast, no mice were resistant to infection with the highly virulent TgCTBR9 strain. The TgCTBr16 strain resulted in 80% survival in mice. However, this strain presented low infectivity, especially by the oral route of infection. Despite being identified with the same genotype, TgCTBr5 and TgCTBr16 strains showed biological differences. Histopathologic analysis revealed liver and lungs to be the most affected organs, and the pattern of tissue injury was similar to that found in mice inoculated perorally with strains belonging to clonal genotypes. However, there was a variation in the intensity of ileum lesions according to T. gondii strain and mouse lineage. C57BL/6 mice showed higher susceptibility than BALB/c for histological lesions. Taken together, these results revealed that the pathogenesis of T. gondii strains belonging to atypical genotypes can induce similar tissue damage to those from clonal genotypes, although intrinsic aspects of the strains seem critical to the induction of ileitis in the infected host.

  16. Severe ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: huge macular scar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis is the most common ocular manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis, but other associated ophthalmological pathologies can also occur. Ophthalmologists are rarely able to distinguish between toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis due to infection acquired before or after birth, unless other clinical or serological indications are present. This article reports a case of a 3-year-old boy with abnormalities suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. The clinical and complementary examinati...

  17. Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eskild

    2007-01-01

    an acute infection. The use of a Toxoplasma-specific IgG-avidity ratio, differentiated Western blots and two-dimensional immunoblots usually resolves diagnostic problems. There is no consensus on the best strategy to control congenital toxoplasmosis. Recent European prospective, but descriptive, studies...... in pregnant women and newborn children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Atovaquone is the most promising new drug available, but is not yet approved for use in pregnant women and small children. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...

  18. Animals are key to human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Dirk; Däubener, Walter; Schares, Gereon; Groß, Uwe; Pleyer, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely sucessfull protozoal parasite which infects almost all mamalian species including humans. Approximately 30% of the human population worldwide is chronically infected with T. gondii. In general, human infection is asymptomatic but the parasite may induce severe disease in fetuses and immunocompromised patients. In addition, T. gondii may cause sight-threatening posterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. Apart from few exceptions, humans acquire T. gondii from animals. Both, the oral uptake of T. gondii oocysts released by specific hosts, i.e. felidae, and of cysts persisting in muscle cells of animals result in human toxoplasmosis. In the present review, we discuss recent new data on the cell biology of T. gondii and parasite diversity in animals. In addition, we focus on the impact of these various parasite strains and their different virulence on the clinical outcome of human congenital toxoplasmosis and T. gondii uveitis.

  19. [Severe congenital toxoplasmosis secondary to toxoplasma reactivation in an HIV-infected mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamy, L; Goudjil, F; Godineau, N; Bolot, P

    2015-02-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially serious fetal infection associated with maternal seroconversion or a reactivation of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. We report the case of congenital toxoplasmosis with severe neurological injury with normal prenatal obstetric ultrasounds in a mother infected with HIV at the AIDS stage and previously immunized against toxoplasmosis.

  20. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences.

  1. The rural-urban effect on spatial genetic structure of type II Toxoplasma gondii strains involved in human congenital toxoplasmosis, France, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Collinet, Frédéric; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Devillard, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis involves Toxoplasma gondii type II strains in 95% of cases in France. We used spatial principal component analysis (sPCA) and 15 microsatellite markers to investigate the spatial genetic structure of type II strains involved in 240 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis in France from 2002 through 2009. Mailing addresses of patients were geo-referenced a posteriori in decimal degrees and categorized into urban or rural areas of residence. No spatial genetic structure was found for type II strains that infected mothers who were living in urban areas, but a global spatial genetic structure was found for those that infected mothers who were living in a rural environment. Our results suggest that sources of infection by T. gondii are different in rural and urban areas in France, and advocate for targeted messages in the prevention of toxoplasmosis according to the type of residence of susceptible people.

  2. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

  3. Severe ocular sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: huge macular scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Fadoua; Abdellaoui, Meriem; Younes, Samar; Benatiya, Idriss A; Tahri, Hicham

    2015-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis is the most common ocular manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis, but other associated ophthalmological pathologies can also occur. Ophthalmologists are rarely able to distinguish between toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis due to infection acquired before or after birth, unless other clinical or serological indications are present. This article reports a case of a 3-year-old boy with abnormalities suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. The clinical and complementary examinations are discussed. The education of pregnant women is crucial for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. Awareness of antenatal and postnatal presenting signs and symptoms is important for clinicians, because early diagnosis and treatment may minimize sequelae. Untreated, the majority of affected infants will develop chorioretinitis, deafness and/or neurological symptoms.

  4. Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dolores E.; Dubey, J.P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles; Enright, Elizabeth A.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles; Enright, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii), one of the better known and more widespread zoonotic diseases, originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Food- and waterborne zoonoses, such as toxoplasmosis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence. Toxoplasmosis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated food or water, and nearly one-third of humanity has been exposed to this parasite. The role of wildlife in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and is outlined in this report. This zoonotic disease also causes problems in wildlife species across the globe. Future generations of humans will continue to be jeopardized by toxoplasmosis infections in addition to many of the other zoonotic diseases that have emerged during the past century. Through monitoring toxoplasmosis infection levels in wildlife populations, we will be better able to predict future human infection levels of this important zoonotic disease.

  5. [Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in a Buenos Aires hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral, Liliana; Kaufer, Federico; Olejnik, Patricia; Freuler, Cristina; Durlach, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis is based on providing information to women, serologic diagnosis and treatment of the infected mother and child. In this article we present the results of 12 years of implementation of a congenital toxoplasmosis prevention program in which we measured the mother's infection incidence rate, the transmission rate and the number and severity of infection in newborns. The study was performed on 12035 pregnant women in the period 2000-2011. The prevalence rate of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was 18.33% (2206/12035). Thirty-seven out of 9792 susceptible women presented acute infection and the mother's infection incidence rate was 3.78 per 1000 births. The transplacental transmission rate was 5.4% (2/37). Two newborns presented congenital toxoplasmosis infection, one had no clinical signs while the other presented strabismus and chorioretinitis. Thirty-five infected mothers and the two children with congenital infection were treated. The transmission rates obtained allow consider this prevention program as a valid resource to minimize the impact of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  6. First Colombian Multicentric Newborn Screening for Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marin, Jorge Enrique; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Angel-Muller, Edith; Rubio, Jorge; Arenas, Jaime; Osorio, Elkin; Nuñez, Lilian; Pinzon, Lyda; Mendez-Cordoba, Luis Carlos; Bustos, Agustin; de-la-Hoz, Isabel; Silva, Pedro; Beltran, Monica; Chacon, Leonor; Marrugo, Martha; Manjarres, Cristina; Baquero, Hernando; Lora, Fabiana; Torres, Elizabeth; Zuluaga, Oscar Elias; Estrada, Monica; Moscote, Lacides; Silva, Myriam Teresa; Rivera, Raul; Molina, Angie; Najera, Shirley; Sanabria, Antonio; Ramirez, Maria Luisa; Alarcon, Claudia; Restrepo, Natalia; Falla, Alejandra; Rodriguez, Tailandia; Castaño, Giovanny

    2011-01-01

    Aims To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern). Materials and Methods We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain) to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. Results 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39%) and 9 positives for IgA (0.5%) were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality). A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. Conclusions Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:21655304

  7. First Colombian multicentric newborn screening for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marin

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Colombian newborns from 19 hospital or maternal child health services from seven different cities of five natural geographic regions (Caribbean, Central, Andean, Amazonia and Eastern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected 15,333 samples from umbilical cord blood between the period of March 2009 to May 2010 in 19 different hospitals and maternal-child health services from seven different cities. We applied an IgM ELISA assay (Vircell, Spain to determine the frequency of IgM anti Toxoplasma. The results in blood cord samples were confirmed either by western blot and repeated ELISA IgM assay. In a sub-sample of 1,613 children that were negative by the anti-Toxoplasma IgM assay, the frequency of specific anti-Toxoplasma IgA by the ISAGA assay was determined. All children with positive samples by IgM, IgA, clinical diagnosis or treatment during pregnancy were recalled for confirmatory tests after day 10 of life. RESULTS: 61 positive samples for specific IgM (0.39% and 9 positives for IgA (0.5% were found. 143 questionnaires were positive for a clinical diagnosis or treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. 109 out of the 218 children that had some of the criteria for postnatal confirmatory tests were followed. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection was confirmed in 15 children: 7 were symptomatic, and three of them died before the first month of life (20% of lethality. A significant correlation was found between a high incidence of markers for congenital toxoplasmosis and higher mean annual rainfall for the city. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence for congenital toxoplasmosis is significantly different between hospitals or maternal child health services from different cities in Colombia. Mean annual rainfall was correlated with incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    12 Figure 12.41 Toxoplasma cyst with bradyzoites (arrow) in white pulp of spleen of patient with congenital toxoplasmosis. H&E x260 Figure 12.40...neutrophils in biopsied brain of patient with toxoplasmosis. H&E x765 Figure 12.55 Two Toxoplasma cysts in nerve fiber layer of retina. PAS x260 Figure...12.76 Toxoplasma organisms (arrows) parasitize individual heart muscle fibers . H&E x250 Figure 12.77 Toxoplasma organisms in heart muscle fiber . Note

  9. Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. Conyn-van Spaendock (Marina)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the results of a large-scale study of preventive measures against toxoplasma infections in pregnant women are reported. Literature on Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasma infections and toxoplasmosis is discussed in chapter 1. Special attention is directed toward the epidemiologi

  10. Consenso argentino de toxoplasmosis congénita Argentine Consensus of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

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    Ricardo Durlach

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La transmisión de la infección por Toxoplasma gondii de la madre al hijo ocurre cuando la madre se infecta por primera vez en el transcurso del embarazo. Tanto el diagnóstico prenatal, como el del primer año de vida se basa en pruebas serológicas; y la mayoría de las veces es necesario realizar más de una de estas pruebas ya que tienen distintos porcentajes de sensibilidad y/o especificidad así como distintos niveles de complejidad. El recién nacido requiere seguimiento serológico en el primer año de vida o hasta que se descarte el diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis congénita. El diagnóstico temprano de la infección, en la mujer embarazada, permite un tratamiento oportuno y se indica con el propósito de reducir la tasa de transmisión y el daño congénito. Es posible que con un programa activo, de prevención y tratamiento temprano, se pueda reducir la tasa de incidencia de la toxoplasmosis congénita de alrededor del 5 por mil nacimientos a 0.5 por mil. El objetivo de este consenso fue revisar la literatura científica para la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis congénita, para que se pueda implementar en nuestro país.The mother-to-child transmission in Toxoplasma gondii infection occurs only when the infection is acquired for the first time during pregnancy. The prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis can only be achieved by serological testing. Serologic tests have different sensitivities, specificities and complexities, so that different tests in more than one blood sample are necessary for the diagnosis. Serological follow-up of the infants should be conducted during the first year of life or until the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis can be ruled out. Treatment recommendations try to reduce the transmission rate and the risk of congenital damage. Congenital toxoplasmosis incidence rate is approximately 5 per 1000 births, but can be reduced to 0.5 per 1000 with an active screening program. The

  11. Gestational and congenital toxoplasmosis in two hospitals in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Angel-Müller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gestational toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy and involves a risk of the parasite crossing the placenta, thereby leading to foetal infection, which can lead to serious sequelae in children, mainly chorioretinitis, cerebral calcification, hydrocephalus and intellectual disability. Objective. Determining the prevalence of maternal and neonatal toxoplasmosis in women attending the Engativa and La Victoria hospitals in Bogota, Colombia, for delivery. Correlating the results with those of a national multicentre study. Determining IgM and IgA anti-toxoplasma prevalence in newborn (NB umbilical cord blood. Materials and methods. This was a cohort study, which was approved by the participating institutions' ethics committees. The patients signed informed consent forms and filled out a survey requesting demographic and prenatal care data. A blood sample was taken from the umbilical cord on delivery for determining anti-toxoplasma IgM. Anti-toxoplasma IgA was also measured in a subset of patients. Children suspected of having either clinical or serological congenital toxoplasmosis were followed-up for 12 months. Results. The study involved taking 3,224 NB umbilical cord blood samples between April 1st 2009 and July 16th 2010. Positive anti-toxoplasma IgG was found in 28.2% of pregnant women (26.1-29.8 95%CI. Anti-toxoplasma IgM was determined in 558 pregnant women and found positive in 34 patients (i.e. 1.1 per 100 NB gestational toxoplasmosis incidence. Nine blood samples were positive (7 for IgM and 2 for IgA. Five of the NB studied (0.15% were positive for IgG after 12 months' follow-up, thereby confirming a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis accounting for 1 in every 645 live births. Conclusion. This study showed that 70% of the pregnant women were not infected with T. gondii in the chosen hospitals in Bogotá. Gestational toxoplasmosis frequency was around 1% and 0.6% for congenital toxoplasmosis.

  12. Congenital toxoplasmosis and DALYs in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortbeek, L.M.; Hofhuis, A.; Nijhuis, C.D.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) enables public health policy makers to compare the burden of disease of a specific disease with that of other (infectious) diseases. The incidence of a disease is important for the calculation of DALYs. To estimate the incidence of congenital

  13. A review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Jones, J L

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide zoonosis. In this paper published information on toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia is reviewed. Limited data indicate that the prevalence of T. gondii in humans in Ethiopia is very high, up to 41% of children aged 1-5 years were reported to be seropositive. There is little information on seroprevalence data in pregnant women and no data on congenital toxoplasmosis in children. About 1 million adults in Ethiopia are considered to be infected with HIV with less than one-third likely receive highly active antiviral therapy. Based on a conservative T. gondii seroprevalence of 50%, thousands might die of concurrent opportunistic infections, including toxoplasmosis. However, exact figures are not available, and most serological surveys are not current. Serological surveys indicate up to 79% of goats and sheep have T. gondii antibodies. However, there is no information on losses due to toxoplasmosis in livestock or the presence of viable T. gondii in any host in Ethiopia.

  14. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Clinical features, outcomes, treatment, and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by a coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is highly prevalent both in humans and in warm-blooded animals. Cat family animals are definitive host, and these animals excrete the infective oocysts in their feces. Humans, though not definitive host, get infection by consuming water or food contaminated with cat feces. Rarely, infection can also take place through transfusing the infected blood, through transplantation of infected organs, or transplacentally ...

  15. [Congenital toxoplasmosis with ocular involvment--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Farah; Denislam, Dogan

    2014-01-01

    Two thirds of the congenital toxoplasmosis cases describe minimal or inapparent symptoms present at birth, being diagnosed from a psychomotor retard. The forms of chorioretinitis may be described by repeated outbursts in the first years of life. Chorioretinitis or focal necrotizing retinitis usually develops in a bilateral way, being progressive and leading to blindness. Usually there is only one focal inflammatory beginning at the edge of a pigmented scar and the local inflammatory process may extend through successive spikes in other regions of the retina. Active chorioretinitis is expressed clinically by a blurred misty eyesight, with the advent of scotomas, photophobia, and if the macula is involved, the loss of the central eyesight may occur. In this paper I present the patient R.A., 6 years old from Constanta who is hospitalized in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases for investigations and treatment continuity because positive IgG Toxoplasma was previously found. The child has spastic quadriplegia and profound mental retardation.

  16. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Auditory and language outcomes in early diagnosed and treated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Macedo de Resende

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To describe the auditory and language outcomes of children with early diagnosis and treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study included all children diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis, through the Minas Gerais State Neonatal Screening Program, from September 2006 to March 2007. All children received early treatment, initiated before the age of 2.5 months, and were periodically assisted by a team of specialists including pediatricians, ophthalmologists and speech-language therapists and audiologists. Hearing function was evaluated with the following procedures: tympanometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, behavioral observation audiometry, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Hearing function and sensitivity was estimated and audiological results were classified as normal, conductive hearing loss, sensory-neural hearing loss and central dysfunction. Language performance was assessed and classified as normal or abnormal, according to test results. The following variables were studied: audiological results, neurological and ophthalmological conditions, language performance and presence of risk indicator for hearing loss other than congenital toxoplasmosis. Univariate analysis was conducted using the chi-square or Fisher’s Exact test. Results: From September 2006 to March 2007, 106 children were diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis through the neonatal screening program, and were included in the study. Data analysis showed normal hearing in 60 children (56.6%, while 13 children (12.3% had conductive hearing loss, four children (3.8% had sensory-neural hearing loss and 29 children (27.4% presented central hearing dysfunction. There was association between hearing problems and language deficits. The comparison between children with additional risks for hearing loss other than toxoplasmosis and children who only presented toxoplasmosis as a risk factor

  18. The national neonatal screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark: results from the initial four years, 1999-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To describe the outcome of four years' nationwide neonatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in liveborn newborns. METHODS: Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed if specific Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in eluate from the PKU Guthrie filter paper card from a child...

  19. TOXOPLASMOSIS DALAM KEHAMILAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyuni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Toxoplasmosis is one zoonosis caused by toxoplasmosis gondii that can infected pets and human.Infection in woman pregnant, frequently asymptomatic. While impact at this disease woman pregnant for herpregnancy, specially at third trimester pregnant were hidrocephalus, chorioretinitis, deaf or epilepsi.Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by toxoplasma gondii, transmitted to human by eating food under cooked,infected meat or handling soil or cat feces that contain the parasite. The route of infection in to human by aquiredor congenital variation impact of congenital toxoplasmosis were chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranialcalcificatio. Laboratorys tests are very important of clinical sign is asymtomatic. Test that commonly usedmoreanti toxoplasma Ig G, Ig M, Ig A and Aviditas Anti Toxoplasma. Primmary and secondary prevention is important.Treatment to toxoplasmosis with spiramycine is effective. Toxoplasmosis infection prevention could be done byavoid risk factor of toxoplasmosis ie not eating raw specially undercooked meat, not contact with animal'sinfected. Toxoplasmosis treatment in pregnancy is needed include abortion and antibiotic support to infant couldbe done according to discussion from doctor, patients and her husband.Key words: Toxoplasmosis, pregnancy

  20. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; Dărăbuş, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians.

  1. Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you get it?Toxoplasmosis (say: tox-oh-plaz-moh-sis) is an infection caused by a tiny ... warm water, especially before you eat or prepare food.Wash your hands thoroughly after handling raw meat, ...

  2. Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mothers become infected for the first time during pregnancy. Problems can include damage to the brain, eyes, and other organs. You can get toxoplasmosis from Waste from an infected cat Eating contaminated meat that is raw or not ...

  3. Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is infected. Tests your doctor may recommend include: Amniocentesis. In this procedure, which may be done safely ... the fluid to check for evidence of toxoplasmosis. Amniocentesis carries a slight risk of miscarriage and minor ...

  4. Agreement between ultrasonography and computed tomography in detecting intracranial calcifications in congenital toxoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, E.G. [Department of Pediatrics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul School of Medicine, Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], E-mail: eglago@pucrs.br; Baldisserotto, M.; Hoefel Filho, J.R.; Santiago, D. [Department of Radiology, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul School of Medicine, Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Jungblut, R. [Department of Pediatrics, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul School of Medicine, Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2007-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate the agreement between ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) in detecting intracranial calcification in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis. Materials and methods: Forty-four infants referred for investigation of congenital toxoplasmosis were prospectively evaluated, and the diagnosis was confirmed or ruled out by serological testing and by follow-up in the first year of life. The investigation protocol included cranial US and cranial CT, and examinations were conducted and interpreted by two radiologists blinded to the results of the other imaging test and to the diagnostic confirmation. Results: The diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 33 patients, and agreement between US and CT findings was found in 31 of these cases. Both methods detected calcifications in 18 patients, and neither detected calcifications in 13 patients. Overall agreement was 94% and the kappa coefficient was 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1; p < 0.001), which revealed almost perfect agreement between the two diagnostic methods. Conclusion: In this study, US and CT demonstrated equal sensitivity in the detection of intracranial calcification in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis.

  5. The national neonatal screening programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark: results from the initial four years, 1999-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To describe the outcome of four years' nationwide neonatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in liveborn newborns. METHODS: Congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed if specific Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in eluate from the PKU Guthrie filter paper card from a child....... Infants diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions and treated for three months with sulphadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid continuously. RESULTS: Eluates from PKU-cards from 262 912 newborns were analysed. The birth prevalence of congenital...... toxoplasma infection was 2.1 per 10 000 liveborns. Congenital toxoplasmosis was suspected in 96 infants and confirmed in 55. Forty seven children were examined for intracranial and retinal lesions soon after birth; 12 had clinical signs at this first examination. Of these, 5 had intracranial calcifications...

  6. [Congenital toxoplasmosis: clinical manifestation, treatment and follow-up] [Article in Italian] • Il neonato con toxoplasmosi congenita: clinica, terapia e follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bollani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplamosis is a parasitic zoonosis which occurs worldwide, but is prevalent in Europe, South America and Africa. When infection occurs for the first time during pregnancy, mother to child transmission of the parasite can cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Rate of congenital infection ranges from less than 0.1 to approximately 1 per 1,000 live births. The risk of transmission depends on the gestational age at the time of maternal infection. A diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is usually considered in infants who present: hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis, and intracranial calcifications, but this triade is very rare. Approximately 85% of the infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are clinically normal at birth; however, sequelae of infection may become apparent only months or even years later. Chorioretinitis is the main complication of congenital toxoplasmosis, late onset retinal lesions and relapse can appear many years after birth, but the overall ocular prognosis is satisfactory when infection is identified and treated accordingly. Fortunately, serious neonatal forms and severe neurological impairment have become rare, but prompt treatment of children with convulsions, abnormal muscle tone, hydrocephalus, may improve the prognosis and result in almost normal outcome. For infants who have congenital toxoplasmosis, treatment soon after birth for 1 year with pyrimetamine, sulfadiazine and leukoverin led to remarkable resolution of serious, active disease. A long follow-up is necessary to assess the long-term outcome of children and young adults with congenital toxoplasmosis, that is favourable for the majority of cases. Epidemiological surveillance needs to be improved in order to determine the effectiveness of prevention programs.Articoli Selezionati del “3° Convegno Pediatrico del Medio Campidano” · Guspini · 25 Maggio 2013Guest Editor: Roberto Antonucci

  7. Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods ...

  8. Evaluation of IgG anti-toxoplasma avidity and polymerase chain reaction in the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elizabeth; Rivera, Raul; Cardona, Nestor; Sanchez, Victor; Lora, Fabiana; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2013-06-01

    Confirmatory tests for congenital toxoplasmosis were evaluated in 23 infected and 31 uninfected newborns. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was better than real-time polymerase chain reaction, but did not identify additional cases. Avidity tests added 2 new cases that were not identified by other criteria. Overall sensitivity was 82.6%. Avidity assay, but not polymerase chain reaction, increased the sensitivity of confirmatory assays in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  9. Effectiveness of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis: a meta-analysis of individual patients' data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Leproust, Sandy; Chêne, Geneviève

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite three decades of prenatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in some European countries, uncertainty remains about the effectiveness of prenatal treatment. METHODS: We did a systematic review of cohort studies based on universal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis. We did...... a meta-analysis using individual patients' data to assess the effect of timing and type of prenatal treatment on mother-to-child transmission of infection and clinical manifestations before age 1 year. Analyses were adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion and other covariates. FINDINGS......: We included 26 cohorts in the review. In 1438 treated mothers identified by prenatal screening, we found weak evidence that treatment started within 3 weeks of seroconversion reduced mother-to-child transmission compared with treatment started after 8 or more weeks (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95...

  10. Evaluation of the Western blotting method for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the Western blotting method for the detection of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii (IgG-WB in the serum of children with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: We accompanied 47 mothers with acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and their children, between June of 2011 and June of 2014. The IgG-WB was done in house and the test was considered positive if the child had antibodies that recognized at least one band on IgG blots different from the mother's or with greater intensity than the corresponding maternal band, during the first three months of life. Results: 15 children (15.1% met the criteria for congenital toxoplasmosis and 32 (32.3% had the diagnosis excluded. The symptoms were observed in 12 (80.0% children and the most frequent were cerebral calcification in 9 (60.0%, chorioretinitis in 8 (53.3%, and hydrocephalus in 4 (26.6%. IgM antibodies anti-T. gondii detected by chemiluminescence (CL were found in 6 (40.0% children and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of T. gondii DNA was positive in 5 of 7 performed (71.4%. The sensitivity of IgG-WB was of 60.0% [95% confidence interval (CI 32.3-83.7%] and specificity 43.7% (95% CI 26.7-62.3%. The sensitivity of IgG-WB increased to 76.0 and 89.1% when associated to the research of IgM anti-T. gondii or PCR, respectively. Conclusions: The IgG-WB showed greater sensitivity than the detection of IgM anti-T. gondii; therefore, it can be used for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in association with other congenital infection markers.

  11. Place of Interferon-γ Assay for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapey, Emmanuelle; Wallon, Martine; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Piarroux, Renaud; Peyron, François

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis relies mainly on serology. When results are doubtful, pediatricians have difficulties with respect to treatment. We report interferon-γ responses after the stimulation of blood by Toxoplasma gondii antigen in 17 infected infants and 80 infants free of infection. Sensitivity and specificity were 93.75% (95% confidence interval: 67%-99%) and 98.75% (95% confidence interval: 92%-99%), respectively.

  12. Biomarker Analysis Revealed Distinct Profiles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Infants with Ocular Lesions of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G.; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; —UFMG-CTBG, UFMG Congenital Toxoplasmosis Brazilian Group

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14+CD16+HLA-DRhigh monocytes and CD56dim cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCRγδ+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8+ T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:25328286

  13. Biomarker Analysis Revealed Distinct Profiles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Infants with Ocular Lesions of Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Silva Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL as well as noninfected individuals (NI. Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14+CD16+HLA-DRhigh monocytes and CD56dim cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCRγδ+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8+ T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  14. Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

    2013-06-01

    The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed.

  15. Antibiotics for human toxoplasmosis: a systematic review of randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Chrishan Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan; Samaranayake, Nilakshi; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Deepika Fernando, Sumadhya

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of different treatment regimens in clinical syndromes of toxoplasmosis were assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on the clinical entity of toxoplasmosis. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Fourteen randomized trials were included of which one was a non-comparative study. One well-designed trial showed that trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more effective than placebo for clinical recovery of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy in immunocompetent hosts. For toxoplasmic encephalopathy, efficacy of pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole were similar, whereas pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine versus pyrimathamine+clindamycin showed no difference, irrespective of the outcome. Intravitreal clindamycin+dexamethasone and conventional treatment with oral pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine had similar efficacy with regard to all outcome measures in ocular toxoplasmosis, and intravitreal therapy was found to be safe. Adverse effects seemed more common with pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine. Most trials for encephalitis and ocular manifestations had a high risk of bias and were of poor methodological quality. There were no trials evaluating drugs for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy, or for congenital toxoplasmosis. Pyrimethamine+sulphadiazine is an effective therapy for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis; trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole and pyrimethamine+clindamycin are possible alternatives. Treatment with either oral or intravitreal antibiotics seems reasonable for ocular toxoplasmosis. Overall, trial evidence for the efficacy of these drugs for toxoplasmosis is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:23816507

  16. Congenital toxoplasmosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and identification of the Toxoplasma gondii types involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Gómez-Gordo, Luis; Saugar, José María; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Reina, David; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis has been little described in wild animals. We report a case of vertical transmission in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Necropsy and histopathologic examination of a pregnant female and her three fetuses revealed all to have lesions compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction B1 gene detected Toxoplasma gondii in maternal (heart and diaphragm) and fetal (central nervous system, retina, optic nerve, heart, lung, tongue, and diaphragm) samples. The mother had a mixed infection of T. gondii types I and III. One fetus with type III infection developed no malformations, but the others-one with type I infection and one infected by types I and III-showed bilateral ocular agenesis, prognathism, and agenesis of the nasal cartilage. These results suggest the pathogenicity of the various T. gondii types may differ in wild boars.

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2% of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0% were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500 g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%, jaundice (13.8%, and microcephaly (6.9%. During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein ≥ 200 mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p = 0.0325. Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases, developmental delay (31.0%, motor deficit (13.8%, convulsion (27.5%, and attention deficit (10.3%. All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences.

  18. Veterinary vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Grzybowski, Marcin M; Długońska, Henryka

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of mammal and bird species. Common infection leads to high economic (e.g., abortions in sheep) and human (e.g., congenital toxoplasmosis or neurotoxoplasmosis in humans) losses. With one exception (Toxovax for sheep), there are no vaccines to prevent human or animal toxoplasmosis. The paper presents the current state and challenges in the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis, designed for farm animals either bred for consumption or commonly kept on farms and involved in parasite transmission. So far, the trials have mostly revolved around conventional vaccines and, compared with the research using laboratory animals (mainly mice), they have not been very numerous. However, the results obtained are promising and could be a good starting point for developing an effective vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis.

  19. Association between congenital toxoplasmosis and parent-reported developmental outcomes, concerns, and impairments, in 3 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Dorthe

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information is lacking on the effects of congenital toxoplasmosis on development, behavior, and impairment in later childhood, as well as on parental concerns and anxiety. This information is important for counselling parents about the prognosis for an infected child and for policy decisions on screening. Methods We prospectively studied a cohort of children identified by screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women or neonates between 1996 and 2000 in ten European centers. At 3 years of age, parents of children with and without congenital toxoplasmosis were surveyed about their child's development, behavior, and impairment, and about parental concerns and anxiety, using a postal questionnaire. Results Parents of 178/223 (80% infected, and 527/821 (64% uninfected children responded. We found no evidence that impaired development or behavior were more common in infected children, or that any potential effect of congenital toxoplasmosis was masked by prenatal treatment. Parents of infected children were significantly more anxious and reported more visual problems in their children. Conclusion On average, children aged three to four years with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by screening and treated during infancy in this European setting had risks of abnormal development and behavior similar to uninfected children. Parental anxiety about infected children needs to be addressed by clinicians. Future studies with longer follow up and clinician-administered assessments may be better able to detect any subtle differences in child outcomes.

  20. Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study.

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    Mario Cortina-Borja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%. 23/293 (8% fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07-0.71. This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2-15 after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9-75 at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21-2.95. The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%-38.1%. CONCLUSION: The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  1. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN γ and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus.

  2. Characterization of ROP18 alleles in human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Víctor; de-la-Torre, Alejandra; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2014-04-01

    The role of the virulent gene ROP18 polymorphisms is not known in human toxoplasmosis. A total of 320 clinical samples were analyzed. In samples positive for ROP18 gene, we determined by an allele specific PCR, if patients got the upstream insertion positive ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse avirulent strain) or the upstream insertion negative ROP18 sequence Toxoplasma strain (mouse virulent strain). We designed an ELISA assay for antibodies against ROP18 derived peptides from the three major clonal lineages of Toxoplasma. 20 clinical samples were of quality for ROP18 allele analysis. In patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, a higher inflammatory reaction on eye was associated to a PCR negative result for the upstream region of ROP18. 23.3%, 33% and 16.6% of serums from individuals with ocular toxoplasmosis were positive for type I, type II and type III ROP18 derived peptides, respectively but this assay was affected by cross reaction. The absence of Toxoplasma ROP18 promoter insertion sequence in ocular toxoplasmosis was correlated with severe ocular inflammatory response. Determination of antibodies against ROP18 protein was not useful for serotyping in human toxoplasmosis.

  3. Maternal serologic screening to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis: a decision-analytic economic model.

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    Eileen Stillwaggon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine a cost-minimizing option for congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A decision-analytic and cost-minimization model was constructed to compare monthly maternal serological screening, prenatal treatment, and post-natal follow-up and treatment according to the current French (Paris protocol, versus no systematic screening or perinatal treatment. Costs are based on published estimates of lifetime societal costs of developmental disabilities and current diagnostic and treatment costs. Probabilities are based on published results and clinical practice in the United States and France. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses are used to evaluate robustness of results. Universal monthly maternal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis with follow-up and treatment, following the French protocol, is found to be cost-saving, with savings of $620 per child screened. Results are robust to changes in test costs, value of statistical life, seroprevalence in women of childbearing age, fetal loss due to amniocentesis, and to bivariate analysis of test costs and incidence of primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. Given the parameters in this model and a maternal screening test cost of $12, screening is cost-saving for rates of congenital infection above 1 per 10,000 live births. If universal testing generates economies of scale in diagnostic tools-lowering test costs to about $2 per test-universal screening is cost-saving at rates of congenital infection well below the lowest reported rates in the United States of 1 per 10,000 live births. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Universal screening according to the French protocol is cost saving for the US population within broad parameters for costs and probabilities.

  4. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the human world population is infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Recent calculations of the disease burden of toxoplasmosis rank this foodborne disease at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis. The high disease burden in combination with disappointin

  5. Potential immunomodulatory effects of latent toxoplasmosis in humans

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    Stříž Ilja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30% of the population worldwide are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Latent toxoplasmosis has many specific behavioral and physiological effects on the human organism. Modified reactivity of the immune system has been suggested to play a key role in many of these effects. For example, the immunosuppression hypothesis explains the higher probability of the birth of male offspring observed in Toxoplasma-positive humans and mice by the protection of the (more immunogenic male embryos against abortion. Methods Here we searched for indices of immunosuppression in Toxoplasma-positive subjects by comparing clinical records of immunology outpatients. Results Our cohort study showed that the male patients with latent toxoplasmosis had decreased and the Toxoplasma-positive women had increased leukocyte, NK-cell and monocyte counts in comparison with controls. The B-cell counts were reduced in both Toxoplasma-positive men and women. The difference between Toxoplasma-positive and Toxoplasma-negative subjects diminished with the decline of the specific Toxoplasma antibody titre (a proxy for the length of infection, which is consistent with the observed decreasing strength of the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on human reproduction. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in 128 male patients was unusually low (10.9% which contrasted with normal prevalence in 312 female patients (23.7% and in general population Prague (20-30%. Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis has immunomodulatory effects in human and probably protects men against some classes of immunopathological diseases. The main limitation of the present study was the absence of the data on the immunoreactivity of immune cells subpopulations. Therefore further studies are needed to search for indices of immunosuppression in human using more specific markers.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Muet, F; Racinet, C; Bost, M; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1997-09-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is mainly based on biological tests performed on fetal blood and amniotic fluid. We studied the performance of neonatal diagnosis procedures and the results of fetal blood and amniotic fluid analysis. Of 127 women who contracted toxoplasmosis and underwent prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal serological follow-up was long enough to definitively diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis in 19 cases and to exclude it in 27 cases. Prenatal diagnosis allowed the detection of 94.7 per cent (18/19) of the infected fetuses. The sensitivities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were equivalent, 88.2 per cent (15/17) and 87.5 per cent (14/16), respectively. In fetal blood, biological techniques were positive in 12/16 cases and in 2/16 cases, serological tests were the only positive sign. The specificities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were respectively 100 per cent (23/23) and 86.3 per cent (19/22) (three false-positive serological results). These results, added to the lower morbidity of amniocentesis compared with cordocentesis, might lead to cordocentesis being abandoned in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  7. Congenital toxoplasmosis from a mother with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shimpei; Nishida, Masakazu; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi; Norose, Kazumi; Aosai, Fumie

    2014-11-01

    A 33-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was suspected of being primarily infected with Toxoplasma gondii at 12 weeks of gestation (GW). Although acetylspiramycin was started at 17 GW, the T. gondii DNA gene was detected in the amniotic fluid at 18 GW. Chemotherapy was changed to pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine from 20 GW, but was changed back to acetylspiramycin after 2 weeks because of vomiting. Acetylspiramycin was continued until her delivery. DM was controlled well during the pregnancy. An asymptomatic male baby was born by cesarean section at 37 GW, and was treated with acetylspiramycin for 4 weeks because the polymerase chain reaction results of umbilical cord blood were positive. He has developed normally until the present, that is, 6 months of age. Herein, we describe a case report in which symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis was avoided in a pregnant woman with an immunosuppressive risk due to prompt chemotherapy.

  8. Contribution of neonatal amniotic fluid testing to diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filisetti, Denis; Yera, Hélène; Villard, Odile; Escande, Benoît; Wafo, Estelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Delhaes, Laurence; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) on neonatal amniotic fluid samples from 488 mother-child pairs. Maternal infection during pregnancy was diagnosed and dated or could not be ruled out. Forty-six cases of CT were defined according to the European Research Network on CT classification system and case definitions. Neonatal amniotic fluid testing had an overall sensitivity of 54% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 39 to 69%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99 to 100%). Its sensitivity was 33% (95% CI, 13 to 59%) when antenatal diagnosis was positive and 68% (95% CI, 48 to 84%) when antenatal diagnosis was negative or lacking. This difference in sensitivity may have been due to treatment of antenatally diagnosed cases. Relative to postnatal serology, neonatal amniotic fluid testing allowed an earlier diagnosis to be made in 26% of the cases (95% CI, 9 to 51%).

  9. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populatio...

  10. Toxoplasmosis and its Ocular Manifestations

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    Koev Kr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides general information about the parasitic infection of toxoplasmosis and describes the ways of its transmission. It outlines the importance of the consequences of toxoplasmosis infection and the methods of its prevention. The review traces the harmful effects of the disease on human and animal organisms, the causes and stages of development of the disease. The review specifically focuses on the ocular manifestations of toxoplasmosis which can cause ocular lesions, inflammation and scarring. Herein are described the ways toxoplasmosis can damage the eyes causing chorioretinitis, nystagmus, microphthalmia, etc. Furthermore, the review addresses the problem of how congenital and acquired toxoplasmosis affects eyes. The ocular symptoms of toxoplasmosis include weakened or blurred vision, eyeballs pain, ocular sensitivity to light, etc. The harmful effects of toxoplasmosis to pregnant women and immunocompromised patients have been delineated. Some of the disease manifestations include jaundice, rash, asphyxia, etc. The review traces the diagnostic work-up and comments on common tests for toxoplasmosis, such as taking of blood serum samples. The review ends with the treatment of the disease and of its ocular manifestations in particular, for example application of intravitreous injection. The prevention of the infection is extremely important for pregnant women, immunocompromised patients and patients with AIDS.

  11. A comparative study of congenital toxoplasmosis between public and private hospitals from Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

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    Segundo Gesmar Rodrigues Silva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to examine if there is difference in terms of incidence rates of congenital toxoplasmosis among populations assisted in public and private hospitals from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 805 serum samples from cord blood were collected, being 500 from public hospital and 305 from private hospital, and all patients answered a questionnaire about pregnancy and newborns. An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed to detect IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and the positive samples were retested to verify the presence of specific IgM and IgA antibodies in a capture ELISA. We found significant differences among data from both hospitals with respect to maternal age, origin city, gestational age, number of visits to physicians during pregnancy, type of delivery, and birth weight. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against T. gondii for patients from public and private hospitals was 57.6% and 41.9% respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. In addition, the frequency of congenital toxoplasmosis measured by the presence of IgM and/or IgA antibodies toward T. gondii was exclusively located in samples from public hospital (0.8%, and no positive sample was seen in private hospital (0%. Considering that almost all babies suffering from congenital toxoplasmosis, if undiagnosed and untreated, will develop visual or neurological impairments by adulthood, the results presented herein emphasized the importance to accomplish screening programs for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, particularly in the public hospitals, due to the expressive rate of congenital disease showed in the patients attended at these centers.

  12. Seroepidemiology of human toxoplasmosis in Chile Seroepidemiología de la toxoplasmosis en Chile

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    Maria del C. Contreras

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of already published and unpublished seroepidemiological surveys for toxoplasmosis, carried out in Chile in 1982-1994, is reviewed, expanded and analyzed. The surveys included 76,317 apparently healthy individuals of different ages (0.57% of the country's total population, from 309 urban and rural-periurban localities. Urban groups were integrated by blood donors, delivering mothers and middle grade schoolchildren, while rural-periurban individuals corresponded to unselected family groups. Blood samples were collected in filter paper. The presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT, titers > 16 were considered positive. The test resulted positive in 28,124 (36.9% of the surveyed people. Two hundred and six (0.3% individuals presented IHAT titers > 1000, probably corresponding to acute or reactivated infections. A progressive increase of positive IHAT from northern to southern regions of the country was noted, phenomenom probably related to geographical conditions and to a higher production and consumption of different types of meat in the latter regions. It is postulated that ingestion of T. gondii cysts by humans is epidemiologically as important as ingestion of oocysts. The results presented stress the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in humans, and warn about eventual implications in immunocompromised patients and in transplacental transmission, organ transplants and transfusions.En este trabajo se revisa, se amplía y se analiza en conjunto una serie de encuestas seroepidemiológicas sobre toxoplasmosis efectuadas en Chile entre 1982 y 1994, utilizando la reacción de hemaglutinación indirecta (RHAI. El estudio incluyó 76.317 personas aparentemente sanas de diferentes edades (0,57% de la problación total del país, procedentes de 309 localidades urbanas y rural-periurbanas. Los grupos urbanos estuvieron constituídos por donantes de sangre, parturientas y

  13. Genetic and epigenetic factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 influence clinical outcome in congenital toxoplasmosis.

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    Sarra E Jamieson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus. At birth, infected infants may have intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus, and retinochoroiditis, and new ocular lesions can occur at any age after birth. Not all children who acquire infection in utero develop these clinical signs of disease. Whilst severity of disease is influenced by trimester in which infection is acquired by the mother, other factors including genetic predisposition may contribute. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In 457 mother-child pairs from Europe, and 149 child/parent trios from North America, we show that ocular and brain disease in congenital toxoplasmosis associate with polymorphisms in ABCA4 encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily A, member 4. Polymorphisms at COL2A1 encoding type II collagen associate only with ocular disease. Both loci showed unusual inheritance patterns for the disease allele when comparing outcomes in heterozygous affected children with outcomes in affected children of heterozygous mothers. Modeling suggested either an effect of mother's genotype, or parent-of-origin effects. Experimental studies showed that both ABCA4 and COL2A1 show isoform-specific epigenetic modifications consistent with imprinting. CONCLUSIONS: These associations between clinical outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis and polymorphisms at ABCA4 and COL2A1 provide novel insight into the molecular pathways that can be affected by congenital infection with this parasite.

  14. Amniocentesis for the detection of congenital toxoplasmosis: results from the nationwide Austrian prenatal screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, A-R; Kasper, D C; Pollak, A; Olischar, M; Gleiss, A; Hayde, M

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) influences therapeutical management in pregnant women and their offspring. In Austria, a nationwide serological healthcare program to identify potential maternal toxoplasma infections during pregnancy exists. We assessed the clinical use of amniocentesis for toxoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on amniotic fluid to detect CT. Data on serology, amniocentesis, PCR, complications, treatment, and paediatric clinical outcome were collected retrospectively among the birth cohort 1992-2008. There were 1386 women with amniocentesis, but only in 707 cases (51%) was acute maternal infection confirmed serologically. A high proportion (49%) of amniocenteses with negative PCR results in women with chronic infection or seronegativity were performed without clinical justification for the women or their foetuses. The positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 94.4% and 99.3%, respectively. Thirty-nine foetuses with CT, including four deaths, were reported. The five PCR-negative but infected infants were identified by the serological and clinical follow-up program. Thirty percent of amniocenteses were performed in the third trimester, and gestational age or treatment did not influence PCR sensitivity. Amniocentesis is indicated in women with acute maternal infection, and facilitated targeted therapies in pregnant women and their offspring. In women with late toxoplasma infection, negative amniotic fluid PCR made treatment of infants unnecessary. Serological and clinical follow-up of infants is important to confirm the infection status of the infant. Recommendations, based on our 17-year experience, to improve the current diagnostic strategies and to reduce unnecessary amniocentesis, are given.

  15. Genotypic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Associated with Human Toxoplasmosis in Spain: Direct Analysis from Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Isabel; Rubio, Jose M.; Ramírez, Carmen; Alvar, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (strain types I, II, and III) associated with human toxoplasmosis in Spain. This determination was made directly from primary clinical samples, obviating the previous process of isolation in mice or cell culture. A total of 34 isolates of T. gondii, collected from immunocompromised patients and congenital infection cases, were analyzed. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in PCR-amplified SAG2 products was used to group strains into one of the three genotypes of T. gondii. Complete characterization of the SAG2 gene was successful in 76.5% of the cases, demonstrating the feasibility of direct genotype analysis from clinical samples of different origins. Strains of T. gondii type II were the most prevalent in immunocompromised patients, with 52% of cases, while strains of type I were present in 75% of the congenital infection cases. These data differ from previous reports that show type II strains to be mostly associated with all kinds of human toxoplasmosis. These differences might be an effect of selection in the process of culture and isolation of the samples performed by other researchers prior to strain characterization. PMID:11283088

  16. TREATMENT OF TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening tests of various kinds of compounds were carried out with the purpose of obtaining new drugs for toxoplasmosis . Compounds tested were 66...Nitro-4’-formylamino-difenylsulfone might be effective in treatments of human toxoplasmosis . (Author)

  17. Vertical transmission and fetal damage in animal models of congenital toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Besné-Mérida, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores

    2016-06-15

    In humans, the probability of congenital infection and fetal damage due to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the gestation period at which primary infection occurs. Many animal models have been used for vaccine, drug testing, or studies on host or parasite factors that affect transmission or fetal pathology, but few works have directly tested fetal infection and damage rates along gestation. So, the purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a model which reflects these changes as they occur in humans. We looked for papers appearing between 1970 and 2014 in major databases like Medline and Scopus, as well as gray literature. From almost 11,000 citations obtained, only 49 papers fulfilled the criteria of having data of all independent variables and at least one dependent datum for control (untreated) groups. Some interesting findings could be extracted. For example, pigs seem resistant and sheep susceptible to congenital infection. Also, oocysts cause more congenitally infected offspring than tissue cysts, bradyzoites or tachyzoites. In spite of these interesting findings, very few results on vertical transmission or fetal damage rates were similar to those described for humans and only for one of the gestation thirds, not all. Moreover, in most designs tissue cysts - with unknown number of bradyzoites - were used, so actual dose could not be established. The meta-analysis could not be performed, mainly because of great heterogeneity in experimental conditions. Nevertheless, results gathered suggest that a model could be designed to represent the increase in vertical transmission and decrease in fetal damage found in humans under natural conditions.

