WorldWideScience

Sample records for human comfort studies

  1. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  2. A Preliminary Study on Effects of Four Urban Greenbelt Types on Human Comfort in Shenzhen, P.R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bing; WU Tuliang; CHEN Yong; LIAO Shaobo

    2006-01-01

    Four urban greenbelt types including roadside greenbelt, resident-area greenbelt, landscape forest, and forest park, were simultaneously investigated in Shenzhen, China, in such measures as air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, air anion ratio, and inhalabal particle concentration, which were strongly related with pleasing feeling of human body. The results show that the average air temperature in both forest park and landscape forest is much closer to the pleasing feeling of human body temperature than that of the rest two greenbelts, where it is 1.782 ℃ and 0.837 ℃ in forest park as well as 3.084 ℃ and 2.140 ℃ in landscape forest less than that of roadside and resident-area greenbelts, respectively. In terms of mean air humidity, forest park and landscape forest are 3.034% and 7.563% higher than that of roadside greenbelt, and 1.205% and 5.734% higher than that of resident-area greenbelt, respectively, implying a sound humidity feeling of human comfort in the former two types. The air cleanness holds a descending rank as forest park, landscape forest, resident-area greenbelt, and roadside greenbelt, whereas the rank in inhalable particle concentration is completely reverse. In general, landscape forest and forest park that mainly consist of trees have a comparatively higher feeling of human comfort whereas roadside and resident-area greenbelts fluctuate irregularly to some extent for the measures studied. The four greenbelt types investigated could be summarized in human comfort as the following descending rank, forest park, landscape forest, resident-area greenbelt, and roadside greenbelt.

  3. Evaluation of thermal comfort and human health using Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI Case Study: Kurdistan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A Fallah Ghalhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Assessing  human bioclimatic is foundation for many programs and plans, especially in the field of healthcare. In this study, human thermal comfort and its relationship with the incidence of diseases were investigated in Kurdistan province. Materials and Method: The daily data of temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and cloudiness between the years 1995-2014 were used. In the First step, Tmrt parameter was calculated in the Ray Man software environment. Then, UTCI index values were calculated using Bioklima software. In the final step, the climatic comfort zones were drawn in the ArcMap software. Results: It was found that the UTCI values change from 20 to -23. Bijar and Zarrineh stations have the highest cold stress conditions. The calculated values showed that severe cold stress conditions prevail in most parts of the province almost throughout the year. The correlation coefficient values showed that the highest correlation with the height was observed in the cold months of the year (December- February. The results of UTCI zoning also showed that the central parts of the province consistent with the higher altitude areas had severe stress conditions. Conclusion: The research showed that the province is faced with moderate to severe stresses in terms of human stress conditions. In the cold periods of the year, it will be more severe and more cold conditions are experienced in high places.

  4. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  5. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity...

  6. Tabriz Bazaar: sustainability and human comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Master of Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Fard, Fariborz Mahdavi Tabatabaei [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Sustainable developments in energy and the environment have become a main focus of many groups. The built environment has a great influence on environmental sustainability generally. Solutions that respond to the impact of human activities on the environment in urban areas are required. On one hand, averting resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructures over their life cycle is a principal goal. On the other hand, it is also a principal goal to create livable, comfortable, safe and productive built environments. Tabriz bazaar, in Iran, is an example of sustainable architecture. It is designed to be suited to the local climate and urban texture with spaces that are varied and have a strong connection to open space. The bazaar plays a significant role in creation of safe urban space as a cultural, social, commercial, educational and sanitarian area. It connects different activities and different people in a safe place. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sustainability of the Tabriz bazaar and the effect that the character of this commercial area has on the quality of human life.

  7. Standards guidelines for human comfort tested on timber footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Activities such as walking, running and jumping can produce undesirable dynamic excitations, which are a phenomenon that occurs due to pedestrian-induced dynamic forces whenever a footbridge features a natural frequency within stepping frequency ranges. Dynamic evaluations of timber footbridges are necessary to verify the level of human comfort and the suitability of the bridges when subjected to human traffic. The objective of this paper is to present a bibliography review on the standards guidelines contained in international codes BS 5400, SIA 160, OHBDC, CEB, EUROCODE 5, AASHTO, BRO and ISO 10137 as well as in studies by various researchers, in order to verify the serviceability limit state for vibrations. In Brazil, codes ABNT NBR 7190 and ABNT NBR 7188 set the sizing criteria for timber footbridges considering the ultimate and serviceability limit states, with the latter ignoring human comfort with regard to vibrations. Thus, the information contained in this study can contribute to the refinement of Brazilian code ABNT NBR 7190, as it takes into account human comfort in pedestrian-induced vibrations on footbridges.

  8. Human comfort in relation to sinusoidal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Rao, B. K. N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the overall subjective comfort levels to sinusoidal excitations over the range 1 to 19 Hz using a two axis electrohydraulic vibration simulator. Exposure durations of 16 minutes, 25 minutes, 1 hour, and 2.5 hours have been considered. Subjects were not exposed over such durations, but were instructed to estimate the overall comfort levels preferred had they been constantly subjected to vibration over such durations.

  9. Vision Influence on Whole-Body Human Vibration Comfort Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Machado Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The well being of people needs to be a priority in the modern world. In that respect, vibration cannot be one more cause of stress. Besides that, vibration comfort is very important, since high levels may cause health or even tasks' accomplishment problems. Several parameters may influence the levels of vibration a human being supports. Among them, one can mention the influence of gender, age, corporeal mass index (CMI, temperature, humor, anxiety, hearing, posture, vision, etc. The first three parameters mentioned were already investigated in previous studies undertaken by GRAVI (Group of Acoustics and Vibration researchers. In this paper, the influence of vision is evaluated. The main objective with this series of tests performed is to try to quantify in a future the influence of each parameter in a global vibration comfort level. Conclusions are presented for the parameter investigated.

  10. Climate controls in a historic house museum in the tropics : a case study of collection care and human comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, S.; Beltran, V. [Getty Conservation Inst., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Carvalho, C. [Casa de Rui Barbosa Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Toledo, F. [Conservare, Recife (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a ventilation/dehumidification-based climate control strategy that was successfully used in a historic house museum in a hot and humid climate. The building envelope of the Casa de Rui Barbosa Museum in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was repaired and original passive climate designs were restored. A ventilator and dehumidifier-based climate control system was installed in the basement and attic. The thermal comfort of occupants was addressed by using an air conditioning system with a high air exchange rate and ensuring high air movement along visitor pathways. Energy conservation measures were adopted whereby full ventilation was used during dry outside conditions and full recirculation and hibernation modes were used during non-visiting hours. The installed temperature control system has maintained the indoor temperature at about 25 degrees C with reduced air pollution levels and particulate matters. Visitors have expressed satisfaction regarding thermal comfort, air quality, daylighting and low noise levels. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  11. ON THE DESIGN OF A NEW HUMAN COMFORT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯业荣; 王安宇; 林镇国

    2004-01-01

    In designing the human comfort index (CI) used in Guangzhou, a Gaussian curve was adopted as the fundamental profile to develop a "straw hat" model of comfort index. The model projects low or high temperatures into low index values and the moderate temperatures into high index values. Air temperature was chosen as a basic factor in the model. Other factors such as humidity, sunshine and wind speed were introduced by considering them as temperature departures to an equivalent apparent temperature (EAT). Since the index is a relative index, 25(C was chosen as an ideal apparent temperature (the most comfortable state) and a maximum CI value of 100 was assigned at this temperature. While in other circumstances, the index would be lower than 100. By utilizing this model, the daily comfort index values had been calculated for Guangzhou city for 1998-1999, using mean temperature, mean humidity, mean wind speed and total hours of sunshine. Results show that the new model was reasonable and practicable. Not only could it reflect the monthly variation of human comfort in Guangzhou, but also was sensitive to short-term changes of weather conditions.

  12. Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The exposure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity among workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries had exposed to excessive temperature while working. The study investigated the thermal comfort level experienced by workers at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: The study had been conducted at one automotive parts assembly factory in Malaysia. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at tire receiving section of the factory. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, WBGT, air temperature and radiant temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ASHRAE thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD was used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The trend of relative humidity curve from the graph also indicated the increasing level of discomfort. The radiant temperature observed seems consistent during the study while there was decreasing of WBGT start from afternoon due to the rain. The study revealed that the PPD value of 54% of the workers population at the workstation are likely to be satisfied with thermal comfort at this station while the PMV index from ASHRAE indicated the value 1

  13. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and accura

  14. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity...

  15. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and

  16. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xue

    2017-05-01

    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  17. Study On Human Thermal Comfort Theory Research In Building Outdoor Environment%建筑室外环境人体热舒适理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹越; 成慧祯; 田云

    2016-01-01

    To take building outdoor environment as the research object, this paper discusses the influence of space elements such as vegetation, pavement, construction on human thermal comfort, so as to deduce the green strategy of cozy environment, and provide theoretical basis for creating a healthy and comfortable living environment for humans.%以建筑室外环境为研究对象,探讨植被、铺装、建筑等空间要素对人体热舒适的影响,推导出舒适环境的绿化策略,为人们营造健康舒适的生活环境提供理论依据。

  18. Assessment of Thermal Comfort: A Study at Closed and Ventilated Call Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aims of study were to investigate the effects of environmental factors including the human physiology and thermal comfort during the cycle of process works in workplace. Approach: The selected production line was handling the restoration of trouble report. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, wind speed (m sec-1, illuminance (lux and air temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using thermal comfort apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then the thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The thermal comfort assessment of this workplace which is slightly warm following by thermal sensation and likely to be dissatisfied by the occupant. Conclusion: The result indicated that the activity level and clothing more influenced comfort to the occupants.

  19. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  20. Comparison assessment of BIPV façade semi-transparent modules: further insights on human comfort conditions

    OpenAIRE

    POLO LOPEZ Cristina; SANGIORGI MARCO

    2014-01-01

    Integrated photovoltaic BIPV components and the usage of renewable energy is already a standard for reducing power consumption, but it would also be important knowing the possible contribution to improve comfort and health of building occupants and assessing an operational balance between the energy consumed and produced. This work describes the testing methodology employed by the authors to further study aspects linked to human comfort when using semi-transparent BIPV elements tested in a re...

  1. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  2. implications of climate change on human comfort in buildings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    needed to maintain the condition of air in spaces at comfort levels keep increasing. It is therefore ... present day building design, if not it could pose severe consequences. Resilience of .... 4a: Sandcrete wall with louver blades window. Fig.

  3. Indoor temperatures for optimum thermal comfort and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dear, R.; Arens, E. A.; Candido, C.;

    2014-01-01

    A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue.......A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue....

  4. Robotic comfort zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  5. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  6. A Study to Investigate the Sleeping Comfort of Mattress using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Yoshio

    Sleep is an essential physiological activity for human beings and many studies have so far investigated sleeping comfort of mattresses. The appropriate measurement of stress distribution within the human body would provide valuable information to us. For the appropriate measurement to estimate stress distribution within the human body, numerical analysis is considered one of the most desirable techniques, and Finite Element Method (FEM), which is widely accepted as a useful numerical technique, was utilized in this study. Since human body dimensions have individual differences, however, it is presumed that the way of the internal stress distribution also changes due to the differences and that the mattress preference varies among different body forms. Thus, we developed three human FEM models reproducing the body forms of three types of male subjects, and investigated the sleeping comfort of mattress based on the relationship between FEM analysis findings and sensory testing results. In comparison with the results of both FEM analysis and sensory testing in the neck region, we found, the sensory testing results corresponded to the FEM analysis findings, and it was possible to estimate subjects' preferences of mattress and comfort in the neck region using the FEM analysis. In this study, we believe, the FEM analysis managed to quantify the subjects' preferences for mattress and to prove itself that it is the valuable tools to examine the sleeping comfort of mattress.

  7. A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Harte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices.

  8. Post-occupancy evaluation and field studies of thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, F.; Roaf, S.

    2005-08-01

    The similarities and differences are explored in both the aims and the methods between post-occupancy evaluations and field studies of thermal comfort in buildings. The interpretations of the field study results are explored, especially the ways the results differ from laboratory experiments. Particular attention is drawn to the dynamic nature of the interaction between buildings and their occupants. Answers to questions of the type used in post-occupancy evaluations are compared with results from field studies of thermal comfort, and the implications of these findings for the evaluation of buildings and the conduct of post-occupancy evaluation are explored. Field studies of thermal comfort have shown that the way in which occupants evaluate the indoor thermal environment is context-dependent and varies with time. In using occupants as part of the means of measuring buildings, post-occupancy evaluations should be understood as reflecting the changing nature of the relationship between people, the climate and buildings. Surveys are therefore measuring a moving target, and close comparison based on such surveys need to take this in to account. (author)

  9. Field study of thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned buildings in a tropical island climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shilei; Pang, Bo; Qi, Yunfang; Fang, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The unique geographical location of Hainan makes its climate characteristics different from inland areas in China. The thermal comfort of Hainan also owes its uniqueness to its tropical island climate. In the past decades, there have been very few studies on thermal comfort of the residents in tropical island areas in China. A thermal environment test for different types of buildings in Hainan and a thermal comfort field investigation of 1944 subjects were conducted over a period of about two months. The results of the survey data show that a high humidity environment did not have a significant impact on human comfort. The neutral temperature for the residents in tropical island areas was 26.1 °C, and the acceptable temperature range of thermal comfort was from 23.1 °C to 29.1 °C. Residents living in tropical island areas showed higher heat resistance capacity, but lower cold tolerance than predicted. The neutral temperature for females (26.3 °C) was higher than for males (25.8 °C). Additionally, females were more sensitive to air temperature than males. The research conclusions can play a guiding role in the thermal environment design of green buildings in Hainan Province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of human physiology. Individual Thermal comfort in thermal comfort models; Integratie van de menselijke fysiologie. Individueel thermisch comfort in thermische comfortmodellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, A. [Faculteit Werktuigbouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.; Kingsma, B. [Department of Human Biology, Nutrim School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    When designing climate installations, the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied index) values are used as guidelines. Installations are designed in such a way that the 'average' user in a 'steady-state' condition experiences thermal comfort. Studies show that individual physiological processes might be suitable for integration in the design models. [Dutch] Bij het ontwerp van klimaatinstallaties worden de PMV/PPD-waarden van Fanger (PMV staat voor de Predicted Mean Vote index en PPD is de Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied index) als richtlijn gebruikt. Installaties worden zodanig ontworpen dat een 'gemiddelde' persoon in een 'steady-state' conditie deze als thermisch comfortabel ervaart. Studies wijzen uit dat individuele fysiologische processen mogelijk ook in ontwerpmodellen inpasbaar zijn.

  11. Quantifying urban heat island effects and human comfort for cities of variable size and urban morphology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Koopmans, S.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van B.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI) and human comfort in a range of small to large cities and villages in the Netherlands. So far, this subject has not been substantially studied in the Netherlands, since it has a relatively mild Cfb climate and impact was assumed to be mi

  12. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  13. Impact of indoor thermal comfort on physiological parameters of human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁; 张瑜; 姚润明

    2009-01-01

    With the living standards gradually improved,the buildings with safe,comfortable,healthy indoor thermal environment would be the ideal pursuit. But to create the preferable indoor thermal environment,it is necessary to research physiological influence of indoor thermal environment on human body. So a typical region of hot-humid climate in Chongqing,China,was considered as the object to study physiological indexes of human body. And the indoor thermal environment parameters and physiological indexes of human body were the main measurements. 20 volunteer students were organized to take part in the experiments in the laboratory during this summer. And two methods,physical measuring and questionnaire investigation,were used in the experiments. The results show that the increase in indoor air temperature reduces the uncomfortable feeling of air draft. Indoor air temperature has visible effects on MCS (motor nerve conduction speed),SCS (sensory nerve conduction speed),HR (heart rate),the ECG (electrocardiogram)-QT segment and SSEP (short somatosensory evoked potential)-latent period of N9. Therefore,a safe,comfortable and healthful indoor environment can be created by considering these factors.

  14. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity at moderate energy expenditure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toftum, J.; Langkilde, G.; Fanger, P.O. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy

    2004-09-01

    This article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark. Together with three older chambers, the Centre now has at its disposal 12 spaces for studying indoor environments and their impact on human comfort, health, productivity at moderate energy demands. [Author].

  15. Specifying comfortable driving postures for ergonomic design and evaluation of the driver workspace using digital human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Gyouhyung; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-08-01

    Specifying comfortable driving postures is essential for ergonomic design and evaluation of a driver workspace. The present study sought to enhance and expand upon several existing recommendations for such postures. Participants (n = 38) were involved in six driving sessions that differed by vehicle class (sedan and SUV), driving venue (laboratory-based and field) or seat (from vehicles ranked high and low by vehicle comfort). Sixteen joint angles were measured in preferred postures to more completely describe driving postures, as were corresponding perceptual responses. Driving postures were found to be bilaterally asymmetric and distinct between vehicle classes, venues, age groups and gender. A subset of preferred postural ranges was identified using a filtering mechanism that ensured desired levels of perceptual responses. Accurate ranges of joint angles for comfortable driving postures, and careful consideration of vehicle and driver factors, will facilitate ergonomic design and evaluation of a driver workspace, particularly when embedded in digital human models.

  16. Field study of thermal comfort and indoor air quality in gymnasium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧; 甘晓爱; 马飞

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) in a medium-sized mechanically ventilated gymnasium in Beijing,a field study was carried out. PHOENICS,one of the CFD software,was chosen to simulate the distribution of the indicators of indoor air in the gymnasium to check the air-conditioning parameters reasonable or not. And there was a questionnaire for audiences and staff about the acceptance and satisfaction of the thermal comfort,simultaneously,some environmental parameters were monitored. Then an experiment was carried out in gymnasium with the plate sedimentation to the biological aerosol in the air. Finally,the thermal comfort and IAQ in the gymnasium were assessed based on the results of above questionnaire survey and measurements. The results show that most parameters of the environmental are within the standard limits of thermal comfort and IAQ in the monitored period,and the biological contaminants initially come from human beings. The main species in the gymnasium are streptobacillus,coccus,cladosporium,penicillium and neurospora.

  17. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to personality and anxiety factors even though such a comparison would help to clarify to what extent they share similar mechanisms and characteristics. The aim of the present paper was to investigate whether personality dimensions and anxiety levels are associated with reaching and comfort distances. Seventy university students (35 females) were administered the Big Five Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; afterwards, they had to provide reachability- and comfort-distance judgments towards human confederates while standing still (passive) or walking towards them (active). The correlation analyses showed that both spaces were positively related to anxiety and negatively correlated with the Dynamism in the active condition. Moreover, in the passive condition higher Emotional Stability was related to shorter comfort distance, while higher cognitive Openness was associated with shorter reachability distance. The implications of these results are discussed.

  18. WESBES: A Wireless Embedded Sensor for Improving Human Comfort Metrics using Temporospatially Correlated Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Hewlett; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2012-08-01

    When utilized properly, energy management systems (EMS) can offer significant energy savings by optimizing the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. However, difficulty often arises due to the constraints imposed by the need to maintain an acceptable level of comfort for a building’s occupants. This challenge is compounded by the fact that human comfort is difficult to define in a measurable way. One way to address this problem is to provide a building manager with direct feedback from the building’s users. Still, this data is relative in nature, making it difficult to determine the actions that need to be taken, and while some useful comfort correlations have been devised, such as ASHRAE’s Predicted Mean Vote index, they are rules of thumb that do not connect individual feedback with direct, diverse feedback sensing. As they are a correlation, quantifying effects of climate, age of buildings and associated defects such as draftiness, are outside the realm of this correlation. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is the Wireless Embedded Smart Block for Environment Sensing (WESBES); an affordable wireless sensor platform that allows subjective human comfort data to be directly paired with temporospatially correlated objective sensor measurements for use in EMS. The described device offers a flexible research platform for analyzing the relationship between objective and subjective occupant feedback in order to formulate more meaningful measures of human comfort. It could also offer an affordable and expandable option for real world deployment in existing EMS.

  19. Digital evaluation of sitting posture comfort in human-vehicle system under Industry 4.0 framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Kang, Jinsheng; Sun, Wenlei; Li, Zhaobo; Huo, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Most of the previous studies on the vibration ride comfort of the human-vehicle system were focused only on one or two aspects of the investigation. A hybrid approach which integrates all kinds of investigation methods in real environment and virtual environment is described. The real experimental environment includes the WBV(whole body vibration) test, questionnaires for human subjective sensation and motion capture. The virtual experimental environment includes the theoretical calculation on simplified 5-DOF human body vibration model, the vibration simulation and analysis within ADAMS/VibrationTM module, and the digital human biomechanics and occupational health analysis in Jack software. While the real experimental environment provides realistic and accurate test results, it also serves as core and validation for the virtual experimental environment. The virtual experimental environment takes full advantages of current available vibration simulation and digital human modelling software, and makes it possible to evaluate the sitting posture comfort in a human-vehicle system with various human anthropometric parameters. How this digital evaluation system for car seat comfort design is fitted in the Industry 4.0 framework is also proposed.

  20. Assessment of the microclimatic and human comfort conditions in a complex urban environment: Modelling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyas, Agnes; Unger, Janos [University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary). Department of Climatology and Landscape Ecology; Matzarakis, Andreas [Meteorological Institute, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Several complex thermal indices (e.g. Predicted Mean Vote and Physiological Equivalent Temperature) were developed in the last decades to describe and quantify the thermal environment of humans and the energy fluxes between body and environment. Compared to open spaces/landscapes the complex surface structure of urban areas creates an environment with special microclimatic characteristics, which have a dominant effect on the energy balance of the human body. In this study, outdoor thermal comfort conditions are examined through two field-surveys in Szeged, a South-Hungarian city (population 160,000). The intensity of radiation fluxes is dependent on several factors, such as surface structure and housing density. Since our sample area is located in a heavily built-up city centre, radiation fluxes are mainly influenced by narrow streets and several 20-30-year-old (20-30m tall) trees. Special emphasis is given to the human-biometeorological assessment of the microclimate of complex urban environments through the application of the thermal index PET. The analysis is carried out by the utilization of the RayMan model. Firstly, bioclimatic conditions of sites located close to each other but shaded differently by buildings and plants are compared. The results show that differences in the PET index amongst these places can be as high as 15-20{sup |}C due to the different irradiation. Secondly, the investigation of different modelled environments by RayMan (only buildings, buildings+trees and only trees) shows significant alterations in the human comfort sensation between the situations. (author)

  1. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    , a lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...... thermal sensation scale. The study could not confirm any preference regarding air and mean radiant temperature....

  2. Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The present paper shows the results of a literature survey aimed at exploring how the indoor environment in buildings affects human comfort. The survey was made to gather data that can be useful when new concepts of controlling the indoor environment are developed. The following indoor environmen......The present paper shows the results of a literature survey aimed at exploring how the indoor environment in buildings affects human comfort. The survey was made to gather data that can be useful when new concepts of controlling the indoor environment are developed. The following indoor...... environmental conditions influencing comfort in the built environment were surveyed: thermal, visual and acoustic, as well as air quality. The literature was surveyed to determine which of these conditions were ranked by building users as being the most important determinants of comfort. The survey also...... examined the extent to which other factors unrelated to the indoor environment, such as individual characteristics of building occupants, building-related factors and outdoor climate including seasonal changes, influence whether the indoor environment is evaluated as comfortable or not. The results suggest...

  3. Human beings and thermal comfort. Thermal comfort is a complex matter; De mens weer centraal bij de comfortbenadering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Currently thermal comfort is determined by means of the Fanger Theory, which is based on six parameters: metabolism, clothing, air and radiation temperature, air humidity and air velocity. 10-26% dissatisfaction is considered to be acceptable, which in fact is unacceptable. [Dutch] Tot op heden wordt het thermisch comfort veelal bepaald conform de Theorie van Fanger. Op basis van zes parameters (metabolisme, kleding, lucht- en stralingstemperatuur, luchtvochtigheid en luchtsnelheid) wordt de ontevredenheid over het binnenklimaat bepaald. Acceptabel is een ontevredenheidspercentage van 10 tot 26%, maar dergelijke percentages zijn eigenlijk te gek voor woorden.

  4. Thermal (dis)comfort experienced from physiological movements across indoor, transitional and outdoor spaces in Singapore: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Heng, Su; Chow, Winston

    2017-04-01

    Human thermal comfort research is important as climate discomfort can adversely affect both health and work productivity in cities; however, such biometeorological work in low-latitude urban areas is still relatively unstudied hitherto. In the tropical metropolis of Singapore, a suite of policies have been implemented aimed at improving environmental sustainability via increasing car-free commutes and pedestrian movement during work/school journeys, with the consequence that individuals will likely have increased personal exposure through a variety of spaces (and climates) during typical daily activities. As such, research into exploring the thermal (dis)comfort experienced during pedestrian movements across these indoor, outdoor and transitional (semi-outdoor) spaces would yield interesting applied biometerological insights. This pilot study thus investigates how pedestrian thermal comfort varies spatially across a university campus, and how the physical intensity of pedestrian travel affects thermal comfort across these spaces. Over a 10-week period, we profiled six students for both their objective and subjective pedestrian thermal comfort during traverses across different spaces. Data were obtained through use of (a.) of a heat stress sensor, (b.) a fitness tracker, and (b.) a questionnaire survey to record traverse measurements of the microclimate, their physiological data, and their perceived microclimate comfort respectively. Measured climate and physiological data were used to derive commonly-used thermal comfort indices like wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and physiological equivalent temperature (PET). Further, interviews were conducted with all six subjects at the end of the fieldwork period to ascertain details on individual acclimatization behavior and adaptation strategies. The results indicate that (a.) more than 50% of the microclimatic conditions within each indoor, semi-outdoor, and outdoor space exceeded heat stress thresholds of both PET and

  5. Thermal comfort modelling of body temperature and psychological variations of a human exercising in an outdoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort assessments pertaining to exercise while in outdoor environments can improve urban and recreational planning. The current study applied a simple four-segment skin temperature approach to the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) outdoor energy balance model. Comparative results of measured mean skin temperature ( {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{Msk}} ) with predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} indicate that the model accurately predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} , showing significantly strong agreement ( r = 0.859, P compared to the original and updated COMFA models. This psychological improvement, plus {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} and T c validations, enables better application to a variety of outdoor spaces. This model can be used in future research studying linkages between thermal discomfort, subsequent decreases in physical activity, and negative health trends.

  6. Perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort in European “Modern” office buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakellaris, I.A.; Saraga, D.E.; Mandin, C.; Roda, C.; Fossati, S.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Carrer, P.; Dimitroulopoulou, S.; Mihucz, V.G.; Szigeti, T.; Hänninen, O.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.G.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to exami

  7. Perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort in European “Modern” office buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakellaris, I.A.; Saraga, D.E.; Mandin, C.; Roda, C.; Fossati, S.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Carrer, P.; Dimitroulopoulou, S.; Mihucz, V.G.; Szigeti, T.; Hänninen, O.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.G.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to exami

  8. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  9. Study on the ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Jin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles driven by in-wheel motors have received more and more attention. However, due to the introduction of in-wheel motors, the ratio between unsprung and sprung mass is increased. In this article, to study the influence of this change on ride comfort of vehicles driven by in-wheel motors, an 11 degrees of freedom of vehicle ride comfort model will be presented and studied with MATLAB/Simulink. Then, road tests will be conducted to corroborate the simulation results. It can be obtained that the vehicle ride comfort becomes poor with the increasing unsprung mass. Finally, semi-active air-suspension proportional–integral–derivative control system will be proposed to improve the vehicle ride comfort. Through the simulation results, one can come to a conclusion that the proportional–integral–derivative control system for air suspension is feasible and effective to improve the ride comfort of the vehicles driven by in-wheel motors.

  10. The impact of air pollution from used ventilation filters on human comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, O.; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    The comfort and health of 30 women was studied during 4 hours´ exposure in an experimental room with either a used or a new filter present in the ventilation system. All other environmental parameters were kept constant. The presence of the used filter in the ventilation system had a significant...

  11. Building Comfort Analysis Using BLAST: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Models were recently incorporated into the BLAST program. These are the Pierce, KSU, and Fanger models. All three are well recognized models in ASHRAE...program were developed. The new report is invoked by specifying the name of the comfort model desired (i.e., Pierce, Fanger , or KSU), and by adding the...number 123 to the reports statement in the input deck. For example, the following statement would generate reports using the Fanger and Pierce models

  12. Marriage and family therapists' comfort working with lesbian and gay male clients: the influence of religious practices and support for lesbian and gay male human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mary S; Murphy, Megan J; Blumer, Markie L C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore potential influences on marriage and family therapists' comfort level when working with lesbian and gay male clients, including sex, age, race, sexual orientation, political orientation, religious practices of the therapist, as well as the level of support for lesbian and gay male human rights. Participants in this study were 199 experienced therapists. Results indicated that higher levels of religious practices were related to lower levels of support for lesbian and gay male human rights and to lower levels of comfort working with lesbian and gay male clients. When support for lesbian and gay male human rights was considered, the level of religious practices was no longer predictive of comfort working with lesbian and gay male clients.

  13. An analysis on spatial variation of urban human thermal comfort in Hangzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wu; ZHU Li-zhong; WANG Ren-chao

    2004-01-01

    Urban human thermal comfort (UHTC) is affected for interacting of weather condition and underlyingsurface framework of urban area. Urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference VegetationIndex(NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by ERDAS IMAGEsoftware using 1991 and 1999 Landsat TM images data. Reference to the relational standard of assessing humanthermal comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer, air temperature and relative humidityvariation of different land types of underlying surface were inversed. By choosing discomfort index as an indictor, thespatial distribution characteristic and the spatial variation degree of UHTC were estimated and mapped on a middlescale, that is, in six districts of Hangzhou. The main characteristics of UHTC spatial variation from 1991 to 1999 wererevealed using a GIS-based calculation model. The variation mechanism were analyzed and discussed from theviewpoint of city planning, construction and environmental protection.

  14. Improvement of Thermal Comfort Conditions in an Urban Space (Case Study: The Square of Independence, Sétif, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Ballout

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies all around the world were conducted on the phenomenon of the urban heat island, and referring to the results obtained, one of the most important factors that influence this phenomenon is the mineralization of the cities which means the reducing of evaporative urban surfaces, replacing vegetation and wetlands with concrete and asphalt. The use of vegetation and water can change the urban environment and improve comfort, thus reduce the heat island. The trees act as a mask to the sun, wind, and sound, and also as a source of humidity which reduces air temperature and surrounding surfaces. Water also acts as a buffer to noise; it is also a source of moisture and regulates temperature not to mention the psychological effect on humans. Our main objective in this paper is to determine the impact of vegetation, ponds and fountains on the urban microclimate in general and on the thermal comfort of people along the Independence square in the Algerian city of Sétif, which is a semi-arid climate, in particularly. In order to reach this objective, a comparative study between different scenarios has been done; the use of the Envi-met program enabled us to model the urban environment of the Independence Square and to study the possibility of improving the conditions of comfort by adding an amount of vegetation and water ponds. After studying the results obtained (temperature, relative humidity, PMV and PPD indicators, the efficiency of the additions we've made on the square was confirmed and this is what helped us to confirm our assumptions regarding the terms of comfort in the studied site, and in the end we are trying to develop recommendations and solutions which may contribute to improve the conditions for greater comfort in the Independence square. Keywords: microclimate, vegetation, water ponds, simulation, Envi-Met software, comfort.

  15. Feasibility study of context-awareness device Comfort calculation methods and their application to comfort-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    . This allows us to analyze the influence of the context on the comfort level of the device in different perceived contexts in the real world. Moreover, to demonstrate the utility of our device comfort calculation methods, we apply it to comfort-based access control for mobile devices. We present the policy......Mobile devices have become more powerful and are increasingly integrated in the everyday life of people; from playing games, taking pictures and interacting with social media to replacing credit cards in payment solutions. Some actions may only be appropriate in some situations, so the security...... of a mobile device is therefore increasingly linked to its context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects in the immediate environment) and so on. However, situational awareness and context are not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort...

  16. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  17. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Sakellaris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality, and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index, and building characteristics (office type and building’s location. Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  18. A comparative study of visual and thermal comfort in prefabricated and classically built kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis a comparative study of visual and thermal comfort in prefabricated and classically built kindergarten in Grosuplje are presented. Visual and thermal comfort in the selected room of classically and prefabricated built kindergarten was estimated by site measuring, calculations and questionnaires. The thesis includes review of legislation in this field, review of existing studies, the methodology and the results of a comparative analysis. Furthermore, proposals for improvements in...

  19. Effect of human behavior on economizer efficacy and thermal comfort in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, TIghe Glennon

    California has set a zero net-energy conservation goal for the residential sector that is to be achieved by 2020 (California Energy Commission 2011). To reduce energy consumption in the building sector, modern buildings should fundamentally incorporate sustainable performance standards, involving renewable systems, climate-specific strategies, and consideration of a variety of users. Building occupants must operate in concert with the buildings they inhabit in order to maximize the potential of the building, its systems, and their own comfort. In climates with significant diurnal temperature swings, environmental controls designed to capitalize on this should be considered to reduce cooling-related loads. One specific strategy is the air-side economizer, which uses daily outdoor temperature swings to reduce indoor temperature swings. Traditionally a similar effect could be achieved by using thermal mass to buffer indoor temperature swings through thermal lag. Economizers reduce the amount of thermal mass typically required by naturally ventilated buildings. Fans are used to force cool nighttime air deep into the building, allowing lower mass buildings to take advantage of nighttime cooling. Economizers connect to a thermostat, and when the outdoor temperature dips below a programmed set-point the economizer draws cool air from outside, flushing out the warmed interior air. This type of system can be simulated with reasonable accuracy by energy modeling programs; however, because the system is occupant-driven (as opposed to a truly passive mass-driven system) any unpredictable occupant behavior can reduce its effectiveness and create misleading simulation results. This unpredictably has helped prevent the spread of economizers in the residential market. This study investigated to what extent human behavior affected the performance of economizer-based HVAC systems, based on physical observations, environmental data collections, and energy simulations of a residential

  20. Caregivers' understanding of dementia predicts patients' comfort at death: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Knol, Dirk L; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc

    2013-04-11

    Patients with dementia frequently do not receive adequate palliative care which may relate to poor understanding of the natural course of dementia. We hypothesized that understanding that dementia is a progressive and terminal disease is fundamental to a focus on comfort in dementia, and examined how family and professional caregivers' understanding of the nature of the disease was associated with patients' comfort during the dying process. We enrolled 372 nursing home patients from 28 facilities in The Netherlands in a prospective observational study (2007 to 2010). We studied both the families and the physicians (73) of 161 patients. Understanding referred to families' comprehension of complications, prognosis, having been counseled on these, and perception of dementia as "a disease you can die from" (5-point agreement scale) at baseline. Physicians reported on this perception, prognosis and having counseled on this. Staff-assessed comfort with the End-of-Life in Dementia - Comfort Assessment in Dying (EOLD-CAD) scale. Associations between understanding and comfort were assessed with generalized estimating equations, structural equation modeling, and mediator analyses. A family's perception of dementia as "a disease you can die from" predicted higher patient comfort during the dying process (adjusted coefficient -0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.5; -0.06 point increment disagreement). Family and physician combined perceptions (-0.9, CI: -1.5; -0.2; 9-point scale) were also predictive, including in less advanced dementia. Forty-three percent of the families perceived dementia as a disease you can die from (agreed completely, partly); 94% of physicians did. The association between combined perception and higher comfort was mediated by the families' reporting of a good relationship with the patient and physicians' perception that good care was provided in the last week. Awareness of the terminal nature of dementia may improve patient comfort at the end of life

  1. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.

    2016-04-01

    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  2. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  3. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  4. A model of human physiology and comfort for assessing complex thermal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizenga, C.; Zhang Hui; Arens, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for Environmental Design Research

    2001-07-01

    The Berkeley Comfort Model is based on the Stolwijk model of human thermal regulation but includes several significant improvements. Our new model allows an unlimited body segment (compared to six in the Stolwijk model). Each segment is modeled as four body layers (core, muscle, fat, and skin tissues) and a clothing layer. Physiological mechanisms such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, sweating, and metabolic heat production are explicitly considered. Convection, conduction (such as to a car seat or other surface in contact with any part of the body) and radiation between the body and the environment are treated independently. The model is capable of predicting human physiological response to transient, non-uniform thermal environments. This paper describes the physiological algorithms as well as the implementation of the model. (author)

  5. Thermal performance study and evaluation of comfort temperatures in vernacular buildings of North-East India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Atreya, S.K. [Instrument Design and Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Mahapatra, Sadhan [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2010-02-15

    Solar passive techniques are being used in vernacular buildings throughout the world. Researchers have done extensive study on thermal performance of vernacular buildings in the different parts of the world. Vernacular architecture of North-Eastern India represents the principle of climate-responsive architecture, which still lacks experimental validation and quantitative analysis. Thermal comfort not only makes the occupants comfortable but also governs energy consumption in the building. Detailed field studies on thermal performances of typical traditional vernacular dwellings in different bioclimatic zones have been undertaken. This field study includes detailed survey of 150 vernacular dwellings, field tests and thermal sensation vote of 300 occupants on ASHRAE thermal sensation scale. Field test includes measurement of temperature, humidity, illumination level and building design parameters. Thermal performances of these vernacular dwellings were evaluated for winter, pre-summer, summer/monsoon and pre-winter months of the year 2008. This evaluation is based on 'adaptive approach', which is the outcome of the field studies and is now part of ASHRAE standard 55/2004 for predicting comfortable temperature of naturally ventilated buildings. This study also tried to find out the range of comfort temperature in these vernacular buildings for different season of the year. It has been found that these vernacular dwellings perform quite satisfactorily except in the winter months and the occupants feel comfortable in a wider range of temperature. (author)

  6. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Maintaining Human Comfort within Intelligent Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrodin .T. Mustapha, Momoh J. E. Salami, Nazim and M. Nasiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent control approach for air handling unit (AHU which is an integral part of heat, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system. In the past years various control design for HVAC have been proposed as this system remarkably consumes very high energy. But most of the proposed designs were focused on the control flow of heat-transfer medium such as chilled or heated water while the importance of the efficient mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies is sometimes ignored. These enthalpies invariably determine the best strategy to overcome thermal load in a controlled environment to satisfy human comfort, hence a control design strategy must be able to efficiently regulate the flow and mixture of outdoor and indoor enthalpies by a proper control of AHU dampers and fans. This approach requires sensors to measure temperature and relative humidity of both outdoor and indoor environments. However, unpredictable level of disturbances coming from many sources including heat generated by occupants, electrical items and air leaking and the continuous changes of outdoor enthalpy makes it difficult to model the process. Consequently, conventional controllers are not suitable, hence the use of fuzzy logic controller (FLC is proposed in this paper. This proposed controller operates in a master and slave control loop so as to control the AHU dampers and fans with adjustable output membership function whilst at the same time a scaling-factor method is used to drive the master operation. To implement the proposed system, a small scale prototype has been designed and fabricated. This prototype is an AHU model which consists of ductwork, temperature and humidity sensors, dampers, air cooling and heating systems. A small box is used as a conditioning space in which a room temperature is measured. The control algorithm is programmed using National Instrument (NI LabVIEW and executed using NI FieldPoint. Experimental results reveal that

  7. Epilepsy monitoring - The patients' views: A qualitative study based on Kolcaba's Comfort Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger-Rainer, Andrea; Trinka, Eugen; Höfler, Julia; Dieplinger, Anna Maria

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to determine which perception of personal comfort patients name in the context of their hospitalization in an Austrian Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU). Problem-centred interviews with twelve inpatients were conducted. Data analyses were done according to Mayring's qualitative content analyses following the technique of structuring-deductive category assignment. Patients experienced different kinds of comfort along with their hospitalization in the EMU. Comfort-decreasing factors were bed rest, boredom, and waiting for possible seizures. As comfort-increasing factors, hope for enhanced seizure control, support by family and staff, and intelligible information about the necessity of restrictive conditions were identified. The study results should assist health care professionals, enabling them to design comfort enhancing interventions for patients undergoing video-electroencephalography (EEG) investigations in an EMU. Some of these seem to be simple and obtainable without high financial or technical effort. Others are more complex and have to be further assessed for their feasibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal Comfort At The Street Corridor Around Public Places, Case Study Alun-Alun Malang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Winansih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malang as the second largest city in East Java province become crowded recently. The congestion almost happens everyday. The scenery of the street corridor is full of iron stacks. It is said that Malang city is less comfortable and less walkable. The decrease of this environment encourages to conduct the study (Q.S. 16:90, Q.S. 96:1-5, Q.S. 30:41. The study aimed to analyze the thermal comfort at pedestrian ways around Malang city squares, the street corridor of Merdeka Alun-Alun (MAA and the Tugu Alun-Alun (TAA. The temperature and relative humidity were measured by multinorm instrument. The THI (Temperature Humidity Index method was used to analyze the thermal comfort. The results showed that the THI average at TAA (27 were more comfortable than at MAA (27,5. The south side of the MAA corridor became the most comfortable with the THI value of 26,4, which the side covered by trees canopy (Q.S. 7:58. It needs to conduct next research (Q.S. 13:11, because of the change of the activities at these street corridors.

  9. A CFD study for evaluating the effects of natural ventilation on indoor comfort conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Pérez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings due to the increased awareness about environmental impact and energy cost. Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly technique which has become more attractive way for reducing energy use while it also provides acceptable comfort conditions. The research shows a case study building in which the natural ventilation effect due to wind-driven forces on indoor comfort conditions is evaluated. Moreover, the architectural solutions selected during the building design phase to improve the natural ventilation behaviour are successfully validated in a full-scale building. The indoor comfort conditions are evaluated through contrasted performance indicators: draught risk (DR, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD and predicted mean vote (PMV indexes. The results show that air movement due to natural ventilation allows increasing indoor air temperature maintaining the initial comfort conditions. Therefore, the mechanical air conditioning use can be postponed until the indoor air temperature is high and would, consequently, reduce the total building energy consumption. Thereby, a proper natural ventilation focus during the initial design stage could improve the building energy efficiency without compromising the indoor comfort conditions.

  10. Analysis of operational comfort in manual tasks using human force manipulability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Naoki; Tsuji, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for human force manipulability (HFM) based on the use of isometric joint torque properties to simulate the spatial characteristics of human operation forces at an end-point of a limb with feasible magnitudes for a specified limb posture. This is also applied to the evaluation/prediction of operational comfort (OC) when manually operating a human-machine interface. The effectiveness of HFM is investigated through two experiments and computer simulations of humans generating forces by using their upper extremities. Operation force generation with maximum isometric effort can be roughly estimated with an HFM measure computed from information on the arm posture during a maintained posture. The layout of a human-machine interface is then discussed based on the results of operational experiments using an electric gear-shifting system originally developed for robotic devices. The results indicate a strong relationship between the spatial characteristics of the HFM and OC levels when shifting, and the OC is predicted by using a multiple regression model with HFM measures.

  11. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  12. Isothermal dialysis to control intradialytic hypotension and patient comfort: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Bellury, Lanell; Baird, Marianne; Van Brackle, Lewis N; Aduddell, Kathie

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal hemodialysis to improve intradialytic tolerance in hypotension-prone patients has been effective in outpatient settings. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine thermal control in an acute care setting and describe comfort issues associated with thermal control Although complaints of cold or shivering occurred more frequently with the isothermal hemodialysis group, cold discomfort was managed by nursing interventions and was not a cause of significant discomfort. No statistically significant difference was observed in blood pressure or patient's comfort level between standard and isothermal dialysis. However, isothermal hemodialysis may be an appropriate hemodialysis option for control of intradialytic hypotension in the acute care setting. Further research is recommended.

  13. Dynamic modeling of human thermal comfort after the transition from an indoor to an outdoor hot environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Flocas, Helena A.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Thermal comfort under non-steady-state conditions primarily deals with rapid environmental transients and significant alterations of the meteorological conditions, activity, or clothing pattern within the time scale of some minutes. In such cases, thermal history plays an important role in respect to time, and thus, a dynamic approach is appropriate. The present study aims to investigate the dynamic thermal adaptation process of a human individual, after his transition from a typical indoor climate to an outdoor hot environment. Three scenarios of thermal transients have been considered for a range of hot outdoor environmental conditions, employing the dynamic two-node IMEM model. The differences among them concern the radiation field, the activity level, and the body position. The temporal pattern of body temperatures as well as the range of skin wettedness and of water loss have been investigated and compared among the scenarios and the environmental conditions considered. The structure and the temporal course of human energy fluxes as well as the identification of the contribution of body temperatures to energy fluxes have also been studied and compared. In general, the simulation results indicate that the response of a person, coming from the same neutral indoor climate, varies depending on the scenario followed by the individual while being outdoors. The combination of radiation field (shade or not) with the kind of activity (sitting or walking) and the outdoor conditions differentiates significantly the thermal state of the human body. Therefore, 75 % of the skin wettedness values do not exceed the thermal comfort limit at rest for a sitting individual under the shade. This percentage decreases dramatically, less than 25 %, under direct solar radiation and exceeds 75 % for a walking person under direct solar radiation.

