WorldWideScience

Sample records for human comensal micro-organism

  1. Systems biology from micro-organisms to human metabolic diseases: the role of detailed kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Barbara M; van Eunen, Karen; Jeneson, Jeroen A L; van Riel, Natal A W; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas

    2010-10-01

    Human metabolic diseases are typically network diseases. This holds not only for multifactorial diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes, but even when a single gene defect is the primary cause, where the adaptive response of the entire network determines the severity of disease. The latter may differ between individuals carrying the same mutation. Understanding the adaptive responses of human metabolism naturally requires a systems biology approach. Modelling of metabolic pathways in micro-organisms and some mammalian tissues has yielded many insights, qualitative as well as quantitative, into their control and regulation. Yet, even for a well-known pathway such as glycolysis, precise predictions of metabolite dynamics from experimentally determined enzyme kinetics have been only moderately successful. In the present review, we compare kinetic models of glycolysis in three cell types (African trypanosomes, yeast and skeletal muscle), evaluate their predictive power and identify limitations in our understanding. Although each of these models has its own merits and shortcomings, they also share common features. For example, in each case independently measured enzyme kinetic parameters were used as input. Based on these 'lessons from glycolysis', we will discuss how to make best use of kinetic computer models to advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases.

  2. The Human Glycoprotein Salivary Agglutinin Inhibits the Interaction of DC-SIGN and Langerin with Oral Micro-Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Martine A; Gunput, Sabrina T G; Kosten, Ilona; Gibbs, Susan; van Vliet, Sandra J; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp340 or SALSA, is a glycoprotein encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene and is abundantly present in human saliva. SAG aggregates bacteria and viruses, thereby promoting their clearance from the oral cavity. The mucosa lining the oral cavity contains dendritic cells (DC) and Langerhans cells (LC), which express the C-type lectin receptors (CLR) DC-SIGN and Langerin, respectively. Both DC-SIGN and Langerin recognise mannose and fucose carbohydrate structures on pathogens and self-glycoproteins to regulate immunity and homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SAG interacts with these CLR and whether this interferes with the binding to oral pathogens. We show that whole parotid saliva and SAG, when coated to microplates, strongly interact with DC-SIGN and Langerin, probably via mannose and fucose structures. Also, primary human DC and LC bind parotid saliva and SAG via DC-SIGN and Langerin, respectively. Furthermore, SAG binding to DC-SIGN or Langerin prevented binding to the micro-organisms Candida albicans and Escherichia coli which express mannose and fucose-containing glycan structures. Thus, binding of saliva glycoprotein SAG to DC-SIGN and Langerin may inhibit pathogen-DC/LC interactions, and could prove to be a new immunomodulatory mechanism of SAG.

  3. Micro-Organ Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  4. The human glycoprotein salivary agglutinin inhibits the interaction of dc-sign and langerin with oral micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, M.A.; Gunput, S.T.G.; Kosten, I.; Gibbs, S.; van Vliet, S.J.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; van Kooyk, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), also known as gp340 or SALSA, is a glycoprotein encoded by the Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 gene and is abundantly present in human saliva. SAG aggregates bacteria and viruses, thereby promoting their clearance from the oral cavity. The mucosa lining the oral cavit

  5. Interactions between novel micro-organisms and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, P; Franciosa, G

    2002-09-01

    Microbial strains traditionally used to ferment food have a long history of safe use and are, therefore, considered as generally recognised as safe. Many of these micro-organisms have also functional attributes and are included among probiotics. New species and strains of bacteria with desirable technological and functional properties are constantly being identified; in addition, micro-organisms can be engineered by recently developed biotechnological tools in order to accelerate strain improvement. Although the potentialities of novel micro-organisms with better probiotic and technological properties are promising, it cannot be assumed that they share the safety record of traditional micro-organisms, since they may pose unique challenges for human health. The risk assessment and safety evaluation of novel micro-organisms must focus, primarily, on their potential harmful effects, both direct and indirect, upon host resident intestinal microflora. Genetically modified micro-organisms need further assessment for the complete characterisation of the DNA rearrangement and of the final product, in order to establish the "substantial equivalence" with the parental strain.

  6. Alkaliphilic Micro-organisms and Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Ulukanli, Zeynep

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline environments are typical extreme environments which include naturally occurring soda lakes, deserts, soils and artificially occurring industrial-derived waters. Micro-organisms that occupy extreme pH environments have resulted in the definition of an unusual group, termed alkaliphiles. In this review, the current status of the biodiversity of alkaliphilic micro-organisms in various environments and aspects of their biotechnological potential are summarised briefly.

  7. Identification of micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    Manual presents detailed laboratory procedures for identifying aerobic or microaerobic bacteria, yeast or yeastible organisms, and filamentous fungi and conducting other microbiological or immunological evaluations of samples taken from human subjects. Standardized procedures should be useful to researchers and clinicians in laboratories, hospitals and other biological test facilities.

  8. Attaching substances to micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Leenhouts, Cornelis Johannes; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to surface display of proteins on micro-organisms via the targeting and anchoring of heterologous proteins to the outer surface of cells such as yeast, fungi, mammalian and plant cells, and bacteria. The invention provides a proteinaceous substance comprising a reactive group a

  9. Micro-organism that can convert ellagic acid and ellagitannins into urolithins and use of same

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Barberán, Francisco; Selma, María Victoria; Beltrán Riquelme, David; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Villalba, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to the identification, for the first time, of micro-organisms of human gastrointestinal origin, that can produce urolithins, to methods for producing said compounds, to the use of said compounds thus produced in the production of food formulations, pharmaceutical formulations, dietary or food supplements and functional foods, to the production of probiotic compositions by means of the incorporation of urolithin-producing micro-organisms, and to a method for the isol...

  10. Mass Spectrometer for Airborne Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria and other micro-organisms identified continously with aid of new technique for producing samples for mass spectrometer. Technique generates aerosol of organisms and feeds to spectrometer. Given species of organism produces characteristic set of peaks in mass spectrum and thereby identified. Technique useful for monitoring bacterial makeup in environmental studies and in places where cleanliness is essential, such as hospital operating rooms, breweries, and pharmaceutical plants.

  11. Lead resistance in micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosławiecka, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an element present in the environment that negatively affects all living organisms. To diminish its high toxicity, micro-organisms have developed several mechanisms that allow them to survive exposure to Pb(II). The main mechanisms of lead resistance involve adsorption by extracellular polysaccharides, cell exclusion, sequestration as insoluble phosphates, and ion efflux to the cell exterior. This review describes the various lead resistance mechanisms, and the regulation of their expression by lead binding regulatory proteins. Special attention is given to the Pbr system from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, which involves a unique mechanism combining efflux and lead precipitation.

  12. Collective motion of micro-organisms from field theoretical viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the collective motion of micro-organisms in the fluid and consider the problem of the red tide. The red tide is produced by the condensation of the micro-organisms, which might be a similar phenomenon to the condensation of the strings. We propose a model of the generation of the red tide. By considering the interaction between the micro-organisms mediated by the velocity fields in the fluid, we derive the Van der Waals type equation of state, where the generation of the red tide can be regarded as a phase transition from the gas of micro-organisms to the liquid.

  13. Analysis of Membrane Lipids of Airborne Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    A method of characterization of airborne micro-organisms in a given location involves (1) large-volume filtration of air onto glass-fiber filters; (2) accelerated extraction of membrane lipids of the collected micro-organisms by use of pressurized hot liquid; and (3) identification and quantitation of the lipids by use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This method is suitable for use in both outdoor and indoor environments; for example, it can be used to measure airborne microbial contamination in buildings ("sick-building syndrome"). The classical approach to analysis of airborne micro-organisms is based on the growth of cultureable micro-organisms and does not provide an account of viable but noncultureable micro-organisms, which typically amount to more than 90 percent of the micro-organisms present. In contrast, the present method provides an account of all micro-organisms, including cultureable, noncultureable, aerobic, and anaerobic ones. The analysis of lipids according to this method makes it possible to estimate the number of viable airborne micro-organisms present in the sampled air and to obtain a quantitative profile of the general types of micro-organisms present along with some information about their physiological statuses.

  14. [Evolution of pathogenic micro-organisms as a challenge for medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Martti

    2009-01-01

    Successful parasitic micro-organisms are able to adapt to the circumstances of the host's organ system, and it is usually not expedient for them to kill their host. Under selection pressure, the evolution of micro-organisms is vastly quicker that that of man. The selection pressure brought about by rapid ecological changes and alterations associated with human action provides for the development of new, dangerous pathogens and transformation of familiar pathogens to become more dangerous. Progress in molecular biology has thus far not yielded as many new tools for the treatment of infectious diseases as the hopes were in the early 2000's.

  15. Process for selecting polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kleerebezem, R.; Jian, Y.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for selecting a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing micro-organism from a natural source comprising a variety of micro-organisms, comprising steps of preparing a fermentation broth comprising the natural source and nutrients in water; creating and maintaining

  16. Process for selecting polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kleerebezem, R.; Jian, Y.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for selecting a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing micro-organism from a natural source comprising a variety of micro-organisms, comprising steps of preparing a fermentation broth comprising the natural source and nutrients in water; creating and maintaining aero

  17. Collective Motion of Micro-organisms from Field Theoretical Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the collective motion of micro-organisms in the fluid and consider the problem of the red tide. The red tide is produced by the condensation of the micro-organisms, which might be a similar phenomenon to the condensation of the strings. We propose a model of the generation of the red tide. By considering the interaction between the micro- organisms mediated by the velocity fields in the fluid, we derive the Van der Waals type equation of state, where the generation of the red tide ...

  18. Rotary Apparatus Concentrates And Separates Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus concentrates and separates swimming micro-organisms of different species into concentric rings in fluid. Fluid containing high concentration of desired species removed by use of small scoop placed into fluid at radius of one of rings formed by that species. Micro-organisms concentrated into concentric rings by combined dynamic effects of upward and horizontal components of swimming, rotation of dish, gravitation, and viscosity.

  19. 9 CFR 114.5 - Micro-organisms used as seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Micro-organisms used as seed. 114.5... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.5 Micro-organisms used as seed. Micro-organisms used in the preparation of... conditions. A complete record of such micro-organisms shall be kept currently correct and a list submitted...

  20. Advances in environmental genomics: towards an integrated view of micro-organisms and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Philippe N; Médigue, Claudine; Normand, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    Microbial genome sequencing has, for the first time, made accessible all the components needed for both the elaboration and the functioning of a cell. Associated with other global methods such as protein and mRNA profiling, genomics has considerably extended our knowledge of physiological processes and their diversity not only in human, animal and plant pathogens but also in environmental isolates. At a higher level of complexity, the so-called meta approaches have recently shown great promise in investigating microbial communities, including uncultured micro-organisms. Combined with classical methods of physico-chemistry and microbiology, these endeavours should provide us with an integrated view of how micro-organisms adapt to particular ecological niches and participate in the dynamics of ecosystems.