  18. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infection during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Rosso; Alejandro Agudelo; Ángela Isaza; José Gilberto Montoya

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre la toxoplasmosis durante el embarazo y de su consecuencia la toxoplasmosis congénita. Se pretende ilustrar a los profesionales de la salud con los diferentes aspectos tanto epidemiológicos como clínicos concernientes a esta enfermedad. Se revisan conceptos actuales de la parasitología y de la epidemiología de la transmisión materno-fetal, así como la presentación clínica de la infección perinatal. Se discuten nuevos adelantos en el diagnóstico y su i...

  19. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

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    Ivonne HERNÁNDEZ-CORTAZAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia del S; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico.

  1. Optimizing the parasitological diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v11i2.2564

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    Marcos Gontijo Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is highly important, since it can make the treatment possible and reduces sequela for the infant. Serological diagnosis alone cannot be accurate when it does not identify the IgA, IgM or IgG antibodies of low avidity, which do not cross the placent barrier. Therefore, parasitemic identification is important to be carried out by demonstrating the parasite in the peritoneal exsudatum of mice inoculated with suspected biological material, however such method is little sensitive and too much time-consuming. This research study aims at optimizing mice inoculation through serological screening, and encephalic histopathology, in order to identify whether there was contamination. Out of 138 fetuses and/or newborn samples taken from pregnant women positive for active toxoplasmosis inoculated intraperitoneally in mice, only 5 showed positive through parasite demonstration in the peritoneal exsudatum. Histopathology showed the agent in 45 cases and in 67 the presence of anti-toxoplasmas antibodies in the mice bloodstream by using indirect immunofluorescence technique. Mice serology and encephalic histopathology in addition to reducing the amount of time necessary for the outcomes from 120 to 60 days increased the positivity of 3.6% to 50.4% and 33.8%, respectively.

  2. The Experiences and Recommendations of Families with Children Who Have Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jillian; Mortimer, Tamara; Mish, Sandra; Kerns, Kimberly; Jagdis, Frank; MacMath, Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis infections are usually asymptomatic in health hosts, but can cause serious, sometimes life threatening, sequelae in infants when the mother acquires an acute infection during pregnancy and the parasite is transmitted via the placenta to the developing fetus. This article is part of a comprehensive research project investigating the…

  3. Immunopathogenesis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

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    Jean Dupouy-Camet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is not completely understood. This paper will try to discuss the most frequently asked questions about the immunopathogeny of congenital toxoplasmosis: differential virulence of Toxoplasma isolates, genetic susceptibility to infection, facilitation of placental transfer, models of congenital toxoplasmosis, and transmission in seropositive hosts. Most published data suggest a role of the genetic background of the host and of the parasite. Models of congenital toxoplasmosis have been evaluated, but it appears that the conclusion drawn would be barely appropriate to understand the pathogenesis in pregnant women.

  4. Immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy-Camet, J

    1997-01-01

    The immunopathogenesis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is not completely understood. This paper will try to discuss the most frequently asked questions about the immunopathogeny of congenital toxoplasmosis: differential virulence of Toxoplasma isolates, genetic susceptibility to infection, facilitation of placental transfer, models of congenital toxoplasmosis, and transmission in seropositive hosts. Most published data suggest a role of the genetic background of the host and of the parasite. Models of congenital toxoplasmosis have been evaluated, but it appears that the conclusion drawn would be barely appropriate to understand the pathogenesis in pregnant women.

  5. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Non Immune Pregnant Females

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution. Congenital infection is the most important part of the disease burden due to Toxoplasma infection in humans. Early diagnosis of maternal infection helps to prevent severe complications of toxoplasmosis. In the present study, three PCR assays (conventional, nested & quantitative) were evaluated for diagnosis of recent toxoplasmosis based on detection of Toxoplasma B1 gene. MATERIAL AND...

  6. Congenital toxoplasmosis: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosso

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre la toxoplasmosis durante el embarazo y de su consecuencia la toxoplasmosis congénita. Se pretende ilustrar a los profesionales de la salud con los diferentes aspectos tanto epidemiológicos como clínicos concernientes a esta enfermedad. Se revisan conceptos actuales de la parasitología y de la epidemiología de la transmisión materno-fetal, así como la presentación clínica de la infección perinatal. Se discuten nuevos adelantos en el diagnóstico y su influencia en el tratamiento de la mujer embarazada, del feto y del recién nacido. También se discuten las controversias recientes sobre las diversas estrategias de prevención primaria y secundaria durante el embarazo.

  7. Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypic Profiles of Sulfadiazine-Resistant and Sensitive Toxoplasma gondii Isolates Obtained from Newborns with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Letícia Azevedo; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous Toxoplasma gondii studies revealed that mutations in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthase) gene are associated with resistance to sulfonamides. Although Brazilian strains are genotypically different, very limited data are available regarding the susceptibility of strains obtained from human to sulfonamides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulfadiazine (SDZ) against Brazilian isolates of T. gondii and verify whether isolates present polymorphisms in the dhps gene. We also investigated whether the virulence-phenotype and/or genotype were associated with the profile of susceptibility to SDZ. Methods Five T. gondii isolates obtained from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis were used to verify susceptibility. Mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites and orally treated with different doses of SDZ. The mortality curve was evaluated by the Log-rank test. The presence of polymorphisms in the dhps gene was verified using sequencing. A descriptive analysis for 11 Brazilian isolates was used to assess the association between susceptibility, genotype, and virulence-phenotype. Results Statistical analysis showed that TgCTBr03, 07, 08, and 16 isolates were susceptible to SDZ, whereas TgCTBr11 isolate presented a profile of resistance to SDZ. Nineteen polymorphisms were identified in dhps exons. Seven polymorphisms corresponded to non-synonymous mutations, with four being new mutations, described for the first time in this study. No association was found between the profile of susceptibility and the virulence-phenotype or genotype of the parasite. Conclusions There is a high variability in the susceptibilities of Brazilian T. gondii strains to SDZ, with evidence of drug resistance. Despite the large number of polymorphisms identified, the profile of susceptibility to SDZ was not associated with any of the dhps variants identified in this study. Other genetic factors, not yet determined, may be associated with the resistance to SDZ; thus

  8. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART.

  9. Estudio multicéntrico para la prevención de la toxoplasmosis prenatal en Buenos Aires Multicenter study on the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis in Buenos Aires

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    Liliana Carral

    2008-12-01

    women were done in nine different hospitals within the city of Buenos Aires and surroundings, where 19825 births between May 1st 2006 and April 30th 2007 were registered. Screening tests were done in 13632 pregnant women, using IgG and IgM determinations by ELISA. If acute infection was suspected, the patient‘s serum was sent to the reference laboratory to fulfill the pending tests: Sabin Feldman, ISAGA M, ISAGA A, ISAGA E and avidity. Clinical and serologic evaluation was done to all newborn of these mothers. Three hundred and fifty one specimens were sent and analyzed. Conclusions from the analysis were as follows: 121 (32% patients probably acquired the infection during pregnancy, in 176 (46% patients, acute infection was excluded, in 37 women (10% serologic results were inconclusive, and in 47 (12% the interpretation of results was impossible due to lack of information on the exact gestational age. Clinical and serologic control was performed in 94 newborns of mothers infected during pregnancy, and 5 congenital toxoplasmosis were detected, with fetal damage, four corioretinitis and one case of microcephaly. This study allowed us to validate the Argentine Consensus of Congenital Toxoplasmosis Guidelines.

  10. Determinants of response to a parent questionnaire about development and behaviour in 3 year olds: European multicentre study of congenital toxoplasmosis

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    Schmidt D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to determine how response to a parent-completed postal questionnaire measuring development, behaviour, impairment, and parental concerns and anxiety, varies in different European centres. Methods Prospective cohort study of 3 year old children, with and without congenital toxoplasmosis, who were identified by prenatal or neonatal screening for toxoplasmosis in 11 centres in 7 countries. Parents were mailed a questionnaire that comprised all or part of existing validated tools. We determined the effect of characteristics of the centre and child on response, age at questionnaire completion, and response to child drawing tasks. Results The questionnaire took 21 minutes to complete on average. 67% (714/1058 of parents responded. Few parents (60/1058 refused to participate. The strongest determinants of response were the score for organisational attributes of the study centre (such as direct involvement in follow up and access to an address register, and infection with congenital toxoplasmosis. Age at completion was associated with study centre, presence of neurological abnormalities in early infancy, and duration of prenatal treatment. Completion rates for individual questions exceeded 92% except for child completed drawings of a man (70%, which were completed more by girls, older children, and in certain centres. Conclusion Differences in response across European centres were predominantly related to the organisation of follow up and access to correct addresses. The questionnaire was acceptable in all six countries and offers a low cost tool for assessing development, behaviour, and parental concerns and anxiety, in multinational studies.

  11. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  12. Profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference center for congenital toxoplasmosis in the northern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Janer Aparecida Silveira Soares

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference outpatient clinic for congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Pregnant women potentially exposed to Toxoplasma gondii were observed. Diagnoses were made using serologic tests compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Children presenting with: Toxoplasma-specific antibodies (IgM or IgA or ascending IgG titers higher than maternal titers in the first 3 months of life coupled with toxoplasmosis symptoms; intracranial calcifications (by transfontanelar ultrasound or cephalic segment tomography; or retinochoroiditis (by fundoscopy examination in the first 8 months of life were also included in the study. RESULTS: Fifty-eight mother-child pairs were observed (mean age of the mothers was 22.1 years. Most patients lived in urban areas (86.2% and had attended less than 8 years of school (51.7%. Diagnosis was made after birth in 19 (32.8% children. Thirty-four (58.6% women received some type of treatment during pregnancy. Most (72.4% of the children did not present with clinical alterations at birth. The main findings were ophthalmological: 20 (34.5% children with retinochoroiditis, 17 (29.3% with strabismus, and 7 (12.1% with nystagmus. Of the children with retinochoroiditis, 9 presented with subnormal vision. Ten (32.3% out of 31 children presented with intracranial calcifications by cephalic segment congenital toxoplasmosis, and 9 (42.9% children presented with delayed psychomotor development. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a critical situation. Protocols for follow-up of pregnant women and their children must be created to improve medical care and minimize sequelae.

  13. Performance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Amniotic Fluid of Pregnant Women for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious damage that can be diagnosed in utero or at birth, although most infants are asymptomatic at birth. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis considerably improves the prognosis and outcome for infected infants. For this reason, an assay for the quick, sensitive, and safe diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis is desirable. Goal To systematically review the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amniotic fluid of pregnant women with recent serological toxoplasmosis diagnoses for the diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. Method A systematic literature review was conducted via a search of electronic databases; the literature included primary studies of the diagnostic accuracy of PCR analysis of amniotic fluid from pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy. The PCR test was compared to a gold standard for diagnosis. Results A total of 1.269 summaries were obtained from the electronic database and reviewed, and 20 studies, comprising 4.171 samples, met the established inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The following results were obtained: studies about PCR assays for fetal toxoplasmosis are generally susceptible to bias; reports of the tests’ use lack critical information; the protocols varied among studies; the heterogeneity among studies was concentrated in the tests’ sensitivity; there was evidence that the sensitivity of the tests increases with time, as represented by the trimester; and there was more heterogeneity among studies in which there was more time between maternal diagnosis and fetal testing. The sensitivity of the method, if performed up to five weeks after maternal diagnosis, was 87% and specificity was 99%. Conclusion The global sensitivity heterogeneity of the PCR test in this review was 66.5% (I2). The tests show low evidence of heterogeneity with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 99% when performed up to five weeks

  14. 人体弓形虫病 人体弓形虫病%Toxoplasmosis in human being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林军; 武建国

    2001-01-01

    弓形虫病是全球广泛分布、对人类造成严重危害的人兽共患病。近年来,由于与宠物接触增多,我国弓形虫病发病率有增高趋势。鉴于本病临床表现缺乏特异性,一旦确诊,治疗效果显著。本文从发病机制、病理改变、临床表现、实验室诊断、治疗等几个方面对本病进行了简要的评述,以期引起广大临床医务人员的重视。%Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease which affects both human and animals.It distributes all over the world and makes great harm to human beings.In recent years,the morbidity of toxoplasmosis in our country increased because of contacting with pets.Toxoplasmosis has no specific clinical manifestations and responds well to correct treatment.In order to raise clinicians' notice to toxoplasmosis,this article will review the disease from the aspects of etiology,epidemiology,clinical manifestation and experimental diagnosis.

  15. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies.

  16. Deficiência auditiva na toxoplasmose congênita detectada pela triagem neonatal Hearing loss in congenital toxoplasmosis detected by newborn screening

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    Gláucia Manzan Queiroz de Andrade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose congênita pode causar déficit neurossensorial em até 20% dos casos e o tratamento no primeiro ano de vida melhora o prognóstico. No Brasil, desconhece-se o impacto da infecção na hipoacusia. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a audição de crianças com toxoplasmose congênita identificadas pela triagem neonatal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de crianças com toxoplasmose congênita identificadas pela triagem neonatal (IgM anti-T. gondii em Belo Horizonte, durante 2003/2004. Realizada sorologia confirmatória (mãe/filho e consideradas positivas as crianças apresentando IgM e/ou IgA nos primeiros seis meses ou IgG aos 12 meses de vida. Avaliações auditivas ao diagnóstico e após 12 meses incluíram Audiometria Comportamental, Emissões Otoacústicas, Imitanciometria, Audiometria de Tronco Encefálico. RESULTADOS: Dentre 30.808 crianças triadas (97% dos nascidos vivos, 20 apresentavam toxoplasmose congênita, 15 (75% com infecção subclínica. Dezenove crianças realizaram avaliação auditiva. Quatro apresentaram déficit neurossensorial (21,1%. Uma criança apresentou outros fatores de risco para hipoacusia; nas outras três, a toxoplasmose foi o único fator observado. Duas crianças, tratadas adequadamente com antiparasitários, apresentaram déficit auditivo, em desacordo com a literatura. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que a toxoplasmose congênita, prevalente no Brasil, é um fator de risco para hipoacusia e o impacto dessa infecção nas perdas auditivas deve ser estudado.Congenital toxoplasmosis may cause sensorineural deficit in up to 20% of the patients and proper treatment in the first year improves prognosis. In Brazil, this infection’s impact on hearing impairment is unknown. AIM: To evaluate hearing of newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by the newborn screening service. METHOD: This prospective study analyzed children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by newborn screening (IgM anti

  17. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  18. Toxoplasmosis – An update

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Veena; Ichhpujani, R L

    2011-01-01

    Toxplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The disease affects one-third of the total world population. Transmission of the disease is mainly by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts. Congenital toxoplasmosis occurs from the transplacental passage of the parasite from mother to fetus. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause blindness and mental retardation in congenitally infected children, and it is ...

  19. Sinais ultra-sonográficos em fetos portadores de toxoplasmose congênita Ultrasonographic markers for fetal congenital toxoplasmosis

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    Júlio César de Faria Couto

    2004-06-01

    ultrasonographic alterations in fetuses infected with Toxoplasma gondii, correlating them with neonatal prognosis. METHODS: between June 1997 and May 2003, 150 pregnant women with suspected toxiplasmosis were examined. Acute infection was confirmed in 72 (48% of these pregnant women and congenital toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 12 (16% fetuses. Prenatal diagnosis was established by polymerase chain reaction in the amniotic fluid. All the patients received antiparasitic therapy. Ultrasound examination was performed every fortnight and all the infants were evaluated during their first year of life. RESULTS: ultrasonographic changes were observed in eight fetuses. All of them showed symmetric bilateral ventricular enlargement that was associated with periventricular calcifications in five cases. Other changes as hepatic calcification, hepatomegaly, polyhydramnium, and pericardial effusion were less frequent. Among these fetuses, four were stillborn and three showed sequelae (chorioretinitis and neuro-psychomotor retardation. The four fetuses that showed normal ultrasonography had a satisfactory development. CONCLUSION: There was a high incidence of ultrasonographic changes in fetuses with congenital toxoplasmosis, mainly brain damage. Other changes as hepatomegaly and pericardial effusion were less frequent and were related to a systemic infection. The prognosis of these fetuses seems to be correlated with the presence of these lesions mainly because they had high mortality ratio and among the survivors the incidence of sequelae was high. The non-symptomatic fetuses evolved in a favorable way without developing sequelae. These results highlight the value of ultrasonographic examination of these fetuses in order to establish a prognosis and allow the elaboration of a suitable post-natal procedure.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravetz, Jeffrey D; Federman, Daniel G

    2005-03-01

    Pregnant women who acquire infection from Toxoplasma gondii usually remain asymptomatic, although they can still transmit the infection to their fetuses with severe consequences. Given the asymptomatic nature of most Toxoplasma infections, primary prevention in pregnant women may lower the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. Both consumption of undercooked meat and unprotected contact with soil are independent risk factors for T. gondii seroconversion during pregnancy, while contact with cat litter may pose a risk in certain situations. However, many pregnant women lack knowledge of these risk factors. This article reviews toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy, with an emphasis on risk factors and appropriate counseling of pregnant women.

  1. Congenital toxoplasmosis in South American children = Toxoplasmose congênita em crianças sul-americanas

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    Gómez-Marín, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: a toxoplasmosis congênita na América do Sul parece ser mais frequente e as crianças infectadas são mais sintomáticas do que na Europa e na América do Norte. A pesquisa sobre novas drogas e vacinas deve ser prioritária, para melhorar os indicadores de saúde nas crianças da América do Sul

  2. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  3. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  4. Toxoplasmosis: A global threat

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    João M Furtado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, a disease described worldwide, which is caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, commonly involves the retina. The disease has a higher impact in immunocompromised individuals and in congenital infection because of the severity of central nervous system involvement. Although simple prophylactic measures could reduce transmission, T. gondii seroprevalence is still high, especially in South America. Educational campaigns and the development of new drugs to prevent primary infection could potentially reduce the burden of the disease.

  5. Flow cytometry-based algorithm to analyze the anti-fixed Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites IgM and IgG reactivity and diagnose human acute toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-dos-Santos, Priscila Pinto; Barros, Geisa Baptista; Mineo, José Roberto; de Oliveira Silva, Deise Aparecida; Menegaz, Mauro Hygino Weinert; Serufo, José Carlos; Dietze, Reynaldo; Martins-Filho, Olindo de Assis; Lemos, Elenice Moreira

    2012-04-30

    In the present study we evaluated the performance of a flow cytometry-based algorithm as a new serological approach to detect antibodies to T. gondii and specific IgG avidity to diagnose acute toxoplasmosis. The results showed that using FC-AFTA-IgM assay, all serum samples from patients with acute toxoplasmosis demonstrated seropositivity, whereas 90% of patients with chronic infection and 100% of non-infected individuals presented negative results. Thus, only 10% of patients with chronic toxoplasmosis showed residual IgM, in contrast with other methodologies used to diagnosis acute toxoplasmosis. On the order hand, FC-AFTA-IgG assay as well as FC-AFTA-IgG subclasses is unlikely to discriminate acute from chronic toxoplasmosis. We have also evaluated the performance of FC-AFTA-IgG avidity as a tool to exclude chronic toxoplasmosis in patients with positive FC-AFTA-IgM. Our data showed an excellent performance of FC-AFTA-IgG avidity employing the cut-off of 60% for Avidity Index (AI) with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. All serum samples from patients presenting acute toxoplasmosis showed low avidity index (AI≤60%), whereas all chronic patients showed high avidity index (AI>60%). The outstanding performance indexes of this novel flow cytometry-based algorithm support its use as a non-conventional alternative serological approach to diagnose human acute toxoplasmosis.

  6. The performance of four molecular methods for the laboratory diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in amniotic fluid samples

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    Leandro Emidio Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Toxoplasmosis may be life-threatening in fetuses and in immune-deficient patients. Conventional laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on the presence of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies; however, molecular techniques have emerged as alternative tools due to their increased sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 4 PCR-based methods for the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. One hundred pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy were included in the study. The definition of cases was based on a 12-month follow-up of the infants. Methods Amniotic fluid samples were submitted to DNA extraction and amplification by the following 4 Toxoplasma techniques performed with parasite B1 gene primers: conventional PCR, nested-PCR, multiplex-nested-PCR, and real-time PCR. Seven parameters were analyzed, sensitivity (Se, specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR and efficiency (Ef. Results Fifty-nine of the 100 infants had toxoplasmosis; 42 (71.2% had IgM antibodies at birth but were asymptomatic, and the remaining 17 cases had non-detectable IgM antibodies but high IgG antibody titers that were associated with retinochoroiditis in 8 (13.5% cases, abnormal cranial ultrasound in 5 (8.5% cases, and signs/symptoms suggestive of infection in 4 (6.8% cases. The conventional PCR assay detected 50 cases (9 false-negatives, nested-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative and 4 false-positives, multiplex-nested-PCR detected 57 cases (2 false-negatives, and real-time-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative. Conclusions The real-time PCR assay was the best-performing technique based on the parameters of Se (98.3%, Sp (100%, PPV (100%, NPV (97.6%, PLR (∞, NLR (0.017, and Ef (99%.

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Hamadan City

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    M. Fallah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in the human beings and other warm-blooded animals that can cause chronic infection in adults, fatal illness in immunodeficient patients and abortion in pregnant women or congenital abnormalities in fetus. The aim of this study was determination of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in primigrvida women in Hamadan.Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 576 primigravida women, who admitted to the health centers were selected by cluster random sampling method. Data for epidemiological factors was collected by a questionnaire and serum samples were collected for detection of total antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The titer of ≥ 1:20 regarded as positive. The relationship between variables analyzed by chi² test.Results: In this study seroprevalence was 33.5%. Higher seropositivity observed in illiterate subgroup and lower infection rate was found in high school educated subgroup. Our study showed statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and age, fresh and undercooked meat and rate of vegetables consumption (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated that seropositivity for toxoplasmosis in this area is lower than northern parts and higher than central and eastern parts of Iran. Our study showed that about one-third of individuals were seropositive and because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in primigravida women and immonucompromized patients, health education is necessary for prevention of toxoplasmosis.

  8. Outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in human beings and animal/ Surtos de toxoplasmose em seres humanos e animais

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    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the biggest wild world zoonosis and it can attack blood warmed animals from many species. Outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals are not related frequently and it could be due to either weak or asymptomatic characteristics. So, there are difficulties in the clinical characterization of this pathology with laboratorial confirmation and posterior notification. This review emphasizes the informed outbreaks in humans and animals, its sources of infection and ways of transmission that vary in accordance with local habits and sanitary conditions. It still approaches the genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains and prevention methods.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonoses de distribuição mundial e acomete animais de sangue quente das mais variadas espécies. Os surtos de toxoplasmose em seres humanos e animais freqüentemente não são relatados. Isto ocorre, possivelmente, em função desta infecção caracterizar-se por sintomas ausentes ou brandos tanto em humanos quanto em animais. Desta maneira, existem dificuldades na caracterização clínica desta patologia com confirmação laboratorial e posterior notificação. Esta revisão enfatiza os surtos de toxoplasmose notificados em humanos e animais, suas fontes de infecção e vias de transmissão que variam de acordo com os hábitos locais e as condições sanitárias de cada região. Aborda ainda a caracterização genética de cepas de Toxoplasma gondii e métodos de prevenção.

  9. Identification of risk factors for toxoplasma gondii infection in serbia as a basis of a program for prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis

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    Bobić Branko N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis has long been known as a major cause of perinatal morbidity. Acute infection in pregnancy may lead to fetal infection and subsequent fetal loss or birth of a manifestly or latently infected infant. However, it is a preventable disease. In Europe, significant variations have been shown to occur not only between countries but also within a given country indicating local variations in the influence of epidemiological factors contributing to infection. Thus, many European countries have implemented prevention programs in measure with the respective estimated risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. Since in view of its cost, a general screening-in-pregnancy program is at present not an option in Serbia & Montenegro, insight into the risk factors of particular local significance may therefore improve the quality of and the compliance with the hygienic and dietetic advice given to pregnant women as a preventive measure, as well as identify the particular subpopulations at an increased risk of infection who may then be selectively screened. Subjects and methods: A retrospective study of risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection based on serological and epidemiological data (questionnaire was performed in a series of 2936 women aged 15-49 years from throughout Serbia tested in our laboratory between 1988 and 1997. Inclusion criteria included availability of serological and epidemiological data (as specified below. Specific anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected by the reference Sabin-Feldman dye test as modified by Desmonts into the lysis test. The questionnaire included questions on age (stratified into five-year groups, degree of education (modalities: grade school, secondary or university level, and community of residence (urban/suburban, as well as on life-style habits pertaining to infection transmission risk factors: consumption of undercooked meat, exposure to soil, and exposure to cats (pet cat ownership. In addition, the

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for human toxoplasmosis in a rural community

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    JM Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infection may lead to important pathological questions, especially in rural areas, where several sources of infection exist. Therefore, it is important to determine risk factors in order to establish adequate prophylactic measures. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors involved in human toxoplasmosis infection in a rural community, in Eldorado, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This community was composed of 185 farms - with 671 inhabitants - from which 20 were randomly chosen. In these farms, blood samples were collected from rural workers, who also answered a risk factor questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed by means of direct agglutination test for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. From 73 samples collected, 79.45% were positive. None of the studied variables was significantly associated with the prevalence of the infection. However, among the individuals who reported eyesight impairments, 94.4% had anti-T. gondii antibodies, compared with 74.0% who did not report eyesight changes (p = 0.0594. Moreover, most individuals in the study (68.20% were older than 18 years and presented 84.44% positivity, compared with 66.67% of positive individuals younger than 18 years old. We were able to conclude that a high prevalence of antibodies did not imply significant associations with the risk factors studied.

  11. Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, J; Klapilová, K; Kaňková, S

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects about 30% of the human population. Common sources of infection are oocysts in cat faeces contaminating drinking water or unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, and organ transplants from infected donors containing tissue cysts. However, very often, it is not possible to identify any potential source of infection in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Here we present a hypothesis suggesting that toxoplasmosis is transmitted from infected men to noninfected women during unprotected sexual intercourse, which can result in the most serious form of disease, congenital toxoplasmosis. Arguments for the hypothesis: (1) Toxoplasma tachyzoites are present in the seminal fluid and tissue of the testes of various animals including humans. In some species infection of females by artificial insemination with semen from infected males has been observed. (2) Up to two thirds of Toxoplasma infections in pregnant women cannot be explained by the known risk factors. (3) Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in women in child-bearing age covaries with the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in particular countries. (4) In some countries, an increased incidence of toxoplasmosis has been reported in women (but not men) aged 25-35 years. This second peak of infection could be associated with women having regular unprotected sex after marriage. (5) Toxoplasmosis triggers schizophrenia in predisposed subjects. Onset of schizophrenia is about 2-3 years earlier in men than in women. However, this difference in the onset can be found only between Toxoplasma-infected patients. The increased onset of schizophrenia in infected women could be associated with the already mentioned second peak of toxoplasmosis incidence. (6) The prevalence of toxoplasmosis decreases in developed countries in last 20 years. This trend could be a result of decrease in promiscuity and increase in safe sex practices, both associated with the AIDS pandemics

  12. Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

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    Umit Savasci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic infection that caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The clinical progress is generally asymptomatic in patient with normal immune system, on the other hand severe clinical presentations seen in patients with immune deficiency or pregnancy. Congenital toxoplasmosis can emerge due to contamination during pregnancy but 6-8 weeks prior to pregnancy are also at risk. Infants with toxoplasmosis have some clinical semptoms such as chorioretinitis, epilepsia, hypotonia, psychomotor disorders, mental retardation, encephalitis, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, hepatosplenomegaly. Early diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent treatment. may prevent malformations. Toxoplasmosis diagnosis during pregnancy is mostly based on IgM and IgG antibody screening tests. While IgM indicates the acute infection, it disappears in early period and can be detected in low consantrations through long ages. Therefore IgG avidity test takes more place in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. High avidity levels indicate acquired infection prior than 16 weeks, so that it is recommended to perform the test in the first trimester. Low IgG avidity level may indicate a newly onset infection. Amniotic fluid T.gondii PCR, anomaly screening with ultrasonography, Toxoplasma gondii cyst dying with Wright-Giemsa dye in plasental and fetal tissue are the other diagnostic tools can be performed during pregnancy. Avidity test methods during the 16 weeks of pregnancy reduce repeating serum analysis, amniotic fluid PCR reguirement, unnecessary antibiotic treatments and noncompulsory abortus. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 767-772

  13. An unusual CXT presentation of congenital cerebral toxoplasmosis in an 8 month-old boy with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccone, A.; Fondelli, M.P.; Marzoli, A. (Children' s Hospital G. Gaslini, Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Ferrea, G. (Children' s Hospital G. Gaslini, Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Infectious Diseases)

    1992-04-01

    We report on a 8-month-old boy with AIDS, born of an asymptomatic mother with positive HTLV-III serology. He was hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit because of anemia, fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Chest X-ray showed pneumonia and subsquent blood cultures were positive for Candida albicans. After 3 days of Amphotericine B treatment, the patient was transferred to Infectious Disease Department. After 30 days of hospitalization, the patient developed a rapid neurological impairment evolving into coma. CT scan showed a round, ring-shaped low density lesion with hyperdense and enhancing haemorragic centre in the left basal ganglia and a smaller hypodense lesion on the right. There was also evidence of cortical atrophy and mild ventricular dilatation. Such lesions are more commonly described in children with AIDS and congenital cytomegalic inclusion virus (CMV) encephalitis. In this case toxoplasma cysts were shown microscopically reinforcing the contention that in patients with AIDS, toxoplasma gondii infection may occur with atypical manifestation. (orig.).

  14. Humans with latent toxoplasmosis display altered reward modulation of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Dajkic, Danica; Köhling, Hedda Luise; von Heinegg, Evelyn Heintschel; Fiedler, Melanie; Beste, Christian

    2017-08-31

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii has repeatedly been shown to be associated with behavioral changes that are commonly attributed to a presumed increase in dopaminergic signaling. Yet, virtually nothing is known about its effects on dopamine-driven reward processing. We therefore assessed behavior and event-related potentials in individuals with vs. without latent toxoplasmosis performing a rewarded control task. The data show that otherwise healthy young adults with latent toxoplasmosis show a greatly diminished response to monetary rewards as compared to their non-infected counterparts. While this selective effect eliminated a toxoplasmosis-induced speed advantage previously observed for non-rewarded behavior, Toxo-positive subjects could still be demonstrated to be superior to Toxo-negative subjects with respect to response accuracy. Event-related potential (ERP) and source localization analyses revealed that this advantage during rewarded behavior was based on increased allocation of processing resources reflected by larger visual late positive component (LPC) amplitudes and associated activity changes in the right temporo-parietal junction (BA40) and left auditory cortex (BA41). Taken together, individuals with latent toxoplasmosis show superior behavioral performance in challenging cognitive control situations but may at the same time have a reduced sensitivity towards motivational effects of rewards, which might be explained by the presumed increase in dopamine.

  15. CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious and life-threatening disease in humans with a high prevalence in immunocompromised persons. The disease has a wide spectrum, depending on the immune status of the person. A CNS manifestation of toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person is very rare and often undetected. Our case of CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person emphasizes the radiological diagnosis, which was further confirmed by advanced microbiology technique.

  16. CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajoo Ramachandran, MBBS, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a serious and life-threatening disease in humans with a high prevalence in immunocompromised persons. The disease has a wide spectrum, depending on the immune status of the person. A CNS manifestation of toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person is very rare and often undetected. Our case of CNS toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent person emphasizes the radiological diagnosis, which was further confirmed by advanced microbiology technique.

  17. Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii imparts a considerable burden to public health. Human toxoplasmosis can be life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals, has been associated with psychiatric disorders, and can cause severe congenital pathologies, spontaneous abortion, or stillbirth. Enviro...

  18. Toxoplasmosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Clara Delgado Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.

  19. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and the future of ocular toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijlstra, Aize; Petersen, Eskild

    2014-04-01

    Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about its exact prevalence and how it affects the quality of life. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis depends on local habits throughout the globe, and changes are likely in view of increased meat consumption in developing countries and demands for higher animal welfare in the Western world. Water is increasingly seen as an important risk factor and more studies are needed to quantitate and control the role of water exposure (drinking, swimming). Tools are now becoming available to study both the human host as well as parasite genetic factors in the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. Further research on the role of Toxoplasma strains as well as basic studies on parasite virulence is needed to explain why Toxoplasma associated eye disease is so severe in some countries, such as Brazil. Although genetic analysis of the parasite represents the gold standard, further developments in serotyping using peptide arrays may offer practical solutions to study the role of parasite strains in the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. More research is needed concerning the pathways whereby the parasite can infect the retina. Once in the retina further tissue damage may be due to parasite virulence factors or could be caused by an aberrant host immune response. Local intraocular immune responses are nowadays used for diagnostic procedures. Future developments may include the use of Raman technology or the direct visualization of a Toxoplasma cyst by optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the availability of ocular fluid specimens obtained for diagnostic purposes and the development of advanced proteomic techniques, a biomarker fingerprint that is unique for an eye with

  20. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  1. [Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machala, L; Kodym, P; Malý, M; Geleneky, M; Beran, O; Jilich, D

    2015-06-01

    In humans, toxoplasmosis mostly occurs as a latent infection, but in immunocompromised individuals, the agent may reactivate and cause severe to life-threatening disease. HIV positive individuals and transplant recipients, in particular hematopoietic stem cell transplant and heart transplant recipients, are at highest risk. The disease most often affects the central nervous system but can involve any organ. Because of the alteration of the immune response in these patients, the serodiagnosis is not reliable and direct detection of the causative agent is needed--namely by microscopy and DNA PCR. If inadequately treated or left untreated, toxoplasmosis generally has a fatal prognosis in immunocompromised patients and therefore, the treatment must be started as early and energetically as possible. The gold standard both in the treatment of reactivation and secondary prophylaxis is the pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination while co-trimoxazole can be used in the primary prophylaxis for high-risk patients.

  2. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Prevention, diagnosis, and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M

    1994-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem. Infection of a pregnant woman can result in severe fetal morbidity or in subclinical neonatal infection; most subclinical cases will develop ocular and neurological sequelae. Fetal infection and clinical outcome is related to when in pregnancy toxoplasmosis was acquired. The risk of transmission increases from 14% in the first trimester to 29% in the second and 59% in the third. Conversely, clinical damage decreases from about 80% in the first to 10% in the third trimester, but up to 50% of patients with subclinical congenital toxoplasmosis will develop neurologic and ocular sequelae. Congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented by identification of non immune women at the beginning of pregnancy, by giving information on how to avoid the infection and by a serological follow-up until the delivery. Serological follow-up is based on repeated testing for specific IgG and IgM, but other serologic methods are necessary to differentiate between acute and chronic infections and possibly on a single serum sample. Procedures to detect fetal infection are ultrasound examination, cordocentesis and amniocentesis; prenatal diagnosis relies on demonstration of toxoplasma in fetal blood or amniotic fluid by mouse inoculation. Very promising results have recently obtained by the PCR-method applied to amniotic fluid samples. All strongly suspected cases of acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy have to be treated.

  3. [Ophthalmic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Description of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernandez, Á; Sobenes Gutierrez, R

    2014-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection of worldwide distribution caused by Toxoplasma gondii, and infects a large proportion of the world population. Only under certain circumstances of severe immunosuppression can the parasite reactivate and cause disease. The most common form of presentation of this pathology in patients with positive HIV is the brain abscess. One of the extra-cerebral forms is toxoplasmic chorioretinitis, which could lead to a chronic active form of a slowly progressive retinitis. Diagnosis is made by observing the eye fundus and confirmed by the scarring obtained after specific treatment. We report a case of a patient with diabetes and positive HIV, in whom a toxoplasmic scar injury was detected in the annual retinography follow-up. A conservative therapeutic approach was decided, with regular check-ups for possible detection of disease activation.

  4. Ocular toxoplasmosis: an update and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra G Commodaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. The infection can be acquired congenitally or postnatally and ocular lesions may present during or years after the acute infection occur. Current treatment controls ocular infection and inflammation, but does not prevent recurrences. We present a review and update on ocular toxoplasmosis and address misconceptions still found in the current medical literature.

  5. [Screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: more harm than good].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abholz, H H

    1993-01-01

    Using data from international literature makes it possible to calculate for Germany benefit and harm of a screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. On the basis of these data harm of such a screening is much greater than benefit. Taking the reported number of congenital toxoplasmosis in Germany as the base for such a calculation of harm and benefit makes the ratio of benefit and harm even worse.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: an emerging concern for family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakht, F R; Gentry, L O

    1992-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in pregnant women but poses a risk of severe effects on the fetus. One to eight of every 1,000 pregnant women become infected, and the infection is transmitted to the fetus in approximately 40 percent of these cases. The risk of transmission rises with increasing gestational age at the time of initial infection. Congenital infection with toxoplasmosis may lead to serious sequelae, such as blindness, mental retardation, neurologic deficits and deafness. Prevention of morbidity from toxoplasmosis depends on prevention of the infection in pregnant women, plus early recognition and aggressive treatment of maternal infections.

  7. HUMAN TOXOPLASMOSIS OUTBREAKS AND THE AGENT INFECTING FORM. FINDINGS FROM A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    MEIRELES, Luciana Regina; EKMAN, Claudio Cesar Jaguaribe; de ANDRADE, Heitor Franco; LUNA, Expedito José de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide highly prevalent zoonotic infection, is transmitted either by the oocysts, from water and soil, or the tissue cysts, in raw or undercooked infected meat, of Toxoplasma gondii. An ongoing debate is whether there are differences between the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks due to one or the other infective form of the agent. We performed a systematic review, recovering 437 reported outbreaks of which 38 were selected. They were complete reports containing ascribedToxoplasma infecting form, and clinical and demographic data. There was no gender or age group selection in the outbreaks, which were described more often in the Americas. A large number of individuals were affected when oocysts, associated with soil and water contaminated with cat feces, were considered the transmission source. Onset of symptoms occurred early when the infection was ascribed to meat tissue cysts (11.4 ± 6.7 days) with sharpened temporal distribution of cases, while a broader and prolonged appearance of new cases was observed when oocysts in water were the source of the infection (20 ± 7 days, p < 0.001). Such information may be useful in the design and implementation of control strategies. PMID:26603222

  8. Intracranial inflammatory granuloma caused by toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi Hua; Guo, Fu You; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serous parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii worldwide. Human beings acquire the disease by eating infected meat containing T. gondii cysts, by ingesting water or vegetables contaminated with oocysts shed in the feces of an infected cat, and by transmission from mother to fetus. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-infected patients, with a high mortality rate, whereas the incidence of cerebral toxoplasmosis is extremely rare in immunocompetent persons. Due to the low incidence and the high rate of misdiagnosis, cerebral toxoplasmosis was occasionally described in sporadic cases. (1) Furthermore, the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is rather difficult because the clinical manifestations are non-specific and are not sufficiently characteristic for a definite diagnosis. It mimics several other infectious diseases or primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor. (2) In the present study, we reported an exceedingly rare cerebral toxoplasmosis with obvious space-occupying lesion occurring in the left temporal lobe of an immunocompetent adult patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of acquired cerebral toxoplasmosis in China.

  9. Toxoplasmosis: The value of molecular methods in diagnosis compared to conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Tlamçani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection due to Toxoplasma gondii an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. It is considerateone of the most common parasite worldwide. The contamination of the parasite is generally occurred via consumptionof infected food or water or, undercooked contaminated meat. Toxoplasma gondii infection may lead to seriousillness when the organism is contracted while pregnancy or when it is reactivated in immune-suppressed persons.Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans is elaborated using various techniques such as detection of anti-Toxoplasmaantibodies, mouse inoculation, histological revelation of tachyzoites in tissue sections or smears of body fluid, but thedetection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA by molecular methods has revolutionized prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosisand in immunocompromised patients. In this paper we will discuss the parasite and different methods ofdiagnosis including the usefulness of molecular methods. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2: 93-99Key words: Toxoplamosis, Toxoplasma gondii, diagnosis

  10. Intracranial inflammatory granuloma caused by toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serous parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii worldwide. Human beings acquire the disease by eating infected meat containing T. gondii cysts, by ingesting water or vegetables contaminated with oocysts shed in the feces of an infected cat, and by transmission from mother to fetus. Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-infected patients, with a high mortality rate, whereas the inciden...

  11. A community-based survey of human toxoplasmosis in rural Amazonia: seroprevalence, seroconversion rate, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo U; Hiramoto, Roberto M; Aureliano, Débora P; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; da Silva, Natal S; Malafronte, Rosely S; Muniz, Pascoal T

    2009-07-01

    IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in, March-April 2004, in 65.8% (95% confidence interval, 60.8-70.8%) of 342 systematically sampled subjects 5-90 years of age (87.5% of the eligible) living in a rural settlement in Amazonia, with a seroconversion rate of 9% over 1 year of follow-up of 99 seronegative subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age as the only significant independent predictor of seropositivity at the baseline. Each additional year of age increases the odds of being seropositive by 6%, and 76.8% of the subjects are expected to be seropositive at 30 years of age. A single high-prevalence spatial cluster, comprising 11.9% of the seropositive subjects, was detected in the area; households in the cluster were less likely to have dogs as pets and their heads had a lower education level, when compared with households located outside the cluster. The challenges for preventing human toxoplasmosis in tropical rural settings are discussed.

  12. TLR4 in Toxoplasmosis; friends or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Hakimi, Hamid; Abdollahi, Seyyed Hossein; Zainodini, Nahid; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Kennedy, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma species are obligate intracellular protozoan which are responsible for induction of several forms of Toxoplasmosis in humans. The mechanisms responsible for the progression of the prolonged forms of Toxoplasmosis and associated pathologies are yet to be identified. However, previous studies proposed that immunological and genetic parameters may play important roles in the etiology and complexity of Toxoplasmosis. Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize microbial antigens and induce immune responses against parasites, including toxoplasma species. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are PRRs which recognize toxoplasma as a pathogenic parasite and activate immune cells. It has been reported that the TLR4 is a critical innate immune cell receptor in toxoplasma detection and subsequently activates immune responses using either MYD88 or TRIF pathways. This review collates recent information regarding the role of TLR4 and its related signaling molecules with Toxoplasmosis.

  13. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  14. Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Whitney S; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Converse, Reagan R.; Wade, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii imparts a considerable burden to public health. Human toxoplasmosis can be life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals, has been associated with psychiatric disorders, and can cause severe congenital pathologies, spontaneous abortion, or stillbirth. Environmental modes of transmission contributing to the incidence of human toxoplasmosis are poorly understood. We sought to examine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for risk factors...

  15. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  16. My Journey with Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    The author describes her fears and struggles as she came to terms, as an American expatriate in France, with a medical diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. This condition led to her birthing a son with Asperger's Syndrome. She tells of plunging herself into research to learn more about Toxoplasmosis, the number of things that could be seriously wrong with…

  17. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.

  18. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  19. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Oliveira, Fábio Conceição de; Melo, João Cardoso de; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de; Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de; Souza, Wanderley de; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  20. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain. Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  1. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Farlen José Bebber; de Souza, Diogo Benchimol; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Fábio Conceição; de Melo, João Cardoso; Mariano, Carlos Magno Anselmo; Albernaz, Antonio Peixoto; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiróz; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis. PMID:25742268

  2. Haploinsufficiency of TAB2 causes congenital heart defects in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thienpont, Bernard; Zhang, Litu; Postma, Alex V;

    2010-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common major developmental anomalies and the most frequent cause for perinatal mortality, but their etiology remains often obscure. We identified a locus for CHDs on 6q24-q25. Genotype-phenotype correlations in 12 patients carrying a chromosomal deletion...... in cardiac development was further supported by its conserved expression in the developing human and zebrafish heart. Moreover, a critical, dosage-sensitive role during development was demonstrated by the cardiac defects observed upon titrated knockdown of tab2 expression in zebrafish embryos...

  3. New recombinant chimeric antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1, for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of 3 chimeric Toxoplasma gondii antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1 and MAG1-ROP1, in the serodiagnosis of an acute toxoplasmosis in humans. Proteins were produced as fusion proteins containing His tags ends and then further purified by metal affinity chromatography. Their application for the diagnosis of recently acquired T. gondii infection was tested in IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). At 100%, 77.3%, and 86.4%, respectively, the reactivity of the IgG ELISA using P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was significantly higher than for the samples from people with a chronic infection, at 26.2%, 36.1%, and 32.8%, respectively. Moreover, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 detected IgM antibodies with a reactivity at 81.8%, 72.7%, and 59.1%, respectively. The results presented in the article show that, particularly, P35-MAG1 may be useful in the preliminary detection of recent T. gondii infection.