  14. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to pe

  15. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  16. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to pe

  17. Instrument Development for Measuring Teachers' Attitudes and Comfort in Teaching Human Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Miguel A.; Luquis, Raffy; Allison, Laura

    2004-01-01

    School based sexuality education remains a hotly debated topic in the United States. Two key areas of this debate focus on teacher preparation to instruct sexuality education and teachers' attitudes and comfort with the subject matter. This article describes the development and psychometric testing of the Teachers' Attitude and Comfort Scale. This…

  18. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    for overall comfort than acoustic and visual comfort and satisfaction with air quality. The data from the Danish residential buildings showed actually slightly different results, indicating that when the acceptability of thermal, acoustic, visual conditions and air quality are of a similar magnitude......, influence the perception of comfort. To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visual environment and air quality) predominantly determine overall comfort and whether other factors unrelated...... to the indoor environment influence the perception of comfort; the literature survey summarized 42 peer-reviewed and conference articles and 1 book covering the period from 1970 to 2009; (2) preparation, distribution and analysis of a questionnaire survey sent to 2499 addresses representing the most common...

  19. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates—The case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  20. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates-The case of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  1. Perceived Comfort of Indoor Environment and Users' Performance in Office Building with Smart Elements - case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipová, Ivana; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    A greater degree of awareness of comfort and productivity of building users according to post-occupancy evaluation and feedback of users in intelligent buildings is necessary. This report presents a summary of the results from a physical measurements, a post-occupancy evaluation study on perceived comfort of indoor environment and self-evaluation of occupant's performance in the new multifunctional 5 floor-building in city of Kosice, Slovakia. There were investigated degree of perceived comfort and user's performance with regard to objective measurement, respondents' response and building character. This case study has highlighted that influence of monitored factors of building with smart elements is positively received and wasn't determined their negative impact on perceived comfort of indoor environment and occupants' performance. Results show that respondents are mostly satisfied with their indoor environment conditions of workplace. Interviews with respondents detected they have not been perceived (negative) factors in workplace because they have been too concentric on the work and they have not felt discomfort.

  2. GPs' communication skills - a study into women's comfort to disclose intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eleanor; O'Doherty, Lorna; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative research investigating the effects of general practitioner communication on a patient's comfort to disclose intimate partner violence is lacking. We explored the association between GPs' communication and patients' comfort to discuss fear of an intimate partner. A health/lifestyle survey mailed to 14 031 women (aged 16-50 years) who attended the participating GPs of 40 Victorian general practices during the previous year. There was a 32% response rate (n=4467). The results showed that female GPs were perceived as having better communication; an association between female GPs and comfort to disclose was not apparent in multivariate analyses. Time, caring, involving the patient in decisions and putting the patient at ease maintained associations with comfort to discuss, as did language, lower education, age >25 years and current fear. This study advocates increasing communication competence to allow for greater disclosure of sensitive issues such as intimate partner violence in the primary care context. However, it also signals a need in research and practice to focus on marginalised groups and intimate partner violence.

  3. Exploratory study of comfort by the year 2010; Etude prospective sur le confort a l'horizon 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halgand, R. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    Gaz de France has carried out an exploratory study on the changes to the idea of comfort in inhabited buildings by the year 2010. The main questions studied were the following: how do we define comfort? what changes can be foreseen to the notion of comfort in inhabited buildings? what will the impact of those changes be on the markets for gas? The exploratory study lasted a year and brought together experts from many fields. Three scenarios for changes to the notion of comfort were drawn up. We were able to discern several ways for progress: respect for the environment, decreases in the cost of appliances, increases in safety, control of a greater number of parameters, ease of use... This study showed that it is always possible to work at improving our products in order to increase the comfort provided by gas systems in building, to better satisfy our customers and to conquer new markets. (author)

  4. A scenario of human thermal comfort in Mexico City for 2CO{sub 2} conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, Ernesto [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Tejeda, Adalberto [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Applying the concept of effective temperature (ET), a scenario of human bioclimatic conditions for Mexico City is presented by using results from both GCM regional predictions for CO{sub 2} doubling and temperature trend projections from an urban station. Current and future bioclimatic maps for Mexico City and their conurbation are presented. Current environmental conditions will likely change toward a warmer atmosphere due to both the urbanization process and global greenhouse effect. The impact on the population will be more important during the warm season (March- May) when the bioclimate of the city will likely shift away from current neutrality to the next comfort scale category (ET 24-27 Celsius degrees) of warm conditions covering most of the capital city. [Spanish] A partir de la aplicacion del concepto de temperatura efectiva (ET) se presenta un escenario de las condiciones de bioclima humano para la Ciudad de Mexico y zona conurbada para la segunda mitad del proximo siglo. Se usaron resultados de predicciones regionales de modelos de circulacion general (GCM) para una duplicacion del CO{sub 2} y tambien las tendencias de temperatura de una estacion urbana. Se muestran mapas de las condiciones actuales y futuras de confort termico. La combinacion del efecto invernadero y la urbanizacion, muy probablemente impacten en la poblacion principalmente en la estacion calida (marzo a mayo), cuando se pase de la categoria de confort actual a la inmediata superior (ET 24-27 Celsius degrees) en la mayor parte de la capital del pais.

  5. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  6. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Warland, Jon S; Gillespie, Terry J; Kenny, Natasha A

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  7. Experimental investigation into the interaction between the human body and room airflow and its effect on thermal comfort under stratum ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Lin, Z

    2016-04-01

    Room occupants' comfort and health are affected by the airflow. Nevertheless, they themselves also play an important role in indoor air distribution. This study investigated the interaction between the human body and room airflow under stratum ventilation. Simplified thermal manikin was employed to effectively resemble the human body as a flow obstacle and/or free convective heat source. Unheated and heated manikins were designed to fully evaluate the impact of the manikin at various airflow rates. Additionally, subjective human tests were conducted to evaluate thermal comfort for the occupants in two rows. The findings show that the manikin formed a local blockage effect, but the supply airflow could flow over it. With the body heat from the manikin, the air jet penetrated farther compared with that for the unheated manikin. The temperature downstream of the manikin was also higher because of the convective effect. Elevating the supply airflow rate from 7 to 15 air changes per hour varied the downstream airflow pattern dramatically, from an uprising flow induced by body heat to a jet-dominated flow. Subjective assessments indicated that stratum ventilation provided thermal comfort for the occupants in both rows. Therefore, stratum ventilation could be applied in rooms with occupants in multiple rows.

  8. Efficiency and comfort of knee braces: A parametric study based on computational modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrat, Baptiste; Calmels, Paul; Navarro, Laurent; Avril, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Knee orthotic devices are widely proposed by physicians and medical practitioners for preventive or therapeutic objectives in relation with their effects, usually known as to stabilize joint or restrict ranges of motion. This study focuses on the understanding of force transfer mechanisms from the brace to the joint thanks to a Finite Element Model. A Design Of Experiments approach was used to characterize the stiffness and comfort of various braces in order to identify their mechanically influent characteristics. Results show conflicting behavior: influent parameters such as the brace size or textile stiffness improve performance in detriment of comfort. Thanks to this computational tool, novel brace designs can be tested and evaluated for an optimal mechanical efficiency of the devices and a better compliance of the patient to the treatment.

  9. Regenerated Cellulose-Based Denim Fabric for Tropical Regions: An Analytical Study on Making Denim Comfortable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Denim is no more “work wear’’ in the present era. More than a need, it is a fashion commodity for every age group, specifically for youth. Garments with multiple permutations and combinations of denim fabric variables like fibers, yarns, and Lycra % and weaving techniques are available with differing garment design statements, but the comfort aspect is slightly ignored. To cater for the masses living in hot and humid areas, a denim fabric is being projected with varying garment constructional parameters. Regenerated cellulose-based fibers/yarns are considered as ecofriendly, cool, soft, fairly strong, and durable among other man-made and natural fiber-based yarns. The present study is an attempt to develop comfortable denim clothing using regenerated cellulose fiber derivatives, maintaining its traditional rustic look for tropical regions. Fabric performance evaluation methods were used to ascertain the performance of the newly developed clothing.

  10. [For an open-door, more comfortable and humane intensive care unit. It is time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Dolores; Viña, Lucia; Calleja, Clementina

    2014-01-01

    The Intensive Care Unit is a wonderful place where lives are saved, but it is also a very harsh and unpleasant place where critically ill patients face terrible diseases in very adverse environmental conditions. We must change the design of the ICU and its organization; we must improve privacy, welfare and comfort of patients and families, following their personal and emotional demands. To free up the visiting hours and to improve family care are among our most urging matters, which we should delay no further. We must equip the ICUs with modern monitors and respirators but we must also invest in organization, design, environmental comfort and humanization. We need to redesign clinical practise so that ICU care becomes more agreeable and humane. We should put off this change no longer, since it is an imperative social and professional demand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Human thermal comfort antithesis in the context of the Mediterranean tourism potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Kapsomenakis, Ioannis N.; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Polychroni, Iliana

    2016-04-01

    Weather and climate information are determinative factors in the decision of a touristic destination. The evaluation of the thermal, aesthetical and physical components of the climate is considered an issue of high importance in order to assess the climatic tourism potential. Mediterranean is an endowed region with respect to its temperate climate and impressive landscapes over the coastal environment and numerous islands. However, the harmony of the natural beauty is interrupted by extreme weather phenomena, such as heat and cold waves, heavy rains and stormy conditions. Thus, it is very important to know the seasonal behavior of the climate for touristic activities and recreation. Towards this objective we evaluated the antithesis in the human thermal perception as well as the sultriness, stormy, foggy, sunny and rainy days recorded in specific Greek touristic destinations against respective competitive Mediterranean resorts. Daily meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloudiness and precipitation, were acquired from the most well-known touristic sites over the Mediterranean for the period 1970 to present. These variables were used on one hand to estimate the human thermal burden, by means of the thermal index of Physiologically Equivalent temperature (PET) and on the other hand to interpret the physical and aesthetic components of the tourism potential, by utilizing specific thresholds of the initial and derived variables in order to quantify in a simple and friendly way the environmental footprint on desired touristic destinations. The findings of this research shed light on the climate information for tourism in Greece against Mediterranean destinations. Greek resorts, especially in the Aegean Islands appear to be more ideal with respect to thermal comfort against resorts at the western and central Mediterranean, where the heat stress within the summer season seems to be an intolerable pressure on humans. This could

  12. Automatic control of human thermal comfort with a liquid-cooled garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Water cooling in a liquid-cooled garment is used to maintain the thermal comfort of crewmembers during extravehicular activity. The feasibility of a simple control that will operate automatically to maintain the thermal comfort is established. Data on three test subjects are included to support the conclusion that heat balance can be maintained well within allowable medical limits. The controller concept was also successfully demonstrated for ground-based applications and shows potential for any tasks involving the use of liquid-cooled garments.

  13. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor;

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  14. Thermal Analysis--Human Comfort--Indoor Environments. NBS Special Publication 491.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Billy W., Ed.; Hill, James E., Ed.

    Included in these proceedings are 11 formal papers presented by leading researchers in the field of thermal comfort and heat stress at a symposium held for the purpose of exploring new aspects of indoor thermal environments, caused primarily by the impact of energy conservation in new and existing buildings. The contributed papers were from…

  15. Implementation of human thermal comfort information in Köppen-Geiger climate classification—the example of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC) is accepted and applied worldwide. The climatic parameters utilised in KGC, however, cannot indicate human thermal comfort (HTC) conditions or air humidity (AH) conditions directly, because they are originally based on climatic effects on vegetation, instead of that on human body directly. In addition, HTC is driven by meteorological parameters together. Thus, the objective of this study is to preliminarily implement the HTC information and the AH information in KGC. Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been chosen as the HTC index, and vapour pressure (VP) is for the quantification of AH conditions. In this preliminary study, 12 Chinese cities in total have been taken into account as the assumed representatives of 11 climate types. Basic meteorological data of each city with 3-h resolution in 2000-2012 has been analysed. RayMan model has been applied to calculate PET within the same time period. Each climate type has been described by frequencies of PET and frequencies of VP. For example, the Aw (Sanya) has the most frequent occurrence of thermally stressful conditions compared to other climate types: PET in 22 % points in time of the year was above 35 °C. The driest AH conditions existed in Dwc (Lhasa) and Dfb (Urumqi) with VP rarely above 18 hPa in the wettest month. Implementation of the HTC information and the additional AH information in each climate type of KGC can be helpful for the topics of human health, energy consumption, tourism, as well as urban planning.

  16. Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mahmoodi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate plays an important role in assessment of quality of outdoor built environments and bioclimatic comfort physiologically influences on human body's characteristics. In this paper, we present an empirical study on bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert located in the province of Kerman, Iran. The results of our study shows that velocity of air can reach one meter per second during the daily hours only during the month of September, which causes comfort on people's body. However, even this velocity cannot cause comfort during the night. During the months of March, April and October, whether maintains a velocity of 0.1 meter/second, which brings comfort and it is possible to live with simple dress. During the months of May, June and July it is possible to reach comfort with simple cover during the night. It is possible to reach the same condition with thicker coverage in nightly hours during the months of May and September. However, it is not possible to reach comfort with thick dress any nightly hours of year.

  17. Artificial neural network models as a useful tool to forecast human thermal comfort using microclimatic and bioclimatic data in the great Athens area (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Kostas P; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Ziomas, Ioannis C; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models as a tool for the evaluation of human thermal comfort conditions in the urban environment. ANNs are applied to forecast for three consecutive days during the hot period of the year (May-September) the human thermal comfort conditions as well as the daily number of consecutive hours with high levels of thermal discomfort in the great area of Athens (Greece). Modeling was based on bioclimatic data calculated by two widely used biometereorogical indices (the Discomfort Index and the Cooling Power Index) and microclimatic data (air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) from 7 different meteorological stations for the period 2001-2005. Model performance showed that the risk of human discomfort conditions exceeding certain thresholds can be successfully forecasted by the ANN models. In addition, despite the limitations of the models, the results of the study demonstrated that ANNs, when adequately trained, could have a high applicability in the area of prevention human thermal discomfort levels in urban areas, based on a series of relatively limited number of bioclimatic data values calculated prior to the period of interest.

  18. Research on Vibration Characteristics Between Human Body and Seat, Steering Wheel, and Pedals (effects of Seat Position on Ride Comfort)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIYAMA, S.; UESUGI, N.; TAKESHIMA, T.; KANO, Y.; TOGII, H.

    2000-09-01

    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located on the surface of the head, chest, hip, thigh, shin, upper arm and lower arm. Eleven subjects were used to investigate the effect of some variable factors, such as arm angle, that may affect human dynamic behavior. It was found that arm angle in driving posture has a substantial influence on the dynamic behavior of the human body while driving. Some results are presented in the form of parametric graphs and tables. The results are useful for improving ride comfort, maneuverability and safety.

  19. Effects of carrier frequency of interferential current on pressure pain threshold and sensory comfort in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, Roberta Ceila; Pelegrini, Stella; Gomes, Daiane Queiroz; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Liebano, Richard Eloin

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of carrier frequency of interferential current (IFC) on pressure pain threshold (PPT) and sensory comfort in healthy subjects. A double-blind randomized trial. University research laboratory. Healthy subjects (N=150). Application of the IFC for 20 minutes and measures of PPT collected in the regions of the nondominant hand and forearm. We measured PPT and comfort at frequencies of 1kHz, 2kHz, 4kHz, 8kHz, and 10kHz. There was a significant increase in PPT in the 1-kHz group when compared with the 8-kHz and 10-kHz groups. There was a greater discomfort in the 1-kHz and 2-kHz groups. IFC with a carrier frequency of 1kHz promotes a higher hypoalgesic response during and after stimulation than IFC with carrier frequencies of 8kHz and 10kHz. Carrier frequencies of 1kHz and 2kHz are perceived as more uncomfortable than carrier frequencies of 4kHz, 8kHz, and 10kHz. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  1. New indoor environment chambers and field experiment offices for research on human comfort, health and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Langkilde, Gunnar; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2004-01-01

    The article describes three new indoor environment chambers, a new laboratory for the study of air movement in spaces and five offices for controlled environment exposures of human subjects in field experiments at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University...

  2. Editorial: Comfort and discomfort studies demonstrate the need for a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Hallbeck, S.

    2012-01-01

    The term comfort is often seen relating to the marketing of products like chairs, cars, clothing, hand tools and even airplane tickets, while in the scientific literature, the term discomfort shows up often, since it is used in research. Few papers explain the concept of a localized comfort experien

  3. Editorial: Comfort and discomfort studies demonstrate the need for a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Hallbeck, S.

    2012-01-01

    The term comfort is often seen relating to the marketing of products like chairs, cars, clothing, hand tools and even airplane tickets, while in the scientific literature, the term discomfort shows up often, since it is used in research. Few papers explain the concept of a localized comfort

  4. The Evaluation of Thermal Comfort on Primary Schools in Hot-Humid Climates: A Case Study for Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sılay Emir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermal comfort provides undoubtedly a great contribution to sustainability. Thermal comfort of classrooms has a direct impact on both learning and energy conservation through a careful temperature control. This study is aimed to emphasize economic, environmental sustainability in schools.Urbanisation and modernisation have led to spend an essential part of people’s lives in indoor spaces. Targeted climatic comfort conditions do not change very much despite the fact that significant change of external climatic conditions depending on climate zones and periods during the year. Therefore, this topic has a great importance in terms of keeping at maximum level of expected performance of architectural structure and carrying positive samples to future.Temperatures that might cause thermal discomfort starts in May for Antalya. After selecting a primary school in Antalya dominated by hot-humid Mediterranean climate conditions, questionnaire prepared according to Fanger’s 7-point sensation scale was conducted on 7th and 8th grade students. The questionnaire was implemented on 74 students (41 male and 33 female. At the end of the research, thermal comfort data in primary school classrooms was obtained according to thermal comfort variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, activity level, air speed, clothing choice, gender, age. The level of thermal comfort of the students and thermal environment conditions of the classes was determined.As a result of obtained data, PMV (predicted mean vote and PDD (predicted percentage dissatisfied were identified. According to ASHRAE 55 Standard, examined classrooms were evaluated.  Key Words: Thermal Comfort, Sustainable Schools, Hot-Humid Climates

  5. Physiological comfort of biofunctional textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2006-01-01

    Statistics show that the wear comfort is the most important property of clothing demanded by users and consumers. Hence, biofunctional textiles only have a high market potential, if they are comfortable. In this work it is shown how the thermophysiological and skin sensorial wear comfort of biofunctional textiles can be measured effectively by means of the Skin Model and skin sensorial test apparatus. From these measurements, wear comfort votes can be predicted, assessing a textile's wear comfort in practice. These wear comfort votes match exactly the subjective perceptions of test persons. As a result validated by wearer trials with human test subjects, biofunctional textiles can offer the same good wear comfort as classical, non-biofunctional materials. On the other hand, some of the biofunctional treatments lead to a perceivably poorer wear comfort. In particular, the skin sensorial comfort is negatively affected by hydrophobic, smooth (flat) surfaces that easily cling to sweat-wetted skin, or which tend to make textiles stiffer. As guidelines for the improvement of the thermophysiological or skin sensorial wear comfort, it is recommended to use hydrophilic treatments in a suitable concentration and spun yarns instead of filaments.

  6. Automation of closed environments in space for human comfort and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the Space Station Freedom and future colonization of the Moon and Mars presents new challenges for present technologies. Current plans call for a crew of 8 to live in a safe, shirt-sleeve environment for 90 days without ground support. Because of these requirements, all life support systems must be self-sufficient and reliable. The ECLSS is composed of six subsystems. The temperature and humidity control (THC) subsystem maintains the cabin temperature and humidity at a comfortable level. The atmosphere control and supply (ACS) subsystem insures proper cabin pressure and partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen. To protect the space station from fire damage, the fire detection and suppression (FDS) subsystem provides fire sensing alarms and extinguishers. The waste management (WM) subsystem compacts solid wastes for return to Earth, and collects urine for water recovery. Because it is impractical, if not impossible, to supply the station with enough fresh air and water for the duration of the space station's extended mission, these elements are recycled. The atmosphere revitalization (AR) subsystem removes CO2 and other dangerous contaminants from the air. The water recovery and management (WRM) subsystem collects and filters condensate from the cabin to replenish potable water supplies, and processes urine and other waste waters to replenish hygiene water supplies. These subsystems are not fully automated at this time. Furthermore, the control of these subsystems is not presently integrated; they are largely independent of one another. A fully integrated and automated ECLSS would increase astronauts' productivity and contribute to their safety and comfort. The Kansas State University Advanced Design Team is in the process of researching and designing controls for the automation of the ECLSS for Space Station Freedom and beyond. The approach chosen to solve this problem is to divide the design into three

  7. Development of human comfort criteria for environmental conditions in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger

    2011-01-01

    will be studied, based on full-scale registration of urban environment parameters. The collected data and observations will be used to review existing criteria allowing assessing urban space quality for city life. The overall aim of our research is to create a holistic method to determines and describe the value....... The work presented in this paper is the first step in identifying and understanding the different factors affecting the human perception of urban space quality. For this purpose the registration of urban space conditions has been conducted on different locations in the city of Copenhagen. Furthermore...

  8. A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.

    Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered necessary and timely. This is because existing information is not meant for a large population in spacecrafts. The paper therefore discusses the role of meteorology (specifically micrometeorology) in relation to internal communication, spacecraft instrumentation and physiologic comfort of astronauts and space passengers (the later may not necessarily be trained astronauts, but merely business men or tourist space travellers for business transactions in the International Space Station (ISS)). It is recognized that me eorology which is a fundamental science amongt multidiscplinary sciences has been found to be vital in space travels and communication. Space weather therefore appears in slightly different format where temperature and humidity changes and variability within the spacecraft exert very significant influences on the efficiency of astronauts and the effectiveness of the various delicate instrument gadgets aimed at reducing the frequency of computer failures and malfunction of other instruments on which safety of the spacecraft depends. Apart from the engineering and technological problems which space scientists must have to overcome when human population in space shuttles increases as we now expect, based on evidence from successful missions to ISS, the maint enace of physiologic comfort state of astronauts, which, as far as scientifically possible, should be as near as possible to their Earth-Atmosphere condition. This is one of the most important and also most difficult conditions to attain. It demands a mor e

  9. Experimental Study on the Ride Comfort of a Crawler Power Chassis Scale Model Based on the Similitude Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu

    2015-01-01

    The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.

  10. Cockpit human thermal-comfort modeling and environ-ment evaluation%驾驶舱人体热舒适性建模及环境评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛红军; 马占元; 张晓燕; 铁彦清

    2014-01-01

    建立人体热舒适性模型,通过RadTherm平台实现人体热舒适性模型和驾驶舱环境的对接。对驾驶舱环境进行数值模拟,得到驾驶舱内气流组织形式,其速度场和温度场作为人体热舒适性模型的输入。驾驶舱环境数值模拟结果与人体热舒适性评估结果相互验证,共同评价驾驶舱环境的优劣。研究结果表明,通过数值模拟得到的驾驶舱环境评估结果和通过人体热舒适性模型得到的驾驶员热舒适性评估结果准确、有效,具有较高的工程应用价值。%It establishes human thermal-comfort model, realizes the combination of human thermal-comfort model and cockpit environment through RadTherm plat. Obtaining the flow field of cockpit through numerical calculation and the velocity filed and the temperature filed are provided for human thermal-comfort model as import conditions. The numerical calculation results of cockpit environment and human thermal-comfort evaluation validate and integrate together to evalu-ate cockpit environment. Research proves that the cockpit environment evaluation through numerical calculation and the pilot thermal-comfort evaluation through human thermal-comfort model are correct, valid and have a higher engineering application value.

  11. Impact of mutational status on outcomes in myelofibrosis patients treated with ruxolitinib in the COMFORT-II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guglielmelli, Paola; Biamonte, Flavia; Rotunno, Giada; Artusi, Valentina; Artuso, Lucia; Bernardis, Isabella; Tenedini, Elena; Pieri, Lisa; Paoli, Chiara; Mannarelli, Carmela; Fjerza, Rajmonda; Rumi, Elisa; Stalbovskaya, Viktoriya; Squires, Matthew; Cazzola, Mario; Manfredini, Rossella; Harrison, Claire; Tagliafico, Enrico; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    The JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib produced significant reductions in splenomegaly and symptomatic burden and improved survival in patients with myelofibrosis (MF), irrespective of their JAK2 mutation status, in 2 phase III studies against placebo (COMFORT-I) and best available therapy

  12. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  13. Socket Interface Pressure and Amputee Reported Outcomes for Comfortable and Uncomfortable Conditions of Patellar Tendon Bearing Socket: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Tafti, Nahid; Aminian, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to compare intra-socket pressure differences between comfortable and uncomfortable socket conditions, and the usefulness of subject perception of satisfaction, activity limitations, and socket comfort in distinguishing between these two socket conditions. Five unilateral trans-tibial amputees took part in the study. They answered the Socket Comfort Score (SCS) and Trinity Amputation and Prosthetic Experience Scale (TAPES) questionnaires before the interface pressure (in standing and walking) was measured for the uncomfortable socket condition at five regions of the residual limb. Participants were then provided with a comfortable socket and wore it for two weeks. Participants who were satisfied with the socket fit after two weeks repeated the SCS and TAPES questionnaires and interface pressure measurements. The differences between the test results of the two conditions were not statistically significant, except for the interface pressure at the popliteal region during the early stance phase, TAPES socket fit subscale, and the SCS. Due to large variability of the data and the lack of statistical significance, no firm conclusion can be made on the possible relationship between the interface pressure values and the patient-reported outcomes of the two socket conditions. A larger sample size and longer acclimation period are required to locate significant differences.

  14. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  15. Is Comfort Food Really Good for the Soul? A Replication of Troisi and Gabriel’s (2011 Study 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay See eOng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of three high-powered replications of Troisi and Gabriel’s (2011 idea that writing about comfort food reduces feelings of loneliness amongst securely attached individuals after a belongingness threat. We conducted our studies amongst a large group of participants (Total N = 649 amongst American (MTurk, Dutch (Tilburg University; TiU, and Singaporean (Singapore Management University; SMU samples. Participants first completed an attachment style scale, followed by writing two essays for manipulating a sense of belongingness and salience of comfort food, and then reporting their loneliness levels. We did not confirm the overall effect over all three countries. However, exploratory results provide the preliminary suggestion that 1 the comfort food explanation likely holds amongst the American samples (including Troisi & Gabriel’s, but not amongst the TiU and SMU samples, and potentially that 2 the TiU and SMU participants self-regulate through warmer (vs. colder temperature foods. Both of these should be regarded with great caution as these analyses were exploratory, and because the Ns for the different temperature foods were small. We suspect we have uncovered first cross-cultural differences in self-regulation through food, but further confirmatory work is required to understand the cultural significance of comfort food for self-regulation.

  16. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  17. A Comparison Study on the Assessment of Ride Comfort for LRT Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Munawir, Tengku Imran; Abqari Abu Samah, Ahmad; Afiq Akmal Rosle, Muhammad; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Hasnan, Khalid; Sabri, S. M.; Ismail, S. M.; Yunos, Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd; Yen Bin, Teo

    2017-08-01

    Ride comfort in railway transportation is very mind boggling and it relies on different dynamic performance criteria as well as subjective observation from the train passengers. Vibration discomfort from different elements such as vehicle condition, track area condition and working condition can prompt poor ride comfort. However, there are no universal applicable standards to analyse the ride comfort. There are several factors including local condition, vehicle condition and the track condition. In this current work, level of ride comfort by previous Adtranz-Walker light rapid transit (LRT) passengers at Ampang line were analysed. A comparison was done via two possible methods which are BS EN 12299 (2009) and Sperling’s Ride Index equation. BS EN 12299 standard is used to measure and evaluate the ride comfort of seating (Nvd) and standing (Nva) of train passenger in three different routes. Next, Sperling’s ride comfort equation is used to conduct validation and comparison between the obtained data. The result indicates a higher extent of vibration in the vertical axis which impacts the overall result. The standing position demonstrates a higher exposure of vibration in all the three tested routes. Comparison of the ride comfort assessment of passenger in sitting and standing position for both methods indicates that all the track sections exceeds “pronounced but not unpleasant (medium)” limit range. Nevertheless, the seating position at track section AU did not exceed the limit and stayed at the comfortable zone. The highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for seating position are 3.34 m/s2 for Nva and 2.63 m/s2 respectively, which is at route C uptrack that is from Chan Sow Lin station to Sri Petaling station. Meanwhile, the highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for standing are 3.80 m/s2 for Nvd and 2.88 m/s2 for Wz respectively, at uptrack section which is from Sri Petaling station to Chan Sow Lin station. Thus, the highest

  18. Building America Case Study: Occupant Comfort from a Mini-Split Heat Pump, San Antonio, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-03

    IBACOS worked with builder Imagine Homes to evaluate the performance of an occupied new construction test house following construction of the house in the hot, humid climate of San Antonio, Texas. The project measures the effectiveness of a space conditioning strategy using a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) system in a reduced-load home to achieve acceptable comfort levels (temperature and humidity) and energy performance. IBACOS collected long-term data and analyzed the energy consumption and comfort conditions of the occupied house after one year of operation. Although measured results indicate that the test system provides comfort both inside and outside the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 range, the occupants of the house claimed both adequate comfort and appreciation of the ease of use and flexibility of the installed MSHP system. IBACOS also assisted the builder to evaluate design and specification changes necessary to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, but the builder chose to not move forward with it because of concerns about the 'solar ready' requirements of the program.

  19. 基于人体热调节模型的民机座舱热舒适性分析%Aircraft cabin comfort analysis with human thermoregulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞丽萍; 巩萌萌; 王浚; 崔焱

    2012-01-01

    The studies about cabin thermal comfort are of great significance in the large aircraft market competition. A reasonable human thermal model is the key to analyze and evaluate the thermal comfort. Based on thermal characteristics experiment of human in the limited space, a human thermal model with the behavior of thermal regulation was established. The complex heat transfer was simplified into the heat transfer among three areas of high temperature core, blood perfusion and the equivalent organization. This model will not only overcome the limitation of the constant wall temperature or constant heat flux density, but in good agreement with the experimental results. Combined with a predicted mean vote (PMV) thermal comfort evaluation method without iterative equation proposed, the comfort in crowded space can be analyzed under the premise of ensu- ring the calculation speed. Simulation results show that the method can meet the speed requirement when the simulation is for a complex space environment, but also more accurately reflects the human physiological ther- mal regulation process.%民机座舱热舒适性研究对我国研制的大型飞机市场竞争力具有重要意义,在舒适性研究中人体热模型的合理性是影响舒适性分析与评价的关键,在开展的有限空间人员热特性实验测试基础上,建立了一种具有热调节行为的人体热模型,将人体复杂传热过程抽象为高温核心区、血液灌注区和等效组织区三者间热传递,很好地克服了常规定壁温或定热流密度人体模型的局限性,计算结果与实验结果吻合较好,将该模型结合文中提出的无迭代PMV(Predicted Mean Vote)热舒适性方程,在保证计算速度的前提下,可实现高人员密度的民机座舱舒适性分析,仿真结果表明:该方法既能够满足复杂空间的计算速度要求,又能较准确地体现人体生理热调节过程,仿真结果可靠性高。

  20. Is chronic pelvic pain a comfortable diagnosis for primary care practitioners: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creed Francis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP has a prevalence similar to asthma and chronic back pain, but little is known about how general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses manage women with this problem. A clearer understanding of current management is necessary to develop appropriate strategies, in keeping with current health care policy, for the supported self-management of patients with long term conditions. The aim of this study was to explore GPs' and practice nurses' understanding and perspectives on the management of chronic pelvic pain. Methods Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 21 GPs and 20 practice nurses, in three primary care trusts in the North West of England. Data were analysed using the principles of Framework analysis. Results Analysis suggests that women who present with CPP pose a challenge to GPs and practice nurses. CPP is not necessarily recognized as a diagnostic label and making the diagnosis was achieved only by exclusion. This contrasts with the relative acceptability of labels such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. GPs expressed elements of therapeutic nihilism about the condition. Despite practice nurses taking on increasing responsibilities for the management of patients with long term conditions, respondents did not feel that CPP was an area that they were comfortable in managing. Conclusions The study demonstrates an educational/training need for both GPs and practice nurses. GPs described a number of skills and clinical competencies which could be harnessed to develop a more targeted management strategy. There is potential to develop facilitated self- management for use in this patient group, given that this approach has been successful in patients with similar conditions such as IBS.

  1. Outcomes of newly practicing nurses who applied principles of holistic comfort theory during the transition from school to practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Miki; Candela, Lori

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore if newly practicing nurses benefited from learning holistic comfort theory during their baccalaureate education, and to provide a conceptual framework to support the transition from school to practice. The study was conducted among graduates of an accelerated baccalaureate nursing program where holistic comfort theory was embedded as a learner-centered philosophy across the curriculum. A phenomenological process using van Manen's qualitative methodology in education involving semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was used. The nurses recalled what holistic comfort meant to them in school, and described the lived experience of assimilating holistic comfort into their attitudes and behaviors in practice. Themes were established and a conceptual framework was developed to better understand the nurses' lived experiences. Results showed that holistic comfort was experienced as a constructive approach to transcend unavoidable difficulties during the transition from school to practice. Participants described meaningful learning and acquisition of self-strengthening behaviors using holistic comfort theory. Holistic comfort principles were credited for easing nurses into the realities of work and advocating for best patient outcomes. Patient safety and pride in patient care were incidental positive outcomes. The study offers new insights about applying holistic comfort to prepare nurses for the realities of practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of losartan on serum uric acid in hypertension treated with a diuretic: the COMFORT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Arima, Hisatomi; Tominaga, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Koji; Fukuhara, Masayo; Uezono, Keiko; Morinaga, Yuki; Ohta, Yuko; Otonari, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Junya; Kato, Isao; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), reduces serum uric acid levels. However, the effects of losartan on serum uric acid levels in the patients treated with a thiazide diuretic have not been fully elucidated. We have investigated the effects of losartan compared with other ARBs on blood variables and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients treated with a thiazide diuretic using data from the COMFORT study. The present analysis included a total of 118 hypertensive subjects on combination treatment with ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic who were randomly assigned to a daily regimen of a combination pill (losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) or to continuation of two pills, an ARB except for losartan and a diuretic. Blood pressures were evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months after randomization and changes in blood variables including serum uric acid were evaluated during 6 months treatment period. Mean follow-up blood pressure levels were not different between the combination pill (losartan treatment) group and the control (ARBs except for losartan) group. On the other hand, serum uric acid significantly decreased in the combination pill group compared with the control group (-0.44 versus + 0.10 mg/dl; p = 0.01), although hematocrit, serum creatinine, sodium and potassium were not different between the groups. These results suggest that the treatment regimen switched from a combination therapy of ARBs except for losartan and a diuretic to a combination pill (losartan/ hydrochlorothiazide) decreases serum uric acid without affecting blood pressure control.

  3. Development of human comfort criteria for environmental conditions in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger

    2011-01-01

    , selected tests on human perception of climatic conditions have been performed in the newly developed Climatic Wind Tunnel facility (CWT), jointly operated by DTU and FORCE Technology in Lyngby, Denmark. The conducted work is related to a Ph.D. project on the integration of numerical simulation methods...... approach shall address issues that derive from the functional demands in a modern city, its geometry and architectural appearance and from the effect of urban climate on city life. Before entering a phase of model simulation the relation between the aforementioned aspects and their relevance to city life...

  4. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Vegetation on Building Comfort: A Comparative Study of Lawns, Green Walls and Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Malys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following development and validation of the SOLENE-microclimat tool, the underlying model was used to compare the impacts of various “greening strategies” on buildings’ summer energy consumption and indoor comfort. This study distinguishes between direct and indirect impacts by successively implementing the test strategies on both the studied building and surrounding ones; it also considers insulated vs. non-insulated buildings. Findings indicate that green walls have a direct effect on indoor comfort throughout the entire building, whereas the effect of green roofs is apparently primarily confined to the upper floor. Moreover, the indirect effect of a green wall is greater, mainly due to the drop in infrared emissions resulting from a lower surface temperature. It has also been proven that the indirect effects of green walls and surrounding lawns can help reduce the loads acting on a non-insulated building.

  5. Linear, Non-Linear and Alternative Algorithms in the Correlation of IEQ Factors with Global Comfort: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fassio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental quality (IEQ factors usually considered in engineering studies, i.e., thermal, acoustical, visual comfort and indoor air quality are individually associated with the occupant satisfaction level on the basis of well-established relationships. On the other hand, the full understanding of how single IEQ factors contribute and interact to determine the overall occupant satisfaction (global comfort is currently an open field of research. The lack of a shared approach in treating the subject depends on many aspects: absence of established protocols for the collection of subjective and objective measurements, the amount of variables to consider and in general the complexity of the technical issues involved. This case study is aimed to perform a comparison between some of the models available, studying the results of a survey conducted with objective and subjective method on a classroom within University of Roma TRE premises. Different models are fitted on the same measured values, allowing comparison between different weighting schemes between IEQ categories obtained with different methods. The critical issues, like differences in the weighting scheme obtained with different IEQ models and the variability of the weighting scheme with respect to the time of exposure of the users in the building, identified during this small scale comfort assessment study, provide the basis for a survey activity on a larger scale, basis for the development of an improved IEQ assessment method.

  6. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    affordable choices on the envelope of such simple housing. A simplified LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) evaluation on embodied energy in the proposed upgrading materials used for the housing allows assessing the environmental impact of the considered alternatives. The present study aims to find out and to propose lean technological solutions to improve users' comfort levels with simple DIY (do it yourself) modification of shelter's envelopes and basic education for the use of the housing. The paper presents the study of lean technological solutions to improve comfort conditions and durability of informal settlements located in two climate zones in the world where slums are a critical issue in the urban development. The opportunity to improve such conditions can promote an upgrading of health and wealth status in such a critical situation in which millions of people are living today. The lean, affordable and low impact technologies that have been proposed and tested by dynamic simulation could allow a widespread diffusion of the concept without burden on the strongly compromised environment. The weak and fragile areas affected by the slums have pollution problems and a main task is not to worsen them during the life of the shelters/houses.

  7. Strategies for Improving Patient Comfort During Intravitreal Injections: Results from a Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jessica; Koozekanani, Dara D; Feng, Alex Z; Holt, Mitchell; Drayna, Paul; Mackley, Melissa R; van Kuijk, Frederik J G M; Beardsley, Robert M; Johnston, Richard H; Terry, Joseph M; Montezuma, Sandra R

    2016-12-01

    Many ocular diseases require intravitreal injections of pharmacological agents. Optimizing patients' experiences during injections is important to ensure compliance and maintenance of quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify strategies to help alleviate discomfort during intravitreal injections. A cross-sectional study surveying 128 patients during clinic visits between 2014 and 2015 in two outpatient Retina Clinics (one academic and one private). Patients receiving an intravitreal injection(s) for any retinal disorder were given a questionnaire with 10-yes/no responses for various potential strategies. Responses were stratified by sex, age (60 years) and total number of prior injections (0-9 injections, 10-20 injections and >20 injections). A total of 128 patients were surveyed: 59 males, 41 females and 28 with no sex specified. Our results identified four favorable strategies as those receiving more than 50% "yes" votes. These included the presence of technician/staff during the procedure, the use of a neck pillow, a verbal warning before the injection and performing injections in both eyes on the same day. Other specific strategies were identified for females, younger patients and those with greatest experience. These included: females preferred having their hand held during injections (P = 0.001) and using a stress ball (P = 0.000) when compared to males. Stratifying by age, patients 30-60 years old preferred having their hand held (P = 0.008) and background music (P = 0.007). Stratifying by prior injections, patients with >20 prior injections preferred having their hand held (P = 0.001), using a stress ball (P = 0.021) and, if necessary, having bilateral injections performed the same day to improve comfort (P = 0.037). Having an extra staff member present during the injection, having a neck pillow, having a verbal warning prior to injection and having both eyes injected on the same day were indicated as favorable strategies

  8. Indoor environment in the 21st century: impact on human productivity, health and comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Comprehensive field studies in Europe, Asia and America demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering...... of excellence: better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; "personalized ventilation", i.e. small amounts of clean air, should be served gently, close to the breathing...

  9. Effect of the position of the visible sky in determining the sky view factor on micrometeorological and human thermal comfort conditions in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaid, Adeb; Lamit, Hasanuddin Bin; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Rasidi, Mohd Hisyam

    2017-01-01

    Poor daytime and night-time micrometeorological conditions are issues that influence the quality of environmental conditions and can undermine a comfortable human lifestyle. The sky view factor (SVF) is one of the essential physical parameters used to assess the micrometeorological conditions and thermal comfort levels within city streets. The position of the visible sky relative to the path of the sun, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, has not been widely discerned as a parameter that could have an impact on the micrometeorological conditions of urban streets. To investigate this parameter, different urban streets that have a similar SVF value but diverse positions of visible sky were proposed in different street directions intersecting with the path of the sun, namely N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The effects of daytime and night-time micrometeorological variables and human thermal comfort variables on the street were investigated by applying ENVI-met V3.1 Beta software. The results show that the position of the visible sky has a greater influence on the street's meteorological and human thermal comfort conditions than the SVF value. It has the ability to maximise or minimise the mean radiation temperature (Tmrt, °C) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, °C) at street level. However, the visible sky positioned to the zenith in a NE-SW or N-S street direction and to the SW of a NW-SE street direction achieves the best daytime micrometeorological and thermal comfort conditions. Alternatively, the visible sky positioned to the NE for a NW-SE street direction, to the NW and the zenith for a NE-SW street direction and to the zenith for a N-S street direction reduces the night-time air temperature (Ta, °C). Therefore, SVF and the position of the visible sky relative to the sun's trajectory, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, must be considered during urban street planning to better understand the resultant micrometeorological and human thermal

  10. Ventilation, indoor air quality, and human health and comfort in dwellings and day-care centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the study was to assess the actual ventilation and indoor air quality in the Finnish building stock (dwellings and day-care centers) with special reference to the existing guideline values. Furthermore, the objective was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and perceptions among occupants (adult residents, children, workers) in relation to ventilation system, ventilation rate and dampness. The measurements of ventilation and indoor air quality in the dwellings and day-care centers included ventilation rate, CO{sub 2} concentration, and temperature and humidity. Self- and parent-administered questionnaires were distributed to the occupants inquiring their personal characteristics, occurrence of symptoms of interest, perceived indoor air quality and details of their home and work environments. Airflows and air change rates varied remarkably both in the dwellings and day-care centers. In the majority of the dwellings and day-care centers, the Finnish guideline values of ventilation rates were not achieved. No consistent associations were observed between the magnitude of mechanical ventilation rates and the occurrence of eye, respiratory, skin and general symptoms, that is, symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS) among the day-care workers. The results indicate that there is much room for improvement in the ventilation and indoor air quality of Finnish dwellings and day-care centers. The control of ventilation, temperature and humidity and the prevention of water damage are important issues on which to concentrate in the future. There is need to improve the quality in all phases of construction: design, installation, adjustment, operation, and maintenance

  11. Are Asians comfortable with discussing death in health valuation studies? A study in multi-ethnic Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin-Bun

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize ease in discussing death (EID and its influence on health valuation in a multi-ethnic Asian population and to determine the acceptability of various descriptors of death and "pits"/"all-worst" in health valuation. Methods In-depth interviews (English or mother-tongue among adult Chinese, Malay and Indian Singaporeans selected to represent both genders and a wide range of ages/educational levels. Subjects rated using 0–10 visual analogue scales (VAS: (1 EID, (2 acceptability of 8 descriptors for death, and (3 appropriateness of "pits" and "all-worst" as descriptors for the worst possible health state. Subjects also valued 3 health states using VAS followed by time trade-off (TTO. The influence of sociocultural variables on EID and these descriptors was studied using univariable analyses and multiple linear regression (MLR. The influence of EID on VAS/TTO utilities with adjustment for sociocultural variables was assessed using MLR. Results Subjects (n = 63, 35% Chinese, 32% Malay, median age 44 years were generally comfortable with discussing death (median EID: 8.0. Only education significantly influenced EID (p = 0.045. EID correlated weakly with VAS/TTO scores (range: VAS: -0.23 to 0.07; TTO: -0.14 to 0.11. All subjects felt "passed away", "departed" and "deceased" were most acceptable (median acceptability: 8.0 while "sudden death" and "immediate death" were least acceptable (median acceptability: 5.0. Subjects clearly preferred "all-worst" to "pits" (63% vs. 19%, p Conclusion Singaporeans were generally comfortable with discussing death and had clear preferences for several descriptors of death and for "all-worst". EID is unlikely to influence health preference measurement in health valuation studies.