  1. Stringy and membranic theory of swimming of micro-organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M; Kawamura, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio

    1996-01-01

    When the swimming of micro-organisms is viewed from the string and membrane theories coupled to the velocity field of the fluid, a number of interesting results are derived; 1) importance of the area (or volume) preserving algebra, 2) usefulness of the N-point Reggeon (membranic) amplitudes, and of the gas to liquid transition in case of the red tide issues, 3) close relation between the red tide issue and the generation of Einstein gravity, and 4) possible understanding of the three different swimming ways of micro-organisms from the singularity structure of the shape space.

  2. Killer-sensitive coexistence in metapopulations of micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.L.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Many micro-organisms are known to produce efficient toxic substances against conspecifics and closely related species. The widespread coexistence of killer (toxin producer) and sensitive (non-producer) strains is a puzzle calling for a theoretical explanation. Based on stochastic cellular automaton

  3. Children's Anthropomorphic and Anthropocentric Ideas about Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny; Grace, Marcus; Hanley, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Different views exist about whether anthropomorphic ideas assist or hinder learning in biology. This paper discusses the anthropomorphic and anthropocentric ideas children have about micro-organisms, and whether they affect their understanding. The research was carried out in primary and secondary schools in the South of England and involved 414…

  4. Models of Micro-Organisms: Children's Knowledge and Understanding of Micro-Organisms from 7 to 14 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the expressed models that children aged 7, 11, and 14 years have about micro-organisms and microbial activity. These were elicited using a variety of data collection techniques that complemented each other, resulting in a rich dataset, and provided information about the level of knowledge and progression of ideas across the…

  5. Behçet's syndrome and micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Gulen; Yazici, Hasan

    2011-06-01

    Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a multi-systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology. More than one mechanism seems to be operative in the pathogenesis of Behçet's syndrome, including genetic and environmental factors, causing different manifestations of the syndrome. There are several clues to the role of environmental factors and especially micro-organisms in the pathogenesis. These include clinical findings such as a decrease in the frequency of a positive pathergy reaction with surgical cleaning of the skin before the procedure, the acne-arthritis association carrying similar features to acne-associated reactive arthritis, a higher rate of tonsillectomy, cold sores, late birth order, higher number of siblings, history of travel to countries with a high incidence of BS and earlier age at first sexual intercourse. Moreover, basic research on both viruses and bacteria suggests that micro-organisms may be playing a role, possibly through heat shock proteins and T-cell hypersensitivity.

  6. Oral micro-organisms in the etiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, Jukka H; Uittamo, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel concept on carcinogenesis mediated by oral microbiota. Oral micro-organisms are capable of metabolizing alcohol to acetaldehyde. This finding casts light on the observed association between poor oral hygiene and oral cancer. Ethanol, as such, is not carcinogenic, but its first metabolite acetaldehyde is indisputably carcinogenic. Several gastro-intestinal microbial species possess the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is also the enzyme responsible for alcohol metabolism in the liver. In oral microbiota, we observed that species such as the ubiquitous viridans streptococci and Candida also possess ADH. Ethanol can be detected in the mouth hours after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Patients with poor oral health status have shown higher salivary acetaldehyde concentrations than those with better oral health. It is thus understandable that ADH-containing micro-organisms in the mouth present a risk for carcinogenic acetaldehyde production, with subsequent potential for the development of oral cancer, particularly among heavy drinkers. In this article, we briefly review this area of investigation and conclude by highlighting some future possibilities for the control of carcinogenesis.

  7. Biotransformations of monoterpenes by photoautotrophic micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, L; Lipok, J; Strub, D; Lochyński, S

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes are widely used in food technology, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries and as compounds of agricultural importance. It is known that compounds comprising this class can be transformed by a variety of organisms, namely by: bacteria, fungi, yeasts, plants or isolated enzymes. Biotransformations, as one of the most important tools of green chemistry, allow obtaining new products using whole cells of micro-organisms or isolated enzymes in mild reaction conditions. Therefore, biotransformations of monoterpenes, by different type of reaction such as: epoxidation, oxidation and stereoselective hydroxylation, resulted in the production of so desired, enantiomerically defined compounds that can be advised as natural seem to be interesting. Bearing in mind that such processes are carried out also by easy to maintain, photoautotrophic micro-organisms cultivated at large scale, this paper is focused on biotransformations of acyclic, monocyclic and bicyclic monoterpenes by freshwater or haliphylic cyanobacteria and microalgae on the way of mainly stereoselective hydroxylation. Moreover, aspects of potential industrial application of obtained products in medicine, perfume, cosmetics and food industry are discussed.

  8. Scanning respirometer for toxicity tests using micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Quan; Li, Xiang-Ming; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Kwan, FolkYear

    1995-09-01

    A novel respirometer is developed for microbial toxicity tests. The respirometer is based on luminescent quenching of oxygen to measure the concentration of dissolved oxygen in cell vessels and evaluate the toxicity of chemicals by monitoring the effect of toxicants on cell respiration of micro-organisms. The oxygen sensing element is ruthenium complex absorbed on the surface of silica particles followed by immobilizing on a silicone rubber film. The oxygen sensing film is coated on the inner bottom of a transparent cell vessel. A sensing device scanning under the cell vessel is used for remote monitoring of the oxygen concentration inside the cell vessels so that a large number of samples can be handled in one batch. The sensing device includes the excitation light sources and an optical cable connected to a filter and a photomultiplier tube for detecting the luminescence in the cell vessel which can then be related to the dissolved oxygen concentration inside the cell vessel. The movement of the sensing device and data acquisition are controlled by a personal computer. The toxicity of heavy metals to activated sludge, soil bacteria and E. coli were tested using the present device. The scanning respirometer provides a new alternative for fast and large scale screening and monitoring of toxicants using micro-organisms.

  9. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial scales. Results Here, we analyze and compare the structure, innervation, embryonic morphogenesis and sensory functions of postcranial, cranial, and lingual sensory organs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). Our molecular analyses indicate that sensory neurons of crocodylian ISOs express a large repertoire of transduction channels involved in mechano-, thermo-, and chemosensory functions, and our electrophysiological analyses confirm that each ISO exhibits a combined sensitivity to mechanical, thermal and pH stimuli (but not hyper-osmotic salinity), making them remarkable multi-sensorial micro-organs with no equivalent in the sensory systems of other vertebrate lineages. We also show that ISOs all exhibit similar morphologies and modes of development, despite forming at different stages of scale morphogenesis across the body. Conclusions The ancestral vertebrate diffused sensory system of the skin was transformed in the crocodylian lineages into an array of discrete multi-sensory micro-organs innervated by multiple pools of sensory neurons. This discretization of skin sensory expression sites is unique among vertebrates and allowed crocodylians to develop a highly-armored, but very sensitive, skin. PMID:23819918

  10. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microorganisms that can vary their shape and their preferential orientation.

  11. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Caijuan; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microor...

  12. 5-Fluorouracil sensitivity varies among oral micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlancker, Eline; Vanhoecke, Barbara; Smet, Rozel; Props, Ruben; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2016-08-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, often causes oral mucositis, an inflammation and ulceration of the oral mucosa. Micro-organisms in the oral cavity are thought to play an important role in the aggravation and severity of mucositis, but the mechanisms behind this remain unclear. Although 5-FU has been shown to elicit antibacterial effects at high concentrations (>100 µM), its antibacterial effect at physiologically relevant concentrations in the oral cavity is unknown. This study reports the effect of different concentrations of 5-FU (range 0.1-50 µM) on the growth and viability of bacterial monocultures that are present in the oral cavity and the possible role in the activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), an enzyme involved in 5-FU resistance. Our data showed a differential sensitivity among the tested oral species towards physiological concentrations of 5-FU. Klebsiellaoxytoca, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus salivarius appeared to be highly resistant to all tested concentrations. In contrast, Lactobacillusoris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus pyogenes, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Neisseria mucosa showed a significant reduction in growth and viability starting from very low concentrations (0.2-3.1 µM). We can also provide evidence that DPD is not involved in the 5-FU resistance of the selected species. The observed variability in response to physiological 5-FU concentrations may explain why certain microbiota lead to a community dysbiosis and/or an overgrowth of certain resistant micro-organisms in the oral cavity following cancer treatment.

  13. Simple, effective protein extraction method and proteomics analysis from polyunsaturated fatty acids-producing micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Zheng, Chuqiang; Ye, Chiming; Lu, Yinghua; Pan, Xueshan; Chen, Zhengqi; Ng, I-Son

    2015-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are valuable ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical products due to their beneficial influence on human health. Most studies paid attention on the production of PUFAs from oleaginous micro-organisms but seldom on the comparative proteomics of cells. In the study, three methods (i.e., cold shock, acetone precipitation and ethanol precipitation) for lipid removal from crude protein extracts were applied in different PUFAs-producing micro-organisms. Among the selective strains, Schizochytrium was used as an oleaginous strain with high lipid of 60.3 (w/w%) in biomass. The Mortierella alpina and Cunninghamella echinulata were chosen as the low-lipid-content strains with 25.8 (w/w%) and 21.8 (w/w%) of lipid in biomass, respectively. The cold shock resulted as the most effective method for lipid removed, thus obtained higher protein amount for Schizochytrium. Moreover, from the comparative proteomics for the three PUFAs-producing strains, it showed more significant proteins of up or down-regulation were explored under cold shock treatment. Therefore, the essential proteins (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase) and regulating proteins were observed. In conclusion, this study provides a valuable and practical approach for analysis of high PUFAs-producing strains at the proteomics level, and would further accelerate the understanding of the metabolic flux in oleaginous micro-organisms.

  14. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J; Karthikeyan, M; Sunitha, J; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-08-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the "role" that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology.

  15. Micro-organic dust combustion considering particles thermal resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammadamin Soltaninejad; Farzad Faraji Dizaji; Hossein Beidaghy Dizaji; Mehdi Bidabadi

    2015-01-01

    Organic dust flames deal with a field of science in which many complicated phenomena like pyrolysis or devolatization of solid particles and combustion of volatile particles take place. One-dimensional flame propagation in cloud of fuel mixture is analyzed in which flame structure is divided into three zones. The first zone is preheat zone in which rate of the chemical reaction is small and transfer phenomena play significant role in temperature and mass distributions. In this model, it is assumed that particles pyrolyze first to yield a gaseous fuel mixture. The second zone is reaction zone where convection and vaporization rates of the particles are small. The third zone is convection zone where diffusive terms are negligible in comparison of other terms. Non-zero Biot number is used in order to study effect of particles thermal resistance on flame characteristics. Also, effect of particle size on combustion of micro organic dust is investigated. According to obtained results, it is understood that both flame temperature and burning velocity decrease with rise in the Biot number and particle size.