  4. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany.

  5. Use of CD25 as an immunohistochemical marker for acquired ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Miyamoto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior infectious uveitis worldwide. It is often impossible to determine its congenital or acquired nature. Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in peripheral blood has been described as a possible marker for acquired toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of ocular toxoplasmosis cases using CD25 as a marker for the expression of interleukin-2. METHODS: Ten formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded enucleated globes from ten immunocompetent patients with clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis were evaluated. Four patients had the acquired form of ocular toxoplasmosis (positive IgM while six were IgM negative and IgG positive for toxoplasmosis. Histopathological slides were reviewed for the extension of the retinal necrosis, number of toxo cysts, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction, the presence of T and B cells within the choroid and the IL-2 expression. Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies was performed to observe the expression of CD4, CD8, CD20, CD25, and CD68. RESULTS: The histopathological evaluation disclosed no differences between acquired and the other ocular toxoplasmosis cases regarding the characteristics studied. However, CD25 showed a higher expression of IL-2 on the 4 acquired cases of ocular toxoplasmosis compared to the remainders. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the use of CD25 as a marker for interleukin-2 could differentiate acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.

  6. Toxoplasmosis as a food-borne infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurković-Đaković, O.

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite that infects all mammals, including one third of the world population. Long known to cause disease in the developing foetus and in immunosuppressed individuals, a body of data that has emerged in the past decades suggests its role in human pathology may be even more important. The WHO and FAO have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne infection of global concern, with a disease burden the greatest of all parasitic infections. Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs by ingesting tissue cysts from undercooked meat and meat products, and oocysts from the environment with contaminated fresh produce or water. This review provides an update on the current understanding of toxoplasmosis, focusing on the risk of infection from food of animal origin, with particular reference to the risk in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe.

  7. TOXOPLASMOSIS: FOOD SAFETY AND RISK COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Celano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, parasitic pathology supported by Toxoplasma gondii, is a typical example of multi-issue and inter-disciplinary on which, with equal intensity, converge the interests of various branches of human and veterinary medicine. The aim of research was the assessment of risk communication to pregnant women by doctors gynecologists involved in ASL’s territorial about toxoplasmosis, which can have serious effects on pregnancy and the unborn child. The results acquired during the investigation showed the need to develop and implement appropriate information campaigns and proper nutrition education.

  8. Factors of occurrence of ocular toxoplasmosis. A review*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talabani H.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis are frequently complicated by ocular toxoplasmosis. The diagnosis relies on clinical aspects, response to specific treatment and results of biological assays. The incidence and the prevalence of this complication are difficult to establish precisely and depend on the prevalence of the parasite infection in the general population, and are affected by factors such as type of exposure to the parasite, genetic backgrounds of the parasite and the host, and type of immune response elicited by the parasite.

  9. Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups.

  10. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy with special emphasis on laboratory diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibalić, D; Durković-Daković, O; Bobić, B

    1990-01-01

    On the occasion of the thirty-five years of systematic research of toxoplasmosis, a review of the present knowledge of the role of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is presented. Diagnostic procedures and the interpretation of the results of laboratory examinations are particularly stressed. The main conclusion is that in a population exposed to the infection in the way as was in the cases studied, the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis can be achieved through a serologic follow-up of all pregnant women starting from the moment when pregnancy is established. The purpose of such screening is to identify those pregnant women who are not immunized (who are then advised to follow certain hygienic and dietetic measures) and those who are primoinfected in pregnancy. As the latter are at risk for transmitting the infection to their fetuses, they receive specific therapy and their fetuses are carefully controlled by ultrasound and other methods for the antenatal diagnosis of intrauterine infection.

  11. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Diagnosis and new therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlesse, V; Jacquemard, F; Daffos, F

    1993-02-20

    Congenital toxoplasmosis results from contamination of the foetus by Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy. It is a frequent and severe condition calling for close surveillance of mothers at risk. During the last few years, numerous advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis. Its diagnosis in the mother is now more reliable due to improvements in serological techniques, while in the foetus the use of foetal vascular techniques has made it possible to detect those who are infected. Owing to a new and effective therapeutic method certain foetuses can now be treated successfully in utero, so that induced abortion is reserved to cases with severe and early toxoplasmosis. The contribution of new molecular biology techniques to advances in this ever moving field is explained.

  12. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Persad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P0.05; χ2. This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad.

  13. Frequency of Toxoplasmosis in Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Anil; Charles, Roxanne; Adesiyun, Abiodun A.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has been reported to occur in several animals and humans causing different clinical manifestations. The study was conducted to determine the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) across farms in Trinidad using a latex agglutination test. Of a total of 333 water buffalo tested, 26 (7.8%) were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was statistically significantly (P 0.05; χ2). This is the first documentation of toxoplasmosis in water buffalo in Trinidad. PMID:22195295

  14. Congenital candidiasis as a subject of research in medicine and human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Michał M; Walat, Anna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Loniewska, Beata; Rudnicki, Jacek; Maleszka, Romuald; Torbé, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is a severe complication of candidal vulvovaginitis. It occurs in two forms,congenital mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital systemic candidiasis. Also newborns are in age group the most vulnerable to invasive candidiasis. Congenital candidiasis should be considered as an interdisciplinary problem including maternal and fetal condition (including antibiotic therapy during pregnancy), birth age and rare genetic predispositions as severe combined immunodeficiency or neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. Environmental factors are no less important to investigate in diagnosing, treatment and prevention. External factors (e.g., food) and microenvironment of human organism (microflora of the mouth, intestine and genitalia) are important for solving clinical problems connected to congenital candidiasis. Physician knowledge about microorganisms in a specific compartments of the microenvironment of human organism and in the course of defined disorders of homeostasis makes it easier to predict the course of the disease and allows the development of procedures that can be extremely helpful in individualized diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  15. Toxoplasmosis researches in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-guang; WU Kun; LUN Zhao-rong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an obligate intracellular parasite, is a globally distributed zoonosis. It is estimated that one third of population has been infected by this parasite worldwide. In some regions of Europe, the serum antibodies against T. gondii were detected in more than 80% of the examined population.

  16. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central Americ

  17. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central Americ

  18. [Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Chile. V. Prevalence of the infection in humans and domestic and wild animals, studied by indirect hemagglutination reaction, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago. V Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzin, M; Contreras, M C; Schenone, H

    1989-01-01

    A serological study utilizing an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 222 humans and in 58 domestic animals (31 dogs, Canis familiaris; 27 cats, Felis catus), and in 62 wild mammals distributed into 50 rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus and 12 goats, Capra hircus. This survey was performed in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, formed by three islands: Robinson Crusoe, Santa Clara and Alejandro Selkirk (80 degrees 47'-78 degrees 47' west long., and 33 degrees 36'-33 degrees 47' south lat.). Blood samples were collected in filter paper and IHAT with titres greater than or equal to 1:16 were considered positive. This survey showed a prevalence of 42.3% in humans with no difference between men (43.0%) and women (41.5%). A high prevalence was found within groups of young individuals (0 to 19 years old), men and women. Regarding the domestic animal population, 44.8% resulted positive, distributed as follows: dogs 9.7% and cats 85.2%. Twenty one percent of wild animals were positive, distributed as follows: rabbits 8.0% and goats 75.0%. The global prevalence of toxoplasmosis in animals (domestic and wild) was 32.5%. All titres in humans and animals were less than or equal to 1:512. Toxoplasmosis is well extended among the human and animal population of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  19. Prevention and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eskild

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is transmitted to man by infected meat or meat products and by contact with soil or surface water. In theory, prevention by hygienic measures is possible, but this has never been proved to work in practice. Therefore, pre- and postnatal screening has been implemen......Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is transmitted to man by infected meat or meat products and by contact with soil or surface water. In theory, prevention by hygienic measures is possible, but this has never been proved to work in practice. Therefore, pre- and postnatal screening has been...

  20. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Hogh, Birthe; Andersen, Ole;

    2006-01-01

    /kg, and folinic acid 7.5 mg was administered twice weekly. Blood cell counts and body weight were recorded during follow-up. The plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were analysed in a subgroup of seven children, using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass...... efficacy is still a concern, since progression of eye lesions was observed in three eyes during the follow-up period. We concluded that the treatment was well tolerated in 86% (25/29) of the children. The drugs did not affect their weight gain. Drugs given in the recommended doses led to concentrations...

  1. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  2. [Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prömpeler, H J; Vogt, A; Petersen, E E

    1989-07-01

    Even today, toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy is an unsolved problem. In studies of 2206 pregnant women, toxoplasmosis specific IgM-antibodies have been detected in 69 cases (3.1%). Using more sophisticated serological techniques only 12 active toxoplasmosis cases needing therapy remained. Decisive discrimination criteria of the various tests were exact time of the examination as well as the level of the antibody titer. Although only 12 toxoplasmosis infections were treated, no connatal infections have been observed. On the other hand, in some outpatients, referred to our clinic, cases of severe connatal toxoplasmosis infections were found although they had undergone therapy. To solve the problem of toxoplasmosis, we recommend a general screening before pregnancy if possible. For optimal results of this screening, serologic reference laboratories and efficient sonography units must be established to obtain, when required, umbilical venous blood.

  3. Configural and featural processing in humans with congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Bölte, Jens; Mast, Fred W; Dobel, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Prosopagnosia describes the failure to recognize faces, a deficiency that can be devastating in social interactions. Cases of acquired prosopagnosia have often been described over the last century. In recent years, more and more cases of congenital prosopagnosia (CP) have been reported. In the present study we tried to determine possible cognitive characteristics of this impairment. We used scrambled and blurred images of faces, houses, and sugar bowls to separate featural processing strategies from configural processing strategies. This served to investigate whether congenital prosopagnosia results from process-specific deficiencies, or whether it is a face-specific impairment. Using a delayed matching paradigm, 6 individuals with CP and 6 matched healthy controls indicated whether an intact test stimulus was the same identity as a previously presented scrambled or blurred cue stimulus. Analyses of d values indicated that congenital prosopagnosia is a face-specific deficit, but that this shortcoming is particularly pronounced for processing configural facial information.

  4. A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection.

  5. [Toxoplasmosis mother-to-child screening: study of cases followed in the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (2007-2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, R; Siala, E; Bouafsoun, A; Maatoug, R; Souissi, O; Aoun, K; Bouratbine, A

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis when occurring during pregnancy can be transmitted to the fetus and lead to congenital toxoplasmosis (CT). Therefore, pregnant women are a risk group, for which it is necessary to determine the serologic profile. The objective of this study is to determine the serologic profile of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women followed at the Parasitology Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis, to establish the prevalence of toxoplasmic infections during pregnancy and the incidence of the CT, noting the difficulties faced in the interpretation of serological results. This is a retrospective study concerning 2833 toxoplasmic serologies practiced on 2070 pregnant women, followed at the Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis, between 2007 and 2010. Serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was done by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) for the detection of Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M and the study of toxoplasmosis IgG avidity. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for 58 women by amniotic fluid sampling. Toxoplasma gondii was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). At birth, the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis was established based on serology. The toxoplasmic serologies carried out have shown that 45.6% of the pregnant women were formerly immunized while 49.6% had a negative serology. A toxoplasmosis primary infection acquired during pregnancy was detected in 79 cases (3.8%). Among them, 33% had a true seroconversion while 67% had a recent toxoplasmosis infection in view of the positivity of IgG and IgM on the first sample with a low index of avidity (IA). For 21 parturients whose serology showed the presence of IgG, IgM and an intermediate or high IA. Among the 58 parturients in whom prenatal diagnosis was performed, PCR was positive in four cases. After birth, six cases of congenital toxoplasmosis were detected by serology.

  6. Configural and featural processing in humans with congenital prosopagnosia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobmaier, Janek S.; Bölte, Jens; Mast, Fred W.; Dobel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Prosopagnosia describes the failure to recognize faces, a deficiency that can be devastating in social interactions. Cases of acquired prosopagnosia have often been described over the last century. In recent years, more and more cases of congenital prosopagnosia (CP) have been reported. In the present study we tried to determine possible cognitive characteristics of this impairment. We used scrambled and blurred images of faces, houses, and sugar bowls to separate featural processing strategi...

  7. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: recent acquisitions and new prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M; Carmellino, S

    1996-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis may develop after maternal primary infection during pregnancy. The infection is usually asymptomatic in pregnant women but poses a risk of severe effects on the fetus. In Italy the incidence is about 6 per thousand. The infection is transmitted to the fetus in approximately 50 percent of such cases. The risk of transmission rises with growing gestational age at the time of primary infection; on the contrary, the seriousness of the effect on the fetuses becomes less active with more advanced pregnancies. Infants with congenital toxoplasmosis are mostly asymptomatic at birth but long-term studies have indicated that up to 85% of them will develop serious sequelae as severe impairment of vision, mental retardation and deafness during the months or the years after the birth. Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis is fundamental. All seronegative women should be encouraged to observe good dietary and general health regulations until delivery. Today the diagnosis in the mother is more reliable because of the improvements in serological techniques. Moreover, it is possible to identify infected fetuses by prenatal procedures such as ultrasonography, amniocentesis and cordocentesis, of which the last two consent to detect the parasite and/or specific antibodies. Recently a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has been developed for the detection of Toxoplasma in the amniotic fluid. Adequate serological screening of pregnant and prenatal diagnosis can be helpful in reducing the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis; furthermore abortion should be reserved only to cases with severe toxoplasmosis revealed by ultrasonography. Early recognition of pregnant infection and a specific treatment could reduce the parasitic colonization in the placenta by more than 60% and prevent infection in the fetus. If the fetal infection has already occurred, maternal treatment may modify the fetal disease. Spiramycin as immediate treatment of maternal primary infection is

  8. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  9. Congenital prosopagnosia--a common hereditary cognitive dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerknecht, Ingo; Pluempe, Nina; Welling, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The apparent selectivity of agnosia for faces is termed prosopagnosia or face blindness. This cognitive dysfunction can be seen after traumatic events--involving at least the right occipital temporal region--or very frequently congenital in the absence of any detectable lesions. The familiarity of congenital prosopagnosia was studied in two independently ascertained collections of subjects with prosopagnosia. One was an unselected group of pupils and students who underwent a questionnaire based screening. The others were self reported subjects after having heard for the first time about the phenomenon of prosopagnosia from mass media citing our studies and/or from our homepage (www.prosopagnosia.de). Those who agreed with consecutive studies of their family members had mostly one or more prosopagnosic first degree relatives. The segregation patterns derived from 39 families are compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance. Hence, mutation(s) in one gene are sufficient for manifestation of the phenotype. Still fitting the concept of autosomal dominant inheritance, we have evidence for a slightly reduced penetrance (4 normal transmitters from distinct families) and one or two de novo mutations.

  10. Knowledge of Toxoplasmosis among Doctors and Nurses Who Provide Prenatal Care in an Endemic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Berriel da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

  11. Knowledge of toxoplasmosis among doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care in an endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laura Berriel; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcelos Carvalhaes; da Silva, Marizete Pereira; Bueno, Wendy Fernandes; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis; de Souza Neves, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a potentially severe infection and its prevention is most often based on serological screening in pregnant women. Many cases could be prevented by simple precautions during pregnancy. Aiming to assess the knowledge about toxoplasmosis among professionals working in antenatal care in a high prevalent region, a questionnaire was administered to 118 obstetric nurses and physicians attending at primary care units and hospitals. The questionnaire was self-completed and included questions on diagnosis, clinical issues, and prevention. Only 44% of total answers were corrected. Lower scores were observed among those with over 10 years of graduation, working in primary care units, and nurses. Errors were mainly observed in questions of prevention and diagnosis. As congenital toxoplasmosis is a mother-to-child (MTC) transmitted disease, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent serious and irreversible fetal damage. Thus, doctors and nurses who provide prenatal care must be appropriately trained on prophylactic, diagnostic, and clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis. The authors suggest that measures should be taken for continuing education regarding toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

  12. Clinical and molecular characterisation of human syndromes with congenital patellar malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the results are described of clinical and molecular investigation of human syndromes with congenital patellar malformations as a hallmark feature, with emphasis on nail patella syndrome, small patella syndrome, isolated patellar aplasia or hypoplasia, and Meier-Gorlin syndrome. The el

  13. Clinical and molecular characterisation of human syndromes with congenital patellar malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M.H.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the results are described of clinical and molecular investigation of human syndromes with congenital patellar malformations as a hallmark feature, with emphasis on nail patella syndrome, small patella syndrome, isolated patellar aplasia or hypoplasia, and Meier-Gorlin syndrome. The

  14. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and cognition in adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, S D; Brown, B L; Erickson, L D; Berrett, A; Hedges, D W

    2015-04-01

    Latent infection from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is widespread worldwide and has been associated with cognitive deficits in some but not all animal models and in humans. We tested the hypothesis that latent toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased cognitive function in a large cross-sectional dataset, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). There were 4178 participants aged 20-59 years, of whom 19.1% had IgG antibodies against T. gondii. Two ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models adjusted for the NHANES complex sampling design and weighted to represent the US population were estimated for simple reaction time, processing speed and short-term memory or attention. The first model included only main effects of latent toxoplasmosis and demographic control variables, and the second added interaction terms between latent toxoplasmosis and the poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), educational attainment and race-ethnicity. We also used multivariate models to assess all three cognitive outcomes in the same model. Although the models evaluating main effects only demonstrated no association between latent toxoplasmosis and the cognitive outcomes, significant interactions between latent toxoplasmosis and the PIR, between latent toxoplasmosis and educational attainment, and between latent toxoplasmosis and race-ethnicity indicated that latent toxoplasmosis may adversely affect cognitive function in certain groups.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retmanasari, Annisa; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Artama, Wayan Tunas

    2016-11-09

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 62.5%. Of those who were seropositive, 90.1% were IgG+, and 9.9% were IgG+ and IgM+. Several risk factors were identified, including living at elevations of ≤200 m, compared with >200 m (OR = 56.2; P Java has a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identified some important environmental, ecological, and demographic risk factors. When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high-risk populations.

  16. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-05-28

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

  17. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy: Reliability of internet sources of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Branko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Health education of women of childbearing age has been shown to be an acceptable approach to the prevention of toxoplasmosis, the most frequent congenitally transmitted parasitic infection. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Internet as a source of health education on toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Methods. A group of 100 pregnant women examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis was surveyed by a questionnaire on the source of their information on toxoplasmosis. We also analyzed information offered by websites in the Serbian and Croatian languages through the Google search engine, using “toxoplasmosis” as a keyword. The 23 top websites were evaluated for comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on the impact of toxoplasmosis on the course of pregnancy, diagnosis and prevention. Results. Having knowledge on toxoplasmosis was confirmed by 64 (64.0% examined women, 40.6% (26/64 of whom learned about toxoplasmosis through the Internet, 48.4% from physicians, and 10.9% from friends. Increase in the degree of education was found to be associated with the probability that pregnant women would be informed via the Internet (RR=3.15, 95% CI=1.27-7.82, p=0.013. Analysis of four interactive websites (allowing users to ask questions showed that routes of infection were the most common concern, particularly the risk presented by pet cats and dogs, followed by the diagnosis of infection (who and when should be tested, and how should the results be interpreted. Of 20 sites containing educational articles, only seven were authorized and two listed sources. Evaluation confirmed that information relevant to pregnant women was significantly more accurate than comprehensive, but no site gave both comprehensive and completely accurate information. Only four sites (20% were good sources of information for pregnant women. Conclusion. Internet has proved itself as an important source of information. However

  18. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  19. Zoonotic chicken toxoplasmosis in some Egyptians governorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ashraf Mohamed; Salem, Lobna Mohamed Ali; El-Newishy, Adel M Abdel-Aziz; Shaapan, Raafat Mohamed; El-Mahllawy, Ehab Kotb

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common diseases prevalent in the world, caused by a coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii which infects humans, animals and birds. Poultry consider reliable human source of food in addition it is considered an intermediate host in transmission of the disease to humans. Trails of isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain through bioassay of the suspected infected chicken tissues in mice was carried out and the isolated strain was confirmed as being T. gondii using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in chicken sera in six Egyptian governorates were conducted by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) using the isolated chicken strain antigen. Moreover, comparison between the prevalence rates in different regions of the Egyptian governorates were been estimated. Isolation of local T. gondii chicken strain was accomplished from chicken tissues and confirmed by PCR technique. The total prevalence rate was 68.8% comprised of 59.5, 82.3, 67.1, 62.2, 75 and 50% in El Sharkia, El Gharbia, Kafr El sheikh, Cairo, Quena and Sohag governorates, respectively. The prevalence rates were higher among Free Range (FR) (69.5%) than commercial farm Chickens (C) (68.5%); while, the prevalence rate was less in Upper Egypt than Lower Egypt governorates and Cairo. This study is the first was used antigen from locally isolated T. gondii chicken strain for the diagnosis of chicken toxoplasmosis. The higher seroprevalence particularly in free range chickens (house-reared) refers to the public health importance of chickens as source of zoonotic toxoplasmosis to human.

  20. Movement Induces the Use of External Spatial Coordinates for Tactile Localization in Congenitally Blind Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Möller, Johanna; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    To localize touch, the brain integrates spatial information coded in anatomically based and external spatial reference frames. Sighted humans, by default, use both reference frames in tactile localization. In contrast, congenitally blind individuals have been reported to rely exclusively on anatomical coordinates, suggesting a crucial role of the visual system for tactile spatial processing. We tested whether the use of external spatial information in touch can, alternatively, be induced by a movement context. Sighted and congenitally blind humans performed a tactile temporal order judgment task that indexes the use of external coordinates for tactile localization, while they executed bimanual arm movements with uncrossed and crossed start and end postures. In the sighted, start posture and planned end posture of the arm movement modulated tactile localization for stimuli presented before and during movement, indicating automatic, external recoding of touch. Contrary to previous findings, tactile localization of congenitally blind participants, too, was affected by external coordinates, though only for stimuli presented before movement start. Furthermore, only the movement's start posture, but not the planned end posture affected blind individuals' tactile performance. Thus, integration of external coordinates in touch is established without vision, though more selectively than when vision has developed normally, and possibly restricted to movement contexts. The lack of modulation by the planned posture in congenitally blind participants suggests that external coordinates in this group are not mediated by motor efference copy. Instead the task-related frequent posture changes, that is, movement consequences rather than planning, appear to have induced their use of external coordinates.

  1. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Protozoan Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar S. S. and Brahmbhatt M.N.

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an important infection caused by single celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii which is one of the world's most common parasites. Toxoplasmosis is considered to be the third leading cause of death attributed to food-borne illness in the United States. Most people affected never develop signs and symptoms. But for infants born to infected mothers and for people with compromised immune systems, toxoplasmosis can cause extremely serious complications. Toxoplasmosis was first described in 1908 from a small rodent. The parasite infects almost all worm blooded animals and serological evidence indicates that it is one of the most common of humans’ infections throughout the world. The disease is transmitted mainly by ingestion of infective stage of the parasite, organ transplant as well as blood transfusion in addition to the transplacental transmission which is very common. Toxoplasmosis can be presented in various forms of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the patient causing life threatening disease in AIDS patient. Pregnant women, cat owners, veterinarians, abattoir workers, children, cooks, butchers are considered as high risk group. Timely treatment of man and animals with proper antibiotic, hygienic measures, proper disinfection, mass education and vaccination are the measures to curtail the disease. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 436-439

  2. Prenatal toxoplasmosis diagnosis from amniotic fluid by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidigal Paula Vieira Teixeira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common infections all over the world. Most cases are asymptomatic, except in immunosuppressed individuals and fetuses, which can be seriously damaged. Prenatal diagnosis should be made as soon as possible since treatment of the mother can minimize fetal sequelae. Our aim in this study was to test the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR in 86 samples of amniotic fluid from women who seroconverted during pregnancy. DNA was amplified using external primers and, in a second step, internal primers, in a nested PCR system. Samples were also inoculated into mice and the newborn were evaluated by T. gondii serology, skull x-ray, transfontanel ultrasound, fundoscopic examination, lumbar puncture and clinical examination. PCR was positive in seven cases and negative in 79. Among PCR-positive cases, two were negative by inoculation into mice and by clinical evaluation; among PCR-negative ones, three had clinical evidence of toxoplasmosis and one was positive after inoculation into mice. PCR showed values of sensitivity = 62.5% and specificity = 97.4%; the values of inoculation into mice where 42.9% and 100%, respectively. Although PCR should not be used alone for prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, it is a promising method and deserves more studies to improve its efficacy.

  3. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection: Recommendations from the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis manifests no clinical signs in 80% of cases in immunocompetent patient, causing immunization characterized by the persistence of cysts, particularly in brain, muscles, and retina. Assessing the serological status, based on testing for serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, is essential in cases that are increasingly at risk for the more severe disease forms, such as congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis. This disease also exposes immunosuppressed patients to reactivation, which can lead to more widespread forms and increased mortality. By interpreting the serological results, we can estimate the risk of contamination or reactivation and define appropriate prophylactic and preventive measures, such as hygienic and dietetic, therapeutic, biological, and clinical follow-up, according to the clinical context. We hereby propose practical approaches based on serological data, resulting from a consensus of a group of experts from the French National Reference Center Network for Toxoplasmosis, according to both routine and specific clinical situations.

  4. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods. Found that the host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body. Material & methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital №22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6% were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6% were female. The age of the patients was 18 till 72 years. Results & discussion. All of 112 CAT patients had subjective clinical symptoms in various combinations: increased fatigue 99,1 ± 0,9%, headache and tiredness 95,5 ± 1,9%, pain in the liver 88,4 ± 3,1%, bitter taste in the mouth 93,8 ± 2,2%, muscle pain 81,3 ± 3,7% and joint pain

  5. [Serological survey of animal toxoplasmosis in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, B; Mediannikov, O; Roqueplo, C; Perret, C; Demoncheaux, J-P; Sambou, M; Guillot, J; Blaga, R

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. We used modified direct agglutination test for the screening of the animals' sera collected in Senegal. In total, 419 animals' sera have been studied: 103 bovines, 43 sheep, 52 goats, 63 horses, 13 donkeys and 145 dogs. The collection of sera was performed in four different regions of Senegal: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou and Basse Casamance from 2011 to 2013. We have revealed antibodies in 13% of bovines, 16% of sheep, 15% of goats, 30% of horses, 23% of donkeys and 67% of dogs. Private dogs from villages were more often to have the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies compared to security society-owned dogs from Dakar. It may be explained by different meal consumed by dogs (factory-produced meal for dogs from Dakar vs. irregular sources for village dogs). Intense circulation of T. gondii in the studied zone may explain the unusually high seroprevalence among horses and donkeys. Tropical climate with high temperature and humidity is favorable for the conservation of oocysts of T. gondii. Results presented here may contribute to the evaluation of the risks of toxoplasmosis in humans in Senegal.

  6. Toxoplasmose congênita em filho de mãe cronicamente infectada com reativação de retinocoroidite na gestação Congenital toxoplasmosis from a chronically infected woman with reactivation of retinochoroiditis during pregnancy an underestimated event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia M. Q. Andrade

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso raro de toxoplasmose congênita de uma mãe imunocompetente com infecção crônica que teve reativação da doença ocular durante a gestação. DESCRIÇÃO: O recém-nascido estava assintomático no nascimento e foi identificado através de triagem neonatal (IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii em sangue seco entre outros 190 bebês com toxoplasmose congênita durante um período de 7 meses. Sua mãe tinha tido um episódio não tratado de reativação de retinocoroidite toxoplásmica durante a gestação, com títulos de IgG estáveis e resultados negativos para IgM. Os resultados de IgM e IgG no soro do recém-nascido e o teste de immunoblotting para IgG foram positivos, e detectou-se lesões retinocoroideanas ativas na periferia da retina. O recém-nascido foi tratado com sulfadiazina, pirimetamina e ácido folínico. Aos 14 meses de vida, a criança permanecia assintomática, com regressão das lesões retinocoroideanas e persistência de IgG. COMENTÁRIOS: É possível que a triagem neonatal sistemática em áreas com alta prevalência de infecção possa identificar esses casos.OBJECTIVES: To report a rare case of congenital toxoplasmosis from an immunocompetent mother with chronic infection who had reactivation of ocular disease during pregnancy. DESCRIPTIONS:The newborn was asymptomatic at birth and identified by neonatal screening (IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii in dried blood among other 190 infants with congenital toxoplasmosis during a 7-month period. His mother had had a non-treated episode of reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis during pregnancy, with stable IgG titers and negative IgM results. Results of IgM and IgG in the newborn’s serum, as well as IgG immunoblotting were positive and active retinochoroidal lesions were detected in his peripheral retina. The neonate was treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and folinic acid. At 14 months of life, the child remained asymptomatic, with regression of

  7. Ocular toxoplasmosis associated with scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogish S Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an atypical presentation of Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis with associated scleritis in a young and immunocompetent patient. The diagnosis was done on the basis of Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous sample, and the clinical response to specific treatment. This case highlights the unusual presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis as scleritis.

  8. Use of IgG Avidity test in case definitions of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, C; Charrier, L; Giacomuzzi, M; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A; Mombrò, M; Fabris, C; Marocchetti, P; Alfieri, R; Leto, R; Renzi, N; Milano, R; Lievre, M A; Colozza, M; Zanella, D; Antona, G; Paschero, M C; Tosetti, F; Miglietti, D; Nicoletta, T; De Renzi, G; Tinivella, F; Donati, M; Ferrini, A; Crotti, G; Coucourde, L; Guazzotti, G C; Gera, A; Malabaila, A; Di Natale, C; Rabozzi, M L; Ginardi, C; Bruzzone, T; Canepa, C; Fruttero, M; Mastracchio, G; Valle, S; Toppino, M; Forno, N; Bellingeri, P; Caraccio, W; Lazzara, C; Decaroli, V; Pedrazzi, E; Gomella, S

    2004-01-01

    A survey network for congenital toxoplasmosis (TOXO-NET) was set up in December 1996 in Piedmont (Italy). Participants were asked to classify the infections in pregnant mothers and newborns by the criteria of the European Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis published by Lebech in 1996. Because the IgG Avidity test is largely employed as a 2nd level test in toxoplasmosis diagnosis and it could be helpful to date infection, the co-ordinators of TOXO-NET suggested including it in the "case definition" of "probable" infection and "unlikely" infection. 117 cases of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy divided into the risk categories under Lebech's criteria were re-examined using the "new" case definitions. 77 out of 117 (65.8%) Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy could be defined with only one serum sample using the IgG Avidity test. The IgG Avidity test proved a useful method to classify the Toxoplasma gondii infections in pregnancy, especially when we had only one serum sample.

  9. Bisphenol A and congenital developmental defects in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, Maurizio [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Troisi, Jacopo, E-mail: j.troisi@studenti.unisa.it [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Ciccone, Carla [“G. Moscati” Hospital Avellino (Italy); Granozio, Giovanni; Cosimato, Cosimo [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Sardo, Attilio Di Spiezio; Ferrara, Cinzia [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Guida, Marco [Department of Biology, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Nappi, Carmine [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy); Zullo, Fulvio [Department of Medicine, University of Salerno (Italy); Di Carlo, Costantino [Department of Medicine, “Federico II”, University of Naples (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and fetal malformations in humans. • We show that a reduced ability to metabolize the BPA in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformations. • The average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater in case of chromosomal malformations than the controls. - Abstract: Over 50% of the causes of fetal malformations in humans are still unknown. Recent evidence suggests the relationship between environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors and fetal malformations. Our study aims to establish the role of Bisphenol A (BPA), if any, in altering human reproduction. We enrolled 151 pregnant women who were divided into two groups: case group (CS, n = 101), women with established diagnosis of developmental defect, and control group (CL, n = 50), pregnant women with normally developed fetus. Total, free and conjugated BPA were measured in their blood using GC–MS with isotopic dilution. The results show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and the genesis of fetal malformations. Conjugated BPA, which was higher in the CL, casts light on the hypothesis that a reduced ability to metabolize the chemical in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformation. In a more detailed manner, in case of chromosomal malformations, the average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater than that of the controls. Similarly, in case of central and peripheral nervous system non-chromosomal malformations, the value of free BPA is nearly two times greater than that of the controls.

  10. Toxoplasmose humana adquirida através da ingestão de leite de cabra Human toxoplasmosis acquired by ingestion of goat's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa de Andrade Chiari

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de toxoplasmose aguda em três membros de uma mesma família foi relacionada à ingestão de leite de cabra, não pasteurizado e nem fervido. As cabras eram criadas soltas no peridomicílio para fornecimento de leite. Anticorpos fluorescentes anti-Toxoplasma foram detectados nos quinze animais examinados, sendo que oito caprinos apresentaram títulos superiores a 1:1024 e nas cinco cabras lactantes estes títulos variaram de 1:1024 a 1:32.768. Taquizoitos foram isolados, por inovulação em camundongos, do leite de uma destas cabras. Os cães criados na mesma casa não apresentaram sintomas de toxoplasmose apesar de ter ocorrido perda de ninhada de uma cadela; em todos os cães foram detectados baixos níveis de anticorpos. Foi considerada menos provável a possibilidade de que as infecções humanas pudessem ser devido à ingestão de alimentos contaminados com oocistos.Acute toxoplasmosis in three members of the same family was related to drinking unpasteurized goat's milk. The goats were reared, for milk production in a peri-domestic area. Based on indirect immunofluorescent reactions antibody titers greater than 1: 1024 were recorded in eight out of fifteen animals examined and were highest in the five lactating adult females. Toxoplasma was isolated, by inoculation of mice, from the milk of one these females. Dogs reared in the same house showed no symptoms of acute toxoplasmosis and low antibody titers were detected in these animals. It was also found that the humaninfections could not have been due to the ingestion of food contaminated with oocysts.

  11. Sight restoration after congenital blindness does not reinstate alpha oscillatory activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Davide; Troje, Nikolaus F; Ley, Pia; Hense, Marlene; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Röder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain development is characterized by sensitive periods during which experience must be available to allow for the full development of neural circuits and associated behavior. Yet, only few neural markers of sensitive period plasticity in humans are known. Here we employed electroencephalographic recordings in a unique sample of twelve humans who had been blind from birth and regained sight through cataract surgery between four months and 16 years of age. Two additional control groups were tested: a group of visually impaired individuals without a history of total congenital blindness and a group of typically sighted individuals. The EEG was recorded while participants performed a visual discrimination task involving intact and scrambled biological motion stimuli. Posterior alpha and theta oscillations were evaluated. The three groups showed indistinguishable behavioral performance and in all groups evoked theta activity varied with biological motion processing. By contrast, alpha oscillatory activity was significantly reduced only in individuals with a history of congenital cataracts. These data document on the one hand brain mechanisms of functional recovery (related to theta oscillations) and on the other hand, for the first time, a sensitive period for the development of alpha oscillatory activity in humans.

  12. Toxoplasmosis Neuroretinitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neuroretinitis (NR) is considered to be an inflammatory condition which is characterized by optic disc edema and, as a result, formation of a macular star figure. NR is an atypical presentation of toxoplasmosis infection, and such cases are quite rare. Case Presentation A 13-year-old girl presented with painless subacute visual loss in her right eye for a week at Khatam-Al-Anbia eye hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Following comprehensive evaluation, a diagnosis of toxoplasmic NR was m...

  13. [Toxoplasmosis in Japan. Comparative study of different regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, N; Kawai, K; Cazaux, M; Seguela, J P

    1985-01-01

    Specificities of Japan by geography, culture, and low incidence for Toxoplasmosis were examined in this epidemiological study. 1 731 human sera were examined by several immunological tests but these results are related with Agglutination-Latex test. The sera came from North (Hokkaido), Middle (Tokyo area) and South (Okinawa). The ratio for the whole Japan towards Toxoplasmosis is 24.7% but the increase of antibodies with age is late: rate of positivity 4.6% up to 17 years old and nearly 30% after 30 years old. Cats, business, climate do not seem to influence the human infection. It is consumption of meat and particularly raw meat which influence the results: 40.8% positive results among eaters of raw meat and 22% among those not eating meat or eating it well cooked.

  14. Monitoring for new multiple congenital anomalies in the search for human teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, M J; Botto, L; Waters, G D; Mastroiacovo, P; Castilla, E; Erickson, J D

    1993-06-01

    The ability of birth defects monitoring to detect new human teratogenic and mutagenic agents may be limited if only isolated defects are monitored. Surveillance for "new" multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) may improve the detection of environmental agents associated with new defect patterns. To evaluate the feasibility of such monitoring, we examined data from two programs: 1) the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), which ascertains infants with serious defects diagnosed in the first year of life, and, 2) the Italian Multicenter Register for Congenital Malformations (IPIMC), which ascertains newborn infants with birth defects from many hospitals in Italy. We focused on 24 relatively serious defects and defect groups. For a baseline period (MACDP: 1968-1988, 581,000 births; IPIMC: 1986-1989, 448,000 births), we identified all possible combinations of defects occurring in the same baby. For a test period (MACDP: 1989-1990, 77,000 births; IPIMC: 1990, 91,500 births), we identified babies with "new" MCA (i.e., combinations of defects not observed before in the system). During this period in MACDP, of the 85 babies with two or more defects, 9 babies had new MCAs. In IPIMC, of the 54 babies with two or more defects, 10 babies had new MCAs. A review of the records of infants with new MCAs in MACDP and IPIMC did not identify commonalities in maternal characteristics. This analysis illustrates the feasibility of monitoring for new MCAs in surveillance systems. This approach, complemented by an evaluation of exposures, may be a powerful additional tool in searching for human teratogens and mutagens.

  15. Study of Soluble HLA-G in Congenital Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Liliana; Bortolotti, Daria; Gentili, Valentina; Piccirilli, Giulia; Chiereghin, Angela; Pavia, Claudia; Bolzani, Silvia; Guerra, Brunella; Simonazzi, Giuliana; Cervi, Francesca; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Luca, Dario Di; Landini, Maria Paola; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I antigen that is expressed during pregnancy contributing to maternal-fetal tolerance. HLA-G can be expressed as membrane-bound and soluble forms. HLA-G expression increases strongly during viral infections such as congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, with functional consequences in immunoregulation. In this work we investigated the expression of soluble (s)HLA-G and beta-2 microglobulin (component of HLA) molecules in correlation with the risk of transmission and severity of congenital HCMV infection. We analyzed 182 blood samples from 130 pregnant women and 52 nonpregnant women and 56 amniotic fluid samples from women experiencing primary HCMV infection. The median levels of sHLA-G in maternal serum of women with primary HCMV infection were higher in comparison with nonprimary and uninfected pregnant women (p < 0.001). AF from HCMV symptomatic fetuses presented higher sHLA-G levels in comparison with infected asymptomatic fetuses (p < 0.001), presence of HLA-G free-heavy chain, and a concentration gradient from amniotic fluid to maternal blood. No significant statistical difference of beta-2 microglobulin median levels was observed between all different groups. Our results suggest the determination of sHLA-G molecules in both maternal blood and amniotic fluid as a promising biomarker of diagnosis of maternal HCMV primary infection and fetal HCMV disease. PMID:27699182

  16. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  17. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  18. Unexpectedly low seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in South Africa

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    K. Kistiah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infection of warm-blooded vertebrates caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic diseases of humans, infecting approximately one-third of the world’s population. In persons with advanced HIV, toxoplasmosis represents a major opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Approximately two-thirds of all people living with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa. In areas such as this, toxoplasmosis could theoretically pose a huge threat. There is little known about T. gondii prevalence in humans in Africa. Geographically, prevalences vary widely on this continent, as observed in other parts of the world. There is limited historical information about the disease in South Africa. More knowledge is needed at a regional level about the risk of toxoplasmosis, diagnostic issues, and measures to reduce the risk to susceptible persons. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in selected populations, namely HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, and a more general sample biased towards pregnant women, was therefore investigated and found to be 9.8% (37/376, 12.8% (48/376 and 6.4% (32/497 respectively. Compared with historical data from South Africa, the prevalence has decreased substantially; however, the incidence of clinical disease is unknown, despite the very high burden of HIV and AIDS cases (5.9 million and 0.7 million, respectively in 2009. This study provided information relating to the diagnosis and current seroprevalence of T. gondii in South Africa. Many questions still remain to be answered however, to fully understand the impact of this parasite on the country’s population.

  19. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in White Turkeys

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    Ayhan ATASEVER

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, forming of experimental toxoplasmosis in white turkeys; clinical, pathological and serological determination of tissue lesions, aimed to compare them and determine pathogenesis. For these purposes, a total of 120 two months old white turkeys were divided into groups as oral and parenteral infections and also their controls. The oral group was infected with 0.5 mL of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain inoculum suspension contains 106 tachyzoites while its control group was given 0.5 mL of saline. The parenteral group were divided into four groups as intraperitoneal (IP, intramuscular (IM, intravenous (IV and cloacal (C. Each parenteral route was divided into two groups and one control group for inoculums given 105 and 104 tachyzoites in 0.5 mL. These two control groups were also given 0.5 mL saline as indicated above. Due to acute toxoplasmosis, death occurred in three white turkeys given tachyzoites IP 105 showed neurological clinical symptoms as torticollis, ataxia, and tremor. In the histopahologic examination of these three turkeys, T. gondii tissue cysts were detected in the brain. Also, one of given 105 tachyzoites IP group in the brain and one given 104 tachyzoites IV group in the liver were observed tissue cysts associated with toxoplasmosis. The turkeys in all infection groups were found seropositive in both Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT and Indirect Hemagglutination Test (IHA. The statistical difference between SFDT and IHA was insignificantly for the both parenteral infection groups (P>0.05 while the difference was found significantly for the orally infected group (P<0.05. In conclusion in the present study, the tissue cysts of T. gondii were microscopically seen in brain and liver of the experimental infected white turkeys.

  20. Metabolic, Immune, Epigenetic, Endocrine and Phenotypic Abnormalities Found in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Down Syndrome and Alzheimer Disease May Be Caused by Congenital and/or Acquired Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    "Toxoplasma gondii" is a protozoan parasite that infects about a third of human population. It is generally believed that in immunocompetent hosts, the parasite infection takes usually asymptomatic course and induces self-limiting disease, but in immunocompromised individuals may cause significant morbidity and mortality. "T. gondii" uses sulfated…

  1. Metabolic, Immune, Epigenetic, Endocrine and Phenotypic Abnormalities Found in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Down Syndrome and Alzheimer Disease May Be Caused by Congenital and/or Acquired Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    "Toxoplasma gondii" is a protozoan parasite that infects about a third of human population. It is generally believed that in immunocompetent hosts, the parasite infection takes usually asymptomatic course and induces self-limiting disease, but in immunocompromised individuals may cause significant morbidity and mortality. "T. gondii" uses sulfated…

  2. Screening and Characterization of Spontaneous Porcine Congenital Heart Defects for Gene Identification and Models of Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Rodent models of human congenital birth defects have been instrumental for gene discovery and investigation of mechanisms of disease. However, these models are limited by their small size making practiced intervention or detailed anatomic evaluation difficult. Swine have similar anato...

  3. Toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita) and other animals in the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Sand cat captive breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife (BCEAW), Sharjah, UAE, has experienced high newborn mortality rates, and congenital toxoplasmosis was recent...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  5. Postnatal acquired toxoplasmosis patients in an infectious diseases reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassius Schnell Palhano Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis, is one of the most frequent zoonoses in the world; it normally affects both genders equally. Humans are one of several possible intermediate hosts, and the disease is oligosymptomatic in most cases. Vertical transmission is an important cause of fetal malformation and sequels in newborns. Approximately 10% of postnatal cases present multiple manifestations, ranging from low fever and mild lymphadenopathy to severe encephalitis. In moderate cases, lesions such as retinochoroiditis may emerge during acute infection or even years later. We analyzed 313 cases of toxoplasmosis from 1992 to 2004, including 261 acute cases. Most patients were women (68.1%, and 39% of these were pregnant. Among acute infection cases, 64.8% presented symptomatic disease; the most frequent manifestations were lymphadenomegaly (59.8%, fever (27.2%, headache (10.7%, asthenia (10%, weight loss (8.4%, myalgia (8%, retinochoroiditis (3.4% and hepatosplenomegaly (1.5%. Although ocular lesions by T. gondii are well documented as a possible consequence of postnatal infection, two patients developed retinochoroiditis only two years after primary infection. This demonstrates the need for toxoplasmosis case surveillance, even long after acute manifestations.