  12. Thermal comfort assessment of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    A number of metrics for assessing human thermal response to climatic conditions have been proposed in scientific literature over the last decades. They aim at describing human thermal perception of the thermal environment to which an individual or a group of people is exposed. More recently, a new type of “discomfort index” has been proposed for describing, in a synthetic way, long-term phenomena. Starting from a systematic review of a number of long-term global discomfort indices, they are then contrasted and compared on a reference case study in order to identify their similarities and differences and strengths and weaknesses. Based on this analysis, a new short-term local discomfort index is proposed for the American Adaptive comfort model. Finally, a new and reliable long-term general discomfort index is presented. It is delivered in three versions and each of them is suitable to be respectively coupled with the Fanger, the European Adaptive and the American Adaptive comfort models.

  13. Indoor thermal comfort studies based on physiological parameter measurement and questionnaire investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jie; CHEN Liang; LI Bai-zhan; CHEN Lu

    2006-01-01

    Physiological parameters of people and enact assessment standard of indoor thermal environment that are appropriate to our national conditions were explored from the perspective of physiology. From December 2005 to January 2006, nerve conduction velocities and skin temperatures of 20 healthy students were tested with questionnaire investigation. The results show that the nerve conduction velocities as well as skin temperatures present an obvious decline trend in a continuous draught, and that the nerve conduction velocities and skin temperatures have a definite linear relationship. Draught velocity is an important factor in winter that affects body comfort, and the subjects are sensitive to air velocity.

  14. Importance of 3-D radiant flux densities for outdoor human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days in Freiburg, Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjung Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the role of short- and long-wave radiant flux densities from different directions in complex urban settings for human thermal comfort on clear-sky summer days. The aims of the investigation are to quantify the importance of the sky view factor as an urban design-dependent variable for the 3-D radiant flux densities absorbed by the standardized human-biometeorological reference person and to analyze the varying impact of the absorbed 3-D short- and long-wave radiant flux densities on the mean radiant temperature (Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$, near-surface air temperature (Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$ and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET.The results obtained by measuring campaigns and numerical simulations point to the different importance of the absorbed 3-D radiant flux densities for human thermal comfort characterized by Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$, Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and PET. The magnitude of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ is mainly determined by the total of the absorbed 3-D long-wave radiant flux densities. However, the fluctuations of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ are mainly governed by the total of the absorbed 3-D short-wave radiant flux densities. Their variance can be well explained by the variance of the sky view factor related to the southern part of the upper half space. Taking account of the different impact of the 3-D radiant flux densities, Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ can be quite well estimated by a multiple regression using the total of the absorbed 3-D short-wave radiant flux densities and the absorbed long-wave radiant flux density from the lower half space as independent variables. PET can be well estimated by a multiple regression showing Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and Ta$T_{\\text{a}}$ as independent variables. On a hot summer day, the increase of the albedo of vertical building walls within a simple E-W oriented street canyon leads to a decrease of the surface temperature of the S-facing wall, but to an increase of Tmrt$T_{\\text{mrt}}$ and PET

  15. Human-machine Scale and Comfort in Packaging Container Modeling Design%包装容器造型设计的人机尺度与舒适度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎英; 王建民

    2012-01-01

    Starting from ergonomic principles, it analyzed the human-machine factors in packaging container and the law of comfortable design based on the human-machine scales, systematically investigated the types of comfort from health and medical point of view. It is found that in order to gain physical and mental comfort while using the container so as to create an ideal lifestyle for consumers, scales including human body size, physiological and psychological needs and behaviour must be considered in packing design.%参考健康医学的观点,对舒适度的类型展开了分析,以人机工程学原理为启示,分析了包装容器造型设计的人机因素,探讨了基于人机尺度下包装容器造型的舒适性设计规律。在此基础上,提出了在包装造型设计中把握人体尺寸、生理需求、心理需求、使用行为的尺度,才能使容器在使用过程中获得生理和心理的舒适,从而为消费者营造理想的生活方式。

  16. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  17. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    How have climate change and diet shaped the evolution of human energy metabolism, and responses to vitamin C, fructose and uric acid? Through the last three millennia observant physicians have noted the association of inappropriate diets with increased incidence of obesity, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, and over the past 300 years doctors in the UK observed that overeating increased the incidence of these diseases. Anthropological studies of the Inuit culture in the mid-nineteenth century revealed that humans can survive and thrive in the virtual absence of dietary carbohydrate. In the 1960s, Cahill revealed the flexibility of human metabolism in response to partial and total starvation and demonstrated that type 2 diabetics were better adapted than healthy subjects to conserving protein during fasting. The potential role for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in temperature maintenance and dietary calorie control was suggested by Rothwell and Stock from their experiments with 'cafeteria fed rats' in the 1980s. Recent advances in gene array studies and PET scanning support a role for this process in humans. The industrialisation of food processing in the twentieth century has led to increases in palatability and digestibility with a parallel loss of quality leading to overconsumption and the current obesity epidemic. The switch from animal to vegetable fats at the beginning of the twentieth century, followed by the rapid increase in sugar and fructose consumption from 1979 is mirrored by a steep increase in obesity in the 1980s, in the UK and USA. Containment of the obesity epidemic is compounded by the addictive properties of sugar which involve the same dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain as for cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Of the many other toxic effects of excessive sugar consumption, immunocompromisation, kidney damage, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and cancer are highlighted. The WHO and guidelines on sugar consumption include

  18. 哈尔滨地区人体热舒适与热适应现场研究%Human thermal comfort and thermal adaptability in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭俊; 李爱雪; 何亚男; 杨威

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the impact of season on human thermal adaptability and the influence of cold radiation from window in winter on human local thermal sensation,a field study on indoor thermal environment,thermal sensation and thermal comfort in classrooms at a university in Harbin during the heating period in winter and spring was conducted.The environment parameters were tested and at the same time the subjects’ thermal sensation were undertaken.The results show that the neutral temperature is close to the indoor average temperature during winter.The neutral temperature is obviously lower than the indoor average temperatures during spring.In warmer climates,the subjects felt warmer in winter than that in spring.This shows that people in Harbin has fully adapted to the indoor and outdoor thermal environment in long-term cold winter.If the indoor air temperatures are kept too high in winter,people will feel more uncomfortable.The human adaptability to thermal environment should be made full use of by reducing the indoor temperature during winter and spring to improve comfort and save energy for heating.The subjects nearby the window feel colder than the control group subjects.The occupants often feel cold at their shoulder and back,and feel comfortable at their head.The adaptive measures taken by the subjects include opening doors or windows,increasing or decreasing clothes,etc.%为了考察不同季节人体对室内热环境的适应性和冬季外窗冷辐射对人体局部热感觉的影响,对哈尔滨市冬季、春季采暖期间教室内热环境与人体热感觉及热舒适进行现场调查.在对环境参数进行测试的同时,对受试者的热感觉进行主观调查.结果表明:冬季室内热中性温度与测试期间室内平均温度接近,春季采暖末期热中性温度明显低于室内平均温度.靠窗组受试者的局部冷感觉明显高于对照组受试者.人体肩部和后背更易感到冷,头部更适应冷环境.在偏暖的环

  19. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Ibrahim, A. Baharun, M.D. Abdul Mannan, D.A. Abang Adenan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  20. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.H.; Baharun, A.; Abdul Mannan, M.D.; Abang Adenan, D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  1. Effect of the Evaporative Cooling on the Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in a Greenhouse under Arid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal sensation and heat stress were evaluated in a plastic greenhouse, with and without evaporative cooling, under arid climatic conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Suitable thermal comfort and heat stress scales were selected for the evaluation. Experiments were conducted in hot sunny days to measure the required parameters (i.e., the dry and wet bulb temperatures, globe temperature, natural wet bulb temperature, and solar radiation flux in the greenhouse. The results showed that in the uncooled greenhouse, workers are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel very hot most of the day time; they are safe from heat stress risk and would feel comfortable during night. An efficient evaporative cooling is necessary during the day to reduce heat stress and to improve the comfort conditions and is not necessary at night. In the cooled greenhouse, workers can do any activity: except at around noon they should follow a proposed working schedule, in which the different types of work were scheduled along the daytimes based on the heat stress value. To avoid heat stress and to provide comfort conditions in the greenhouses, the optimum ranges of relative humidity and air temperature are 48–55% and 24–28°C, respectively.

  2. Forecasting of outdoor thermal comfort index in urban open spaces: The Nis fortress case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Protić Ivana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor thermal environment is affected by variables like air temperature, wind velocity, humidity, temperature of the radiant surfaces, and solar radiation, which can be expressed by a single number - the thermal index. Since these variables are subject to annual and diurnal variations, prediction of thermal comfort is of special importance for people to plan their outdoor activities. The purpose of this research was to develop and apply the extreme learning machine for forecasting physiological equivalent temperature values. The results of the extreme learning machine model were compared with genetic programming and artificial neural network. The reliability of the computational models was accessed based on simulation results and using several statistical indicators. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that extreme learning machine can be utilized effectively in short term forecasting of physiological equivalent temperature.

  3. Study on the Thermal Environment and Indoor Comfort of Half Glass Curtain Buildings – a Case of Kouhu Visitor Center in Yunlin County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ta-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Located in the subtropics, the high temperature in summer affects indoor living environments in Taiwan. The use of perspective glass material for modern public buildings increases the transparency of landscape views; however, the solar radiation heat also increases the heat in indoor environment. In particular, visitor centers which offer service functions for large quantities of visitors should satisfy the demands for indoor environment comfort and energy saving. “Numerical simulation” and “field data” are therefore utilized in this study for mutual comparison and the analyses of duration of sunshine, temperature distribution, heat balance, and space comfort. The research result reveals that different building envelope materials, with distinct thermal resistance and thermal conductivity coefficients, as well as sunshine direction and duration, affect the heat transmitting indoors, change the indoor temperature and further influence the comfort of the indoor environment. In the future indoor venue comfort will affect visitors’ recreational behaviours.

  4. Modeling Thermal Comfort and Optimizing Local Renewal Strategies—A Case Study of Dazhimen Neighborhood in Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Peng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling thermal comfort provides quantitative evidence and parameters for effective and efficient urban planning, design, and building construction particularly in a dense and narrow inner city, which has become one of many concerns for sustainable urban development. This paper aims to develop geometric and mathematical models of wind and thermal comfort and use them to examine the impacts of six small-scale renewal strategies on the wind and thermal environment at pedestrian level in Dazhimen neighborhood, Wuhan, which is a typical case study of urban renewal project in a mega-city. The key parameters such as the solar radiation, natural convection, relative humidity, ambient crosswind have been incorporated into the mathematical models by using user-defined-function (UDF method. Detailed temperature and velocity distributions under different strategies have been compared for the optimization of local renewal strategies. It is concluded that five rules generated from the simulation results can provide guidance for building demolition and reconstruction in a neighborhood and there is no need of large-scale demolition. Particularly, combining the local demolition and city virescence can both improve the air ventilation and decrease the temperature level in the study area.

  5. The effect of slightly warm temperature on work performance and comfort in open-plan offices - a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maula, H; Hongisto, V; Östman, L; Haapakangas, A; Koskela, H; Hyönä, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a temperature of 29°C on performance in tasks involving different cognitive demands and to assess the effect on perceived performance, subjective workload, thermal comfort, perceived working conditions, cognitive fatigue, and somatic symptoms in a laboratory with realistic office environment. A comparison was made with a temperature of 23°C. Performance was measured on the basis of six different tasks that reflect different stages of cognitive performance. Thirty-three students participated in the experiment. The exposure time was 3.5 h in both thermal conditions. Performance was negatively affected by slightly warm temperature in the N-back working memory task. Temperature had no effect on performance in other tasks focusing on psychomotor, working memory, attention, or long-term memory capabilities. Temperature had no effect on perceived performance. However, slightly warm temperature caused concentration difficulties. Throat symptoms were found to increase over time at 29°C, but no temporal change was seen at 23°C. No effect of temperature on other symptoms was found. As expected, the differences in thermal comfort were significant. Women perceived a temperature of 23°C colder than men.

  6. The Analysis of Floor System Human Comfort in Pingan Finance Center%平安金融中心楼盖舒适度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭肇才; 黄用军

    2011-01-01

    The standard floor of Pingan Financial Center with 118 layers is analysed using finite clement software ETABS. The results showes that the integral vibration and local vibration of floor system are controlled within the range of human comfort.%采用有限元软件ETABS对118层的超高层办公大楼平安金融中心标准楼层进行了计算分析,结果表明楼盖的整体振动和局部振动均满足结构舒适度要求。

  7. Case study. Health hazards of automotive repair mechanics: thermal and lighting comfort, particulate matter and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupa, G

    2013-01-01

    An indoor environmental quality survey was conducted in a small private automotive repair shop during May 2009 (hot season) and February 2010 (cold season). It was established that the detached building, which is naturally ventilated and lit, had all the advantages of the temperate local climate. It provided a satisfactory microclimatic working environment, concerning the thermal and the lighting comfort, without excessive energy consumption for air-conditioning or lighting. Indoor number concentrations of particulate matter (PM) were monitored during both seasons. Their size distributions were strongly affected by the indoor activities and the air exchange rate of the building. During working hours, the average indoor/outdoor (I/O) number concentration ratio was 31 for PM0.3-1 in the hot season and 69 for the cold season. However I/O PM1-10 number concentration ratios were similar, 33 and 32 respectively, between the two seasons. The estimated indoor mass concentration of PM10 for the two seasons was on average 0.68 mg m(-3) and 1.19 mg m(-3), i.e., 22 and 36 times higher than outdoors, during the hot and the cold seasons, respectively. This is indicative that indoor air pollution may adversely affect mechanics' health. Noise levels were highly variable and the average LEX, 8 h of 69.3 dB(A) was below the European Union exposure limit value 87db (A). Noise originated from the use of manual hammers, the revving up of engines, and the closing of car doors or hoods. Octave band analysis indicated that the prevailing noise frequencies were in the area of the maximum ear sensitivity.

  8. Interracial Social Comfort and Its Relationship to Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott D.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of interracial social comfort on college adjustment for 45 Black and 82 White students at a predominantly-White university. Black students reporting more comfort with Whites, regardless of level of comfort with Blacks, experienced better college adjustment. Furthermore, more social comfort with Blacks…

  9. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort.

  10. Comparison of DP3 Signals Evoked by Comfortable 3D Images and 2D Images — an Event-Related Potential Study using an Oddball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Wu, Xiang; Gao, Dingguo; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; She, Juncong; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The horizontal binocular disparity is a critical factor for the visual fatigue induced by watching stereoscopic TVs. Stereoscopic images that possess the disparity within the ‘comfort zones’ and remain still in the depth direction are considered comfortable to the viewers as 2D images. However, the difference in brain activities between processing such comfortable stereoscopic images and 2D images is still less studied. The DP3 (differential P3) signal refers to an event-related potential (ERP) component indicating attentional processes, which is typically evoked by odd target stimuli among standard stimuli in an oddball task. The present study found that the DP3 signal elicited by the comfortable 3D images exhibits the delayed peak latency and enhanced peak amplitude over the anterior and central scalp regions compared to the 2D images. The finding suggests that compared to the processing of the 2D images, more attentional resources are involved in the processing of the stereoscopic images even though they are subjectively comfortable.

  11. Comparison of DP3 Signals Evoked by Comfortable 3D Images and 2D Images — an Event-Related Potential Study using an Oddball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Wu, Xiang; Gao, Dingguo; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; She, Juncong; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The horizontal binocular disparity is a critical factor for the visual fatigue induced by watching stereoscopic TVs. Stereoscopic images that possess the disparity within the ‘comfort zones’ and remain still in the depth direction are considered comfortable to the viewers as 2D images. However, the difference in brain activities between processing such comfortable stereoscopic images and 2D images is still less studied. The DP3 (differential P3) signal refers to an event-related potential (ERP) component indicating attentional processes, which is typically evoked by odd target stimuli among standard stimuli in an oddball task. The present study found that the DP3 signal elicited by the comfortable 3D images exhibits the delayed peak latency and enhanced peak amplitude over the anterior and central scalp regions compared to the 2D images. The finding suggests that compared to the processing of the 2D images, more attentional resources are involved in the processing of the stereoscopic images even though they are subjectively comfortable. PMID:28225044

  12. Acoustic comfort in large dining spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, X.; Kang, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd This study carried out a questionnaire field investigation in two typical large dining spaces. The results suggest that the acoustic comfort of diners has an influence on the comfort evaluation of the overall dining environment, and background noise is an important factor affecting the acoustic comfort evaluation of diners. The role of various individual sound sources in background noise has been investigated, considering general background music, speech sound, activity so...

  13. Simulation of energy use, human thermal comfort and office work performance in buildings with moderately drifting operative temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2011-01-01

    ) supplemented with CAV ventilation. Simulations comprised moderate, hot–dry and hot–humid climate. Heavy and light wall construction and two orientations of the building (east–west and north–south) were considered. Besides the energy use, also capability of examined systems to keep a certain level of thermal......Annual primary energy use in a central module of an office building consisting of two offices separated with a corridor was estimated by means of dynamic computer simulations. The simulations were conducted for conventional all-air VAV ventilation system and thermo active building system (TABS...... comfort was examined. The results showed that with the moderate climate, the TABS decreased the primary energy use by about 16% as compared with the VAV. With hot–humid climate, the portion of the primary energy saved by TABS was ca. 50% even with the supply air dehumidification taken into account...

  14. Learning in Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Students spend hours a day in classrooms, so it is critical to their learning to have places to sit that are healthful and comfortable. Schools and universities should outfit their classrooms and other learning spaces with furniture that enables students to carry out their school work comfortably and does not detract from their ability to focus…

  15. Psychophysiological Measures of Learning Comfort: Study Groups' Learning Styles and Pulse Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Tacy L.; Said, Sukhaynah H.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided empirical support for tutor-led study groups using a physiological measurement and study survey data. The scope of this preliminary study included determining differences in biology and chemistry study group members' (N = 25) regarding learning styles and pulse rate changes. As hypothesized, there was significant evidence that…

  16. Thermal comfort findings: Scenario at Malaysian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Rasdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings of thermal comfort assessment at Malaysian automotive industry. Nine critical workstations were chosen as subjects for the study in order to determine the thermal comfort among workers at Malaysian automotive industry. The human subjects for the study comprises of the operators from tire receiving, dashboard assembly, drum tester, body assembly, seat assembly, door check assembly, stamping workstation, engine sub assembly and paint shop of the factory. The environmental factors such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT, relative humidity, air velocity, illuminance were measured using BABUC A apparatus and Thermal Comfort Measurement equipment. Through questionnaire survey, the demographic data of subjects and their perceptions on thermal comfort at each workstation were assessed based on ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Then, Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal satisfaction of occupants. The results indicated that most of the workstations of the automotive industry are considered as uncomfortable. Tire receiving station is considered having better working environment compared to other stations with lowest PMV index of 1.09 to 1.41 and PPD of 46%. Meanwhile, the engine sub assembly station and paint shop of assembly are considered the worst thermal environment with the PMV index values ranging between 2.1 to 2.9 and PPD values of 81% to 99%. Therefore, these two workstations are considered not comfortable because the thermal sensation scale is warm and almost hot.

  17. Ergonomic study on human-powered vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Azman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new methods for ergonomic analysis of cyclist for 4-wheel recumbent seat human-powered vehicle (HPV are performed. An ergonomic index with fundamental formulation is developed in order to determine the level of comfortness during handling of the HPV. Basic reference of sitting postures are produced from three HPVs for 20 different individuals. All the dimensions, angles and measurements are recorded. The same individuals are required to sit on the three HPV models to evaluate their comfortness and ergonomic by observing the same dimensions, angles and measurements of leg and hand postures. The data is compared with reference comfort sitting ergonomic. This study is limited to a number of individuals which are the students of a university in Malaysia with age range from 20 to 24 years old. However, the ergonomic index can be expanded for Asian people and with some improvement in the parameters, it can be used for other countries. Derivation of ergonomic index and formulation in determining the comfort level and ergonomic of HPV. Using the ergonomic index, a new improved HPV can be developed. The index is also applicable with modification on several parameters in the formulation for other countries.

  18. Contributions from the activity analysis to the products development project: case study based on a project of innovation and comfort in aircraft's cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greghi, F M; Rossi, N T; Souza, G B J; Menegon, L N

    2012-01-01

    Comfort is an issue that has gained relevance within the aeronautical industry due to the necessity of manufacturers and airline companies of differentiating themselves in a market that has become more and more competitive each day. This study's aim is to analyze the comfort/discomfort of passengers, based on the analysis of the activities performed in the aircrafts' cabin during real flights, in order to create ergonomics requirements and a methodology of comfort analysis. The study has been performed during domestic commercial flights, and the adopted data collection techniques have been: the application of 219 questionnaires to passengers, 44 registrations of postures and actions through filmings and 12 semistructured interviews. The method has made possible the reconstruction of the user's action course in performing activities in real flight situations, and the calculation of the area occupied by the passenger during his or her actions. The integrated analysis of the results corroborates data from previous studies in which both the space made available to each passenger and the activity performed interfere in their perception of comfort. From this study it has been concluded that the method constitutes itself as an innovative tool within the process of aircrafts' cabins project enabling the calculation of the action space based on the reconstructed course.

  19. The effect of a feedback signal in a computer mouse on hovering behaviour, productivity, comfort and usability in a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, H. de; Korte, E. de; Mil, F. van; Rijs, B.; Bongers, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a tactile feedback signal on hovering behaviour, productivity, usability and comfort after 1 week of using an experimental mouse. In a randomized controlled trial, a regular computer mouse was compared to a new developed mouse with a tactile, vibr

  20. RECOGNITION OF MONTHLY HUMAN BIOCLIMATIC COMFORT WITH TOURISM CLIMATE INDEX IN RAMSAR, SOUTH-WEST OF CASPIAN SEA, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHMAN RAMEZANI GOURABI

    Full Text Available Weather and climate have great importance in developing of tourism industry. Most of the tourists use the climate information for travelling and choice of destination. Knowledge of climate informationand its application can assist tourism planning, tourism industries and in reducing negative effects of weather and climate on tourists and this branch of the economy. The aim of this research isrecognition of suitable months in Ramsar station on the basis of Becker method and tourism climate index (TCI, for a period of 25 years (1981-2005.The results of Becker method has shown thatRamsar station has a bioclimatic comfort in 10 months. Weather in 7 months (March, April, May, September, October, November, and December is moderate and desirable. June, July, and Augusthave a little warm and tolerate weather, but in January and February, Ramsar station has a cool weather with moderate stimulation. Evaluation of TCI index for Ramsar station has shown that May month has the best climate conditions with 80-89 range (Excellent for tourism activities. June and October months have a "very good" climate conditions. April, July, and September are included in the"good" category while August and November are included in the "acceptable" category. January, February, March, and December have the "unfavorable" conditions.

  1. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  2. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  3. Selected Sports Bras: Overall Comfort and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, LaJean; Lorentzen, Deana

    This study evaluated currently marketed sports bras on subjective measures of comfort and support both within an entire group of women and within cup sizes, correlated the subjective measures of comfort and support with previously reported biomechanical findings of support on the same bras, and further developed empirically based guidelines for…

  4. Effect of age, gender, economic group and tenure on thermal comfort: A field study in residential buildings in hot and dry climate with seasonal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi; Rao, Kavita Daryani [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption in Indian residential buildings is one of the highest and is increasing phenomenally. Indian standards specify comfort temperatures between 23 and 26 C for all types of buildings across the nation. However, thermal comfort research in India is very limited. A field study in naturally ventilated apartments was done in 2008, during the summer and monsoon seasons in Hyderabad in composite climate. This survey involved over 100 subjects, giving 3962 datasets. They were analysed under different groups: age, gender, economic group and tenure. Age, gender and tenure correlated weakly with thermal comfort. However, thermal acceptance of women, older subjects and owner-subjects was higher. Economic level of the subjects showed significant effect on the thermal sensation, preference, acceptance and neutrality. The comfort band for lowest economic group was found to be 27.3-33.1 C with the neutral temperature at 30.2 C. This is way above the standard. This finding has far reaching energy implications on building and HVAC systems design and practice. Occupants' responses for other environmental parameters often depended on their thermal sensation, often resulting in a near normal distribution. The subjects displayed acoustic and olfactory obliviousness due to habituation, resulting in higher satisfaction and acceptance. (author)

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THERMAL COMFORT OF DIFFERENT BUILDING MATERIALS IN SANA’A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmed Alhaddad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the impact of alternative building material envelope systems on the overall thermal performance of four selected materials used in Sana’a, Yemen. These systems included adobe, brick, stone and concrete block. After thorough on-site investigation and data collection, the information, along with regional weather data were input into the Ecotect energy simulation software for thermal performance evaluation. The objective was to search for affordable and energy-efficient construction techniques suitable for settlements and incorporating traditional cultural values in a arid upland region characterized by cold winters and warm, dry summers. This was pursued by analyzing temperature and measurements within buildings constructed from a variety of traditional and modern materials. The thermal behavior and comfort, the patterns of energy use and the appropriateness of the different building techniques and materials are analyzed, compared and discussed. We demonstrate how a building envelope reacts to outdoor conditions through graphic illustration and show ways in which the research can be extended by the creation of simulations using Ecotect software. This research contributes to the promotion of passive and low energy architecture towards a sustainable future.

  6. Comforting strategies and perceived barriers to pediatric pain management during IV line insertion procedure in Uganda's national referral hospital: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katende, Godfrey; Mugabi, Benedicto

    2015-09-16

    Venipuncture and intravenous (IV) cannula insertions are the two common sources of pain in hospitalized children and health care today. The WHO asserts that, pain relief is a basic fundamental right and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Nonpharmacological comforting strategies when implemented are important to relive pain related distress in children during peripheral IV line insertion. However, evidence to date that suggests implementation of such strategies and their barriers in Uganda remains very limited. This study aimed at establishing the current practices in regard to the use of comforting strategies and the perceived barriers faced by health care providers to implement pediatric pain management during IV line insertion procedure in Uganda's national referral hospital, Mulago. A cross sectional and descriptive study was conducted between December 1, 2012 and February 28, 2013 involving doctors, nurses and interns in six pediatric wards of Mulago Hospital in Uganda. A pre-tested self- administered and semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was entered into SPSS and descriptive statistics run on all the variables. Of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 105 (RR = 87.5%) were returned and completed. The evidence based comforting strategies used for pain management during IV line insertion by the majority of health care professionals were; skin to skin (51%) and appropriate upright positioning of the child on mother's lap (69%). The least used comforting strategies were; allowing the child to suck his thumb or hand (70%), use of distraction (69%) and directing the child to suck one of his fingers into his mouth (90%). The identified barriers to implementing comforting strategies were; lack of time (42%), having emergency situations (18%), and not knowing the right method to use (11%). Of 105, 100 (95%) reported that there is need for continuous professional development on comforting strategies. Findings demonstrated that fewer

  7. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  8. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aléx

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods: A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30 was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30 no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS, subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results: Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001 but decreased in the control group (p=0.014. A significant higher proportion (57% of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001. At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions: The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  9. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in prehospital emergency care--an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients' exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients' thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  10. Comparative Study of the Impact of Two Types of Natural Dyes and Synthetic Dyes on the Fabric Comfort Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yushi; Wang Yuqiu; Yun Song; Deng Ruoyu; Pan Yuan; Li Tianxue; Li Xiuzhi

    2015-01-01

    In order to research whether the Natural Dyes areremarkably different from the chemical dyes in practical application, four experiments relating to the fabric comfort degree were selected for operation and a social survey experiment was also conducted. The research was conducted from the two perspectives of scientific tests and subjective judgments. Through the scientific tests and social survey, it was concluded that the impact of Natural Dyes and that of Synthetic Dyes have little difference towards the fabric comfort degree, but there are still some findings need to be noticed through the conclusion.

  11. Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    2010-07-01

    In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

  12. Confortamos? Lidamos com o humano sem conhecer o que de humano temos dentro de nós Do we comfort? We deal with human beings without being aware of our humanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Faço um convite à reflexão propondo um confronto entre o que pensam, esperam e precisam alguns pacientes e familiares quanto ao conforto e comportamentos habituais adotados pelas pessoas do sistema de atendimento nas interações com seus clientes. Se o conforto, na perspectiva dos clientes, está associado a uma prática humanística que comportamentos profissionais podem se constituir em obstáculos para a sua promoção? A reflexão se estende a compreensão de fatores que influenciam os comportamentos profissionais e a identificação de possíveis caminhos para. a promoção de um prática humanística.Reflections are intended to propose a confrontation between patients and families' thoughts, expectation, and needs regarding comfort and the usual behaviors adopted by health care agents during their interactions the clients. If comfort as viewed by patients is seen as a humanistic practice, which professional attitudes can become an obstacle to comfort? Reflections are also associated to factors that determine professional behaviors and the identification of the paths for a more humanistic practice.

  13. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  14. Sky View Factors from Synthetic Fisheye Photos for Thermal Comfort Routing—A Case Study in Phoenix, Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Middel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sky View Factor (SVF is a dimension-reduced representation of urban form and one of the major variables in radiation models that estimate outdoor thermal comfort. Common ways of retrieving SVFs in urban environments include capturing fisheye photographs or creating a digital 3D city or elevation model of the environment. Such techniques have previously been limited due to a lack of imagery or lack of full scale detailed models of urban areas. We developed a web based tool that automatically generates synthetic hemispherical fisheye views from Google Earth at arbitrary spatial resolution and calculates the corresponding SVFs through equiangular projection. SVF results were validated using Google Maps Street View and compared to results from other SVF calculation tools. We generated 5-meter resolution SVF maps for two neighborhoods in Phoenix, Arizona to illustrate fine-scale variations of intra-urban horizon limitations due to urban form and vegetation. To demonstrate the utility of our synthetic fisheye approach for heat stress applications, we automated a radiation model to generate outdoor thermal comfort maps for Arizona State University’s Tempe campus for a hot summer day using synthetic fisheye photos and on-site meteorological data. Model output was tested against mobile transect measurements of the six-directional radiant flux density. Based on the thermal comfort maps, we implemented a pedestrian routing algorithm that is optimized for distance and thermal comfort preferences. Our synthetic fisheye approach can help planners assess urban design and tree planting strategies to maximize thermal comfort outcomes and can support heat hazard mitigation in urban areas.

  15. Simulation and Experimental Study on the Influence of Environmental Parameters on Human Thermal Comfort in Sports%环境参数对运动人体热舒适性影响的理论模型与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季泰; 袁伟琪; 李登峰; 杨剑; 季浏

    2015-01-01

    与日常活动相比,运动中人体的热舒适性有着明显不同,这是因为运动人体具有新陈代谢速率大、衣着热阻小、排汗量大、辐射环境复杂以及呼吸急促的特点,传统的基于Fanger模型的人体热舒适性评价指标难以准确预测运动人体的热舒适性。在Fanger的人体热舒适模型的基础上,提出了衣着覆盖率的概念,针对辐射、体表扩散的模型进行适当的修正,对修改前、后的模型进行模拟计算、比较;同时,以羽毛球项目为例,采用环境测试仪和问卷调查对运动人体进行了研究,并对不同模型结果进行精确度比较分析。研究结果表明,修改后的模型更加合理,计算所得的舒适度更接近实际。%Compared with daily activities ,the thermal comfort in sports has significantly distinc‐tion .The specific characteristics as follows :the larger metabolic rate ,the smaller clothing ther‐mal resistance ,the larger perspiration ,the more complex radiation environment and the short‐ness of breath .Therefore ,the evaluation method based on the traditional Fanger thermal com‐fort model is difficult to accurately predict the thermal comfort in sports .In this paper ,the coverage rate of clothes is proposed and some appropriate amendments in radiation and surface diffusion model based on Fanger model are improved .Results of two different models are com‐pared and discussed .In addition ,a series of experiments on sports are conducted with the envi‐ronmental test equipment and questionnaire survey .Meanwhile ,the accuracy analysis to Fan‐ger’s model and the improved model is presented .Results show that the new model is more reasonable and has the good agreements with experiments .

  16. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research.

  17. 手持产品人机舒适度创新实验设计%An innovation human engineering experiment design of comfort of handheld products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祖耀; 朱媛; 夏芒

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problems in human engineering experiment teaching and promotion of comfort of handheld products,this article, by introducing the Kansei Engineering design, designs a human engineering experiment teaching method based on ration, data and operation. , and further states a clear process and its innova-tiveness and practicability combined with bus handle case, which provides references for promoting the ergonomics teaching quality and top-notch talents training.%针对目前工业设计人机工程学实验教学中存在的问题,通过引入感性工学的设计方法,针对手持产品的舒适度,设计了一种基于理性、数据、可操作的产品人机创新实验与教学方法,并结合公车扶手实例,进一步阐述了该实验的具体过程及其创新性与实用性.为提升人机工程学实验教学与创新人才培养质量提供了条件.

  18. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  19. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  20. Comfort Design and Simulation Study of Driving Cab Based on Ergonomics%基于人机工程的驾驶室舒适性设计与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一甲; 王余锐; 金立生

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the security and comfort of driving cab , a kind of domestic combine harvester control cab was selected as research carrier , the ergonomics theory was studied , and the comfort of cab was analyzed based on Chi-nese human dimensions system .The comfortable driving across point , deriving seat and driving control device was de-signed , and the space-matching relationship of several devices was optimized .And then the driver posture , control panel ability analysis and vision of driver were simulated based on the man machine engineering design module of CATIA soft -ware and the rationality of cab designing was tested .The subjective comparative experiment was carried out .Test results showed that with the increase of continuous driving time , the subjective comfort of before and after improvement cabs all had decreasing trends;In the first 20 min driving time , the comfort evaluations for these cabs were consistent .In the ( 20~60 ) min driving time , the comfort evaluation for before improvement cab had an apparent decline .This paper could prove that using human-machine simulation system to analyze the comfort level of cab was feasible .It also provided the guidance and direction for the research of driving cab .%为提高驾驶室舒适性及安全性,以国产某种收获机械驾驶室为研究载体,对人机工程学理论进行研究,结合中国人体尺寸数据,对驾驶室进行舒适性分析,改进其驾驶舒适跨点、驾驶座椅及驾驶操纵装置,优化各器件间布局配置关系。基于CATIA软件人机工程设计模块,对驾驶员驾驶姿态、操作可达性和视野范围进行模拟仿真,检验驾驶室设计合理性。对改进前后驾驶室舒适性进行主观对比试验,结果表明:随驾驶时间增加,驾驶员对两种驾驶室主观舒适性皆呈下降趋势;在0~20 min 驾驶时间内,对于两种驾驶室平均舒适性评价一致,在20~60 min驾驶时间内,改

  1. A soundscape approach to exploring design strategies for acoustic comfort in modern public libraries: a case study of the Library of Birmingham

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Jieling; Aletta Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Taking the soundscape approach to a study of the Library of Birmingham, this paper explored acoustic comfort in modern public libraries and measured the quality of the perceived sound environment, focusing on the appropriateness of the spatial organisation to facilitate users’ activities of reading and writing. The research involved four groups of participants taking soundwalks which provided data at four main floors in the Library, identifying types of sounds, measuri...

  2. Everyday Comfort Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja

    according to international building codes and standards, which are being based on engineering scientists' controlled experiments, classfiication and analysis. Since the last two decades, scholars from a diverse range of disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, adaptive engineering......, engineering scientists and practitioners still seem to struggle with the kinds of alternative processes and products that are needed to achieve sustainable comfort. This dissertation applies everyday practice-oriented design ethnography to a field that has traditionally been investigated by scientific...... as professional practice') in order to find design directions for scenarios for innovative, sustainable products that are based on people's everyday lives and interlinking 'comfort practices'....

  3. Reliability of an instrument to determine lower limb comfort in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury

  4. MONITORING OF LOWER LIMB COMFORT AND INJURY IN ELITE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day. A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union. The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77 and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18. The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury

  5. Thermal analysis of a naturally ventilated building an adaptive comfort algorithm : a case study of Miele corporate headquarters, Johannesburg, Gauteng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, C.G. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-07-01

    The corporate headquarters of the Miele Kitchen appliance group in Johannesburg, South Africa is a naturally ventilated building. The building consists of 3 distinct zones, including the administration offices, a showroom, and workshop and stores. After completion in 2004, staff complained that the building was too hot in summer and too cold in winter. Long term monitoring of the passively cooled and ventilated building was then initiated in order to evaluate, identify and quantify perceived shortcomings. This paper discussed the rationale behind the monitoring program and described some of the problems encountered. The monitoring has been completed and the data analyzed. The actual performance of the building was compared to the comfort standard generated by the ASHRAE RP 884 adaptive comfort algorithm. It was concluded that various strategies can be used to obtain a satisfactory thermal response for a naturally ventilated building in this particular climatic zone. The building envelope is fundamental in obtaining satisfactory thermal performance. The product of envelope resistance and thermal capacity should be high. The Miele building reacts rapidly to changes in the external environment, indicating a lack of thermal mass and a lack of control over air coming into the building and exfiltration. The adaptive comfort algorithm indicated that the degree of overcooling is most pronounced in the stores and workshop area. The internal diurnal range in temperature is greater than a reasonable range of 5 K for most months of the year and would contribute to the feelings of thermal discomfort. 5 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. COMmunication with Families regarding ORgan and Tissue donation after death in intensive care (COMFORT): protocol for an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Julie E; Herkes, Robert G; Perry, Lin; Elliott, Rosalind M; Aneman, Anders; Brieva, Jorge L; Cavazzoni, Elena; Cheng, Andrew T H; O'Leary, Michael J; Seppelt, Ian M; Gebski, Val

    2017-01-17

    Discussing deceased organ donation can be difficult not only for families but for health professionals who initiate and manage the conversations. It is well recognised that the methods of communication and communication skills of health professionals are key influences on decisions made by families regarding organ donation. This multicentre study is being performed in nine intensive care units with follow-up conducted by the Organ and Tissue Donation Service in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. The control condition is pre-intervention usual practice for at least six months before each site implements the intervention. The COMFORT intervention consists of six elements: family conversations regarding offers for organ donation to be led by a "designated requester"; family offers for donation are deferred to the designated requester; the offer of donation is separated from the end-of-life discussion that death is inevitable; it takes place within a structured family donation conversation using a "balanced" approach. Designated requesters may be intensivists, critical care nurses or social workers prepared by attending the three-day national "Family Donation Conversation" workshops, and the half-day NSW Simulation Program. The design is pre-post intervention to compare rates of family consent for organ donation six months before and under the intervention. Each ICU crosses from using the control to intervention condition after the site initiation visit. The primary endpoint is the consent rate for deceased organ donation calculated from 140 eligible next of kin families. Secondary endpoints are health professionals' adherence rates to core elements of the intervention; identification of predictors of family donation decision; and the proportion of families who regret their final donation decision at 90 days. The pragmatic design of this study may identify 'what works' in usual clinical settings when requesting organ donation in critical care areas, both in terms of

  7. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  8. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  9. Assessing thermal comfort in Ghadames, Libya: application of the adaptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, A.H.; Ealiwa, M.A.; Seden, M.R. [De Montfort Univ., School of Architecture, Leicester (United Kingdom); Howarth, A.T. [Nottingham Univ., School of the Built Environment, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This survey measures human thermal comfort and assesses the validity of the adaptive thermal comfort model when applied to the climatic extreme (hot dry) condition of Ghadames. This paper reviews the results from two field surveys of thermal comfort within two types of buildings, old (free running) and new (climate control), in Ghadames oasis in Libya in the summer seasons of August 1997 and July 1998. Questionnaires were collected from 19 buildings representing 88 subjects: nine old buildings that employ a natural ventilation system with a courtyard and ten new buildings that employ an air conditioning system. The results from the present study show that the neutral temperatures in old and new buildings are 31.6degC and 29.4degC respectively. The adaptive model is shown to be valid, without modification, for predicting the thermal comfort of sedentary occupants in such environments. (Author)

  10. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT IN MALAYSIAN URBAN HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaik-Wah Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, terraced houses have been rapidly constructed since 50 years ago and account for 44% of the existing urban housings. However, these houses have very limited use of natural ventilation and daylighting due to openings with small window-to-floor ratio. The deep plan design causes gloomy indoor spaces, low air change rate and poor indoor air quality. Studies showed that indoor environments have major impact on occupants’ well-being. Thereby this study evaluates the effects of indoor comforts on occupants’ perceived health in Malaysian typical terraced houses. Survey of terraced houses in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was conducted using questionnaire. Various terraced houses were studied to identify the critical comfort and health issues in terraced housing. The relationships among occupants’ perceived comforts, health and behavior were studied. The variance of types of terraced house was also analyzed. The findings demonstrated significant linear relationships between indoor comfort and health. However, occupants’ behavior did not give significant impact on thermal comfort. This study concludes that it is very essential to improve indoor comfort in Malaysian typical terraced houses through tropical design strategies to enhance occupants’ well-being.

  11. Thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance during exposure to a moderate temperature drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; de Wit, Martin;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of a moderate temperature drift on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, productivity and performance. A dynamic thermophysiological model was used to examine the possibility of simulating human thermal responses and thermal comfor...

  12. Improving the comfort of garments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comfort is a highly subjective phenomenon, with no unanimously agreed quantitative definition. In the Oxford English Dictionary and Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, comfort is defined as ‘freedom from pain, trouble and anxiety...

  13. A study on cow comfort and risk for lameness and mastitis in relation to different types of bedding materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Westerlaan, B; Houwers, D J; van Eerdenburg, F J C M

    2011-10-01

    The aim was to obtain data regarding the effects of 4 freestall bedding materials (i.e., box compost, sand, horse manure, and foam mattresses) on cow comfort and risks for lameness and mastitis. The comfort of freestalls was measured by analyzing the way cows entered the stalls, the duration and smoothness of the descent movement, and the duration of the lying bout. The cleanliness of the cows was evaluated on 3 different body parts: (1) udder, (2) flank, and (3) lower rear legs, and the bacteriological counts of the bedding materials were determined. The combination of the cleanliness of the cows and the bacteriological count of the bedding material provided an estimate of the risk to which dairy cows are exposed in terms of intramammary infections. The results of the hock assessment revealed that the percentage of cows with healthy hocks was lower (20.5 ± 6.7), the percentage of cows with both damaged and swollen hocks was higher (26.8 ± 3.2), and the severity of the damaged hock was higher (2.32 ± 0.17) on farms using foam mattresses compared with deep litter materials [i.e., box compost (64.0 ± 10.4, 3.5 ± 4.7, 1.85 ± 0.23, respectively), sand (54.6 ± 8.2, 2.0 ± 2.8, 1.91 ± 0.09, respectively), and horse manure (54.6 ± 4.5, 5.5 ± 5.4, 1.85 ± 0.17, respectively)]. In addition, cows needed more time to lie down (140.2 ± 84.2s) on farms using foam mattresses compared with the deep litter materials sand and horse manure (sand: 50.1 ± 31.6s, horse manure: 32.9 ± 0.8s). Furthermore, the duration of the lying bout was shorter (47.9 ± 7.4 min) on farms using foam mattresses compared to sand (92.0 ± 12.9 min). These results indicate that deep litter materials provide a more comfortable lying surface compared with foam mattresses. The 3 deep litter bedding materials differed in relation to each other in terms of comfort and their estimate of risk to which cows were exposed in terms of intramammary infections [box compost: 17.8 cfu (1.0(4)) ± 19.4/g

  14. Comfort can Boost Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace doesn't call for NASA scientists or a big budget. From setting the right temperature in the office to providing chairs with back support and lights that minimize eyestrain, CPA firms that attend to staff comfort and health are rewarded with greater productivity and job loyalty. There are basic principles to follow in setting up a work environment correctly.