  16. Detection of arboviruses and other micro-organisms in experimentally infected mosquitoes using massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Allcock, Richard; Kresoje, Nina; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Warrilow, David

    2013-01-01

    Human disease incidence attributed to arbovirus infection is increasing throughout the world, with effective control interventions limited by issues of sustainability, insecticide resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. Several promising control strategies are currently under development, such as the release of mosquitoes trans-infected with virus-blocking Wolbachia bacteria. Implementation of any control program is dependent on effective virus surveillance and a thorough understanding of virus-vector interactions. Massively parallel sequencing has enormous potential for providing comprehensive genomic information that can be used to assess many aspects of arbovirus ecology, as well as to evaluate novel control strategies. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we analyzed Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus experimentally infected with dengue, yellow fever or chikungunya viruses. Random amplification was used to prepare sufficient template for sequencing on the Personal Genome Machine. Viral sequences were present in all infected mosquitoes. In addition, in most cases, we were also able to identify the mosquito species and mosquito micro-organisms, including the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Importantly, naturally occurring Wolbachia strains could be differentiated from strains that had been trans-infected into the mosquito. The method allowed us to assemble near full-length viral genomes and detect other micro-organisms without prior sequence knowledge, in a single reaction. This is a step toward the application of massively parallel sequencing as an arbovirus surveillance tool. It has the potential to provide insight into virus transmission dynamics, and has applicability to the post-release monitoring of Wolbachia in mosquito populations.

  17. Doing what comes naturally: micro-organisms decompose oilfield waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    1999-10-01

    The Calgary-based Unique Oilfield Technology Services (UNOTEC) is developing a process that by providing the necessary tools and suitable working environment, such as nutrients, aeration and moisture, to naturally occurring bacteria and fungi, will transform oilfield wastes into a totally contained end product suitable for on-site land treatment. The work environment for the micro-organism is created by mixing drilling residue with canola meal and dry wood shavings. Canola meal can immobilize oil and prevent leaching in the containment mixture following land treatment while also providing a culture for hydrocarbon-using bacteria. It also contains nitrogen, which is a growth stimulating agent. Wood fibre creates a matrix that facilitates continuous air supply and is also a good source of fungi which produce enzymes that break down hydrocarbon rings for the bacteria to feed upon. It is claimed that the containment mix contains no free oil and is suitable for spreading winter or summer. Total cost of the bioremediation treatment for a single well is about $ 29,000. Cuttings removal from a similar well by conventional means cost $ 45,000 to meet provincial standards. To keep oil-based drilling mud off the ground, UNOTEC uses two sizes of shale shaker catch tanks and storage tanks of various dimensions. These collect the cuttings and recover drilling fluid for recycling. Centrifugation prior to transfer to storage tanks is also used to separate solids from drilling mud. The free oil represents an additional source of revenue to the company. To date, the technology has been used only in Canada, but interest has been expressed by oil companies in Algeria and also in Mexico. 3 photos.

  18. Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei: the causative micro-organisms of glanders and melioidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Jacob

    2007-11-01

    Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei are the causative micro-organisms of Glanders and Melioidosis, respectively. Although now rare in Western countries, both micro-organisms have recently gained much interest because of their unique potential as bioterrorism agents. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Melioidosis and Glanders. Recent patents relating to these micro-organisms, especially potential vaccines, are presented. Continued research and development is urgently needed, especially in regard to rapid and accurate diagnosis of melioidosis and glanders, efficacious therapy and primary and secondary prevention.

  19. Practical Tips for the Safe Handling of Micro-organisms in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, G.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines safe laboratory procedures for the handling of micro-organisms including aseptic technique, manipulation of cultures, and treatment of contaminated equipment. Identifies the principal hazard as the microbial aerosol, explains its possible effects, and describes the appropriate precautions. (GS)

  20. Efficiency of swimming of micro-organism and singularity in shape space

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, M

    1996-01-01

    Micro-organisms can be classified into three different types according to their size. We study the efficiency of the swimming of micro-organism in two dimensional fluid as a device for helping the explanation of this hierarchy in the size. We show that the efficiency of flagellate becomes unboundedly large, whereas that of ciliate has the upper bound. The unboundedness is related to the curious feature of the shape space, that is, a singularity at the basic shape of flagellate.

  1. The possible influence of micro-organisms and putrefaction in the production of GHB in post-mortem biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon; Lowe, Pauline; Symonds, Amanda

    2004-01-28

    In recent years, the post-mortem production of the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biological fluids (e.g. blood and urine) has caused various interpretative problems for toxicologists. Previously, other researchers have shown certain microbial species (Pseudomonas spp. and Clostridium aminobutyricum) possess the necessary enzymes to convert GABA to GHB. A preliminary investigation involving putrefied post-mortem blood indicated there was no observed relationship between "endogenous" GHB concentrations and concentrations of common putrefactive markers (tryptamine and phenyl-2-ethylamine). Microbiological analysis identified the presence of various micro-organisms: Clostridia spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalis and Aeromonoas spp. Equine plasma, human blood and urine samples were inoculated with these and an additional micro-organism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and incubated at 22 degrees C for 1 month. Following comparison with control samples and pre-inoculation concentrations, the data indicated an apparent production of GHB in unpreserved P. aeruginosa inoculated blood (2.3 mg/l). All other fluoride-preserved and unpreserved samples (including controls) had GHB concentrations post-mortem GHB concentrations, this paper proposes a potential microbial production of GHB with time.

  2. PREFACE: Swimming at low Reynolds numbers—motility of micro-organisms Swimming at low Reynolds numbers—motility of micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstecki, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2009-05-01

    another striking feature of the microbial motility—at low values of the Reynolds number the hydrodynamic interactions are long range on the scale of the swimmer. This leads to conditions that are surprising for a macroswimmer—nobody swimming in a pool expects to be affected by the activity of another swimmer separated by a distance of, say, 30 lengths of a typical body (50 meters for humans). Yet at the microscale this is exactly what happens, and this feature leads to very interesting effects of interaction between swimmers, and between swimmers and solid walls. Felderhof [10] discusses the hydrodynamic interactions of a 'peristaltic sheet' with the proximate walls or with a second sheet, while Hernandez-Ortiz et al elaborate on the physical mechanisms behind one of the most fascinating behaviors of micro-organisms—collective swimming [11]. Recently, new stimuli in the research of motility of micro-organisms came from the experimental realizations of motile microstructures—artificial microswimmers. An important contribution here comes from Dreyfus et al who showed a micro-scale swimmer comprised of elastically linked colloidal particles [12]. In this issue, Alexander et al [13] discuss a similar model of Najafi and Golestanian [14] and analyze the interactions between such swimmers. Coq et al [15] investigate a different mechanism of swimming and report on the most important 'organelle' of structures that propel by rotating a helical element—they discuss the mechanics of a rotated elastic rod. Depending on the type of forcing, the rod, when subject to an increasing torque, either smoothly transforms into an increasingly deformed helical shape providing growing net flow in the direction of rotation, or shows a discontinuous transition of the shape with a sudden change in the efficiency of propulsion. Finally, Garstecki et al [16]demonstrate experimentally elastic artificial microswimmers powered by an external rotating magnetic field. They show that in order to

  3. Nanofluid bio-thermal convection: simultaneous effects of gyrotactic and oxytactic micro-organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A V, E-mail: avkuznet@eos.ncsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This paper investigates the onset of nanofluid bio-thermal convection in a horizontal layer of finite depth for the case when the suspension contains two species of motile micro-organisms exhibiting different taxes, gyrotactic and oxytactic micro-organisms. The obtained instability problem is controlled by four agencies, namely by distributions of nanoparticles, gyrotactic and oxytactic micro-organisms and by the vertical temperature variation. The utilization of the linear instability theory makes it possible to decouple the effects of these agencies and obtain an eigenvalue equation that involves four Rayleigh numbers: the nanoparticle Rayleigh number, the bioconvection gyrotactic and oxytactic Rayleigh numbers, and the traditional thermal Rayleigh number. Each Rayleigh number represents the effect of one of the four aforementioned agencies. Previously obtained results are recovered for limiting cases. The effects of different agencies on the boundary of marginal non-oscillatory instability are investigated.

  4. Removal of Salmonella and indicator micro-organisms in integrated constructed wetlands treating agricultural wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gemma; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gutierrez, Montserrat; Gardiner, Gillian E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the removal of pathogenic and indicator micro-organisms in integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems treating agricultural wastewater. Nine ICW's treating piggery (3) or dairy (6) wastewaters were sampled and indicator micro-organisms were enumerated in the influent as well as the effluent from the first, mid- and final cells. The presence/absence of Salmonella was also determined and any Salmonella isolates recovered were characterized. Mean counts of coliform, E. coli and Enterococcus across all nine ICW systems were lower in the final effluent than in the effluent from cell 1 (P micro-organisms were reduced significantly within ICW, with E. coli and Enterococcus non-detectable in the final effluent. Moreover, Salmonella, when present in the influent, appears to have been removed.

  5. [Experimental study on removal of micro-organic pollutants for special ecosystem using ecological embankments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-feng; Lu, Xi-wu

    2009-10-15

    An experimental model was made on the improvement of sources water quality in the Huangpu River through the construction of a special aquatic ecosystem using ecological embankments. A 6 d retention time (RT) gave the highest removal rate capacity and benefit of micro-organic pollutants. Under these conditions, the removal rates were 70.5% atrazine, 57.7% dimethyl phthalate, 72.4% phthalic acid bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 62.4% diethyl phthalate, and 45.1% dibutyl phthalate. The varieties of micro-organic pollutants reduced from 51 to 28. In contrast, in the control pool with hard embankment, the removal rates only reached 40.2% atrazine, 42.9% dimethyl phthalate, 54.8% phthalic acid bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester, 52.0% diethyl phthalate, and 16.2% dibutyl phthalate. Through coordination of all constituent elements of special aquatic ecosystem, significant amounts of micro-organic pollutants were removed.

  6. The Viability with Respect to Temperature of Micro-Organisms Incident on the Earth's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Al-Mufti, S.

    Using laboratory measurements of the resistance of E. coli to flash-heating, it is shown that a large fraction of interplanetary micro-organisms in prograde orbits could be added to the Earth without losing viability due to beating by the atmospheric gases.

  7. Alternative Conceptions about Micro-Organisms Are Influenced by Experiences with Disease in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana; Krajcovicová, Adriána

    2016-01-01

    Children's ideas concerning natural phenomena often differ from those of scientists, and these ideas are termed as alternative conceptions. The prevalence of alternative conceptions is highest among young children who possess less experience with the natural world as compared with adults. Children's ideas about micro-organisms are of special…

  8. Presence of aerobic micro-organisms and their influence on basic semen parameters in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, E; Marchlewska, K; Oszukowska, E; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, R; Swierczynska-Cieplucha, A; Kula, K; Slowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2015-09-01

    Urogenital tract infections in males are one of the significant etiological factors in infertility. In this prospective study, 72 patients with abnormal semen parameters or any other symptoms of urogenital tract infection were examined. Semen analysis according to the WHO 2010 manual was performed together with microbial assessment: aerobic bacteria culture, Chlamydia antigen test, Candida culture, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma-specific culture. In total, 69.4% of semen samples were positive for at least one micro-organism. Ureaplasma sp. was the most common micro-organism found in 33% of semen samples of infertile patients with suspected male genital tract infection. The 2nd most common micro-organisms were Enterococcus faecalis (12.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (7%) and Candida sp. (5.6%). Generally, bacteria were sensitive to at least one of the antibiotics tested. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the presence of aerobic micro-organisms in semen and basic semen parameters: volume, pH, concentration, total count, motility, vitality and morphology.