  6. 弓形虫病:食用肉类传播的风险及控制对策%Toxoplasmosis:the risk and control strategy of human transmission by meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷国荣; 郝海霞

    2009-01-01

    It has been over 100 years since the discovery and naming of Toxoplasma gondii.One-third of the world population are infected with T.gondii.However,toxoplasmosis is still seen as a neglected and underreported disease.Recent calculations have indicated that the burden of toxoplasmosis ranks at the same level as salmonellosis or campylobacteriosis.The high burden of the disease in combination with disappointing results of the currently available treatment options have led to a plea for more effective prevention.In this review we describe Toxoplasma as a hazard associated with the consumption of undercooked meat or meat products and analyze the control strategy for the risk of human toxoplasmosis.Surveillance and monitoring programs may be implemented for pre-harvest control of Toxoplasma infection of farm animals,with the reduction of environmental oocyst load as the most important measure.Although Toxoplasma-free meat can be obtained through simple postharvest decontamination procedures such as freezing,irradiation or high pressure treatment,freezing the meat may be the best option currently.Influence of culture,religion and food handling customs may predispose a certain type of meat as an important source of infection,indicating that prevention needs to be tailored according to social habits in different regions of the world.%刚地弓形虫被发现和命名已有100年的历史,全世界有三分之一的人口感染弓形虫,但弓形虫病仍不受重视甚至不予报告.对经食物传播疾病的最新研究显示,弓形虫病具有与沙门菌病或弯曲菌病同样高的疾病负担.此种高的疾病负担以及当前可用的治疗手段的疗效不尽如人意,使得寻求对该病有效的控制更为迫切.该文讨论了食用夹生肉或肉制品传播弓形虫病的风险,分析了由上述原因引起的人类弓形虫病的控制对策.减少环境中卵囊的数量和对牧场动物实施监控,可有效地减少肉用动物的弓形虫感染.

  7. Development of touch down-multiplex PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Hallur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is challenging since conventional methods like culture and immunofluorescence are not universally available. Serology, which is used regularly might be negative during early phase of infection and in immunosuppressed patients or may remain positive for a long time. Several molecular tests have been used for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, but none of them have an internal control which would inform us regarding the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR inhibitors thus, undermining the confidence of a laboratory physician. Materials and Methods: We designed a multiplex PCR containing primers targeting human beta globin gene which would act as internal control and two primers against the B1 gene and 5s gene which aid in sensitive detection of T. gondii. Results: Multiplex PCR had a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Multiplex PCR may provide a sensitive and specific tool for diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

  8. Comparison of histopathology and PCR based assay for detection of experimentally induced toxoplasmosis in murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vikrant Sudan; A K Tewari; R Singh; Harkirat Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare histopathology and PCR based detection in diagnosis of experimentally induced toxoplasmosis of RH human strain of the parasite in murine models. Methods:A comparison of histopathology and PCR based detection was done to diagnose experimentally induced toxoplasmosis in ten inbred swiss albino mice after intraperitoneal inoculation of 100 tachyzoites of laboratory mantained human RH strain of the parasite. Tissue samples from lung, liver, spleen, brain, heart and kidney were taken and processed for histopathological examination while all the samples also were subjected to PCR, using primers directed to the multicopy of SAG 3 gene, in dublicates. Results: Histopathology revealed presence of tachyzoites only in liver while along with lung, liver, spleen and brain tissue yielded desired positive PCR amplicons. Conclusions:The SAG 3 based PCR is able to diagnose toxoplasmosis in those tissues which are declared negative by histopathological assay.

  9. Toxoplasmose Congênita: Uma Doença Negligenciada? Atual política de saúde pública brasileira Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Neglected Disease? – Current Brazilian public health policy Toxoplasmose congénitale : Une maladie négligée ? – Actuelle politique de santé publique brésilienne Toxoplasmosis Congénita: ¿Una Enfermedad Desatendida? – La actual política de salud pública brasileña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério S.Vaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolite disease caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The infection may be contracted through the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat or unpasteurised milk, organ transplants, blood transfusion, through the placenta in vertical transmission or by direct contact with the faeces of infected felids or even through the ingestion of sporulated oocysts in water or food. In immunocompetent individuals, it is generally asymptomatic. However, in patients with various degrees of immunodeficiency and in pregnant women, it may cause severe sequelae and can be fatal. In pregnant women, the prenatal diagnosis should be made as early as possible, so that therapy may be applied to reduce parasitemia and avoid transplacental infection. Despite the high prevalence of infected individuals around the world (20 - 90%, in some European Union countries, such as France and Austria, the average incidence of foetal toxoplasmosis was reduced from 40% to 7% by means of specific programs. In Brazil, seroprevalence may vary between 40% and > 80% (South/Southeast - North/Centre-West/Northeast, reflecting a significant disparity between the public health policies and resources applied in the different regions of the country and the human development index (HDI of each of them. The lack of consistent and periodical data on seroprevalence per region makes it difficult to understand the significance of this infection and to plan specific public health policies and strategies. Also important is the fact that Hemotherapy Units are not required to screen blood components for toxoplasmosis, not even for immunocompromised patients and pregnant women, or organ transplants. Regarding basic and clinical research, toxoplasmosis is not a priority if compared to the allocation of government funds and incentives to other tropical illnesses, such as: Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, Dengue fever. There are also few study groups in Brazil that focus in this

  10. TYPES AND MECHANISMS OF ANTI-TOXOPLASMOSIS DRUGS%抗弓形虫药物的类型和作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂福旭; 贾志江; 杨红梅; 刘娣琴; 唐文雅

    2013-01-01

      弓形虫病是一种危害严重的人畜共患病,人和动物的弓形虫感染呈全球性分布,其感染人可导致孕妇出现流产、死胎、畸胎和弱智儿,能引起免疫功能缺陷或低下病人死亡。且给畜牧业发展造成巨大的经济损失。传统抗弓形虫药物几乎都存在着不能完全杀死虫体及包囊,停药后的复发率较高以及对免疫功能缺陷患者基本无治疗效果等诸多不足。因此,研制和开发一种高效,低毒专用于动物的抗弓形虫药物迫在眉睫。笔者就不同类别抗弓形虫药物的作用机制及效果进行阐述,并对其发展前景进行展望,为新型抗弓形虫药物研制提供参考。%  Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonosis, which can be a hazard to the health of human being. Congenital toxoplasmosis is especially harmful to pregnant women because it can cause abortion, stillbirth, abnormality of fetus, thinking barrier and can be lethal for immuno-compromised patients. Toxoplasmosis also leads to a great loss to livestock industry. Unfortunately, traditional anti-toxoplasmosis drugs have lots of defects, such as incapability of completely killing worms and oocysts, frequent recurrence and failure in immuno-compromised individuals. Therefore, it is imminent to develop new anti-toxoplasma drugs with more effectiveness and less toxicity. The article reviews types and mechanisms of the currently used anti-toxoplasma drugs and outlines prospectives in developing new drugs.

  11. Enhanced surveillance for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsby, K; Guy, E; Said, B; Francis, J; O'Connor, C; Kirkbride, H; Morgan, D

    2014-08-01

    A report on Toxoplasma gondii by the UK Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food recommended that more accurate figures on the burden of disease in the UK are needed. We present the first 5 years of data from an enhanced surveillance scheme for toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. Between 2008 and 2012, 1824 cases were reported, with an average of 365 each year. There were 1109 immunocompetent cases, the majority presenting with lymphadenopathy, and 364 immunosuppressed cases, with central nervous system and systemic symptoms most frequently reported. There were also 190 pregnant and 33 congenital cases. Of the pregnant cases, 148 were asymptomatic (probably detected during screening), while 28 suffered a fetal loss or stillbirth. The enhanced surveillance system has led to an improvement in the detection of toxoplasmosis in England and Wales. However, numbers are still likely to be an underestimate, biasing towards the more severe infections.

  12. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: importance of immunoglobulin G avidity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, T R; Creţu, Octavian; Koreck, Andrea; Petrescu, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity test has proved to be a highly useful test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, especially in combination with conventional serological assays. Acute infections at the time of gestation predispose the offspring to the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. The IgG avidity test was developed to differentiate between recent and more distant infection; this method is valuable in the situation in which a single serum sample is obtained in the first trimester of pregnancy. This paper describes the utility of IgG avidity test during pregnancy, and its role in ruling out, by a high avidity, a recently acquired infection. Testing for specific IgG avidity has been reported to be useful for confirmatory testing in patients who have positive IgG and IgM antibodies.

  13. An overview of seventy years of research (1944–2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reviews toxoplasmosis research in Colombia, beginning with the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1944. Here we summarize prevalence of T. gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. g...

  14. Cutaneous Manifestations of Toxoplasmosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sonya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although toxoplasmosis is one of the most widely spread infections in the world, types that involve the skin are extremely rare. However, skin lesions are not specific; moreover, they are quite diverse, which makes the diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis rather difficult. Thus, differential diagnosis should include a number of other diseases. We present a case of a 43-year-old immunocompetent man with multiple livid erythematous papules and nodules with yellowish discharge that involved the skin of the body and the extremities. By using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay, immunoglobulin G antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in the serum, confirming the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The treatment with pyrimethamine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole led to complete resolution of skin lesions. In conclusion, although rare in the dermatological practice, cutaneous toxoplasmosis should be considered in all patients presenting with lymphadenopathy, non-specific skin eruptions, especially nodular and colliquative, blood eosinophilia and histological findigs revealing abundant eosinophilic inflitrations.

  15. Experimental toxoplasmosis in Balb/c mice. Prevention of vertical disease transmission by treatment and reproductive failure in chronic infection

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    B Fux

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of congenital transmission during acute infection of Toxoplasma gondii, 23 pregnant Balb/c mice were inoculated orally with two cysts each of the P strain. Eight mice were inoculated 6-11 days after becoming pregnant (Group 1. Eight mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy (Group 2 were treated with 100 mg/kg/day of minocycline 48 h after inoculation. Seven mice inoculated on the 10th-15th day of pregnancy were not treated and served as a control (Group 3. Congenital transmission was evaluated through direct examination of the brains of the pups or by bioassay and serologic tests. Congenital transmission was observed in 20 (60.6% of the 33 pups of Group 1, in one (3.6% of the 28 pups of Group 2, and in 13 (54.2% of the 24 pups of Group 3. Forty-nine Balb/c mice were examined in the study of congenital transmission of T. gondii during chronic infection. The females showed reproductive problems during this phase of infection. It was observed accentuated hypertrophy of the endometrium and myometrium. Only two of the females gave birth. Our results demonstrate that Balb/c mice with acute toxoplasmosis can be used as a model for studies of congenital T. gondii infection. Our observations indicate the potential of this model for testing new chemotherapeutic agents against congenital toxoplasmosis.

  16. Experimental toxoplasmosis in pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, K D; Costa, A J; Toniollo, G H; Sabatini, G A; Moraes, F R; Paulillo, A C; Ferraudo, A S

    1999-09-30

    Three Toxoplasma gondii free bitches (No. 3-5) were fed 15000 sporulated T. gondii oocysts at 56, 40 and 32 day of gestation and the outcome of the pregnancy was monitored. Two of the three dogs infected during pregnancy showed evidence of congenital infection and one aborted. Two control bitches not fed oocysts delivered eight uninfected healthy pups. This study demonstrated that T. gondii can be congenitally transmitted in dogs when bitches are infected during pregnancy.

  17. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Pettito, Michele; Peñaranda, Carlos F; de Yepez, Jazmin; Maestre, Gladys; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed. To report the ocular manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome with microcephaly in Colombia and Venezuela. This prospective case series included 43 patients from 2 ophthalmic centers in Colombia and Venezuela who underwent evaluation from October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016, and were clinically diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome. Twenty patients were Hispanic; 13, African; 8, white; and 2, Native American. Ophthalmic and systemic evaluations and serologic testing were performed on all infants. Patients underwent external ocular examination and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Serologic testing ruled out toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus. Ophthalmic manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome. Of the 43 patients included in this series (28 female and 15 male), the mean (SD) age at examination was 2.1 (1.5) months. The mothers of all the children had no ophthalmic findings and did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. All patients had bilateral ophthalmic manifestations. Optic nerve findings included hypoplasia with the double-ring sign, pallor, and increased cup-disc ratio in 5 patients (11.6%). Macular abnormalities included mild to severe pigment mottling in 27 patients (63%) and lacunar maculopathy in 3 (6.9%). Chorioretinal scarring was present in 3 patients (7%). Eleven patients (26%) had a combination of lesions in the posterior pole. Five patients (12%) were

  18. Cutaneous Manifestations of Toxoplasmosis: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Although toxoplasmosis is one of the most widely spread infections in the world, types that involve the skin are extremely rare. However, skin lesions are not specific; moreover, they are quite diverse, which makes the diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis rather difficult. Thus, differential diagnosis should include a number of other diseases. We present a case of a 43-year-old immunocompetent man with multiple livid erythematous papules and nodules with yellowish discharge that involved the ...

  19. Toxoplasmosis in cord blood transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, G; Ramos, A; Forés, R; Regidor, C; Ruiz, E; de Laiglesia, A; Navarro, B; Bravo, J; Portero, F; Sanjuan, I; Fernández, M N; Cabrera, R

    2012-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a devastating opportunistic infection that can affect immunocompromised patients such as cord blood transplantation (CBT) recipients. The clinical characteristics of 4 toxoplasmosis CBT patients treated at our institution are reviewed, together with 5 cases collected from the literature. The rate of toxoplasmosis in our hospital was 6% in CBT recipients and 0.2% in other types of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (P < 0.001). Five patients (56%) presented disseminated toxoplasmosis and 4 patients (44%) had localized infection in the central nervous system. In 5 of the 9 patients considered (56%), cytomegalovirus viral replication had been detected before the clinical onset of toxoplasmosis. Seven patients (78%) had previously developed graft-versus-host disease. All patients who exhibited disseminated disease died due to Toxoplasma infection. Pre-transplant serology was positive in 1 patient, negative in 3 patients, and not performed in another. Only 1 of these 5 patients with disseminated disease had received Toxoplasma prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole. It could be concluded that mortality in CBT patients with disseminated toxoplasmosis is unacceptably high. The negative results of serology in the majority of these cases, and its unspecific clinical presentation, makes diagnosis exceedingly difficult. Better diagnostic tests and prophylaxis strategy are needed in CBT recipients.

  20. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  1. Psychiatric aspects of toxoplasmosis: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangot, Ajish G

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the well-studied parasites because of its medical and veterinary importance, and its suitability as a model for cell biology and molecular studies. Latent toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host was considered benign until recently. The importance of this parasite has been steadily rising in the field of psychiatry and neurology as it has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers in India have unfortunately restricted themselves to finding the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in special populations and animals. On the other hand, there has been increasing research interest worldwide in T. gondii for its effects on human behaviour, manifestations of which range from psychoses and neuroses to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Toxoplasma infected organisms may be akin to living zombies. From changing the core natural defensive behaviour in mice to changing personality & leading to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans, Toxoplasma brings about subtle but significant & specific changes in its host. Surprisingly there is severe dearth of such studies from India even though prevalence rates of latent Toxoplasma infection are comparable, or in some regions, higher to those found elsewhere in the world. The potential for identifying Toxoplasma induced behavioural alterations is enormous in this part of the world which could have future treatment implications. It's high time that we move beyond researching the obvious and involve ourselves in more rigorous, novel and stimulating studies in the future.

  2. Toxoplasmosis as a travel risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C; Gómez-Marin, Jorge E; Bobić, Branko; Naranjo-Galvis, Carlos A; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution that infects more than one third of the global population. Primary infection in immunocompetent individuals is usually asymptomatic; however, different organs can be affected in immunocompromised individuals leading to the development of encephalitis, myocarditis or pneumonitis. The prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma as well as its genetic structure varies geographically and for that reason travel may be considered as a risk factor to acquire the infection. As toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease, health care providers should give health education on prevention measures to all prospective travelers in order to decrease the risk of infection in endemic areas. This review presents an overview of the infection with T. gondii with some considerations for travelers to and from endemic zones.

  3. Homocysteine related Nutritional and Genetic Risk Factors for Human Congenital Heart Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Verkleij-Hagoort (Anna)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCongenital heart defects (CHDs) belong to the most common group of major congenital malformations in newborns. Most CHDs are considered complex diseases with a multifactorial aetiology, which are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This thesis p

  4. Mutations in CERS3 cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz P W Radner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI is a rare genetic disorder of the skin characterized by abnormal desquamation over the whole body. In this study we report four patients from three consanguineous Tunisian families with skin, eye, heart, and skeletal anomalies, who harbor a homozygous contiguous gene deletion syndrome on chromosome 15q26.3. Genome-wide SNP-genotyping revealed a homozygous region in all affected individuals, including the same microdeletion that partially affects two coding genes (ADAMTS17, CERS3 and abolishes a sequence for a long non-coding RNA (FLJ42289. Whereas mutations in ADAMTS17 have recently been identified in autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome in humans and dogs presenting with ophthalmologic, cardiac, and skeletal abnormalities, no disease associations have been described for CERS3 (ceramide synthase 3 and FLJ42289 so far. However, analysis of additional patients with non-syndromic ARCI revealed a splice site mutation in CERS3 indicating that a defect in ceramide synthesis is causative for the present skin phenotype of our patients. Functional analysis of patient skin and in vitro differentiated keratinocytes demonstrated that mutations in CERS3 lead to a disturbed sphingolipid profile with reduced levels of epidermis-specific very long-chain ceramides that interferes with epidermal differentiation. Taken together, these data present a novel pathway involved in ARCI development and, moreover, provide the first evidence that CERS3 plays an essential role in human sphingolipid metabolism for the maintenance of epidermal lipid homeostasis.

  5. Neural and Synaptic Defects in slytherin a Zebrafish Model for Human Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Song; J Willer; P Scherer; J Panzer; A Kugath; E Skordalakes; R Gregg; G Willer; R Balice-Gordon

    2011-12-31

    Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG IIc) is characterized by mental retardation, slowed growth and severe immunodeficiency, attributed to the lack of fucosylated glycoproteins. While impaired Notch signaling has been implicated in some aspects of CDG IIc pathogenesis, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have identified a zebrafish mutant slytherin (srn), which harbors a missense point mutation in GDP-mannose 4,6 dehydratase (GMDS), the rate-limiting enzyme in protein fucosylation, including that of Notch. Here we report that some of the mechanisms underlying the neural phenotypes in srn and in CGD IIc are Notch-dependent, while others are Notch-independent. We show, for the first time in a vertebrate in vivo, that defects in protein fucosylation leads to defects in neuronal differentiation, maintenance, axon branching, and synapse formation. Srn is thus a useful and important vertebrate model for human CDG IIc that has provided new insights into the neural phenotypes that are hallmarks of the human disorder and has also highlighted the role of protein fucosylation in neural development.

  6. Mutations in CERS3 cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz P W Radner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI is a rare genetic disorder of the skin characterized by abnormal desquamation over the whole body. In this study we report four patients from three consanguineous Tunisian families with skin, eye, heart, and skeletal anomalies, who harbor a homozygous contiguous gene deletion syndrome on chromosome 15q26.3. Genome-wide SNP-genotyping revealed a homozygous region in all affected individuals, including the same microdeletion that partially affects two coding genes (ADAMTS17, CERS3 and abolishes a sequence for a long non-coding RNA (FLJ42289. Whereas mutations in ADAMTS17 have recently been identified in autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome in humans and dogs presenting with ophthalmologic, cardiac, and skeletal abnormalities, no disease associations have been described for CERS3 (ceramide synthase 3 and FLJ42289 so far. However, analysis of additional patients with non-syndromic ARCI revealed a splice site mutation in CERS3 indicating that a defect in ceramide synthesis is causative for the present skin phenotype of our patients. Functional analysis of patient skin and in vitro differentiated keratinocytes demonstrated that mutations in CERS3 lead to a disturbed sphingolipid profile with reduced levels of epidermis-specific very long-chain ceramides that interferes with epidermal differentiation. Taken together, these data present a novel pathway involved in ARCI development and, moreover, provide the first evidence that CERS3 plays an essential role in human sphingolipid metabolism for the maintenance of epidermal lipid homeostasis.

  7. The disease burden of congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Jokelainen, Pikka; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2017-01-01

    of 12. CT resulted in a total disease burden of 123 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 100–148), of which 78 (95% UI, 64–94) were due to foetal loss and 2 (95% UI, 1–3) were due to neonatal death; the remaining burden was due to moderate to severe life-long sequelae. A comparison of the estimated...

  8. Environmental risk factors for canine toxoplasmosis in a deprived district of Botucatu, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LG Camossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii that can infect a large variety of animals, including humans. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of anti-T.gondii antibodies in dogs from a peripheral district of Botucatu and to establish the association among some epidemiological variables in order to evaluate risk factors for toxoplasmosis infection. Serum samples from dogs were screened using an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test. Anti-T.gondii antibody prevalence was 56%. The highest titer was 1024 (1.79% and the most frequent titers were 16 (57.14% and 64 (33.93%. The chi-square (X² test revealed significant association among variables such as dog access to street, ingestion of raw meat and presence of synantropic animals in the domestic environment. These results demonstrate that toxoplasmosis is present in dogs from Jardim Santa Elisa district.

  9. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body in Balance › Congenital Hypothyroidism Fact Sheet Congenital Hypothyroidism March, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... MD Susan R. Rose, MD What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  10. Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preventing this condition: Do not eat undercooked meat. Wash hands after handling raw meat. Keep children's play areas free from cat and dog feces. Wash your hands thoroughly after touching soil that may be contaminated ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Neglected Parasitic Infections , a group of five parasitic diseases that have been targeted by CDC for public ... 10, 2013 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis as a public health issue in Serbia = Toxoplasmose como assunto de saúde pública na Sérvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: It is expected that the recent appointment of the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis as the focal point for the collection of data from the primary level, will provide the means for accurate assessment of the measure of the problem, which is a prerequisite of an evidence-based nation-wide prevention program. In the meantime, health education of all pregnant women, focused at risk factors of major local significance, is advocated as a sound and financially sustainable option to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis

  13. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis using a synthetic glycosylphosphatidylinositol glycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Sebastian; Azzouz, Nahid; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Groß, Uwe; Reinhardt, Anika; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H; Varón Silva, Daniel

    2014-12-08

    Around 2 billion people worldwide are infected with the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii which induces a variety of medical conditions. For example, primary infection during pregnancy can result in fetal death or mental retardation of the child. Diagnosis of acute infections in pregnant women is challenging but crucially important as the drugs used to treat T. gondii infections are potentially harmful to the unborn child. Better, faster, more reliable, and cheaper means of diagnosis by using defined antigens for accurate serological tests are highly desirable. Synthetic pathogen-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycan antigens are diagnostic markers and have been used to distinguish between toxoplasmosis disease states using human sera.

  14. Plasticity of the human visual system after retinal gene therapy in patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Manzar; Zhang, Hui; Cook, Philip A; Cyckowski, Laura L; Shindler, Kenneth S; Marshall, Kathleen A; Aravand, Puya; Vossough, Arastoo; Gee, James C; Maguire, Albert M; Baker, Chris I; Bennett, Jean

    2015-07-15

    Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the visual cortex in response to visual impairment, vision restoration, and environmental interactions comes from animal studies. We evaluated human brain plasticity in a group of patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), who regained vision through gene therapy. Using non-invasive multimodal neuroimaging methods, we demonstrated that reversing blindness with gene therapy promoted long-term structural plasticity in the visual pathways emanating from the treated retina of LCA patients. The data revealed improvements and normalization along the visual fibers corresponding to the site of retinal injection of the gene therapy vector carrying the therapeutic gene in the treated eye compared to the visual pathway for the untreated eye of LCA patients. After gene therapy, the primary visual pathways (for example, geniculostriate fibers) in the treated retina were similar to those of sighted control subjects, whereas the primary visual pathways of the untreated retina continued to deteriorate. Our results suggest that visual experience, enhanced by gene therapy, may be responsible for the reorganization and maturation of synaptic connectivity in the visual pathways of the treated eye in LCA patients. The interactions between the eye and the brain enabled improved and sustained long-term visual function in patients with LCA after gene therapy.

  15. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analyzed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analyzed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area of endemic waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to conduct water collection from wel...

  16. Hemicorea asociada a toxoplasmosis cerebral y SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. garretto

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Se observan complicaciones neurológicas en 40% de enfermos con SIDA. De estos, en 10% puede ser la manifestation inicial de la enfermedad. En otro 11% pueden aparecer trastornos del movimiento. Comunicamos el primer caso de hemicorea asociada a toxoplasmosis cerebral y SIDA en nuestro pais. Hombre de 26 anos, con diagnostico de SIDA y toxoplasmosis cerebral. Habia comenzado con crisis motoras simples de hemicuerpo izquierdo, con generalization secundaria y luego perdida de fuerza progresiva en dicho hemicuerpo. La RMN de cérebro mostro una lesion frontal derecha y otra temporo-occipital izquierda, con gran edema perilesional y efecto de masa. Las serologias para HIV y toxoplasmosis fueron positivas. Comenzo tratamiento con sulfadiazina y pirimetamina. Al duodecimo dia aparecieron movimientos involuntários dei pie izquierdo, coreicos, que se extendieron mas tarde a todo ese miembro inferior y luego al hemicuerpo. Nueva RMN de cérebro mostro disminucion dei edema y efecto de masa de las lesiones. Sin embargo, se observo una nueva lesion a nivel peduncular derecho. Movimientos involuntarios en pacientes con toxoplasmosis cerebral comenzaron a describirse recientemente solo en pacientes con SIDA. El presente seria el decimotercer caso de la literatura mundial y el primero en nuestro pais de hemicorea asociada a toxoplasmosis y SIDA.

  17. Experimental toxoplasmosis in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, C N; Costa, A J; Paulillo, A C; Moraes, F R; Murakami, T O; Meireles, M V

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate chicken toxoplasmosis both as an economic and a public health subject, 84 broiler chicks of a commercial strain, 30 days old, were distributed into seven groups of 12 birds (three replications of four chicks) experimentally infected with three developing T. gondii stages of the P strain as follows: tachyzoites, intravenous (two groups: 5.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(6)), cysts, per os (two groups: 1.0 x 10(2) and 1.0 x 10(3)) and oocysts, per os (three groups: 5.0 x 10(2), 5.0 x 10(3) and 5.0 x 10(4)). Twelve chicks received only a placebo (control group). During the next 30 days the following parameters were estimated: productivity (weight gain and feed conversion), clinical signs, including rectal temperature and parasitemia (bioassay). No clinical signs suggesting toxoplasmosis were seen and no statistical differences on productivity standards were found in comparison between inoculated and control chicks. However, fowls inoculated with tachyzoites and oocysts occasionally showed hyperthermia. Some haematological changes were detected in fowls inoculated with T. gondii. Anatomo-histopathological changes were not observed. From 14 parasitemias detected, 35.7% appeared on the 5th day after inoculation and 57.1% of them resulted from oocysts inoculation. After 30-35 days all birds were slaughtered: fragments from 12 organs or tissues from each of them were subjected to artificial peptic digestion and after that injected into T. gondii antibody-free mice (IIFR). T. gondii was detected in brain (12), pancreas (five), spleen (five), retina (five), kidney (two), heart (four), proventriculus (three), liver (two), intestine (two), lung (one), and skeletal muscle (one). Similar to observations with parasitemia, from 42 T. gondii isolations, 59.5% came from chicks which had received oocysts. It can thus be inferred that the developing form, expelled by cats, is the most important for T. gondii chicken infection and that brain is the most infected organ in birds

  18. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Brilstra, Eva H; Brown, Chester W; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B A; Earl, Dawn L; Ferguson, Heather L; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J; Hayden, Mark A; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D; Hopkin, Robert J; Hubshman, Monika W; Innes, A Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Kahler, Stephen G; Koolen, David A; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W; Mendoza, Cinthya J Zepeda; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Aguilar, Raul E Piña; Poddighe, Pino J; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L P; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V; van Bon, Bregje W; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; Warburton, Dorothy P; Waterman, Matthew J; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A; Zori, Roberto T; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Thorland, Erik C; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing

  19. Human syndromes with congenital patellar anomalies and the underlying gene defects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, E.M.H.F.; Kampen, A. van; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Knoers, N.V.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic disorders characterized by congenital patellar aplasia or hypoplasia belong to a clinically diverse and genetically heterogeneous group of lower limb malformations. Patella development involves different molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating dorso-ventral patterning, cartilage and

  20. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  1. Global Nav1.7 knockout mice recapitulate the phenotype of human congenital indifference to pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinthe Gingras

    Full Text Available Clinical genetic studies have shown that loss of Nav1.7 function leads to the complete loss of acute pain perception. The global deletion is reported lethal in mice, however, and studies of mice with promoter-specific deletions of Nav1.7 have suggested that the role of Nav1.7 in pain transduction depends on the precise form of pain. We developed genetic and animal husbandry strategies that overcame the neonatal-lethal phenotype and enabled construction of a global Nav1.7 knockout mouse. Knockouts were anatomically normal, reached adulthood, and had phenotype wholly analogous to human congenital indifference to pain (CIP: compared to littermates, knockouts showed no defects in mechanical sensitivity or overall movement yet were completely insensitive to painful tactile, thermal, and chemical stimuli and were anosmic. Knockouts also showed no painful behaviors resulting from peripheral injection of nonselective sodium channel activators, did not develop complete Freund's adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia, and were insensitive to intra-dermal histamine injection. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current recorded from cell bodies of isolated sensory neurons and the mechanically-evoked spiking of C-fibers in a skin-nerve preparation each were reduced but not eliminated in tissue from knockouts compared to littermates. Results support a role for Nav1.7 that is conserved between rodents and humans and suggest several possibly translatable biomarkers for the study of Nav1.7-targeted therapeutics. Results further suggest that Nav1.7 may retain its key role in persistent as well as acute forms of pain.

  2. Neurotrophins expression is decreased in lungs of human infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon LD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lynn D O'Hanlon, Sherry M Mabry, Ikechukwu I EkekezieChildren's Mercy Hospitals/University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USAObjectives: To evaluate neurotrophin (NT (nerve growth factor [NGF], NT-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] expression in autopsy lung tissues of human congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH infants versus that of infants that expired with: 1 "normal" lungs (controls; 2 chronic lung disease (CLD; and 3 pulmonary hypertension (PPHN.Hypothesis: NT expression will be significantly altered in CDH lung tissue compared with normal lung tissue and other neonatal lung diseases.Study design: Immunohistochemical studies for NT proteins NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 were applied to human autopsy neonatal lung tissue samples.Subject selection: The samples included a control group of 18 samples ranging from 23-week gestational age to term, a CDH group of 15 samples, a PPHN group of six samples, and a CLD group of 12 samples.Methodology: The tissue samples were studied, and four representative slide fields of alveoli/saccules and four of bronchioles were recorded from each sample. These slide fields were then graded (from 0 to 3 by three blinded observers for intensity of staining.Results: BDNF, NGF, and NT-3 immunostaining intensity scores were significantly decreased in the CDH lung tissue (n=15 compared with normal neonatal lung tissue (n=18 (P<0.001. The other neonatal pulmonary diseases that were studied, CLD and PPHN, were much less likely to be affected and were much more variable in their neurotrophin expression.Conclusion: NT expression is decreased in CDH lungs. The decreased expression of NT in CDH lung tissue may suggest they contribute to the abnormality in this condition.Keywords: nerve growth factor, NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, neurotrophin-3, NT-3, chronic lung disease, persistent pulmonary hypertension, lung

  3. Toxoplasmosis in two cats with inflammatory intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J L; Willard, M D; Lees, G E; Lappin, M R; Dieringer, T; Floyd, E

    1991-08-15

    Lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis, a chronic inflammatory intestinal disease, was diagnosed in 2 cats. In 1 cat, recurrence of clinical signs after initiating treatment was attributed to relapse of the inflammatory intestinal disease, but was found to be attributable to relapsing toxoplasmosis secondary to immunosuppressive drug therapy. Treatment with clindamycin resolved the recurrent toxoplasmosis. In the second cat, clinical signs of toxoplasmosis did not develop, but serologic testing yielded evidence of active toxoplasmosis. Treatment with clindamycin caused the titers to decrease. Relapsing toxoplasmosis may be responsible for apparent resistance to treatment in cats for inflammatory intestinal disease being treated with immunosuppressive drugs.

  4. Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Neglected Disease? – Current Brazilian public health policy Toxoplasmose congénitale : Une maladie négligée ? – Actuelle politique de santé publique brésilienne Toxoplasmosis Congénita: ¿Una Enfermedad Desatendida? – La actual política de salud pública brasileñaToxoplasmose Congênita: Uma Doença Negligenciada? Atual política de saúde pública brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério S.Vaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolite disease caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The infection may be contracted through the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat or unpasteurised milk, organ transplants, blood transfusion, through the placenta in vertical transmission or by direct contact with the faeces of infected felids or even through the ingestion of sporulated oocysts in water or food. In immunocompetent individuals, it is generally asymptomatic. However, in patients with various degrees of immunodeficiency and in pregnant women, it may cause severe sequelae and can be fatal. In pregnant women, the prenatal diagnosis should be made as early as possible, so that therapy may be applied to reduce parasitemia and avoid transplacental infection. Despite the high prevalence of infected individuals around the world (20 - 90%, in some European Union countries, such as France and Austria, the average incidence of foetal toxoplasmosis was reduced from 40% to 7% by means of specific programs. In Brazil, seroprevalence may vary between 40% and > 80% (South/Southeast - North/Centre-West/Northeast, reflecting a significant disparity between the public health policies and resources applied in the different regions of the country and the human development index (HDI of each of them. The lack of consistent and periodical data on seroprevalence per region makes it difficult to understand the significance of this infection and to plan specific public health policies and strategies. Also important is the fact that Hemotherapy Units are not required to screen blood components for toxoplasmosis, not even for immunocompromised patients and pregnant women, or organ transplants. Regarding basic and clinical research, toxoplasmosis is not a priority if compared to the allocation of government funds and incentives to other tropical illnesses, such as: Chagas disease, Leishmaniasis, Dengue fever. There are also few study groups in Brazil that focus in this

  5. Varicella infection and toxoplasmosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A

    1996-09-01

    Varicella occurring in pregnancy can be dangerous for the fetus, the mother, and the newborn. The fetus may experience multiple system damage. The mother and newborn are at increased risk for varicella pneumonia with a 9% and 20% fatality rate, respectively. The recent introduction of the varicella vaccine will affect the occurrence of gestational infection. Toxoplasmosis is rarely dangerous for the pregnant woman, yet the fetus and newborn may be at risk for chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, and convulsions. The greatest challenge in the management of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is diagnosis of the asymptomatic newborn before damage occurs. Strategies to prevent toxoplasmosis should be taught to every pregnant woman as part of parental care.

  6. A review of toxoplasmosis in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P

    2002-06-03

    Toxoplasma gondii affects most species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. There is considerable confusion regarding the identity of T. gondii-like parasites and the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In this review, T. gondii-like infections in different species of wild birds are reviewed with particular reference to prevalences, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment. Although subclinical T. gondii infections are prevalent in many avian species, toxoplasmosis can be clinically severe in pigeons and canaries. Blindness associated with T. gondii in canaries is reviewed in detail.

  7. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...

  8. Soroepidemiologia da toxoplasmose em gestantes a partir da implantação do Programa de Vigilância da Toxoplasmose Adquirida e Congênita em municípios da região oeste do Paraná Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women since the implementation of the Surveillance Program of Toxoplasmosis Acquired in Pregnancy and Congenital in the western region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helena França de Barros Bittencourt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a suscetibilidade das gestantes à toxoplasmose em serviço público de saúde de dois municípios da região oeste do Paraná. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 422 gestantes por meio da pesquisa sorológica de anticorpos IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii (ELISA e MEIA. As soronegativas repetiram a sorologia no segundo e terceiro trimestre de gestação. Em um dos municípios, também foi realizada a triagem neonatal em 27 recém-nascidos para detecção de IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii pelo teste de fluorometria. Todas as gestantes responderam a um questionário epidemiológico, para análise dos fatores associados ao risco da infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii. Para análise estatística, foram consideradas a variável dependente da presença de IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii e as variáveis independentes contidas no questionário epidemiológico. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anticorpos IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii nas gestantes foi de 59,8 e 60,6%. Em um dos municípios, as variáveis associadas à presença de anticorpos IgG foram baixo nível de escolaridade e mais de uma gestação. Não houve associação com os outros fatores investigados, como a ingestão de carnes cruas ou mal cozidas, vegetais crus, salames coloniais, manipulação de terra ou areia, horta em casa e gatos em casa. No outro município, não foi observada associação estatística com nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. Não foi confirmado nenhum caso de infecção aguda nem de soroconversão em ambos os municípios. Nenhuns dos recém-nascidos avaliados apresentou positividade para toxoplasmose. CONCLUSÃO: A toxoplasmose é comum nas gestantes atendidas pelo serviço público de saúde da região estudada e há 40% delas suscetíveis à infecção. Esse dado reforça a necessidade de manter o programa implantado nesses municípios.PURPOSE: To evaluate the susceptibility to toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the public health service from two cities in the western

  9. Functional analysis of human cytochrome P450 21A2 variants involved in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunxue; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Li; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Waterman, Michael R.; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F. Peter (Vanderbilt-MED)

    2017-05-24

    Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, converting progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OH-progesterone) to 11-deoxycortisol. More than 100 CYP21A2 variants give rise to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We previously reported a structure of WT human P450 21A2 with bound progesterone and now present a structure bound to the other substrate (17α-OH-progesterone). We found that the 17α-OH-progesterone- and progesterone-bound complex structures are highly similar, with only some minor differences in surface loop regions. Twelve P450 21A2 variants associated with either salt-wasting or nonclassical forms of CAH were expressed, purified, and analyzed. The catalytic activities of these 12 variants ranged from 0.00009% to 30% of WT P450 21A2 and the extent of heme incorporation from 10% to 95% of the WT. Substrate dissociation constants (Ks) for four variants were 37–13,000-fold higher than for WT P450 21A2. Cytochrome b5, which augments several P450 activities, inhibited P450 21A2 activity. Similar to the WT enzyme, high noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic deuterium isotope effects (≥ 5.5) were observed for all six P450 21A2 variants examined for 21-hydroxylation of 21-d3-progesterone, indicating that C–H bond breaking is a rate-limiting step over a 104-fold range of catalytic efficiency. Using UV-visible and CD spectroscopy, we found that P450 21A2 thermal stability assessed in bacterial cells and with purified enzymes differed among salt-wasting- and nonclassical-associated variants, but these differences did not correlate with catalytic activity. Our in-depth investigation of CAH-associated P450 21A2 variants reveals critical insight into the effects of disease-causing mutations on this important enzyme.

  10. Role of connexins in human congenital heart disease: the chicken and egg problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida eSalameh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inborn cardiac diseases are among the most frequent congenital anomalies and are the main cause of death in infants within the first year of age in industrialized countries when not adequately treated. They can be divided into simple and complex cardiac malformations. The former ones, for instance atrial and ventricular septal defects, valvular or subvalvular stenosis or insufficiency account for up to 80% of cardiac abnormalities. The latter ones, for example transposition of the great vessels, Tetralogy of Fallot or Shone's anomaly often do not involve only the heart but also the great vessels and although occurring less frequently these severe cardiac malformations will become symptomatically within the first months of age and have a high risk of mortality if the patients remain untreated. In the last decade there is increasing evidence that cardiac gap junction proteins, the connexins (Cx, might have an impact on cardiac anomalies. In the heart mainly three of them (Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 are differentially expressed with regard to temporal organogenesis and to their spatial distribution in the heart. These proteins, forming gap junction channels, are most important for a normal electrical conduction and coordinated synchronous heart muscle contraction and also for the normal embryonic development of the heart. Animal and also some human studies revealed that at least in some cardiac malformations alterations in certain gap junction proteins are present but until today no particular gap junction mutation could be assigned to a specific cardiac anomaly. As gap junctions transmit growth and differentiation signals from cell to cell it is reasonable to assume that they are somehow involved in misdirected growth present in many inborn heart diseases playing a primary or contributory role. This review addresses potential role of gap junctions in the development of inborn heart anomalies like the conotruncal heart defects.

  11. Role of connexins in human congenital heart disease: the chicken and egg problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Aida; Blanke, Katja; Daehnert, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Inborn cardiac diseases are among the most frequent congenital anomalies and are the main cause of death in infants within the first year of age in industrialized countries when not adequately treated. They can be divided into simple and complex cardiac malformations. The former ones, for instance atrial and ventricular septal defects, valvular or subvalvular stenosis or insufficiency account for up to 80% of cardiac abnormalities. The latter ones, for example transposition of the great vessels, Tetralogy of Fallot or Shone's anomaly often do not involve only the heart, but also the great vessels and although occurring less frequently, these severe cardiac malformations will become symptomatic within the first months of age and have a high risk of mortality if the patients remain untreated. In the last decade, there is increasing evidence that cardiac gap junction proteins, the connexins (Cx), might have an impact on cardiac anomalies. In the heart, mainly three of them (Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45) are differentially expressed with regard to temporal organogenesis and to their spatial distribution in the heart. These proteins, forming gap junction channels, are most important for a normal electrical conduction and coordinated synchronous heart muscle contraction and also for the normal embryonic development of the heart. Animal and also some human studies revealed that at least in some cardiac malformations alterations in certain gap junction proteins are present but until today no particular gap junction mutation could be assigned to a specific cardiac anomaly. As gap junctions have often been supposed to transmit growth and differentiation signals from cell to cell it is reasonable to assume that they are somehow involved in misdirected growth present in many inborn heart diseases playing a primary or contributory role. This review addresses the potentional role of gap junctions in the development of inborn heart anomalies like the conotruncal heart defects.

  12. Human retinal gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis shows advancing retinal degeneration despite enduring visual improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cideciyan, Artur V; Jacobson, Samuel G; Beltran, William A; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Iwabe, Simone; Roman, Alejandro J; Olivares, Melani B; Schwartz, Sharon B; Komáromy, András M; Hauswirth, William W; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2013-02-05

    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65) mutations is a severe hereditary blindness resulting from both dysfunction and degeneration of photoreceptors. Clinical trials with gene augmentation therapy have shown partial reversal of the dysfunction, but the effects on the degeneration are not known. We evaluated the consequences of gene therapy on retinal degeneration in patients with RPE65-LCA and its canine model. In untreated RPE65-LCA patients, there was dysfunction and degeneration of photoreceptors, even at the earliest ages. Examined serially over years, the outer photoreceptor nuclear layer showed progressive thinning. Treated RPE65-LCA showed substantial visual improvement in the short term and no detectable decline from this new level over the long term. However, retinal degeneration continued to progress unabated. In RPE65-mutant dogs, the first one-quarter of their lifespan showed only dysfunction, and there was normal outer photoreceptor nuclear layer thickness retina-wide. Dogs treated during the earlier dysfunction-only stage showed improved visual function and dramatic protection of treated photoreceptors from degeneration when measured 5-11 y later. Dogs treated later during the combined dysfunction and degeneration stage also showed visual function improvement, but photoreceptor loss continued unabated, the same as in human RPE65-LCA. The results suggest that, in RPE65 disease treatment, protection from visual function deterioration cannot be assumed to imply protection from degeneration. The effects of gene augmentation therapy are complex and suggest a need for a combinatorial strategy in RPE65-LCA to not only improve function in the short term but also slow retinal degeneration in the long term.

  13. Common variation in ISL1 confers genetic susceptibility for human congenital heart disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N Stevens

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease (CHD is the most common birth abnormality and the etiology is unknown in the overwhelming majority of cases. ISLET1 (ISL1 is a transcription factor that marks cardiac progenitor cells and generates diverse multipotent cardiovascular cell lineages. The fundamental role of ISL1 in cardiac morphogenesis makes this an exceptional candidate gene to consider as a cause of complex congenital heart disease. We evaluated whether genetic variation in ISL1 fits the common variant-common disease hypothesis. A 2-stage case-control study examined 27 polymorphisms mapping to the ISL1 locus in 300 patients with complex congenital heart disease and 2,201 healthy pediatric controls. Eight genic and flanking ISL1 SNPs were significantly associated with complex congenital heart disease. A replication study analyzed these candidate SNPs in 1,044 new cases and 3,934 independent controls and confirmed that genetic variation in ISL1 is associated with risk of non-syndromic congenital heart disease. Our results demonstrate that two different ISL1 haplotypes contribute to risk of CHD in white and black/African American populations.

  14. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conv...

  15. Wolfram gene (WFS1) mutation causes autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Vanita; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl; Emmett, Warren; Waseem, Naushin; Raby, Jacob; Prescott, DeQuincy; Moore, Anthony T; Bhattacharya, Shomi S

    2013-12-01

    Congenital cataracts are an important cause of bilateral visual impairment in infants. Through genome-wide linkage analysis in a four-generation family of Irish descent, the disease-associated gene causing autosomal-dominant congenital nuclear cataract was mapped to chromosome 4p16.1. The maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) score was 2.62 at a recombination fraction θ=0, obtained for marker D4S432 physically close to the Wolfram gene (WFS1). By sequencing the coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of WFS1, we identified a DNA substitution (c.1385A-to-G) in exon 8, causing a missense mutation at codon 462 (E462G) of the Wolframin protein. This is the first report of a mutation in this gene causing an isolated nuclear congenital cataract. These findings suggest that the membrane trafficking protein Wolframin may be important for supporting the developing lens.