  15. The uncomfortable comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we achieve the satisfaction of our expectations and anxiety dissolves, we feel as if we were in a comfort zone – safe, complete, free from risks and in peace with ourselves. We might even have a little taste of heaven when we feel that we have fulfilled our duty. And as a fact, scientists are entitled to this kind of reward… but not for too long! In science, to enter a comfort zone can be as pleasant as dangerous. On one hand we may have a safe ground available to develop new modes of reasoning, protocols and theories. And on the other, we may stay stuck in a conventional but fragile ground, missing opportunities to reveal novel secrets or to address edge issues. ... The community of HD researchers seems to have entered a new comfort zone when nanostructures were found in HD. Nanostructures have been raised to the level of ultimate evidence doing away with Avogadro’s limit and leading homeopathy and HD research into mainstream science. We really should enjoy this moment and collect more information about the HD phenomenon. However, we must be wary to not fall into a trap.

  16. Investigation on the hot and damp comfortability of human foots in socks and shoes%人体脚部着鞋袜条件下热湿舒适性测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满向东; 闫西宁

    2014-01-01

    In this paper ,the self set-up equipment of testing the hot-damp comfortability of human foots was designed to test the relative humidity and temperature of several spots on the human foots in socks and shoes under the condition of movement and motionless ,and the variation rules on the relative hu-midity and temperature of the human foots in socks and shoes were analyzed .Furthermore ,the effect of sock materials on the hot-damp comfortability of human foots in shoes was investigated .The results show that ,the self set-up equipment can meet the requirement of testing the hot-damp comfortability of human foots ;under the condition of both movement and motionless ,the relative humidity and tempera-ture of the human foots in socks and shoes are exponentially related with time ;the hot-damp comfort-ability of human foots in shoes is also affected by the materials of socks .%基于自行研制的人体脚部热湿舒适性测试仪器,测试分析了人体在静止、运动条件下的鞋内脚的各部位相对湿度和温度以及其变化规律,并对穿着不同材料的袜子对鞋内脚部热湿舒适性的影响进行了对比研究。研究结果表明,所研制的测试装置能够满足人体脚部热湿舒适性的测试评价;人体在穿着鞋袜后,无论是休息静止还是运动,鞋内脚部的相对湿度和温度均会按指数规律发生变化,而且鞋内脚部的热湿舒适性受袜子原材料的影响。

  17. 大跨度及长悬挑楼层钢结构运动场人员舒适度分析研究%Study on comfort analysis of sport field structure with large-span and cantilevered steel floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伯涛; 杨国莉; 庞玉涛; 张晓娟; 葛家琪; 张曼生; 王树

    2012-01-01

    Based on the floor structure of the National Fitness Center in Ejin Horo Banner,Inner Mongolia,the vibration simulation and comfort level of large-span and cantilevered steel floor used as sport field were studied.First,harmonic superposition method based on the measured spectrum was used to simulate human movement loads and the stochastic vibration method was used to simulate the fluctuating wind load on the cantilevered structure.And then,the key parameters about structural comfort of the large-span floor were analyzed.Next,all possible load cases were considered and the comfort level of the athletes and spectators were analyzed.The result shows: changing the floor prestressing cannot improve the large-span structure comfort level effectively;the vertical acceleration and natural frequency decrease approximately in proportion with the increase of the floor thickness.According to the method of this paper,different comfort control indices should be adopted for sports field and spectators stand,respectively.Design references of load simulation,comfort performance index and control standards are provided in this paper for large-span prestressed and cantilevered steel floor structure project that used for stadium.%以内蒙古伊旗全民健身体育中心工程为背景,对楼层设置运动场的大跨度及长悬挑钢结构振动模拟及结构的人员舒适度问题进行研究。采用基于实测谱的谐波叠加法模拟人员运动荷载和随机振动法模拟悬挑结构脉动风荷载。对大跨度楼层人员舒适度的荷载激励频率、张弦梁拉索预应力度和楼板厚度等影响参数进行分析,考虑可能出现的各种荷载工况,分析运动员及看台观众的舒适度。分析表明:改变楼层预应力不能有效改善大跨度结构使用舒适度;随着楼层板厚增加,结构竖向加速度和自振频率均近似线性降低;运动场内和观众看台宜采用不同的舒适度控制指标。研究结果可为楼层

  18. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  19. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  20. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Shehabi, Yahya; Walsh, Timothy S;

    2016-01-01

    and Delirium guidelines, is conveyed in the mnemonic eCASH-early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care. eCASH aims to establish optimal patient comfort with minimal sedation as the default presumption for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the absence of recognised medical...

  1. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car......, products and possibilities to test methods. Three empirical studies were carried out within the industry of external-ear body worn products for commercial use. Key findings included the identification of associations between human dimensions and product dimensions by providing an extended matrix of human...

  2. Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiener, Michael; Green, Peter; Ahuna, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role "comfortability" plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple…

  3. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  4. Occupant thermal comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiardi, Gena L.

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

  5. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  6. Numerical Study for the Prediction of the Thermal Comfort in a Rectangular Enclosure Simulated as an Ondol Cavity with the Ondol Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Il [Department of Building Equipment Engineering, Shin Heung Junior College, Eui-Jungbu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sun Sok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-15

    The Ondol heating system used for winter is changed from a hypocaust with floor indirectly heated by hot flue gas to that with floor heated by hot water. Residents using the Ondol heating system usually do not use a bedstead and has a sedentary life. Therefore, a perimeter zone near window is not equipped with a convector or a radiator. The activity space of residential occupants is usually over 1.5m from the floor so that the prediction of the thermal comfort in this space is required. In this study, the bottom floor surface is heated by hot water and the window is cooled by the cold outdoor air, both being assumed at uniform temperatures. The values of PMV and PPD proposed by Fanger are calculated for predicting the thermal comfort in the Ondol cavity. It is investigated that the radiant heat transfer affects to convection heat transfer in the Ondol cavity with transparent air for radiation. (author). 11 refs., 10 figs.

  7. [Comfort and communication measures in nursing caring actions for critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Franciele Soares; Stahlhoefer, Taniclaer; Felix, Jorge Vinícius Cestari; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    Descriptive, quantitative study carried out at a University Hospital in Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the caring actions performed at a semi-intensive care unit, from the perspective of the caring humanization, and also to evaluate the presence of comfort and communication measures in performing these actions. The data collection occurred under a systematic non-participant observation. The caring actions were grouped, according to its frequency, and presented in graphs. The comfort measures were present at 45% of the caring actions performed, and communication establishment was present at 40% of these actions. Even today, the comfort and communication measures, as reflected in the process of caring humanization, remain as an ideal speech. However, they are too far from reality of the health care system's users and workers.

  8. The influence of indoor microclimate on thermal comfort and conservation of artworks: the case study of the cathedral of Matera (South Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Matera Cathedral was built in Apulian-Romanesque style in the thirteenth century on the highest spur of the "Civita" that divides "Sassi" district in two parts. The constructive material is the calcareous stone of the Vaglia, extracted from quarries in the area of Matera. The interior is Baroque and presents several artworks, including: mortars covered with a golden patina, a wooden ceiling, painted canvas and painting frescoes, three minor altars and a major altar of precious white marble, a nativity scene made of local painted limestone. The research had to evaluate the indoor microclimate during and after the restoration works, that also concern the installation of floor heating system to heat the indoor environments. Specifically, we have analyzed the thermal comfort and the effect that the artwork and construction materials inside the Cathedral of Matera have undergone. This evaluation was carried out in two different phases: in the first one we have investigated the state of the art (history of the site, constructive typology and artworks); in the second one we have done a systematic diagnosis and an instrumental one. The analysis were carried out in a qualitative and quantitative way and have allowed us to test indoor microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity and indoor air velocity), surface temperatures of the envelope and also Fanger's comfort indices (PMV and PPD) according to the UNI EN ISO 7730. The thermal mapping of the wall surface and of the artworks, carried out through thermal imaging camera, and the instrumental measurement campaigns were made both before restoration and after installation of the heating system; in addition measurements were taken with system on and off. The analysis thus made possible to verify that the thermo-hygrometric parameters found, as a result of the recovery operations, meet the limits indicated by the regulations and international studies. In this way, we can affirm that the indoor environment

  9. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  10. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  11. Effects of climate change process on comfort climate of Shiraz station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakoor, A.; Roshan, G.R.; Khoshakhlagh, F.; Hejazizadeh, Z. [Islamic Azad Univ., Larestan (Iran)

    2008-09-30

    Dwelling in cities and city development together with quick increase of population and development of industrial activites with unplanned consumption of fossil fuels have intensively increased pollution with consequences whcih will cause different diseases in short periods, and will lead to some climatic oscillations and its environmental effects such as the change of desirable periods in view of comfort climate in long period. The objective point of view of this reasearch was to study the climate in Shiraz and its effect on comfort conditions for human physiology. In this research, using 55-year cliamtic data (1952-2006), the relative humidity and temperature through the application of Guni comfort climatic model, the desirable months for the comfort of human physiology have been determined in the five 11-year periods and the linear process of these changes have been estimated for the next 11 years. The results of this research show that the temperature trend in Shiraz station is increasing and most months have heating process in a way that it is expected in the future the cold months will have more favorable conditions for physiological comfort of residents and correspondingly in the warm months, heating tension will have remarkable increase.

  12. Examining the Diversity of Prosocial Behavior: Helping, Sharing, and Comforting in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunfield, Kristen; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; O'Connell, Laura; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Prosocial behaviors are a diverse group of actions that are integral to human social life. In this study, we examined the ability of 18- and 24-month-old infants to engage in three types of other-oriented behaviors, specifically helping, sharing, and comforting. Infants in both age groups engaged in more prosocial behavior on trials in which an…

  13. Energy saving or comfort?; Energieeinsparung contra Behaglichkeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlewein, C. (comp.)

    2007-07-01

    Energy saving versus summer thermal comfort? - A series of German verdicts concerning inadequate summer thermal comfort in commercial buildings has raised serious questions concerning the existing national building code's, claim to thermal comfort and sustainable building design. In this context the German Federal Office of Building and Regional Planning placed a contract to a working group of the University of Wuppertal and the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems to investigate the framework, the legal situation, the physical possibilities and economic aspects. The study undertaken is based on (a) detailed analysis of the operative temperatures, mainly measured in a number of new, energy efficient office buildings applying various measures of passive cooling and (b) dynamic building simulations. To express the comfort expectations a set of national, European and international comfort standards were applied to the measured data and simulation results. This includes the new approaches with the definition of comfort classes as included in the draft prEN15251, the Dutch ISSO-74 and the ASHRAE-55. Both, the measured data and simulations results underline, that the application of passive cooling measures such as efficient solar shading devices, solar control glass, activated thermal mass, night ventilation, earth-to-air heat exchanger, etc. result in suitable operative temperatures under a normal German summer climate. Taking the extreme summer conditions of 2003 as characteristic for a global warming scenario, comparable comfort can not be ensured: Rising ambient temperatures decrease the cooling potential of night ventilation, longer hot periods exceed the building's thermal storage capacity. Based on simulations it was found, that the demands set by the current German building code DIN 4108-2 do not ensure thermal comfort in free running indoor environments as generally expected by tenants, even in normal summers. Therefore modifications are

  14. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously.

  15. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa S

    2012-08-20

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress.

  16. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  17. Adaptive thermal comfort standards in the hot-humid tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, F. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). Oxford Centre for Sustainable Development

    2004-07-01

    Field studies conducted in tropical climates have found that the International standard for indoor climate, IS07730 based on Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV/PPD) equations, does not adequately describe comfortable conditions. This paper presents some of the evidence and suggests ways in which International standards are failing and how they might be complemented using adaptive comfort standards derived from the results of local comfort surveys. In particular the implications of air movement and humidity for adaptive comfort standards are considered. (author)

  18. Effect of ventilation on thermal comfort measured by DTS-application to a typical home in Algerian conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaoudene, N. Ait [Laboratoire des Applications Energetiques de l' Hydrogene (LApEH), Universite de Blida (Algeria); Imessad, K.; Belhamel, M. [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, Route de l' observatoire BP 62 Bouzareah,Alger (Algeria)

    2010-03-15

    In northern Algeria, use of ventilation by ceiling fans is widespread in mosques and other public buildings during the hot season, but is seldom used in private houses. In the first part of this study, the impact of this mode of cooling on indoor thermal comfort is investigated. A thermal comfort model for transient conditions is developed in order to calculate an instantaneous thermal comfort index. In order to simulate the thermal behaviour of a human body as accurately as possible, the latter is divided into 17 segments and a heat balance equation is written for each segment. The results indicate that even during hot days, an appreciable thermal comfort can be achieved if ventilation at constant air speed is used. Moreover, it is shown that it is not necessary to increase ventilation speed beyond a given level, as thermal comfort gains become negligible. In the second part of the study, the impact of solar radiation on thermal comfort is evaluated. Thermal sensation of a human being partially exposed to direct solar radiation is calculated. The results show that a discomfort sensation is quickly felt when a person is exposed to sun fluxes, which confirms the importance of shading devices. (author)

  19. Experimental study of passive cooling of building facade using phase change materials to increase thermal comfort in buildings in hot humid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Madhumathi, B. M.C. Sundarraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of cooler night temperatures using Phase Change Material (PCM energy storage technique, for cooling of ambient air during hot day times can be an alternate of current cooling techniques in building sector. This work presents the results of an experimental set-up to test energy saving potential of phase change materials with typical construction materials in building facade in Hot-Humid Climatic Regions in real conditions. The main objective of this research is to demonstrate experimentally that it is possible to improve the thermal comfort and reduce the energy consumption of a building without substantial increase in the weight of the construction materials with the inclusion of PCM. This research was conducted to study and evaluate the performance of the existing materials integrated with Organic PCM Polyethylene glycol (PEG E600. This research suggested that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick (conventional building material.

  20. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  1. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  2. Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Aries, M.; Dommelen, P. van

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that building, social and personal factors can influence one's perceived health and comfort. The aim of the underlying study was to get a better understanding of the relationships between these factors and perceived comfort. Self-administered questionnaires from 5732 resp

  3. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  4. IMPACT ON THE APPLICATION OF INSULATION IN BUILDINGS TO ACHIEVE THERMAL COMFORT (A CASE STUDY: LAUSER OFFICE BUILDING IN BANDA ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Purnama Lisa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the results of research studies on the impact of the use of insulation in buildings, reducing solar radiation on buildings to improve indoor comfort by applying the Principles of radiation reduction in buildings naturally using insulation application that serves as an insulator against the building materials, use of thermal insulation in particular mounted on the roof of the building and the walls are located on second floor and the third floor Lauser office building, Calculate the cooling load for each room that was on second floor and the third floor based on the geographical location or position of the building, climate data, building material data , and the intensity of the spatial characteristics which include lighting, solar radiation, user activity and electrical appliances being used. The calculation is done with the help of Ecotech v.5, 2011. The location and position on the third floor of a building with a flat roof cast concrete, so that the heat absorbed by the platform, and two times greater than the amount of heat radiation is absorbed by the material in the direction of the light falling the sun is at an angle <30°C. The simulation results on the building with the addition of thermal insulation on all walls and the roof of the inside of the foam material ultrafolmadehid, without changing the model building and similar activities in accordance with the existing condition and the condition of the room using the air conditioner at a temperature of 18-26°C, indicating a decrease in cooling load signifinikan in any space reaches 40% of the total cooling load required on the lauser office building. Comparing the simulation results Ecotech temperature v.5 2011 with field measurements as a validation of the simulation results in order to achieve thermal comfort in buildings and can menggurangi use energy consumption in buildings and can be used as a reference in planning space-based conditioning systems energy efficient.

  5. EXAMINING COMFORT PROPERTIES OF LEATHER and ARTIFICIAL LEATHER COVER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇETİN Münire Sibel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and regulation of workplace, working instruments, the comfort of office chair, business environment (sound, lighting, climate, vibration, temperature, and humidity, work and break times, analysis and editing of the organization, are some of the topics of interest of ergonomics. Environmental impact and conditions have important role on the employee’s working comfortably and efficiently. Therefore these conditions need to be aligned to the human body nature. Unsuitable working conditions (noise, etc. cause additional load, which the human body endures, and this additional load reveals the signs of tiredness in the body. Even an office environment, unsuitable physical environment impairs health of workers and reduces the performance. Therefore, office climate, environmental factors such as lighting and noise must be harmonized with the employee’s body nature in all working environments. Seating comfort is one of the important factors affecting the performance of employees in the office environment. There are so many studies about chair dimensions and the disorders on human body which were caused by the inappropriate chair dimensions and sitting positions. However, there are a spot of studies about the surface of the chair and the discomfort caused by the chair cover and its negative performance effects. In this study, some results of seat cover analysis for the design of an ergonomic chair. Recently, ease of cleaning, low cost advantages caused the increasing of the use of artificial leather especially on the surface of the seat used in offices. The physical properties of natural leather and artificial leather were compared as the candidate covers to be used on the design of an ergonomic office chair.

  6. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  7. Measurement of dynamic comfort in cycling using wireless acceleration sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, Mark; Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Marin-Perianu, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Comfort in cycling is related to the level of vibration of the bicycle: more vibration results in less comfort for the rider. In this study, the level of vibration is measured in real time using wireless inertial acceleration sensors mounted at four places on the bike: front wheel axel, rear wheel a

  8. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about

  9. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about asp

  10. Study of the Influence on the Comfort of Vehicle Cabin Thermal Environment and Improve Cabin Thermal Environment Comfort%太阳辐射对汽车舱内热环境舒适性的影响研究与改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树恩; 朱冰; 王荣; 谢模毅

    2016-01-01

    太阳辐射是夏季炎热环境下汽车停放在户外汽车舱内热环境最大的热负荷,严重影响车内热环境及乘员热舒适性。运用商用 FLUENT 软件数值模拟太阳辐射对汽车舱内热环境舒适性的影响,仿真分析研究在没有太阳辐射及不同太阳辐射强度情况下车内热环境的变化,确定太阳辐射对车内热环境舒适性影响大。最后通过降低车窗玻璃的透射率来减少太阳辐射进入车内,达到了改善车内热环境舒适性的目的。%Solar radiation is a car parked in a hot environment summer outdoor car cabin thermal environment maximum thermal load,seriously affect the thermal environment of car and occupant thermal comfort.Used the commercial FLUENT software simula-tion of solar radiation impact on the automotive cabin thermal environment comfort,Studied in the absence of solar radiation and different solar radiation intensity of the change of internal environment,determined the solar radiation effect on car internal envi-ronment comfort.Finally,by reducing the transmittance of the window glass to reduce solar radiation into the car,achieved the goal of internal environment to improve the car comfort.

  11. Using Saliency-Weighted Disparity Statistics for Objective Visual Comfort Assessment of Stereoscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlan; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Gangyi; Jiang, Qiuping; Ying, Hongwei; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Visual comfort assessment (VCA) for stereoscopic images is a particularly significant yet challenging task in 3D quality of experience research field. Although the subjective assessment given by human observers is known as the most reliable way to evaluate the experienced visual discomfort, it is time-consuming and non-systematic. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective VCA approaches that can faithfully predict the degree of visual discomfort as human beings do. In this paper, a novel two-stage objective VCA framework is proposed. The main contribution of this study is that the important visual attention mechanism of human visual system is incorporated for visual comfort-aware feature extraction. Specifically, in the first stage, we first construct an adaptive 3D visual saliency detection model to derive saliency map of a stereoscopic image, and then a set of saliency-weighted disparity statistics are computed and combined to form a single feature vector to represent a stereoscopic image in terms of visual comfort. In the second stage, a high dimensional feature vector is fused into a single visual comfort score by performing random forest algorithm. Experimental results on two benchmark databases confirm the superior performance of the proposed approach.

  12. Interior effects on comfort in healthcare waiting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, C; Vink, P; Montgomery, J; Hedge, A

    2016-07-21

    This study compared the effects of pre-experience and expectations on participant comfort upon waking, arrival to, and after an appointment, as well as the assessment of properly placed Feng Shui elements in three healthcare waiting rooms. Participants assessed comfort levels using self-report surveys. The researcher conducted 'intention interviews' with each doctor to assess the goals of each waiting area design, and conducted a Feng Shui assessment of each waiting area for properly placed Feng Shui elements. The waiting area designed by the Feng Shui expert rated 'most comfortable', followed by the waiting area design by a doctor, and the lowest comfort rating for the conventional waiting room design. Results show a sufficiently strong effect to warrant further research. Awareness of the external environment, paired with pre-experience and expectation, influences comfort for people over time. Fostering and encouraging a holistic approach to comfort utilizing eastern and western concepts and ergonomic principles creates a sense of "placeness" and balance in the design for comfort in built environments. This is new research information on the influences of the comfort experience over time, to include pre-experience, expectations and the placement of elements in the external environment.

  13. Field study of thermal comfort and preferences in air-conditioned offices in Chongqing,P. R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小磊; 刘红; 袁杰; 谈美兰

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale field survey to measure indoor environmental parameters such as air temperature,air velocity and relative humidity was conducted in Chongqing,P. R. China,a city in a hot summer and cold winter zone. Subjective questionnaires and the ASHRAE seven-point thermal sensation scale were used to evaluate thermal,humidity and velocity sensations. Probability methods were employed to calculate the preferred temperatures. The results show that the preferred temperatures are 25.1 ℃ in summer and 21.1 ℃ in winter,respectively. Based on a comparison of the difference between neutral and preferred temperatures,it is proposed that human temperature sensitivity influences preferred temperature.

  14. How relevant is urban planning for the thermal comfort of pedestrians? Numerical case studies in two districts of the City of Dresden (Saxony/Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Goldberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of different urban planning scenarios on the thermal comfort of pedestrians in two districts of the city of Dresden. A total of three alternatives to reconstruct these districts were created by considering realistic approaches for urban planning projections in the next ten years. These alternatives include the development and densification of existing buildings as well as the greening of undeveloped areas or the reduction of existing green areas. Based on these planning alternatives, micro-meteorological conditions as well as bioclimatic indices within the chosen city districts of Dresden for a hot summer day were simulated with a combination of the 3D microclimatic model ENVI-met and the bioclimatic model Rayman. Using both, potential air temperature (T and the bioclimatic index UTCI (Universal Thermal Comfort Index, spatial distribution at different times of the day, the cumulative thermal stress conditions at both exposed "receptor" points and on a virtual course of pedestrians through the inner city of Dresden, were analysed. Simulation results clearly show the local reduction of T and UTCI due to the shading effect of denser vegetation or building structures during the daytime. For example, a greening of an industrial wasteland locally reduces T and UTCI in the early afternoon of a hot and sunny summer day by up to 2 and 14 K, respectively. The same increase in T and UTCI can be found in non-shaded partitions of this area if it is sparsely rebuilt. At night, areas with widespread building placement show a higher T and UTCI (up to 1 and 4 K, respectively, and areas with dense vegetation are cooler (0.1 to 0.4 K than open areas. Due to the small extension of modified urban structures, the mean effect over the complete area amounts to only a fraction of a degree at most. The simulation results demonstrate that a greening of urban wastelands has primarily positive effects (that means cooling on thermal

  15. Effectiveness of Acupressure at the Zusanli (ST-36) Acupoint as a Comfortable Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus: A Pilot Study in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitrullah; Rousdy, Addison

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a dangerous disease worldwide. Indonesia has 10 million diabetic and 17.9 million prediabetic citizens. Unfortunately, less than half of these diabetic individuals are aware of their conditions and less than 1% of those receiving medical treatment achieve their healing targets. Because acupressure is believed to be an effective treatment without the use of drugs, in this study we investigated acupressure as a comfortable and effective way of treating patients with diabetes mellitus. This pilot study involved 30 participants who were split into two groups: 15 each in the experimental and the control groups. The experimental group underwent acupressure at the Zusanli (ST-36) acupoint for 30 minutes per visit for 11 weeks, whereas the control group continued their regular treatment; participants in both groups had their blood glucose randomly checked weekly. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equation model; the result showed that the two groups were significantly different (p=0.331 > α=0.05; mean difference=99.14; Bonferroni sig. p=0.000 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of Air Velocity and Temperature Gradient in Lecture Room Through Mixed and Displacement Ventilation Systems to Improve the Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iskandriawan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Air ventilation system is considered crucial in the target of maintaining clean and fresh room air at all times. It will improve the thermal comfort and indoor air quality along with the activities of occupant. This investigation explores the influence of fresh air diffuser location to the thermal comfort factor especially in the lecture room. It will contrast two types of ventilation: the mixed and the displacement ventilation. The thermal comfort factor is represented by means of air velocity and temperature. Using Fluent 6.2 as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation program, all the variables will be exploited. The specific boundary type’s room model is verified in GAMBIT software generating such a specific lecture room. The finding shows that the displacement ventilation system has benefit in the propensity of controlling the heat and air velocity compare to the mixed ventilation

  17. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  18. An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Uzeyir; Oz, H Ridvan

    2015-05-01

    By this study, it was aimed to define a testing and calculation model for thermal comfort assessment of a bus HVAC design and to compare effects of changing parameters on passenger's thermal comfort. For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental work during heating period inside a coach was carried out. The bus was left under 20 °C for more than 7 h within a climatic chamber and all heat sources were started at the beginning of a standard test. To investigate effects of fast transient conditions on passengers' physiology and thermal comfort, temperatures, air humidity and air velocities were measured. Human body was considered as one complete piece composed of core and skin compartments and the Transient Energy Balance Model developed by Gagge et al. in 1971 was used to calculate changes in thermal parameters between passenger bodies and bus interior environment. Depending on the given initial and environmental conditions, the graphs of passengers Thermal Sensation and Thermal Discomfort Level were found. At the end, a general mathematical model supported with a related experimental procedure was developed for the use of automotive HVAC engineers and scientists working on thermal comfort as a human dimension.

  19. Summer Thermal Comfort and Self-Shading Geometries in Passivhaus Dwellings: A Pilot Study Using Future UK Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Lavafpour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses numerical thermal simulation to investigate the potential use of building geometry to eliminate or reduce current and future thermal discomfort overheating risk in UK Passivhaus dwellings. The study focused on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building shape to self-protect itself. Dynamic simulation modelling software was used to test a range of different inclined façades with regards to their effectiveness in reducing overheating risk. The research found that implementing a tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating for current UK climates, but with some consequences for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of thermal discomfort overheating, particularly by the 2080s.

  20. "We're certainly not in our comfort zone": a qualitative study of GPs' dementia-care educational needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Tony; Boyle, Siobhán; Jennings, Aisling; Smithson, W Henry

    2017-05-22

    Rising dementia prevalence rates rise combined with the policy objective of enabling people with dementia to remain living at home, means that there will be a growing demand for dementia care in the community setting. However, GPs are challenged by dementia care and have identified it as an area in which further training is needed. Previous studies of GPs dementia care educational needs have explored the views of GPs alone, without taking the perspectives of people with dementia and family carers into account. The aim of the study was to explore GPs' dementia care educational needs, as viewed from multiple perspectives, in order to inform the design and delivery of an educational programme for GPs. A qualitative study of GPs, people with dementia and family carers in a community setting was undertaken. Face-to-face interviews were performed with GPs, people with dementia and with family carers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Thirty-one people were interviewed, consisting of fourteen GPs, twelve family carers and five people with dementia. GPs expressed a wish for further education, preferentially through small group workshops. Five distinct educational needs emerged from the interviews, namely, diagnosis, disclosure, signposting of local services, counselling and the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). While GPs focused on diagnosis, disclosure and BPSD in particular, people with dementia and family carers emphasised the need for GPs to engage in counselling and signposting of local services. The triangulation of data from multiple relevant sources revealed a broader range of GPs' educational needs, incorporating both medical and social aspects of dementia care. The findings of this study will inform the content and delivery of a dementia educational programme for GPs that is practice-relevant, by ensuring that the curriculum meets the needs of GPs, patients and their families.

  1. Too real for comfort? Uncanny responses to computer generated faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Karl F; Green, Robert D; Ho, Chin-Chang; Koch, Clinton T

    2009-05-01

    As virtual humans approach photorealistic perfection, they risk making real humans uncomfortable. This intriguing phenomenon, known as the uncanny valley, is well known but not well understood. In an effort to demystify the causes of the uncanny valley, this paper proposes several perceptual, cognitive, and social mechanisms that have already helped address riddles like empathy, mate selection, threat avoidance, cognitive dissonance, and psychological defenses. In the four studies described herein, a computer generated human character's facial proportions, skin texture, and level of detail were varied to examine their effect on perceived eeriness, human likeness, and attractiveness. In Study I, texture photorealism and polygon count increased human likeness. In Study II, texture photorealism heightened the accuracy of human judgments of ideal facial proportions. In Study III, atypical facial proportions were shown to be more disturbing on photorealistic faces than on other faces. In Study IV, a mismatch in the size and texture of the eyes and face was especially prone to make a character eerie. These results contest the depiction of the uncanny valley as a simple relation between comfort level and human likeness. This paper concludes by introducing a set of design principles for bridging the uncanny valley.

  2. Thermal comfort and indoor air quality in rooms with integrated personalized ventilation and under-floor air distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar ., S. C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study comprising physical measurements and human subject experiments was conducted to explore the potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) using a personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with an under-floor air distribution(UFAD) system...

  3. Study of heating performance of radiant ceiling heating system and its impact on workers thermal comfort level of workers in typical industrial work shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aliabadi

    2013-08-01

    .Conclusion: Due to large space of these industrial units, producing appropriate heating by convection mechanism is too difficult and expensive. The results confirmed that if radiant heating system applied based on scientific design principles they could be effective in promotion of thermal comfort due to heating surrounding surface by radiant and also reducing fuel consumption.

  4. Whom are We Comforting? An Analysis of Comfort Medications Delivered to Dying Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janvier, Annie; Meadow, William; Leuthner, Steven R.; Andrews, Bree; Lagatta, Joanne; Bos, Arend; Lane, Laura; Verhagen, A. A. Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the use of end-of-life comfort medications or neuromuscular blockers (NMBs) in culturally different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Study design Review of medical files of newborns > 22 weeks gestation who died in the delivery room or the NICU during 12 months in four NI

  5. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  6. Thermal Comfort in a Naturally-Ventilated Educational Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mwale Ogoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated education building (88,000 ft2 in a Chicago suburb will be conducted with 120 student subjects in 2007. This paper discusses some recent trends in worldwide thermal comfort studies and presents a proposal of research for this building through a series of questionnaire tables. Two research methods used inthermal comfort studies are field studies and laboratory experiments in climate-chambers. The various elements that constitute a “comfortable” thermal environment include physical factors (ambient air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air movement and humidity, personal factors(activity and clothing, classifications (gender, age, education, etc. and psychological expectations (knowledge, experience, psychological effect of visual warmth by, say, a fireplace. Comparisons are made using data gathered from Nairobi, Kenya.Keywords: Comfort, temperature, humidity and ventilation

  7. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  8. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  9. The analysis of thermal comfort requirements through the simulation of an occupied building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellier, F; Cordier, A; Monchoux, F

    1994-05-01

    Building simulation usually focuses on the study of physical indoor parameters, but we must not forget the main aim of a house: to provide comfort to the occupants. This study was undertaken in order to build a complete tool to model thermal behaviour that will enable the prediction of thermal sensations of humans in a real environment. A human thermoregulation model was added to TRNSYS, a building simulation program. For our purposes, improvements had to be made to the original physiological model, by refining the calculation of all heat exchanges with the environment and adding a representation of clothes. This paper briefly describes the program, its modifications, and compares its results with experimental ones. An example of potential use is given, which points out the usefulness of such models in seeking the best solutions to reach optimal environmental conditions for global, and specially local comfort, of building occupants.

  10. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  12. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... concludes that the notion of home is central in understanding comfort and energy consumption in dwellings, as conceptions of comfort and home are intertwined but also carry different meanings. The different rooms of a house relate differently to the notions of home and comfort, which has implications...... for how energy is consumed within the home....

  13. Rural Residential Thermal Environment and Human Thermal Comfort in Central Shaanxi%关中地区乡村住宅热环境与人体热舒适研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳丽; 何梅

    2015-01-01

    为全面了解关中地区乡村住宅热环境状况和人体热舒适度,对该地区216户乡村住宅热环境与居民热舒适进行了现场问卷调查,实测了传统典型乡村住宅的冬夏季室内温度。结果表明,2层室内热环境较差,1层的厦房、客厅和卧室温度变化特性基本一致,但是卧室由于直接接受太阳光照射,冬季热环境较好,夏季卧室温度则稍高于客厅温度;根据 ISO 7730标准和我国标准,该地区乡村住宅冬季室内舒适温度区间分别为13.9~20.8℃、12.3~22.5℃,夏季室内舒适温度区间分别为24.7~28.0℃、23.9~28.8℃;总体上,关中地区村民对冬季室内热感觉及满意度的分布频率低于对夏季室内热感觉及满意度的分布频率。因此,关中地区乡村住宅节能设计应以冬季保温为主,兼顾夏季防热。%In order to understand the rural residential thermal environment and human thermal comfort degree in Central Shaanxi, the thermal environment and human thermal comfort of 216 residents were conducted by spot field investigation in this area, and the indoor temperature of traditional typical rural residence was measured in winter and summer. The results showed that, the two-story indoor thermal environment was poor, the temperature variation characteristics of the side house, drawing room and bedroom on the first floor were basically identical, but the thermal environment of the bedroom was better in winter due to the direct sunlight, and the temperature of the bedroom in summer was slightly higher than the temperature of the drawing room. According to ISO 7730 standards and standards in China, this region’s rural residential indoor comfort temperature ranged from 13.9 ℃~20.8 ℃, 12.3 ℃~22.5 ℃ in winter, and indoor comfort temperature ranged from 24.7 ℃ ~28.0 ℃ , 23.9 ℃ ~28.8 ℃ in summer. Overall, the distribution frequency of the indoor thermal sensation and satisfaction in winter

  14. A Novel Exercise Thermophysiology Comfort Prediction Model with Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in a regular exercise program can improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. However, exercise accidents like dehydration, exertional heatstroke, syncope, and even sudden death exist. If these accidents can be analyzed or predicted before they happen, it will be beneficial to alleviate or avoid uncomfortable or unacceptable human disease. Therefore, an exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction model is needed. In this paper, coupling the thermal interactions among human body, clothing, and environment (HCE as well as the human body physiological properties, a human thermophysiology regulatory model is designed to enhance the human thermophysiology simulation in the HCE system. Some important thermal and physiological performances can be simulated. According to the simulation results, a human exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction method based on fuzzy inference system is proposed. The experiment results show that there is the same prediction trend between the experiment result and simulation result about thermophysiology comfort. At last, a mobile application platform for human exercise comfort prediction is designed and implemented.

  15. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  16. Effect of parallax distribution and crosstalk on visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2015-05-01

    Although autostereoscopic display is considered to be mainstream in the three-dimensional (3-D) display market for the near future, practical quality problems still exist due to various challenges such as the accommodation-vergence conflict and crosstalk. A number of studies have shown that these problems reduce the visual comfort and reliability of the perceived workload. We present two experiments for investigating the effect of parallax distribution, which affects the behavior of the accommodation and vergence responses and crosstalk on visual comfort in autostereoscopic display. We measured the subjective visual scores and perceived depth position for watching under various conditions that include foreground parallax, background parallax, and crosstalk levels. The results show that the viewers' comfort is significantly influenced by parallax distribution that induces a suitable conflict between the accommodation and vergence responses of the human visual system. Moreover, we confirm that crosstalk changes significantly affect visual comfort in parallax barrier autostereoscopic display. Consequently, the results can be used as guidelines to produce or adjust the 3-D image in accordance with the characteristics of parallax barrier autostereoscopic display.

  17. Adaptive thermal comfort explained by means of the Fanger-model; Adaptief thermisch comfort verklaard met Fanger-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, W.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    This article examines the relation between the adaptive thermal comfort (ATC) model and the Fanger model. The most important data collected were the value ranges of individual parameters in relation to ATC assessment. The ATC model uses a relatively simple indicator of thermal comfort. It treats the desired operational indoor temperature as a measure of thermal comfort in direct comparison to the outdoor temperature. This has the advantage of providing a relatively straightforward and transparent way of assessing occupant comfort. The Fanger model makes use of human thermal equilibrium, and is more flexible and more widely applicable. The results of the comparison show that, in a temperate climate like that of the Netherlands, the Fanger model is fully capable of explaining the results of the ATC model. [Dutch] In dit artikel is de relatie tussen het adaptief thermisch comfort (ATC) model en het Fanger-model nader onderzocht. Hierbij is vooral gekeken naar de ranges van waarden van de individuele parameters in relatie tot de ATC-beoordeling. Her ATC-model maakt gebruik van een minder complexe indicator om een uitspraak te doen over het thermisch comfort. Bij deze aanpak wordt de gewenste operatieve binnentemperatuur, als maat voor her thermisch comfort, direct gerelateerd aan de buitentemperatuur. Een voordeel hiervan is dat op een relatief eenvoudige en inzichtelijke manier een waardering van her comfort kan worden gegeven. Het Fanger-model maakt gebruik van de warmtebalans van de mens en is flexibeler en breder toepasbaar. De resultaten van de vergelijking laten zien dat voor een gematigd klimaat als in Nederland het Fanger-model goed in staat is om de resultaten van het ATC-model te verklaren.

  18. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1 measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2 implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people’s environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3 constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV, two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  19. Physical Environment Comfort Impacts on Office Employee’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shirley Jin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office workplaces today is now no longer only consisting of passive and fixed activity but also towards a more flexible environment activity. The number of office workplaces is hiking from day to day which leads to the increase of the office workers. The productivity will be improved by providing optimum physical environment. The physical environment comfort in a workplace is claimed to be vital as it will encourages healthier, more productive and lower absenteeism rate among employees. The physical environment comfort encompassed optimum room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. This research intend to investigate the importance of physical environment comfort by evaluating the comfort based on the existing workplace and determine its effect on employee’s performance. Evaluation between the selected case studies are made in the aspects of employee’s comfort perceive health and absenteeism rate by wielding the elements of physical comfort consisting room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. Field study was carried out for 3 institutional building particularly management department. High correlations are found between room temperature, lighting and relative humidity with health related issue such as stuffy, easily tired and difficulty in concentration which affect employees’ productivity and work performances.

  20. Deskstudie naar de potentiële verlaging van de methaanemissie bij het comfort slat mats systeem en het balansballen systeem voor rundveestallen = Desk study regarding the lowered methane emission from animal houses using either the comfort slat mat or balance ball system for cattle houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Melse, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Het comfort slat mats systeem en het balansballen systeem voor rundveestallen hebben als doel ammoniakemissiebeperking te bereiken in een rundveestal. Methaanmetingen wijzen uit dat zowel de toepassing van het balansballen- als het Comfort Slat Mats-systeem een verlaging van de emissie tot gevolg li

  1. Study on effect of comfort intervention on mental disorder for patients with severe traffic injury%舒适干预对严重交通伤患者心理障碍影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利英; 钱莉萍; 葛学娣; 邹丽华; 罗惠; 陈恩萍; 施建国

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of comfort intervention on mental disorder for patients with severe traffic inju ry. Method 100 patients with severe traffic injury receive comfort intervention, including comfortable environment, mental counseling, pain relieving, sleeping intervention and social support. Assess patients by Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90)before and after intervention. Analyze the result. Result The average score of positive symptoms in SCL-90 and scores of somatization, depression, anxiety and fear for 100 patients before intervention is higher than norm (P<0. 01). The scores obviously reduced after one-week intervention and the difference is significant (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). Conclusion Comfort intervention can relieve mental disorder for patients with severe traffic injury.%目的 探讨舒适干预对严重交通伤患者心理障碍的影响.方法 对100例严重交通伤患者给予舒适环境、心理疏导、缓解疼痛、睡眠干预及社会支持等舒适干预;干预前后采用症状自评量表对患者进行测评,并将其结果进行分析.结果 干预前100例患者的症状自评量表阳性症状均分和躯体化、抑郁、焦虑、恐怖4项因子分高于常模(P<0.01),干预1周后上述因子分明显降低,与干预前比较有统计学意义(P<0.05或 P<0.01).结论 舒适干预可缓解严重交通伤患者的心理障碍.

  2. Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Patient Comfort and Safety Between Iodixanol 320 mg I/mL and Iopamidol 370 mg I/mL in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Arteriography - The COMFORT II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Christian; Martínez-Rodrigo, José Joaquín; Lonjedo Vicent, Elena; Macho, Juan; Lim, Lauren; Todoran, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Numerous clinical trials conducted 10-20 years ago evaluated contrast-induced discomfort. It is unknown whether those data are applicable to current-day clinical practice. This study was performed to provide contemporary contrast-induced patient discomfort data obtained during peripheral arteriography procedures using iso-osmolar iodixanol 320 mg I/mL, compared to low-osmolar iopamidol 370 mg I/mL. Patients receiving iodixanol or iopamidol reported discomfort (heat, coldness, or pain) using a 10-point scale, which was converted to intensity categories: 0 = none; 1-3 = mild; 4-7 = moderate; and 8-10 = severe. Image diagnostic quality was assessed. Patients receiving iodixanol (n = 127; 61% male; mean age, 64 years) had less moderate/severe discomfort (67.7% vs 84.0%; P=.01) than those receiving iopamidol (n = 126; 64% male; mean age, 62 years), with pain contributing predominantly (7.3% vs 44.0%; P<.001) for all injection scores. Patients receiving iodixanol experienced less severe discomfort (16.9% vs 46.4%; P<.001), heat (15.3% vs 36.8%; P<.001), and pain (2.4% vs 23.2%; P<.001) for all injections, compared with patients receiving iopamidol. Image quality was rated as excellent in most patients (iodixanol 86.5% vs iopamidol 82.4%; P=.57). Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between groups (iodixanol 18.9% vs iopamidol 11.9%; P=.16). Iodixanol injections induced significantly less moderate/severe and severe patient discomfort, heat, or pain than iopamidol, with pain contributing the most. Discomfort did not affect image quality.

  3. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  4. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  5. A framework of comfort for practice: An integrative review identifying the multiple influences on patients' experience of comfort in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, Cynthia; Botti, Mari; McKillop, Ann; Merry, Alan F

    2017-04-01

    Comfort is central to patient experience but the concept of comfort is poorly defined. This review aims to develop a framework representing patients' complex perspective of comfort to inform practice and guide initiatives to improve the quality of healthcare. CINAHL, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO and Google Scholar (November 2016); reference lists of included publications. Qualitative and theoretical studies advancing knowledge about the concept of comfort in healthcare settings. Studies rated for methodological quality and relevance to patients' perspectives. Data on design, methods, features of the concept of comfort, influences on patients' comfort. Data were systematically coded and categorized using Framework method. Sixty-two studies (14 theoretical and 48 qualitative) were included. Qualitative studies explored patient and staff perspectives in varying healthcare settings including hospice, emergency departments, paediatric, medical and surgical wards and residential care for the elderly. From patients' perspective, comfort is multidimensional, characterized by relief from physical discomfort and feeling positive and strengthened in one's ability to cope with the challenges of illness, injury and disability. Different factors are important to different individuals. We identified 10 areas of influence within four interrelated levels: patients' use of self-comforting strategies; family presence; staff actions and behaviours; and environmental factors. Our data provide new insights into the nature of comfort as a highly personal and contextual experience influenced in different individuals by different factors that we have classified into a framework to guide practice and quality improvement initiatives.