  9. Low-cost digital impedance meter for the detection of micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, C J; Clavin, O E; Spinelli, J C; Valentinuzzi, M E; Gallo, B V

    1988-10-01

    The digital impedance meter is a microprocessor-based instrument able to detect, quantify and identify micro-organisms. The equipment makes use of the bipolar technique of measuring the impedance modulus of six cells containing inoculated culture broth. It performs temperature compensation automatically. Growth curves are stored in memory as time course events and can be displayed on any suitable device.

  10. Redox-enzymes, cells and micro-organisms acting on carbon nanostructures transformation: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; Paula, Amauri J; Durán, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are actual nanomaterials with many applications in different industrial areas, with increasing potentialities in the field of nanomedicine. Recently, different proactive approaches on toxicology and safety management have become the focus of intense interest once the industrial production of these materials had a significant growth in the last years, even though their short- and long-term behaviors are not yet fully understood. The most important concerns involving these carbon-based nanomaterials are their stability and potential effects of their life cycles on animals, humans, and environment. In this context, this mini review discuss the biodegradability of these materials, particularly through redox-enzymes, micro-organisms and cells, to contribute toward the design of biocompatible and biodegradable functionalized carbon nanostructures, in order to use these materials safely and with minimum impact on the environment.

  11. A new cytotoxic steroid from co-fermentation of two marine alga-derived micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebada, Sherif S; Fischer, Thomas; Klaßen, Sarah; Hamacher, Alexandra; Roth, Yoen Ok; Kassack, Matthias U; Roth, Eckhard H

    2014-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided chemical investigation of a co-culture of marine-derived micro-organisms has yielded one new steroid, 7β-hydroxycholesterol-1β-carboxylic acid (1) with an unprecedented carboxylic acid group at C-1, together with three known steroidal metabolites (2-4). The chemical structures and stereochemistry of the isolated compounds were unambiguously determined based on extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS measurements. The isolated compounds were assessed for their cytotoxic activity against four different human tumour cell lines K562 (leukaemia), HCT116 (colon), A2780 (ovary) and its cisplatin-resistant mutant (A2780 CisR), and they revealed moderate activities with IC50 values ranging from 10.0 to 100.0 μM.

  12. The effect of antagonistic micro-organisms on the brood of honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Dik, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several plant pathogenic fungi enter the plant trough open flowers. Spores of antagonistic micro-organisms present on the flowers can successfully compete with the possible pathogens. Honeybees and bumblebees can be used for transporting these antagonistic micro-organisms from the hive into flowers

  13. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida commensal of Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae from Misiones, Argentina Una especie nueva de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida comensal de Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Damborenea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., a commensal of Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, is described herein from specimens collected at Arroyo Yabotí-Miní (Misiones province, Argentina. Juveniles and adults were removed from the mantle cavity by host relaxation. Distinctive characters of the new species are: non-partitioned intestine; conical cirrus with 1 face flat and another concave; distal area with spines, as evidenced by a strong, oblique sclerotized ring, and 2 rows of long spines, an internal one with long spines arising from base of introvert and an external one arising from distal end of the introvert. The closest species are T. iheringi, T. rochensis and T. haswelli, which are also commensals of mollusc species. The presence of this new species of Temnocephala, and its similarity to the other species that are commensals of molluscan species, suggest the existence of a morphologically homogeneous group.Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., comensal de Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, se describe para el arroyo Yabotí-Miní, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se extrajeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos de la cavidad paleal, por relajación de los hospederos. Las características distintivas de la nueva especie son: intestino no septado, cirro de forma cónica, con una cara plana y otra cóncava, zona distal con espinas evidente por un fuerte anillo oblicuo esclerosado. Dos hileras de espinas se reconocen en el extremo distal, 1 interna de espinas largas, que surge desde la base del introverso, y 1 externa, que surge del extremo distal del mismo. Las especies más semejantes son T. iheringi, T. rochensis y T. haswelli, especies comensales de moluscos con las que es comparada. El hallazgo de esta nueva especie de Temnocephala y sus características semejantes a las restantes especies del género comensales de moluscos, sugieren que las especies conocidas hasta la fecha formen un grupo morfológicamente homogéneo.

  14. Irreversible magnetoporation of micro-organisms in high pulsed magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Novickij, Jurij; Markovskaja, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    Electroporation is an appealing way of stimulating living cells, which causes permanent or temporary nanoporosities in the structure of the biological objects. However, the technique has a disadvantage such as a requirement of contact between the electrodes and the cell medium. In this review, a methodology of contactless treatment of the biological objects using pulsed magnetic fields is proposed. The eukaryotic micro-organisms Achlya americana and Saprolegnia diclina have been used in the study and magnetic fields up to 7 T were applied, which caused effects similar to irreversible electroporation resulting in the death of the species. The proposed technique is applicable for different types of the biological cells or micro-organisms and possibly can be used in the area of cancer, antifungal treatment and other biotechnological fields.

  15. Toxicological impacts of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välitalo, Pia; Kruglova, Antonina; Mikola, Anna; Vahala, Riku

    2017-02-22

    Antibiotics are found globally in the environment at trace levels due to their extensive consumption, which raises concerns about the effects they can have on non-target organisms, especially environmental micro-organisms. So far the majority of studies have focused on different aspects of antibiotic resistance or on analyzing the occurrence, fate, and removal of antibiotics from hospital and municipal wastewaters. Little attention has been paid to ecotoxicological effects of antibiotics on aquatic micro-organisms although they play a critical role in most ecosystems and they are potentially sensitive to these substances. Here we review the current state of research on the toxicological impacts of antibiotics to aquatic micro-organisms, including proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and bacteria commonly present in biological wastewater treatment processes. We focus on antibiotics that are poorly removed during wastewater treatment and thus end up in surface waters. We critically discuss and compare the available analytical methods and test organisms based on effect concentrations and identify the knowledge gaps and future challenges. We conclude that, in general, cyanobacteria and ammonium oxidizing bacteria are the most sensitive micro-organisms to antibiotics. It is important to include chronic tests in ecotoxicological assessment, because acute tests are not always appropriate in case of low sensitivity (for example for proteobacteria). However, the issue of rapid development of antibiotic resistance should be regarded in chronic testing. Furthermore, the application of other species of bacteria and endpoints should be considered in the future, not forgetting the mixture effect and bacterial community studies. Due to differences in the sensitivity of different test organisms to individual antibiotic substances, the application of several bioassays with varying test organisms would provide more comprehensive data for the risk assessment of antibiotics

  16. Quantum mechanics for the swimming of micro-organism in two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, S; Sugamoto, A; Nojiri, S; Kawamura, M; Sugamoto, A

    1994-01-01

    In two dimensional fluid, there are only two classes of swimming ways of micro-organisms, {\\it i.e.}, ciliated and flagellated motions. Towards understanding of this fact, we analyze the swimming problem by using w_{1+\\infty} and/or W_{1+\\infty} algebras. In the study of the relationship between these two algebras, there appear the wave functions expressing the shape of micro-organisms. In order to construct the well-defined quantum mechanics based on W_{1+\\infty} algebra and the wave functions, essentially only two different kinds of the definitions are allowed on the hermitian conjugate and the inner products of the wave functions. These two definitions are related with the shapes of ciliates and flagellates. The formulation proposed in this paper using W_{1+\\infty} algebra and the wave functions is the quantum mechanics of the fluid dynamics where the stream function plays the role of the Hamiltonian. We also consider the area-preserving algebras which arise in the swimming problem of micro-organisms in th...

  17. Detection of antibacterial substances in some plant residues and their effect on certain micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Nasser, M; Safwat, M S; Ali, M Z

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dry residues from several plants, belonging to different families on certain microorganisms in vitro and in vivo, was studied. Dry residues of paprica leaves, tomato tops, egg plant leaves, guava leaves, onion peels, garlic tops, wheat straw, sugar cane leaves, cotton leaves, Egyptian clover tops, field bean tops or pea tops were examined for the presence of antibacterial substances, using successive extractions with hexane, ethyl ether, ethanol, and water, respectively, for each plant residue. On culture media, the antibacterial effect, expressed as width of inhibition zones, differed according to the type of plant, type of micro-organism, and extraction medium, used for each plant. Water extract from each of the studied plants showed no effect on any of the studied micro-organisms, while the other extracts indicated the presence of antibacterial substances in all the used plants. In most cases, ether extract showed the highest incidence of antimicrobial activities against the majority of test micro-organisms. In general, the antibacterial substances seemed to be more inhibitory to Gram-positive bacteria than to Gram-negative ones. Ethyl-ether extract of the residues of most of these plants markedly affected the growth of more than one of the different Rhizobium species when grown on culture medium, as indicated by the presence of wide zones of inhibition.

  18. Optofluidic system for three-dimensional sensing and identification of micro-organisms with digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Donghak; Daneshpanah, Mehdi; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Bahram

    2010-12-01

    Optofluidic devices offer flexibility for a variety of tasks involving biological specimen. We propose a system for three-dimensional (3D) sensing and identification of biological micro-organisms. This system consists of a microfluidic device along with a digital holographic microscope and relevant statistical recognition algorithms. The microfluidic channel is used to house the micro-organisms, while the holographic microscope and a CCD camera record their digital holograms. The holograms can be computationally reconstructed in 3D using a variety of algorithms, such as the Fresnel transform. Statistical recognition algorithms are used to analyze and identify the micro-organisms from the reconstructed wavefront. Experimental results are presented. Because of computational reconstruction of wavefronts in holographic imaging, this technique offers unique advantages that allow one to image micro-organisms within a deep channel while removing the inherent microfluidic-induced aberration through interferometery.

  19. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  20. Fluid particle diffusion in a semidilute suspension of model micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Locsei, J T; Pedley, T J

    2010-08-01

    We calculate non-Brownian fluid particle diffusion in a semidilute suspension of swimming micro-organisms. Each micro-organism is modeled as a spherical squirmer, and their motions in an infinite suspension otherwise at rest are computed by the Stokesian-dynamics method. In calculating the fluid particle motions, we propose a numerical method based on a combination of the boundary element technique and Stokesian dynamics. We present details of the numerical method and examine its accuracy. The limitation of semidiluteness is required to ensure accuracy of the fluid particle velocity calculation. In the case of a suspension of non-bottom-heavy squirmers the spreading of fluid particles becomes diffusive in a shorter time than that of the squirmers, and the diffusivity of fluid particles is smaller than that of squirmers. It is confirmed that the probability density distribution of fluid particles also shows diffusive properties. The effect of tracer particle size is investigated by inserting some inert spheres of the same radius as the squirmers, instead of fluid particles, into the suspension. The diffusivity for inert spheres is not less than one tenth of that for fluid particles, even though the particle size is totally different. Scaling analysis indicates that the diffusivity of fluid particles and inert spheres becomes proportional to the volume fraction of squirmers in the semidilute regime provided that there is no more than a small recirculation region around a squirmer, which is confirmed numerically. In the case of a suspension of bottom-heavy squirmers, horizontal diffusivity decreases considerably even with small values of the bottom heaviness, which indicates the importance of bottom heaviness in the diffusion phenomena. We believe that these fundamental findings will enhance our understanding of the basic mechanics of a suspension of swimming micro-organisms.