  16. ALDH1A2 (RALDH2 genetic variation in human congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesquita Sonia MF

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signaling by the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA is required at multiple steps of cardiac development. Since conversion of retinaldehyde to RA by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type II (ALDH1A2, a.k.a RALDH2 is critical for cardiac development, we screened patients with congenital heart disease (CHDs for genetic variation at the ALDH1A2 locus. Methods One-hundred and thirty-three CHD patients were screened for genetic variation at the ALDH1A2 locus through bi-directional sequencing. In addition, six SNPs (rs2704188, rs1441815, rs3784259, rs1530293, rs1899430 at the same locus were studied using a TDT-based association approach in 101 CHD trios. Observed mutations were modeled through molecular mechanics (MM simulations using the AMBER 9 package, Sander and Pmemd programs. Sequence conservation of observed mutations was evaluated through phylogenetic tree construction from ungapped alignments containing ALDH8 s, ALDH1Ls, ALDH1 s and ALDH2 s. Trees were generated by the Neighbor Joining method. Variations potentially affecting splicing mechanisms were cloned and functional assays were designed to test splicing alterations using the pSPL3 splicing assay. Results We describe in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF the mutations Ala151Ser and Ile157Thr that change non-polar to polar residues at exon 4. Exon 4 encodes part of the highly-conserved tetramerization domain, a structural motif required for ALDH oligomerization. Molecular mechanics simulation studies of the two mutations indicate that they hinder tetramerization. We determined that the SNP rs16939660, previously associated with spina bifida and observed in patients with TOF, does not affect splicing. Moreover, association studies performed with classical models and with the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT design using single marker genotype, or haplotype information do not show differences between cases and controls. Conclusion In summary, our screen indicates that

  17. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: evaluation of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, V; Genco, F

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is usually subclinic or associated with non specific symptoms. Diagnosis and timing of infection are usually based on serological tests. In this short review we tried to summarize the serological patterns we can encounter and to discuss the interpretation of test results.

  18. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a s t is O : wAnneIrmsportant What role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, birds ... animals, or anything contaminated with feces from another cat that is shedding the microscopic parasite in its ...

  19. Serological IgG avidity test for ocular toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test

  20. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Brilstra, Eva H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/23639195X; Brown, Chester W; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183050487; Currall, Benjamin B; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B A; Earl, Dawn L; Ferguson, Heather L; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J; Hayden, Mark A; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/117339067; Hoffman, Jodi D; Hopkin, Robert J; Hubshman, Monika W; Innes, A Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Kahler, Stephen G; Koolen, David A; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W; Mendoza, Cinthya J Zepeda; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Aguilar, Raul E Piña; Poddighe, Pino J; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L P; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V; van Bon, Bregje W; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; Warburton, Dorothy P; Waterman, Matthew J; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A; Zori, Roberto T; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304076953; Thorland, Erik C; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing re

  1. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L.; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C.; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M.; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F.; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.; Brilstra, Eva H.; Brown, Chester W.; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T.; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B.; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B. A.; Earl, Dawn L.; Ferguson, Heather L.; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R.; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T.; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H.; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J.; Hayden, Mark A.; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Hubshman, Monika W.; Innes, A. Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C.; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Kahler, Stephen G.; Koolen, David A.; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M.; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V.; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C.; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J.; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J.; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W.; Mendoza, Cinthya J. Zepeda; Menten, Bjorn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R.; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E.; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W.; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P.; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Pina Aguilar, Raul E.; Poddighe, Pino J.; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L. P.; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R.; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V.; van Bon, Bregje W.; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M.; van Roosmalen, Markus J.; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M. L.; Warburton, Dorothy P.; Waterman, Matthew J.; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A.; Zori, Roberto T.; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G.; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Thorland, Erik C.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.; Talkowski, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing re

  2. Basic multisensory functions can be acquired after congenital visual pattern deprivation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putzar, L.; Gondan, Matthias; Röder, B.

    2012-01-01

    People treated for bilateral congenital cataracts offer a model to study the influence of visual deprivation in early infancy on visual and multisensory development. We investigated cross-modal integration capabilities in cataract patients using a simple detection task that provided redundant...

  3. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Brilstra, Eva H; Brown, Chester W; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B A; Earl, Dawn L; Ferguson, Heather L; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J; Hayden, Mark A; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D; Hopkin, Robert J; Hubshman, Monika W; Innes, A Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Kahler, Stephen G; Koolen, David A; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W; Mendoza, Cinthya J Zepeda; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Aguilar, Raul E Piña; Poddighe, Pino J; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L P; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V; van Bon, Bregje W; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; Warburton, Dorothy P; Waterman, Matthew J; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A; Zori, Roberto T; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Thorland, Erik C; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing re

  4. Cutaneous acquired toxoplasmosis in a child: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Andrew J; Buck, Andrew B; Love, Porcia B; Prose, Neil S; Selim, M Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous toxoplasmosis is a rare and diagnostically challenging entity. Today, the acquired form occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus or after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report a case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a 6-year-old girl after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for immune-mediated encephalopathy, first manifesting at 16 months of age. In the post-transplant setting, she developed a rash consisting of approximately 8 scattered 3–4-mm round, erythematous macules and papules on her back, abdomen, and right shoulder. Sections from a biopsy of a lesion on the back revealed numerous spherules tightly packed within small cystic structures in the epidermis. The diagnosis of cutaneous toxoplasmosis was confirmed by an immunohistochemical stain for Toxoplasma gondii and polymerase chain reaction on the peripheral blood for the T. gondii genome. This case should raise awareness that acquired toxoplasmosis with cutaneous involvement can occur in the pediatric population, particularly in immunocompromised patients after stem cell transplantation. Early diagnosis and treatment of this life-threatening opportunistic infection may improve patient outcomes.

  5. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Congenital Hypothyroidism March 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... Pediatric Endocrine Society MedlinePlus (NIH) What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  6. An overview of seventy years of research (1944 – 2014) on toxoplasmosis in Colombia, South America

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper summarizes prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and animals and associated correlates of infection, clinical spectrum of disease in humans, and genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Colombia. Recent studies, especially in the states of Antioquia, Quindío and Cundinamarca, indicate that toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem. Approximately half of the women of child bearing age have T. gondii antibodies, and the clinical disease in conge...

  7. [Toxoplasmosis round-robin test in Austria: results and limits of the toxoplasmosis screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Herbert; Vander-Möse, Angelika; Picher, Otto; Aspöck, Horst

    2005-01-01

    In 1983 the Osterreichische Gesellschaft für Qualitätssicherung und Standardisierung medizinisch-diagnostischer Untersuchungen (OQUASTA) has invited the Department of Medical Parasitology of the Clinical Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, University of Vienna (today: Medical University of Vienna), to establish an external quality assessment service on the detection of specific antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, one of the most prevalent protozoic parasites in the world. The objective of this project was the support of Austrian laboratories in standardising their test methods for the detection of specific antibodies against T. gondii. Between 1983 and 2004, 45 collaborating studies were carried out. During this period, the number of participating laboratories has increased from 10 in 1983 to about 50 in recent years. In total, the test results produced by the laboratories matched with the nominal values in more than 90%. On the examples of three human cases we demonstrate that externally validated serological methods alone, despite their great benefit, are not enough for a sufficient serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis; unusually complicated serological situations do arise and can only be met by the knowledge about special tests, the application of an appropriate examination strategy and -- last but not least -- by many years of experience.

  8. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malý Marek

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146 and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446 was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p 95= 1.76–4.01 times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p 95 = 1.14–3.03 for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16, higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.39–9.59 for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64, and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89–135.66 for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem.

  9. MPDU1 mutations underlie a novel human congenital disorder of glycosylation, designated type If

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Barbara; Imbach, Timo; Frank, Christian G.; Grubenmann, Claudia E.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Hurvitz, Haggit; Raas-Rotschild, Annick; Luder, Anthony S.; Berger, Eric G.; Matthijs, Gert; Hennet, Thierry; Aebi, Markus; Jaeken, Jaak

    2003-01-01

    Deficiencies in the pathway of N-glycan biosynthesis lead to severe multisystem diseases, known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). The clinical appearance of CDG is variable, and different types can be distinguished according to the gene that is altered. In this report, we describe the molecular basis of a novel type of the disease in three unrelated patients diagnosed with CDG-I. Serum transferrin was hypoglycosylated and patients’ fibroblasts accumulated incomplete lipid-linked...

  10. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alday PH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available P Holland Alday,1 Joseph Stone Doggett1,2 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Oregon Health & Science University, 2Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, therapeutics, preclinical medicine, experimental medicine, mechanism of action, Apicomplexa

  11. Drugs in development for toxoplasmosis: advances, challenges, and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, P Holland; Doggett, Joseph Stone

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in identifying and developing new compounds for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Unlike clinically used medicines that were repurposed for toxoplasmosis, these compounds have been optimized for efficacy against toxoplasmosis during preclinical development. Medicines with enhanced efficacy as well as features that address the unique aspects of toxoplasmosis have the potential to greatly improve toxoplasmosis therapy. This review discusses the facets of toxoplasmosis that are pertinent to drug design and the advances, challenges, and current status of preclinical drug research for toxoplasmosis. PMID:28182168

  12. Ultrastructural study of the neovagina following the utilization of human amniotic membrane for treatment of congenital absence of the vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bleggi-Torres

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an ultrastructural study of the utilization of human amniotic membrane in the treatment of congenital absence of the vagina in 10 patients. All patients were surgically treated with application of an amniotic membrane graft using the modified McIndoe and Bannister technique. Sixty days after surgery, samples of the vaginal neo-epithelium were collected for transmission electron microscopy analysis. The ultrastructural findings consisted of a lining of mature squamous epithelium indicating the occurrence of metaplasia of the amniotic epithelium into the vaginal epithelium. The cells were arranged in layers as in the normal vaginal epithelium, i.e., superficial, intermediate and deep layers. There were desmosomes and cytoplasmic intermediate cytokeratin filaments, as well as some remnant features of the previous amniotic epithelium. These findings suggest that human amniotic membrane is able to complete metaplasia into squamous cells but the mechanism of this cellular transformation is unknown

  13. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Pers, C; Aschow, C;

    1991-01-01

    We estimate the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy using the following criteria for acceptance of the diagnosis: either (1) the demonstration of Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue or (2) one or more hypodense or ring......-enhancing lesions on computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan and a neurologic and CAT scan improvement in response to 2 weeks of treatment. From 1981 until July 1990 266 patients were diagnosed with AIDS at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen and 29 (11%) were treated, suspected for CNS toxoplasmosis. 17 patients had...... the diagnosis confirmed but since 5 patients, who were never treated, were diagnosed at autopsy, the overall cumulated incidence was 8% (22/266 patients). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 59% (17/29 patients) showing some changes over time. Among patients diagnosed with AIDS in 1988 or later, the accuracy...

  14. Acute Papillitis in Young Female with Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhshandeh Alipanahi; Sima Sayyahmelli

    2011-01-01

    Papillitis and complicating acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, are unusual and atypical features of toxoplasmosis. This report presents a female with unusual acute papillitis. This patient had an active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve head and a major blood vessel as well as central nervous systems (CNS). Papillitis may be secondary to juxtapapillary retinitis (Jensen choroiditis). Very rarely, the optic nerve head may be the primary site of involv...

  15. Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nianhong Lu, Caihong Liu, Jiangyuan Wang, Ying Ding, Qing Ai Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week&...

  16. Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu NH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nianhong Lu, Caihong Liu, Jiangyuan Wang, Ying Ding, Qing Ai Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Toxoplasmosis complicating lung cancer has been described only rarely. Here, we report a case of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in a patient with squamous lung cancer. A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a history of cough of 6 months' duration and chest pain of 1 week’s duration. Further examination revealed multiple swollen lymph nodes, palpable on the top of the right collarbone and without tenderness. The chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography scan confirmed squamous carcinoma of the right lung. The Wright-stained bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid cytology diagnosis was positive for T. gondii and tachyzoites were detected. All of them were of free type (ectocytic, without intracellular parasites. Serological examination revealed that the anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin (Ig M and IgG antibodies were positive. Unfortunately the patient did not continue treatment and was lost to follow-up. Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in patients with lung cancer. Prompt recognition of T. gondii infection among cancer patients with subsequent targeted treatment of toxoplasmosis could help alleviate symptoms and improve survival. Keywords: lung cancer, Toxoplasma gondii, bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid, tachyzoite

  17. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale.

  18. Fatal Attraction Phenomenon in Humans – Cat Odour Attractiveness Increased for Toxoplasma-Infected Men While Decreased for Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Flegr; Pavlína Lenochová; Zdeněk Hodný; Marta Vondrová

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. The most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. While most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes i...

  19. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  20. Congenital papillomas and papillomatoses associated with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV: report on 5 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pedra Dias

    Full Text Available The authors present a study of five cases of vulvar congenital papillomas and papillomatoses in stillborns and neonates dead upon birth. The studied material was collected from five necropsies. The histopathological evaluation showed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis, perinuclear haloes, and nuclear abnormalities. In three of the cases, the electron microscopy identified nuclear and cytoplasmatic viral particles ranging from 40 to 60 nm in size, compatible with HPV. The immunohistochemical study of those lesions showed nuclear and cytoplasmatic positivity. The authors concluded that the presence of viral particles suggestive of HPV added to the immunopositivity indicated the possibility of viral infection.

  1. Basic multisensory functions can be acquired after congenital visual pattern deprivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzar, Lisa; Gondan, Matthias; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    People treated for bilateral congenital cataracts offer a model to study the influence of visual deprivation in early infancy on visual and multisensory development. We investigated cross-modal integration capabilities in cataract patients using a simple detection task that provided redundant information to two different senses. In both patients and controls, redundancy gains were consistent with coactivation models, indicating an integrated processing of modality-specific information. This finding is in contrast with recent studies showing impaired higher-level multisensory interactions in cataract patients. The present results suggest that basic cross-modal integrative processes for simple short stimuli do not depend on visual and/or crossmodal input since birth.

  2. Evaluation of Immunohistochemistry and PCR in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Infection in Tissues of Human Aborted Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Sarkari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoa that infect humans and a wide range of mammalians and birds [1]. The infection is particularly important in women when they acquire the infection for the first time during their pregnancy where an intrauterine transmission of the parasite may occur. Effective prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis can permit a decision to terminate the pregnancy at the early stage or initiate the treatment of late-term fetus in uterus. Prenatal diagnosis is commonly performed based on biological and serological tests on fetal blood and amniotic fluid, and ultrasonographic examination of fetus [2].

  3. HALLAZGOS ULTRASONOGRAFICO PRENATALES ATIPICOS ASOCIADOS A TOXOPLASMOSIS CONNATAL

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés R,Enrique; Quiroz V.,Lorena; Parra C,Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico con diagnóstico final de toxoplasmosis connatal, destacando la pesquisa de hallazgos ultrasonográficos de rara ocurrencia. Se presenta la experiencia del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, proponiendo una aproximación actualizada al diagnóstico y tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis durante el embarazo

  4. Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and the Future of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Pedersen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite large advances in the field of ocular toxoplasmosis, large gaps still exist in our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and pathophysiology of this potentially blinding infectious disease. Although ocular toxoplasmosis is considered to have a high health burden, still little is known about

  5. [Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women Admitted to the Health Centers of Khorram-Abad City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cheraghipour

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most widespread parasitic infections in humans that can cause abortion in pregnant women or serious damage to their fetuses. To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women of Khorram-Abad,a city in the west of Iran, a cross sectional study was performed by random cluster sampling of pregnant women admitted to rural and urban health centers of Khorram-Abad during 2006 to 2007. Materials & Methods: After recording 390 volunteers’ information in the questionnaires and preparation of the samples, prevalence of current/recent toxoplasmosis was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique for the detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM, and previous history of infection by IgG. Results: This study revealed that the IgG seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in urban and rural pregnant women of Khorram-Abad was 30.8% and 31.4%, respectively; and that of IgM seroprevalence was 7.2% and 7.9%, respectively. However, IgG antibody levels increased with age (P<0.001. Education level of women was associated with the level of both antibodies (P<0.01. No statistically significant differences were observed in the levels of antibodies in relation to other study variables. Conclusion: According to this study, 69% of the pregnant women were seronegative and consequently are susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis and subsequent injury to their fetuses. So because of the importance of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, public health education is necessary for prevention of this serious opportunistic infection. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3:46-51

  7. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad; Toppari, J.; Skakkebaek, N. E.;

    2012-01-01

    in 130 breast milk samples from Danish and Finnish mothers. Half the newborns were healthy controls, whereas the other half was boys with congenital cryptorchidism. The measured chemicals included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl‐ethers, dioxins (OCDD/PCDFs), phthalates...... for multiple testing, exposure to nine chemicals was significantly different between the cases and controls in the Danish cohort, but not in the Finnish cohort. The multivariate analysis indicated that Danish samples exhibited a stronger correlation between chemical exposure patterns in breast milk...... and cryptorchidism than Finnish samples. Moreover, PCBs were indicated as having a protective effect within the Danish cohort, which was supported by molecular data recovered through systems biology. Our results lend further support to the hypothesis that the mixture of environmental chemicals may contribute...

  8. Congenital blindness affects diencephalic but not mesencephalic structures in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetti, Luca; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    While there is ample evidence that the structure and function of visual cortical areas are affected by early visual deprivation, little is known of how early blindness modifies subcortical relay and association thalamic nuclei, as well as mesencephalic structures. Therefore, in the present...... multicenter study, we used MRI to measure volume of the superior and inferior colliculi, as well as of the thalamic nuclei relaying sensory and motor information to the neocortex, parcellated according to atlas-based thalamo-cortical connections, in 29 individuals with congenital blindness of peripheral...... origin (17 M, age 35.7 ± 14.3 years) and 29 sighted subjects (17 M, age 31.9 ± 9.0). Blind participants showed an overall volume reduction in the left (p = 0.008) and right (p = 0.007) thalami, as compared to the sighted individuals. Specifically, the lateral geniculate (i.e., primary visual thalamic...

  9. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Level of Serum Testosterone in Males with Chronic Toxoplasmosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Eslamirad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects human and animals. Toxoplasma parasites are isolated from different parts of animals even from semen but there are little information about the effect of toxoplasmosis on fertility in animals and humans. In present study, the effect of chronic toxoplasmosis on serum levels of testosterone in men was studied.In this case-control study, 1026 men referred to Arak Post Marriage Center were selected. Three ml of blood samples were collected and sera separated by centrifugation at room temperature. These sera were analyzed for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody. Next 365 positive sera were selected as cases and also the same number of negative sera (365 as controls. Finally the level of testosterone was analyzed for the cases and controls samples.Serological tests on the sera of 1,026 men in Arak City showed that 365 of them had anti-Toxoplasma antibody. Comparison of testosterone concentration in case and control groups showed that testosterone concentration in case group was less than control group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05.The chronic toxoplasmosis could affect reproductive parameters in men.

  10. Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in maternal serum and amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzl, R; Sodeck, G; Platzer, P; Jäger, W; Graf, J; Pollak, A; Thalhammer, T

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy is widely treated with oral spiramycin to reduce the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis in the infant. Failures of therapy have been observed, however. In this study, a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to measure concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin, one of the major metabolites of spiramycin, in maternal serum and amniotic fluid. Samples were obtained from 18 women who underwent amniocentesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of fetal infection 5-109 days following the prescription of spiramycin therapy (3 g/day). Concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in both serum and amniotic fluid were highly variable, ranging from nondetectable values to 1 microg/ml. None of the concentrations measured were within the range reported to inhibit growth of the parasite in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, part of the observed variability in maternal and fetal drug concentrations could be explained by individual differences in several pharmacokinetic parameters: intestinal absorption, tissue distribution, cellular uptake, metabolism, transfer across the placenta, drug accumulation in fetal tissue, and maternal and fetal drug elimination. The heterogeneity of the data could also be related to differences in patient compliance with the medication prescribed. By addressing factors that could impair adequate treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, the data presented call for a larger-scale controlled study to determine individual and diurnal variations in maternal drug levels, patient compliance, and outcomes of the offspring. The activity of neospiramycin against Toxoplasma gondii should be assessed.

  11. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: a study of rodents and shrews in cultivated and fallow land, Morogoro rural district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgode, Georgies F; Katakweba, Abdul S; Mhamphi, Ginethon G; Fwalo, Frank; Bahari, Mohamed; Mdangi, Mashaka; Kilonzo, Bukheti S; Mulungu, Loth S

    2014-07-01

    Leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis are among understudied zoonotic diseases that are also not diagnosed routinely in Tanzania. Humans get leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis through contact with an environment contaminated with Leptospira bacteria and Toxoplasma protozoa from reservoir hosts, which are rodents and cats, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Leptospira and Toxoplasma infections in rodents and shrews in Mikese area of Morogoro Rural District in eastern Tanzania. A total of 89 rodents and one shrew from cultivated and fallow land were tested for leptospirosis using six Leptospira serovars: Sokoine, Kenya, Canicola, Lora, Hebdomadis and Pomona. Toxoplasmosis was determined in 46 rodents brain smears. The prevalence of leptospirosis was 25.8%, and Leptospira serovar Sokoine was the most prevalent serovar (16.9%). Toxoplasma was detected in one rodent (2.17%) individual while three rodent individuals had Toxoplasma-like parasites hence were considered suspect positive. Findings suggest potential existence of human leptospirosis which needs to be further investigated. Public awareness of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis should be promoted and their diagnosis considered in patients in health care facilities.

  12. Acute Papillitis in Young Female with Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipanahi, Rakhshandeh; Sayyahmelli, Sima

    2011-01-01

    Papillitis and complicating acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, are unusual and atypical features of toxoplasmosis. This report presents a female with unusual acute papillitis. This patient had an active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve head and a major blood vessel as well as central nervous systems (CNS). Papillitis may be secondary to juxtapapillary retinitis (Jensen choroiditis). Very rarely, the optic nerve head may be the primary site of involvement. This case report illustrates a rare presentation of acute papillitis in a young immunocompetent female. PMID:21887084

  13. Acute papillitis in young female with toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshandeh Alipanahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillitis and complicating acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, are unusual and atypical features of toxoplasmosis. This report presents a female with unusual acute papillitis. This patient had an active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesion that appeared to involve the optic nerve head and a major blood vessel as well as central nervous systems (CNS. Papillitis may be secondary to juxtapapillary retinitis (Jensen choroiditis. Very rarely, the optic nerve head may be the primary site of involvement. This case report illustrates a rare presentation of acute papillitis in a young immunocompetent female.

  14. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old female spayed Schnauzer was presented with cutaneous ulcerated nodular lesions shortly after the beginning of an immunosuppressive treatment for immune-mediated hemolytic disease. Cytology was performed and a great number of neutrophils and banana-shaped organisms were observed. Biopsy showed a neutrophilic and histiocytic dermatitis and panniculitis with myriads of intralesional bradyzoites cysts and tachyzoites. PCR analysis was positive for Toxoplasma gondii and negative for Neospora caninum. Immunohistochemistry confirmed intralesional T. gondii antigens. This study reports a rare case of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog.

  15. Human congenital myopathy actin mutants cause myopathy and alter Z-disc structure in Drosophila flight muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevdali, Maria; Kumar, Vikash; Peckham, Michelle; Sparrow, John

    2013-03-01

    Over 190 mutations in the human skeletal muscle α-actin gene, ACTA1 cause congenital actin myopathies. We transgenically expressed six different mutant actins, G15R, I136M, D154N, V163L, V163M and D292V in Drosophila indirect flight muscles and investigated their effects in flies that express one wild type and one mutant actin copy. All the flies were flightless, and the IFMs showed incomplete Z-discs, disorganised actin filaments and 'zebra bodies'. No differences in levels of sarcomeric protein expression were observed, but tropomodulin staining was somewhat disrupted in D164N, V163L, G15R and V163M heterozygotes. A single copy of D292V mutant actin rescued the hypercontractile phenotypes caused by TnI and TnT mutants, suggesting that the D292V mutation interferes with thin filament regulation. Our results show that expression of actin mutations homologous to those in humans in the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila disrupt sarcomere organisation, with somewhat similar phenotypes to those observed in humans. Using Drosophila to study actin mutations may help aid our understanding of congential myopathies caused by actin mutations.

  16. Replacement gene therapy with a human RPGRIP1 sequence slows photoreceptor degeneration in a murine model of Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlyk, Basil S; Bulgakov, Oleg V; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiaoyun; Adamian, Michael; Sun, Xun; Khani, Shahrokh C; Berson, Eliot L; Sandberg, Michael A; Li, Tiansen

    2010-08-01

    RPGR-interacting protein-1 (RPGRIP1) is localized in the photoreceptor-connecting cilium, where it anchors the RPGR (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator) protein, and its function is essential for photoreceptor maintenance. Genetic defect in RPGRIP1 is a known cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe, early-onset form of retinal degeneration. We evaluated the efficacy of replacement gene therapy in a murine model of LCA carrying a targeted disruption of RPGRIP1. The replacement construct, packaged in an adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) vector, used a rhodopsin kinase gene promoter to drive RPGRIP1 expression. Both promoter and transgene were of human origin. After subretinal delivery of the replacement gene in the mutant mice, human RPGRIP1 was expressed specifically in photoreceptors, localized correctly in the connecting cilia, and restored the normal localization of RPGR. Electroretinogram and histological examinations showed better preservation of rod and cone photoreceptor function and improved photoreceptor survival in the treated eyes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of human gene replacement therapy and validates a gene therapy design for future clinical trials in patients afflicted with this condition. Our results also have therapeutic implications for other forms of retinal degenerations attributable to a ciliary defect.

  17. “Blind periods” in screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Austria – a debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies from Austria, France and Italy have shown that there is a poor adherence to the screening scheme for maternal Toxoplasma infections in pregnancy demonstrated by the fact that many recommended examinations are missed. This leads to undetected infections and limits our knowledge of incidence of the disease. We discuss the negative consequences of this situation on research on treatment effectiveness and the outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis. The responsible public health institutions should assume responsibility for appropriate surveillance of the screening programme and take measures to improve screening adherence during pregnancy. Screening should start as early as possible in pregnancy and the latest test should be done at delivery. Screening schedule should allow distinguishing infections from the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, as the risk of materno-foetal transmission and outcomes in case of foetal infections varies by time. PMID:22591211

  18. “Blind periods” in screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Austria – a debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagel Ulrich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies from Austria, France and Italy have shown that there is a poor adherence to the screening scheme for maternal Toxoplasma infections in pregnancy demonstrated by the fact that many recommended examinations are missed. This leads to undetected infections and limits our knowledge of incidence of the disease. We discuss the negative consequences of this situation on research on treatment effectiveness and the outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis. The responsible public health institutions should assume responsibility for appropriate surveillance of the screening programme and take measures to improve screening adherence during pregnancy. Screening should start as early as possible in pregnancy and the latest test should be done at delivery. Screening schedule should allow distinguishing infections from the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, as the risk of materno-foetal transmission and outcomes in case of foetal infections varies by time.

  19. "Blind periods" in screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Austria - a debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, Ulrich; Krämer, Alexander; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2012-05-16

    Recent studies from Austria, France and Italy have shown that there is a poor adherence to the screening scheme for maternal Toxoplasma infections in pregnancy demonstrated by the fact that many recommended examinations are missed. This leads to undetected infections and limits our knowledge of incidence of the disease. We discuss the negative consequences of this situation on research on treatment effectiveness and the outcomes of congenital toxoplasmosis. The responsible public health institutions should assume responsibility for appropriate surveillance of the screening programme and take measures to improve screening adherence during pregnancy. Screening should start as early as possible in pregnancy and the latest test should be done at delivery. Screening schedule should allow distinguishing infections from the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, as the risk of materno-foetal transmission and outcomes in case of foetal infections varies by time.

  20. MPDU1 mutations underlie a novel human congenital disorder of glycosylation, designated type If

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Barbara; Imbach, Timo; Frank, Christian G.; Grubenmann, Claudia E.; Raymond, Gerald V.; Hurvitz, Haggit; Raas-Rotschild, Annick; Luder, Anthony S.; Jaeken, Jaak; Berger, Eric G.; Matthijs, Gert; Hennet, Thierry; Aebi, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Deficiencies in the pathway of N-glycan biosynthesis lead to severe multisystem diseases, known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). The clinical appearance of CDG is variable, and different types can be distinguished according to the gene that is altered. In this report, we describe the molecular basis of a novel type of the disease in three unrelated patients diagnosed with CDG-I. Serum transferrin was hypoglycosylated and patients’ fibroblasts accumulated incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursors for N-linked protein glycosylation. Transfer of incomplete oligosaccharides to protein was detected. Sequence analysis of the Lec35/MPDU1 gene, known to be involved in the use of dolichylphosphomannose and dolichylphosphoglucose, revealed mutations in all three patients. Retroviral-based expression of the normal Lec35 cDNA in primary fibroblasts of patients restored normal lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. We concluded that mutations in the Lec35/MPDU1 gene cause CDG. This novel type was termed CDG-If. PMID:11733564

  1. Human giant congenital melanocytic nevus exhibits potential proteomic alterations leading to melanotumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyoung Kyu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A giant congenital melanocytic nevus (GCMN is a malformation of the pigment cells. It is a distress to the patients for two reasons: one is disfigurement, and the other is the possibility of malignant changes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the development of GCMN and melanotumorigenesis in GCMN are unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the proteomic alterations and associated functional pathways in GCMN. Results Proteomic differences between GCMN (n = 3 and normal skin samples (n = 3 were analyzed by one-dimensional-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Relative levels of the selected proteins were validated using western blot analysis. The biological processes associated with the abundance modified proteins were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. Among the 46 abundance modified proteins, expression of 4 proteins was significantly downregulated and expression of 42 proteins was significantly upregulated in GCMN compared to normal skin samples (p  Conclusion These findings suggest that GCMN exhibits potential proteomic alterations, which may play a role in melanotumorigenesis, and the significant alteration of 14-3-3 family proteins could be a key regulator of the biological pathway remodeling in GCMN.

  2. The Genomic Landscape of Balanced Cytogenetic Abnormalities Associated with Human Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L.; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C.; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M.; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F.; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M.H.F.; Brilstra, Eva H.; Brown, Chester W.; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T.; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B.; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Dheedene, Annelies; D’Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B.A.; Earl, Dawn L.; Ferguson, Heather L.; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R.; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T.; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H.; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W.; Gropman, Andrea L.; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J.; Hayden, Mark A.; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Hubshman, Monika W.; Innes, A. Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C.; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.; Kahler, Stephen G.; Koolen, David A.; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M.; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V.; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C.; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J.; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J.; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L.; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W.; Zepeda Mendoza, Cinthya J.; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R.; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E.; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W.; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P.; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Piña Aguilar, Raul E.; Poddighe, Pino J.; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L.P.; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R.; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V.; van Bon, Bregje W.; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M.; van Roosmalen, Markus J.; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M.L.; Warburton, Dorothy P.; Waterman, Matthew J.; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A.; Zori, Roberto T.; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G.; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Thorland, Erik C.; Morton, Cynthia C.; Gusella, James F.; Talkowski, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their clinical significance, characterization of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs) has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing revised 93% of karyotypes and revealed complexity that was cryptic to karyotyping in 21% of BCAs, highlighting the limitations of conventional cytogenetic approaches. At least 33.9% of BCAs resulted in gene disruption that likely contributed to the developmental phenotype, 5.2% were associated with pathogenic genomic imbalances, and 7.3% disrupted topologically associated domains (TADs) encompassing known syndromic loci. Remarkably, BCA breakpoints in eight subjects altered a single TAD encompassing MEF2C, a known driver of 5q14.3 microdeletion syndrome, resulting in decreased MEF2C expression. This study proposes that sequence-level resolution dramatically improves prediction of clinical outcomes for balanced rearrangements, and provides insight into novel pathogenic mechanisms such as altered regulation due to changes in chromosome topology. PMID:27841880

  3. Rare variants in NR2F2 cause congenital heart defects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Saeed; Manickaraj, Ashok K; Mercer, Catherine L; Gerety, Sebastian S; Hitz, Marc-Phillip; Lindsay, Sarah; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Swaminathan, G Jawahar; Bentham, Jamie; Arndt, Anne-Karin; Louw, Jacoba; Low, Jacoba; Breckpot, Jeroen; Gewillig, Marc; Thienpont, Bernard; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Harnack, Christine; Hoff, Kirstin; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Schubert, Stephan; Siebert, Reiner; Toka, Okan; Cosgrove, Catherine; Watkins, Hugh; Lucassen, Anneke M; O'Kelly, Ita M; Salmon, Anthony P; Bu'lock, Frances A; Granados-Riveron, Javier; Setchfield, Kerry; Thornborough, Chris; Brook, J David; Mulder, Barbara; Klaassen, Sabine; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Devriendt, Koen; Fitzpatrick, David F; Wilson, David I; Mital, Seema; Hurles, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defect worldwide and are a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Nonsyndromic atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) are an important subtype of CHDs for which the genetic architecture is poorly understood. We performed exome sequencing in 13 parent-offspring trios and 112 unrelated individuals with nonsyndromic AVSDs and identified five rare missense variants (two of which arose de novo) in the highly conserved gene NR2F2, a very significant enrichment (p = 7.7 × 10(-7)) compared to 5,194 control subjects. We identified three additional CHD-affected families with other variants in NR2F2 including a de novo balanced chromosomal translocation, a de novo substitution disrupting a splice donor site, and a 3 bp duplication that cosegregated in a multiplex family. NR2F2 encodes a pleiotropic developmental transcription factor, and decreased dosage of NR2F2 in mice has been shown to result in abnormal development of atrioventricular septa. Via luciferase assays, we showed that all six coding sequence variants observed in individuals significantly alter the activity of NR2F2 on target promoters.

  4. Microencephaly in children congenitally infected with human immunodeficiency virus--a gross-anatomical morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P B; Brudkowska, J; Kraszpulski, M; Sersen, E A; Wrzolek, M A; Anzil, A P; Rao, C; Wisniewski, H M

    1997-02-01

    A quantitative technique involving serial sectioning and semiautomatic morphometric analysis was used to assess the severity of the reduction in size of the major brain structures in cerebral hemispheres of children congenitally infected with HIV-1. Cerebral hemispheres from 12 children (18-48 months of age) who died of AIDS were sectioned into 5-mm-thick serial slabs and photographed. The cross-sectional areas of grossly recognizable brain structures were digitized, and the volumes were calculated according to Cavalieri's principle. The results were compared with those of an identically processed group of control brains from non-AIDS children. Analysis of the brain weight showed that there was a significant reduction in supratentorial and infratentorial weight in the AIDS group. The results of the morphometric study revealed that the loss in brain mass was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the total volume of both hemispheres, the entire cortex, white matter, and basal ganglia. Detailed analysis of individual brain structures also showed a significant reduction in volume of all cortical regions and most of the subcortical gray matter (e.g., caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, claustrum, and thalamus). It appears that in the microencephaly observed as a frequent sequel in pediatric AIDS, the loss of brain tissue is global and includes an almost proportional loss of cortex, subcortical gray matter and white matter.

  5. Incidence of toxoplasmosis in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebnem Ustun; Umit Aksoy; Hande Dagci; Galip Ersoz

    2004-01-01

    AIM: It is known that toxoplasmosis rarely leads to various liver pathologies, most common of which is granulomatose hepatitis in patients having normal immune systems. Patients who have cirrhosis of the liver are subject to a variety of cellular as well as humoral immunity disordes. Therefore, it may be considered that toxoplasmosis can cause more frequent and more severe diseases in patients with cirrhosis and is capable of changing the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of METHODS: Serum samples were taken from 108 patients with cirrhosis under observation in the Hepatology Polyclinic of the Gastroenterology Clinic, and a control group made up of 50 healthy blood donors. IFAT and ELISA methods were used to investigate the IgG and IgM antibodies, which had developed from these sera.RESULTS: Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibody positivity was found in 74 (68.5%) of the 108 cirrhotic patients and 24 (48%) of the 50 people in the control group. The difference between them was significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it was found that the toxoplasma sero-prevalence in the cirrhotic patients in this study was higher. Cirrhotic patients are likely to form a toxoplasma risk group, More detailed studies are needed on this subject.

  6. [Congenital thrombophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2016-03-01

    Congenital thrombophilia is a thrombotic diathesis caused by a variety of genetic abnormalities in blood coagulation factors or their inhibitory factors associated with physiological thrombus formation. Patients with congenital thrombophilia often present with unusual clinical episodes of venous thrombosis (occasionally combined with pulmonary embolism, known as venous thromboembolism) at a young age and recurrence in atypical vessels, such as the mesenteric vein and superior sagittal sinus, often with a family history of this condition. Studies in Japan as well as in western countries have shown congenital thrombophilia to be caused by a wide variety of genetic abnormalities in natural anticoagulant proteins, such as antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. However, there may still be many unknown causes of hereditary thrombosis. We recently reported a case of hereditary thrombosis induced by a novel mechanism of antithrombin resistance, that is, congenital thrombophilia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the coagulation factor prothrombin.

  7. Congenital Myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... evaluate the electrical activity of the muscle, a muscle biopsy, and genetic testing. There are currently seven distinct types of congenital myopathy, with some variation in symptoms, complications, treatment options, and outlook. Nemaline ...

  8. Congenital syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum , which is passed from mother to child during fetal development or at birth. Nearly half of all children infected with syphilis while they ...

  9. Advance on vaccine against toxoplasmosis%弓形虫病疫苗研究进展概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运娜; 黄金贵; 张西臣

    2011-01-01

    弓形虫是一种专性细胞内寄生原虫,能引起人畜共患弓形虫病,严重威胁着人类健康且对畜牧业的发展造成巨大的经济损失.研制安全有效的疫苗是防制弓形虫病的策略之一.目前,弓形虫病疫苗包括灭活疫苗、减毒活疫苗、核酸疫苗、亚单位疫苗和卡介苗.本文对弓形虫病疫苗的研究现状进行了综述.%Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, which is capable of infecting a variety of animal and human, causing toxoplasmosis.It has important effects on human’s health and can cause considerable economic losses to the development of animal husbandry.One of the most effective prevention and treatment strategies to toxoplasmosis is to develop safe and effective vaccines.The vaccine of toxoplasmosis include inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, subunit vaccine, the nucleic acid vaccine and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin.This paper reviewed the research of toxoplasmosis vaccine in recent years.

  10. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Website: http://www2.niddk.nih.gov/ References JOURNAL ARTICLES Christiansen AL, Aagaard L, Krag A, Rasmussen ... homeostasis of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase by enzyme engineering at a single hotspot of congenital erythropoietic ... a Doctor Clinical Studies Porphyria featured Television and Other Media AIP ...

  11. Estudo transversal de toxoplasmose em alunas de um curso superior da região de Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo Cross-sectional study on toxoplasmosis among female students on a university course in the Presidente Prudente region, State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Oliveira Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: toxoplasmose é uma doença parasitária causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, que acomete o homem e outros animais. A forma mais grave é a toxoplasmose congênita, sendo então importante estabelecer o perfil sorológico da mulher antes da gestação. Este trabalho objetivou analisar a sorologia para toxoplasmose de alunas do curso de Enfermagem da UNOESTE (Universidade do Oeste Paulista Presidente Prudente/SP. MÉTODOS: foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 80 alunas, com idade de 18 a 35 anos após assinatura do Termo de Consentimento. A ocorrência de anticorpos IgM e IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi determinada pelo método ELISA. Este trabalho foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Instituição e realizado no Laboratório de Imunologia da UNOESTE. RESULTADOS: das 80 amostras de sangue analisadas, 27 alunas apresentaram IgG positiva e nenhuma apresentou anticorpo IgM. CONCLUSÕES: das 80 alunas, 53 (66,2%, são suscetíveis à toxoplasmose numa possível gestação. Sendo 27 (33,8 as alunas consideradas soropositivas.INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which affects humans and other animals. The most severe form is congenital toxoplasmosis. Thus, it is important to establish the serological profile of women before pregnancy. This study aimed to analyze the serology of toxoplasmosis among female students on the nursing course at Unoeste (Universidade do Oeste Paulista, in Presidente Prudente, SP. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 80 female students aged 18 to 35 years after they had signed the consent statement. Occurrences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies were determined using the ELISA method. This study was approved by the institution's ethics committee and was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory at Unoeste. RESULTS: Among the 80 blood samples analyzed, 27 female students were positive for IgG, whereas none of them were positive for

  12. An assessment of Toxoplasmosis antibodies seropositivity in children suffering Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Afsharpaiman

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in comparing positive se-rology of toxoplasmosis, between the two groups. However, to obtain a perfect result, a larger sample size are required.

  13. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...... or fetuses with Down’s syndrome (patient controls), 23 (2.8%) pregnant women were treated with nitrofurantoin. The above differences between population controls and cases may be connected with recall bias, because the case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of nitrofurantoin use...... during the second and the third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Treatment with nitrofurantoin during pregnancy does not present detectable teratogenic risk to the fetus....

  14. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  15. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis o...

  16. Could miltefosine be used as a therapy for toxoplasmosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Maha M; Barakat, Ashraf M A; Amer, Eglal I; Younis, Layla K

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic protozoal disease affecting more than a billion people worldwide. The shortfalls of the current treatment options necessitate the development of non-toxic and well-tolerated, efficient alternatives especially against the cyst form. The current study was undertaken to investigate, for the first time, the potential potency of miltefosine against Toxoplasma gondii infection in acute and chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. Results showed that there is no evidence of anti-parasitic activity of miltefosine against T. gondii tachyzoites in acute experimental toxoplasmosis. However, anti-parasitic activity of miltefosine against T. gondii cyst stage in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis could not be excluded as demonstrated by significant reduction in brain cyst burden. Moreover, considerable morphological changes in the cysts were revealed by light and electron microscopy study and also by amelioration of pathological changes in the brain. Future studies should focus on enhancement of anti-toxoplasma activity of miltefosine against chronic toxoplasmosis using formulation based nanotechnology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting efficacy of miltefosine against chronic toxoplasmosis, thus, increasing the list of diseases that can be targeted by this drug.

  17. Plasticity of the human visual system after retinal gene therapy in patients with Leber’s congenital amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari, Manzar; Zhang, Hui; Cook, Philip A.; Cyckowski, Laura L.; Shindler, Kenneth S.; Marshall, Kathleen A.; Aravand, Puya; Vossough, Arastoo; Gee, James C.; Maguire, Albert M.; Baker, Chris I.; Bennett, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying plasticity in the visual cortex in response to visual impairment, vision restoration, and environmental interactions comes from animal studies. We evaluated human brain plasticity in a group of patients with Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA), who regained vision through gene therapy. Using non-invasive multimodal neuroimaging methods, we demonstrated that reversing blindness with gene therapy promoted long-term structural plasticity in the visual pathways emanating from the treated retina of LCA patients. The data revealed improvements and normalization along the visual fibers corresponding to the site of retinal injection of the gene therapy vector carrying the therapeutic gene in the treated eye compared to the visual pathway for the untreated eye of LCA patients. After gene therapy, the primary visual pathways (for example, geniculostriate fibers) in the treated retina were similar to those of sighted control subjects, whereas the primary visual pathways of the untreated retina continued to deteriorate. Our results suggest that visual experience, enhanced by gene therapy, may be responsible for the reorganization and maturation of synaptic connectivity in the visual pathways of the treated eye in LCA patients. The interactions between the eye and the brain enabled improved and sustained long-term visual function in patients with LCA after gene therapy. PMID:26180100

  18. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy - questions in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleneky, Markéta

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy is a serious disease that may significantly affect fetal development and cause irreversible or therapeutically hardly influenced damage to the newborn. Early and correct diagnosis of the disease in the mother is essential for determining prognosis and further diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The case study combines a number of factors to be encountered in clinical practice which may complicate diagnostic considerations. One of them is the existence of a rare phenomenon of reinfection - its possible effects on prenatal screening and other interpretations of such findings. Another problem is the evaluation of the origin of sonographically confirmed fetopathy in relation to Toxoplasma etiology and the choice of next steps that should follow in this situation. Finally, the text discusses the selection of postnatal examinations so that they sufficiently contribute to decision-making about the newborn's treatment initiation.

  19. Cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis related with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Cristina S; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L; Vidal, José E; de Mattos, Cinara C Brandão; Motoie, Gabriela; Costa-Silva, Thais A; Gava, Ricardo; Frederico, Fábio B; de Mattos, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the synthesis of Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), and Interleukin 10 (IL-10) in chronically infected patients which developed the symptomatic disease as cerebral or ocular toxoplasmosis. Blood from 61 individuals were divided into four groups: Cerebral toxoplasmosis/AIDS patients (CT/AIDS group) (n = 15), ocular toxoplasmosis patients (OT group) (n = 23), chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR group) (n = 13) and healthy individuals (HI group) (n = 10). OT, CHR, and HI groups were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative. The diagnosis was made by laboratorial (PCR and ELISA) and clinical subjects. For cytokine determination, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of each patient were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 activities were determined by ELISA. Patients from CT/AIDS and OT groups had low levels of IFN-γ when were compared with those from CHR group. These data suggest the low resistance to develop ocular lesions by the low ability to produce IFN-γ against the parasite. The same patients, which developed ocular or cerebral toxoplasmosis had higher TNF-α levels than CHR individuals. High TNF-α synthesis contribute to the inflammatory response and damage of the choroid and retina in OT patients and in AIDS patients caused a high inflammatory response as the TNF-α synthesis is not affected since monocytes are the major source this cytokine in response to soluble T. gondii antigens. IL-10 levels were almost similar in CT/AIDS and OT patients but low when compared with CHR individuals. The deviation to Th2 immune response including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 may promote the parasite's survival causing the tissue immune destruction. IL-10 production in T. gondii-infected brains may support the persistence of parasites as down-regulating the intracerebral immune response. All these indicate that OT and CT

  20. Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses.

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    Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI, has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development.