  6. Study for the comfortable conditions and influencing factors for patients with general anesthesia%全麻手术患者围麻醉期舒适状况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 谭君梅; 彭文涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the peri‐operative comfortable conditions and influencing factors for patients with general anesthesia .Method By convenience sampling method ,peri‐anesthesia comfort questionnaire(PCQ) designed by American care experts E .Kline was used for survey and measuring the perianesthesia comfortable conditions a‐mong 160 patients in provincial three class general hospitals .Result The anesthesia comfort score range was 65 .00~144 .00 among 160 patients .The average score and standard deviation was(110 .09 ± 17 .67) .The three score rank in 24 entries in turn are:(1)I was able to visualize a successful recovery .(2)My anesthetist and operating room nur‐ses took good care of me .(3)My care helped me feel confident .named after scoring last three in turn are:(1)My IV site was painful .(2)My anxiety was high .(3)I was cold .There was significant differences in comfort between pa‐tients without work and retired patients (P<0 .05) .There was significant difference in comfort between the patient with primary education and patients educated in University(P<0 .05) .Conclusion The peri‐anesthesia comfort for patients undergoing general anesthesia was the high degree of comfort .Cold ,anxiety ,pain is an important factor af‐fecting patient comfort .Academic qualifications and working conditions also have a significant impact on patient comfort conditions .Clinical staff should be highly concerned about the anesthesia surgery patients peri‐anesthesia cold ,anxiety ,physical pain and discomfort ,Depending on the implementation of the different demographic charac‐teristics of care ,thereby improving patients undergoing general anesthesia peri‐anesthesia comfort .%目的:了解全麻手术患者围麻醉期的舒适状况及影响因素。方法采用便利抽样方法,用美国护理专家E .Kline研发的围麻醉期舒适度调查问卷( Perianesthesia Comfort Questionnaire PCQ )对本院160例全麻择期手术患者围麻醉期舒

  7. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could

  8. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could acceler

  9. Research and Design for Thermal Comfort in Dutch Urban Squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort in urban outdoor places was generally not an issue in Dutch urban design. This neglect shows problematic effects of discomfort, but also missed chances in urban life quality. The existing problems are alleviated due to the expected effects of climate change with even higher tem

  10. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Shehabi, Yahya; Walsh, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    and Delirium guidelines, is conveyed in the mnemonic eCASH-early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care. eCASH aims to establish optimal patient comfort with minimal sedation as the default presumption for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the absence of recognised medical...... contribute to the larger aims of eCASH by facilitating promotion of sleep, early mobilization strategies and improved communication of patients with staff and relatives, all of which may be expected to assist rehabilitation and avoid isolation, confusion and possible long-term psychological complications...

  11. 钢结构人行天桥舒适度设计及其控制研究%Study on Steel Footbridge Comfort Design and Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光伟

    2015-01-01

    The steel structure bridge is the width of 6 ~ 12 m, span between 27 ~ 40 m steel truss structure system, usually uses a closed external enclosure system. According to the“urban pedestrian bridge and tunnel technology standard”, pedestrian bridge vertical self-vibration frequency must be > 3 Hz, to meet the comfort requirements has become steel pedestrian overcrossing of the main controlling factor of design. The elastic time history analysis drawn loads, the bridge deck system of quality ratio, structural dynamic time history response of the corresponding relationship of meet the comfort requirements of the minimum deck system quality, and thus as a supplement to comfort design of structure control index.%钢结构天桥是宽度为6~12 m、跨度在27~40 m之间的钢桁架结构体系,通常采用封闭式外围护系统。根据《城市人行天桥与人行地道技术规范》,人行天桥竖向自振频率需>3 Hz,以满足舒适度的要求,已成为钢结构人行天桥的主要设计控制因素。通过弹性时程分析得出的激励荷载、桥面系的质量比、结构动力时程响应的对应关系,分析了满足舒适度要求的最小桥面系质量,并以此作为结构舒适度设计的补充控制指标。

  12. Experimental study on comfortable skin temperature under sweating condition%出汗状态下舒适皮肤温度的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海英; 胡松涛

    2014-01-01

    The two existing equations calculating comfortable skin temperature have large deviations in results.Conducts experiments to determine the accuracy of these equations.Tests the skin temperature under sweating condition,and investigates thermal sensation and sweating condition by questionnaires.By analysing the comfortable skin temperature and thermal sensation for three levels of activities,establishes a linear correlation between comfortable skin temperature and metabolic rate.This relation is closer to Gonzalez's equation,while Fanger's equation is found to have large deviation at higher metabolic rates.%现有的2种公式计算得到的舒适皮肤温度相差较大,为明确其计算的准确性,利用实验方法,对出汗状态下的人体皮肤温度进行了测试,并通过主观问卷,调查了人体热感觉和出汗情况。通过对3种活动水平下舒适皮肤温度和热感觉的分析,建立了舒适皮肤温度与代谢量之间的关系式。通过对比发现,本文得到的舒适皮肤温度计算式与 Gonzalez 公式更接近, Fanger 公式计算偏差较大。

  13. The psychobiology of comfort eating: implications for neuropharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E Leigh

    2012-09-01

    Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, and what the implications for treatment may be. Comfort eating may occur in a substantial minority, particularly in women and the obese. Human and animal theories and models of emotional or stress-induced eating show some convergence, and may incorporate genetic predispositions such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity, associated with dopamine dysregulation underlying incentive salience. Comfort eaters show vulnerability to depression, emotional dysregulation and a need to escape negative affect and rumination. During negative affect, they preferentially consume sweet, fatty, energy-dense food, which may confer protection against stress, evidenced by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response, although activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may itself drive appetite for these palatable foods, and the risk of weight gain is increased. Benefits to mood may be transient, but perhaps sufficient to encourage repeated attempts to prolong mood improvement or distract from negative rumination. Cognitive behavioural treatments may be useful, but reliable drug therapy awaits further pharmacogenomic developments.

  14. Energetic optimization as a result of improvement for social comfort: international example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, D.

    2007-07-01

    Comfort of human beings is related to the availability of energetic sources. In these terms, connection between comfort and energy becomes synonymous of connection between comfort and productivity. Thus Energy Management can be considered as a tool to optimize different parameters, with clear results on global efficiency of all processes. A clear energetic analysis, besides standard evaluation, can bring to optimization of following parameters: Lay out, Human resources, Internal logistic processes, Business productivity. Through energetic cost, for example, it is possible to have reference indicators useful for the lay out and number of employees optimization in offices. An International study has been conducted in this sense, with important and surprising results. A design for a building in Australia shows that an excellent energetic efficiency brings to an annual saving of 10 ml dollars, as a result of the improved efficiency of the working area. Similar examples can be found in several parts of the world. For these reasons, in civil and tertiary sector, some important pollution causes must be considered during the design of energy efficiency systems: atmospheric pollution due to chemical agents and radiations, acoustic pollution, vibration pollution, microclimate states, lighting. All these elements are part of the study. (auth)

  15. 电热油汀温升及舒适性研究%The Study on Temperature Rise and Thermal Comfort of Oil-filled Electric Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the contradiction of oil-filled electric heater temperature rise being up to nation-al standard and meeting user comfort requirements, factors which affect heating effect are analyzed. Through con-ducting the optimization design such as oil-filled electric heater structure optimization, heating element selection optimization, the experiment results can meet the national standard for temperature rise, and meet the user′s comfort requirement, so that the result provides valuable reference to modify and design for the future.%  为解决目前电热油汀温升符合国标和满足用户舒适性要求的矛盾,本文分析影响电热油汀取暖效果的因素,通过对电热油汀结构优化、发热管选型优化等方法,经过温升测试及舒适性模拟测试证明,可以满足国家标准对温升的要求和用户的舒适性要求,为以后电热油汀的改进和优化设计提供了参考。

  16. Study on thermal comfort, air quality and energy savings using bioenergy via gasification/combustion for space heating of a broiler house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima F.; Martin, Samuel [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: jadir@ufv.br; Scholz, Volkhard [Leibniz Institut fuer Agrartechnik- ATB, Potsdam (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The annual production of chicken meat is increasing throughout the world and Brazil is the world leader regarding exportation, a prediction indicates about 2.7 millions tons to be exported in 2007. A key to this performance is the low production costs, however, the costs of space heating necessary during the first 3 weeks of the chick's life and is increasing significantly. For this reason, it is always necessary to search for most efficient systems for this purpose. In addition to that, the use of bioenergy is gaining importance since it is renewable and ecologically correct. A close coupled gasification/combustion system, using eucalyptus firewood (Eucalyptus grandis and/or Eucalyptus urophylla) as fuel, was tested with the objective of providing thermal comfort for the birds during their first 3 weeks after birth. An experiment was set up for this purpose in an industrial scale production facility. The results indicated that the gasification/combustion system is viable for space heating for chicks, does not alters significantly the air quality, regarding CO, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} concentration inside poultry house, provides the best thermal comfort as compared to indirect fired furnaces and accounts for a 35% energy savings, leading to lower production costs. (author)

  17. Investigating the Influence of Light Shelf Geometry Parameters on Daylight Performance and Visual Comfort, a Case Study of Educational Space in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Moazzeni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daylight can be considered as one of the most important principles of sustainable architecture. It is unfortunate that this is neglected by designers in Tehran, a city that benefits from a significant amount of daylight and many clear sunny days during the year. Using a daylight controller system increases space natural light quality and decreases building lighting consumption by 60%. It also affects building thermal behavior, because most of them operate as shading. The light shelf is one of the passive systems for controlling daylight, mostly used with shading and installed in the upper half of the windows above eye level. The influence of light shelf parameters, such as its dimensions, shelf rotation angle and orientation on daylight efficiency and visual comfort in educational spaces is investigated in this article. Daylight simulation software and annual analysis based on climate information during space occupation hours were used. The results show that light shelf dimensions, as well as different orientations, especially in southern part, are influential in the distribution of natural light and visual comfort. At the southern orientation, increased light shelf dimensions result in an increase of the area of the work plane with suitable daylight levels by 2%–40% and a significant decrease in disturbing and intolerable glare hours.

  18. Vibration Analysis and Human Comfort Evaluation of Steel-Concrete Composite Footbridges Based on the Modelling of the PedestrianStructure Dynamic Interaction Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Santos da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims the development of an analysis methodology to investigate the dynamic behaviour of steelconcrete composite footbridges. The composite footbridge dynamic response is analysed based on two different strategies. Firstly, the traditional simulation of human walking, without consideration of the pedestrianfootbridge dynamic interaction effect is considered. On the other hand, the effect of the dynamics of the pedestrians while crossing footbridges in crowd situations is analysed and the pedestrian-footbridge dynamic interaction, based on the use of biodynamic models is investigated using a second strategy. The investigated structural system corresponds to an existing pedestrian footbridge built on Ayrton Senna Av. in the city of Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil, with a central span of 68.6m. The footbridge dynamic response was obtained and compared to the limiting values proposed by several authors and design standards. The results indicate that the biodynamic loading models lead to peak accelerations values lower than those produced by the traditional methods. These results provided evidence that the pedestrian-structure dynamic interaction effect should be considered when composite footbridges are subjected to flow of pedestrians.

  19. Simulation of Thermal Comfort of a Residential House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masine Md. Tap

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In hot and humid climates thermal comfort can become a problem to the occupants of many residential buildings especially when they are not equipped with air-conditioning system. This paper presents outcomes of an ongoing research work to investigate thermal comfort level in a naturally ventilated residential house in Malaysia using computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Actual measurements of the temperature distribution, relative humidity and air flow pattern were conducted. CFD simulations on the model of the house allow us to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The thermal comfort in the house was found to be well outside the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. CFD simulation was used to investigate the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the middle of the hall section and rotating at 150 RPM. It was found that the fan produced swirling flow pattern in the hall section resulting in a more uniform temperature distribution inside the house. However, there is no significant improvement in the thermal comfort level in the house. Results of CFD simulations also show that the use of small extractor fans installed on the front and back walls has no significant effects on the thermal comfort level in the house. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers and engineers to further improved the level of thermal comfort in residential houses in hot and humid climates that are naturally ventilated.

  20. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  1. Experiential reflective learning and comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nehyba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of experiential reflective learning. Firstlyit aims to discuss the concept of comfort zone in this area. It goes beyond the usualdefinition of the domestic comfort zone and it reflects in terms of experiential reflectivelearning in the world. The conclusions point to possible parallels with the concept ofcomfort zones and K. Lewin theory. Overall, the article focuses on topics that help toexpand the view on the issue of comfort zone.

  2. 视频立体增强现实系统舒适度评价方法研究%Study on Video 3D AR Systems Comfort Evaluation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮恒; 王涌天; 翁冬冬

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the effectiveness of stereo images ss a hot issue. Many researchers made intensive studies of this. However, few researches are focused on the 3D effects of 3D augmented reality system. In this paper we studied on Comfort Level Evaluation in see - through 3D augmented reality systems. We designed three experiments for the analysis the factors that impact the comfort level of see - through 3D augmented reality systems. The experiments show that the matching of virtual camera and real camera parameters affects the comfort level. This paper has a certain reference value for 3D augmented reality system design.%立体图像效果的评价是一个热点问题,许多文献对此进行了深入的探讨.但是,对于立体增强现实系统的立体效果进行研究的文献比较少,针对视频透射式立体增强现实系统,对其舒适度进行了研究,设计了三个实验并对影响立体增强现实系统虚实融合效果的因素进行分析.实验表明虚拟摄像机与实景摄像机参数的匹配程度对最终的舒适度具有影响.对于立体增强现实系统的设计具有一定参考价值.

  3. Comfort Care Intervention Study in Patients in the Operating Room%研究舒适护理干预在手术室患者中的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琴

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究舒适护理干预在手术室患者中的临床效果。方法选取2014年1月~2015年1月我院收治的180例接受不同麻醉方式,应用不同手术方式的手术患者进行研究,应用随机数法随机将患者分为观察组(90例)和对照组(90例),其中对照组患者给予手术患者常规护理,观察组患者在常规护理基础上增加舒适护理,对两组患者的术中舒适度,对护理工作的满意程度,术后48 h疼痛程度,以及应用焦虑(SAS)与抑郁(SDS)自评量表对患者术中及术后的心理状态进行比较,进而评价舒适护理的临床效果。结果观察组患者的护理满意度高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组的48 h疼痛程度,以及SAS与SDS评分也低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论在对手术室患者进行护理时,采取舒适护理的方法,有利于提升患者舒适度及满意度,对减轻患者术后疼痛,缓解患者术前及术后心里的紧张情绪有作用。%ObjectiveTo study the comfort care intervention in the operating room patients clinical results.Methods From January 2014 to January 2015,including 180 cases of surgical patients in our hospital to accept different ways of anesthesia,using different surgical methods were studied,using random numbers randomly patients were divided into observation group(90 cases)and control group(90 cases),the control group were treated with routine care of surgical patients,the observation group increased comfort care in routine care,based on the two groups of patients intraoperative comfort,care and job satisfaction,postoperative pain 48 hours level,and the application of anxiety(SAS)and depression(SDS)checklist for preoperative and postoperative mental state was compared in order to evaluate the clinical effect of comfortable nursing.Results The patient's nursing satisfaction observation group was obviously higher than that of control group(P<0.05),observation group 48

  4. A Study on the Ride Comfort of Vehicle Seats Based on Body Pressure Distribution%基于体压分布的汽车座椅舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志飞; 袁琼; 徐中明; 黄深荣; 贺岩松

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, both body pressure distribution measurement and vibration comfort test are con-ducted to study the ride comfort of vehicle seat. Through body pressure distribution measurement, the quantitative indicators, including average pressure, total resultant force and contact area are obtained and the characteristics of static body pressure distribution and the variation law of dynamic body pressure distribution are analyzed, showing that all dynamic body pressure indicators except maximum pressure are larger than static ones and increase with the rise in vehicle speed. By vibration comfort test the correlation between dynamic body distribution and vibration is analyzed with a result indicating that there is a strong correlation between mean pressure and weighted vibration ac-celeration.%本文中通过体压分布测试和振动舒适性试验研究汽车座椅舒适性。通过体压分布测试,获得平均压强、总压力和接触面积等体压分布量化指标,并分析静态体压分布的特征和动态体压分布的变化规律,结果表明动态工况下除最大压强以外的其它体压指标均大于静态工况,且随车速增加而增加。而通过振动舒适性试验,分析动态体压分布与振动的相关性,结果表明平均压强与振动加权加速度有很强的相关性。

  5. Medical students' perception of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) discrimination in their learning environment and their self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nassr; MacPherson, Paul; Sampson, Margaret; McMillan, Hugh J

    2017-01-01

    Historically, medical students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgendered (LGBT) report higher rates of social stress, depression, and anxiety, while LGBT patients have reported discrimination and poorer access to healthcare. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess if medical students have perceived discrimination in their learning environment and; (2) to determine self-reported comfort level for caring for LGBT patients. Medical students at the University of Ottawa (N = 671) were contacted via email and invited to complete a confidential web-based survey. Response rate was 15.4% (103/671). This included 66 cis-gender heterosexuals (64.1%) and 37 LGBT students (35.9%). Anti-LGBT discrimination had been witnessed by 14.6% and heterosexism by 31.1% of respondents. Anti-LGBT discrimination most often originated from fellow medical students. Respondents who self-identified as LGBT were more likely to have perceived heterosexism (favoring opposite-sex relationships) (OR = 8.2, p LGBT discrimination (OR = 6.6, p = 0.002). While half of LGBT students shared their status with all classmates (51.4%), they were more likely to conceal this from staff physicians (OR = 27.2, p = 0.002). Almost half of medical students (41.7%) reported anti-LGBT jokes, rumors, and/or bullying by fellow medical students and/or other members of the healthcare team. Still, most respondents indicated that they felt comfortable with and capable of providing medical care to LGBT patients (≥83.5%), and were interested in further education around LGBT health issues (84.5%). Anti-LGBT discrimination and heterosexism are noted by medical students, indicating a suboptimal learning environment for LGBT students. Nonetheless, students report a high level of comfort and confidence providing health care to LGBT patients.

  6. Controlling automobile thermal comfort using optimized fuzzy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzaneh, Yadollah; Tootoonchi, Ali A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    Providing thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A controller with temperature feedback cannot best achieve the thermal comfort. This is because thermal comfort is influenced by many variables such as, temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, environment radiation, activity level and cloths insulation. In this study Fanger's predicted mean value (PMV) index is used as controller feedback. It is simplified without introducing significant error. Thermal models of the cabin and HVAC system are developed. Evaporator cooling capacity is selected as a criterion for energy consumption. Two fuzzy controllers one with temperature as its feedback and the other PMV index as its feedback are designed. Results show that the PMV feedback controller better controls the thermal comfort and energy consumption than the system with temperature feedback. Next, the parameters of the fuzzy controller are optimized by genetic algorithm. Results indicate that thermal comfort level is further increased while energy consumption is decreased. Finally, robustness analysis is performed which shows the robustness of optimized controller to variables variations. (author)

  7. COMFORT: evaluating a new communication curriculum with nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty face increasing instructional demands to keep pace with mounting knowledge and competency requirements for student nurses. In the context of nursing practice, tasks and time pressures detract from the high skill and aptitude expectation of communication. The communication, orientation and opportunity, mindful presence, family, openings, relating, and team (COMFORT) curriculum, an acronym that represents 7 basic nursing communication principles, has been introduced into the communication module of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium, which currently provides the only standardized undergraduate and graduate nurse training in hospice and palliative care. This study examines the potential efficacy of the COMFORT curriculum for everyday communication challenges experienced by members of the Georgia Organization of Nurse Leaders. Participants were prompted to describe communication barriers and then apply an aspect of the COMFORT curriculum to this barrier. Responses revealed primary communication barriers with co-workers and patient/families. Nurses predominantly identified directly correlating components in the COMFORT framework (C-communication, F-family) as solutions to the topics described as barriers. Based on confirmation of extant literature addressing generalist nurse communication challenges, there is support for the inclusion of COMFORT across the nursing curriculum to efficiently and effectively teach communication strategies to nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Study on the Thermal Comfort of Polyester/Cotton/Hemp Blended Fabric%涤纶/长绒棉/汉麻织物的热舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 孙润军

    2015-01-01

    Eight kinds of light-weight polyester/cotton/hemp blended fabric with different blending ratio and with yarns spun by different spinning methods were selected for investigating their thermal comfort. By using US-made humidity chamber and Sweating Guarded Hotplate, the thermal conductive property of the fabric was simulated under 11 designed temperature and humidity conditions. The objective of this study is to find the influence of blending ratio and spinning methods on the thermal comfort of multi-fiber blended fabric and the thermal comfort conditions of polyester/cotton/hemp blended fabric. The results indicate that among four major factors including temperature, humidity, blending ratio and spinning method, blending ratio has little effect on fabric thermal resistance, while spinning method is the most influential factor; whatever the condition is, the fabric made from sirofil-spun yarn is better than that made from siro-spun yarn in term of thermal transmission and the former is cooler than the latter; under the condition of temperature above 20 ºC and relative humidity below 60%, the thermal resistance of the fabric is low and stable, which contribute to the fabric comfort.%选用8种不同混纺比、不同纺纱方式的涤棉麻混纺薄型织物,对其热舒适性进行研究。采用美国西北公司的热阻湿阻仪,利用恒温恒湿箱控制,设计了11种温湿度条件,模拟织物在不同穿着环境下的热传导性能。目的是为了得到不同混纺比和不同纺纱方式织物的热阻值差异以及涤棉麻混纺织物的热舒适使用条件。结果表明,外界温湿度、原料混纺比及纺纱方式4个因素中,混纺比对织物热阻影响较小,而纺纱方式的影响最大;不论在怎样环境下,赛络菲尔纺织物总是比赛络纺织物热阻小,表现更凉爽;温度高于20℃,相对湿度低于70%环境下,涤棉麻混纺织物热阻值小且稳定,使用舒适。

  9. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating.

  10. HUMAN COMFORT AND THE MICROCLIMATIC DRIVERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    relative humidity and air temperature are major determinants of heat stress, the heat ... increase in heat stress with climate change projections associated with high .... Kestrel Weather Tracker Model 4500 instrument. .... and even business premises would vary across .... Heat Index Chart of Port Harcourt Metropolis Source.

  11. Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiener, PhD, CRC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role “comfortability” plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple times during one semester with undergraduate students and found student comfortability significantly increased across the course of the semester and significantly predicted affective learning. These findings suggest the importance of the classroom environment in the learning process and support the need for faculty to consider “non-academic” factors in addition to course content.

  12. Thermal Comfort While Sitting on Office Chairs – Subjective Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Vlaović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is related to human physiological reactions. In order to maintain a constant internal temperature, the human body must dissipate heat in a warm climate, and prevent heat losses in a cold climate. The overall sensation of comfort accompanies the warmest part of the body in a warm environment and the coldest one in a cold environment. Chair design and clothing may affect the difference in sensitivity between certain parts of the body, that is, they may affect thermal comfort. This research focused on subjective sensation of warmth and moisture while sitting on offi ce chairs. The subjective method of evaluating thermal discomfort is based on ISO 7730:2005 standard, according to which a questionnaire was made for this research. Six subjects took part in the research. They were sitting on five different office chairs as they performed their usual jobs in controlled conditions. From the point of view of the evaluation of the sensation of warmth, all chairs were evaluated neutrally. The sensation under the buttocks and thighs was reported to be somewhat warmer, while the sensation on the back was reported to be somewhat colder, which was affected by the design of the back of the chair. No correlation has been proven between the actual temperature and moisture measurements and subjective evaluations of thermal comfort, in spite of a number of direct links. The use of the present method offers the possibility of further research into this subject, which would prove more thoroughly a correlation between design and construction solutions of office chairs and the comfort perceived by sitting persons.

  13. It costs to be clean and fit: energetics of comfort behavior in breeding-fasting penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Viblanc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birds may allocate a significant part of time to comfort behavior (e.g., preening, stretching, shaking, etc. in order to eliminate parasites, maintain plumage integrity, and possibly reduce muscular ankylosis. Understanding the adaptive value of comfort behavior would benefit from knowledge on the energy costs animals are willing to pay to maintain it, particularly under situations of energy constraints, e.g., during fasting. We determined time and energy devoted to comfort activities in freely breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus, seabirds known to fast for up to one month during incubation shifts ashore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A time budget was estimated from focal and scan sampling field observations and the energy cost of comfort activities was calculated from the associated increase in heart rate (HR during comfort episodes, using previously determined equations relating HR to energy expenditure. We show that incubating birds spent 22% of their daily time budget in comfort behavior (with no differences between day and night mainly devoted to preening (73% and head/body shaking (16%. During comfort behavior, energy expenditure averaged 1.24 times resting metabolic rate (RMR and the corresponding energy cost (i.e., energy expended in excess to RMR was 58 kJ/hr. Energy expenditure varied greatly among various types of comfort behavior, ranging from 1.03 (yawning to 1.78 (stretching times RMR. Comfort behavior contributed 8.8-9.3% to total daily energy expenditure and 69.4-73.5% to energy expended daily for activity. About half of this energy was expended caring for plumage. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to estimate the contribution of comfort behavior to overall energy budget in a free-living animal. It shows that although breeding on a tight energy budget, king penguins devote a substantial amount of time and energy to comfort behavior. Such findings underline the importance of comfort

  14. Study on the Comfortability of MDI-Based Viscoelastic Polyurethane Mattress Foam%MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹床垫泡沫的舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林瑞; 林芳茜; 李鹏敏; 张谦和; 赵怡; 杜中杰

    2013-01-01

    通过对不同泡沫密度、不同异氰酸酯指数的MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹泡沫进行舒适因子、温度敏感性、透气性、压力分布等测试,研究了MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹床垫泡沫的舒适性.结果表明,增加泡沫密度有利于提高慢回弹泡沫的舒适因子,也有利于减小慢回弹泡沫的温度敏感性;MDI基聚氨酯慢回弹泡沫在较宽的密度及异氰酸酯指数范围内具有良好的透气性,且压力分布均匀,舒适性较高.%The comfortability of MDI-based viscoelastic PU foam by SAG, temperature sensitivity, breathability and pressure distribution measurement in different densities and isocyanate indexes was studied. The result showed that increasing density was conducive to increase the SAG of viscoelastic foam. Increasing density or reducing isocyanate index was conducive to reduce the temperature sensibility of viscoelastic foam. The MDI-based viscoelastic PU foam which had good breathability could be used in wide density and index range. This kind of foam had uniformity pressure distribution and good comfortability.

  15. Determination of a comfortable volume of mouthwash for rinsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess patient comfort when rinsing for 30 s with 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 ml volumes of mouthwash, with the goal of establishing the most agreeable volume. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a single-blind, clinical trial with duplicate assessments. Par

  16. Future demands on comfort in construction vehicles' interiors according to manufacturers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Hark, T.A. ter; Krause, F.

    2001-01-01

    In a study in 1997 the seat was one of the most important comfort aspects in the cabin. The present study shows that four years later the seat is still the most important comfort aspect in construction vehicle interiors. In both workshops the integral design was stressed. The seat should therefore b

  17. Analysis of Passenger Ride Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagiz N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of vehicle vibrations on human beings is investigated. The computations were made with the help of a simulation program using a full vehicle model with driver and the results were evaluated using international ISO 2631 standard. The physical model of the investigated system is formed by a full-vehicle model and a driver. The road roughness is used as an input to the system and the responses are compared with the related standard. Finally, the results are discussed.

  18. Simulation and measurement of thermal comfort; Simulation und Messung der thermischen Behaglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Conrad; Kornadt, Oliver [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Professur Bauphysik (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    An approach is introduced, which enables the assessment of thermal comfort considering the complex and inhomogeneous climatic conditions in buildings as well as the human physiology. Computational fluid dynamic is linked with a numerical model representing the thermophysiological behavior of the human body (UC Berkeley Comfort Model). By dint of CFD, the climatic conditions in buildings are simulated with a detailed resolution. Basing on the simulations, the thermophysiological model is able to determine the temperature distribution of the human body, the heat flux to the environment as well as thermal comfort. The approach is used for the exemplified investigation of thermal comfort and sensation in a room equipped with a radiant cooling floor. (Copyright copyright 2010 Ernst and Sohn Verlag fuer Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH and Co. KG, Berlin)

  19. Beyond K's Specter: Chang-rae Lee’s A Gesture Life, Comfort Women Testimonies, and Asian American Transnational Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This essay argues that Chang-rae Lee’s novel A Gesture Life exemplifies both the conceptual gains and the potential pitfalls of current Asian American literature’s transnationalism. The first section of the essay discusses the interlocking of psychoanalytic theory and political philosophy, specifically Freud’s uncanny and Arendt’s banality of evil, in Lee’s portrait of the psychology of criminal repression. The second section juxtaposes Lee’s novel against real-life comfort women’s survivor testimonies to probe broader questions of historical memory, politicized historiography, and the modes of circulation and authority in contemporary international comfort women discourse. The final section, which recontextualizes Lee’s novel within current debates in Asian and Asian American Studies, argues against a paradigm of alterity vis-à-vis the comfort women and proposes instead a transnational aesthetic premised on the human.

  20. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet t

  1. Three different anesthesia techniques for a comfortable prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Enabling pain and discomfort control in patients is very important during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. In our study, we observed that the periprostatic block enables more comfortable compared with patient groups with intrarectal lidocaine gel and pudendal block and better reduction in pain scores.

  2. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet

  3. Research on linguistic concept creation method applied to environmental comfort sensors in health smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Li; Wenxue, Hong; Jialin, Song; Jiannan, Kang

    2005-01-01

    We endeavor to provide a novel tool to evaluate environmental comfort level in Health Smart Home (HSH). HSH is regarded a good alternative for the independent life of elders and people with disability. Numerous intelligent devices, installed within a home environment, can provide the resident with continuous monitoring and comfortable environment. In this paper, a novel method of evaluating environmental comfort level is provided. An intelligent sensor is a fuzzy comfort sensor that can measure and fusion the environmental parameters. Based upon the results, it will further give a linguistic description about the environmental comfort level, in the manner of an expert system. The core of the sensor is multi-parameter information fusion. Similar to human behavior, the sensor makes all the evaluation about the surrounding environment's comfort level based on the symbolic measurement theory. We applied chart representation theory in multivariate analysis in the biomedical engineering field to complete the human comfortable sensor's linguistic concept creation. We achieved better performance when using this method to complete multi-parameter fusion and fuzziness. It is our belief that this method can be used in both biology intelligent sensing and many other areas, where the quantitative and qualitative information transform is needed.

  4. Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Arroyo, Ivette; Bengs, Christer

    2017-03-01

    The thermal environment outdoors affects human comfort and health. Mental and physical performance is reduced at high levels of air temperature being a problem especially in tropical climates. This paper deals with human comfort in the warm-humid city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The main aim was to examine the influence of urban micrometeorological conditions on people's subjective thermal perception and to compare it with two thermal comfort indices: the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the standard effective temperature (SET*). The outdoor thermal comfort was assessed through micrometeorological measurements of air temperature, humidity, mean radiant temperature and wind speed together with a questionnaire survey consisting of 544 interviews conducted in five public places of the city during both the dry and rainy seasons. The neutral and preferred values as well as the upper comfort limits of PET and SET* were determined. For both indices, the neutral values and upper thermal comfort limits were lower during the rainy season, whereas the preferred values were higher during the rainy season. Regardless of season, the neutral values of PET and SET* are above the theoretical neutral value of each index. The results show that local people accept thermal conditions which are above acceptable comfort limits in temperate climates and that the subjective thermal perception varies within a wide range. It is clear, however, that the majority of the people in Guayaquil experience the outdoor thermal environment during daytime as too warm, and therefore, it is important to promote an urban design which creates shade and ventilation.

  5. Evaluation of User Satisfaction in Relation to Comfort Conditions in Shopping Malls: Bursa as a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ŞENKAL SEZER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enclosed shopping malls are one of the most preferred spaces in our daily lives. In these places, visual and climatic comfort conditions of the users are generally provided by artificial systems instead of natural ones. In order to provide user satisfaction which is one of the most important requirements for the viability of these centers, the usage of these artificial systems causes higher energy consumption. In this study, it is argued that spatial organization scheme of shopping malls affects the subjective thoughts of the users’ interior comfort conditions (thermal, interior space air quality, natural ventilation, day lighting, audial comfort. In this context, 7 large shopping malls in Bursa were selected as case studies and the questionnaire aiming to evaluate the users’ satisfaction about comfort conditions in these shopping malls was carried out. The aim of the study is to identify the effects of architectural design principles and spatial organization schemes on the users’ evaluation of comfort conditions. The results of the questionnaire are classified under subtitles such as interior heat, thermal comfort, interior air quality and natural ventilation, day lighting, audial comfort .In this context, at the end of the study, the relation between the users’ subjective evaluation of comfort conditions and architectural design principles are comparatively discussed and some suggestions for the design of new shopping malls are provided

  6. Comfort predictors for different kinds of hand tools: Differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Vink, P.; Looze, M.P.de

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the same factors underlie comfort in using different kinds of hand tools (screwdrivers, paintbrushes and handsaws). The underlying factors of the hand tools are identified using principal components analysis. The relationships between comfort descriptors (i.e. stateme

  7. Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

  8. The dynamic comfort research on the human body-seat of three degrees of freedom%三自由度“人体-座椅”系统的动态舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范平清; 邢彦锋; 赵波

    2013-01-01

    Presents a system method to analyze and optimize the parameters for vibration system of automobile seats in order to improve the dynamic comfort of seats .The human body and car seat system are described by a three-degree-of-freedom dynamic model and the corresponding vibration equations are established .The amplitude-frequency characteristic curves of this dynamic model and the relationship curves which describe the impact of damping coefficient and natural frequency for amplitude -frequency characteristics are introduced based on simulation analysis .The relationships between the power spectral density function of vibra-tion response and the spectral function of road are constructed so the impact of the vibration system parameters for vibration re -sponse is analyzed .According to the evaluation standard of automobile smooth-going characteristic and random optimization meth-ods,the dynamic parameters of car seats are optimized by minimizing the root mean square of vibration response of seats .%以座椅动态舒适性为目标,建立三自由度的“人体-座椅”动态模型及其振动方程。通过仿真分析,得到“人体-座椅”动态模型的幅频特性曲线和阻尼系数、固有频率对幅频特性的影响关系曲线。运用随机振动理论,建立振动响应功率谱密度函数和由路面车速确定的路面谱函数之间的关系,分析座椅减振系统参数对振动响应的影响。根据汽车座椅平顺性评价标准和随机优化方法,对座椅动态参数进行优化分析,从而使座椅振动响应量最小。

  9. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  10. 夏季自然通风住宅老年人适应性热舒适评价研究%Field study on elderly people's adaptive thermal comfort evaluation in naturally ventilated residential buildings in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 吴语欣; 张恒; 杜秀媛

    2015-01-01

    为探究自然通风住宅中老年人适应性热舒适的特殊性,在重庆市对6家养老机构和14个居民小区进行了现场研究。结果显示,在夏季热环境中,老年人的热感觉投票值偏低,不满意率也较低,可接受上限温度值偏高。采用预计适应性平均热感觉指数APMV 模型预测老年人的热舒适投票值,得到老年人的自适应系数λ=0.55。建议老年公寓采用Ⅰ级指标(0<APMV<0.5)进行热舒适评价,得到对应的老年人可接受温度范围为22.70~27.78℃。%To research the elderly people's special characters of adaptive thermal comfort in naturally ventilated residential buildings,performs a field study in six elderly care centers and fourteen residential quarters in Chongqing.The results show that in the thermal environment in summer,both the thermal sensation vote and the dissatisfied ratio of the elderly people are relatively lower,while the upper limit of acceptable air temperature range is higher.Adopts the adaptive predicted mean vote (APMV)model to predict the thermal comfort vote and obtains that the suitable value of adaptive coefficientλfor the elderly people is 0.55 in summer.Recommends that the index level I (0 comfort in apartments for the elderly,and obtains that the acceptable temperature range for the elderly is 22.70 to 27.78 ℃.

  11. Ride comfort analysis with physiological parameters for an e-health train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbum; Shin, Kwangsoo; Lee, Sangjoon; Song, Yongsoo; Han, Sungho; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-12-01

    Transportation by train has numerous advantages over road transportation, especially with regard to energy efficiency, ecological features, safety, and punctuality. However, the contrast in ride comfort between standard road transportation and train travel has become a competitive issue. The ride comfort enhancement technology of tilting trains (TTX) is a particularly important issue in the development of the Korean high-speed railroad business. Ride comfort is now defined in international standards such as UIC13 and ISO2631. The Korean standards such as KSR9216 mainly address physical parameters such as vibration and noise. In the area of ride comfort, living quality parameter techniques have recently been considered in Korea, Japan, and Europe. This study introduces biological parameters, particularly variations in heart rate, as a more direct measure of comfort. Biological parameters are based on physiological responses rather than on purely external mechanical parameters. Variability of heart rate and other physiological parameters of passengers are measured in a simulation involving changes in the tilting angle of the TTX. This research is a preliminary study for the implementation of an e-health train, which would provide passengers with optimized ride comfort. The e-health train would also provide feedback on altered ride comfort situations that can improve a passenger's experience and provide a healthcare service on the train. The aim of this research was to develop a ride comfort evaluation system for the railway industry, the automobile industry, and the air industry. The degree of tilt correlated with heart rate, fatigue, and unrelieved alertness.

  12. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  13. A novel medical bandage with enhanced clothing comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğlakcioğlu, N.; Sari, B.; Bedez Üte, T.; Marmarali, A.

    2016-07-01

    Compression garments are special textile products which apply a pressure on needed body zones for supporting medical, sport or casual activities. Medical bandages are a group of these garments and they have a very common usage for compression effect on legs or arms. These bandages are generally produced by using synthetic raw materials such as polyamide or polyester fibres. Medical bandages are in contact with skin. Even if the synthetic fibres are used, they may cause both comfort and health problems like allergies. Nowadays in textile sector, the expectations of clients include using of natural fibres as far as possible in all garments. Natural fibres have good advantages such as breathability, softness, moisture management ability, non-allergenic and ecologic structure and these characteristics present optimum utilization conditions. In this study, tubular medical bandages were manufactured by using core spun yarns (sheath fibres are selected as tencel, bamboo and cotton, core material is elastane) and their pressure and comfort (air and water vapour permeability) characteristics were investigated. The results indicated that the bandages have good comfort abilities beside adequate pressure values for compression effect. These garments can constitute a new production field for medical bandages with their comfort properties in addition to pressure characteristics.

  14. An investigation of thermal comfort inside an automobile during the heating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Kilic, Muhsin [Uludag Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bursa (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a combined theoretical and experimental study of thermal comfort during the heating period inside an automobile. To investigate the effects of thermal conditions on the human physiology and thermal comfort during the heating period, temperature, humidity and air velocity were measured at a number of points inside the automobile, so thermal conditions were accurately determined. The human body was divided into 16 sedentary segments, and the change of temperature was observed both experimentally and theoretically. During transient conditions of the heating period, heat and mass transfer between the human body and the interior environment of an automobile were simulated by a computational model, and predictions were compared with the measured data. It is shown that there is a good agreement between the model predictions and experimental results. By means of the present model, the effects of the fast transient conditions of the heating period on the sensible and latent heat transfer from the body, body segments skin temperatures and thermal sensation were investigated in detail. (Author)

  15. Relationship between comfort and attenuation measurements for two types of earplugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss is almost always preventable if properly fitted hearing protectors are worn to reduce exposure. Many individuals choose not to wear hearing protection because it may interfere with effective communication in the workplace or it may be uncomfortable. Hearing protector comfort has not received the same amount of attention as noise reduction capability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the comfort level of two different types of insert earplugs as well as the attenuation levels achieved by the earplugs. Attenuation levels were obtained with a commercially available earplug fit-test system, and the comfort ratings were obtained by questionnaire. The primary research objective was to determine whether hearing protector comfort was related to measured attenuation values. A linear mixed effects model provided evidence for an inverse relationship between comfort and attenuation.

  16. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    .A different approach to the comfort boundaries used in modern standards was introduced, creating insight in the spread in activity patterns and the comfort demand in the context of individual preferences and vulnerabilities. Information of sociology and thermal comfort studies were brought together creating occupancy and thermal comfort profiles for the Dutch situation. By recognizing the differences in occupancy patterns it becomes possible to design adaptive systems to be able to deliver the comfort demanded only when and where necessary in different occupancy scenarios. This is an opportunity to achieve a significantly better energy performance.Furthermore, a method for dynamic analysis of weather conditions related to the thermal comfort was proposed in order to map the opportunities and threats of weather change. This makes the system able to seize upon every reasonably to be expected situation to create an optimal dynamic filter for the outdoor to indoor thermal environment at any time and place. This preliminary study was performed by presuming a simple shelter that can create shielding from wind and solar radiation without any form of thermal storage or insulation.In this study it is emphasised that there is no need for active cooling in the residential sector of the Netherlands if the dwelling is well designed; blocking solar radiation when needed and to allow built up excess heat to be discarded.An inventory is provided of the possibilities for adaptivity for a thermal comfort system which are used in common practice and which improvements and new techniques can be implemented to increase these possibilities for adaptivity of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. 2. The effect of applying the detailed information and adaptive opportunities framed in step 1 on the energy saving and comfort delivery of the Thermal Comfort Systems was researched.Firstly, the most appropriate calculation methods for the research were determined comparing various levels of detail and

  17. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    .A different approach to the comfort boundaries used in modern standards was introduced, creating insight in the spread in activity patterns and the comfort demand in the context of individual preferences and vulnerabilities. Information of sociology and thermal comfort studies were brought together creating occupancy and thermal comfort profiles for the Dutch situation. By recognizing the differences in occupancy patterns it becomes possible to design adaptive systems to be able to deliver the comfort demanded only when and where necessary in different occupancy scenarios. This is an opportunity to achieve a significantly better energy performance.Furthermore, a method for dynamic analysis of weather conditions related to the thermal comfort was proposed in order to map the opportunities and threats of weather change. This makes the system able to seize upon every reasonably to be expected situation to create an optimal dynamic filter for the outdoor to indoor thermal environment at any time and place. This preliminary study was performed by presuming a simple shelter that can create shielding from wind and solar radiation without any form of thermal storage or insulation.In this study it is emphasised that there is no need for active cooling in the residential sector of the Netherlands if the dwelling is well designed; blocking solar radiation when needed and to allow built up excess heat to be discarded.An inventory is provided of the possibilities for adaptivity for a thermal comfort system which are used in common practice and which improvements and new techniques can be implemented to increase these possibilities for adaptivity of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. 2. The effect of applying the detailed information and adaptive opportunities framed in step 1 on the energy saving and comfort delivery of the Thermal Comfort Systems was researched.Firstly, the most appropriate calculation methods for the research were determined comparing various levels of detail and

  18. Effects of Drains on Pain, Comfort and Anxiety in Patients Undergone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Surgical drains negatively affect patients’ comfort, cause anxiety along with pain, as they are used to promote healing after surgery.Purpose: This study aimed to determine pain, comfort and anxiety levels of patients with drains postoperatively.Methodology: Research was performed with 192 patients undergone abdominal, neck, breast and open heart surgery and had surgical and underwater chest drains at the postoperative period. Patient Information Form, Numerical Pain Scale, General Comfort Questionnaire and Trait Anxiety Scale was used for collection of data. In evaluating the data, we used the t-test, variance and correlation analysis, mean, percentage and frequency.Results: The patients’ mean score of pain was 4.67±2.93, comfort was 2.75±0.29 and anxiety was 39.31±9.21. It was found statistically significant that the comfort level decreases as the pain level increases and that the patients undergone open heart surgery and with underwater chest drains have higher pain levels. It was found statistically significant that, comfort level in patients undergone abdominal or cardiac surgery is lower than patients undergone breast or neck surgery, and that the comfort level decreases as the duration of drains increases. The increasing state anxiety while pain increases and comfort decreases was found statistically significant.Conclusions: Surgeries and drains applied after these procedures decrease the comfort level of the patients as increases the pain level. Also, pain and discomfort increase the patients’ anxiety. Nurses who providing care to these patients are suggested to improve measures about pain and anxiety reduction for maintaining of comfort.

  19. The examination of climate comfortable conditions in terms of coastal tourism on the Aegean Region coastal belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Güçlü

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important that climate comfortable conditions are within presumed threshold values with respect to tourism activities in the form that people rest in a healthy environment. The climatical elements bearing importance for climate comfortable conditions in general sunshine duration, temperature, relative humidity, wind and precipitation have been taken into consideration for this purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine of the climate comfortable conditions in respect to tourism on the Aegean Region coastal belt of Turkey. In this study, TCI, THI and SSI indices have been used for determining climate comfort conditions. The best climate comfortable conditions in terms of coastal tourism are seen May-June and September-October periods in the study area. Climate comfortable decreases due to high temperature and relative humidity in July-August period. November-April period is not appropriate for the coastal tourism. The favourable period for sea bathing is seen between 9 June-26 September.

  20. Thermal comfort in residential buildings: Comfort values and scales for building energy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Leen; D' haeseleer, William [Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 300 A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dear, Richard de [Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Hensen, Jan [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Building Energy Simulation (BES) programmes often use conventional thermal comfort theories to make decisions, whilst recent research in the field of thermal comfort clearly shows that important effects are not incorporated. The conventional theories of thermal comfort were set up based on steady state laboratory experiments. This, however, is not representing the real situation in buildings, especially not when focusing on residential buildings. Therefore, in present analysis, recent reviews and adaptations are considered to extract acceptable temperature ranges and comfort scales. They will be defined in an algorithm, easily implementable in any BES code. The focus is on comfortable temperature levels in the room, more than on the detailed temperature distribution within that room. (author)

  1. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome

    the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam, radiant floor, wall and ceiling) have been compared for a typical office room, both numerically...... beam. The higher the air change rate and the warmer the outdoor air, the larger the savings achieved with a radiant cooling terminals. Therefore radiant terminals have a large potential of energy savings for buildings with high ventilation rates (e.g. shop, train station, industrial storage). Among...... comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did not achieve the same uniformity in space. The active chilled beam theoretically achieves the most uniform comfort conditions (when...