  1. Ardrea characterisation of acidophilic micro-organisms isolated from gold mines in Marmato, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Judith Márquez F.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Mineral bio-oxidation improves the extraction of valuable metals and also decreases the impact caused by mining waste; however, the interactions between the micro-organisms so involved are little known. Double-layer solid culture media techniques and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction enzyme analysis (Ardrea, using Eco72I, Eco24I, XcmI and BsaAI enzymes, were used for characterising four micro-organisms isolated from gold mines located in Marmato, Colombia. This work was aimed at better understanding of native acidophilic micro-organisms’ microbial interactions in mixed cultures. Iron and sulphur oxidising isolates revealed similar restriction patterns to those previously reported for Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans; however, one of them exhibited different colony morphology compared to previously reported morphology. The iron non-oxidising isolate presented a restriction pattern agreeing with theoretical analysis of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans database sequences. ARDREA proved to be a viable technique for differentiating between At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans; in turn, it enabled checking isolates’ identity with their physiological traits and colony morphology.

  2. Determination of CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors. II. Novel online monitoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabediny, Ghassem; Abbas, Mahdi Pesaran Haji; Büchs, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, a new online monitoring method for the determination of the CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms, based on the values of the respiration factors [OTR (oxygen transfer rate) and CTR (carbon dioxide transfer rate)], obtained by using the RAMOS (respiratory activity monitoring system) device considering a variety of aeration rates in the measuring flask, is investigated. Based on the data of the OTR, obtained by RAMOS under a variety of specific aeration rates, the proposed new method was developed as an online monitoring method for CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors. A maximum accumulated CO₂ concentration of 12% was derived in applied methods, provided that the cultivation system is carried out under optimal conditions. Additionally, to predict these conditions, an unsteady-state gas transfer model in shaken bioreactors would be very advantageous. The data of OTR obtained using the RAMOS device were analysed and recalculated by a programme considering the calibration factor (Cf). The major advantage of the new method is the possibility to determine the metabolic activity, regardless of manual sampling.

  3. Immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiabin; Lu, Yahong; Gong, Yongchang; Zhu, Min; Chen, Fei; Liang, Zi; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-06-01

    The JAK/STAT, Toll, Imd, and RNAi pathways are the major signaling pathways associated with insect innate immunity. To explore the different immune signaling pathways triggered in response to pathogenic micro-organism infections in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the expression levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (BmSTAT), spatzle-1 (Bmspz-1), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LB (BmPGRP-LB), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LE (BmPGRP-LE), argonaute 2 (Bmago2), and dicer-2 (Bmdcr2) genes after challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli), Serratiamarcescens (Sm), Bacillus bombyseptieus (Bab), Beauveriabassiana (Beb), nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), cypovirus (BmCPV), bidensovirus (BmBDV), or Nosemabombycis (Nb) were determined using real-time PCR. We found that the JAK/STAT pathway could be activated by challenge with BmNPV and BmBDV, the Toll pathway could be most robustly induced by challenge with Beb, the Imd pathway was mainly activated in response to infection by E. coli and Sm, and the RNAi pathway was not activated by viral infection, but could be triggered by some bacterial infections. These findings yield insights into the immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in the silkworm.

  4. Potential applications of nonthermal plasmas against biofilm-associated micro-organisms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligundla, P; Mok, C

    2017-01-20

    Biofilms as complex microbial communities attached to surfaces pose several challenges in different sectors, ranging from food and healthcare to desalination and power generation. The biofilm mode of growth allows microorganisms to survive in hostile environments and biofilm cells exhibit distinct physiology and behaviour in comparison with their planktonic counterparts. They are ubiquitous, resilient and difficult to eradicate due to their resistant phenotype. Several chemical-based cleaning and disinfection regimens are conventionally used against biofilm-dwelling micro-organisms in vitro. Although such approaches are generally considered to be effective, they may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and environmental pollution. Consequently, advanced green technologies for biofilm control are constantly emerging. Disinfection using nonthermal plasmas (NTPs) is one of the novel strategies having a great potential for control of biofilms of a broad spectrum of micro-organisms. This review discusses several aspects related to the inactivation of biofilm-associated bacteria and fungi by different types of NTPs under in vitro conditions. A brief introduction summarizes prevailing methods in biofilm inactivation, followed by introduction to gas discharge plasmas, active plasma species and their inactivating mechanism. Subsequently, significance and aspects of NTP inactivation of biofilm-associated bacteria, especially those of medical importance, including opportunistic pathogens, oral pathogenic bacteria, foodborne pathogens and implant bacteria, are discussed. The remainder of the review discusses majorly about the synergistic effect of NTPs and their activity against biofilm-associated fungi, especially Candida species.

  5. Dynamics of motile micro-organisms in stably-stratified turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovecchio, Salvatore; Zonta, Francesco; Marchioli, Cristian; Soldati, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Motile micro-organisms populating terrestrial water bodies swim upward towards the air-water interface to capture light and activate photosynthesis. These micro-organisms have the center of mass displaced below the center of buoyancy and are usually called gyrotactic swimmers. Gyrotactic swimmers (which are almost neutrally-buoyant) are extremely sensitive to the local flow field, which is often stably stratified (due to solar heating at the water surface). Stable stratification has a deep influence on the transport processes of mass, momentum, heat and chemical species at the water surface. In this work we use Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) to analyze the dynamics of gyrotactic swimmers in stratified turbulence. Our results show that swimmers surfacing and clustering at the surface depend strongly on the re-orientation time of swimmers and on the level of stratification. Obtaining accurate predictions of the surfacing time for gyrotactic swimmers is extremely important to estimate the global CO2 exchange across the air-water interface.

  6. Preoperative evaluation of micro-organisms in non-operated cleft in soft palate: impact on use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roode, G J; Bütow, K-W; Naidoo, S

    2017-02-01

    To identify the pathogenic micro-organisms that had colonised preoperatively in clefts in the soft palate and oro-nasopharynx, we retrospectively studied the preoperative microbiological profiles of 200 infants who had had primary repair of all types of cleft in the soft palate. Data from a private practice that specialises in the repair of facial clefts were extracted randomly from patients' files. We analysed the results of the culture of preoperative swabs taken from clefts in the soft palate and oro-nasopharynx, and the resistance profile of organisms towards various antibiotics. A total of 23 different pathogenic micro-organisms were isolated from 115 (57%) of the sample. Klebsiella pneumoniae most commonly colonised clefts in the lip, alveolus, and palate. This was considerably higher than in other groups. The second most common micro-organism was Staphylococcus aureus, which was found most often in patients with isolated clefts in the hard palate. Those with complete cleft lip and palate presented with more pathogenic micro-organisms in preoperative cultures than those with other types of cleft. We need to find a way to control pathogenic micro-organisms in the oral and oro-nasopharyngeal region preoperatively to limit postoperative complications.

  7. Natural products discovery from micro-organisms in the post-genome era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Haruo

    2017-01-01

    With the decision to award the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Drs. S. Ōmura, W.C. Campbell, and Y. Tu, the importance and usefulness of natural drug discovery and development have been revalidated. Since the end of the twentieth century, many genome analyses of organisms have been conducted, and accordingly, numerous microbial genomes have been decoded. In particular, genomic studies of actinomycetes, micro-organisms that readily produce natural products, led to the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for producing natural products. New explorations for natural products through a comprehensive approach combining genomic information with conventional methods show great promise for the discovery of new natural products and even systematic generation of unnaturally occurring compounds.

  8. Cooperation and conflict in host manipulation: interactions among macro-parasites and micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézilly, Frank; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Several parasite species are known to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts in ways that enhance their own transmission. Co-occurrence of manipulative parasites, belonging to the same species or to more than one species, in a single host has been regularly observed. Little is known, however, on interactions between co-occurring manipulative parasites with same or different transmission routes. Several models addressing this problem have provided predictions on how cooperation and conflict between parasites could emerge from multiple infections. Here, we review the empirical evidence in favor of the existence of synergistic or antagonistic interactions between co-occurring parasites, and highlight the neglected role of micro-organisms. We particularly discuss the actual importance of selective forces shaping the evolution of interactions between manipulative parasites in relation to parasite prevalence in natural populations, efficiency in manipulation, and type of transmission (i.e., horizontal versus vertical), and we emphasize the potential for future research.

  9. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  10. Development of specific radiopharmaceuticals for infection imaging by targeting infectious micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Ocampo-Garcia, Blanca E; Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain a major health problem and cause of death worldwide. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals are used for the imaging of infections and inflammation in the practice of nuclear medicine. Long-term clinical use has shown that the majority of radiolabeled probes cannot distinguish between inflammation and infection. Gallium-67-citrate binds to bacteria, but also to proteins accumulating at both sterile inflammation and bacterial infection sites. Other agents are used to interact with receptors or domains on circulating and infiltrating leukocytes or to label them directly. However, these probes cannot distinguish between infection and inflammation because they are not specific to infectious micro-organisms. This review examines the recent developments and applications of radiolabeled specific agents, such as antiviral drugs, antifungal, antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides, to visualize infectious foci by targeting viruses, fungi or bacteria.

  11. Phototactic Clustering of Swimming Micro-organisms in a Turbulent Velocity Field

    CERN Document Server

    Torney, Colin

    2008-01-01

    We study the distribution of swimming micro-organisms advected by a model turbulent flow and attracted towards a localised light source through phototaxis. It is shown that particles aggregate along a dynamical attractor with fractal measure whose dimension depends on the strength of the phototaxis. Using an effective diffusion approximation for the flow we derive an analytic expression for the phototactic gain (increase in light exposure over the aggregate) and by extension an accurate prediction for the fractal dimension based on the properties of the advection dynamics and the statistics of the attracting field. This shows that the fractal characteristics of the aggregate are determined by the non-dimensional ratio of the kinetic energy of swimming to that of the turbulent flow.

  12. Effect of wall temperature and random distribution of micro organic dust particles on their combustion parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Bidabadi; E. Yaghoubi; M. Harati; Gh. Shahryari; B. Akhoondian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wall temperature on the characteristics of random combustion of micro organic particles with recirculation was investigated. The effect of recirculating in micro-combustors is noticeable, hence it is necessary to present a model to describe the combustion process in these technologies. Recirculation phenomenon is evaluated by entering the exhausted heat from the post flam zone into the preheat zone. In this work, for modeling of random situation at the flame front, the source term in the equation of energy was modeled considering random situation for volatizing of particles in preheat zone. The comparison of obtained results from the proposed model by experimental data regards that the random model has a better agreement with experimental data than non-random model. Also, according to the results obtained by this model, wall temperature affects the amount of heat recirculation directly and higher values of wall temperature will lead to higher amounts of burning velocity and flame temperature.