  1. A novel mutation of p.F32I in GJA8 in human dominant congenital cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Feng-Tao; Yang, Fa-Yu; Yang, Ye-Qin; Ge, Xiang-Lian; Chen, Ding; Zhang, Liu; Yu, Xin-Ping; Gu, Feng; Zhu, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify a causative mutation in a three-generation family with autosomal dominant congenital total cataract and dissect the molecular consequence of the identified mutation. METHODS Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on the affected and unaffected family members. Mutation were screened in recruited family members by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the two reported genes (CRYAA and GJA8) which were linked to human total cataracts and direct sequencing of the PCR product. The molecular consequences of the identified mutation was dissected. The plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORF of Gja8, coding for connexin 50 (Cx50), were generated and ectopic expressed in 293 cells. Recombinant protein expression and cellular localization of recombinated Cx50 were assessed by confocal microscopy. RESULTS Clinical and ophthalmological examinations were performed on the affected and unaffected family members. Mutation were screened in recruited family members by PCR of the two reported genes (CRYAA and GJA8) which were linked to human total cataracts and direct sequencing of the PCR product. The molecular consequences of the identified mutation was dissected. The plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORF of Gja8, coding for Cx50, were generated and ectopic expressed in 293 cells. Recombinant protein expression and cellular localization of recombinated Cx50 were assessed by confocal microscopy. CONCLUSION This study has identified a novel cataract mutation in GJA8, which adds a novel mutation to the existing spectrum of Cx50 mutations with cataract. The molecular consequences of p.F32I mutation in GJA8 exclude instability and the mislocalization of mutant Cx50 protein. PMID:27990357

  2. Recombinant ROP2, ROP4, GRA4 and SAG1 antigen-cocktails as possible tools for immunoprophylaxis of toxoplasmosis: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadek, Bozena; Brzostek, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed foodborne zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent humans, toxoplasmosis is a serious clinical and veterinary problem often leading to lethal damage in an infected host. In order to overcome the exceptionally strong clinical and socio-economic impact of Toxoplasma infection, the construction of an effective vaccine inducing full immunoprotection against the parasite is an urgent issue. In the last two decades many live attenuated, subunit and DNA-based vaccines against toxoplasmosis have been studied, however only partial protection conferred by vaccination against chronic as well as acute infection has been achieved. Among various immunization strategies, no viable subunit vaccines based on recombinant secretory (ROP2, ROP4 and GRA4) and surface (SAG1) T. gondii proteins have been found as attractive tools for further studies. This is due to their high, but still partial, protective efficacy correlated with the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses.

  3. Clinical features and risk factors of patients with presumed ocular toxoplasmosis

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    Ukamaka Celestina Fuh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with POT were rather old and some risk factors were modifiable, therefore health education for preventing the transmission of toxoplasmosis and provision of sanitary water may help reduce the incidence of ocular toxoplasmosis.

  4. Infección de citomegalovirus y toxoplasmosis cerebral en paciente con sida

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1989-01-01

    Veinticinco imágenes de una infección de citomegalovirus y una toxoplasmosis cerebral en un paciente con sida. Twenty-five pictures of a cytomegalovirus infection and a cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS.

  5. [Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic zoonoses prevalent in Chile: count and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica, Francisco; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Torres, Marisa; Padilla, Oslando

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis, cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis often found in humans, is transmitted mainly by food and water, and is considered a significant risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women, newborns and immunocompromised patients. To identify the information about this zoonosis and its first reports in Chile. Review of publications in Pubmed, Mesh search of systematic reviews, case studies, cross-sectional studies, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and specialty publications. In addition, other publications in parasitology journals were analyzed. There are reports of the presence of this disease in Chile for 60 years. During this time several differences in prevalence depending on geographic location, age and education level of the population have been detected. There is low epidemiological vigilance and lack of specific official preventive measures for this disease, despite the possible introduction of new parasite genotypes of an increased virulence and pathogenicity in the country through the importation of meat. New enigmas have arisen in relation to this disease associating it with Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, autism, learning disabilities, among others.

  6. [Congenital epulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Tavares, H; Santos, H; M-Pinto, I; Ramos, M; de Sousa, P

    2009-01-01

    Congenital epulis or gingival granular cell tumor is an uncommon benign tumor, usually diagnosed at birth as a pediculated maxilar gingival mass. Although some cases of spontaneous regression have been described, most of the lesions are surgically removed with excelent prognosis and cosmetic final result. The authors describe a case report as well as a short revision on this pathology.

  7. Congenital amusias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, B; Albouy, P; Caclin, A

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the sophisticated music processing reported in the general population, individuals with congenital amusia show deficits in music perception and production. Congenital amusia occurs without brain damage, sensory or cognitive deficits, and has been suggested as a lifelong deficit with genetic origin. Even though recognized for a long time, this disorder has been systematically studied only relatively recently for its behavioral and neural correlates. The currently most investigated hypothesis about the underlying deficits concerns the pitch dimension, notably with impaired pitch discrimination and memory. Anatomic and functional investigations of pitch processing revealed that the amusic brain presents abnormalities in the auditory and inferior frontal cortices, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures. The deficit also impairs processing of pitch in speech material and processing of the time dimension in music for some of the amusic individuals, but does not seem to affect spatial processing. Some studies suggest at least partial dissociation in the disorder between perception and production. Recent studies revealed spared implicit pitch perception in congenital amusia, supporting the power of implicit cognition in the music domain. Current challenges consist in defining different subtypes of congenital amusia as well as developing rehabilitation programs for this "musical handicap."

  8. Identification of a Novel GJA8 (Cx50) Point Mutation Causes Human Dominant Congenital Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiang-Lian; Zhang, Yilan; Wu, Yaming; Lv, Jineng; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary cataracts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous lens diseases that cause a significant proportion of visual impairment and blindness in children. Human cataracts have been linked with mutations in two genes, GJA3 and GJA8, respectively. To identify the causative mutation in a family with hereditary cataracts, family members were screened for mutations by PCR for both genes. Sequencing the coding regions of GJA8, coding for connexin 50, revealed a C > A transversion at nucleotide 264, which caused p.P88T mutation. To dissect the molecular consequences of this mutation, plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORFs of Gja8 were generated and ectopically expressed in HEK293 cells and human lens epithelial cells, respectively. The recombinant proteins were assessed by confocal microscopy and Western blotting. The results demonstrate that the molecular consequences of the p.P88T mutation in GJA8 include changes in connexin 50 protein localization patterns, accumulation of mutant protein, and increased cell growth.

  9. High frequency detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in human neonatal tissue from Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Sameena Z H; Abushahama, Muftah S; Gerwash, Omar; Hughes, Jacqueline M; Wright, Elizabeth A; Elmahaishi, Mohamed S; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Thomasson, Denise; Hide, Geoff

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that causes significant disease in humans. Toxoplasmosis is normally asymptomatic, unless associated with congenital transmission, or in immunocompromised people. Congenital transmission generally occurs at low frequencies. In this study, we use PCR to investigate possible congenital transmission of T. gondii during pregnancy in a cohort of mothers from Libya. Two hundred and seventy two pregnant women (producing 276 neonates) were recruited to obtain umbilical cord tissue from their neonates at birth; DNA was extracted from that tissue and tested for T. gondii DNA using two specific PCR protocols based on the sag 1 and sag 3 genes. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the umbilical cord DNA from 27 of the 276 neonates giving a prevalence of 9.9% (95% CI 6.8-13.9%). Compared with more commonly reported rates of congenital transmission of 0.1% of live births, this is high. There was no association of infection with unsuccessful pregnancy. This study shows a high frequency presence of T. gondii DNA associated with neonatal tissue at birth in this cohort of 276 neonates from Libya. Although PCR cannot detect living parasites, there is the possibility that this indicates a higher than usual frequency of congenital transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion Caused by Toxoplasmosis in an Adolescent

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    Elizabeth Chiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO, while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. Case: A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable workup as well as a cardiovascular workup which were both normal. A rheumatologic workup was unremarkable. By 3 weeks, a patch of retinitis was more easily distinguished from the BRAO and the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made. Treatment was started with prednisone and azithromycin with subsequent improvement in vision. Toxoplasma antibody levels were elevated for IgG and negative for IgM, IgA, and IgE. The etiology of the BRAO was attributed to ocular toxoplasmosis. Conclusions: Vascular occlusions are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the third case report of a BRAO in a patient in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in young patients with retinal artery occlusions associated with inflammation.

  11. Branch retinal artery occlusion caused by toxoplasmosis in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Debra A; Shapiro, Michael J; Mets, Marilyn B

    2012-09-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable workup as well as a cardiovascular workup which were both normal. A rheumatologic workup was unremarkable. By 3 weeks, a patch of retinitis was more easily distinguished from the BRAO and the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made. Treatment was started with prednisone and azithromycin with subsequent improvement in vision. Toxoplasma antibody levels were elevated for IgG and negative for IgM, IgA, and IgE. The etiology of the BRAO was attributed to ocular toxoplasmosis. Vascular occlusions are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the third case report of a BRAO in a patient in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in young patients with retinal artery occlusions associated with inflammation.

  12. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, W; Edelhofer, R; Zenker, W; Möstl, K; Kübber-Heiss, A; Prosl, H

    2005-03-01

    Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schönbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens; 58 % of kittens died between the 2nd and the 14th week of life, mostly due to acute toxoplasmosis. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats was examined and a control strategy to protect the kittens from fatal toxoplasmosis was developed. One 12-week-old kitten from a litter of 6 born in 2001 died of generalized toxoplasmosis. This kitten had shed T. gondii oocysts that were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated in tissue culture inoculated with tissues of these mice. The surviving animals were immediately treated with clindamycin for 16 weeks; they acquired a natural infection and seroconverted by the end of this time without clinical signs.

  13. Successful Treatment of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis with Clindamycin: A Case Report

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    Deepak Madi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is generally a late complication of HIV infection and usually occurs in patients with CD4 + T-cell counts below 200/μl. Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole is the most common drug used in India for the treatment of AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis. Other alternative drugs used for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis are clindamycin plus pyrimethamine and clarithromycin with pyrimethamine.A 30-year-old male known case of retroviral disease presented to Kasturba Medical College, India, with complaints of fever, headache and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of his brain showed irregular ring enhancing lesion in the right basal ganglia. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the CT features and serology, diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with clindamycin alone as he had historyof sulfonamide allergy. The patient was symptomatically better after 48 hours. After 21 days, repeat CT of brain was done which was normal. The patient showed good clinical improvement within 48 hours and the lesion resolved completely within 3 weeks. The authors recommend using clindamycin without pyrimethamine in resource poor settings and in patients who do not tolerate sulfa drugs.

  14. Progress on Toxoplasmosis%弓形虫病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘侠; 阚松鹤; 林青

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii ,a zoonotic protozoon parasite ,is an important of obligate intracellular para‐site which is food‐borne and waterborne .It can infect almost all warm blooded animals ,and this parasite is an important factor of abortion in human and animals .Toxoplasmosis ,a serious threat to human and ani‐mal health ,was reported thoughout five continents of world .The article summarized the research progress on pathogens ,genotype ,epidemiology ,diagnosis ,harm ,control and prevention of toxoplasmosis ,so as to provide a reference for the related research and effective prevention and control of toxoplasmosis .%弓形虫为人兽共患性寄生原虫,是一类重要的水源性和食源性专性细胞内寄生的寄生虫,能够感染几乎所有的温血动物,是引起人和动物流产的一个重要致病因素。弓形虫病世界五大洲各地均有报道,严重威胁着人类和动物的健康。文章对弓形虫病的病原体、流行病学、危害、诊断和防控等方面的研究进展进行了全面综述,为弓形虫病的相关研究和有效防控提供参考。

  15. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Amany M.; Ahmed, Azza K.; Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  16. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Amany M; Ahmed, Azza K; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women.

  17. Diagnóstico molecular da toxoplasmose: revisão Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Kompalic-Cristo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose infecta milhões de pessoas no mundo inteiro, sendo que a prevalência da infecção humana na maioria dos países está entre 40% e 50%. No Brasil essa taxa aumenta até 80%, dependendo da área estudada. Na maioria dos hospedeiros a infecção é assintomática. A mulher grávida com sorologia negativa pode contribuir para o incremento da morbidade, transmitindo o Toxoplasma gondii para o feto, através da placenta, se adquirir toxoplasmose aguda durante a gravidez. O diagnóstico da toxoplasmose aguda é baseado na detecção de IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii circulante. A alta sensibilidade das técnicas sorológicas atuais trouxe a realidade da presença de IgM residuais confundindo muitas vezes o diagnóstico final. Nesse sentido, as técnicas moleculares, tais como a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, podem ajudar a uma melhor interpretação do estado real da interação parasito/homem, embora sejam ainda pouco validadas para uso na rotina de diagnóstico laboratorial da toxoplasmose.Toxoplasmosis infects millions of people worldwide. The prevalence of human infection in many countries is estimated in approximately 40% to 50%. In Brazil this rate increases up to 80%, depending on the studied area. The majority of human hosts present the infection as asymptomatic carriers. Serologically negative pregnant women may contribute to a higher morbidity of the disease due to parasite transmission to the fetus via placenta if acute toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy. The diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis has relied on the evidence of circulating anti-parasite IgM. The high sensitivity of the present serological techniques has brought results of residual IgM eventually confounding final diagnosis. In this scenario, the molecular techniques, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, may promote a better interpretation of the real status of human/parasite interaction, although they have not been extremely validated for

  18. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from autopsy proven cases of AIDS associated cerebral toxoplasmosis in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, B R; Lekshmi, Swathi U; Sai Kant, R; Vaigundan, D; Mahadevan, Anita; Rajendran, C; Shankar, S K; Jayshree, R S

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) infection can be devastating in the immunodeficient causing high morbidity and mortality. Due to limited availability of both diagnostic facilities and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), toxoplasmosis continues to be a significant problem amongst Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in India. While scanty literature is available on T. gondii isolates in animals in India, little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite in humans. Therefore, the present study investigated the genetic diversity of T. gondii in 25 confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis developing on the background of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/AIDS. PCR DNA sequencing was performed at four important genetic loci of T. gondii: BTUB, GRA6, alternative SAG2 (alt SAG2) and SAG3 on DNA from tissues obtained at postmortem. The amplified products from all the cases were successfully sequenced except at one locus for one case. Results of the present study suggest that majority of the patients (22/25; 88%) in South India are infected with strains that are recombinants of type II/III and/or strains representing T. gondii different from the archetypal lineages I, II, and III. In addition, clonal types III, MAS, and MAS variant genotypes were encountered. No clonal type I or II was seen in the present study. In addition, variants were observed at alt SAG2 and SAG3 but BTUB and GRA6 were highly conserved. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed mainly at two loci which are coding for surface antigens at alt SAG2 and SAG3. In conclusion, the present study reveals genetic diversity in India amongst strains of T. gondii from clinical cases of toxoplasmosis which is in accordance with other recent studies showing a high rate of genetic diversity in this parasite across the globe. There is a need to genotype T. gondii from different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans in India.

  19. Use of low birth weight as selecting criterion for the routine surveillance of congenital anomalies of infectious origin.

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    Antonio José Bermúdez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveillance of congenital anomalies receives importance in the world-wide context of eradicating the congenital rubella syndrome. Objective: To identify the congenital anomalies and to consider the low birth weight  a criterion to test IgM for the complex TORCH. Methodology: Surveillance of the congenital specific and non specific anomalies of the congenital rubella syndrome(CRS and low birth weight in ten hospitals. It was considered as case, everything new born with some congenital anomaly or low weight for the gestational age. Serum tests for rubella, toxoplasmosis, citomegalovirus, herpes and parvovirus were practiced. For the negative cases cariotype was performed. Results: A total of 840 cases were selected, 669 by low weight for the gestational age, 52 by anomalies not related to CRS, 52; by anomalies that could be related to the CRS, 105. The most frequent anomalies were congenital heart diseases,  5.1%; hepatosplenomegalies, 3.9%; and microcephalies, 1.2%. There were confirmatory IgM titles for rubella in 0.5% of cases; toxoplasmosis 1.4%; citomegalovirus 1.5%; parvovirus 1.2%; herpes 0.5%; and positive test for congenital syphilis, 3.7%. In total there were 8.8% positive results for any congenital infectious disease. The relative risk for low birth weight having IgM positive rubella was RR = 2.83 (IC: 1.26:6.36-0.95. Discussion and conclusions: The surveillance for CRS, through the monitoring of febrile in the first year and by the presence of some specific congenital anomalies, could be improved in sensitivity by means of the routine monitoring of congenital anomalies, with the inclusion of low birth weight, like a selecting criterion to study the infectious agents.

  20. [Congenital hydrocephalus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón-Valdez, J

    2006-04-10

    Congenital hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly is a disorder that now can be diagnosed in uterus with ultrasonography, this gives the chance of being able to give a treatment the earliest as possible. The clinical manifestations are reviewed, the diagnosis, the frequent treatment and causes of congenital hydrocephalus, being the first agenesis of the Sylvius' aqueduct, followed by Arnold-Chiari's malformations with mielomeningocele. In most of the cases the peritoneal-ventricle shunt is the best surgery treatment and now, the treatment with ventriculostomy of third ventricle by endoscopy has fewer complications apparently and in several cases it is the definitive treatment. The evolution of the diagnosis with the support of specific therapies is effective and the early treatment is good, of course taking into account the etiology.

  1. Juvenile polyarteritis nodosa associated with toxoplasmosis presenting as Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Özge; Çakar, Nilgün; Gür, Gökçe; Kocabaş, Abdullah; Gülhan, Belgin; Çaycı, Fatma Şemsa; Çelikel, Banu Acar

    2014-04-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis characterized by inflammatory necrosis of medium-sized arteries. Juvenile PAN and Kawasaki disease (KD) both cause vasculitis of the medium-sized arteries, and share common features. They have overlapping clinical features. Treatment should be managed according to the severity of symptoms and persistence of clinical manifestations. Herein is described the case of a 14-year-old boy first diagnosed with KD, who then fulfilled the criteria for juvenile PAN due to the development of severe myalgia, persistent fever, polyneuropathy and coronary arterial dilatation. He also had acute toxoplasmosis at the onset of vasculitis symptoms. The final diagnosis was of juvenile PAN associated with toxoplasmosis infection. Toxoplasma infection can be considered as an etiological agent for PAN and other vasculitis syndromes. Awareness of toxoplasmosis-related PAN facilitates early diagnosis, and instigation of appropriate treatment.

  2. [Fever and lymphadenopathy: acute toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparos, Nikolaos; Favrat, Bernard; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2014-11-26

    Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In Switzerland about a third of the population has antibodies against this pathogen and has thus already been in contact with the parasite or has contracted the disease. Immunocompetent patients are usually asymptomatic (80-90%) during primary infection. The most common symptom is neck or occipital lymphadenopathy. Serology is the diagnostic gold standard in immunocompetent individuals. The presence of IgM antibodies is however not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. Distinction between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis requires additional serological tests (IgG avidity test). If required, the most used and probably most effective treatment is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, with folinic acid.

  3. [Congenital aniridia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruţa, Daria; Stan, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Aniridia is a rare congenital, hereditary, bilateral disease which is associated with various systemic and ocular defects. We present the case of a 61 year old patient who was admitted in the hospital of ophthalmology Cluj Napoca, for the symptoms caused by the ocular defects associated with aniridia. In this case, aniridia is autosomal dominant transmitted with incomplete penetrance and it is not accompanied by any systemic defects. The disease also affects three of her sons and two nephews of the patient.

  4. Congenital Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estey, Chelsie M

    2016-03-01

    There are several types of hydrocephalus, which are characterized based on the location of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation. Physical features of animals with congenital hydrocephalus may include a dome-shaped skull, persistent fontanelle, and bilateral ventrolateral strabismus. Medical therapy involves decreasing the production of CSF. The most common surgical treatment is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Postoperative complications may include infection, blockage, drainage abnormalities, and mechanical failure.

  5. Congenital Thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆钺

    2011-01-01

    @@ Platelets are essential for normal hemostasis.Platelets adhere to damaged blood vessels, and then aggregate and promote activation of coagulation factors, resulting to ceasing bleeding.Both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of platelets can cause bleeding problems.Among them, immune thrombocytopenias are the most common conditions.However, congenital thrombocytopenias are often neglected because of their relative rarity and complex laboratory tests.That causes misdiagnosis and unnecessary and potentially harmful treatments for many patients.

  6. Congenital diplopodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jason S.; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Costouros, John G.; Boakes, Jennette; Greenspan, Adam [University of California, Davis, Department of Radiology, 4860 Y. Street, Suite 3100, CA 95817, Davis (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Diplopodia, or duplicated foot, is a rare congenital anomaly. It differs from polydactyly in that supernumerary metatarsal and tarsal bones are present as well as extra digits. Only a few cases of this anomaly have been reported in the literature to date. We present a newborn male without intrauterine teratogen exposure who was born with a duplicate foot of the left lower extremity and imperforate anus. (orig.)

  7. [Congenital ranula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maria Inês; Morais, Sofia; Coutinho, Sílvia; de Castro, Ochoa; Rei, Ana Isabel

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a case of congenital ranula diagnosed by a routine prenatal ultrasonography at 21 weeks of gestation. The fetal kariotype was normal. Follow-up ultrasound scans revealed no changes in the size or the position of the cyst. Fetal growth was normal as was the amniotic fluid volume. Surgical treatment was performed 3 days after a normal vaginal delivery, with excellent results.

  8. Addition of oral iron to plasma transfusion in human congenital hypotransferrinemia: A 10-year observational follow-up with the effects on hematological parameters and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Deniz

    2017-09-12

    Congenital hypotransferrinemia (OMIM 209300) is an extremely rare disorder of inherited iron metabolism. Since its description in 1961, only 16 cases have been reported. The defective gene and molecular defect causing this disorder and clinicolaboratory findings seen in the homozygous and heterozygous states have been documented in both humans and mice. However, due to the lack of follow-up studies of the described cases, the long-term prognosis remains unknown. We present a 10-year observational follow-up of a patient previously diagnosed on a molecular basis who was treated with a unique therapy of plasma transfusion fortified with oral iron, with satisfactory clinicolaboratory responses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Vaccination with Recombinant Microneme Proteins Confers Protection against Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; Almeida, Fausto; Lai, Livia; Lopes, Carla Duque; Lourenço, Elaine Vicente; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Matthews, Stephen; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an important public health problem and veterinary concern. Although there is no vaccine for human toxoplasmosis, many attempts have been made to develop one. Promising vaccine candidates utilize proteins, or their genes, from microneme organelle of T. gondii that are involved in the initial stages of host cell invasion by the parasite. In the present study, we used different recombinant microneme proteins (TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6) or combinations of these proteins (TgMIC1-4 and TgMIC1-4-6) to evaluate the immune response and protection against experimental toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with recombinant TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6 alone conferred partial protection, as demonstrated by reduced brain cyst burden and mortality rates after challenge. Immunization with TgMIC1-4 or TgMIC1-4-6 vaccines provided the most effective protection, since 70% and 80% of mice, respectively, survived to the acute phase of infection. In addition, these vaccinated mice, in comparison to non-vaccinated ones, showed reduced parasite burden by 59% and 68%, respectively. The protective effect was related to the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by vaccination and included the release of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12, antigen-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, and production of antigen-specific serum antibodies. Our results demonstrate that microneme proteins are potential vaccines against T. gondii, since their inoculation prevents or decreases the deleterious effects of the infection.

  10. Vaccination with Recombinant Microneme Proteins Confers Protection against Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Figueiredo Pinzan

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an important public health problem and veterinary concern. Although there is no vaccine for human toxoplasmosis, many attempts have been made to develop one. Promising vaccine candidates utilize proteins, or their genes, from microneme organelle of T. gondii that are involved in the initial stages of host cell invasion by the parasite. In the present study, we used different recombinant microneme proteins (TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6 or combinations of these proteins (TgMIC1-4 and TgMIC1-4-6 to evaluate the immune response and protection against experimental toxoplasmosis in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with recombinant TgMIC1, TgMIC4, or TgMIC6 alone conferred partial protection, as demonstrated by reduced brain cyst burden and mortality rates after challenge. Immunization with TgMIC1-4 or TgMIC1-4-6 vaccines provided the most effective protection, since 70% and 80% of mice, respectively, survived to the acute phase of infection. In addition, these vaccinated mice, in comparison to non-vaccinated ones, showed reduced parasite burden by 59% and 68%, respectively. The protective effect was related to the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by vaccination and included the release of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12, antigen-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, and production of antigen-specific serum antibodies. Our results demonstrate that microneme proteins are potential vaccines against T. gondii, since their inoculation prevents or decreases the deleterious effects of the infection.

  11. Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy: Essentials for Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses.

  12. Serological screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, J; Novak-Antolic, Z; Zore, A

    1995-01-01

    In the period from 1981 to 1994, serological screening for toxoplasmosis was carried out in 20,953 pregnant women in Slovenia. Seropositivity among pregnant women was found to have decreased from 52% in the 1980s to 37% in the recent period, 1991-94, while during the same period the incidence of suspected primary infections acquired in pregnancy rose from 0.33% to 0.75%. These latest figures ought to promote an informed debate on the possible need for obligatory serological screening of pregnant women in Slovenia for toxoplasmosis.

  13. Mutations in SMG9, Encoding an Essential Component of Nonsense-Mediated Decay Machinery, Cause a Multiple Congenital Anomaly Syndrome in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Anazi, Shams; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Seidahmed, Mohammed Zain; Caddle, L. Brianna; Palmer, Kristina; Ali, Rehab; Alshidi, Tarfa; Hagos, Samya; Goodwin, Leslie; Hashem, Mais; Wakil, Salma M.; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Colak, Dilek; Murray, Stephen A.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is an important process that is best known for degrading transcripts that contain premature stop codons (PTCs) to mitigate their potentially harmful consequences, although its regulatory role encompasses other classes of transcripts as well. Despite the critical role of NMD at the cellular level, our knowledge about the consequences of deficiency of its components at the organismal level is largely limited to model organisms. In this study, we report two consanguineous families in which a similar pattern of congenital anomalies was found to be most likely caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SMG9, encoding an essential component of the SURF complex that generates phospho-UPF1, the single most important step in NMD. By knocking out Smg9 in mice via CRISPR/Cas9, we were able to recapitulate the major features of the SMG9-related multiple congenital anomaly syndrome we observed in humans. Surprisingly, human cells devoid of SMG9 do not appear to have reduction of PTC-containing transcripts but do display global transcriptional dysregulation. We conclude that SMG9 is required for normal human and murine development, most likely through a transcriptional regulatory role, the precise nature of which remains to be determined. PMID:27018474

  14. Toxoplasmosis as a cause of subacute thyroiditis in dogs (La toxoplasmosis como causa de tiroiditis subaguda en el perro)

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor A. Castillo; Gámbaro, Germán; Sinatra Verónica

    2006-01-01

    Resúmen La tiroiditis subaguda es causada por la acción de agentes infecciosos. Clínicamente se observa bocio, disfonía y disfagia. Respecto a la función tiroidea, puede haber hipertirotoxinemia debida a la ruptura de folículos, en tanto que la concentración de TSH se mantiene normal y la captación de yodo está disminuída. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar si la toxoplasmosis en perros puede afectar la morfología y función tiroidea. Se estudiaron 8 perros con toxoplasmosis comp...

  15. Risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P < 0.0001) and the low level of schooling/literacy (OT vs. OOD: OR 0.414, 95% CI 0.2231-0.7692, P = 0.007) were associated with OT. The presence of dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT.

  16. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  17. Congenital syphilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Kyung Soo; Hur, Don [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    In recent years, marked increase in incidence of congenital syphilis has occurred throughout the world due to changes in social norms and development of penicillin-resistant strains. Early diagnosis plays an important role in congenital syphilis as the clinical manifestations may simulate many other conditions in the paediatric age group. The authors analyzed 52 cases of congenital syphilis admitted to the department of paediatrics, Chosun University Hospital, clinically and radiologically. Among them, 18 cases were born in this hospital and 34 cases were admitted from OPD, during the period of 8 years from January, 1975 to December, 1982. The results obtained were as follows; 1. In 28 of 34 cases (82%), the first clinical manifestations were below the age of 3 months. 2. Among the 52 cases, a male predominance was observed with a male to female ratio of 2 : 1. 3. The serologic test (VDRL) of the 52 studied cases showed reactive response in 49 cases (94%), and that of syphilitic mothers except 6 cases, reactive in all studied cases. 4. The major manifestations of the 52 cases were bone tenderness (12%) and swelling of the joints (7%) in skeletal system, hepatosplenomegaly (79%) and skin lesions (73%) in extraskeletal one. 5. The radiological skeletal changes were detected in 45 of 52 cases (87%), and the commonest findings were detected in 45 of 52 cases (87%), and the commonest findings were metaphysitis (83%) and periostitis (81%). The most characteristic type of metaphysitis were transverse trophic line (74%) and zone of rarefaction (65%). 6. The commonest bones to be affected were growing metaphyses of the long bones, particulary about the wrist and the knee. The order of frequency were radius (80%), uina (80%), tibia (77%), femur (69%) and humerus (40%)

  18. Congenital hypoaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathi, Vanathi; Vijayakumar, M; Janakiraman, Lalitha; Nammalwar, B R

    2008-08-01

    Congenital hypoaldosteronism due to an isolated aldosterone biosynthesis defect is rare. We report a 4 month old female infant who presented with failure to thrive, persistent hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Investigations revealed normal serum 17 hydroxy progesterone and cortisol. A decreased serum aldosterone and serum 18 hydroxy corticosterone levels with a low 18 hydroxy corticosterone: aldosterone ratio was suggestive of corticosterone methyl oxidase type I deficiency. She was started on fludrocortisone replacement therapy with a subsequent normalization of electrolytes. Further molecular analysis is needed to ascertain the precise nature of the mutation.

  19. Development and Congenital Anomalies of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Tadokoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the pancreas develops is essential to understand the pathogenesis of congenital pancreatic anomalies. Recent studies have shown the advantages of investigating the development of frogs, mice, and chickens for understanding early embryonic development of the pancreas and congenital anomalies, such as choledochal cysts, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, annular pancreas, and pancreas divisum. These anomalies arise from failure of complete rotation and fusion during embryogenesis. There are many theories in the etiology of congenital anomalies of the pancreas. We review pancreas development in humans and other vertebrates. In addition, we attempt to clarify how developmental failure is related to congenital pancreatic anomalies.

  20. Advances in diagnostic techniques of toxoplasmosis%弓形虫病诊断方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯嘉轩; 赵永坤; 孟繁平; 吴泽民; 刘智; 李娜; 刘全

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe parasitic zoonosis caused byToxoplasma gondii, which poses a threat to human health. In this paper, the diagnostic techniques of toxoplasmosis and detection methods ofT. gondii were reviewed, including non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, serological assays, and molecular methods based on detection of parasite nucleic acid in hope of providing an insight into the development of novel diagnostic technologies and methods of toxoplasmosis.%弓形虫病是由弓形虫感染引起的一种严重的人兽共患寄生虫病,对人类健康造成极大威胁。本文对弓形虫病诊断技术,包括不依赖DNA检测诊断方法、血清学检测以及基于寄生虫核酸的分子生物学方法进行综述,为弓形虫病诊断技术和方法的发展提供新的思路。

  1. Sero-epidemiology of equine toxoplasmosis using a latex agglutination test in the three metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, M; Hussain, M H; Sajid, M S; Mansoor, M K; Asi, M N; Fadya, A A K; Zohaib, A; Sial, A U R; Muhammad, G; Ullah, I

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious threat for livestock in addition to being of zoonotic significance. In this study, serodiagnosis of equine toxoplasmosis was conducted in a randomly selected population from the 3 metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan. To this end, 272 draught equines were screened using a commercial latex agglutination assay kit. Association of probable risk factors of equine toxoplasmosis was also documented. A total of 91 (33.5%) equines were found sero-positive for Toxoplama (T.) gondii having antibody titers ranging between 1:32 to 1:612. The highest rates of seropositive cases were observed in donkeys (58.7%) followed by mules (28.6%) and horses (23.5%). Age, sex and species of draught equines were found not to be statistically (p>0.05) associated with the distribution of T. gondii antibodies. The results of the study provided a baseline data for the exposure of equine population in this area. In addition, it is recommended that the contiguous population of domestic ruminants and possible reservoirs such as feral cats should be screened in order to explore the potential risk for the human population in Pakistan.

  2. Toxoplasmosis, an overview with emphasis on ocular involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, V.N.A.; Kijlstra, A.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic zoonosis and an important cause of abortions, mental retardation, encephalitis, blindness, and death worldwide. Although a large body of literature has emerged on the subject in the past decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease r

  3. Toxoplasmosis, an overview with emphasis on ocular involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaren, V.N.A.; Kijlstra, A.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic zoonosis and an important cause of abortions, mental retardation, encephalitis, blindness, and death worldwide. Although a large body of literature has emerged on the subject in the past decades, many questions about the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease

  4. Towards vaccine against toxoplasmosis: evaluation of the immunogenic and protective activity of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 Toxoplasma gondii proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Marcin M; Dziadek, Bożena; Gatkowska, Justyna M; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Długońska, Henryka

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. An effective vaccine against human and animal toxoplasmosis is still needed to control this parasitosis. The polymorphic rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, secreted by Toxoplasma gondii during the invasion of the host cell have been recently considered as promising vaccine antigens, as they appear to be the major determinants of T. gondii virulence in mice. The goal of this study was to evaluate their immunogenic and immunoprotective activity after their administration (separately or both recombinant proteins together) with the poly I:C as an adjuvant. Immunization of BALB/c and C3H/HeOuJ mice generated both cellular and humoral specific immune responses with some predominance of IgG1 antibodies. The spleen cells derived from vaccinated animals reacted to the parasite's native antigens. Furthermore, the immunization led to a partial protection against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. These findings confirm the previous assumptions about ROP5 and ROP18 antigens as valuable components of a subunit vaccine against toxoplasmosis.

  5. Serological survey of caprine toxoplasmosis in Ethiopia: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshale S.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats in Southern and central Ethiopia between October 2005 and May 2006. A total of 641 goats sera were tested using Modified Direct Agglutination Test (MAT, of which 480 (74.8% CI: 71.3, 78.2 were found to be positive. The highest prevalence was recorded in South Omo zone (82% while the lowest was observed in East Shewa zone (62.2%. The study revealed that goats raised in southern Ethiopia are at a greater risk of acquiring T. gondii infection (OR = 2.55, CI: 1.726, 3.776; p = 0.000 than those which are raised in central Ethiopia. The prevalence of anti T. gondii antibody was significantly higher in older goats than in kids (OR = 2.33, CI: 1.490, 3.655; p < 0.0002 and in females than in males (p < 0.0007; OR = 0.68, CI: 0.542, 0.849. No significant difference was observed among goats kept under various husbandry practices. The high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Ethiopian goats suggests a high risk of human infections. Further epidemiological investigation, isolation and genotyping of T. gondii are planed.

  6. Mapping, cluster detection and evaluation of risk factors of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Condoleo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, is responsible for significant economic losses to the ovine industry worldwide. Moreover, ovine meat contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is considered as a common source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to develop point and risk profiling maps of T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep bred in Campania Region (Southern Italy and analyse risk factors associated at the flock-level. We used serological data from a previous survey of 117 sheep flocks, while environmental and farm management information were obtained from an analysis based on geographical information systems and a questionnaire purveyance, respectively. An univariate Poisson regression model revealed that the type of farm production (milk and meat vs only meat was the only independent variable associated with T. gondii positivity (P<0.02; the higher within-flock seroprevalence in milking herds suggests that milking practices might influence the spread of the infection on the farm. Neither environmental nor other management variables were significant. Since a majority of flocks were seasonally or permanently on pasture, the animals have a high exposure to infectious T. gondii oocysts, so the high within-flock seroprevalence might derive from this management factor. However, further studies are needed to better assess the actual epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in sheep and to clarify the factors that influence its presence and distribution.

  7. Tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis, observaciones en 112 pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Biagi

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 5 anos hemos tratado 112 casos de toxoplasmosis. La mayor parte presentaba abortos o coriorretinitis; algunos presentaban meningo-encefalitis, miocarditis y otras formas. Ocho por ciento de los pacientes presentaban dos cuadros anatomoclínicos de toxoplasmosis. Se administro en forma alterna pirimetamina, sulfametopirazina o espiramicina durante períodos prolongados, practicando reacción de Sabin y Feldman cada tres meses. La meta es negativizar la prueba serológica, la cual generalmente logramos. Clinicamente se aprecia curación al observar la desaparición de los fenômenos inflamatorios en el fondo del ojo, la desaparición de adenopatías u otros signos clínicos, ó el desarrollo de embarazos normales con productos normales en mujeres abortadoras. Considerando los graves problemas que hemos visto en hijos de madres con toxoplasmosis, preferimos tratar a éstas antes de nuevos embarazos.Along the last five years we have treated 112 cases of toxoplasmosis. The majority of them had abortion or corioretinitis; a few had meningo-encephalities, miocarditis or other forms: 8% o f the patients had two anatomoclinical pictures at the same time. The patients received pyrimethamine, sulphametopyrazine, or spiromycine on alternating periods for several months. A Sabin and Feldman test was repeated every three months. The target was obtaining negative serology, th is was accomplished on the majority of the cases. From the clinical stand point cure was supported by disapearance of inflamatory findings on the fundus, disappearing of adenopathy or other signs, as for the achievement of normal pregnancies with normal children in women with repeated abortion. Taking into account the serious secuelae that we have seen on children from mothers with toxoplasmosis, we prefer to treat the women before new pregnancies.

  8. Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Gregory D; Karns, Christina M; Dow, Mark W; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl's gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity), a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case), as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual stimulation (11-15° vs. 2-7°) in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl's gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory, and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex (PPC), frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal, and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in congenitally deaf adults.

  9. Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl’s gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity, a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case, as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral versus perifoveal visual stimulation (11-15° vs. 2°-7° in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl’s gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral versus perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex, frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in

  10. A new IgG immunoblot kit for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammari, Imen; Saghrouni, Fatma; Lakhal, Sami; Bouratbine, Aida; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

    2014-10-01

    The determination of the accurate immune status of pregnant women is crucial in order to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. Equivocal results with conventional serological techniques are not uncommon when IgG titers are close to the cut-off value of the test, so that a confirmatory technique is needed. For this purpose, we developed a homemade immunoblot (IB) using soluble extract of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and assessed it by testing 154 positive, 100 negative, and 123 equivocal sera obtained from pregnant women. In order to select the more valuable bands in terms of sensitivity and specificity, we used the Youden Index (YI). The highest YIs were those given by the 32, 36, 98, 21, and 33 bands. The simultaneous presence on the same blot of at least 3 bands showed a much higher YI (0.964) and was adapted as the positivity criterion. The analysis of results showed that our homemade IB correlated well with the commercial LDBIO Toxo II IgG® kit recently recommended as a confirmatory test (96.7% of concordance).

  11. The influence of latent toxoplasmosis on women's reproductive function: four cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankova, Sarka; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    Several studies have investigated the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908), pregnancy and fertility, but the results of studies focused on the fertility are rather ambiguous. Here we report results of four new cross-sectional studies. The studies were performed in the General University Hospital, Prague (study A with n = 1 165, and study C with n = 317), in private clinics of the Centre of Reproductive Medicine, Prague (study B with n = 1 016), and in a population of Czech and Slovak volunteers from the Facebook page 'Guinea Pigs' willing to participate in various basic science studies (study D with n = 524). In studies A and B, the clinical records were used to assess the fertility problems, whereas in studies C and D, the women were asked to rate their fertility problems using a six-point scale. Pregnant T. gondii-infected women were older than T. gondii-free women (study A: 33.1 vs 31.2, P associated burden than more severe but far rarer congenital toxoplasmosis.

  12. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplas...

  13. Hyperdense lesions in CT of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Lesiones hiperdensas en TC en la toxoplamosis cerebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiones Tapia, D.; Ramos Amador, A.; Monereo Alonso, A.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with stage IV C[sub 1] AIDS who presented hyperdense CT images 13 days after beginning antitoxoplasma treatment. These lesions could be caused by calcifications or blood. The attenuation values lead us to believe that they are calcium. Intracranial calcification in adult cerebral toxoplasmosis is an uncommon finding. Its presence in AIDS patients should not suggest any etiology other than toxoplasmosis. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memel, D.S.; DeRogatis, A.J.; William, D.C. (St. Luke' s-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis.

  15. Cerebral toxoplasmosis: case review and description of a new imaging sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masamed, R. [Department of Radiological Sciences, UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: rmasamed@mednet.ucla.edu; Meleis, A. [Princeton University, New Jersey, CA (United States); Lee, E.W. [Department of Radiological Sciences, UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hathout, G.M. [Department of Radiological Sciences, UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Neuroradiology, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Neuroradiology, West L.A. VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis can have catastrophic consequences in immunocompromised patients if left untreated. Accurate diagnosis is difficult, as there is substantial overlap between the imaging findings and presenting clinical syndromes of cerebral toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma. This paper reviews the previously described and fairly well-known post-contrast computed tomography (CT) and T1-weighted (W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) target signs seen in toxoplasmosis. In addition, it offers a new imaging sign, the T2W/FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) target sign, which is often seen in clinical practice but not well-published, as an aid to the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis.

  16. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abu Samraa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  17. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in patients from basic units of health from Gurupi, Tocantins, Brazil, from 2012 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitary disease that presents high rates of gestational and congenital infection worldwide being therefore considered a public health problem and a neglected disease.To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women and vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in their newborns attended in the Basic Units of Health (BUH from the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil.A prevalence study was performed, including 487 pregnant women and their newborns attended in the BUH of the urban zone of the city of Gurupi, state of Tocantins, Brazil, during the period from February 2012 to February 2014. The selection of the pregnant women occurred by convenience. In the antenatal admission they were invited to participate in this study. Three samples of peripheral blood were collected for the detection of specific anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM and IgA through ELISA, for the polimerase chain reaction (PCR and IgG avidity during pregnancy. When IgM antibodies were detected the fetal and newborn infection investigation took place. The newborn was investigated right after birth and after one year of age through serology and PCR to confirm/exclude the vertical transmission. The analyses were performed in the Studies of the Host-Parasite Relationship Laboratory (LAERPH, IPTSP-UFG, Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil. The results were inserted in a data bank in Epi-Info 3.3.2 statistic software in which the analysis was performed with p≤5%.The toxoplasmosis infection was detected in 68.37% (333/487, CI95%: 64.62-72.86. The toxoplasmosis chronic infection prevalence was of 63.03% (307/487, CI95%: 58.74-67.32. The prevalence of maternal acute infection was of 5.33% (26/487; CI95%: 3.3-7.3 suspected by IgM antibodies detection in the peripheral blood. The prevalence of confirmed vertical transmission was of 28% (7/25; CI95%: 10.4-45.6.These results show an elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and vertical

  18. Absence of mutations in four genes encoding for congenital cataract and expressed in the human brain in Tunisian families with cataract and mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chograni Manèl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the genetic defect associated with autosomal recessive congenital cataract (ARCC, mental retardation (MR and ARCC, MR and microcephaly present in most patients in four Tunisian consanguineous families. Methods We screened four genes implicated in congenital cataract by direct sequencing in two groups of patients; those affected by ARCC associated to MR and those who presented also microcephaly. Among its three genes PAX6, PITX3 and HSF4 are expressed in human brain and one gene LIM2 encodes for the protein MP20 that interact with the protein galectin-3 expressed in human brain and plays a crucial role in its development. All genes were screened by direct sequencing in two groups of patients; those affected by ARCC associated to MR and those who presented also microcephaly. Results We report no mutation in the four genes of congenital cataract and its flanking regions. Only variations that did not segregate with the studied phenotypes (ARCC associated to MR, ARCC associated with MR and microcephaly are reported. We detected three intronic variations in PAX6 gene: IVS4 -274insG (intron 4, IVS12 -174G>A (intron12 in the four studied families and IVS4 -195G>A (intron 4 in two families. Two substitutions polymorphisms in PITX3 gene: c.439 C>T (exon 3 and c.930 C>A (exon4 in one family. One intronic variation in HSF4 gene: IVS7 +93C>T (intron 7 identified in one family. And three intronic substitutions in LIM2 gene identified in all four studied families: IVS2 -24A>G (intron 2, IVS4 +32C>T (intron 4 and c.*15A>C (3'-downstream sequence. Conclusion Although the role of the four studied genes: PAX6, PITX3, HSF4 and LIM2 in both ocular and central nervous system development, we report the absence of mutations in all studied genes in four families with phenotypes associating cataract, MR and microcephaly.