  2. A decision-tree-based model for evaluating the thermal comfort of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Assis Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is of great importance in preserving body temperature homeostasis during thermal stress conditions. Although the thermal comfort of horses has been widely studied, there is no report of its relationship with surface temperature (T S. This study aimed to assess the potential of data mining techniques as a tool to associate surface temperature with thermal comfort of horses. T S was obtained using infrared thermography image processing. Physiological and environmental variables were used to define the predicted class, which classified thermal comfort as "comfort" and "discomfort". The variables of armpit, croup, breast and groin T S of horses and the predicted classes were then subjected to a machine learning process. All variables in the dataset were considered relevant for the classification problem and the decision-tree model yielded an accuracy rate of 74 %. The feature selection methods used to reduce computational cost and simplify predictive learning decreased model accuracy to 70 %; however, the model became simpler with easily interpretable rules. For both these selection methods and for the classification using all attributes, armpit and breast T S had a higher power rating for predicting thermal comfort. Data mining techniques show promise in the discovery of new variables associated with the thermal comfort of horses.

  3. Using Hand Grip Force as a Correlate of Longitudinal Acceleration Comfort for Rapid Transit Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Beiyuan; Gan, Weide; Fang, Weining

    2015-07-02

    Longitudinal acceleration comfort is one of the essential metrics used to evaluate the ride comfort of train. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using hand grip force as a correlate of longitudinal acceleration comfort of rapid transit trains. In the paper, a motion simulation system was set up and a two-stage experiment was designed to investigate the role of the grip force on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains. The results of the experiment show that the incremental grip force was linearly correlated with the longitudinal acceleration value, while the incremental grip force had no correlation with the direction of the longitudinal acceleration vector. The results also show that the effects of incremental grip force and acceleration duration on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains were significant. Based on multiple regression analysis, a step function model was established to predict the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains using the incremental grip force and the acceleration duration. The feasibility and practicably of the model was verified by a field test. Furthermore, a comparative analysis shows that the motion simulation system and the grip force based model were valid to support the laboratory studies on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains.

  4. Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Erzurum-Rize expressway corridor using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, Murat; Karahan, Faris [Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Agriculture, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kopar, Ibrahim [Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Literature, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, topographical and climatical conditions are prescinded all along Erzurum-Rize expressway corridors to appoint the areas which have bioclimatic comfort in summer season (June, July, August). For this purpose, the climate data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed) from nine different stations was entered in the digital data base. By dint of ArcGIS 9.1 software, climatic data were analysed and numerological maps were produced by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. As a method, bioclimatically comfortable areas consists of: relative humidity between 30 and 65%, temperature between 15 and 20 C, and wind speed up to 5 m/s. The maps were scored as 0 for uncomfortable and 1 for comfortable and superposed, and bioclimatic comfort area (temperature: 1-relative humidity: 1-wind speed: 1) were determined. Besides, topographic factors were appreciated. As a result of this study, it is concerned that the area (452749 ha. % 63); beginning from south of the Mountains Mescit which is started by Black Sea coastline to Mountain Mescit (3230 m) is out of bioclimatic comfort region; the Erzurum depression (1758 m) beginning from the Mountains Mescit has been determined that area has bioclimatic comfort conditions. As a consequence, it is confirmed that one of the ideal area which has bioclimatic comfort is the Erzurum depression area in Turkey. (author)

  5. Future comfort cooling in domestic and commercial buildings in Sweden; Naesta generations klimatkyla i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Rolfsman, Lennart; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Axell, Monica

    2010-09-15

    This report presents results from a national project on future potential for comfort cooling in the built sector. Results from an interview study are presented. Future changes in energy demand for comfort cooling in different building types based on scenarios are also presented and discussed. It is clear from the simulated results that the future need for comfort cooling will decrease due to a number of factors, including user behavior, regulations and new building codes

  6. Geriatric care: ways and means of providing comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patricia Cruz Pontifice Sousa Valente; Marques, Rita Margarida Dourado; Ribeiro, Marta Pontifice

    2017-01-01

    To know the ways and means of comfort perceived by the older adults hospitalized in a medical service. Ethnographic study with a qualitative approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 older adults and participant observation of care situations. The ways and means of providing comfort are centered on strategies for promoting care mobilized by nurses and recognized by patients(clarifying/informing, positive interaction/communication, music therapy, touch, smile, unconditional presence, empathy/proximity relationship, integrating the older adult or the family as partner in the care, relief of discomfort through massage/mobilization/therapy) and on particular moments of comfort (the first contact, the moment of personal hygiene, and the visit of the family), which constitute the foundation of care/comfort. Geriatric care is built on the relationship that is established and complete with meaning, and is based on the meeting/interaction between the actors under the influence of the context in which they are inserted. The different ways and means of providing comfort aim to facilitate/increase care, relieve discomfort and/or invest in potential comfort. Conhecer os modos e formas de confortar percecionadas pelos idosos hospitalizados num serviço de medicina. Estudo etnográfico com abordagem qualitativa. Realizamos entrevistas semiestruturadas com 22 doentes idosos e observação participante nas situações de cuidados. Os modos e formas de confortar centram-se em estratégias promotoras de conforto mobilizadas pelo enfermeiro e reconhecidas pelos doentes (informação/esclarecimento, interação/comunicação positiva, toque, sorriso, presença incondicional, integração do idoso/família nos cuidados e o alívio de desconfortos através da massagem/mobilização/terapêutica) e em momentos particulares de conforto (contato inaugural, visita da família., cuidados de higiene e arranjo pessoal), que se constituem como alicerces do cuidar

  7. EFSA Panel on Diet etic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort. The Panel considers that krill oil is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “helps to improve the comfort of sensitive joints”. The Panel considers that maintenance of joint comfort is a beneficial physiological....... The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...... effect. The applicant identified one human intervention study as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel notes that chronic inflammation was an inclusion criterion of the study, that a significant number of the patients recruited were reported to have confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis...

  8. Comparison of subjective comfort ratings between anatomically shaped and cylindrical handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harih, Gregor; Dolšak, Bojan

    2014-07-01

    Most authors have provided diameter recommendations for cylindrical handle design in order to increase performance, avoid discomfort, and reduce the risk of cumulative trauma disorders. None of the studies has investigated the importance of determining the correct handle shape on the subjective comfort ratings, which could further improve the handles' ergonomics. Therefore, new methods based on a virtual hand model in its optimal power grasp posture have been developed in order to obtain customised handles with best fits for targeted subjects. Cylindrical and anatomically shaped handles were evaluated covering ten subjects by means of an extensive subjective comfort questionnaire. The results suggest large impact of the handle shape on the perceived subjective comfort ratings. Anatomically shaped handles were rated as being considerably more comfortable than cylindrical handles for almost all the subjective comfort predictors. They showed that handle shapes based on optimal power grasp postures can improve subjective comfort ratings, thus maximising performance. Future research should consider real conditions, since the comfort ratings can vary based on the specific task and by the tool selected for the task.

  9. Predicting bicycle setup for children based on anthropometrics and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Karl; Dodson, Zoe; Korff, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Bicycling is a popular activity for children. In order for children to enjoy cycling and to minimize injury, it is important that they are positioned appropriately on the bicycle. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify a suitable bicycle setup for children aged between 7 and 16 years which accommodates developmental differences in anthropometrics, flexibility and perceptions of comfort. Using an adjustable bicycle fitting rig, we found the most comfortable position of 142 children aged 7 to 16. In addition, a number of anthropometric measures were recorded. Seat height and the horizontal distance between seat and handlebars were strongly predictable (R(2) > 0.999, p bicycle manufacturers.

  10. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  11. A finite element model of the human buttocks for prediction of seat pressure distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, M M; van Hoof, J; Oomens, C W J; Wismans, J S H M; Baaijens, F P T

    2004-08-01

    Seating comfort is becoming increasingly important for the automotive industry. Car manufacturers use seating comfort to distinguish their products from those of competitors. However, the development and design of a new, more comfortable seat is time consuming and costly. The introduction of computer models of human and seat will accelerate this process. The contact interaction between human and seat is an important factor in the comfort sensation of subjects. This paper presents a finite element (FE) model of the human buttocks, able to predict the pressure distribution between human and seating surface by its detailed and realistic geometric description. A validation study based on volunteer experiments shows reasonable correlation in pressure distributions between the buttocks model and the volunteers. Both for simulations on a rigid and a soft cushion, the model predicts realistic seat pressure distributions. A parameter study shows that a pressure distribution at the interface between human and seat strongly depends on variations in human flesh and seat cushion properties.

  12. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...... indices provide substantially new information and constitute much better decision tools....

  13. Occupant comfort in UK offices - How adaptive comfort theories might influence future low energy office refurbishment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stuart [De Montfort University, Leicester and Reid Architecture, West End House, 11 Hills Place, London W1F 7SE (United Kingdom); Fiala, Dusan [IESD, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); FBTA, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    With the UK commercial sector replacing buildings at 1-1.5% per year adaptations to existing buildings are needed to maintain comfort levels, while reducing energy use and carbon emissions. In this study, occupants of a refurbished office recorded their thermal sensations, assessment of lighting and air movement, perceptions of comfort and their reactions to adaptive opportunities. The observed mean thermal sensation votes and the overall comfort votes correlated best with mean diurnal internal and external temperatures, respectively. The results appear to indicate heat balance models not fully explaining surveyed responses as occupants reported higher discomfort levels than predicted by the PMV model using on-site temperature and air velocity measurements. In the study opening windows was voted to be the most favourite adaptive opportunity followed by controlling solar glare, turning lights off locally and controlling solar gain. Occupants also expressed desires to intervene with heating and ventilation currently operated centrally. An interesting result of the survey was that the occupants generally did not change their clothing during the day. The study concluded that both passive and active adaptive opportunities are important in future low energy office refurbishment strategies. (author)

  14. Usefulness of the comfort theory in the clinical nursing care of new mothers: critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Juliana Vieira Figueiredo; Guedes, Maria Vilani Cavalcante; Silva, Lúcia de Fátima da; Freitas, Maria Célia de; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo

    2017-02-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the comfort theory for the clinical nursing care of new mothers. This is a reflexive-theoretical study conducted in November and December 2014, based on the usefulness criterion proposed in the critical analysis of the Barnum nursing theory. The comfort theory in nursing care for new mothers applied to study analysis revealed that this theory meets the criteria of usefulness because it provides applicable concepts that facilitated the clinical nursing care of women in the postpartum period and helped increase their comfort level. The verification of these concepts showed that the theory can be applied in different settings of clinical care for new mothers. The theory can be used to support and improve clinical nursing care for postpartum women, and help improve puerperal comfort.

  15. Dataset on daytime outdoor thermal comfort for Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Queiroz da Silveira Hirashima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This dataset describe microclimatic parameters of two urban open public spaces in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; physiological equivalent temperature (PET index values and the related subjective responses of interviewees regarding thermal sensation perception and preference and thermal comfort evaluation. Individuals and behavioral characteristics of respondents were also presented. Data were collected at daytime, in summer and winter, 2013. Statistical treatment of this data was firstly presented in a PhD Thesis (“Percepção sonora e térmica e avaliação de conforto em espaços urbanos abertos do município de Belo Horizonte – MG, Brasil” (Hirashima, 2014 [1], providing relevant information on thermal conditions in these locations and on thermal comfort assessment. Up to now, this data was also explored in the article “Daytime Thermal Comfort in Urban Spaces: A Field Study in Brazil” (Hirashima et al., in press [2]. These references are recommended for further interpretation and discussion.

  16. Classifying EEG Signals during Stereoscopic Visualization to Estimate Visual Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jérémy; Appriou, Aurélien; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    With stereoscopic displays a sensation of depth that is too strong could impede visual comfort and may result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. In particular, we show that either changes in event-related potentials' (ERPs) amplitudes or changes in EEG oscillations power following stereoscopic objects presentation can be used to estimate visual comfort. Our system reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average (up to 76%) and 74% on average when 7 consecutive variations are measured (up to 93%). Performances are stable (≈62.5%) when a simplified signal processing is used to simulate online analyses or when the number of EEG channels is lessened. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions. For example, it could be possible to match the stereoscopic effect with users' state by modifying the overlap of left and right images according to the classifier output.

  17. Evaluation technology of clothing comfortableness; Ifuku tekigosei hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwaya, H.

    1999-10-26

    Modern apparel industries are required to supply many kinds of products corresponding to various needs of consumers. Among consumers' needs, comfortableness to wear such as size-fitness is primarily important. To facilitate apparel industries, it is expected to develop a new technology of pattern designing of comfortable garment and measuring garment pressure distribution. Our research is aimed at developing technology that uses computer simulation to predict and evaluate wear comfort, including size suitability, without the need to actually sew up a garment. First, we developed a basic system to predict wearing silhouette, garment pressure, and ease looseness of the garment. Using this system, we carried on the following study. The 3-dimensional distributions of the garment pressure and ease looseness were reversely mapped on the paper pattern in order to indicate the preferable modification. The system was extended for several poses, e.g. twist, bend. From various parameters, we examined the factors of garment pressure and ease looseness. In addition, we selected the parameters for the size-fit indicators and investigated size-fit evaluation indicators. (author)

  18. Exploration of the Comfort Design of High-speed Train Carriage Lighting%高速列车内室照明舒适性设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章勇; 徐伯初

    2012-01-01

    从广义的舒适性角度探讨高速列车内室照明设计,分析了照明与视觉特性的关系及影响视觉舒适性的因素,就色温、照度、照射方式和照明的空间布置对心理舒适性的影响进行了详细的论述,并从环境照明、局部照明、装饰照明3个方面总结了高速列车内室照明舒适性设计策略。%It studied high-speed train carriage lighting in the generalized view of comfort and analyzed the relationship between lighting and human visual characteristics,and analyzed the factors which effect visual comfort.Then it was given thorough exploration of psychological comfort which effected by lighting color temperature,illuminance,ways of irradiation,space layout.The strategies of high-speed train carriage lighting comfort design were put forward from environment lighting,local lighting and decoration lighting.

  19. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  20. A child's nightmare. Mum comes and comforts her child. Attachment evaluation as a guide in the assessment and treatment in a clinical case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eSalcuni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a gap between proposed theoretical attachment theory frameworks, measures of attachment in the assessment phase and their relationship with changes in outcome after a psychodynamic oriented psychotherapy. Based on a clinical case study of a young woman with Panic Attack Disorder, this paper examined psychotherapy outcome findings comparing initial and post-treatment assessments, according to the mental functioning in S and M-axis of the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM. Treatment planning and post-treatment changes were described with the main aim to illustrate from a clinical point of view why a psycho-dynamic approach, with specific attention to an attachment theory stance, was considered the treatment of choice for this patient. The Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP–200 were administered to detect patient’s symptomatic perception and clinician’s diagnostic points of view, respectively; the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP were also administered as to pay attention to patient’s unconscious internal organization and changes in defense processes. A qualitative description of how the treatment unfolded was included. Findings highlight the important contribution of attachment theory in a 22-month psychodynamic psychotherapy framework, promoting resolution of patient’s symptoms and adjustment.

  1. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, M M; de Lange, R; van Hoof, J; Wismans, J S H M

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could accelerate this process. The objective of this paper is to establish a protocol for the development of seat models using numerically efficient simulation techniques. The methodology is based on multi-body techniques: arbitrary surfaces, providing an accurate surface description, are attached to rigid bodies. The bodies are connected by kinematic joints, representing the seat back recliner and head restraint joint. Properties of the seat foam and frame have been lumped together. Further, experiments have been defined to characterise the mechanical properties required for the seat model for comfort applications. The protocol has been exemplified using a standard car seat. The seat model has been validated based on experiments with rigid loading devices with human-like shapes in terms of force-deflection characteristics. The response of the seat model agrees well with the experimental results. Therefore the presented method can be a useful tool in the seat development process, especially in early stages of the design process.

  2. The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  3. Thermal comfort zone study based on equivalent temperature under task air conditioning system%基于等效温度的工位空调环境下热舒适区研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任雨婷; 端木琳; 金权

    2016-01-01

    针对工位送风空调形式营造的非均匀热环境,利用等效温度指标对人体的局部和整体热感觉进行了评价。在准办公室环境对受试者进行了人体热反应实验,得到了不同刺激工况下人体各部位的热感觉和等效温度值,对比分析后发现:刺激部位等效温度值与非刺激部位等效温度值出现明显的分离现象;刺激温度和风速是影响刺激部位等效温度值的重要因素。由热感觉投票值与等效温度值的散点图发现,二者有很好的线性关系,通过拟合得到了适用于工位送风非均匀环境的等效温度舒适区范围。%Evaluates the local and overall thermal sensation using equivalent temperature index in the non-uniform thermal environment of task air conditioning system.Conducts the human thermal test in a mockup office, and obtains the data of local sensation and equivalent temperatures under different stimulating conditions.The results show that there is an obvious separation phenomenon between the equivalent temperature of stimulating site and that of non stimulating sites.The air temperature and velocity are the important factors to affect the equivalent temperature of the stimulating site.From the scatter plot, finds a good linear relationship between human thermal sensation vote and equivalent temperature.Obtains the equivalent temperature comfort zone for the non-uniform thermal environment with task air conditioning through the fitting method.

  4. Dwelling on Courtyards. Exploring the energy efficiency and comfort potential of courtyards for dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taleghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon and the dependency of buildings on
fossil fuels were the two main issues that formed this dissertation. UHI results in higher air temperatures in dense urban areas compared with their suburbs and rural surroundings. This phenomenon affects human health through thermal discomfort. Furthermore, in the Netherlands, it is estimated that by 2050 the air temperature could be up to 2.3°C warmer as compared to the period of 1981-2010. Besides, the energy consumption of buildings is responsible for 30 to 45% of CO2 emissions. 31% of this consumption belongs to residential buildings. Residential buildings can play a major role in reducing the CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuel consumption.One of the passive architectural design solutions is the courtyard building form. Courtyards have been used for thousands of years in different climates in the world. In hot climates they provide shading, in humid climates they cause a stack effect helping ventilation, in cold climates they break cold winds and protect their microclimate. In temperate climates (such as of the Netherlands, the thermal behaviour of courtyards has been studied less. In this dissertation, low-rise residential courtyard buildings were therefore studied among (and along different urban block types in the Netherlands.As the first step, computer simulations were done as a parametric study for indoor and outdoor thermal comfort. Field measurements were done in actual urban courtyards and in dwellings alongside urban courtyards in the Netherlands (and in a similar temperate climate in the US. A scale model experiment later followed the simulations. Some of these field measurements were used to validate the simulation models. These efforts answered the two main research questions:1 To what extent is a dwelling alongside an urban courtyard more efficient and thermally comfortable than other dwellings?2 To what extent do people have a more comfortable

  5. A theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort - Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Runming [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Li, Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Liu, Jing [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents in detail a theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort based on the ''Black Box'' theory, taking into account factors such as culture, climate, social, psychological and behavioural adaptations, which have an impact on the senses used to detect thermal comfort. The model is called the Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV) model. The aPMV model explains, by applying the cybernetics concept, the phenomena that the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) is greater than the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) in free-running buildings, which has been revealed by many researchers in field studies. An Adaptive coefficient ({lambda}) representing the adaptive factors that affect the sense of thermal comfort has been proposed. The empirical coefficients in warm and cool conditions for the Chongqing area in China have been derived by applying the least square method to the monitored onsite environmental data and the thermal comfort survey results. (author)

  6. End-of-life care in the neonatal intensive care unit: applying comfort theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, Allison

    2016-07-02

    The provision of quality end-of-life care is essential when a neonate is dying. End-of-life care delivered in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) must consider the needs of both the newborn and their family. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how comfort theory and its associated taxonomic structure can be used as a conceptual framework for nurses and midwives providing end-of-life care to neonates and their families. Comfort theory and its taxonomic structure are presented and issues related to end-of-life care in the NICU are highlighted. A case study is used to illustrate the application of comfort theory and issues related to implementation are discussed. The delivery of end-of-life care in the NICU can be improved through the application of comfort.

  7. Calm, Cool, and Comfortable in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The author's fourth-grade students had just finished a drawing unit that focused on the human figure. Projects included charcoal gesture drawings and chalk manikin drawings in chiaroscuro. She wanted to integrate a new medium for students to continue their study of the human figure. Since students are always excited to work with clay, making clay…

  8. Annoyance rate evaluation method on ride comfort of vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuanyin; Zhang, Yimin; Zhao, Guangyao; Ma, Yan

    2014-03-01

    The existing researches of the evaluation method of ride comfort of vehicle mainly focus on the level of human feelings to vibration. The level of human feelings to vibration is influenced by many factors, however, the ride comfort according to the common principle of probability and statistics and simple binary logic is unable to reflect these uncertainties. The random fuzzy evaluation model from people subjective response to vibration is adopted in the paper, these uncertainties are analyzed from the angle of psychological physics. Discussing the traditional evaluation of ride comfort during vehicle vibration, a fuzzily random evaluation model on the basis of annoyance rate is proposed for the human body's subjective response to vibration, with relevant fuzzy membership function and probability distribution given. A half-car four degrees of freedom suspension vibration model is described, subject to irregular excitations from the road surface, with the aid of software Matlab/Simulink. A new kind of evaluation method for ride comfort of vehicles is proposed in the paper, i.e., the annoyance rate evaluation method. The genetic algorithm and neural network control theory are used to control the system. Simulation results are obtained, such as the comparison of comfort reaction to vibration environments between before and after control, relationship of annoyance rate to vibration frequency and weighted acceleration, based on ISO 2631/1(1982), ISO 2631-1(1997) and annoyance rate evaluation method, respectively. Simulated assessment results indicate that the proposed active suspension systems prove to be effective in the vibration isolation of the suspension system, and the subjective response of human being can be promoted from very uncomfortable to a little uncomfortable. Furthermore, the novel evaluation method based on annoyance rate can further estimate quantitatively the number of passengers who feel discomfort due to vibration. A new analysis method of vehicle

  9. ComfortPower - System improvements and long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Catator has previously developed a novel heating system abbreviated ComfortPower in a RandD-programme supported by Catator, Swedish Gas Centre (SGC), Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), Skanska, Nibe and Alfa Laval. The ComfortPower unit comprises a multi fuel reformer system tied to a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEM) and a heat pump system. Since the residual heat from the fuel cell system can be utilized in a very effective way, it is possible to reach high thermal efficiencies. Indeed, the thermal efficiency in the unit has previously been shown to reach values as high as 175 - 200 % based on the lower heating value of the fuel. In addition to heat, ComfortPower can supply comfort cooling and surplus electricity. This project phase has focused on the following elements: 1. System improvements to further enhance the efficiency with existing fuel cell (HT-PEM). 2. System simplifications (e.g. DC-compressor system) to manage issues with start-up currents. 3. Tests with biogas qualities (various levels of CO{sub 2}) and biogas/air. 4. Long-term test with biogas quality (upgraded biogas). 5. Additional tests with liquid fuels (alcohols and diesel). 6. Map the need for cooling and heating in various applications. 7. Investigate how ComfortPower can reduce the primary energy consumption and reduce the environmental impact. 8. Study the possibility with a SOFC-based system with internal reforming. It was found that the Optiformer technology can be used to derive a suitable reformate gas for the HT-PEM unit from a wide range of fuels. Even if operation with fuel gases is the natural choice in most cases, it is possible also to use alcohols and other liquid fuels (e.g. in Campus applications). The heat pump system was equipped with a 24 V DC-compressor provided by Nibe. The compressor could be directly powered by the accumulator system and start-up currents, harmful to the inverter, could be avoided. Some improvements were made on the

  10. Comfort Agent: FACT. From technology to value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Wortel, W. [Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Hommelberg, M. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Kamphuis, R. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Bakker, L. [TNO Building and Infrastructure (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Global warming, which is mainly caused by energy consumption, is becoming a major problem. In order to reduce energy consumption of office buildings even further, new control technology is needed. A very exciting development occurs in the field of control strategy, which integrates the end-user behaviour. In the frame of the SMART (Smart Multi Agent internet Technology) and IIGO (Intelligent Internet mediated control in the built environment) project, an external real time information system was integrated into a Building Management System in order to improve energy and comfort control. In the EBOB, Energy Efficient Behaviour of Office Buildings, a European EU-FP5 program project a different type of technology, Forgiving Technology, was developed. This paper presents insights into SMART, IIGO and EBOB and the resulting combined technology; FACT, Forgiving Agent Comfort Technology. The TU/e developed this FACT technology into a concept for Careful Buildings. (orig.)

  11. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... to such environments as commercial kitchens? This article describes a data collection protocol based on measurements of physical and subjective parameters. The procedure was used to investigate more than 100 commercial kitchens in the United States in both summer and winter. The physical measurements revealed...

  12. The Role of Interpersonal Comfort in Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Day, Rachel; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This research examined interpersonal comfort as a potential mediating mechanism in mentoring relationships. Results indicated that interpersonal comfort mediated the relationship between gender similarity and protege reports of career and psychosocial mentoring. Contrary to prediction, interpersonal comfort did not mediate relationships involving…

  13. Domotics. Comfortable and energy efficient?; Domotica. Comfortabel en energiezuinig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wolferen, H.; Hendriksen, L.; Traversari, R. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    Insight is given into the added value of domotics (home automation) in the handling and control of comfort installations, focusing on comfort and energy consumption. Costs are indicated. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de toegevoegde waarde van domotica bij de bediening en regeling van comfortinstallaties. Hierbij wordt de meeste aandacht gegeven aan comfort en energiegebruik. De kosten worden alleen indicatief besproken.

  14. Study on Indoor Thermal Comfort Temperature Adjustment with Consideration of Energy-saving Benefit%兼顾节能效益的建筑室内热舒适温度调整研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志恒; 张明媛; 袁永博

    2016-01-01

    各气候区居民对室内热舒适的要求随其穿着习惯、对热环境的适应能力等而异,采暖或制冷温度应有所差别,然而现有建筑节能设计标准按统一标准提供室温控制建议。采用ISO7730的PMV热舒适模型分析各气候区的合理参数,计算得到室内热舒适温度,并通过与实测值比较验证理论计算的合理性;在此基础上,分别计算按既有统一室温建议与热舒适温度控温的热舒适性和能耗,提出冬季适当提高采暖温度以提升热舒适度、夏季适当提高制冷温度以实现热舒适度和节能双赢的调整建议。%Residents of each climate zone have different requirements for indoor thermal comfort due to different wearing habits and the ability to adapt to the thermal environment,but the existing standards offer the same room temperature control suggestions. The paper uses the PMV thermal comfort model of ISO7730 to analyze the reasonable parameters of each climate zone,calculate the indoor thermal comfort temperature,and verify the rationality of theoretical calculation by comparison with the measured values. On this basis,calculates thermal comfort and energy consumption by existing room temperature suggestions and thermal comfort temperature control,finds that increase heating temperature in winter to improve the thermal comfort and increase refrigeration temperature in summer to achieve the thermal comfort are win-win situation.

  15. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  16. Olfactory comfort awareness (OCA). A new unit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempski, D. von [DVK air vitalizing system, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    It is generally known that the perceived air quality has a great impact on the well-being of room occupants. Engineers tend to rely completely on measuring the absence of pollutants aiming for objectively clean air, but neglect the subjective awareness of room occupants or how they perceive indoor air quality. Neurophysiological and psychological research has shown that the hedonic value often plays the key role in determining that perception. It has to be understood that not only thermal conditions but also the sense of olfaction play major roles. This lack of awareness of the interactions between thermal and olfactory conditions frequently accounts for the dissatisfaction rate. This paper will concentrate on demonstrating the influence of the hedonic value on room occupants and on how to achieve air that from an olfactory perspective is perceived to be natural. This is different from the commonly known, perceived ''artificial'' air. Furthermore, it will show how important it is to evaluate healthy buildings not only for the absence of negative odors as expressed by the olf and decipol units. Olfactory comfort goes far beyond this scale and, therefore, it is necessary to introduce a new unit called olfactory comfort awareness OCA. OCA is a score between -10 and 10 that expresses the grade of olfactory comfort the room occupants perceive. This measure does not replace the well-accepted decipol unit but complements it, emphasising the importance not only of the absence of negative influencing odorants, but also the importance of olfactory comfort as measurement by the new unit. (Orig.)

  17. Markets - domestic comfort; Marches - Confort domestique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-03-01

    Established in 'Charente' and employing 150 workers, the firm 'Cheminees de Chazelles' is one of the first French firms of design/manufacturing and distribution of chimneys and closed fires, particularly at gas (propane or natural gas). The gas fire brings to the consumer the aesthetics, the safety and the comfort without the disadvantages of the wood fire. (O.M.)

  18. Quantifying the relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, Joost van; Hensen, Jan L.M. [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Standards governing thermal comfort evaluation are on a constant cycle of revision and public review. One of the main topics being discussed in the latest round was the introduction of an adaptive thermal comfort model, which now forms an optional part of ASHRAE Standard 55. Also on a national level, adaptive thermal comfort guidelines come into being, such as in the Netherlands. This paper discusses two implementations of the adaptive comfort model in terms of usability and energy use for moderate maritime climate zones by means of literature study, a case study comprising temperature measurements, and building performance simulation. It is concluded that for moderate climate zones the adaptive model is only applicable during summer months, and can reduce energy for naturally conditioned buildings. However, the adaptive thermal comfort model has very limited application potential for such climates. Additionally we suggest a temperature parameter with a gradual course to replace the mean monthly outdoor air temperature to avoid step changes in optimum comfort temperatures. (author)

  19. New Equation for Estimating Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Humid-Tropical Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sangkertadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research focusing on thermal comfort at outdoor spaces in humid tropical climate. The study was conducted in the city of Manado, Indonesia inthe years 2011 and 2012, by way of field-experimentation and measurements of microclimate.From the results of measurements and questionnaires, it was carried out development of regression equations. Through statistical analysis it has been generated three thermal comfort equations for outdoor, which each for normal walking, briskwalking, and sitting with doing a moderate activity. Equations are functions of Ta(air temperature, Tg(globe temperature, v(wind velocity, RH(Relative humidity and Adu(body surface area. The output of the equations is scale of thermal comfort level referring to PMV (Predicted Mean Vote, where 0 is comfortable or neutral, +3 is very hot, -2 is cold, .etc. The equations are uniquely for the people wearing tropical clothing type (about 0.5 to 0.7 clo. The validation of the equations was done through comparison with other equations that originated from the studies of non-tropical humid climates. Simulations using the equations were also be done in order to know effect of micro climate on outdoor thermal comfort.Keywords: thermal comfort, tropical-humid, micro-climate, Manado

  20. A comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in the terms of thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fanger’s PMV equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative air velocity, humidity, activity level and clothing insulation. Methods This paper contains a comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in terms of thermal comfort, Fanger’s PMV equation. Studies were processed in the winter for an office, which locates in Ankara, Turkey. The office was partitioned to fifty square cells. Humidity, relative air velocity, air temperature and mean radiant temperature were measured on the centre points of these cells. Thermal comfort analyses were processed for suit dressing (Icl = 1 clo) and summer clothing (Icl = 0.5 clo). Results Discomfort/comfort in an environment for different clothing types can be seen in this study. The relationship between indoor thermal comfort distribution and clothing type was discussed. Graphics about thermal comfort were sketched according to cells. Conclusions Conclusions about the thermal comfort of occupants were given by PMV graphics. PMID:24355097

  1. Optimum comfort limits determination through the characteristics of asymmetric thermal radiation in a heated floor space, "ondol".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Y J; Park, S D; Sohn, J Y

    1992-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the asymmetric radiation on thermal comfort, and to suggest the optimum comfort limits in a radiant heating space. The index of V.R.T. (Vector Radiant Temperature) was used to describe the environmental quality of the heated floor space. Optimum comfort limits of this space were suggested through both theoretical and empirical studies. It is recommended to use not only man's sensation of the ambient air but also that of the floor surface for the determination of the optimum comfort limits on the heated floor space such as an "Ondol" in Korea. In the present study the optimum comfort limits were suggested in terms of the V.R.T. The optimum limits obtained were as follows: the vector radiant temperature 11.0 approximately 15.0 K.

  2. Exploring the design of a lightweight, sustainable and comfortable aircraft seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorikou, A; Vink, P; de Pauw, I C; Braca, A

    2016-07-19

    Making a lightweight seat that is also comfortable can be contradictory because usually comfort improvement means adding a feature (e.g. headrest, adjustable lumbar support, movable armrests, integrated massage systems, etc.), which makes seats heavier. This paper explores the design of an economy class aircraft seat that aims to be lightweight, comfortable and sustainable. Theory about comfort in seats, ergonomics, lightweight design, Biomimicry and Cradle to cradle was studied and resulted in a list of requirements that the new seat should satisfy. The design process resulted in a new seat that is 36% lighter than the reference seat, which showed that a significant weight reduction can be achieved. This was completed by re-designing the backrest and seat pan and integrating their functions into a reduced number of parts. Apart from the weight reduction that helps in reducing the airplane's environmental impact, the seat also satisfies most of the other sustainability requirements such as the use of recyclable materials, design for disassembly, easy to repair. A user test compared the new seat with a premium economy class aircraft seat and the level of comfort was similar. Strong points of the new design were identified such as the lumbar support and the cushioning material, as well as shortcomings on which the seat needs to be improved, like the seat pan length and the first impression. Long term comfort tests are still needed as the seat is meant for long-haul flights.

  3. Comfort-box controls individual level of comfort. Domotica home network for indoor climate management; Comfort-box regelt individueel comfort-niveau. Domotica-huisnetwerk voor beheer binnenklimaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G; Warmer, C.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    The Comfort-Box (or C-Box) project is an automatic and continuous control system for energy efficient and cost-effective thermal comfort in houses. In this article detailed information is given of the design and performance of the C-Box. [Dutch] De huidige regelsystemen voor het binnenklimaat in woningen zijn voor verbetering vatbaar. Met het Comfort-boxconcept is een regeling ontwikkeld die automatisch en continu het individuele comfortniveau regelt in woningen, waarbij afwegingen worden gemaakt tussen kosten en comfort. De Comfort-box blijkt in staat te zijn het binnencomfort op energie- en kostenefficiente wijze te beheren.

  4. Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşit, Kaan; Niaki, Amir Hossein Ghanbari; Ulusoy, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2014-12-15

    Two well-known problems of stereoscopic displays are the accommodation-convergence conflict and the lack of natural blur for defocused objects. We present a new technique that we name Super Stereoscopy (SS3D) to provide a convenient solution to these problems. Regular stereoscopic glasses are replaced by SS3D glasses which deliver at least two parallax images per eye through pinholes equipped with light selective filters. The pinholes generate blur-free retinal images so as to enable correct accommodation, while the delivery of multiple parallax images per eye creates an approximate blur effect for defocused objects. Experiments performed with cameras and human viewers indicate that the technique works as desired. In case two, pinholes equipped with color filters per eye are used; the technique can be used on a regular stereoscopic display by only uploading a new content, without requiring any change in display hardware, driver, or frame rate. Apart from some tolerable loss in display brightness and decrease in natural spatial resolution limit of the eye because of pinholes, the technique is quite promising for comfortable and realistic 3D vision, especially enabling the display of close objects that are not possible to display and comfortably view on regular 3DTV and cinema.

  5. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Groot, de Dolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed

  6. The Comfort app prototype: introducing a web-based application for monitoring comfort in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sara; Almeida, Filipe; Caldeira, Sílvia; Martins, José Carlos

    2017-09-02

    To introduce a web-based application for monitoring comfort in patients receiving palliative care. Multi-phase electronic application development process that concluded with a pilot design to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the developed app (n=7 patients). The app is compatible with Android, iOS and Windows. The results from phases I and II provided the knowledge about monitoring comfort. In phase III, five experts analysed the content of the app. The assessment of comfort comprises 11 self-reported items (pain, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, depression, anxiety, fear of the future, peace and the will to live). In phase IV, a total of 117 messages were retrieved. Participants considered the app simple, easy to use and useful. This prototype is feasible and user-friendly. Further research is needed to continue the app development, particularly in terms of data protection.

  7. Factors Associated with Comfort Level of School-Based Occupational Therapists in Providing Low-Vision Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Melissa; Vogtle, Laura K; Yuen, Hon K

    2016-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with the comfort level of school-based occupational therapists in providing services to children with visual impairments. Sixty-one school-based occupational therapists completed an on-line survey. Fifty-four percent of respondents were comfortable or somewhat comfortable when choosing assessments and 84% were comfortable or somewhat comfortable in providing occupational therapy services for children with visual impairments. Multivariable linear regression analyses indicated years of professional experience, history of a caseload of children with visual impairments, and training received in treating children with visual impairments from continuing education were uniquely and significantly associated with the respondents' comfort level. Though not included in the final model, collaboration with other low vision service providers (e.g., teachers, optometrists, ophthalmologists, and orientation/mobility specialists) was also significantly associated with respondents' comfort level in the univariate analysis. Findings provide an initial direction and strategies to improve occupational therapists' comfort level in providing services to children with visual impairments in school settings.

  8. Urban environment and vegetation: comfort and urban heat island mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the outcomes of an experimental simulation on the microclimatic effects and on thermal comfort of vegetation in urban environment, conducted by means of a three-dimensional microclimate model, ENVI- met 3.1. The simulation considers a wide range of hypothetical cases of typical city areas with different characteristics related to: building density, building height, vegetation type and density. The results of the study show how different combinations of amount and type of vegetation, density and height of buildings affect the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climate.

  9. A Study on the Cooperative Optimization of Vehicle Controllability/Stability and Ride Comfort%车辆操纵稳定性及平顺性的协同优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣山; 袁仲荣; 黄向东; 赵克刚

    2009-01-01

    利用车辆多体动力学模型与多目标优化工具,对悬架弹簧、减振器及横向稳定杆特性进行操纵稳定性与行驶平顺性的协同优化仿真.结果表明汽车的操稳性和行驶平顺性的各项性能指标均得到了改善.%By using multi-body dynamics model and multi-objective optimization tools, a cooperative opti-mization simulation for controllability/stability and ride comfort is conducted on suspension spring, shock absorber and anti-roll bar of a car. The results show that all performance indicators in controllability/stability and ride comfort of the car are concurrently improved.

  10. Monitoring and assessment of the outdoor thermal comfort in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Ciobotaru, Ana-Maria; Andronache, Ion; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Bucharest is one of the European cities most at risk of being affected by meteorological hazards. Heat or cold waves, extreme temperature events, heavy rains or prolonged precipitation deficits are all-season phenomena, triggering damages, discomfort or even casualties. Temperature hazards may occur annually and challenge equally the public, local business and administration to find adequate solutions for securing the thermal comfort in the outdoor environment of the city. The accurate and fine resolution monitoring of the air temperature pledges for the comprehensive assessment of the thermal comfort in order to capture as much as possible the urban influence. This study uses sub-hourly temperature data (10-min temporal resolution) retrieved over the period November 2014 - November 2016 collected from nine sensors placed either in plain urban conditions or within the three meteorological stations of the national network which are currently monitoring the climate of Bucharest (Băneasa, Filaret, Afumați). The relative humidity was estimated based on the data available at the three stations placed in WMO standard conditions, and the 10-min values of 8 Thermal Comfort Indices were computed, namely: Heat Index, Humidex, Relative Strain Index, Scharlau, Summer Simmer Index, Physiological Equivalent Index, Temperature-Humidity Index, Thom Discomfort Index. The indices were analysed statistically, both individually and combined. Despite the short range of the available data, this study emphasizes clear spatial differentiations of the thermal comfort, in a very good agreement with the land cover and built zones of the city, while important variations were found in the temporal regime, due to large variations of the temperature values (e.g. >4 centigrade between consecutive hours or >15 centigrade between consecutive days). Ultimately, this study has revealed that the continuous monitoring of the urban climate, at fine temporal and spatial resolution, may deliver

  11. Extraphysical parameters of thermal comfort; Thermischer Komfort - die extraphysikalischen Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, Wolfgang; Brasche, Sabine [Arbeitsgruppe Raumklimatologie, Institut fuer Arbeits-, Sozial-, Umweltmedizin und -Hygiene, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Hellwig, Runa Tabea [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik (IBP) Holzkirchen, Valley (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Standards define thermal comfort as a function of physical and thermophysiological parameters. From investigations of building related symptoms it is well known that satisfaction with the indoor environment also interacts with extraphysical parameters. Thus, data of 1,497 office workers investigated in phase II of the ProKlimA study have been analysed by multiple logistic regression to find associations between thermal sensation or comfort and potential non-environmental variables. The results show diverse effects: While thermal sensation seems almost independent from non-environmental impacts, thermal comfort and satisfaction with the indoor temperature are significantly associated with building characteristics, demographic and job related variables. From these significant and partly strong interactions we conclude, in case of analyses and assessment of complaints about thermal discomfort relevant non environmental impact factors should be considered. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Grad der Zufriedenheit mit den thermischen Umgebungsbedingungen von Aufenthaltsraeumen wird im derzeitigen Normwerk als Funktion physikalischer und thermophysiologischer Parameter ermittelt. Aus Untersuchungen zur Befindlichkeit von Bueroarbeitern ist seit laengerem bekannt, dass die Zufriedenheit mit raumklimatischen Bedingungen auch durch extraphysikalische Variablen beeinflusst wird. Anhand von Daten aus der ProKlimA-Studie wurde untersucht, inwieweit extraphysikalische Variablen das Temperaturempfinden, die thermische Behaglichkeit, die Zufriedenheit mit und die Erwartungshaltung bezueglich der Raumtemperatur beeinflussen. Im Ergebnis multipler logistischer Regressionsanalysen zeigt sich, dass thermisches Empfinden weitgehend unabhaengig von extraphysikalischen Einfluessen ist. Thermische Behaglichkeit und Zufriedenheit jedoch stehen in deutlicher Wechselwirkung mit extraphysikalischen Variablen, zu denen neben demographischen Charakteristika auch

  12. Validity of thermal comfort models; Gueltigkeit thermischer Behaglichkeitsmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwig, Runa Tabea [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik (IBP) Stuttgart (Germany); Bischof, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Arbeits-, Sozial-, Umweltmedizin und Hygiene des Klinikums der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Bachstr. 18, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The lack of regulations for room climate have caused uncertainties in the planning of free-ventilation office buildings in Germany. An interdisciplinary research study was carried out using enquiries among users as well as measured data in order to find out about the differences in thermal comfort, if any, between freely ventilated and mechanically ventilated buildings. The data are based on 14 offices of the ProKlimA project. The relevant literature describes four main methods for assessment and prediction of thermal comfort. On the one hand, the PMV model by Fanger and a modification of this model by Mayer were used; on the other hand, a Netherlands guideline and an approach presented in an ASHRAE study. In contrast to the PMV model, these two approaches define the optimal room temperature as a function of an averaged ambient temperature. The four methods were investigated with regard to their applicability for assessing the thermal comfort of buildings with free and mechanical ventilation. In the case of mechanical ventilation, the best results were achieved using Mayer's method; in the case of free ventilation, with the ASHRAE method. The results show that in both cases new models for thermal comfort planning will be required that are not included in German standards so far. (orig.) [German] Zur Zeit fuehren fehlende Richtlinien fuer das Raumklima zu Planungsunsicherheit bei frei beluefteten Buerogebaeuden in Deutschland. Eine interdisziplinaere Forschungsarbeit wurde durchgefuehrt, um anhand von Befragungs- und Messdaten zu untersuchen, ob es Unterschiede in der thermischen Behaglichkeit von Personen in frei beluefteten und mechanisch beluefteten Gebaeuden gibt. Es werden Befragungs- und Messdaten von 14 Buerogebaeuden aus dem ProKlimA-Projekt verwendet. Die relevante Literatur nennt vier bedeutende Methoden zur Bewertung und Vorhersage der thermischen Behaglichkeit. Auf der einen Seite werden das PMV-Modell von Fanger sowie eine Modifizierung dieses

  13. Evaluating local and overall thermal comfort in buildings using thermal manikins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, E.