  13. Bacteremic complications of intravascular catheter tip colonization with Gram-negative micro-organisms in patients without preceding bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck van der Sluijs, A; Oosterheert, J J; Ekkelenkamp, M B; Hoepelman, I M; Peters, Edgar J G

    2012-06-01

    Although Gram-negative micro-organisms are frequently associated with catheter-related bloodstream infections, the prognostic value and clinical implication of a positive catheter tip culture with Gram-negative micro-organisms without preceding bacteremia remains unclear. We determined the outcomes of patients with intravascular catheters colonized with these micro-organisms, without preceding positive blood cultures, and identified risk factors for the development of subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia. All patients with positive intravascular catheter tip cultures with Gram-negative micro-organisms at the University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands, between 2005 and 2009, were retrospectively studied. Patients with Gram-negative bacteremia within 48 h before catheter removal were excluded. The main outcome measure was bacteremia with Gram-negative micro-organisms. Other endpoints were length of the hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, secondary complications of Gram-negative bacteremia, and duration of intensive care admission. A total of 280 catheters from 248 patients were colonized with Gram-negative micro-organisms. Sixty-seven cases were excluded because of preceding positive blood cultures, leaving 213 catheter tips from 181 patients for analysis. In 40 (19%) cases, subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia developed. In multivariate analysis, arterial catheters were independently associated with subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] = 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-20.92), as was selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.69). Gram-negative bacteremia in patients who received SDD was predominantly caused by cefotaxime (part of the SDD)-resistant organisms. Mortality was significantly higher in the group with subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia (35% versus 20%, OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.00-4.49). Patients with a catheter tip colonized with Gram-negative micro-organisms had a high chance of

  14. Quantum effects of stringy and membranic nature for the swimming of micro-organisms in a fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, E; Nojiri, S; Kawamura, M; Sugamoto, A

    1995-01-01

    The static potential is investigated in string and membrane theories coupled to U(1) gauge fields (specifically, external magnetic fields) and with antisymmetric tensor fields. The explicit dependence of the potential on the shape of the extended objects is obtained, including a careful calculation of the quantum effects. Noting the features which are common to the dynamics of strings and membranes moving in background fields and to the swimming of micro-organisms in a fluid, the latter problem is studied. The Casimir energy of a micro-organism is estimated, taking into account the quantum effects and the backreaction from the outside fluid.

  15. Aspects of the use of honeybees and bumblebees as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms in plant diseas control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langerak, C.J.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Dik, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) are used for pollination in agriculture and horticulture. The morphological and behavioural characteristics of bees make them good pollinators. Thanks to this, bees may also be used as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms for plan

  16. Colonyzer: automated quantification of micro-organism growth characteristics on solid agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput screens comparing growth rates of arrays of distinct micro-organism cultures on solid agar are useful, rapid methods of quantifying genetic interactions. Growth rate is an informative phenotype which can be estimated by measuring cell densities at one or more times after inoculation. Precise estimates can be made by inoculating cultures onto agar and capturing cell density frequently by plate-scanning or photography, especially throughout the exponential growth phase, and summarising growth with a simple dynamic model (e.g. the logistic growth model. In order to parametrize such a model, a robust image analysis tool capable of capturing a wide range of cell densities from plate photographs is required. Results Colonyzer is a collection of image analysis algorithms for automatic quantification of the size, granularity, colour and location of micro-organism cultures grown on solid agar. Colonyzer is uniquely sensitive to extremely low cell densities photographed after dilute liquid culture inoculation (spotting due to image segmentation using a mixed Gaussian model for plate-wide thresholding based on pixel intensity. Colonyzer is robust to slight experimental imperfections and corrects for lighting gradients which would otherwise introduce spatial bias to cell density estimates without the need for imaging dummy plates. Colonyzer is general enough to quantify cultures growing in any rectangular array format, either growing after pinning with a dense inoculum or growing with the irregular morphology characteristic of spotted cultures. Colonyzer was developed using the open source packages: Python, RPy and the Python Imaging Library and its source code and documentation are available on SourceForge under GNU General Public License. Colonyzer is adaptable to suit specific requirements: e.g. automatic detection of cultures at irregular locations on streaked plates for robotic picking, or decreasing analysis time by

  17. Reducing time to identification of aerobic bacteria and fastidious micro-organisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-12-01

    Rapid and early identification of micro-organisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 h of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with five drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification. Ninety-nine percentage of aerobic bacteria were correctly identified from 600 monomicrobial-positive blood cultures. This procedure allowed obtaining the correct identification of fastidious pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae that need complex nutritional and environmental requirements in order to grow. Compared to the traditional pathogen identification from blood cultures that takes over 24 h, the reliability of results, rapid performance and suitability of this protocol allowed a more rapid administration of optimal antimicrobial treatment in the patients.

  18. Role of passive body dynamics in micro-organism swimming in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the role of passive body dynamics in the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids. Asymptotic analysis and linear theory are used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. The analysis is compared with a computational model of a finite length swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid. Simulations and theory agree quantitatively for small amplitude motions with low fluid elasticity (Deborah number). This may not be surprising as the theory is expected hold in these two regimes. What is more remarkable is that the predicted shape changes match the computational shape changes quantitatively for large amplitudes, even for large Deborah numbers. Shape changes only tell part of the story. Swimming speed depends on other effects as well. We see that shape changes can predict swimming speed well when either the amplitude is small (including large Deborah number) or when the Deborah number is small (including large amplitudes). It is only in the large De AND large amplitude regime where the theory breaks down and swimming speed can no longer be inferred from shape changes alone.

  19. Removal of micro-organisms in a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoson, J; Norström, A; Dalhammar, G

    2005-01-01

    To measure the microbial removal capacity of a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment plant. Paired samples were taken from untreated, partly-treated and treated wastewater and analysed for faecal microbial indicators, i.e. coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens spores and somatic coliphages, by culture based methods. Escherichia coli was never detected in effluent water after >5.8-log removal. Enterococci, coliforms, spores and coliphages were removed by 4.5, 4.1, 2.3 and 2.5 log respectively. Most of the removal (60-87%) took place in the latter part of the system because of settling, normal inactivation (retention time 12.7 d) and sand filtration. Time-dependent log-linear removal was shown for spores (k = -0.17 log d(-1), r(2) = 0.99). Hydroponics wastewater treatment removed micro-organisms satisfactorily. Investigations on the microbial removal capacity of hydroponics have only been performed for bacterial indicators. In this study it has been shown that virus and (oo)cyst process indicators were removed and that hydroponics can be an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment.

  20. From bioseparation to artificial micro-organs: microfluidic chip based particle manipulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Microfluidic device technology provides unique physical phenomena which are not available in the macroscopic world. These may be exploited towards a diverse array of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine ranging from bioseparation of particulate samples to the assembly of cells into structures that resemble the smallest functional unit of an organ. In this paper a general overview of chip-based particle manipulation and separation is given. In the state of the art electric, magnetic, optical and gravitational field effects are utilized. Also, mechanical obstacles often in combination with force fields and laminar flow are employed to achieve separation of particles or molecules. In addition, three applications based on dielectrophoretic forces for particle manipulation in microfluidic systems are discussed in more detail. Firstly, a virus assay is demonstrated. There, antibody-loaded microbeads are used to bind virus particles from a sample and subsequently are accumulated to form a pico-liter sized aggregate located at a predefined position in the chip thus enabling highly sensitive fluorescence detection. Secondly, subcellular fractionation of mitochondria from cell homogenate yields pure samples as was demonstrated by Western Blot and 2D PAGE analysis. Robust long-term operation with complex cell homogenate samples while avoiding electrode fouling is achieved by a set of dedicated technical means. Finally, a chip intended for the dielectrophoretic assembly of hepatocytes and endothelial cells into a structure resembling a liver sinusoid is presented. Such "artificial micro organs" are envisioned as substance screening test systems providing significantly higher predictability with respect to the in vivo response towards a substance under test.

  1. The role of microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing micro-organisms in producing banded iron formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C S; Emerson, D; Luther, G W

    2016-09-01

    Despite the historical and economic significance of banded iron formations (BIFs), we have yet to resolve the formation mechanisms. On modern Earth, neutrophilic microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing micro-organisms (FeOM) produce copious amounts of Fe oxyhydroxides, leading us to wonder whether similar organisms played a role in producing BIFs. To evaluate this, we review the current knowledge of modern microaerophilic FeOM in the context of BIF paleoenvironmental studies. In modern environments wherever Fe(II) and O2 co-exist, microaerophilic FeOM proliferate. These organisms grow in a variety of environments, including the marine water column redoxcline, which is where BIF precursor minerals likely formed. FeOM can grow across a range of O2 concentrations, measured as low as 2 μm to date, although lower concentrations have not been tested. While some extant FeOM can tolerate high O2 concentrations, many FeOM appear to prefer and thrive at low O2 concentrations (~3-25 μm). These are similar to the estimated dissolved O2 concentrations in the few hundred million years prior to the 'Great Oxidation Event' (GOE). We compare biotic and abiotic Fe oxidation kinetics in the presence of varying levels of O2 and show that microaerophilic FeOM contribute substantially to Fe oxidation, at rates fast enough to account for BIF deposition. Based on this synthesis, we propose that microaerophilic FeOM were capable of playing a significant role in depositing the largest, most well-known BIFs associated with the GOE, as well as afterward when global O2 levels increased.

  2. Passive sampling as a tool for identifying micro-organic compounds in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, N; Cerar, S; Koroša, A; Auersperger, P

    2017-03-28

    The paper presents the use of a simple and cost efficient passive sampling device with integrated active carbon with which to test the possibility of determining the presence of micro-organic compounds (MOs) in groundwater and identifying the potential source of pollution as well as the seasonal variability of contamination. Advantage of the passive sampler is to cover a long sampling period by integrating the pollutant concentration over time, and the consequently analytical costs over the monitoring period can be reduced substantially. Passive samplers were installed in 15 boreholes in the Maribor City area in Slovenia, with two sampling campaigns covered a period about one year. At all sampling sites in the first series a total of 103 compounds were detected, and 144 in the second series. Of all detected compounds the 53 most frequently detected were selected for further analysis. These were classified into eight groups based on the type of their source: Pesticides, Halogenated solvents, Non-halogenated solvents, Domestic and personal, Plasticizers and additives, Other industrial, Sterols and Natural compounds. The most frequently detected MO compounds in groundwater were tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene from the Halogenated solvents group. The most frequently detected among the compound's groups were pesticides. Analysis of frequency also showed significant differences between the two sampling series, with less frequent detections in the summer series. For the analysis to determine the origin of contamination three groups of compounds were determined according to type of use: agriculture, urban and industry. Frequency of detection indicates mixed land use in the recharge areas of sampling sites, which makes it difficult to specify the dominant origin of the compound. Passive sampling has proved to be useful tool with which to identify MOs in groundwater and for assessing groundwater quality.