  19. Toxoplasmosis as a cause of subacute thyroiditis in dogs (La toxoplasmosis como causa de tiroiditis subaguda en el perro

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    Castillo, Víctor A.:

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Resúmen La tiroiditis subaguda es causada por la acción de agentes infecciosos. Clínicamente se observa bocio, disfonía y disfagia. Respecto a la función tiroidea, puede haber hipertirotoxinemia debida a la ruptura de folículos, en tanto que la concentración de TSH se mantiene normal y la captación de yodo está disminuída. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar si la toxoplasmosis en perros puede afectar la morfología y función tiroidea. Se estudiaron 8 perros con toxoplasmosis comprobada (título de anticuerpos por aglutinación directa [AD] > 1/128. La palpación tiroidea impresionó bocio, confirmado por ecografía de la glándula. La medición de TSH fue normal, en tanto que la tiroxina resultó normal en 4 casos, elevada en 3 y disminuída en un caso, sin signos de tirotoxicosis ni de hipotiroidismo respectivamente. Los perros fueron tratados con clindanmicina (12,5 mg/kg oral cada 12 hs por 30 días, siendo reevaluada la función y morfología tiroidea. En los 8 casos hubo remisión de los signos tiroideos y normalización de la tiroxina, al igual que la signología clínica. Se halló una correlación positiva entre título de anticuerpos AD y el volúmen tiroideo (r = 0,78, p160 %. Se concluye que la toxoplasmosis afecta la morfología tiroidea pudiéndose alterar su funcionamiento y desencadenar tiroiditis autoinmune en individuos predispuestos. Abstract Subacute thyroiditis is caused by the action of infectious agents Clinically, goitre, dysphonia and dysphagia can be observed. Hyperthyroxinemia may be present, while thyrotropine (TSH concentration stays normal and iodine uptake is reduced frequently. The objective of the present work was to investigate if toxoplasmosis in dogs can affect thyroid morphology and function. The study was conducted on eight dogs with proven high T. gondii titres (Direct aglutination 160% in spite of being euthyroid during the acute period of toxoplasmosis. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis

  20. Toxoplasmosis in wild turkeys: a case report and serologic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C F; Dubey, J P; Luttrell, M P; Davidson, W R

    1995-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a free-ranging wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) from West Virginia (USA) in June 1993. Gross findings included emaciation, splenomegaly, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and splenitis, and crusting dermatitis on the head and neck. Histologically, multifocal necrosis with mononuclear inflammation was present in kidney, liver, spleen, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed in sections of liver by avidin-biotin immunohistochemical analysis. Subsequently, a retrospective serosurvey of wild turkeys for T. gondii antibodies was conducted using turkey sera collected between 1984 and 1989. An antibody prevalence of 10% was detected in 130 birds from 21 locations in the southeastern United States. While wild turkeys in the Southeast have T. gondii antibodies, this is only the second natural case of fatal toxoplasmosis reported; it appears that wild turkeys infrequently develop clinical disease when infected with T. gondii.

  1. MRI of intracranial toxoplasmosis after bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, U.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Maschke, M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Prumbaum, M. [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Hospital Essen (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma encephalitis was confirmed by biopsy in three patients with bone marrow (BMT) or peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (PBSCT). All had MRI before antimicrobial therapy. The intensity of contrast enhancement was very variable. One patient had one large, moderately enhancing cerebral lesion and several smaller almost nonenhancing lesions. The second had small nodular and haemorrhagic lesions without any enhancement. The third had late cerebral toxoplasmosis and showed multiple lesions with marked contrast enhancement. The moderate or absent contrast enhancement in the two patients in the early phase of cerebral toxoplasmosis may be related to a poor immunological response, with a low white blood cell count in at least one patient. Both received higher doses of prednisone than the patient with late infection, leading to a reduced inflammatory response. In patients with a low leukocyte count and/or high doses of immunosuppressive therapy, typical contrast enhancement may be absent. (orig.)

  2. Congenital Heart Disease in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and genetics may play a role. Why congenital heart disease resurfaces in adulthood Some adults may find that ... in following adults with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy Women with congenital heart disease who ...

  3. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  4. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion Caused by Toxoplasmosis in an Adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Chiang; GOLDSTEIN, DEBRA A.; Shapiro, Michael J.; Mets, Marilyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. Case: A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable...

  5. Cardiac toxoplasmosis after heart transplantation diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, L A; Qamar, S; Ananthanarayanan, V; Husain, A N; Murks, C; Potter, L; Kim, G; Pursell, K; Fedson, S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of cardiac toxoplasmosis diagnosed by routine endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) intolerance on atovaquone prophylaxis. Data are not available on the efficacy of atovaquone as Toxoplasma gondii prophylaxis after heart transplantation. In heart transplant patients in whom TMP-SMX is not an option, other strategies may be considered, including the addition of pyrimethamine to atovaquone.

  6. A game-theoretic approach to valuating toxoplasmosis vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, David; Rychtář, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite often found in wild and domestic cats, and it is the cause of the disease toxoplasmosis. More than 60 million people in the United States carry the parasite, and the Centers for Disease Control have placed toxoplasmosis in their disease classification group Neglected Parasitic Infections as one of five parasitic diseases targeted as priorities for public health action. In recent years, there has been significant progress toward the development of a practical vaccine, so vaccination programs may soon be a viable approach to controlling the disease. Anticipating the availability of a toxoplasmosis vaccine, we are interested in determining when cat owners should vaccinate their own pets. We have created a mathematical model describing the conditions under which vaccination is advantageous. Our model can be used to predict the average vaccination level in the population. We find that there is a critical vaccine cost threshold above which no one will use the vaccine. A vaccine cost slightly below this threshold, however, results in high usage of the vaccine, and consequently in a significant reduction in population seroprevalence. Not surprisingly, we find that populations may achieve herd immunity only if the cost of vaccine is zero.

  7. Tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis, observaciones en 112 pacientes

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    Francisco Biagi

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 5 anos hemos tratado 112 casos de toxoplasmosis. La mayor parte presentaba abortos o coriorretinitis; algunos presentaban meningo-encefalitis, miocarditis y otras formas. Ocho por ciento de los pacientes presentaban dos cuadros anatomoclínicos de toxoplasmosis. Se administro en forma alterna pirimetamina, sulfametopirazina o espiramicina durante períodos prolongados, practicando reacción de Sabin y Feldman cada tres meses. La meta es negativizar la prueba serológica, la cual generalmente logramos. Clinicamente se aprecia curación al observar la desaparición de los fenômenos inflamatorios en el fondo del ojo, la desaparición de adenopatías u otros signos clínicos, ó el desarrollo de embarazos normales con productos normales en mujeres abortadoras. Considerando los graves problemas que hemos visto en hijos de madres con toxoplasmosis, preferimos tratar a éstas antes de nuevos embarazos.

  8. Congenital pachygyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-xia HU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the imaging and clinicopathological features of pachygyria limited in the right temporo-parieto-occipital lobe and the key points of its diagnosis and treatment, in order to improve the recognition of this disease.  Methods and Results A 2-year-old boy was admitted to hospital because of paroxysmal loss of consciousness and convulsion for 18 months with progressive aggravation. MRI showed malformations of cortical development in the right temporo-parieto-occipital lobe. Epileptic foci resection on the right temporo-parieto-occipital lobe was made. Histological examination after operation showed uneven thickening of gray matter, shrinking of white matter and disappearing cortical stratification, while a lot of dysmorphic neurons, balloon cells and scattered balloon cells in white matter appeared. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that dysmorphic neurons were positive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein SMI-32, microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2 and vimentin (Vim or neurofilament protein (NF. Both dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells expressed phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein (RPS6, while the former was stronger than the latter. Balloon cells were not positive for MAP-2 or Vim. No disturbance of consciousness or limb twitches occurred in this patient during one-year follow-up.  Conclusions Congenital pachygyria was cortical dysplasia caused by the early proliferation and migration disorder of brain, and should be distinguished with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD type Ⅱ b and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. Clinical history, imaging and histological features should be included in the diagnosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.02.005

  9. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that ... function, even though there are normal platelet numbers. Most ...

  10. Congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001114.htm Congenital heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a problem with the heart's structure ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis in Caribbean islands: Seroprevalence in pregnant women in ten countries, and isolation and report of new genetic types of Toxoplasma gondii from dogs from St. Kitts, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in the Caribbean countries. We investigated the prevalence of IgG and IgMantibodies in 437 pregnant women from 10 English speaking Caribbean countries. Antibodies (IgG) to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT, cut-off 1:6) were f...

  12. A detailed musculoskeletal study of a fetus with anencephaly and spina bifida (craniorachischisis), and comparison with other cases of human congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Malak A; Ziermann, Janine M; Gregg, Lydia; Diogo, Rui

    2017-03-07

    Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. about craniorachischisis. Here we provide a detailed report on the musculoskeletal structures of a fetus with craniorachischisis, as well as comparisons with the few descriptions for anencephaly and with musculoskeletal anomalies found in other congenital malformations. We focused in particular on the comparison with trisomies 13, 18, and 21 because neural tube defects have been associated with such chromosomal defects. Our results showed that many of the defects found in the fetus with craniorachischisis are similar not only to anomalies previously described in the available works on musculoskeletal phenotypes seen in fetuses with anencephaly and spina bifida, but also to a wide range of other different conditions/syndromes including trisomies 13, 18 and 21, and cyclopia. The fact that similar anomalies are seen commonly not only in a wide range of different syndromes, but also as variants of the normal human population and as the 'normal' phenotype of other animals, supports Pere Alberch's unfortunately named idea of a 'logic of monsters'. That is, it supports the idea that development is so constrained that both in 'normal' and abnormal development one sees certain outcomes being produced again and again because ontogenetic constraints only allow a few possible outcomes, thus also leading to cases where the anatomical defects of some organisms are similar to the 'normal' phenotype of other organisms. In fact, this applies not only to specific anomalies but also to general patterns, such as the fact that in pathological conditions affecting different regions of the body, one consistently sees more defects on the upper limbs than on the lower limbs. Such general patterns are, again, seen in the fetus examined for this study, which had 29 muscle anomalies on the right

  13. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan;

    2007-01-01

    with pyrimethamine-sulphonamide did not significantly reduce IgM or IgA sensitivity. Sensitivity was lowest for the immunofluorescence (IF) IgM test (10%) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgM test (29%), but similar for the immunosorbent agglutination assay (ISAGA) IgM (54%), ISAGA IgA (58...

  14. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O;

    2006-01-01

    acid 7.5 mg was administered twice weekly. Blood cell counts and body weight were recorded during follow-up. The plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were analysed in a subgroup of seven children, using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric...... detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5×109/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was 0.5×109/l or lower......A-antibodies on 3 mm blood spots collected from phenylketonuria [PKU cards (Guthrie cards)]. Toxoplasma-infected children received 3 months continuous treatment with 50–100 mg/kg per day sulfadiazine in two separate administrations and 1 mg/kg per day pyrimethamine after a 1-day loading dose of 2 mg/kg, and folinic...

  15. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: value of the buffy coat for the detection of circulating Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Capderou, Elodie; Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bailly, Sébastien; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Sterkers, Yvon; Touafek, Fériel; Bastien, Patrick; Pelloux, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of Toxoplasma tachyzoites circulating in blood using PCR is recommended for immunosuppressed patients at high risk for disseminated toxoplasmosis. Using a toxoplasmosis mouse model, we show that the sensitivity of detection is higher using buffy coat isolated from a large blood volume than using whole blood for this molecular monitoring.

  16. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.

  17. Primary toxoplasmosis with critical illness and multi-organ failure in an immunocompetent young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undseth, Øystein; Gerlyng, Per; Goplen, Anne K; Holter, Ellen S; von der Lippe, Elisabeth; Dunlop, Oona

    2014-01-01

    An immunocompetent young man became critically ill with multi-organ failure due to primary toxoplasmosis. Although treated successfully, he relapsed after 1 y with bilateral toxoplasmic chorioretinitis. Severe disseminated toxoplasmosis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients and may reflect an increased risk of relapse. Secondary prophylaxis must be considered.

  18. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Toxoplasmosis presented as a submental mass: a common disease, uncommon presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jian; Wang, Wei-Ya; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Submental mass secondary to toxoplasmosis is not common in clinical work. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is rarely considered by physicians. Here we describe a 50-year-old woman presented with a progressive, painful, submental and left neck swelling for 1 month. After having obtained an insufficient evidence from the fine-needle biopsy, the patient finally received an excisional biopsy which highly indicated the possibility of lymphadenopathy consistent with toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was finally established by a combination of the pathological criteria, together with the positive serological finding. According to review the clinical presentations, pathological characteristics, diagnostic standard and treatment of this disease, the article aims to remind otolaryngologists who are evaluating a neck mass should be aware of the infectious cause of lymphadenopathy and the possibility of toxoplasmosis.

  20. Disseminated toxoplasmosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a seronegative recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, M; Chew, E; Bajel, A; Kelsey, G; Panek-Hudson, Y; Mason, K; Szer, J; Ritchie, D; Slavin, M

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is increasingly diagnosed after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. In the majority of cases, reactivation of latent disease secondary to impaired cellular and humoral immunity after HSCT is believed to be the main pathogenetic mechanism. Hence, primary toxoplasmosis is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of infections after HSCT in a recipient who is seronegative for Toxoplasma gondii pre-transplant. We herein report a seronegative patient with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed primary disseminated toxoplasmosis 5 months after HSCT from a seronegative unrelated donor. A review of all reported cases of primary toxoplasmosis after HSCT revealed significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with negative pre-transplant Toxoplasma serology should therefore be considered at risk for toxoplasmosis after allogeneic HSCT. Possible prevention and monitoring strategies for seronegative recipients are reviewed and discussed in detail.

  1. 先天性人巨细胞病毒肝炎小鼠模型的建立%Development of a mouse model of congenital human cytomegalovirus hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俐; 彭丽; 李德丽; 孟繁峥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define that Human Cytom egalovirus(HCMV) can cross the placenta of the BALB/C mice and initiate congenital human cytom egalovirus hepatitis of the newborn mice.Methods HCMV-AD169 was injected into the intraperitoneum of mice when they were about 10 weeks old .Then, these of mice were arranged formating at random.After the neonatal mice were given birth,their livers were removed and were used for virus isolates,pathology testing and in situ hybridization .Results The results observed showed that pathological changes consisting of pointor multifocal necrosis,megakaryocytes.Inflammatory cells infiltrated in the necrotic area.Inclusion body located on one end of the cell nucleus,which made the cell like an "owe eye".Histology revealed the portal area inflammation.some local envelope thickened.Meanwhile the presence of virus sequences was confirmed by in situ hybridization, however, nothing was found in the normal controls.HCMV han also been isolated from the tissue supernatant.Conclusion Our research suggested that congenital human cytom egalovirus hepatitis of a neonatal mouse may be a result of transplacental transmission of HCMV during maternal infection.The mouse model will allow the study of the development of therapeutic agents on the congenital human cytom egalovirus hepatitis.%目的 探讨建立人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)先天性感染致新生鼠肝炎模型的可行性.方法 将HCMV-AD169接种至10周龄Balb/c雌雄小鼠腹腔后,随机选择配对.待雌鼠分娩后取出新生鼠肝脏,进行病毒分离、病理学检测及原位分子杂交检测.结果 病理学研究结果证实,HCMV感染的新生小鼠肝组织中见点、灶状坏死,并可见巨核细胞.坏死区炎细胞浸润.核内可见偏于一端的包涵体,使细胞呈"猫头鹰眼"样,汇管区可见炎细胞浸润.局部肝脏包膜增厚.原位杂交结果显示,病毒核酸存在于受感染肝细胞内.病毒分离结果证实在新生鼠肝组织上清液

  2. Tuning intracellular homeostasis of human uroporphyrinogen III synthase by enzyme engineering at a single hotspot of congenital erythropoietic porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ben Bdira, Fredj; González, Esperanza; Pluta, Paula; Laín, Ana; Sanz-Parra, Arantza; Falcon-Perez, Juan Manuel; Millet, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) results from a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen III synthase enzyme (UROIIIS) activity that ultimately stems from deleterious mutations in the uroS gene. C73 is a hotspot for these mutations and a C73R substitution, which drastically reduces the enzyme activity and stability, is found in almost one-third of all reported CEP cases. Here, we have studied the structural basis, by which mutations in this hotspot lead to UROIIIS destabilization. First, a strong interdependency is observed between the volume of the side chain at position 73 and the folded protein. Moreover, there is a correlation between the in vitro half-life of the mutated proteins and their expression levels in eukaryotic cell lines. Molecular modelling was used to rationalize the results, showing that the mutation site is coupled to the hinge region separating the two domains. Namely, mutations at position 73 modulate the inter-domain closure and ultimately affect protein stability. By incorporating residues capable of interacting with R73 to stabilize the hinge region, catalytic activity was fully restored and a moderate increase in the kinetic stability of the enzyme was observed. These results provide an unprecedented rationale for a destabilizing missense mutation and pave the way for the effective design of molecular chaperones as a therapy against CEP.

  3. Mutations in different functional domains of the human muscle acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit in patients with the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croxen, R; Newland, C; Beeson, D; Oosterhuis, H; Chauplannaz, G; Vincent, A; NewsomDavis, J

    1997-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a group of rare genetic disorders that compromise neuromuscular transmission. A subset of these disorders, the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS), is dominantly inherited and has been shown to involve mutations within the muscle acetylcholine rece

  4. Identification and functional analysis of a defect in the human ALG9 gene: definition of congenital disorder of glycosylation type IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christian G; Grubenmann, Claudia E; Eyaid, Wafaa; Berger, Eric G; Aebi, Markus; Hennet, Thierry

    2004-07-01

    Defects of lipid-linked oligosaccharide assembly lead to alterations of N-linked glycosylation known as "type I congenital disorders of glycosylation" (CDG). Dysfunctions along this stepwise assembly pathway are characterized by intracellular accumulation of intermediate lipid-linked oligosaccharides, the detection of which contributes to the identification of underlying enzymatic defects. Using this approach, we have found, in a patient with CDG, a deficiency of the ALG9 alpha 1,2 mannosyltransferase enzyme, which causes an accumulation of lipid-linked-GlcNAc(2)Man(6) and -GlcNAc(2)Man(8) structures, which was paralleled by the transfer of incomplete oligosaccharides precursors to protein. A homozygous point-mutation 1567G-->A (amino acid substitution E523K) was detected in the ALG9 gene. The functional homology between the human ALG9 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALG9, as well as the deleterious effect of the E523K mutation detected in the patient with CDG, were confirmed by a yeast complementation assay lacking the ALG9 gene. The ALG9 defect found in the patient with CDG--who presented with developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, and hepatomegaly--shows that efficient lipid-linked oligosaccharide synthesis is required for proper human development and physiology. The ALG9 defect presented here defines a novel form of CDG named "CDG-IL."

  5. Congenital Chagas disease: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Yves; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Buekens, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is a global problem, occurring on average in 5% of children born from chronically infected mothers in endemic areas, with variations depending on the region. This presentation aims to focus on and update epidemiological data, research methods, involved factors, control strategy and possible prevention of congenital infection with T. cruzi. Considering that etiological treatment of the child is always effective if performed before one year of age, the diagnosis of infection in pregnant women and their newborns has to become the standard of care and integrated into the surveillance programs of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus. In addition to the standard tests, polymerase chain reaction performed on blood of neonates of infected mothers one month after birth might improve the diagnosis of congenital infection. Recent data bring out that its transmission can be prevented through treatment of infected women before they become pregnant. The role of parasite genotypes and host genetic factors in parasite transmission and development of infection in foetuses/neonates has to be more investigated in order to better estimate the risk factors and impact on health of congenital infection with T. cruzi.

  6. Congenital Chagas disease: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Carlier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is a global problem, occurring on average in 5% of children born from chronically infected mothers in endemic areas, with variations depending on the region. This presentation aims to focus on and update epidemiological data, research methods, involved factors, control strategy and possible prevention of congenital infection with T. cruzi. Considering that etiological treatment of the child is always effective if performed before one year of age, the diagnosis of infection in pregnant women and their newborns has to become the standard of care and integrated into the surveillance programs of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus. In addition to the standard tests, polymerase chain reaction performed on blood of neonates of infected mothers one month after birth might improve the diagnosis of congenital infection. Recent data bring out that its transmission can be prevented through treatment of infected women before they become pregnant. The role of parasite genotypes and host genetic factors in parasite transmission and development of infection in foetuses/neonates has to be more investigated in order to better estimate the risk factors and impact on health of congenital infection with T. cruzi.

  7. Distal polyneuropathy in an adult Birman cat with toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Mari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 6-year-old female spayed Birman cat presented with a history of weight loss, stiff and short-strided gait in the pelvic limbs and reluctance to jump, progressing to non-ambulatory tetraparesis over 6 weeks. Poor body condition, dehydration and generalised muscle wastage were evident on general examination. Neurological examination revealed mildly depressed mental status, non-ambulatory flaccid tetraparesis and severely decreased proprioception and spinal reflexes in all four limbs. The neuroanatomical localisation was to the peripheral nervous system. Haematology, feline immunodeficiency virus/feline leukaemia virus serology, serum biochemistry, including creatine kinase and thyroxine, thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound did not reveal significant abnormalities. Electromyography revealed fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in axial and appendicular muscles. Decreased motor conduction velocities and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were detected in ulnar and sciatic–tibial nerves. Residual latency was increased in the sciatic–tibial nerve. Histologically, several intramuscular nerve branches were depleted of myelinated fibres and a few showed mononuclear infiltrations. Toxoplasma gondii serology titres were compatible with active toxoplasmosis. Four days after treatment initiation with oral clindamycin the cat recovered the ability to walk. T gondii serology titres and neurological examination were normal after 11 and 16 weeks, respectively. Clindamycin was discontinued after 16 weeks. One year after presentation the cat showed mild relapse of clinical signs and seroconversion, which again resolved following treatment with clindamycin. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of distal polyneuropathy associated with toxoplasmosis in a cat. This case suggests the inclusion of toxoplasmosis as a possible differential diagnosis for acquired polyneuropathies in

  8. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Annaba, Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerer, L; Bouzbid, S; Gourbdji, E; Mansouri, R; Bachi, F

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the department of Annaba, Algeria. We performed a cross-sectional study with analytical purposes. The study was collaboration between the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine of Annaba and Parasite Biology Department at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. A total of 1028 pregnant women who underwent prenatal diagnosis/visit were included over a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2009. Immunoglobulin G and M were assayed, using the microparticle enzyme method. The avidity test was used to determine the date of contamination according to age of pregnancy. Search for the parasite was made by inoculation of the placenta and cord blood in white mice. The study compared mother-to-child serological profiles using Western Blot (WB) IgG and IgM. Direct (not well-cooked meat) and indirect (presence of cat, gardening) indicators were recorded to search for parasite exposure. Seroprevalence was 47.8 % (95 % CI: 44.8 to 51.0) and the rate of active toxoplasmosis was 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.6 to 1.8). According to their immune status, this was the first serology for 41 % (CI95 %: 38.0-44.0) of women; 12 % (CI95 %: 10.5-14.6) of primiparous women had only one serology test during their entire pregnancy. Major risk factors were consumption of poorly-cooked meat and exposure to cats. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious issue and an effective prevention program is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. An estimation of the frequency of gestational toxoplasmosis in the Brazilian Federal District Contribuição para a estimativa da freqüência de toxoplasmose em gestantes do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio de Tolêdo Nóbrega

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute infections by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy (gestational toxoplasmosis are known to cause serious health problems to the fetus (congenital toxoplasmosis. In Brasília, there have been few studies on the incidence of toxoplasmosis. This report summarizes a retrospective study performed on 2,636 selected pregnant women attended by the public health system of Guará, a satellite-city of Brasília. In this survey, 17 cases of gestational toxoplasmosis were detected; 15 of which were primary maternal infection and the remaining 2 were consistent with secondary maternal infection. These results suggest an annual seroconversion rate of 0.64 percent (90 percent confidence interval: 0.38, 0.90.Infecções agudas pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii durante a gravidez (toxoplasmose em gestantes são conhecidas por causar sérios problemas de saúde ao feto (toxoplasmose congênita. Em Brasília, estudos sobre a incidência da toxoplasmose são escassos. Este relato resume um estudo retrospectivo realizado com um grupo selecionado de 2.636 gestantes assistidas pelo sistema público de saúde do Guará, cidade-satélite de Brasília. Nesta investigação, foram detectados 17 casos de toxoplasmose gestacional; 15 dos quais casos de infecção materna primária, e os 2 restantes consistentes com infecção materna secundária. Estes resultados sugerem uma taxa de soroconversão anual da ordem de 0,64 porcento (intervalo de confiança de 90 porcento: 0,38; 0,90.

  10. Seroprevalencia de la toxoplasmosis humana en Córdoba

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rendón González, J.; Moreno Montañez, T.; Becerra Martell, C.; Martínez Cruz, Setefilla

    1992-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio sobre seroprevalencia de la toxoplasmosis humana en Córdoba, mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta y hemaglutinación indirecta. La muestra encuestada se compone de 443 sueros, 356 personas supuestamente sanas (estudiantes fundamentalmente) y 87, consideradas de “alto riesgo” (enfermos del Hospital “Reina Sofía”). La positividad obtenida para el total de la muestra ha sido del 43,79 % con IFI y 53,50 % para HAI. Con respecto al sexo, la prevale...

  11. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella in pregnant women attending antenatal private clinic at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laure Stella Ghoma Linguissi; Bolni Marius Nagalo; Cyrille Bisseye; Thrse S Kagon; Mahamoudou Sanou; Issoufou Tao; Victoire Benao; Jacques Simpor; Bibiane Kon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella among pregnant women at Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso. Methods: All patient sera were tested for rubella and toxoplasmosis anti-IgG using commercial ELISA kits (PlateliaTM Rubella IgG and Platelia™Toxo IgG). The presence of anti-rubella and anti-toxoplasmosis IgM in serum samples was tested using commercial ELISA kits Platelia Rubella IgM and Platelia Toxo IgM. Results:Among all the pregnant women tested for toxoplasmosis and rubella, their prevalence were 20.3%and 77.0%, respectively. Pregnant women in the age group of 18-25 years showed the highest frequency of anti-toxoplasmosis (34.5%) and anti-rubella IgG (84.6%). The prevalence of anti-toxoplasma and anti-rubella IgG decreased between 2006 and 2008 from 32.7%to 12.1%and 84.6%to 65.0%, respectively. There was no significant association between age and the mean titer of anti-toxoplasmosis IgG among pregnant women. Conclusions: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and rubella is necessary in pregnant women in Burkina Faso because of the low immunization coverage rate of rubella and the high level of exposure to these two infections which can be harmful to the newborn if contracted by women before the third trimester of pregnancy.

  12. STATUS KEKEBALAN DAN FAKTOR RISIKO TOXOPLASMOSIS PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR HASIL RISKESDAS 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea Pangerti Jekti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis disebabkan oleh parasit Toxoplasma gondii. Diperkirakan sekitar 30 - 50% populasi dunia telah terinfeksi oleh toxoplasma, sebagian besar tanpa gejala. Penderita dengan kekebalan tubuh yang kuat apabila terinfeksi T. gondii pada umumnya tidak mengalami keadaan patologik yang nyata walaupun pada beberapa kasus dapat juga mengalami pembesaran kelenjar limfe, rasa lelah yang berlebihan, miokarditis akut, miositis hingga radang otak. Analisis ini bertujuan untuk mengukur hubungan kekebalan tubuh (titer antibodi pada wanita usia subur  terhadap kejadian toxoplasmosis  dan faktor risiko tingkat kekebalan tubuh. . Analisis ini menggunakan data potong lintang Riskesdas 2007. Subjek adalah wanita usia subur (WUS yang berusia 15-45 tahun. Kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis dilihat dengan mengukur kadar immunoglobulin G (IgG melalui tehnik ELISA (toxolisa. Subjek dikatakan tidak memiliki kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis jika toxolisanya <32 IU Sampel yang terpilih di analisis lebih lanjut untuk mengetahui faktor demografi, risiko, dan perilaku yang berhubungan dengan status kekebalan toksoplasmosis. Jumlah sampel yang terpilih dan mempunyai data yang lengkap sejumlah 6068 subjek dari 10521 women in repeoductive age. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa 63,7% memiliki kekebalan, dan 36,3% tidak memiliki kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis.  WUS yang berusia 15-17 tahun mempunyai risiko yang lebih tinggi untuk tidak memiliki kekebalan toxoplasmosis yaitu sebesar 26% (ORs=1,26, 95% CI 1,03-1,55, p=0,027, begitu juga dengan WUS yang berstatus Ibu Rumah Tangga (IRT dan pelajaryaitu 16% (ORs=1,16, 95% CI 1,04-1,30, p=0,007, dan WUS yang berstatus kawin yaitu 30% (ORs=1,30, 95% CI 1,13-1,49, p=0,000. WUS yang berusia 15-17 tahun, berstatus kawin, dan IRT serta pelajar, merupakan kelompok yang berisiko tidak memiliki kekebalan terhadap toxoplasmosis, sehingga perlu kewaspadaan untuk meningkatkan upaya pencegahan dan perlindungan terhadap toxoplasmosis.   Kata kunci

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2004-01-01

    To present the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings of prenatally diagnosed mosaic trisomy 16. A 30-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of a positive maternal serum screen result with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfreebeta-hCG). Cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid at 21 weeks' gestation revealed mosaicism for trisomy 16, 47,XX,+16[3]/46,XX[15]. Ultrasonography demonstrated right diaphragmatic hernia and agenesis of left umbilical artery. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The karyotype of the cord blood was 46,XX. Cytogenetic analyses of the multiple sampled tissue specimens showed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 in the placenta and 47,XX,+16/46,XX with various levels of trisomy 16 in the umbilical cord and skin. Molecular studies showed that the trisomy 16 in the placenta was likely to have resulted from a maternal meiosis II nondisjunction error. Partial dosage increase of an extra maternal allele was noted in the skin and umbilical cord. Fetuses with mosaic trisomy 16 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated MSAFP and MShCG. Fetal blood sampling is of a limited value in confirming mosaic trisomy 16 ascertained through amniocentesis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Loss-of-function mutations in the Nav1.7 gene underlie congenital indifference to pain in multiple human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Y P; MacFarlane, J; MacDonald, M L; Thompson, J; Dube, M-P; Mattice, M; Fraser, R; Young, C; Hossain, S; Pape, T; Payne, B; Radomski, C; Donaldson, G; Ives, E; Cox, J; Younghusband, H B; Green, R; Duff, A; Boltshauser, E; Grinspan, G A; Dimon, J H; Sibley, B G; Andria, G; Toscano, E; Kerdraon, J; Bowsher, D; Pimstone, S N; Samuels, M E; Sherrington, R; Hayden, M R

    2007-04-01

    Congenital indifference to pain (CIP) is a rare condition in which patients have severely impaired pain perception, but are otherwise essentially normal. We identified and collected DNA from individuals from nine families of seven different nationalities in which the affected individuals meet the diagnostic criteria for CIP. Using homozygosity mapping and haplotype sharing methods, we narrowed the CIP locus to chromosome 2q24-q31, a region known to contain a cluster of voltage-gated sodium channel genes. From these prioritized candidate sodium channels, we identified 10 mutations in the SCN9A gene encoding the sodium channel protein Nav1.7. The mutations completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype, and nine of these SCN9A mutations resulted in truncation and loss-of-function of the Nav1.7 channel. These genetic data further support the evidence that Nav1.7 plays an essential role in mediating pain in humans, and that SCN9A mutations identified in multiple different populations underlie CIP.

  15. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria due to a mutation in GATA1: the first trans-acting mutation causative for a human porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John D; Steensma, David P; Pulsipher, Michael A; Spangrude, Gerald J; Kushner, James P

    2007-03-15

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), an autosomal recessive disorder, is due to mutations of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS). Deficiency of UROS results in excess uroporphyrin I, which causes photosensitization. We evaluated a 3-year-old boy with CEP. A hypochromic, microcytic anemia was present from birth, and platelet counts averaged 70 x 10(9)/L (70,000/microL). Erythrocyte UROS activity was 21% of controls. Red cell morphology and globin chain labeling studies were compatible with beta-thalassemia. Hb electrophoresis revealed 36.3% A, 2.4% A(2), 59.5% F, and 1.8% of an unidentified peak. No UROS or alpha- and beta-globin mutations were found in the child or the parents. The molecular basis of the phenotype proved to be a mutation of GATA1, an X-linked transcription factor common to globin genes and heme biosynthetic enzymes in erythrocytes. A mutation at codon 216 in the child and on one allele of his mother changed arginine to tryptophan (R216W). This is the first report of a human porphyria due to a mutation in a trans-acting factor and the first association of CEP with thalassemia and thrombocytopenia. The Hb F level of 59.5% suggests a role for GATA-1 in globin switching. A bone marrow allograft corrected both the porphyria and the thalassemia.

  16. Congenital right hemidiaphragmatic agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Mirza; Zahid Bashir; Afzal Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm through which intestine and other viscera herniate into the chest. In extreme form of diaphragmatic maldevelopment, there might be a complete agenesis of diaphragm. A 45-day old male infant was presented with fever, cough and respiratory distress for a week. Chest radiograph showed right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The patient underwent surgical exploration and found to have an unusual and large defect of right...

  17. Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S.; Chatterjee, V

    2005-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder and results in severe neurodevelopmental impairment and infertility if untreated. Congenital hypothyroidism is usually sporadic but up to 2% of thyroid dysgenesis is familial, and congenital hypothyroidism caused by organification defects is often recessively inherited. The candidate genes associated with this genetically heterogeneous disorder form two main groups: those causing thyroid gland dysgenesis and those causin...

  18. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered 'Alala from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Rideout, Bruce A.; Gardiner, Chris H.; Ledig, David B.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ‘Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) is the most endangered corvid in the world, and intensive efforts are being made to reintroduce it to its former native range in Hawaii. We diagnosed Toxoplasma gondii infection in five free-ranging ‘Alala. One ‘Alala, recaptured from the wild because it was underweight and depressed, was treated with diclazuril (10 mg/kg) orally for 10 days. Antibodies were measured before and after treatment by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using whole T. gondii tachyzoites fixed in formalin and mercaptoethanol. The MAT titer decreased four-fold from an initial titer of 1:1,600 with remarkable improvement in physical condition. Lesions of toxoplasmosis also were seen in two partially scavenged carcasses and in a third fresh intact carcass. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed immunohistochemically by using anti-T. gondii specific serum. The organism was also cultured by bioassay in mice from tissues of one of these birds and the brain of a fifth ‘Alala that did not exhibit lesions. The life cycle of the parasite was experimentally completed in cats. This is the first record of toxoplasmosis in ‘Alala, and the parasite appears to pose a significant threat and management challenge to reintroduction programs for ‘Alala in Hawaii.

  19. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in AIDS; Toxoplasmose medullaire et sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carteret, M.; Petit, E.; Granat, O.; Marichez, M.; Gilquin, J. [Hopital Saint-Joseph, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1995-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common brain parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Spinal cord localizations are still rare (2 cases with cerebral involvement, 2 cases without). A case of both spinal cord and cerebral involvement is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) was performed because of sensory level (L 1). A focal conus medullaris enlargement was seen, iso intense on T 1 weighted images. This lesion was hyperintense on T 2 weighted sequence, and was homogeneously enhanced after Gadolinium on T 1 weighted images. A medullary oedema was noted. A toxoplasmosis treatment was initiated, without cortico therapy. MR imaging performed one month later (D 30), while important clinical improvements were seen, pointed out normal thickness of conus medullaris, without enhancement after Gadolinium. Disease lesions in AIDS with focal spinal cord processes are reviewed, and diagnostic work-up is discussed. Spinal cord single lesion, associated or not with brain involvements should be treated as a toxoplasmic infection, with MR imaging follow up. This work up should avoid medullary biopsy, still required in case of treatment failure. Cerebral involvements, with multiples lesions can mask medullary localization. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Bo Zeng; Bing Huang; Shun-Hai Zhu; Hui Dong; Hong-Yu Han; Lian-Lian Jiang; Quan Wang; Jun Cheng; Qi-Ping Zhao; Wei-Jiao Ma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis.Methods:Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results: The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions congenital hypothyroidism congenital hypothyroidism Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function ...

  2. What Are Congenital Heart Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Congenital Heart Defects? Congenital (kon-JEN-ih-tal) heart defects are problems ... carry blood to the heart or the body Congenital heart defects change the normal flow of blood through the ...

  3. The human peripheral benzodiazepine receptor gene: cloning and characterization of alternative splicing in normal tissues and in a patient with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D; Chang, Y J; Strauss, J F; Miller, W L

    1993-12-01

    The mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (mBzR) appears to be a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondria to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. The mBzR consists of three components; the 18-kDa component on the outer mitochondrial membrane appears to contain the benzodiazepine binding site, and is hence often termed the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR). Using a cloned human PBR cDNA as probe, we have cloned the human PBR gene. The 13-kb gene is divided into four exons, with exon 1 encoding only a short 5' untranslated segment. The 5' flanking DNA lacks TATA and CAAT boxes but contains a cluster of SP-1 binding sites, typical of "house-keeping" genes. The encoded PBR mRNA is alternately spliced into two forms: "authentic" PBR mRNA retains all four exons, while a short form termed PBR-S lacks exon 2. While PBR-S contains a 102-codon open reading frame with a typical initiator sequence, the reading frame differs from that of PBR, so that the encoded protein is unrelated to PBR. RT-PCR and RNase protection experiments confirm that both PBR and PBR-S are expressed in all tissues examined and that expression PBR-S is about 10 times the level of PBR. Expression of PBR cDNA in pCMV5 vectors transfected into COS-1 cells resulted in increased binding of [3H]PK11195, but expression of PBR-S did not. It has been speculated that patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, who cannot make any steroids, might have a genetic lesion in mBzR. RT-PCR analysis of testicular RNA from such a patient, sequencing of the cDNA, and blotting analysis of genomic DNA all indicate that the gene and mRNA for the PBR component of mBzR are normal in this disease.

  4. Mouse Model of Human Congenital Heart Disease: Progressive Atrioventricular Block Induced by a Heterozygous Nkx2-5 Homeodomain Missense Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajib; Ashraf, Hassan; Melanson, Michelle; Tanada, Yohei; Nguyen, Minh; Silberbach, Michael; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Benson, D Woodrow; Anderson, Robert H; Kasahara, Hideko

    2015-10-01

    Heterozygous human NKX2-5 homeodomain (DNA-binding domain) missense mutations are highly penetrant for varied congenital heart defects, including progressive atrioventricular (AV) block requiring pacemaker implantation. We recently replicated this genetic defect in a murine knockin model, in which we demonstrated highly penetrant, pleiotropic cardiac anomalies. In this study, we examined postnatal AV conduction in the knockin mice. A murine knockin model (Arg52Gly, Nkx2-5(+/R52G)) in a 129/Sv background was analyzed by histopathology, surface, and telemetry ECG, and in vivo electrophysiology studies, comparing with control Nkx2-5(+/+) mice at diverse postnatal stages, ranging from postnatal day 1 (P1) to 17 months. PR prolongation (first degree AV block) was present at 4 weeks, 7 months, and 17 months of age, but not at P1 in the mutant mice. Advanced AV block was also occasionally demonstrated in the mutant mice. Electrophysiology studies showed that AV nodal function and right ventricular effective refractory period were impaired in the mutant mice, whereas sinus nodal function was not affected. AV nodal size was significantly smaller in the mutant mice than their controls at 4 weeks of age, corresponding to the presence of PR prolongation, but not P1, suggesting, at least in part, that the conduction abnormalities are the result of a morphologically atrophic AV node. The highly penetrant and progressive AV block phenotype seen in human heterozygous missense mutations in NKX2-5 homeodomain was replicated in mice by knocking in a comparable missense mutation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Electroretinographic analyses of Rpe65-mutant rd12 mice: developing an in vivo bioassay for human gene therapy trials of Leber congenital amaurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Alejandro J; Boye, Sanford L; Aleman, Tomas S; Pang, Ji-jing; McDowell, J Hugh; Boye, Shannon E; Cideciyan, Artur V; Jacobson, Samuel G; Hauswirth, William W

    2007-09-18

    Dramatic restoration of retinal function has followed subretinal viral-mediated gene therapy in RPE65-deficient animal models of human Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) caused by RPE65 mutations. Progress in early-phase clinical trials of RPE65-LCA prompted us to begin development of an in vivo bioassay of clinical grade vector stability for later-phase trials. Naturally-occurring Rpe65-mutant rd12 mice (2-4 mo of age) were studied with full-field electroretinograms (ERGs). Flash stimuli (range, -4.1 to 3.6 log scot-cd x s x m(-2)) were used to evoke ERGs in anesthetized, dark-adapted mice. B-wave amplitudes were measured conventionally and luminance-response functions were fit. Leading edges of photoresponses were analyzed with a model of rod phototransduction activation. A unilateral subretinal injection of AAV2-CB(SB)-hRPE65 vector was delivered and therapeutic efficacy of 4 doses spanning a 2 log unit range was studied with ERGs performed about 6 weeks after injection. Uninjected rd12 eyes and wild-type (wt) mice served as controls. Rd12 mice showed substantially smaller amplitudes and lower sensitivities than wt mice for all measured ERG b-wave and photoresponse parameters. For the dose-response study, there was no difference between 0.01X-dosed mice and untreated mutants. Improved receptoral and post-receptoral function was evident for 0.1X, 0.3X, 1X doses: b-wave semi-saturation constants decreased, b-wave amplitudes increased with dose; photoresponses showed faster kinetics and higher maximum amplitudes. ERG b-wave amplitude to a selected stimulus light intensity could provide evidence of biologic activity of the vector; interocular differences in b-wave amplitude comparing treated versus untreated eyes in the same animal also revealed vector efficacy. We have taken the first steps toward developing an ERG assay of biologic activity of human grade vector for future clinical trials of RPE65-LCA. Faithful murine models of treatable human disease tested with

  6. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains Isolated from Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis in Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryam Norouzi; Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei; Maryam Niyyati; Vafa Saber; Hamed Behniafar

    2016-01-01

    ... of a wide range hosts called intermediate host. The protozoon is a food-borne and worldwide parasite that can cause serious complications such as abortion in pregnant women, encephalitis, and ocular toxoplasmosis...

  7. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar B,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Insensitivity to Pain belongs to the family of Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies (HSAN. It is a rare disorder of unknown etiology associated with loss of pain sensation. Cognition and sensation is otherwise normal and there is no detectable physical abnormality. We report a case of Congenital Insensitivity to Pain in a 3 year old female child.

  8. Multifocal Congenital Hemangiopericytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Renata; Carvalho, Vânia Oliveira; Abagge, Kerstin Taniguchi; Uber, Marjorie; Lichtvan, Leniza Costa Lima; Werner, Betina; Mehrdad Nadji, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    Congenital hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with less aggressive behavior and a more favorable prognosis than similar tumors in adults. Multifocal presentation is even less common than isolated HPC and hence its clinical and histologic recognition may be challenging. A newborn infant with multifocal congenital HPC causing severe deformity but with a favorable outcome after chemotherapy and surgical removal is reported.

  9. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Burger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two confirmed cases of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis occurred in an urban zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta. Both cases are suspected to be the result of feral cats gaining access to the enclosure. Toxoplasmosis has rarely been documented in meerkats. Subsequent to prophylactic treatment of all the animals and structural changes being implemented within the enclosure, no new cases have been recorded to date. Very little information is available on the disease in viverrids.

  10. Atypical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis: A Case report of exudative retinal detachment and choroidal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya A Al-Zahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid.

  11. Toxoplasmosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation--a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, Christoph; Ribback, Silvia; Zimmermann, Kathrin; Sailer, Verena; Kiefer, Thomas; Schmidt, Christian A; Schulz, Katrin; Steinmetz, Ivo; Dombrowski, Frank; Dölken, Gottfried; Krüger, William H

    2012-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a rare but possibly underestimated complication following allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a high mortality rate. One reason might be the limitation of the diagnostic instruments relying mainly on imaging and molecular-based techniques. In this report, we present three cases of toxoplasmosis identified among 155 allograft recipients treated at Greifswald University Hospital. Widely disseminated toxoplasmosis was detected post-mortem in two patients allografted for high-risk multiple myeloma. Clinical signs suspicious for toxoplasmosis occurred after days +32 and +75, respectively. In one case, serology and conventional Toxoplasma gondii PCR, targeting the B1 gene, revealed negative results, while in the other patient, toxoplasmosis was not investigated. Both patients received pentamidine for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) prophylaxis. The third patient, a 68-year-old woman allografted for AML, developed cerebral toxoplasmosis from day +395 after allogeneic SCT with typical signs in magnetic resonance tomography. Toxoplasma DNA was amplified from one of two samples of cerebrospinal fluid. The patient died of disseminated toxoplasmosis despite immediate initiation of therapy. Retrospective comparative testing of clinical specimens by the conventional T. gondii PCR and by a real-time PCR targeting a 529-bp genomic fragment suggests a higher sensitivity of the latter method in our patients. In conclusion, we suggest a rigorous real-time PCR monitoring for high-risk patients or patients with signs of infections suspicious for toxoplasmosis, even though low-copy results are presently difficult to interpret. Our reported cases might also encourage the use of trimethoprim-sufmethoxazole instead of pentamidine for PcP prophylaxis in those patients.

  12. Stroke-Like Presentation of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: Two HIV-Infected Cases

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clinical presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in these patients includes headache, focal neurological deficits and seizures. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy results in rapid clinical and radiological improvement as well as good outcome for patients. In this article, we report two cases with stroke-like presentation of cerebral toxoplasmo...

  13. Atypical Presentation of Ocular Toxoplasmosis: A Case Report of Exudative Retinal Detachment and Choroidal Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Yahya A; Al-Dhibi, Hassan A; Al-Abdullah, Abdulelah A

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid.