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation methods of human thermal comfort that are based on whole-body heat balance with its surroundings may not be adequate for evaluations in non-uniform thermal conditions. Under these conditions, the human body's segments may experience a wide range of room physical parameters and the evaluation of the local (segmental) thermal comfort becomes necessary. In this work, subjective measurements of skin temperature were carried out to investigate the human body's local responses due to a step change in the room temperature; and the variability in the body's local temperatures under different indoor conditions and exposures as well as the physiological steady state local temperatures. Then, a multi-segmental model of human thermoregulation was developed based on these findings to predict the local skin temperatures of individuals' body segments with a good accuracy. The model predictability of skin temperature was verified for steady state and dynamic conditions using measured data at uniform neutral, cold and warm as well as different asymmetric thermal conditions. The model showed very good predictability with average absolute deviation ranged from 0.3-0.8 K. The model was then implemented onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'THERMINATOR' to adjust the segmental skin temperature set-points based on the indoor conditions. This new control for the manikin was experimentally validated for the prediction of local and overall thermal comfort using the equivalent temperature measure. THERMINATOR with the new control mode was then employed in the evaluation of localized floor-heating system variants towards maximum energy efficiency. This aimed at illustrating a design strategy using the thermal manikin to find the optimum geometry and surface area of a floor-heater for a single seated person. Furthermore, a psychological comfort model that is based on local skin temperature was adapted for the use with the model of human

  14. The First "Comfort Houses" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The "Comfort Houses" is the most ambitious building project in passive houses in Denmark until today. Eight single family houses are built and designed by seven different consortiums. Besides fulfilling the German passive house standard the goal was to build the houses according to Danish traditi...... qualities some of them are often cut back in the process primarily because of cost savings....... of architecture and construction. The objective of this research was to clarify the different design processes according to method, tool and teamwork. The processes are evaluated according to the "Integrated Design Process" and the "Traditional Design Process" and show very different take-offs. Analyzing the data...

  15. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfil the above requirements. This paper reviews...

  16. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  17. Affordable High-Performance Homes: The 2002 NREL Denver Habitat for Humanity House, A Cold-Climate Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    Habitat for Humanity affiliates throughout the U.S. are taking the lead on an integrated systems-design approach to building homes that are more efficient, more comfortable, more affordable, and more durable than homes built with standard practices.

  18. An evaluation method on seat comfort based on optical motion capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing TAO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To research the sitting posture comfort evaluation method, through the example of comfort evaluation of the ergonomic seat and standard office seat, a methodology is introduced to evaluate the sitting posture comfort combining ergonomics theory. The proposed method is based on optical motion capture system, pressure sensor and JACK software, and TRC file is acquired by using EVART real-time capture software for identifying the spatial motion trail of human body. Then MATLAB software is used to analyze the human body motion data, and the sitting posture angle difference data for human body in different seats is acquired. TRC file is loaded into JACK software, and with the TAT REPORTER of JACK software, muscle force, moment of force and fatigue data, etc. are output, which are compared with the actual measured data from experiments, and ergonomics method is used for the evaluation. The result shows that the method of considering joint angles combining JACK software for data output is effective for evaluating sitting comfort.

  19. [Visitation policy, design and comfort in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, D; Martín, L; Viña, L; Quindós, B; Espina, M J; Forcelledo, L; López-Amor, L; García-Arias, B; del Busto, C; de Cima, S; Fernández-Rey, E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the design and comfort in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs), by analysing visiting hours, information, and family participation in patient care. Descriptive, multicentre study. Spanish ICUs. A questionnaire e-mailed to members of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Critical and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), subscribers of the Electronic Journal Intensive Care Medicine, and disseminated through the blog Proyecto HU-CI. A total of 135 questionnaires from 131 hospitals were analysed. Visiting hours: 3.8% open 24h, 9.8% open daytime, and 67.7% have 2 visits a day. Information: given only by the doctor in 75.2% of the cases, doctor and nurse together in 4.5%, with a frequency of once a day in 79.7%. During weekends, information is given in 95.5% of the cases. Information given over the phone 74.4%. Family participation in patient care: hygiene 11%, feeding 80.5%, physiotherapy 17%. Personal objects allowed: mobile phone 41%, computer 55%, sound system 77%, and television 30%. Architecture and comfort: all individual cubicles 60.2%, natural light 54.9%, television 7.5%, ambient music 12%, clock in the cubicle 15.8%, environmental noise meter 3.8%, and a waiting room near the ICU 68.4%. Visiting policy is restrictive, with a closed ICU being the predominating culture. On average, technological communication devices are not allowed. Family participation in patient care is low. The ICU design does not guarantee privacy or provide a desirable level of comfort. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulating Physiological Response with a Passive Sensor Manikin and an Adaptive Thermal Manikin to Predict Thermal Sensation and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chaney, Larry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hepokoski, Mark [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Curran, Allen [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Burke, Richard [Measurement Technology NW; Maranville, Clay [Ford Motor Company

    2015-04-14

    Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios. These manikins can act as human surrogates from which local skin and core temperatures can be obtained, which are necessary for accurately predicting local and whole body thermal sensation and comfort using a physiology-based comfort model (e.g., the Berkeley Comfort Model). This paper evaluates two different types of manikins, i) an adaptive sweating thermal manikin, which is coupled with a human thermoregulation model, running in real-time, to obtain realistic skin temperatures; and, ii) a passive sensor manikin, which is used to measure boundary conditions as they would act on a human, from which skin and core temperatures can be predicted using a thermophysiological model. The simulated physiological responses and comfort obtained from both of these manikin-model coupling schemes are compared to those of a human subject within a vehicle cabin compartment transient heat-up scenario.

  1. Assessing occupant comfort in an iconic sustainable education building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The building that houses the Mirvac School of Sustainable Development at Bond University is the first educational building to achieve a six Green Star rating from the Green Building Council of Australia. It has won numerous awards since opening in August 2008 including being judged the RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Sustainable Building of 2009. After more than two years in use a post-occupancy evaluation study was carried out to assess the performance of the building from the viewpoint of the users; both resident staff and transient students. Results for factors such as lighting, thermal comfort, noise and air quality. were compared to benchmarks established by the Usable Buildings Trust. The evaluation also assessed the occupants’ perceptions of the building’s impact on their own productivity. Users generally find the building provides a comfortable work environment although a number of areas of performance were noted as posing some concerns. These included intrusive noise in some parts of the building and some issues with glare in daylit teaching spaces. Such concerns were found to be in accord with the results of previous studies and they highlight some recurrent problems in “green” buildings designed to maximise the use of natural ventilation and natural light. These design challenges and how occupant satisfaction is to be measured and benchmarked are also discussed in the context of this comparative building study.

  2. Uncertainty Analysis of Thermal Comfort Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Cox, Maurice G.; Forbes, Alistair B.; Matias, L. Cordeiro; Martins, L. Lages

    2015-08-01

    International Standard ISO 7730:2005 defines thermal comfort as that condition of mind that expresses the degree of satisfaction with the thermal environment. Although this definition is inevitably subjective, the Standard gives formulae for two thermal comfort indices, predicted mean vote ( PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied ( PPD). The PMV formula is based on principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a controlled climate chamber under steady-state conditions. The PPD formula depends only on PMV. Although these formulae are widely recognized and adopted, little has been done to establish measurement uncertainties associated with their use, bearing in mind that the formulae depend on measured values and tabulated values given to limited numerical accuracy. Knowledge of these uncertainties are invaluable when values provided by the formulae are used in making decisions in various health and civil engineering situations. This paper examines these formulae, giving a general mechanism for evaluating the uncertainties associated with values of the quantities on which the formulae depend. Further, consideration is given to the propagation of these uncertainties through the formulae to provide uncertainties associated with the values obtained for the indices. Current international guidance on uncertainty evaluation is utilized.

  3. Heating methods and comfort; Oppvarmingsloesninger og komfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skree, Jostein

    2004-07-01

    Comfort is subjective. The feeling of pleasant temperature is affected by the relationship between the temperatures of the floors, walls and ceiling, and the air temperature. These temperatures should be relatively close. When energy conservation advertisements state that a room temperature of 20 - 22 degrees centigrade is enough, they refrain from making it clear that the temperature is felt differently in different situations. Different heating systems have different properties. The temperature at which the heat is transferred is also a topic. In new and energy-efficient flats it is quite common that fireplaces and stoves are little used; it is getting too hot and the temperature must be regulated by opening the windows, which results in draught problems. Some electric heaters have small surface and large airflow to the heating element. This type of heater is energy-saving because the air heats up rapidly and little heat energy is stored. But large airflow and possible dust burning are inconveniences. The most popular electric heaters, with electronic thermostat, represent a compromise between surface area, radiation heat and hot air. Comfort and selection of heating system also have something to do with the shape of the house and flat. Wood stoves and heat pumps, which deliver the heat as air, are most appropriate in houses with open spaces and small base.

  4. Surveying the comfort perception of the ergonomic design of bluetooth earphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiao-Ping; Chiang, Hsin-Yu; Liu, Chien-Hsiou; Wang, Ming-Hsu; Chiou, Wen-Ko

    2014-01-01

    Bluetooth earphones can facilitate communications among workers engaged in manual (e.g., professional driver)or visual tasks (e.g., security guard). If workers remove their Bluetooth earphones due to poor fit, then communication effectiveness will decline, especially during manual or visual tasks. (1) To identify which design properties of Bluetooth earphones can contribute to user comfort, and (2) to identify if person characteristics (i.e., gender and ear shapes in this study) are related to differences in comfort perception during earphone use. 198 participants were recruited for this study.Individuals used four models of Bluetooth earphones in randomized order while performing computer tasks and then completed questionnaires on comfort perception specifically designed for this study. The 2 × 3 × 4 mixed design analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to investigate the effects of gender, ear shape, and model condition. The results indicated that there were significant differences in model on comfort perception. For earplugs, the shape of the earphone and the elasticity of material are important ergonomic concerns to improve the comfort perception. In addition, the adjustable tail length is an important ergonomic design property for the ear-hook. The information gained in this study should be useful in improving the ergonomic fitness of Bluetooth earphones.

  5. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions.

  6. Effect of Various Ring Yarns on Fabric Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort performance of woven structures made of various types of ring spun yarns like carded, combed, and compact spun yarns has been reported in the present study. Carded, combed, and compact spun yarns are entirely different in structure in terms of fibre migration inside the yarn body, level of free space inside the yarn, number of hairs, and length of hairs on yarn surfaces. In this study, 197 dtex and 144 dtex (30s Ne and 40s Ne ring spun combed yarns are used as a warp. The same cotton mixing was used to manufacture 30s Ne and 40s Ne carded, combed, and compact yarns. Both 30s and 40s Ne linear density yarns were prepared by all three carded, combed, and compact yarn manufacturing routes. The structure of fibre strand in filling yarn has a great impact on comfort related properties, that is, thermal conductivity, , air permeability, wicking, and moisture vapour permeability.

  7. Optimization of Damper Top Mount Characteristics to Improve Vehicle Ride Comfort and Harshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina M. S. Kaldas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimization technique for optimizing the damper top mount characteristics to improve vehicle ride comfort and harshness is developed. The proposed optimization technique employs a new combined objective function based on ride comfort, harshness, and impact harshness evaluation. A detailed and accurate damper top mount mathematical model is implemented inside a validated quarter vehicle model to provide a realistic simulation environment for the optimization study. The ride comfort and harshness of the quarter vehicle are evaluated by analyzing the body acceleration in different frequency ranges. In addition, the top mount deformation is considered as a penalty factor for the system performance. The influence of the ride comfort and harshness weighting parameters of the proposed objective function on the optimal damper top mount characteristics is studied. The dynamic stiffness of the damper top mount is used to describe the optimum damper top mount characteristics for different optimization case studies. The proposed optimization routine is able to find the optimum characteristics of the damper top mount which improve the ride comfort and the harshness performances together.

  8. Does variation in clothing make us more thermally comfortable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    In the same room, people will wear different amounts of clothes if there is no strict dress code. Ideally everybody would put on just the right amount to feel thermally comfortable, but that is not always the case. To improve simulations of thermal comfort, an estimate of clothing insulation...... among people is higher at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and that people do choose their clothing according to thermal preference, but that the distribution of thermal comfort votes is the same....

  9. Body space in social interactions: a comparison of reaching and comfort distance in immersive virtual reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Iachini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do peripersonal space for acting on objects and interpersonal space for interacting with con-specifics share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli? To answer this question, we investigated whether these spaces refer to a similar or different physical distance. METHODOLOGY: Participants provided reachability-distance (for potential action and comfort-distance (for social processing judgments towards human and non-human virtual stimuli while standing still (passive or walking toward stimuli (active. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comfort-distance was larger than other conditions when participants were passive, but reachability and comfort distances were similar when participants were active. Both spaces were modulated by the social valence of stimuli (reduction with virtual females vs males, expansion with cylinder vs robot and the gender of participants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that peripersonal reaching and interpersonal comfort spaces share a common motor nature and are sensitive, at different degrees, to social modulation. Therefore, social processing seems embodied and grounded in the body acting in space.

  10. Body Space in Social Interactions: A Comparison of Reaching and Comfort Distance in Immersive Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Coello, Yann; Frassinetti, Francesca; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Do peripersonal space for acting on objects and interpersonal space for interacting with con-specifics share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli? To answer this question, we investigated whether these spaces refer to a similar or different physical distance. Methodology Participants provided reachability-distance (for potential action) and comfort-distance (for social processing) judgments towards human and non-human virtual stimuli while standing still (passive) or walking toward stimuli (active). Principal Findings Comfort-distance was larger than other conditions when participants were passive, but reachability and comfort distances were similar when participants were active. Both spaces were modulated by the social valence of stimuli (reduction with virtual females vs males, expansion with cylinder vs robot) and the gender of participants. Conclusions These findings reveal that peripersonal reaching and interpersonal comfort spaces share a common motor nature and are sensitive, at different degrees, to social modulation. Therefore, social processing seems embodied and grounded in the body acting in space. PMID:25405344

  11. A neural network evaluation model for individual thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weiwei; Lian, Zhiwei; Zhao, Bo [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2007-10-15

    An evaluation model for individual thermal comfort is presented based on the BP neural network. The train data came from a thermal comfort survey. The evaluation results of the model showed a good match with the subject's real thermal sensation, which indicated that the model can be used to evaluate individual thermal comfort rightly. Taken a room air conditioner as an example, the application of the NNEM in creating a microenvironment for individual was discussed. The result showed that the NNEM can play an important role of connecting individual thermal comfort with the control on the air conditioner. (author)

  12. Study of the Influence of the Obliquity of Sofa Back on the Comfort of Sitting Postures%沙发椅背倾斜角度对坐姿舒适度影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静; 饶鑫

    2012-01-01

      Using EMG testing method and based on the combination of subjective evaluation and objective testing, the relationship between the obliquity of sofa back and the comfort of sitting postures is analyzed, which provided a basis for the optimization of sofa back from the angle of ergonomics and the evaluation of sofa comfort. The experimental research shows that the hardness of the sofa cushion is 89N, hardness of sofa back is 32N and sofa backrest height is 600mm, the obliquities of sofa back are 100°, 110°and 120° respectively,the comfort of 110°sofa back is highest, 120° sofa back coming second and 100° sofa back coming bottom.%  采用肌电测试方法以及主观评价与客观测试相结合的方式,分析了沙发椅背倾角与坐姿舒适度之间的关系,为从人体工程学的角度优化沙发椅背设计以及对沙发舒适性的评价提供依据。实验研究表明,当沙发坐垫硬度为89N,沙发椅背硬度为32N,沙发椅背高度为600mm,椅背倾角分别为100°、110°、120°时,使用倾角为110°的椅背总体舒适感最好,其次为使用倾角120°的椅背,使用倾角为100°的椅背总体舒适感最差

  13. Elderly Patients With Dental Study on Comfort Nursing Applied in Clinic%老年患者口腔修复诊疗中的舒适护理应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 刘丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To probe into the application effects of dental restoration during diagnosing and treating elderly patients. Methods The data of 198 cases of elderly patients that received diagnosis and treatment of dental restoration in the department of prosthodontics in our hospital from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed and divided into the conventional nursing group(n=98)and the comfortable nursing group(n=100). Results The self-efficacy score, occurrence rate of nursing errors,as wel as patients’satisfaction were superior in the comfortable nursing group to the conventional nursing group. Conclusion Comfortable nursing could be used for reference in this aspect of clinical application.%目的:对诊疗老年患者口腔修复这一过程中的应用效果加以探讨。方法分析2012~2015年本院修复科收治的198例老年口腔修复诊疗患者的资料,将之划分为“常规护理组”和“舒适护理组”分别为98和100例。结果“舒适护理组”自我效能评分、护理差错发生率、患者满意度和“常规护理组”相比均较好。结论“舒适护理”能够在此方面的临床应用中获得借鉴应用。

  14. Numerical Analysis on Color Preference and Visual Comfort from Eye Tracking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Color preferences in engineering are very important, and there exists relationship between color preference and visual comfort. In this study, there are thirty university students who participated in the experiment, supplemented by pre- and posttest questionnaires, which lasted about an hour. The main purpose of this study is to explore the visual effects of different color assignment with subjective color preferences via eye tracking technology. Eye-movement data through a nonlinear analysis detect slight differences in color preferences and visual comfort, suggesting effective physiological indicators as extensive future research discussed. Results found that the average pupil size of eye-movement indicators can effectively reflect the differences of color preferences and visual comfort. This study more confirmed that the subjective feeling will make people have misjudgment.

  15. 农用三轮摩托车平顺性仿真及优化设计研究%Study on ride comfort simulation and Its optimization design of agricultural tricycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩翔

    2012-01-01

    利用Adams/View建立三轮车的多刚体动力学模型,并在其中添加驾驶员模型,通过驾驶员控制方向把的转角对跑偏现象进行实时的反馈和调节,从而精确模拟实际车辆在道路上的行驶情况.然后对车辆的平顺性能进行仿真分析,得其振动的加速度,参考汽车的平顺性评价指标,对其平顺性进行评价.在此基础上,以驾驶员座椅垂向加速度均方根值作为目标函数,对三轮车的行驶平顺性进行优化设计,得到前后减振器的刚度、阻尼的最优值,使其乘坐舒适性得到大幅度提高.%A multi-rigid-body dynamics model of agricultural tricycle is established by means of the Adams/View, where in the driver model is added.The driver controls angular of the steering handle to feedback and adjust deviation in real time,lhus the actual vehicle running is accurately simulatedThen the simulating analysis for ride comfort of the tricycle is carried out to obtain the accelerated speed in vibration and evaluate the ride comfort referencing to the evaluating index for vehicles.Based on the assessing system of vehicle ride performance, the root mean square value of acceleration of z-axis of the driver's seat is selected as the optimization target junction to optimize the design of driving comfort of the tricycleA nd the optimal value for stiffness and damper of the front and rear suspension are gainedThere fore the ride comfort is improved drastically.

  16. The type of loose seton for complex anal fistula is essential to improve perianal comfort and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, I; Stift, A; Staud, C; Kainz, A; Bachleitner-Hofmann, T; Chitsabesan, P; Riss, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of a loose seton for complex anal fistulae can cause perianal discomfort and reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the novel knot-free Comfort Drain on quality of life, perianal comfort and faecal continence compared to conventional loose setons. Forty-four patients treated for complex anal fistula at a single institution between July 2013 and September 2014 were included in the study. A matched-pair analysis was performed to compare patients with a knot-free Comfort Drain and controls who were managed by conventional knotted setons. The 12-item Short Form survey (SF-12) questionnaire was used to assess quality of life. Additionally, patients reported perianal comfort and faecal incontinence using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the St Mark's Incontinence Score. The Comfort Drain was associated with improved quality of life with significant higher median physical (P = 0.001) and mental (P = 0.04) health scores compared with a conventional loose seton. According to the VAS, patients with a Comfort Drain in situ reported greater perianal comfort with significantly less burning sensation (P fistula-in-ano. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Study for comfortable supine for patients with partial nephrectomy by robot-assisted laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery%机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除患者术后舒适卧位探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英娜; 周秀彬

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后患者最舒适的卧位。方法抽取80例行机器人腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后的患者,随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组患者手术后经医生允许采用早期舒适卧位,即颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕仰卧位;对照组患者术后按传统方法采用平卧位。术后前2 d进行观察比较,找出患者最舒适卧位。结果观察组患者睡眠、情绪稳定及腰肌酸痛情况明显优于对照组( P<0.05)。结论机器人辅助腹腔镜肾部分切除手术后卧床期间采取颈部垫软枕、腰部垫20 cm ×20 cm硬枕的仰卧位方式,患者最舒适。%Objective To study the most comfortable lying position for post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy .Method 80 post-operative patients with robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrec-tomy surgery were randomly divided into observation group and the control group ,patients observed by doctors after surgery to allow the use of early comfort lying ,that is ,a soft pillow neck cushion ,waist cushion 20 cm × 20 cm hard pillow supine position ,tupatients in control group by traditional methods in supine position ,after 2 days of ob-servation and comparison ,to find the most comfortable lying position .Result The sleep ,comfort and lumbar pain in observation group was obviously better than that of control group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Robot assisted laparoscop-ic partial nephrectomy surgery took the neck cushion soft pillow ,lumbar pillow pad 20 cm × 20 cm hard way the su-pine position ,the patient feels most comfortable .

  18. Evaporative cooling: water for thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative cooling is an environmentally friendly air conditioning system that operates using induced processes of heat and mass transfer, where water and air are the working fluids. It consists, specifically, in water evaporation, induced by the passage of an air flow, thus decreasing the air temperature. This paper presents three methods that can be used as reference for efficient use of evaporative cooling systems, applying it to several Brazilian cities, characterized by different climates. Initially it presents the basic operation principles of direct and indirect evaporative cooling and defines the effectiveness of the systems. Afterwards, it presents three methods that allows to determinate where the systems are more efficient. It concludes that evaporative cooling systems have a very large potential to propitiate thermal comfort and can still be used as an alternative to conventional systems in regions where the design wet bulb temperature is under 24ºC.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort. The Panel considers that krill oil is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “helps to improve the comfort of sensitive joints”. The Panel considers that maintenance of joint comfort is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified one human intervention study as being pertinent to the health claim. The Panel notes that chronic inflammation was an inclusion criterion of the study, that a significant number of the patients recruited were reported to have confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or of both cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, and that the WOMAC osteoarthritis questionnaire was administered only to patients with arthritic disease (osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The Panel also notes that no evidence which could justify the extrapolation of the results, obtained in patients with joint diseases characterised by chronic inflammation, to the target population, subjects without chronic joint diseases, was provided by the applicant. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of krill oil and maintenance of joint comfort.

  20. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  1. Evaluating Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Conditioned Office in a Temperate Climate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gallardo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in an office that uses natural ventilation as the main conditioning strategy; the office is located in Quito-Ecuador. The performance of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 and the traditional PMV model are compared with reports of thermal environment satisfaction surveys presented simultaneously to all occupants of the office to determine which of the two comfort models is most suitable to evaluate the thermal environment. The results indicate that office occupants have developed some degree of adaptation to the climatic conditions of the city where the office is located (which only demands heating operation, and tend to accept and even prefer lower operative temperatures than those considered optimum by applying the PMV model. This is an indication that occupants of naturally conditioned buildings are usually able to match their comfort temperature to their normal environment. Therefore, the application of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 seems like the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in naturally conditioned buildings, because it takes into consideration the adaptive principle that indicates that if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people tend to react in ways which restore their comfort.

  2. The Effect of Fibre Blend on Comfort Characteristics of Elastic Knitted Fabrics Used for Pressure Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, M.; Chattopadhay, R.; Gupta, D.

    2014-04-01

    Comfort characteristics of pressure garments are very important issue as these garments are recommended to wear for 23 h a day to recover from venous problem, scar maturation, orthopedic problems, post surgery, post pregnancy and many other problems. The patients mostly stop using such kind of medical devices because of itching, perspiration and other comfort relate problems. Mostly nylon, polyester and cotton fibres are used in the fabrics. Nylon, polyester are used for strength whereas cotton is used for good comfort related properties. It may be possible to get some certain type of strength and comfort property together by using both types of fibre. Less information is available in this aspect. In this paper, fabric samples were prepared in knit construction by varying the nylon and cotton blend percentage. Comfort properties in terms of air permeability, thermal property, water vapor permeability, surface friction behavior and wicking properties have been studied extensively. The results showed that, the fibre blend percentage did not have any influence on pressure generation. Air permeability and thermal properties were also not affected. However, water vapor permeability and wicking behavior vary significantly. Increase in nylon percentage increases both the water vapor permeability and wicking. It can be thus concluded that, manufacturers can choose fibre blend percentage according to the requirement.

  3. Visual comfort is affected by urban colorscape tones in hazy weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available People׳s visual perception and recognition of urban colorscape tones change significantly in hazy weather. A psychological experiment is conducted in this study to investigate visual comfort related to commercial and residential buildings. Visual observations are performed on the tones of an urban colorscape during hazy weather and air pollution in Harbin, China. Fifty-eight color samples selected through an orthogonal method are evaluated through a Likert scale by 30 subjects in a laboratory setting. Statistical analysis is performed with the maximal information coefficient and R language. Experimental results show that the changing threshold values of color tones are related to the visual comfort levels of the subjects. The influence of the three factors of color tones on visual comfort level is relatively independent, and the effects of value and chroma contrast on color comfort level are greater than that of hue contrast in hazy weather. Furthermore, the comfort recognition threshold values of color tones in hazy weather are determined through data comparisons and analyses.

  4. Research on the Winter Thermal Comfort of Library’ s Atrium Reading Space in Harbin Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Huang; Peng Cui; Hong Jin

    2014-01-01

    As a transition space, atrium not only organizes traffic, makes the flow line flexible, but also modulates the indoor micro⁃climate. Because of its good sense of space and lighting performance, designers generally set reading space around the atrium. But nowadays, people are more concerned with the external form of the architecture, rather than the thermal comfort conditions of the atrium reading space. This article chooses the universities’ library atrium space of Harbin in typical city in cold regions as the carrier of research, testes the thermal environment of atrium reading space, analyzes the user's subjective feelings of the thermal environment and establishes climate adaptation model applied to library buildings. This paper aims to study on Winter thermal comfort of universities’ library atrium reading space in cold area. Bases on thermal comfort adaptive model, it establishes a reasonable heating methods and design temperature index of indoor thermal environment. Optimum comfort is obtained while achieving building energy efficiency and providing viewers a comfortable reading space.

  5. Annual Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort of Autonomously Heated and Cooled Office Chairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chin, Justin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Doug [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Energy use in offices buildings is largely driven by air conditioning demands. But the optimal temperature is not the same for all building occupants, leading to the infamous thermostat war. And many occupants have independently overcome building comfort weaknesses with their own space heaters or fans. NREL tested is a customized office chair that automatically heats and cools the occupant along the seat and chair back according to the occupants' personal preferences. This product is shown to deliver markedly better comfort at room temperatures well above typical office cooling setpoints. Experimental subjects reported satisfaction in these elevated air temperatures, partly because the chair's cooling effect was tuned to their own individual needs. Simulation of the chair in office buildings around the U.S. shows that energy can be saved everywhere, with impacts varying due to the climate. Total building HVAC energy savings exceeded 10% in hot-dry climate zones. Due to high product cost, simple payback for the chair we studied is beyond the expected chair life. We then understood the need to establish cost-performance targets for comfort delivery packages. NREL derived several hypothetical energy/cost/comfort targets for personal comfort product systems. In some climate regions around the U.S., these show the potential for office building HVAC energy savings in excess of 20%. This report documents this research, providing an overview of the research team's methods and results while also identifying areas for future research building upon the findings.

  6. Physical and Thermal Comfort Properties of Viscose Fabrics made from Vortex and Ring Spun Yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, G.; Muthukumar, N.; Kumar, V. Kiran; Sadasivam, Sanjay; Sidharth, P. Mithun; Nikhil Jain, G.

    2016-11-01

    Viscose fiber is frequently preferred for various types of inner and outer knitwear products for its comfort and visual characteristics. In this study, the physical and thermal comfort properties of viscose fabrics made from ring and vortex yarns have been studied to explore the impact of spinning process on fabric properties. 100% viscose fibers were spun into yarns by ring and vortex spinning and the developed yarns were converted to single jersey fabrics. The results indicated that fabrics made from vortex spun yarns had better pilling resistance over that of those from ring spun yarns. There was no significant difference between bursting strength values of vortex and ring spun yarn fabrics. Fabrics made from ring yarn had better dimensional stability compared to fabrics made from vortex yarn. The air permeability and water vapour permeability of vortex yarn fabrics were higher than ring spun yarn fabrics. The vortex yarn fabrics had better thermal comfort properties compared to ring yarn fabrics.

  7. Measurement Uncertainty Budget of the PMV Thermal Comfort Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Can

    2016-05-01

    Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, humidity activity level and clothing thermal resistance. PMV is a mathematical model of thermal comfort which was developed by Fanger. The uncertainty budget of the PMV equation was developed according to GUM in this study. An example is given for the uncertainty model of PMV in the exemplification section of the study. Sensitivity coefficients were derived from the PMV equation. Uncertainty budgets can be seen in the tables. A mathematical model of the sensitivity coefficients of Ta, hc, T_{mrt}, T_{cl}, and Pa is given in this study. And the uncertainty budgets for hc, T_{cl}, and Pa are given in this study.

  8. Examination of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated hostel using PMV-PPD model and field survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLANIPEKUN Emmanuel Abiodun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD indices for thermal comfort quality assessment in naturally ventilated (NV buildings in warm-humid climate has been observed to lead to overestimation of occupants` comfort and dissatisfaction levels. The thermal comfort quality in a naturally ventilated hostel located in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife was determined using PMV and PPD indices. The measured indoor air temperature and relative humidity were 28.1-34oC and 30.8%-75.5%. The subjective assessments showed that more than 80% of the respondents were comfortable (PD ˂ 20% while the PPD index predicted that 58% of the occupants were not comfortable. The calculated PMV index on the average was +1.63. There was no correspondence between the thermal conditions predicted by PMV-PPD index and actual comfort vote. Fanger`s PMV-PPD model cannot be used to predict indoor climate in the study area as it overestimated occupants` comfort and dissatisfaction levels.

  9. Analysis of the thermal comfort and impact properties of the neoprene-spacer fabric structure for preventing the joint damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frequent moves at the joint, plus external factors such as trauma, aging, and etc., are all reasons for joint damages. In order to protect and care of joints, the orthopedic textiles are used. To protect the joints, these textiles keep muscles warm to prevent shock. To produce orthopedic textiles, Neoprene foams have been traditionally used. These foams are flexible and resist impact, but are not comfortable enough and might cause problems for the consumer. This study introduces a new structure consisting of perforated Neoprene foam attached to the spacer fabric and also compares the properties of thermal and moisture comfort and impact properties of this structure in comparison with Neoprene foam. Methods: In order to measure the factors related to the samples lateral pressure behavior, a tensile tester was used. A uniform pressure is applied to the samples and a force - displacement curve is obtained. The test continues until the maximum compression force is reached to 50 N. The area under the curve is much greater; more energy is absorbed during the impact. In order to investigate the dynamic heat and moisture transfer of fabrics, an experimental apparatus was developed. This device made the simulation of sweating of human body possible and consisted of a controlled environmental chamber, sweating guarded hot plate, and data acquisition system. Results: The findings show that the Neoprene-spacer fabric structure represents higher toughness values compared to other samples (P ≤ 0.001. Neoprene-spacer fabric structure (A3 has higher rate of moisture transport than conventional Neoprene foam; because of undesirable comfort characteristics in Neoprene. Conclusions: Results of the tests indicate full advantage of the new structure compared with the Neoprene foam for use in orthopedic textiles (P ≤ 0.001.

  10. 我国湿热地区人群基础热舒适反应研究(3):冬夏对比分析%Human thermal comfort research in hot-humid area of China (3)-Comparison between winter and summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇峰; 王进勇; 陈慧梅

    2012-01-01

    Using the classic thermal comfort research methodology, performs a climate chamber experiment to study the examinees' responses in naturally ventilated buildings in hot-humid area of China both in summer and winter. Makes psychological and physiological response comparison between the two seasons. The obtained seasonal variations are that thermal sensation in winter keeps the same as in summer, but thermal comfort and acceptability become poor under cool environments and improve under warm environments. Besides, the heart rate and skin temperature are higher in winter than in summer, and the skin wetness is lower under warm environments. The variations provide important evidences for psychological adaptation and physiological acclimatization of people in hot-humid regions.%沿用经典热舒适研究方法,对我国湿热地区自然通风环境受试者分别进行夏季和冬季气候室实验,并对其心理反应与生理反应作冬夏季对比,得到其热反应的季节性变化特征为:与夏季相比,冬季的热感觉保持不变,但热舒适度与可接受度在低温环境显著降低,而在高温环境显著升高;心率显著增加,皮肤温度有所升高,在高温环境下的皮肤湿润度有所降低.季节性变化特征为湿热地区人群心理适应与生理习服提供了重要证据.

  11. A review on the major sources of the interior sound vibration and riding comfort in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDhahebi, Adel Mohammed; Junoh, Ahmad Kadri; Ahmed, Amran

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle interior comfort is a crucial criteria that is considered by the perspective customer when purchasing a new vehicle. Meanwhile, automotive industries face the challenges for producing vehicles with better design criteria that meet the expectations of customers and eventually promote higher competitive advantages in areas of acoustic performance, cost effectiveness, product weight, and global competitive market. This review presents the major sources that influence the generation of noise and vibration in the interior part of the vehicles. It also demonstrates the relative methods that are used to assess the interior acoustics and vibration and further improve the riding comfort. This study is of a particular importance for acoustical researchers and automobile engineers, where it brings about suggestions and fundamentals that can contribute to acoustical comfort in vehicles.

  12. Dynamic Moisture Comfort Property of Fine Denier Polypropylene Fabric in Different Wind Speed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Tu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the moisture comfort property of fine denier polypropylene fiber fabric in different wind speed conditions, dynamic experiments were performed using Textile-Microclimate Measuring Instrument in climate chamber. The relative humidity variation curves of inner and outer surfaces of test fabrics were tested and the comprehensive index was introduced to evaluate fabric’s dynamic moisture comfort property. Results show that under four different environmental wind speed conditions, the dynamic moisture comfort property of fine denier polypropylene fiber fabric is much better than other fiber fabrics. In addition, grey mathematics theory was introduced to establish models to predict dynamic experiment’s results using static descriptive parameters. Four prediction models of dynamic comprehensive index were established and the predictive precision is much higher.

  13. HOT WATER COMFORT TEST PROCEDURE FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS: PROPOSAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out.......A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out....

  14. Definition of specific comfort parameters, indoor environmental and architectural quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2017-01-01

    that improvements in indoor environment, comfort and architecture can motivate the Danish homeowners to complete energy renovations. In order to utilize these results and thereby reduce the energy consumption in the existing Danish building stock, this paper examines which aspects of indoor environment and comfort...... motivating the homeowners since this can influence the effect of the motivation in both negative and positive direction....

  15. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  16. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  17. A foreground object features-based stereoscopic image visual comfort assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, G.; Ying, H.; Yu, M.; Ding, S.; Peng, Z.; Shao, F.

    2014-11-01

    Since stereoscopic images provide observers with both realistic and discomfort viewing experience, it is necessary to investigate the determinants of visual discomfort. By considering that foreground object draws most attention when human observing stereoscopic images. This paper proposes a new foreground object based visual comfort assessment (VCA) metric. In the first place, a suitable segmentation method is applied to disparity map and then the foreground object is ascertained as the one having the biggest average disparity. In the second place, three visual features being average disparity, average width and spatial complexity of foreground object are computed from the perspective of visual attention. Nevertheless, object's width and complexity do not consistently influence the perception of visual comfort in comparison with disparity. In accordance with this psychological phenomenon, we divide the whole images into four categories on the basis of different disparity and width, and exert four different models to more precisely predict its visual comfort in the third place. Experimental results show that the proposed VCA metric outperformance other existing metrics and can achieve a high consistency between objective and subjective visual comfort scores. The Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are over 0.84 and 0.82, respectively.

  18. Influence of Phase-Change Materials on Thermo-Physiological Comfort in Warm Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Celcar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to investigate the influence of phase-change materials (PCMs on thermo-physiological comfort of different male business clothing systems evaluated in warm environment. The impact of particular business clothing on the thermo-physiological comfort of the wearer during different physical activity and environmental conditions (between 25°C and 10°C with step of 5°C, artificially created in a climate chamber, was determined experimentally, as a change of three physiological parameters of a human being: mean skin temperature, heart rate, and the amount of evaporated and condensed sweat. A questionnaire and an assessment scale were also used before, during, and after each experiment in order to evaluate the wearer’s subjective feeling of comfort. The results of the performed research work show that male business clothing systems in combination with PCMs do not affect the thermal-physiological comfort of the wearer in warm environment significantly, except at an ambient temperature of 15°C, where clothing systems in combination with PCMs produce a small heating effect. Furthermore, it was concluded that clothing systems in combination with PCMs indicate a small temporary thermal effect that is reflected in a slight rising or lowering of mean skin temperature during activity changes.

  19. Speaking comfort and voice use of teachers in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    Teachers suffer from voice problems more often than the rest of the population, as a consequence of the intensive use of their voices during teaching. Noise and classroom acoustics have been defined as hazards eventually leading to voice problems. In order to make a good classroom acoustic design...... to preserve the teachers’ voices and maximize their comfort, it is necessary to understand the underlaying relationship between classroom acoustics and teachers’ voice production. This paper presents a brief summary of investigations looking into this relationship. A pilot study, carried out in different...... located at various distances, in rooms with very different acoustics. A field study in schools of southern Sweden found out that teachers with and without voice problems, during actual teaching, are affected differently by the support of the classroom. A last laboratory experiment was carried out...

  20. The social comfort of wearable technology and gestural interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E; Profita, Halley; Zeagler, Clint; Clawson, James; Gilliland, Scott; Do, Ellen Yi-Luen; Budd, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The "wearability" of wearable technology addresses the factors that affect the degree of comfort the wearer experiences while wearing a device, including physical, psychological, and social aspects. While the physical and psychological aspects of wearing technology have been investigated since early in the development of the field of wearable computing, the social aspects of wearability have been less fully-explored. As wearable technology becomes increasingly common on the commercial market, social wearability is becoming an ever-more-important variable contributing to the success or failure of new products. Here we present an analysis of social aspects of wearability within the context of the greater understanding of wearability in wearable technology, and focus on selected theoretical frameworks for understanding how wearable products are perceived and evaluated in a social context. Qualitative results from a study of social acceptability of on-body interactions are presented as a case study of social wearability.

  1. Evaluation of the Indoor Environment in the Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2012-01-01

    and in a process of doing so, it is important to maintain a good and healthy indoor environment and not on the expense of it. One way of saving energy is to build passive houses. This paper presents the result of a case study of some of the first certified passive houses in Denmark, called the Comfort Houses......Today the build environment accounts for about 40 % of the energy consumption in the EU and it is continuing to increase. It is a result of an effort to give the building users an optimum indoor environment. New buildings and renovation projects need to improve the energy performance....... The paper evaluates the indoor environment through both quantitative measurements in the houses and qualitative interviews with the occupants about their experiences of the indoor environment. Two set of knowledge which together gives a more complete and holistic picture of the indoor environment. The study...

  2. Inverted Pendulum-type Personal Mobility Considering Human Vibration Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misaki Masuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An inverted pendulum-type PM (personal mobility has been attracting attention as a low-carbon vehicle. For many people who like to use the PM, ride comfort is important. However, ride comfort of PM has not been focused on in previous studies. The vibration is one of causes that make riders feel uncomfortable. The PM is unstable system and horizontal vibration may be caused by a stabilizing control. Additionally, vertical vibration may also be caused by road disturbances. This study analyzes the vibration of the rider’s head in these two directions when the PM runs on a road with disturbances in numerical simulations, and evaluates ride comfort with the frequency characteristics of the vibration. To consider human vibration sensitivity, the frequency weighting proposed in ISO 2631-1 is used as an evaluation standard. The improvement methods are proposed from both software and hardware, and it is confirmed that the proposed method can improve ride comfort.

  3. Studies of human vision recognition: some improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chang, Lin-Song

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to improve human recognition by artificial intelligence, specifically of images without the interference of high frequencies. The human eye is the most delicate optical system. Notwithstanding the dramatic progression of its structure and functions through a long evolution, the capability of visual recognition is not yet close to perfection. This paper is a study, based on the limitations of recognition by the human eye, of image recognition through the application of artificial intelligence. Those aspects which have been explored focus on human eye modeling, including aberration analysis, creative models of the human eye, human vision recognition characteristics and various mathematical models for verification. By using images consisting of four black and white bands and modulation transfer function (MTF) curve evaluation recognition capability on all the studied models, the optimum model most compatible with the physiology of the human eye is found.

  4. Total Wear Comfort Index as an Objective Parameter for Characterization of Overall Wearability of Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Raj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of physical comfort experienced by awearer under a given environmental condition isgreatly influenced by the tactile, thermal andmoisture transport properties of the fabric. An indepthstudy carried out to understand fabric handleand wear comfort in relation to fiber, yarn and fabricstructural parameter is presented in this paper. Theresults obtained from this study provide an invaluableinsight into engineering of required quality featuresinto the cotton fabrics so as to provide optimum wearcomfort. A comprehensive grading indexincorporating the transport attributes (air permeabilityand moisture and thermal transport of the fabric hasbeen derived to grade end use efficiency of the fabricjuxtaposing with fabric hand, which would finallydecide the overall quality of the apparel fabric.

  5. 基于遗传算法的汽车平顺性和操纵稳定性优化%Optimization Study on the Vehicle Handling Stability and Ride Comfort Using Genetic Algorithm Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘筱; 陈潇凯; 林逸; 王冬成

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the automobile ride comfort and handling stability, a nonlinear threefreedom handling stability model was established and the influence of the load transfer and the tire nonlinear stiffness characteristic on the automobile stability was researched during the high speed lane- change condition. An optimization of the suspension parameters based on genetic algorithm was proposed. The vehicle body roll angle was selected for minimum optimization objectives , the suspension frequency and the vehicle understeer performance was selected for constraint condition, and the suspension stiffness parameters were taken as the the design variables. The computation results show that the suspension design scheme through optimization has apparant effects on improving ride comfort and handling stability. Finally, the result of analysis indicates that the ride comfort and handling stability during high speed can be improved effectively through this matching method.%为改善汽车行驶的平顺性和操纵稳定性,建立了某SUV非线性三自由度操纵稳定性模型,研究了高速转弯工况侧倾载荷转移及轮胎的非线性特性对整车操纵稳定性的影响.提出了基于遗传算法的悬架刚度参数的优化匹配方法.以车身侧倾最小为优化目标,以弹簧刚度对悬架偏频及不足转向度影响为约束,以前、后悬架弹簧刚度及前、后稳定杆刚度为设计自变量.计算结果及实车对比表明:优化后的方案比原方案在平顺性和操纵稳定性方面有了较大的改善;采用该匹配方法,可以有效提高车辆的平顺性和高速车辆操纵稳定性.

  6. Office task effects on comfort and body dynamics in five dynamic office chairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, L.; Ellegast, R.P.; Keller, K.; Krause, F.; Berger, H.; Looze, M.P.de

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of office tasks on posture and movements in field settings, and the comfort rating for chair characteristics and correlation with type of task. The tasks studied were: computer work, telephoning, desk work and conversation. Postures, movements, chair

  7. Office task effects on comfort and body dynamics in five dynamic office chairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, L.; Ellegast, R.P.; Keller, K.; Krause, F.; Berger, H.; Looze, M.P.de

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of office tasks on posture and movements in field settings, and the comfort rating for chair characteristics and correlation with type of task. The tasks studied were: computer work, telephoning, desk work and conversation. Postures, movements, chair

  8. Transient analysis and improvement of indoor thermal comfort for an air-conditioned room with thermal insulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prakash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulations over the building envelop reduce the heat gain due to solar radiation and may enhance good and uniform indoor thermal comfort for the occupants. In this paper, the insulation layer-wood wool is laid over the roof and exposed wall of an air-conditioned room and its performance on indoor thermal comfort is studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique. From this study, 3% of indoor thermal comfort index-predicted mean vote (PMV is improved by providing wood wool layer. In addition, the optimum supply air temperature of air-conditioning unit for good thermal comfort is predicted as in the range of 299–300 K (26–27 °C.