  3. Bioprinting of Micro-Organ Tissue Analog for Drug Metabolism Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei

    An evolving application of tissue engineering is to develop in vitro 3D cell/tissue models for drug screening and pharmacological study. In order to test in space, these in vitro models are mostly manufactured through micro-fabrication techniques and incorporate living cells with MEMS or microfluidic devices. These cell-integrated microfluidic devices, or referred as microorgans, are effective in furnishing reliable and inexpensive drug metabolism and toxicity studies [1-3]. This paper will present an on-going research collaborated between Drexel University and NASA JSC Radiation Physics Laboratory for applying a direct cell printing technique to freeform fabrication of 3D liver tissue analog in drug metabolism study. The paper will discuss modeling, design, and solid freeform fabrication of micro-fluidic flow patterns and bioprinting of 3D micro-liver chamber that biomimics liver physiological microenvironment for enhanced drug metabolization. Technical details to address bioprinting of 3D liver tissue analog, integration with a microfluidic device, and basic drug metabolism study for NASA's interests will presented. 1. Holtorf H. Leslie J. Chang R, Nam J, Culbertson C, Sun W, Gonda S, "Development of a Three-Dimensional Tissue-on-a-Chip Micro-Organ Device for Pharmacokinetic Analysis", the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, Washington, DC, December 1-5, 2007. 2. Chang, R., Nam, J., Culbertson C., Holtorf, H., Jeevarajan, A., Gonda, S. and Sun, W., "Bio-printing and Modeling of Flow Patterns for Cell Encapsulated 3D Liver Chambers For Pharmacokinetic Study", TERMIS North America 2007 Conference and Exposition, Westin Harbour Castle, Toronto, Canada, June 13-16, 2007. 3.Starly, B., Chang, R., Sun, W., Culbertson, C., Holtorf, H. and Gonda, S., "Bioprinted Tissue-on-chip Application for Pharmacokinetic Studies", Proceedings of World Congress on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, April 24-27, 2006.

  4. Screening micro-organisms for cadmium absorption from aqueous solution and cadmium absorption properties of Arthrobacter nicotianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko; Umenai, Daishi; Hatano, Tomonobu; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    To obtain basic information on how microbial cells absorb cadmium from aqueous solution, we examined cadmium absorption in various micro-organisms. Of 51 micro-organism strains tested, we found that some Gram-positive bacteria, such as, Arthrobacter nicotianae and Bacillus subtilis, and some actinomycetes, such as, Streptomyces flavoviridis and S. levoris were highly capable of absorbing cadmium from an aqueous solution. A. nicotianae absorbed the largest amount of cadmium, over 800 μmol cadmium per gram of dry wt. cells. However, cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae was affected by the solution pH, cadmium concentration, and cell density. The absorption of cadmium was very rapid. Some factors that affected cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae cells were also discussed.

  5. Effect of temperature on survival of micro-organisms and performance of anaerobic two-stage reactors treating cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaibes, Mohammed; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2012-01-01

    A short-term thermophilic treatment was conducted in order to study the survival of micro-organisms in slurry derived from a cattle farm, at temperatures of 58, 63 and 68 degrees C for 6 h. The second trial was a biogas production experiment with an anaerobic mesophilic first stage and a thermophilic second stage. The mesophilic treatment was at 38 degrees C and the second stage was conducted at 55, 58 or 65 degrees C. The results of first trial showed that survival of micro-organisms was decreased remarkably at higher temperatures in spite of the fact that during the experiment part of slurry was replaced with fresh slurry. Meanwhile, the second trial showed that optimum production ofbiogas was at 55 degrees C while the best result for hygienic control was achieved at 65 degrees C.

  6. Survival of two introduced plant growth promoting micro-organisms in green roof soil in southern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Long

    2014-01-01

    Glomus intraradices and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are two commercially used plant growth promoting micro-organisms. They associate with plant roots to facilitate host plants to absorb nutrients, induce resistance against pathogens and pests, and regulate growth through phytohormones. Growth conditions for plants on green roofs are often unfavorable. In order to test whether growth and development of green roof plants could be enhanced via improving the microbial interface, G. intraradices an...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of beta-lactams against multiresistant micro-organisms from the family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebla, A; González, I; Vallín, C

    1994-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twenty beta-lactams was determined against multiresistant micro-organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae family (450) and the genus Pseudomonas (90). The antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generation, and non-classical beta-lactams (imipenem and moxalactam). A pronounced resistance was found to carbenicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin and cefazolin. These resistance patterns corresponded to a high consumption of these antibiotics.

  8. Modelling and predicting the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, B.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate and model the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon.Methods and Results: Growth kinetics of L. monocytogenes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined...... in two series of challenge tests with sliced and vacuum-packed cold-smoked salmon (SVP-CSS). The product contained a high level of smoke components and at 2degreesC levels of L. monocytogenes increased...

  9. A new continuum model for suspensions of gyrotactic micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, T. J.; Kessler, J. O.

    1990-01-01

    A new continuum model is formulated for dilute suspensions of swimming micro-organisms with asymmetric mass distributions. Account is taken of randomness in a cell's swimming direction, p, by postulating that the probability density function for p satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation analogous to that obtained for colloid suspensions in the presence of rotational Brownian motion. The deterministic torques on a cell, viscous and gravitational, are balanced by diffusion, represented by an isotropic rotary diffusivity Dr, which is unknown a priori, but presumably reflects stochastic influences on the cell's internal workings. When the Fokker-Planck equation is solved, macroscopic quantities such as the average cell velocity Vc, the particle diffusivity tensor D and the effective stress tensor sigma can be computed; Vc and D are required in the cell conservation equation, and sigma in the momentum equation. The Fokker-Planck equation contains two dimensionless parameters, lambda and epsilon; lambda is the ratio of the rotary diffusion time Dr-1 to the torque relaxation time B (balancing gravitational and viscous torques), while epsilon is a scale for the local vorticity or strain rate made dimensionless with B. In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck equation exactly for epsilon = 0 (lambda arbitrary) and also obtain the first-order solution for small epsilon. Using experimental data on Vc and D obtained with the swimming alga, Chlamydomonas nivalis, in the absence of bulk flow, the epsilon = 0 results can be used to estimate the value of lambda for that species (lambda approximately 2.2; Dr approximately 0.13 s-1). The continuum model for small epsilon is then used to reanalyse the instability of a uniform suspension, previously investigated by Pedley, Hill & Kessler (1988). The only qualitatively different result is that there no longer seem to be circumstances in which disturbances with a non-zero vertical wavenumber are more unstable than purely horizontal

  10. Especie nueva de anfípodo comensal (Amphipoda: Gammaridea: Leucothoidae del Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, SO del golfo de México A new species of commensal amphipod (Amphipoda: Gammaridea: Leucothoidae from Veracruz Coral Reef System, S W Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Winfield

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una especie nueva de anfípodo comensal del género Leucothoe (Leucothoidae del Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, Veracruz, SO del golfo de México. Los organismos fueron recolectados de la esponja Aplysina fistularis a 10 m de profundidad. La especie nueva se compara morfológicamente con otras especies relacionadas. Coxa 2 con esquina anterior aguda; propodio del gantópodo 2 con 7 setas largas subapicales, 1 hilera de 27-28 setas gruesas mediales y 7 setas submarginales; artejo 2 del palpo mandibular con 5 setas y margen distal aserrado; último artejo del maxilípedo con uña distal y margen interno cubierto con espínulas pequeñas; telson triangular, trífido distalmente, con 2 setas apicales y 2 pares de setas pectinadas medialmente, constituyen las características distintivas de Leucothoe hortapugai.A new species of commensal amphipod of the genus Leucothoe (Leucothoidae is described from the Veracruz coral reef system, Veracruz, in the SW Gulf of Mexico. The specimens were collected from the sponge Aplysina fistularis at a depth of 10 m. The new species is compared to other closely related species of Leucothoe. Coxa 2 with acute anterior corner; propodus of gnathopod 2 with 7 long subapical setae, 27-28 thick medial setae arranged in 1 row, and 7 short submarginal setae; segment 2 of mandible palp with 5 setae and distal margin serrate; last segment of maxilliped palp with distal nail and inner margin covered with small spinules; telson triangular, trifid distally, including 2 apical setae and 2 pairs of medial pairs of plumose setae, are the main characteristics of Leucothoe hortapugai.

  11. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Viallet, B; Thibault, C; Ressier, L

    2011-09-30

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide particles on five micro-organisms of the Challenge Tests related to their physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Noizet, Gaëlle; Morlière, Cécile; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2014-01-02

    Zinc oxide is commonly used in pharmaceutical products to prevent or treat topical or systemic diseases owing to its antimicrobial properties, but it is scarcely used as preservative in topical formulations. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) powders on the five microbial strains used for Challenge Tests in order to evaluate this inorganic compound as a preservative in topical formulation and assess relationships between the structural parameters of ZnO particles and their antimicrobial activity. For this purpose, the physicochemical characteristics of three ZnO grades were measured and their antimicrobial efficacy against the following micro-organisms - Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Candida albicans; Aspergillus brasiliensis - was assessed using disc diffusion susceptibility tests and a broth dilution method. The comprehensive dataset of physicochemical characteristics and antimicrobial activities (MIC and MBC) is discussed regarding methodological issues related to the particulate nature of ZnO and structure-activity relationships. Every ZnO grade showed bactericidal and antifungal activity against the five tested micro-organisms in a concentration dependent manner. ZnO particles with smaller size, larger specific area and higher porosity exhibit higher antimicrobial activity. Such trends are related to their mechanisms of antimicrobial activity.

  13. Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impact of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C

    2014-03-03

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 °C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model.

  14. Human-livestock contacts and their relationship to transmission of zoonotic pathogens, a systematic review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Gijs; Huss, Anke; Heederik, Dick J J; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micro-organisms transmitted from vertebrate animals - including livestock - to humans account for an estimated 60% of human pathogens. Micro-organisms can be transmitted through inhalation, ingestion, via conjunctiva or physical contact. Close contact with animals is crucial for transmis

  15. Micro-organism re-growth in wastewater disinfected by UV radiation and ozone: a micro-biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Santos, A; Riesco, P

    2004-04-01

    A series of disinfection experiments using UV radiation and ozone was performed on the secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant at a pilot plant scale. The microbial population in the inflowing wastewater and the treated outflow water were quantified for each of the treatment modules (fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Salmonella spp. (presence/absence), Clostridium Sulphite-reducers, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, coliphages, nematodes, intestinal nematodes and pathogenic fungi). Treated water was stored in opaque tanks at a temperature between 20 and 22 degrees C, after which, a one-month study of the regrowth of the bacterial flora, nematodes and fungi was carried out. Clostridium Sulphite-reducers, pathogenic fungi and nematodes were the micro-organisms showing a greatest degree of resistence to UV- and Ozone-treatment. It was only concerning Clostridium and Pseudomonas abatement that significant elimination results were achieved with both technologies.