  14. Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghold, Christian; Herzog, Sereina Annik; Jakse, Heidelinde; Berghold, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45–0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67–0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits. PMID:27562876

  15. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis among people having close contact with animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jie eBrandon-Mong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection among individuals who have close contact with animals. The association between plausible risk factors and the seropositivity for Toxoplasma was examined. A total of 312 blood samples were collected form veterinarians(38, veterinary technicians(45, veterinary students(194 and pet owners(35 from several veterinary hospitals and clinics in the area of Klang Valley, Malaysia. About 4cc of blood samples drawn from agreed participants were processed for measurement of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies as well as avidity test of Toxoplasma IgG by ELISA.Meanwhile, the demographic profiles and possible risk factors of these participants were also recorded in the standardized data collection sheets.Overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was observed in 62 (19.9%participants where 7(18.4% veterinarians, 15(33.3%veterinary technicians, 29(14.9%veterinary students and 11(31.4% pet owners were infected. Out of 19.9% positive samples for toxoplasmosis, 18.3% of these samples were positive for IgG antibody, 1.0% was positive for IgM antibody and 0.6% were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies.Positive samples for IgM antibody and for both IgG and IgM antibodies were further analysed by IgG avidity test. Out of 5 samples tested for avidity test, 4 samples showed a high avidity results which means infection occurred in the past whereas only 1 sample showed a recently acquired infection. Univariate analysis showed that age group, gender,study population, gardening, task performance and working duration were significantly associated with seropositivity of toxoplasmosis. Further analysis by multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that age group more than or equal to 30 years old (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.18-0.63, p=0.001and working or study duration more than 10 years in handling with animals(OR=5.07, 95% CI=1.80-14.24, p=0.002were identified as

  16. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  17. Treatment of Children with Protein – Losing Enteropathy After Fontan and Other Complex Congenital Heart Disease Procedures in Condition with Limited Human and Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Vuqiterna, Armend; Maloku, Arlinda

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a disorder characterized by abnormal and often profound enteric protein loss. It’s relatively uncommon complication of Fontan and other complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) procedures. Because of the complexity and rarity of this disease process, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of protein-losing enteropathy remain poorly understood, and attempts at treatment seldom yield long-term success. Aim of presentation is to describe single centre experience in diagnosis, evaluation, management and treatment of children with protein-losing enteropathy after Fontan and other CCHD procedures in the current era and in centre with limited human and technical resources, follows with a comprehensive review of protein-losing enteropathy publications, and concludes with suggestions for prevention and treatment. Material and methodology Retrospectively we analyzed patients with CCHD and protein-losing enteropathy in our institution, starting from January 2000 to December 2012. The including criteria were age between two and 17 years, to have a complex congenital heart disease and available complete documentation of cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Results Of all patients we evaluated 18 cases with protein-losing enteropathy, aged 6 to 19 years (mean 14±9); there were three children who had undergone screening procedure for D-transposition, one Tetralogy of Fallot, and remaining 14 patients had undergone Fontan procedures; (anatomic diagnosis are: six with tricuspid atresia, seven with d-transposition, double outlet right ventricle and pulmonary atresia and two with hypoplastic left heart syndrome). The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy was made at median age of 5.6 years, ranging from 13 months to 15 years. Diagnosis was made using alpha 1-antitrypsin as a gold marker in stool. By physical examination in 14 patients edema was found, in three ascites, and six patients had pleural effusion. Laboratory findings

  18. Treatment of children with protein - losing enteropathy after fontan and other complex congenital heart disease procedures in condition with limited human and technical resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Retkoceri, Ragip; Zeka, Naim; Bejiqi, Hana; Vuqiterna, Armend; Maloku, Arlinda

    2014-02-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a disorder characterized by abnormal and often profound enteric protein loss. It's relatively uncommon complication of Fontan and other complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) procedures. Because of the complexity and rarity of this disease process, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of protein-losing enteropathy remain poorly understood, and attempts at treatment seldom yield long-term success. is to describe single centre experience in diagnosis, evaluation, management and treatment of children with protein-losing enteropathy after Fontan and other CCHD procedures in the current era and in centre with limited human and technical resources, follows with a comprehensive review of protein-losing enteropathy publications, and concludes with suggestions for prevention and treatment. Retrospectively we analyzed patients with CCHD and protein-losing enteropathy in our institution, starting from January 2000 to December 2012. The including criteria were age between two and 17 years, to have a complex congenital heart disease and available complete documentation of cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Of all patients we evaluated 18 cases with protein-losing enteropathy, aged 6 to 19 years (mean 14±9); there were three children who had undergone screening procedure for D-transposition, one Tetralogy of Fallot, and remaining 14 patients had undergone Fontan procedures; (anatomic diagnosis are: six with tricuspid atresia, seven with d-transposition, double outlet right ventricle and pulmonary atresia and two with hypoplastic left heart syndrome). The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy was made at median age of 5.6 years, ranging from 13 months to 15 years. Diagnosis was made using alpha 1-antitrypsin as a gold marker in stool. By physical examination in 14 patients edema was found, in three ascites, and six patients had pleural effusion. Laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis are: abnormal enteric protein loss was

  19. Genes in congenital heart disease: atrioventricular valve formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joziasse, I.C.; van de Smagt, J.J.; Smith, K.; Bakkers, J.; Sieswerda, G.J.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of animal studies, many candidate genes (mainly encoding transcriptional factors and receptors) have been implicated in the development of congenital heart disease. Thus far, only a minority of these genes have been shown to carry mutations associated with congenital disease in human

  20. Atovaquone for Prophylaxis of Toxoplasmosis after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendorf, Alexander; Klyuchnikov, Evgeny; Langebrake, Claudia; Rohde, Holger; Ayuk, Francis; Regier, Marc; Christopeit, Maximilian; Zabelina, Tatjana; Bacher, Adelbert; Stübig, Thomas; Wolschke, Christine; Bacher, Ulrike; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis and infections by other opportunistic agents such as Pneumocystis jirovecii constitute life-threatening risks for patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been well established for post-transplant toxoplasmosis and pneumocystis prophylaxis, but treatment may be limited due to toxicity. We explored atovaquone as an alternative and compared it with TMP-SMX regarding toxicity and efficacy during the first 100 days after transplantation in 155 consecutive adult stem cell recipients. Eight patients with a prior history of TMP-SMX intolerance received atovaquone as first-line prophylaxis. TMP-SMX was used for 141 patients as first-line strategy, but 13 patients (9.2%) were later switched to atovaquone due to TMP-SMX toxicity or gastrointestinal symptoms. No active toxoplasmosis or active P. jirovecii infection developed under continued prophylaxis with either TMP-SMX or atovaquone. However, for reasons of TMP-SMX and/or atovaquone toxicity, 7 patients were unable to tolerate any efficacious toxoplasmosis prophylaxis and therefore obtained inhalative pentamidine as P. jirovecii prophylaxis but no toxoplasmosis prophylaxis. Importantly, 2 of these patients developed severe toxoplasmosis. In summary, atovaquone appears as a valid alternative for at least some post-transplant patients who cannot tolerate TMP-SMX. This should be further confirmed by multicenter trials.

  1. PCR Assay Using Cerebrospinal Fluid for Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Brazilian AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, José E.; Colombo, Fabio Antonio; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto C.; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the incidence of opportunistic infections in the central nervous system in AIDS patients. However, neurological abnormalities still remain important causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In Brazil, cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS patients. For these reasons, early, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests must be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA, and to determine if the association of PCR with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We studied two sample groups. First, we analyzed stored CSF samples from 29 newborns and from 39 adults with AIDS without a definitive diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. The goal of this step was to standardize the methodology with a simple and economical procedure to recover the T. gondii DNA. Next, we prospectively evaluated CSF samples from 12 AIDS patients with a first episode of cerebral toxoplasmosis and 18 AIDS patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases and without previous cerebral toxoplasmosis. In all PCR samples, an indirect immunofluorescent assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed. Samples from all patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis presented positive PCR results (sensitivity, 100%), and a sample from one of the 18 AIDS patients with other neurological diseases also presented positive PCR results (specificity, 94.4%). These findings suggest the clinical utility of PCR in the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in developing countries. PMID:15472338

  2. Cerebellar toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS infant: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibebuike, Kaunda; Mantanga, Leo; Emereole, Obioma; Ndolo, Patrice; Kajee, Afsana; Gopal, Rasik; Pather, Sugeshnee

    2012-12-01

    Cerebellar mass lesion is an uncommon presentation of toxoplasmosis. The authors report one rare case in an 11-month-old HIV/AIDS female infant who presented with deterioration in her developmental milestones. CT scan revealed a ring-enhancing mass lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted prior to posterior fossa decompression and biopsy of the lesion. The specimens obtained were divided into two. One specimen was sent for histological diagnosis immediately after surgery while the second specimen was preserved until the release of the histology report. The initial histopathology report indicated a neoplastic process. Immunohistochemical stains were attempted but interpreted with difficulty due to severe tissue necrosis. After waiting for close to 6 weeks without a definite histological diagnosis, the preserved second specimen was sent for histological analysis as a fresh specimen, and reported a diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This case presented diagnostic challenges to the authors whose radiological impressions of either a neoplastic lesion or a tuberculoma (based on our local neuroepidemiology) were reinforced by intraoperative findings highly suggestive of tuberculoma but which contrasted with the histological report, first as a neoplastic lesion and later toxoplasmosis. Although cerebellar toxoplasmosis is a rare complication of HIV/AIDS, this case report shows that toxoplasmosis should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis of ring-enhancing cerebellar masses in HIV/AIDS patients irrespective of the patient's age and the absence of constitutional symptoms of toxoplasmosis.

  3. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Imaging characteristics of toxoplasmosis encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Mang, C.; Mang, T.G.; Thurnher, M.M. [University Hospital Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Kalhs, P. [University Hospital Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Toxoplasmosis encephalitis is a severe, but often misdiagnosed complication in patients after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We describe the unique computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of cerebral toxoplasmosis in two bone marrow recipients and compare them to the cases in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report analyzing the appearance of cerebral toxoplasmosis on diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). (orig.)

  5. Severe congenital protein C deficiency: the use of protein C concentrates (human as replacement therapy for life-threatening blood-clotting complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Knoebl

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul N KnoeblDepartment of Medicine 1, Division Hematology and Hemostasis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: The protein C pathway has an important function in regulating and modulating blood coagulation and ensuring patency of the microcirculation. Protein C deficiency leads to macro- and microvascular thrombosis. Congenital severe protein C deficiency is a life-threatening state with neonatal purpura fulminans and pronounced coagulopathy. Patients with heterozygous protein C deficiency have an increased risk for thromboembolic events or experience coumarin-induced skin necrosis during initiation of coumarin therapy. Replacement with protein C concentrates is an established therapy of congenital protein C deficiency, resulting in rapid resolving of coagulopathy and thrombosis without reasonable side effects. This article summarizes the current knowledge on protein C replacement therapy in congenital protein C deficiency.Keywords: protein C, deficiency, replacement therapy, purpura fulminans, coagulopathy

  6. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on experimental toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Rasha F; El-Hadidy, Wessam; Elachy, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoon. It is most commonly treated by pyrimethamine (PYR); however, this was intolerable by many patients. The aim of this study was to assess therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) alone and combined with pyrimethamine (PYR) compared to a previous combination of clindamycin (CLN) and (PYR). One hundred Albino mice were used in the current study and were equally divided into five groups: normal (I), infected untreated control (II); infected, treated with NSO-only (III); infected, treated with NSO + PYR (IV); and infected, treated with CLN + PYR (V). The virulent RH Toxoplasma strain was used in infection survival rates estimation, impression smears from liver and spleen, and histopathological and ultrastructural studies were done. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Interferon-γ and specific IgM were also measured in sera by ELISA. Results showed that NSO alone has no direct anti-Toxoplasma effect, whereas its combination with PYR produced potent effect that is comparable to CLN + PYR. It significantly increased the survival rate and decreased the parasite density and pathological insult in both liver and spleen. Also, significant increase in interferon-γ level denotes stimulation of cellular immunity. NSO + PYR combination markedly improved the antioxidant capacity of Toxoplasma infected mice compared to the infected untreated ones and to CLN/PYR. In conclusion, although NSO, if administered alone, has significant immunostimulant and antioxidant properties, it failed to decrease tachyzoite counts. Combination of NSO and PYR had synergistic effect in treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  7. [Rudolf-Virchow Prize 1998. Award lecture. Toxoplasmosis: a model infection for studying systemic and intracerebral immune reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Schlüter, M

    1998-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has gained particular attention in the AIDS era as the most common opportunistic encephalitis in HIV-infected patients. Since there are important parallels between the human and rodent infection, experimental murine toxoplasmosis is widely used to study the immune reactions to this protozoal parasite. Oral application of low-virulent Toxoplasma (T.) gondii cysts leads to a biphasic disease characterized by an acute, generalized phase followed by a chronic stage confined to the brain, where an encephalitis with persistence of the parasite develops. Immunity to T. gondii is T cell mediated, and there is increasing evidence for a critical role of cytokines for an effective immune response. In order to address the functional role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in toxoplasmosis, we took advantage of mice lacking the IFN-gamma-receptor. Inactivation of the IFN-gamma-receptor rendered mice highly susceptible to T. gondii, and they died of a fulminant acute toxoplasmosis. Among the various organs affected, hepatitis was severe enough to cause death. In contrast to wild type animals, IFN-gamma-receptor-deficient mice were unable to activate their macrophages as evidenced by a lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen induction and the absence of an upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts, two macrophage effector molecules. These observations prompted the investigation of TNF- and TNF-receptor-mediated effects in toxoplasmosis by use of mice deficient in either the TNF-receptor type 1 (TNFR1) and/or the TNF-receptor type 2 (TNFR2). The lethal outcome of T. gondii-infected TNFR1/2- and TNFR1-deficient mice, but not of TNFR2-deficient and wild type animals, illustrated the important role of TNF-alpha and TNFR1-mediated signalling, respectively, in this infection. Histopathology attributed death of TNFR1- and TNFR1/2-deficient mice to a severe, necrotizing encephalitis

  8. The human peripheral benzodiazepine receptor gene: Cloning and characterization of alternative splicing in normal tissues and in a patient with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.; Miller, W.L. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Chang, Y.J.; Strauss, J.F. III (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    The mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor (mBzR) appears to be a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondia to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. The mBzR consists of three components; the 18-kDa component on the outer mitochondrial membrane appears to contain the benzodiazepine binding site, and is hence often termed the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR). Using a cloned human PBR cDNA as probe, the authors have cloned the human PBR gene. The 13-kb gene is divided into four exons, with exon 1 encoding only a short 5[prime] untranslated segment. The 5[prime] flanking DNA lacks TATA and CAAT boxes but contains a cluster of SP-1 binding sites, typical of [open quotes]housekeeping[close quotes] genes. The encoded PBR mRNA is alternately spliced into two forms: [open quotes]authentic[close quotes] PBR mRNA retains all four exons, while a short form termed PBR-S lacks exon 2. While PBR-S contains a 102-codon open reading frame with a typical initiator sequence, the reading frame differs from that of PBR, so that the encoded protein is unrelated to PBR. RT-PCR and RNase protection experiments confirm that both PBR and PBR-S are expressed in all tissues examined and that expression of PBR-S is about 10 times the level of PBR. Expression of PBR cDNA in pCMV5 vectors transfected into COS-1 cells resulted in increased binding of [[sup 3]H]PK11195, but expression of PBR-S did not. It has been speculated that patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, who cannot make any steroids, might have a genetic lesion in mBzR. RT-PCR analysis of testicular RNA from such a patient, sequencing of the cDNA, and blotting analysis of genomic DNA all indicate that the gene and mRNA for the PBR component of mBzR are normal in this disease. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Congenital short pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Juan; XU Guo-qiang; XU Ping; JIN En-yun; LIU Qiong; LI You-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Congenital short pancreas, also known as partial agenesis or hypoplasia of the dorsal pancreas1 is a rare congenital abnormality consisting of the parenchyma and ductal system restricted to the head with some residual dorsal tapering and arborizing ducts communicating with the minor papill.2 Complete pancreatic agenesis is fatal, and only nine possible examples of partial agenesis have been previously reported in adults in the literature.3-10 Three of them were polysplenia syndrome associated with short pancreas,and only six patients with congenital short pancreas with normal situs. Here we present a new case associated with steatorrhoea.

  10. Congenital symmastia revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Hölmich, Lisbeth R; Siersen, Hans Erik

    2012-01-01

    Symmastia is defined as medial confluence of the breast. The term 'symmastia' is modified from Greek (syn meaning 'together', and mastos meaning 'breast') and was first presented by Spence et al. in 1983. Two forms of symmastia exist: an iatrogenic and a congenital version. Congenital symmastia...... is a rare condition in which web-like soft tissue traverses the sternum to connect the breasts medially. The literature on congenital symmastia is limited, few cases have been published, and knowledge about ideal treatment is still insufficient....

  11. Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Chronic Toxoplasmosis Are Associated with MAG1 Antibody Levels and Cyst Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Kannan, Geetha; Viscidi, Raphael P; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    There is marked variation in the human response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Epidemiological studies indicate associations between strain virulence and severity of toxoplasmosis. Animal studies on the pathogenic effect of chronic infection focused on relatively avirulent strains (e.g. type II) because they can easily establish latent infections in mice, defined by the presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts. To provide insight into virulent strain-related severity of human toxoplasmosis, we established a chronic model of the virulent type I strain using outbred mice. We found that type I-exposed mice displayed variable outcomes ranging from aborted to severe infections. According to antibody profiles, we found that most of mice generated antibodies against T. gondii organism but varied greatly in the production of antibodies against matrix antigen MAG1. There was a strong correlation between MAG1 antibody level and brain cyst burden in chronically infected mice (r = 0.82, p = 0.0021). We found that mice with high MAG1 antibody level displayed lower weight, behavioral changes, altered levels of gene expression and immune activation. The most striking change in behavior we discovered was a blunted response to amphetamine-trigged locomotor activity. The extent of most changes was directly correlated with levels of MAG1 antibody. These changes were not found in mice with less cyst burden or mice that were acutely but not chronically infected. Our finding highlights the critical role of cyst burden in a range of disease severity during chronic infection, the predictive value of MAG1 antibody level to brain cyst burden and to changes in behavior or other pathology in chronically infected mice. Our finding may have important implications for understanding the heterogeneous effects of T. gondii infections in human.

  12. Androgen and the Development of Human Sex-Typical Behavior: Rough-and-Tumble Play and Sex of Preferred Playmates in Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Kaufman, Francine R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the rough-and-tumble play and gender of preferred playmates in three- to eight-year olds with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)--hypothesized to masculinize behaviors that show sex differences--and in unaffected three- to eight-year-old relatives. Found that CAH girls did not exhibit increased levels of masculine behavior when compared…

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Leber congenital amaurosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amaurosis, Leber congenital congenital amaurosis of retinal origin congenital retinal blindness CRB dysgenesis neuroepithelialis retinae hereditary epithelial dysplasia of retina hereditary retinal aplasia heredoretinopathia congenitalis LCA ...

  14. Endocrine disruptors and congenital anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rittler

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized literature was reviewed concerning the suspected increasing secular trends in the frequency of female births, male genital congenital anomalies, abnormal sperm counts, and testicular cancer. Although no risk factors could be identified yet, the observed sex ratio decline during the last decades has been considered to be an effect of certain pollutants on normal hormone activity, and human reproductive development. Reported increasing trends in the frequencies of hypospadias and cryptorchidism are very difficult to be interpreted due to the large variability in the registered frequency of these malformations due to operational as well as biological reasons.

  15. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  16. Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

  17. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speiser, Phyllis W

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group...

  18. Congenital cutis laxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16 days old male baby had congenital cutis laxa without family history. He had redundant and lax skin all over the body with slanting of the palpebral fissures medially and broad nasal root.

  19. Congenital lobar emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural-Kara, Tuğçe; Özdemir, Halil; Çiftçi, Ergin; İnce, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare disease, which is characterized by pulmoner hyperinflation. Depending on the degree of bronchial obstruction, the clinical presentation may be variable. We report a rare case with congenital lobar emphysema in a 38-days-old male infant who presented with severe respiratory distress and hypertension. Air trapping in the left upper lung and significant mediastinal shift to the right were observed on the chest x-ray. Emphysematous changes were detected on the thorax computed tomography and considered as congenital lobar emphysema. The upper left lobectomy was successfully performed by pediatric surgeons. On postoperative follow up, no sign of respiratory distress occurred and the patient was normotensive. In this report, a case with congenital lobar emphysema, which is a rare cause of respiratory distress and hypertension is discussed. PMID:27381542

  20. Congenital tracheobiliary fistula.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, F.; Nieuwaal, N.H. van; Heijst, A.F.J. van; Enk, G.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tracheobiliary fistula is a rare malformation that can present with a variety of respiratory symptoms. We present a case of a newborn patient with a tracheobiliary fistula and severe respiratory insufficiency needing extracorporal membrane oxygenation to recover.

  1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia do not usually cause side effects such as obesity or weak bones, because the doses replace the hormones that the child's body cannot make. It is important for parents ...

  2. Partial protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice elicited by recombinant Toxoplasma gondii malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Yanping; Yin, Litian; Liu, Yisheng; Wang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Kuiyang; Cao, Jianping

    2016-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and wildlife, sometimes causing serious clinical presentations. Currently, no viable vaccine or effective drug strategies exist to prevent and control toxoplasmosis. T. gondii malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) is a crucial enzyme in cellular redox reactions and has been shown to be an immunogenic compound that could be a potential vaccine candidate. Here, we investigate the protective efficacy of recombinant TgMDH (rTgMDH) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. All mice were vaccinated via the nasal route. We determined the optimal vaccination dose by monitoring systemic and mucosal immune responses. The results showed that mice vaccinated with 30 μg of rTgMDH produced the highest antibody titers in serum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, marked increases in their levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ, and significantly greater levels of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in mucosal washes. In addition, the vaccinated mice were orally challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain 2 weeks after the final vaccination. Compared to the control group, we found that vaccination with rTgMDH increased the survival rate of infected mice by 47% and also significantly reduced the tachyzoite loads in their liver (by 58%) and brain (by 41%). Therefore, the rTgMDH protein triggers a strong systemic and mucosal immune response and provides partial protection against T. gondii infection.

  3. Chronic murine toxoplasmosis is defined by subtle changes in neuronal connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Parlog

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies correlate chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection with behavioral changes in rodents; additionally, seropositivity in humans is reported to be associated with behavioral and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether the described behavioral changes in a murine model of chronic toxoplasmosis are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity and brain neuronal circuitry. In mice chronically infected with T. gondii, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data analysis displayed the presence of heterogeneous lesions scattered throughout all brain areas. However, a higher density of lesions was observed within specific regions such as the somatosensory cortex (SSC. Further histopathological examination of these brain areas indicated the presence of activated resident glia and recruited immune cells accompanied by limited alterations of neuronal viability. In vivo diffusion-tensor MRI analysis of neuronal fiber density within the infected regions revealed connectivity abnormalities in the SSC. Altered fiber density was confirmed by morphological analysis of individual, pyramidal and granule neurons, showing a reduction in dendritic arbor and spine density within the SSC, as well as in the hippocampus. Evaluation of synapse efficacy revealed diminished levels of two key synaptic proteins, PSD95 and synaptophysin, within the same brain areas, indicating deficits in functionality of the synaptic neurotransmission in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. gondii infection in a murine model results in synaptic deficits within brain structures leading to disturbances in the morphology of noninfected neurons and modified brain connectivity, suggesting a potential explanation for the behavioral and neuropsychiatric alterations.

  4. Congenital imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Netchine, Irène; Temple, I Karen

    2015-01-01

    Imprinting disorders (IDs) are a group of eight rare but probably underdiagnosed congenital diseases affecting growth, development and metabolism. They are caused by similar molecular changes affecting regulation, dosage or the genomic sequence of imprinted genes. Each ID is characterised...... EUCID.net (European network of congenital imprinting disorders) now aims to promote better clinical care and scientific investigation of imprinting disorders by establishing a concerted multidisciplinary alliance of clinicians, researchers, patients and families. By encompassing all IDs and establishing...

  5. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient from Peruvian Amazon Toxoplasmosis diseminada en un paciente inmunocompetente procedente de la Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nunura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient, characterized by pneumonia, retinochoroiditis, hepatitis and myositis. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology, T. gondii in thick blood smear and presence of bradyzoites in muscle biopsy. Treatment with pyrimethamine plus sulfadoxine was successful but visual acuity and hip extension were partially recovered. This is the first case report of severe toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient from Peru.Reportamos un caso de toxoplasmosis severa en un paciente inmunocompetente caracterizado por neumonía, retinocoroiditis, hepatitis y miositis. El diagnóstico fue confirmado por serología, el hallazgo de T. gondii en gota gruesa y la presencia de bradizoitos en biopsia muscular. El tratamiento con pirimetamina mas sulfadoxina fue exitoso pero solo hubo una parcial recuperación de la agudeza visual y de la capacidad de extensión de la cadera. Este es el primer reporte de un caso de toxoplasmosis severa en el Perú.

  6. Seroprevalence and Spatial Distribution of Toxoplasmosis in Sheep and Goats in North-Eastern Region of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Haroon; Malik, Ayesha; Arshad, Muhammad; Mustafa, Irfan; Khan, Mobushir Riaz; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Shahzad; Mobeen, Muhammad; Simsek, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease that is caused by Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and humans. Due to its medical and veterinary importance, it is essential to study the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among humans and animals in various parts of the world. The major objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in small ruminants (sheep and goats) of north-eastern region, Pakistan. A total of 1,000 animals comprising of sheep (n=470) and goats (n=530) were examined for T. gondii infection by using ELISA. An epidemiological data was collected in the form of questionnaire. A surface has been generated by using method of interpolation in Arc GIS with the help of IDW (inverse distance weight). The results showed higher seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats (42.8%) as compared to sheep (26.2%). The seroprevalence was higher in females as compared to males in all examined ruminants. Similarly, there is a wide variation in the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different breeds of sheep and goats showing higher seroprevalence in Teddy (52.8%) and Damani breed (34.5%) of goat and sheep's, respectively. The geographical and spatial distribution of T. gondii shows that it is widely distributed in different parts of the north-eastern region of Pakistan. Our results suggest widespread environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. It suggests us that small ruminants could be a potentially important source of T. gondii infection if their infected meat is consumed undercooked.

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Rabies, animal to Rubella, congenital syndrome - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported...

  8. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  9. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  10. Polyomyositis and myocarditis associated with acquired toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagkaraki Daria

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired toxoplasmosis more frequently goes unrecognized. Immunocompetent adults and adolescents with primary infection are generally asymptomatic, but symptoms may include malaise, fever, and lymphadenopathy. By contrast, immunocompromised patients may experience severe manifestations including encephalitis and multisystem organ failure. Case presentation We report a case of polymyositis and myocarditis in a 13-year old immunocompetent girl with toxoplasmosis. The patient presented with proximal muscle weakness, dysphagia, palms and soles rash and elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes, with liver and myocardial involvement. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed by serology. The patient was treated with prednisolone and had an excellent outcome. During a follow-up period of four years no relapses occurred and antibody levels to the T. gondii significantly decreased. Conclusions Although several previous cases of toxoplasmosis occuring in association with polymyositis have been described in the literature such a wide spectrum of acute toxoplasmosis is rather unusual in immunocompetent adolescents. The relationship between T. gondii and polymyositis remains obscure. Appropriate investigation should be performed in every case of polymyositis not only for the appropriate treatment but also for further elucidation of this relationship.

  11. Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Fabianne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12 and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09. Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care.

  12. Utility of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Norose, Kazumi; Li, Kexin; Hikosaka, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Since this parasite causes severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential. PCR is currently used for early diagnosis, but there is no consensus regarding the most effective method for amplifying Toxoplasma DNA. In this study, we considered the utility of the cytochrome c subunit I (cox1) gene, which is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of this parasite, as a novel target of PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. To do this, we compared its copy number per haploid nuclear genome and the detection sensitivity of cox1-PCR with the previously reported target genes B1 and 18S rRNA and the AF146527 repeat element. We found that the copy number of cox1 was high and that the PCR using cox1 primers was more efficient at amplifying Toxoplasma DNA than the other PCR targets examined. In addition, PCR using clinical samples indicated that the cox1 gene would be useful for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. These findings suggest that use of cox1-PCR would facilitate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.

  14. [Congenital malformations: care or predict?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, D

    1993-02-01

    Spectacular scientific and technological advances made in the last decade have had such a profound impact on biological and medical science that they have dramatically modified the citizen's behaviour concerning life events, especially congenital malformation. Prenatal diagnosis (PND) leads to do the diagnosis of almost all fetal internal and external malformations. The matter is, not only to care, but, first to know. The positive efficiency of PND is sometimes preparing the best cares and, of course, to recognize many severe anomalies postnatally diagnosed before PND time, and carrying wellknown 50% rate mortality by neo-natal surgery. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is pointed out as a good example of it, and of hopes and disappointing in utero foetal surgery. New protocol of assessment of fetal renal function is an appreciated method to do prognosis of some fetal uropathies before late in utero drainage, for a short time waiting for necessary maturation of lungs allowing premature delivery. The possibility to do PND of small and benign malformation leads to ask for the question of utility of to know. In spite of the respect of quality of life, can we really allow this type of human selection to be made? The next knowledges of the human genoma map bring us into the predictive medicine. Using "compulsory" PND is a real risk to practice dangerously, a soft eugenism. PND must be, and remain an outstanding advance to provide better treatment.

  15. Genetics of Congenital Cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichi, Francesco; Lembo, Andrea; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that presents at birth or during early childhood, and it is one of the most easily treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1-6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause, and such cases are quite heterogeneous. Although congenital nuclear cataract can be caused by multiple factors, genetic mutation remains the most common cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent. The transparency and high refractive index of the lens are achieved by the precise architecture of fiber cells and homeostasis of the lens proteins in terms of their concentrations, stabilities, and supramolecular organization. Research on hereditary congenital cataract has led to the identification of several classes of candidate genes that encode proteins such crystallins, lens-specific connexins, aquaporin, cytoskeletal structural proteins, and developmental regulators. In this review, we highlight the identified genetic mutations that account for congenital nuclear cataract.

  16. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among women with abortion in Khartoum State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahaeldin Khalid Elamin Elhag

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and infection among aborted women in order to establish basic knowledge for future pregnancy care. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross sectional hospital based study was conducted. A total of 95 pregnant women were enrolled in the study from Khartoum Teaching Hospital in the period from January 2012 to January 2013. The entire participant has history of abortion. The data were collected from the patient medical file.ELISA was used forToxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) IgG and IgM using commercial diagnostic kit. Quantitative analysis forT. gondii antibodies IgG and IgM was performed, and the assay result interpreted as IU/mL. Data were analyzed usingSSPS using theChi-square test. Results:A total of 95 participants were tested forT. gondii antibodies. Mean age was (29.93 ± 6.30) years old.T. gondiiIgM was found reactive in 5 participants (5.3%), while 27 participants (28.4%) were found reactive forT. gondii IgG. It was found that the age group of 20-29 and 30-39 had a significant correlation with antibody sero-positive. Conclusions: This study showed a high seroprevalence ofT. gondiiantibodies. Hence this study recommends implementing health program among pregnant women to prevent primary infection during pregnancy and regular surveillance of the disease among population all over the country.

  17. Seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in southern districts of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucilathangam, G; Anna, T

    2016-06-01

    The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in and around Tirunelveli. Serum samples from 175 immunodeficient and 175 immunocompetent patients were collected and were analyzed by in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. The present study revealed that anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 13.14 % which constitutes 15.43 % in immunocompromised and 10.86 % in immunocompetent patients. There was a significant difference between sex of the study population and drinking water source. Seroprevalence was increased in the male (19.12 %, p = 0.0075, OR 2.316, 95 % CI 1.2362-4.3405) than the female and with river water consumption other than bore water (12.5 %, p = 0.0483, OR 0.857, 95 % CI 0.1853-3.4641). No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and age, residence, diet and animal contact in the study population. Toxoplasmosis will remain a problem, mainly in risk groups such as pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Improvement can only be attained by increasing prevention and reducing the risk factors.

  18. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

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    REY Luís C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in population groups in Fortaleza, Brazil, was conducted, in order to identify seroprevalence rates according to age and risk factors associated with acquired infection. A Toxoplasma IgG-antibody enzyme immunoassay (Sanofi Pasteur Diagnostics, Marnes la Coquette, France was employed to assess the immunity. Public day-care centers and schools were randomly selected, while three large antenatal clinics and maternity units were choosen by its importance. Population groups and results of 997 blood tests were: 227 children (mean age 3.8 years, 22.8% seropositives; 584 students (mean 11.4 years, 58.4%, and pregnant and postpartum women (mean 24 years, 71.5% seropositives (p < 0.001. Of 256 participants reporting close contact with cats, 59.8% were seropositive, in contrast with 51% seropositives without contact (relative risk 1.17; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.33; p = 0.01. Having three or more siblings at home was related to higher seroprevalence in children and students (relative risk 1.39; 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.60; p < 0.01. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis seroprevalence showed a rapid increase during the first ten years of life, in association with close contact with cats and larger households, probably related to inappropriate hygiene and child-care practices.

  19. [Use of immunological and molecular biological methods to diagnose cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubareva, E V; Goncharov, D B; Domonova, É A; Sil'veĭstrova, O Iu; Peregudova, A B; Tishkevich, O A; Ievleva, E S; Kobets, N V; Shipulina, O Iu

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the leading causes of neurologic diseases with high mortality rates in patients with HIV infection. Invasion was difficult to diagnose for a number of objective reasons. The objective of the investigation was to determine the clinical sensitivity of different laboratory techniques as both a single study and their various combinations to verify the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were tested in 51 patients with Stage 4B HIV infection (AIDS) with the verified diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Separate determination of specific antibodies of IgG, IgM, IgA and toxoplasma DNA in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid was shown to have an insufficient clinical sensitivity (37.3-68.6%). The benefits of various combinations of immunological and molecular biological assays enhancing the diagnostic efficiency up to 76.5-96.1% are demonstrated.

  20. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  1. An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in an aviary collection of Nicobar pigeons (Caloenas nicobaria : clinical communication

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    R.D. Last

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Three out of 10 Nicobar pigeons (Caloenas nicobaria in an aviary collection in South Africa were found dead with no presenting clinical symptoms. Histological examination of formalin-fixed tissues from all these birds revealed necrotic foci in various visceral organs (liver, spleen, heart, kidney and lungs, plus diffuse pulmonary congestion and oedema with vasculitis. Numerous protozoal tachyzoites were present in all organs and there was strong positive immunohistochemical (IHC labelling of these organisms for Toxoplasma gondii. Pathology was consistent with acute systemic toxoplasmosis as a consequence of oocyst ingestion. Feral cats were known to be a problem at the facility. Clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely reported in pigeons and this is believed to be the 1st report of toxoplasmosis in Nicobar pigeons.

  2. Insulin analogues in pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Josta; Garne, Ester; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    in the congenital anomaly rate among foetuses exposed to insulin analogues (lispro, aspart, glargine or detemir) compared with those exposed to human insulin or Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin. The total prevalence of congenital anomalies was not increased for foetuses exposed to insulin analogues. The small...... included 1286 foetuses of mothers using short-acting insulin analogues with 1089 references of mothers using human insulin and 768 foetuses of mothers using long-acting insulin analogues with 685 references of mothers using long-acting human insulin (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn). The congenital anomaly rate...... samples in the included studies provided insufficient statistical power to identify a moderate increased risk of specific congenital anomalies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  3. A rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a stray dog due to infection of T. gondii clonal type I: public health concern in urban settings with stray animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Sergio; La Marca, Salvatore; Stabile, Cristian; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo; Vitale, Maria

    2017-08-17

    Typing of Toxoplasma gondii strains is important in epidemiological surveys, to understand the distribution and virulence of different clones of the parasite among human and animal populations. Stray dogs can be consider sentinel animals for contaminated environments playing an important but probably under- evaluated role in the epidemiology of T. gondii. We reported a rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a stray dog due to clonal type I infection. The clonal type I, sporadic in Europe, is frequently associated with severe toxoplasmosis in humans and the control of its circulation is particularly relevant for public health. The symptomatology suggested a potential infection with the high similar parasite Neospora caninum but differential diagnosis showed that only T. gondii was involved highlighting the importance of multiple diagnostic methods beyond the clinical signs. A female stray dog approximately six-month of age presented muscular atrophy of the femoral region and hyperextension of hind limbs. Body condition score (BCS) was 20% below ideal weight, ribs had almost no fat and the sensor state was depressed. Haematological values were normal and the dog did not show any neurological abnormalities. Serological analysis showed a positive response for T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and exclude N. caninum infection. To confirm T. gondii infection, a muscle biopsy was performed and genomic DNA was extracted. PCR analysis resulted positive to T. gondii and strain genotyping reveals clonal type I infection. The dog recovered after 4 weeks of treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride and aquatic physiotherapy. Our study reports a rare and severe case of T. gondii clonal type I infection in a stray dog feeding in garbage containers. The data confirm the importance of an in vivo early diagnosis for toxoplasmosis in dog. Clinical signs are often related to specific T. gondii genotype and parasite genotyping is important in the epidemiological survey of

  4. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Aug 29,2017 ... the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: Adults with ...

  5. Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Richard J; Butler, Colin R; Maughan, Elizabeth F; Elliott, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis is a rare disease characterized by complete tracheal rings that can affect variable lengths of the tracheobronchial tree. It causes high levels of morbidity and mortality both due to the stenosis itself and to the high incidence of other associated congenital malformations. Successful management of this complex condition requires a highly individualized approach delivered by an experienced multidisciplinary team, which is best delivered within centralized units with the necessary diverse expertise. In such settings, surgical correction by slide tracheoplasty has become increasingly successful over the past 2 decades such that long-term survival now exceeds 88%, with normalization of quality of life scores for patients with non-syndrome-associated congenital tracheal stenosis. Careful assessment and planning of treatment strategies is of paramount importance for both successful management and the provision of patients and carers with accurate and realistic treatment counseling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  7. Congenital Syphilis: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Chaida Sonda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum and has high rates of vertical transmission, which can reach 100% depending on the maternal disease and stage of pregnancy. The diagnosis of gestational syphilis is simple and its screening is required during the prenatal period. However, this disease still has a high prevalence, affecting two million pregnant women worldwide. The procedures performed in newborns with congenital syphilis represent costs that are three-fold higher than the ones spent with a baby without this infection. The treatment is generally carried out with penicillin and must be extended to sexual partners. Inadequate or lack of treatment of congenital syphilis can result in miscarriage, premature birth, acute complications and other fetal sequelae. KEYWORDS: Congenital syphilis. Treponema pallidum. Vertical transmission.

  8. Congenital right hemidiaphragmatic agenesis

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    Bilal Mirza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm through which intestine and other viscera herniate into the chest. In extreme form of diaphragmatic maldevelopment, there might be a complete agenesis of diaphragm. A 45-day old male infant was presented with fever, cough and respiratory distress for a week. Chest radiograph showed right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The patient underwent surgical exploration and found to have an unusual and large defect of right hemidiaphragm. The diaphragm was absent on anterior and lateral aspects of the chest wall and only a small rim of diaphragm was present on posterior aspect. The defect was identified as agenesis of right hemidiaphragm and successfully managed by suturing the posterior rim of diaphragm to the intercostal muscles and ribs. This report describes successful management of hemidiaphragmatic agenesis without incorporating a prosthetic material.

  9. Congenital right hemidiaphragmatic agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Bilal; Bashir, Zahid; Sheikh, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm through which intestine and other viscera herniate into the chest. In extreme form of diaphragmatic maldevelopment, there might be a complete agenesis of diaphragm. A 45-day old male infant was presented with fever, cough and respiratory distress for a week. Chest radiograph showed right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The patient underwent surgical exploration and found to have an unusual and large defect of right hemidiaphragm. The diaphragm was absent on anterior and lateral aspects of the chest wall and only a small rim of diaphragm was present on posterior aspect. The defect was identified as agenesis of right hemidiaphragm and successfully managed by suturing the posterior rim of diaphragm to the intercostal muscles and ribs. This report describes successful management of hemidiaphragmatic agenesis without incorporating a prosthetic material.

  10. Congenital Cataract Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  11. Seasonal trends in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in the federal state of Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagel, U; Mikolajczyk, R T; Krämer, A

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge about seasonal trends in acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy may help to understand and avoid risk factors for infection. Analysing regular screening records of 51 754 pregnant women, members of the largest statutory health insurance company in the federal state of Upper Austria from 2000 to 2005, we found a twofold increase of diagnoses of acute toxoplasmosis during winter months. Taking the delay between infection and screening into account, the increased number of detections in winter points towards more frequent infections in autumn. We propose a higher consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruit from gardening as one of the potential explanations.

  12. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Congenital Heart Defects KidsHealth > For Parents > Congenital Heart Defects A A A What's in this article? How ... a Problem en español Anomalías cardíacas congénitas A congenital heart defect is a problem in the heart's structure that ...

  13. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  14. Congenital preduodenal portal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Mi Soo; Huh, Young Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Youngnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Congenital preduodenal portal vein, first reported by Knight in 1921, is an extremely rare congenital anomaly in which the portal vein passes anteriorly to the duodenum rather than posteriorly in its normal location. It is of surgical significance because it may cause difficulties in operations involving the gall bladder, biliary duct, or duodenum. Recently, we experienced 2 cases of preduodenal portal vein. One was found during surgical exploration for the diagnosis and correction of malrotation of the bowels and the other in a 3 day-old male newborn associated with dextrocardia, situs inversus, and duodenal obstruction by diaphragm. We report these 2 cases with a review of the literature.

  15. Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur Haliloglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveUllrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a rather severe type of congenitalmuscular dystrophy with early onset features related to motor development.In general it is inherited in autosomal recessive principles, however in theWestern world mostly seen with de novo dominant mutations in the collagenVI genes. Milder form of the condition is the Bethlem myopathy. There may beoverlap forms in the clinic resembling the Ehler-Danlos syndrome. There hasbeen some radical efforts for cure especially through the apoptosis cascades.Key words: Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, collgen VI genes, Bethlemmyopathy, autophagy.

  16. Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur Haliloglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveUllrich congenital muscular dystrophy is a rather severe type of congenital muscular dystrophy with early onset features related to motor development.In general it is inherited in autosomal recessive principles, however in the Western world mostly seen with de novo dominant mutations in the collagen VI genes. Milder form of the condition is the Bethlem myopathy. There may be overlap forms in the clinic resembling the Ehler-Danlos syndrome. There has been some radical efforts for cure especially through the apoptosis cascades.

  17. Congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950283 Surgical treatment of congenital coronaryartery fistula.CAO Qingheng(曹庆亨),et al.DeptCardiovasc Surg,Shanghai Chest Hosp,Shanghai,200030.Shanghai Med J 1995;18(1):10-12.From October 1957 through December 1990,twenty-five patients with congenital coronary artery fistula(CCAF),including 3 cases complicated with giantcoronary artery aneurysms,underwent surgical repair.The ages ranged from 4 to 47 years (mean 19.8years).CCAF originated from the right coronaryartery in 17 cases (68.0%) and terminated into RA,RV,pulmonary artery (PA) or LV,in 8 cases (32.

  18. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rutter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the main aspects concerning airway management of infants will be analyzed. Conclusions: It is critical for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants.

  19. Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors for toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs from sub-tropical arid parts of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Ahmed, H; Irum, S; Qayyum, M

    2014-12-01

    Pet cats and dogs are an important source of human toxoplasmosis because of their intimate relationship with humans. Present study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs in northern sub-tropical arid region of Pakistan where no such work has been previously conducted. For this study 420 cats and 408 dogs visiting different pet clinics and veterinary hospitals were screened for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA technique. Epidemiological information regarding age, sex, area, outdoor access and hunting practice was obtained from the owners by questionnaire interview. Overall seroprevalence in cats and dogs was 26.43% (111/420) and 28.43% (116/408) respectively. IgG antibodies were found in 23.33% (98) cats and 25.49% (104) dogs while IgM antibodies were found in 3.57% (15) cats and 3.92% (16) dogs. Seroprevalence was significantly high in cats and dogs older than one year. No significant difference was recorded between males and females. Cats and dogs from rural areas showed higher prevalence. Dogs which had access to outside also showed high seroprevalence. The present study indicates that Toxoplasma gondii is widespread in pet animals in Pakistan which may have important implication for public health.

  20. Pseudoamblyopia in Congenital Cyclotropia

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    Antonio Frattolillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of surgery on amblyopia and suppression associated with congenital cyclovertical strabismus. Methods. The fixation pattern was investigated with microperimetry before and soon after surgery in ten consecutive children operated for congenital superior oblique palsy at the S. Martino Hospital, Belluno, Italy, between September 2014 and December 2015. Changes in visual performance in terms of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and stereopsis between the day before and one week after surgery were also evaluated. No other amblyopia treatment has been administered during the time study. Results. Surgical correction of the excyclodeviation in congenital SO palsy determined monocular and binocular sensory consequences: monocularly, in the cyclodeviated amblyopic eye, BCVA (0.46–0.03 LogMAR; p<0.0001 and the fixation pattern improved, as demonstrated by microperimetry examination. Binocularly, stereopsis improved or emerged while suppression at the Worth four-dot test disappeared. Conclusions. In the absence of further amblyopic factors such as coexisting constant vertical and/or horizontal deviation and anisometropia, the amblyopia encountered in congenital SO palsy may resolve soon after the surgical alignment. Therefore, it may be considered and defined “pseudoamblyopia.”