  9. The thematic structure of passenger comfort experience and its relationship to the context features in the aircraft cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Lindgaard, Gitte; Robert, Jean-Marc; Pownall, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes passenger comfort as an experience generated by the cabin interior features. The findings of previous studies are affirmed regarding a set of 22 context features. Passengers experience a certain level of comfort when these features impact their body and elicit subjective perceptions. New findings characterise these perceptions in the form of eight themes and outline their particular eliciting features. Comfort is depicted as a complex construct derived by passengers' perceptions beyond the psychological (i.e. peace of mind) and physical (i.e. physical well-being) aspects, and includes perceptual (e.g. proxemics) and semantic (e.g. association) aspects. The seat was shown to have a focal role in eliciting seven of those themes and impacting comfort through its diverse characteristics. In a subsequent study, a group of aircraft cabin interior designers highlighted the possibility of employing the eight themes and their eliciting features as a framework for design and evaluation of new aircraft interiors.

  10. Methods of 3D data applications to inform design decisions for physical comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Many everyday tasks require physical contact with products, such as helmets, headsets, etc. There is a drive for comfortable products that fit the task and the human body, especially in the industry of external ear worn products. Past research on anthropometry stresses that positive comfort...... methods to support design applications (ways of analysis) of 3-dimensional head and ear data with a focus on external ear products. 200 persons representing the Danish population were scanned. The 3-d data was collected, refined and analysed. A matrix containing 29 new ear dimensions was generated....... An analysis of the dataset through understanding of human and product geometry and methods of visualisation of the dataset generated an additional number of 9 advanced dimensions. The paper finally presents all phases of the analysis of the 3D data in the form of a methodological framework. The paper...

  11. Psychiatrists’ Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochtmann, Laura J.; Clarke, Diana E.; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K.; Plovnick, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists’ Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists’ comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted. PMID:26667248

  12. Psychiatrists' Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Farifteh F; Fochtmann, Laura J; Clarke, Diana E; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K; Plovnick, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists' Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists' comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted.

  13. Interior Architectural Design Modeling Study Based on the Color Comfort Perception%考虑色彩舒适感知的室内建筑设计模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正民; 甘为众; 王旭

    2015-01-01

    This article puts forward a kind of considering colour comfort perception of interior architecture design model, based on the law of weber- fee yesterday le, described four power formula as visual comfort and chromaticity relationship, the mathematical model on the normalized processing, access to meet the requirements of the normalized mathematical model of the relationship between visual comfort and chromaticity, on the basis of the above model, integrated the current modeling methods, gives a kind of economic and practical consideration colour comfort perception of interior architectural design model. With AutoCAD + the Sketch Up 3 d MAX + tools for shaping interior architectural design model, completion of interior architectural design model, the coordinates of the model data into a local coordinate system or the state, through the LandXs- plorer CityGML Viewer software complete visual editing of the model and repair, using the CityGML 4 j extension development kit complete resolution of the model and add meaning, coordinates, color information, such as implementation available interior architectural design model. The simulation results show that the proposed model has a high practicality.%提出一种考虑色彩舒适感知的室内建筑设计模型,以韦伯-费昔勒定律为基础,将四次幂公式作为描述视觉舒适度和色度关系的数学模型,对其进行归一化处理,获取满足归一化要求的视觉舒适度和色度关系的数学模型,依据上述模型,综合当前的建模方法,给出一种经济实用的考虑色彩舒适感知的室内建筑设计模型。以AutoCAD+Sketch Up+3D MAX为塑造室内建筑设计模型的工具,完成室内建筑设计模型后,将模型的坐标数据转换成当地坐标系或国家坐标系,通过LandXs-plorer CityGML Viewer软件完成模型的可视化编辑和修缮,利用CityGML 4J扩展开发包完成对模型的解析,并且添加语义、坐标色彩等信息,

  14. The effect of dynamic solar shading on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in a nearly zero-energy loft room in Rome and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    alternatives in buildings with very low space-heating demand, this study mapped and compared energy, daylighting and thermal comfort for various combinations of window size and glazing properties, with and without dynamic shading. The study considered a loft room with sloped roof windows and moderate venting...... as defined by the Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC) model....

  15. A possible connection between thermal comfort and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, John L.

    2004-05-20

    It is a well-established fact that cardiovascular health requires periodic exercise during which the human body often experiences significant physical discomfort. It is not obvious to the exerciser that the short-term pain and discomfort has a long-term positive health impact. Many cultures have well-established practices that involve exposing the body to periodic thermal discomfort. Scandinavian saunas and American Indian sweat lodges are two examples. Both are believed to promote health and well-being. Vacations often intentionally include significant thermal discomfort as part of the experience (e.g., sunbathing, and downhill skiing). So people often intentionally make themselves thermally uncomfortable yet the entire foundation of providing the thermal environment in our buildings is done to minimize the percentage of people thermally dissatisfied. We must provide an environment that does not negatively impact short-term health and we need to consider productivity but are our current thermal comfort standards too narrowly defined and do these standards actually contribute to longer-term negative health impacts? This paper examines the possibility that the human body thermoregulatory system has a corollary relationship to the cardiovascular system. It explores the possibility that we have an inherent need to exercise our thermoregulatory system. Potential, physiological, sociological and energy ramifications of these possibilities are discussed.

  16. 天津环渤海大饭店楼板结构振动舒适度设计%Design of floor vibration comfort in Tianjin Huan Bohai Hotel caused by human activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕佐超; 娄宇

    2012-01-01

    天津环渤海大饭店采用钢-混凝土组合楼板,刚度较小,针对其在人行激励下可能发生的舒适度问题,采用有限元分析法,对不同使用功能的楼板振动进行了计算分析,并提出了改善舒适度的建议。%The steel-concrete composite floor is used in Tianjin Huan Bohai Hotel. Because of the minor stiffness, there will be risk of floor vibrations caused by human activities. Therefore, according to different activities and building occupancy,a finite analysis method is put forward for floor vibration calculation. After detail analysis, a suggestion is given for the floor vibration caused by rhythmic activities.

  17. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. (a) Location. The following area is designated as a security zone: all waters of the Corpus Christi...

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARING, COMFORT, AND PATIENT SATISFACTION IN THE EMERGENCY ROOM, RATU ZALECHA HOSPITAL, SOUTH KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajudin Noor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency nursing service system requires the role of nurses who are able to pay attention to the behavior of caring and patient comfort. Caring in an emergency room is an important aspect in lifesaving procedures. It might impact the psychology of patients if nurses are not caring. Caring behavior and comfort given by nurses can also affect to patient satisfaction. Patient satisfaction is considered important as a bridgehead for the treatment of patients. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between caring behavior and comfort with patient satisfaction in the emergency room, Ratu Zalecha Hospital, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Method: This was an analytic correlational study with cross-sectional approach involved 341 patients in the emergency unit using consecutive sampling. Four questionnaires were used to measure the characteristics of the respondent, the nurse caring behavior, comfort given by the nurses, and patient satisfaction. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for respondents’ characteristic, and chi-square to analyze the relationship between variables. Result: There were 285 respondents (92.8% who received nurses’ caring behaviors were satisfied, and 268 respondents (87.3% stated that the nurses were able to provide comfort in nursing care in the emergency room. Conclusion: This study revealed that there was a relationship between caring behavior, and comfort with patient satisfaction. It tells that caring and comfort are very important components that influence the satisfaction of patients. Therefore, the role of nurse to provide caring and comfort for the patients in the future should be developed along with the development of science and technology and society's demands.

  19. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  20. Association between objective and subjective measurements of comfort and discomfort in hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Bosch, T.; Huysmans, M.A.; De Looze, M.P.; Vink, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the current study the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using hand saws was examined. 12 carpenters evaluated five different hand saws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and P-t integral) in stati

  1. Rehabilitation Counselor Knowledge, Comfort, Approach, and Attitude toward Sex and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, Roxanna N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…

  2. The development of a post occupancy evaluation tool for primary schools: learner comfort assessment tool (LCAT)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsatsi, L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available in order to facilitate teaching and learning. The aim of this study was to develop a Post Occupational Evaluation (POE) tool to assess learner comfort in relation to indoor environmental quality in the classroom. The development of POE tool followed a...

  3. Speech-Language Pathologists' Comfort Levels in English Language Learner Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Carlotta

    2013-01-01

    This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) comfort levels in providing service delivery to English language learners (ELLs) and limited English proficient (LEP) students. Participants included 192 SLPs from the United States and Guam. Participants completed a brief, six-item questionnaire that investigated their perceptions regarding…

  4. Association between objective and subjective measurements of comfort and discomfort in hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Bosch, T.; Huysmans, M.A.; De Looze, M.P.; Vink, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the current study the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using hand saws was examined. 12 carpenters evaluated five different hand saws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and P-t integral) in stati

  5. Landscape architecture graduate student researches public spaces that help women feel comfortable and safe

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    Sruthi Atmakur, a landscape architecture student in Virginia Tech's School of Architecture + Design, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, is researching what about a public space's environment can make women feel comfortable and safe, and what can do just the opposite.

  6. Robust Climate Design Combines Energy Efficiency with Occupant Health and Comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, S.R.; Raue, A.K.; Van den Ham, E.R.; Leijten, J.L.; Juricic, S.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Often, when designing and operating buildings, the goal is to achieve low energy consumption as well as a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. Studies in the US and The Netherlands show a large discrepancy between the predicted and the actual energy consumption of buildings. Some buildings

  7. A multi-media teaching package on comfort and building design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, M.; Nicol, F.; Santamouris, M.; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-media teaching package MULCOM, being developed within the EC DG XVII SAVE programme. The product, at present under development, is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the field study and laboratory approach to thermal comfort with further sections on visual

  8. Association between objective and subjective measurements of comfort and discomfort in hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Bosch, T.; Huysmans, M.A.; Looze, M.P.de; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using handsaws was examined. Twelve carpenters evaluated five different handsaws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and pressure-time (P-t)

  9. Association between objective and subjective measurements of comfort and discomfort in hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Bosch, T.; Huysmans, M.A.; De Looze, M.P.; Vink, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the current study the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using hand saws was examined. 12 carpenters evaluated five different hand saws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and P-t integral) in

  10. Ergonomics, user comfort, and performance in standard and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, R. H. van der Schatte; van't Hullenaar, C. D. P.; Ruurda, J. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical systems have been introduced to improve the outcome of minimally invasive surgery. These systems also have the potential to improve ergonomics for the surgeon during endoscopic surgery. This study aimed to compare the user's mental and physical comfort in performing standard

  11. Statistical model evaluation and calibrations for outdoor comfort assessment in South Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldieron, J.M.; Thitisawat, M.; Polakit, K.; Mangone, G.

    2011-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas, people can spend more time outdoors than in other latitudes. Understanding the sensitivity of outdoor comfort is a fundamental element for architects and urban designers working in these specific climates. This study is part of a research project attempting to

  12. Establishing a Comfortable Classroom from Day One: Student Perceptions of the Reciprocal Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim; Bartsch, Robert; McEnery, Lillian; Hall, Sharon; Hermann, Anthony; Foster, David

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined student reactions to an activity in computer science, psychology, women's studies, and education courses. The reciprocal interview involves the instructor gathering information about the students, followed by students collectively asking questions of the instructor. The interview aims to make students more comfortable in…

  13. Statistical model evaluation and calibrations for outdoor comfort assessment in South Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldieron, J.M.; Thitisawat, M.; Polakit, K.; Mangone, G.

    2011-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas, people can spend more time outdoors than in other latitudes. Understanding the sensitivity of outdoor comfort is a fundamental element for architects and urban designers working in these specific climates. This study is part of a research project attempting to rela

  14. Spatial Techniques to Visualize Acoustic Comfort along Cultural and Heritage Routes for a World Heritage City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes. Route-based tourism is crucial to the sustainability of tourism development in historic areas. Applying the concept of route-based tourism to guide tourists rambling along cultural and heritage routes can relieve overcrowded condition at hot scenic spots and increase the overall carrying capacity of the city. However, acoustic comfort along tourist routes is rarely addressed in academic studies and decision-making. Taking Macao as an example, this paper has studied pedestrian exposure to traffic noise along the cultural and heritage routes. The study is based on a GIS-based traffic noise model system with a high spatial resolution down to individual buildings along both sides of the street. Results show that tourists suffer from excessive traffic noise at certain sites, which may have negative impact on the promotion of route-based tourism in the long run. In addition, it is found that urban growth affects urban form and street layout, which in turn affect traffic flow and acoustic comfort in urban area. The present study demonstrates spatial techniques to visualize acoustic comfort along tourist routes, and the techniques are foreseen to be used more frequently to support effective tourism planning in the future.

  15. Observational report with regard to thermal comfort in nursing homes; Signaleringsrapport inzake thermische behaaglijkheid in verpleeghuizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-08

    A large number of studies on the subject of thermal (dis)comfort for patients in nursing homes in the summer is summarized. [Dutch] In dit signaleringsrapport is een groot aantal onderzoeken samengevat welke door of in opdracht van het Bouwcollege zijn uitgevoerd op het gebied van thermische (on)behaaglijkheid voor patienten (somatisch en psychogeriatrisch) in verpleeghuizen onder zomeromstandigheden.

  16. Thermal comfort and IAQ assessment of under-floor air distribution system integrated with personalized ventilation in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort with personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system was explored through human response study. The hypothesis was that cold draught at feet can be reduced when relatively warm air is supplied...... of the results obtained reveal improved acceptability of perceived air quality and improved thermal sensation with PV-UFAD in comparison with the reference case of UFAD alone or mixing ventilation with ceiling supply diffuser. The local thermal sensation at the feet was also improved when warmer UFAD supply air...

  17. Frequency Weighting Filter Design for Automotive Ride Comfort Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Feng

    2016-01-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low-and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m•s–2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  18. Gender, patient comfort and the neurosurgical operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rebecca; Bernstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Neurosurgical patients may be unaware of components of their intra-operative care. The relationship between patient gender and comfort level in the neurosurgical operating room (OR) has not been previously studied. Our objective was to gain insight into patients' perspective of the OR environment, including staffing and observers, the role of medical students, catheterization, exposure, and verbiage, using a qualitative needs assessment. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 patients (14 female, six male) who had a neurosurgical operation under general anesthetic within the previous two years. The majority underwent craniotomy for benign tumours. Interviews were transcribed and subjected to modified thematic analysis. Nine themes emerged: 1) perception of the intra-operative environment varies between men and women; 2) lacking awareness about observers is anxiety-provoking for women; 3) being unaware of the hands-on involvement of students is a concern for all patients; 4) disclosure of implantation of foreign and permanent materials into patients is important; 5) catheterization is anxiety provoking for women; 6) pre-operative menstruation screening may minimize embarrassment for women; 7) patients perceive extraneous conversation as a distraction for surgeons; 8) patients trust their surgeon; 9) a relationship exists between interviewer gender and patient comfort in the interview. Although most male and female patients are unaware of OR activities, they are generally not fearful since they trust their surgeon. Women appear to have greater information needs. Patients' information needs must be met without provoking anxiety and yet preserving their personal sense of modesty in the intra-operative environment.

  19. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  20. Near-infraed scattering method for fabric thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting behavior of a clothing assembly plays an important role in thermophysiological body comfort. The instruments and methods utilised for testing purposes should adequately quantify wetting parameters of fabric thermal comfort. The surface conductivity method has been used to for moisture management testing in fabrics, but that method cannot give the detailed information for fiber-liquid interaction. With the new near-infrared scattering method, the wetting mechanism is introduced and interpreted through liquid transfer process from an infinite liquid reservoir. Wetting results from two kinds of fabrics show the difference in fabric thermal comfort.

  1. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  2. Are Social Studies Teachers Teaching Secular Humanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rod

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over teaching what religious fundamentalists and social conservatives consider secular humanism. Suggests that modern social studies does not support secular humanism even though they share epistemological and ethical assumptions (the use of the scientific method, intelligent reasoning). Provides suggestions for teachers…

  3. Threatened belonging and preference for comfort food among the securely attached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D; Gabriel, Shira; Derrick, Jaye L; Geisler, Alyssa

    2015-07-01

    Research has shown that comfort food triggers relationship-related cognitions and can fulfill belongingness needs for those secure in attachment (i.e., for those with positive relationship cognitions) (Troisi & Gabriel, 2011). Building on these ideas, we examined if securely attached individuals prefer comfort food because of its "social utility" (i.e., its capacity to fulfill belongingness needs) in one experiment and one daily diary study using two samples of university students from the United States. Study 1 (n = 77) utilized a belongingness threat essay among half of the participants, and the results showed that securely attached participants preferred the taste of a comfort food (i.e., potato chips) more after the belongingness threat. Study 2 (n = 86) utilized a 14-day daily diary design and found that securely attached individuals consumed more comfort food in response to naturally occurring feelings of isolation. Implications for the social nature of food preferences are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Comfort scale for relatives of people in critical states of health 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Kátia Santana; Menezes, Igor Gomes; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this methodological study aims to present the construct validity of the Comfort scale for family members of people in a critical state of health (ECONF). Method: this is a methodological study. The sample was made up of 274 family members of adults receiving inpatient treatment in six Intensive Care Units (ICU) in the State of Bahía responded to 62 items distributed in 7 dimensions. The validation procedures adopted were based on the techniques of the Classical Test Theory. Results: the analysis of dimensionality was undertaken through principal components analysis, a scale being obtained with 55 items distributed in four factors: Safety, Support, Family member-relative interaction and Integration with oneself and the everyday. The analysis of the items' , discriminative power, undertaken by the item-total correlation-coefficient showed a good relationship of the items with their respective factors. From the ECONF's reliability test, from the analysis of internal consistency, a raised Alpha Cronbach coefficient was obtained for the 4 factors and the general measurement. Conclusion: the comfort scale presented satisfactory psychometric parameters, thus constituting the first valid instrument for evaluating the comfort of family members of people in a critical state of health. The advance made by the study lies in its theoretical framework on comfort, and provides the health team with a scale based on empirical evidence. PMID:26444168

  5. Hybrid heating systems optimization of residential environment to have thermal comfort conditions by numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Nabi; Keshavarz, Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine optimum hybrid heating systems parameters, such as temperature, surface area of a radiant heater and vent area to have thermal comfort conditions. DOE, Factorial design method is used to determine the optimum values for input parameters. A 3D model of a virtual standing thermal manikin with real dimensions is considered in this study. Continuity, momentum, energy, species equations for turbulent flow and physiological equation for thermal comfort are numerically solved to study heat, moisture and flow field. K - ɛRNG Model is used for turbulence modeling and DO method is used for radiation effects. Numerical results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The effect of various combinations of inlet parameters on thermal comfort is considered. According to Pareto graph, some of these combinations that have significant effect on the thermal comfort require no more energy can be used as useful tools. A better symmetrical velocity distribution around the manikin is also presented in the hybrid system.

  6. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  7. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  8. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  9. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, I

    1993-11-01

    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. 合肥南站列车动载作用下候车厅舒适度研究%Study on Comfortableness for Waiting Hall of Hefei South Railway Station under Dynamic Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢炜

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic finite element model is established based on the principle of vehicle starting and braking.As for this model,the spatial beam element is used to simulate the columns and beams,the spatial plate element is used to simulate the floor,and the mass element is used to simulate the mass of nodes.Four kinds of incentive methods,inclu-ding vehicle starting,braking,running in high speed and running in low speed on each track are taken to analyze the station dynamic calculation,then record the dynamic responses of the waiting hall,and the acceleration time history curve and the pivotal dynamics index should be shown under each dynamic response.Next,the dynamic response curve of the typical representative positions of the waiting hall can be obtained under various pivotal working conditions of the vehicle by time-integration method.And then,the auto-power spectral density function of acceleration time course for the typical representative positions is acquired by frequency domain analysis method,with which and with measurement method for environmental vibration of urban area,comfortableness is evaluated.The results show that the comfortable-ness of the waiting hall meets the code requirements of vibration acceleration level.%基于车辆制动与启动原理,建立合肥南站的动力有限元模型,利用空间梁单元模拟车站的梁柱体系,利用空间板单元模拟楼板,并利用质量单元模拟节点质量;对每个轨道进行制动、启动、高速通过、低速通过4种激励方式,进行站房动力计算,得到候车厅的动力响应,并给出每种动力响应下的加速度时程曲线与各关键动力指标;通过时程积分的方法,得到了各种关键列车工况情况下,候车厅典型位置的动力响应曲线。通过频域分析方法,得到典型位置的加速度时程自功率谱密度函数,以此根据《城市区域环境振动标准》进行舒适度评估。结果表明

  11. Human biomonitoring pilot study DEMOCOPHES in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    on a European Scale) and DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) were formed, comprising 35 partners from 27 European countries. In COPHES a research scheme and guidelines were developed to exemplarily measure in a pilot study mercury in hair......Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants, but comparable HBM data in Europe are lacking. In order to expedite harmonization of HBM studies on a European scale, the twin projects COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring......, cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate metabolites in urine of 6–11 year old children and their mothers in an urban and a rural region. Seventeen European countries simultaneously conducted this cross-sectional DEMOCOPHES feasibility study. The German study population was taken in the city of Bochum...

  12. Study on Low-carbon Landscape Oriented Climate Comfort Zoning of Sichuan%面向低碳景观的四川地域气候舒适度区划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈睿智; 董靓

    2012-01-01

    适宜的气候区划是实现低碳景观的前提.本文选取四川100个县级以上气象台站的典型气象参数(温度、湿度、风速和太阳辐射),结合WBGT指数和TS指数量化其气候舒适度.参照《热环境根据WBGT指数(湿球黑球温度)对作业人员热负荷的评价》( GB/T 17244-1998)和Givoni提出的环境热舒适度评价指标,给出了四川省气候区划主要指标和辅助指标.由此,将四川划分为了5个气候区,即干冷区、湿冷区、冬暖夏热型湿热区、冬冷夏热型湿热区和温和区.不同区域的气候的特征不同,开展户外活动的季节不同,低碳景观设计策略也不同.研究成果可作为四川及相关气候区域类型的低碳景观设计的参考依据.%Suitable climate zoning is the precondition for realizing the low-carbon landscape. In this paper, combined with the indexes of WBGT and TS,typical climate parameters of typical sites in Sichuan were selected to quantify their climate comfort degree. According to the national thermal environment evaluation standards, the indexes for climate comfort zoning of Sichuan were proposed. As a result,five climate zones in Sichuan were divided, including cold-dry area, cold-wet area, hot-wet area of hot summer and warm winter,hot-wet area of hot summer and cold winter,and mild area. For different areas with differnet cliamtic charateristics,the sutiable seasons for outdoor activity were different,as well as the design strategies for low-carbon landscape.

  13. Field study on thermal comfort in rural houses in Turpan in winter%吐鲁番农村住宅冬季室内热舒适调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛翠玉; 杨柳

    2014-01-01

    对吐鲁番57户农村住宅中108名居民的热感觉、热舒适等进行了主观问卷调查,测试了温度、相对湿度等室内外环境参数,运用统计学分析方法对测试与调查结果进行了回归分析。结果表明,吐鲁番农村住宅冬季实测的热中性温度为19.3℃,预测热中性温度为21.2℃;通过两种计算方法获得的热期望温度分别为19.7℃和19.6℃;80%居民可接受的温度范围为15.2~27.4℃。由于受干热干冷的地域气候影响,冬季可接受的最低温度范围明显高于其他地区的农村住宅。%Conducts subjective questionnaires on thermal sensation and thermal comfort for 108 residents from 57 rural houses in Turpan, and measures indoor and outdoor parameters,such as temperature and relative humidity etc.Analyses the survey data by using statistics analysis method.The results show that the measured thermal neutral temperature is 19.3 ℃,and the predicted thermal neutral temperature is 21.2 ℃.The thermal expected temperature obtained by two calculation methods is 19.7 ℃and 19.6 ℃,respectively.The temperature range accepted by 80% residents is 15.2-27.4 ℃.Because of dry hot and dry cold climate,the lowest comfort temperature in rural houses is significantly higher than those in other region in winter.

  14. Bayesian adaptive comfort temperature (BACT) of air-conditioning system in subtropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Fong, N.K.; Hui, P.S. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-05-15

    Indoor thermal climate is an important issue affecting the health and productivity of building occupants. In the designing of commercial air-conditioning systems, it is believed that the conventional fixed temperature set point concept is limited because indoor comfort temperature depends on the business culture, such as the nature of activities and dress code of occupants, etc. Researchers have been interested in investigating adaptive temperature control for a realistic in-situ control of comfort. Unfortunately, those studies put great emphasis on energy saving opportunities and sometimes might result in thermal discomfort to individuals. This study argues that complaints of thermal discomfort from individuals, despite representing only a small portion of the population, should not be ignored and can be used to determine the temperature setting for a population in air-conditioned environment. In particular, findings of a new notion of Bayesian adaptive comfort temperature (BACT) in air-conditioned buildings in a humid and subtropical climate like Hong Kong are reported, and the adaptive interface relationship between occupants' complaints of thermal discomfort and indoor air temperature is determined. This BACT algorithm is intended to optimise the acceptance of thermal comfort, as determined by physical measurements and subjective surveys. (author)

  15. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  16. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. We want to know how cities can best prepare for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates. These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning.The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management?The three stages of the project are: A literature review of existing knowledge on climate adaptation and knowledge gapsResearch into the specific field of urban climatologyApplied research on the broader field of urban planningThe urban climate and adaptation measuresIn the evaluation of measures for climate robust urban areas it is important to gauge the extent of the effects of such measures. These effects are generally expressed in terms of air temperature. However, the comparison of results of measures from various studies is not a simple matter: there are significant differences in spatial, climatological and methodological variations adopted in these studies. Bringing results together from very specific studies may give an impression of the potential of certain measures. For example, most studies support the idea that greening has the highest effect on thermal comfort as it provides both shade and active cooling due to ‘evapotranspiration’1. Nevertheless, vegetation can also retain heat, as we can feel after sundown. Other measures that were investigated for their effects are water, urban morphology, materials and colour

  17. Summer residence hall renovations focus on student comfort, environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    With the majority of students home for the summer, Virginia Tech Housing Services has undertaken a variety of improvements and renovations in its residence halls aimed at increasing comfort and safety for students, while decreasing overall environmental impact.

  18. Static and Dynamic Sensory Comfort of Knit Underwear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-ling; FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper relationships have been investigated between overall comfort estimate and five main factors on nine knit underwear at (29±2)℃ and relative humidity, (85±2)% .The values of thermal and moisture comfort rise obviously,yet the values of roughness, softness and tightness are near the static values after finishing movement. The analysis shows that the overall estimation has the negative correlation with the thermal and moisture comfort and the positive correlation with the roughness and softness under static state. After movement the effects on overall estimate of thermal and moisture increase. Oppositely, the effects of roughness and softness decrease. Overall estimation has positive correlation with tightness at static. But it has no evident effect on overall comfort after movement and 5-minute-rest according to this experiment. The relationships between tightness and thermal, moisture, roughness,softness were also discussed in this paper.

  19. [Patient's pain feeling and surgeon's comfort--ECCE versus phacoemulsification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzny, Jakub J; Eliks, Iwona; Mierzejewski, Andrzej; Kałuzny, Bartłomiej

    2004-01-01

    To compare patient's pain and surgeon's comfort during ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia and phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. 120 patients scheduled for planned routine cataract extraction were divided in 2 groups: group 1-60 eyes, ECCE under retrobulbar anesthesia and group II-60 eyes, phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Immediately after operation patients were asked, to answer questions about their feeling during surgery. Simultaneously, the surgeon filled up the questionnaire, concerning patients behavior during the entire procedure. Statistically significant higher level of pain was reported in group I (ECCE). The most painful moment of the procedure was retrobulbar injection. During surgery pain feeling in both groups was similar. Both types of anesthesia provided very good level of surgeon's comfort. The longer operation, the higher level of pain and lower surgeon's comfort were reported in both groups. Patients having ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia reported more pain comparing to phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Both anesthesia methods provided high level of surgeon's comfort.

  20. does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering care?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Physicians and AIDS care: does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering ... experience, age and being a consultant or a senior resident influenced attitude, while male ..... having or not having children, prior instructions on ...

  1. The HVAC Control Technology Making Energy Saving Compatible with Comfort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    高木, 康夫; 米沢, 憲造; 村山, 大; 西村, 信孝; 花田, 雄一; 山崎, 謙一

    2010-01-01

    .... The method is mainly focused on the compatibility of energy savings and comfort. The energy saving is achieved through the next generation air handling unit that controls room humidity without energy loss and the optimal operation of HVAC...

  2. Study on Virtual Human Skeleton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧; 李亦

    2004-01-01

    A solution of virtual human skeleton system is proposed. Some issues on integration of anatomical geometry, biodynamics and computer animation are studied. The detailed skeleton system model that incorporates the biodynamic and geometric characteristics of a human skeleton system allows some performance studies in greater detail than that performed before. It may provide an effective and convenient way to analyze and evaluate the movement performance of a human body when the personalized anatomical data are used in the models. An example shows that the proposed solution is effective for the stated problems.

  3. 两种典型地板送风系统形式热舒适模拟分析%Numerical Study on Thermal Comfort of Two Typical Forms of Underfloor Air Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永生; 王昭俊

    2012-01-01

    通过模拟地板送风系统的两种典型系统形式,从获得的温度场、速度场、PMV场表明,下送上回系统较容易满足垂直空气温差的限值,下送下回系统容易超出垂直空气温差的限值,在低热力长度尺度(lm/H)时下送下回系统比下送上回系统容易获得舒适的环境,在高热力长度尺(lm/H)时,两种系统形式均易产生偏冷的室内环境。%Through the simulation of two typical forms of underfloor air distribution system,the velocity field and temperature field,PMV field were obtained,the results show that the Top Return system(TR) is easy to satisfy the vertical air temperature difference limits,while the Floor Return system(FR) is easy to exceed the vertical air temperature difference limits,and FR will easily obtain comfortable indoor climate when the thermal length scale(lm/H) is low,both of FR and TR will lightly generate a cold indoor environment when the thermal length scale(lm/H) is high.

  4. Comfort in using hand tools : theory, design and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Everyone uses hand tools in their daily life, like knife and fork. Moreover, many people use hand tools in their profession as well as during leisure time. It is important that they can work with hand tools that provide comfort. Until now, the avoidance of discomfort was emphasized during the design process of hand tools, like screwdrivers, hand saws and paint brushes. In the near future, the focus will shift towards providing comfort. However, some questions need to be answered to make this ...

  5. The effect of yarn folding on some comfort properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Snežana; Popović, Dušan; Poparić, Goran

    2013-01-01

    The compressive nature of textile fabrics is known to be a significant factor influencing tactile comfort. In addition, the transport of the heat through the fabric is considered to be the major factor in thermal comfort. Since the thermal behavior of textile fabrics is highly correlated with thickness and porosity, the changes in bulk density of the fabric caused by the compression force would change the heat flux through the fabric. The operation of yarn folding modifies the existing single...

  6. Health and thermal comfort : from WHO guidance to housing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ormandy, David; Ezratty, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    There are many references to the WHO guidance on thermal comfort in housing, but not to the original source material. Based on archive material, this paper gives the evidential basis for the WHO guidance. It then reports on evidence that some groups may be more susceptible to high or low indoor temperatures than others. It examines different methods for measuring thermal comfort, such as air temperature measurement, assessing residents' perception, and predicting satisfaction. Resident's perc...

  7. Contribution of garment fit and style to thermal comfort at the lower body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Böhnisch, Sonja; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2016-12-01

    The heat and mass transfer between the human body and the environment is not only affected by the properties of the fabric, but also by the size of the air gap thickness and the magnitude of the contact area between the body and garment. In this clothing-human-environment system, there is also an interaction between the clothing and the physiological response of the wearer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the air gap thickness and the contact area for the male lower body in relation to the garment fit and style using a three-dimensional (3D) body scanning method with a manikin. Moreover, their relation with the physiological response of the lower body was analysed using the physiological modelling. The presented study showed that the change in the air gap thickness and the contact area due to garment fit was greater for legs than the pelvis area due to regional differences of the body. Furthermore, the garment style did not have any effect on the core temperature or total water loss of the lower body, whereas the effect of garment fit on the core temperature and total water loss of lower body was observed only for 40 °C of ambient temperature. The skin temperatures were higher for especially loose garments at thigh than the tight garments. Consequently, the results of this study indicated that the comfort level of the human body for a given purpose can be adjusted by selection of fabric type and the design of ease allowances in the garment depending on the body region.

  8. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  9. An investigation into thermal comfort in the summer season of Ghadames, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ealiwa, M.A.; Taki, A.H.; Seden, M.R. [De Montfort Univ., School of Architecture, Leicester (United Kingdom); Howarth, A.T. [Nottingham Univ., School of the Built Environment, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    This paper reviews the results from a field survey of thermal comfort within two types of buildings; old (traditional) and new (contemporary), in Ghadames oasis in Libya. The survey was undertaken in the summer seasons 1997 and 1998, which were typical of the hot-dry climate of North Africa. It shows how the 237 residents responded to the environmental conditions. Questionnaires were collected from the residents of 51 buildings: 24 old buildings that employ natural ventilation systems with courtyards and 27 new buildings that employ air-conditioning systems. In addition the environmental parameters were measured in 11 buildings (5 old, 6 new) representing 50 subjects, to calculate the predicted mean vote value of the subject using Fanger's model as presented in ISO 7730 standard 1995. The survey has shown that the measurements of predicted mean vote (PMV) in new air-conditioned buildings provide satisfactory comfort conditions according to ISO 7730 and the occupants agreed by indicating a satisfactory actual mean vote (AMV). The equivalent measurements and survey results in old traditional buildings indicated that although the PMV, based on measurements and ISO 7730, implied discomfort (hot), the occupants expressed their thermal satisfaction with the indoor comfort conditions. The field study also investigated occupants' overall impression of the indoor thermal environments; the results suggest that people have an overall impression of higher standard to thermal comfort in old buildings than in new buildings. (Author)

  10. Lifetime intimate partner violence exposure, attitudes and comfort among Canadian health professions students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Megan R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread public health problem and training of health professions students has become common. Understanding students' prior knowledge, attitudes and personal exposure to IPV will aid educators in designing more effective curriculum. As interprofessional educational efforts proliferate, understanding differences across disciplines will be critical. Findings Students in the schools of Medicine, Nursing and Rehabilitation at a university in Ontario attend an annual daylong interprofessional IPV training. To measure perceived role and comfort with IPV and prior personal exposure, we administered a brief Likert scale survey to a convenience sample of students over three years. 552 students completed the survey; the overall response rate was 73%. The majority (82% agreed that it was their role to intervene in cases of IPV; however Rehabilitation students expressed lower overall comfort levels than did their peers in other schools (p Conclusion While the majority of professional students believe it is their role to address IPV in clinical practice, comfort level varied significantly by field of study. More than one fifth of the students reported some personal exposure to IPV. However this did not impact their level of comfort in addressing this issue. Educators need to take students' preexisting attitudes and personal exposure into account when planning curriculum initiatives in this area.

  11. Comfort temperatures inside low-cost housing : case : six warm climate cities in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Azpeitia, G. [Colima Univ., Colima (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture and Design; Bojorquez, G.; Romero, R. [Autonomic Univ. of Baja California, Mexicali (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture and Design; Ruiz, P. [Autonomic Univ. of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture; Ochoa, J. [Sonora Univ., Hermosillo (Mexico). School of Architecture; Perez, M. [Autonomic Univ. of Yucatan, Merida (Mexico). Faculty of Engineering; Resendiz, O. [Autonomic Univ. of Baja California Sur, La Paz (Mexico). Dept. of Fishing Engineering; Llamas, A. [Autonomic Univ. of Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico). Faculty of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    Mexico's National Council for Housing and National Council for Science and Technology supported a research project on the thermal comfort and energy savings in low-cost housing in Mexico. The objective was to establish thermal comfort models and provide reliable diagnostic tools for architectural designers of low-cost housing. Another objective was to promote energy savings through the adjustment of operative temperatures in air conditioning equipment. The approach of the research was an adaptive one in order to evaluate the thermal sensation of individuals in their own habitat; allow the integral study of both physiological and psychological reactions; and consider the individuals as proactive occupants, in search of their thermal comfort. The results of a field study developed according to the adaptive approach principles were presented in this paper. The survey was carried out from 2006 to 2007 in low-cost housing units in 6 Mexican cities with warm climates. In all cases, the houses were naturally ventilated. The measuring periods were determined according to the climatic characteristics of each city. The results of the field study demonstrated the importance of having standards of thermal comfort specific to each location, which must be defined through the direct response of individuals and in the environment in which they perform their daily activities. The results also showed that in hot climates, acclimated people may find comfort in temperatures around 30 degrees C during the warmest seasons. Therefore, reducing the operating temperatures of air conditioning in such conditions represents a huge opportunity for saving electricity. 16 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Monitoring and assessment of thermical comfort in hygrothermically moderate offices and laboratories; Monitoraggio e valutazione del comfort termico negli ambienti di lavoro termoigrometricamente moderati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    This study reports the results of the micro climatic measurements carried out in some ENEA work environments. The work conditions in the surveyed areas, have been evaluated following welfare indexes or thermical comfort: PMV= Predicted Mean Vote (ISO recommendation 7730); PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (ISO recommendation 7730). [Italiano] In questo studio sono riportati i risultati delle misure microclimatiche eseguite in alcuni ambienti di lavoro dei centri ENEA di Bologna. Le condizioni di lavoro (delle zone che sono state sottoposte ad indagine) sono state valutate mediante i seguenti indici di benessere o `comfort` termico: Voto Medio Previsto (PMV= Predicted Mean Vote) - raccomandazione ISO 7730; Percentuale Prevista di Insoddisfatti (PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied) - raccomandazione ISO 7730.

  13. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  14. Improving PAQ and comfort conditions in Spanish office buildings with passive climate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A.; Baalina, A. [Departamento de Energia y P.M. Escuela Tecnica Superior de N. y M, Universidade da Coruna, Paseo de Ronda 51, P.C.:15011 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Some researchers have demonstrated that passive moisture transfer between indoor air and hygroscopic structures has the potential to moderate variations of indoor air relative humidity and, thus, to improve comfort and PAQ [Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air 2002; 12: 243-51; Simonson CJ, Salonvaara M, Ojalen T. Improving indoor climate and comfort with wooden structures. Espoo 2001. Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 431.200p+app 91p]. The main objective of this study is to show the internal wall coating effect on indoor air conditions and, as a consequence of this, in comfort conditions and PAQ. In a previous paper [Orosa JA, Baalina A. Passive climate control in Spanish office buildings for long periods of time. Building and Environment 2008], we analysed the influence of permeable and impermeable materials on indoor air conditions, during the unoccupied period, in 25 office buildings in different seasons. Results obtained lead us to conclude that real coverings such as permeable, semi-permeable and impermeable types, present different behavioural patterns in indoor air conditions. Furthermore, we concluded that an absorbent structure will moderate relative humidity indoors. In this paper, we study this indoor relative humidity effect on local thermal discomfort, due to decreased respiratory cooling, and indoor ambience acceptability for the early hours of morning applying PD and Acc models [Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits for indoor air humidity to avoid uncomfortably humid skin. Energy and buildings 1998; 28: 1-13; Toftum J, Jorgensen AS, Fanger PO. Upper limits of air humidity for preventing warm respiratory discomfort. Energy and Buildings 1998; 28: 15-23] such as that proposed by Simonson et al. [The effect of structures on indoor humidity-possibility to improve comfort and perceived air quality. Indoor Air

  15. On the use of bioclimatic architecture principles in order to improve thermal comfort conditions in outdoor spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaitani, N.; Mihalakakou, G. [Department of Environment and Natural Resources Management, University of Ioannina, 30 100 Agrinion (Greece); Santamouris, M. [Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of Physics, Division of Applied Physics, University of Athens, University Campus, Build. PHYS-V, Athens, GR 15784 (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The present paper describes a process for designing and applying several techniques based on bioclimatic architecture criteria and on passive cooling and energy conservation principles in order to improve the thermal comfort conditions in an outdoor space location located in the Great Athens area. For that reason, the thermal comfort conditions in 12 different outdoor space points in the experimented location have been calculated using two different thermal comfort bioclimatic indices developed to be used for outdoor spaces. The used indices were the following: (a) 'Comfa', which is based on estimating the energy budget of a person in an outdoor environment and (b) 'thermal sensation', based on the satisfaction or dissatisfaction sensation under the prevailing climatic conditions of the outdoor spaces. Calculations were performed during the summer period and two different scenarios of the constructed space parameters have been considered. The first scenario consists of a conventionally constructed space, while the second one includes various architectural improvements according to the bioclimatic design principles. The two bioclimatic indicators were used for calculating the outdoor thermal comfort conditions in the above-mentioned outdoor space locations for both scenarios and the effect of the bioclimatic design architectural improvements on the human thermal comfort sensation was presented and analysed. (author)

  16. Osteometric study of human femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeleton is playing important role in various like Medicine, Forensic sciences, Anthropology etc. Estimation of sex, age, race, stature by skeleton and the presence of disease is discovered by Krogman and Iscan (1986. Sex is determined after death by skeletal remains of that individual by some forensic anthropologists with the help of pelvis, skull and long bones. The study was undertaken in 50 femurs for measuring epicondylar breadth, Neck shaft angle, transverse and vertical diameter of head. The results were the average meanepicondylar breadth was 75.6 ± 6.06mm, mean right epicondylar breadth was 73.96 ± 4.99mm and left it was 76.35 ± 7.0mm. The average mean neck shaft angle was 125.3 ± 6.50mm, mean right neck shaft angle was 124.44 ± 5.7mm and left it was 126.3 ± 7.33mm. The average mean transverse diameter of head was 37.86 ± 3.06mm, mean right transverse diameter of head was 37.74 ± 3.05mm and left it was 38.00 ± 3.13mm. The average mean vertical diameter of head was 42.24 ± 3.53mm, mean right vertical diameter of head was 41.63 ± 3.09mm and left it was 42.96 ± 3.92mm, Neck shaft angle ranges from a minimum of 106° to maximum 135° with a mean value of 125.3°. The knowledge of osteometric values is helpful to anthropological and forensic practice. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 104-107

  17. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces.

  18. Dental vs. Medical Students' Comfort with Smoking Cessation Counseling: Implications for Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Staci Robinson; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if dental and medical students have similar feelings of professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence with counseling patients about smoking cessation during their clinical years. All third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical (N=580) and dental students (N=144) at Western University of Health Sciences were invited to participate in a survey in April-July 2014, either electronically or in person, regarding their perceived professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence in counseling smokers about quitting and major constraints against counseling smokers about quitting. Respondents' demographic characteristics, smoking history, and history of living with a smoker were also assessed. Response rates were 21% (124/580) for medical and 82% (118/144) for dental students. Most of the responding medical (99.2%) and dental (94.9%) students reported feeling it was their professional responsibility to counsel patients about smoking cessation. Medical student respondents were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling patients about smoking cessation than dental student respondents (p0.10). There were no differences by age, but students who were former smokers were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling about smoking cessation than were nonsmokers (p=0.001). While almost all of the responding students reported feeling responsible for counseling patients about smoking cessation, the medical students and former smokers were more comfortable and confident performing this counseling. These results suggest the need for additional training in counseling techniques for dental students and nonsmokers. Future studies should assess the impact of medical and dental students' smoking cessation counseling.

  19. The Design of a Patient Transportation Robot's Lifting Arms Considering Comfort and Safety without the Presence of a Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hoon Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A transportation robot's lifting arms have an effect on the comfort and safety of patients. Improved arms have been designed through dynamic and static analyses to increase safety if a sheet not present on the lifting arms. To design the lifting arms, experimentation is very helpful, however, it is difficult and dangerous to experiment on patients; therefore, a simple human model was made and used for the dynamic analysis. Through the dynamic analysis results, a safe width and comfortable location for the lifting arms were determined. The thickness was then determined by static analysis and optimum design. In addition, tests have been conducted to confirm comfort and safety by deploying the designed lifting arms onto a transportation robot.

  20. Ozone initiated reactions and human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    their precursors. The present thesis investigates the effects of ozone-initiated reactions with limonene and with various interior surfaces, including those associated with people, on short-term sensory responses. The evaluations were conducted using a perceived air quality (PAQ) method introduced by Fanger (1988...... that are typical for ozone-limonene chemistry have been concomitantly identified with real time measurement using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), at concentrations high enough to be responsible for the sensory effects reported. The stabilized reaction products of ozone-limonene chemistry...... to be proportional to the magnitude of the sensory responses. However, the particles themselves did not appear to be the primary causative agent, but instead are co-varying surrogates for sensory offending gas-phase species. The experiments involving heterogeneous reactions of ozone with various indoor materials...