  16. The (oxalato)aluminate complex as an antimicrobial substance protecting the "shiro" of Tricholoma matsutake from soil micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Katsutoshi; Shiro, Misao; Okura, Ryuki; Oizumi, Kazuya; Fujita, Toru; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Tanaka, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Muneyoshi; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete, forms ectomycorrhizas with Pinus densiflora as the host tree. Its fruiting body, "matsutake" in Japanese, is an edible and highly prized mushroom, and it grows in a circle called a fairy ring. Beneath the fairy ring of T. matsutake, a whitish mycelium-soil aggregated zone, called "shiro" in Japanese, develops. The front of the shiro, an active mycorrhizal zone, functions to gather nutrients from the soil and roots to nourish the fairy ring. Bacteria and sporulating fungi decrease from the shiro front, whereas they increase inside and outside the shiro front. Ohara demonstrated that the shiro front exhibited antimicrobial activity, but the antimicrobial substance has remained unidentified for 50 years. We have identified the antimicrobial substance as the (oxalato)aluminate complex, known as a reaction product of oxalic acid and aluminum phosphate to release soluble phosphorus. The complex protects the shiro from micro-organisms, and contributes to its development.

  17. Micro-organisms Associated with Febrile Neutropenia in Patients with Haematological Malignancies in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Prakas Kumar; Maji, Suman Kumar; Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; De, Rajib; Dutta, Shyamali; Saha, Sandeep; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2015-03-01

    There is paucity of information from eastern India with regard to observed dominant micro-organisms causing febrile neutropenia (FN) in patients with haematological malignancies. To identify the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms associated with FN. A total number of 268 episodes of FN were analysed from September'2010 to October'2013. The blood samples were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth, glucose broth, Hicombi dual performance media (Himedia, LQ-12) at 37° C for 168 h and Bactec method was also performed for these samples. Blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey's agar and cystine lactose electrolyte deficient agar were used for isolation of the microorganisms. A total number of 78 (29.10 %) episodes revealed positive growths. Gram negative bacilli and Gram positive cocci were isolated in 61.53 and 34.61 % cases respectively. The eight commonest isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.10 %), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-12.82 %), Acinetobacter sps (11.53 %), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (10.25 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.97 %), Escherichia coli (8.97 %), ESBL E. coli (6.41 %), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA-6.41 %). Amongst other less common isolates were Citrobacter kosseri (3.84 %), Citrobacter freundii (2.56 %), Ralstonia paucula (2.56 %), Cedecia neteri (1.28 %), methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (2.56 %). Candida spp. including two cases of Candida non-albicans was isolated in 3.84 % of cases. P. aeruginosa was the commonest pathogenic isolates in FN patients associated with haematological malignancies in this study. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest isolates in FN including significant numbers of rare opportunistic micro-organisms.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of two South African honeys produced from indigenous Leucospermum cordifolium and Erica species on selected micro-organisms

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    Grobler Sias R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey has been shown to have wound healing properties which can be ascribed to its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity can be effective against a broad spectrum of bacterial species especially those of medical importance. It has also been shown that there is considerable variation in the antimicrobial potency of different types of honey, which is impossible to predict. With this in mind we tested the antimicrobial activity of honeys produced from plants grown in South Africa for their antibacterial properties on selected standard strains of oral micro-organisms. Methods The honeys used were produced from the blossoms of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Bluegum trees, an indigenous South African plant Leucospermum cordifolium (Pincushion, a mixture of wild heather shrubs, mainly Erica species (Fynbos and a Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka honey. Only pure honey which had not been heated was used. The honeys were tested for their antimicrobial properties with a broth dilution method. Results Although the honeys produced some inhibitory effect on the growth of the micro-organisms, no exceptionally high activity occurred in the South African honeys. The carbohydrate concentration plays a key role in the antimicrobial activity of the honeys above 25%. However, these honeys do contain other antimicrobial properties that are effective against certain bacterial species at concentrations well below the hypertonic sugar concentration. The yeast C. albicans was more resistant to the honeys than the bacteria. The species S. anginosus and S. oralis were more sensitive to the honeys than the other test bacteria. Conclusion The honeys produced from indigenous wild flowers from South Africa had no exceptionally high activity that could afford medical grade status.

  19. A disinfectant delivery system for control of micro-organisms in urine collection bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, S; Amkraut, A; Dunn, T; Chin, I; Killian, D; Willis, E

    1988-02-01

    We developed a formaldehyde delivery system for urine collection bags and evaluated its effectiveness in suppressing the growth of bacteria in simulated human urine. The system was composed of paraformaldehyde in a polymeric carrier. We determined that inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in urinary bags with a continuous flow of synthetic urine (40-80 ml h-1) quickly gives rise to high levels of contamination. This single tablet delivery system, however, proved bacteriostatic or bactericidal for both organisms over the 10-day lifespan. The formaldehyde concentration in the synthetic urine was c. 90 micrograms ml-1 or more during tests.

  20. Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impac of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Nederhoff, A.L.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Matser, A.M.; Mastwijk, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality

  1. Effect of selected antiasthmatic plant constituents against micro organism causing upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilani, P; Duraisamy, B; Dhamodaran, P; Ravichandran, S; Elango, K

    2010-01-01

    Most exacerbations of asthma can be proven to be associated with bacterial infections and there is scientific evidence that frequent respiratory infections particularly bacterial infections provoke asthma attack. Considering these facts different plant extracts and phytoconstituents with proven anti asthmatic property had been selected for screening anti microbial activity in in-vitro models. In the present study, Coleus forskohlii Willd. extract (10% Forskolin), Piper Longum L. Extract (20% Piperine), Adathoda vasica Nees. extract (30% Vasicinone), Curcuma longa L. extract (60% Curcumin) were screened for the antibacterial activity against human pathogens causing upper respiratory infection namely Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyrogene and Staphylococcus aureus, by taking Gentamycin, Optochin, Bacitracin and Amoxicillin as reference standards. Except for Adathoda vasica Nees. extract, all the other selected plant extracts exhibited a moderate activity antibacterial activity against selected strains.

  2. Biodegradation of low density polyethylene by micro-organisms from garbage soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have been widely used as a packing material in the form of low density polyethylene (LDPE. Continuous accumulation of plastic in the environment can cause threat to humanity and environment. In order to stop the accumulation of plastic and to make the surroundings free from plastic, microbes are isolated from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana areas garbage soil. These microbes are screened by clear zone technique using polythene powder to confirm the degradation activity. Biodegradation of polymer granules by the isolated organisms and it makes physical and structural changes over a period of time after microbial adhesion to the granules. To check the efficiency of biodegradation, weight method was performed under laboratory conditions for 2, 4 and 6 months. Experimental data revealed that Streptomyces sps have highest plastic degradation capacity and it degrades up to 46.7%, this degradation was followed by the Aspergillus niger (26.17%, bacterial species Pseudomonas sps (24.22% and A. flavus (16.45% for the period of 6 months. This work revealed that Streptomyces sps plays a vital role in degrading polythene powder and polymer granules

  3. Flexibility, stroke, and dimensionless parameters: the importance of telling the whole story for swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The question of how fluid elasticity affects the swimming performance of micro-organisms is complicated and has been the subject of many recent experimental and theoretical studies. The Deborah number, De = λω , is typically used to characterize the strength of the fluid elasticity in these studies, and for swimmers is expressed as the product of the elastic relaxation time and the frequency of the swimmer stroke. In simulations of undulatory flexible swimmers in an Oldroyd-B-type fluid, we find that varying the frequency of the stroke and varying the relaxation time separately results in a significantly different dependence of swimming speed for the same De . Thus the elastic effects on swimming cannot be characterized by a single dimensionless number. The Weissenberg number, defined as the product of elastic relaxation time and characteristic strain rate (Wi = λγ˙), is another dimensionless parameter useful for describing complex fluids. For a fixed swimmer frequency, varying the relaxation time will also vary the Weissenberg number. We conjecture that the different behavior is a consequence of a Weissenberg-number transition in the fluid, which additionally depends on the amplitude of the swimmer stroke.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of selected Iranian medicinal plants against a broad spectrum of pathogenic and drug multiresistant micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, A; Roumy, V; Mahieux, S; Gohari, A; Farimani, M M; Rivière, C; Samaillie, J; Sahpaz, S; Bailleul, F; Neut, C; Hennebelle, T

    2014-10-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 44 methanolic extracts from different parts of Iranian indigenous plant species used in traditional medicines of Iran were tested against a panel of 35 pathogenic and multiresistant bacteria and 1 yeast. The antimicrobial efficacy was determined using Müller-Hinton agar in Petri dishes seeded by a multiple inoculator and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) method. The 21 most active extracts (MIC micro-organisms) were submitted to a more refined measurement. The best antibacterial activity was obtained by 10 plants. Microdilution assays allowed to determinate the MIC and MBC of the 21 most active extracts. The lowest achieved MIC value was 78 μg ml(-1), with 4 extracts. This work confirms the antimicrobial activity of assayed plants and suggests further examination to identify the chemical structure of their antimicrobial compounds. Significance and impact of the study: This study describes the antimicrobial screening of Iranian plant extracts chosen according to traditional practice against 36 microbial strains, from reference culture collections or recent clinical isolates, and enables to select 4 candidates for further chemical characterization and biological assessment: Dorema ammoniacum, Ferula assa-foetida, Ferulago contracta (seeds) and Perovskia abrotanoides (aerial parts). This may be useful in the development of potential antimicrobial agents, from easily harvested and highly sustainable plant parts. Moreover, the weak extent of cross-resistance between plant extracts and antibiotics warrants further research and may promote a strategy based on less potent but time-trained products.

  5. Screen of micro-organisms for inducing the production of dragon's blood by leaf of Dracaena cochinchinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X H; Zhang, C H; Wang, Y; Gomes-Laranjo, J

    2010-11-01

    To screen micro-organisms for inducing the production of dragon's blood, which is normally produced by stem xylem and by leaf of Dracaena cochinchinensis, and to evaluate the product by comparing with the standard. Thirty microbial strains were isolated from D. cochinchinensis leaves. Three of them were confirmed to elicit the leaf of D. cochinchinensis producing dragon's blood after inoculation. Upon elicitation, all of the 6-month-old leaves of the inducible trees produced dragon's blood; 60-70% of the 1-year-old leaves elicited produced the resin. All the three strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioide by morphological and molecular methods. The leaf resin had a similar TLC profile and antioxidant activities to the standard resin. In particular, it had a higher total flavonol content and antimicrobial activity than the standard. Upon the induction of the screened C. gloeosporioide mycelia, D. cochinchinensis leaf produced dragon's blood with higher total flavone content and antimicrobial activity than the standard dragon's blood. This work has provided a strategy for producing dragon's blood in a sustainable way using leaves of C. gloeosporioides by fungal elicitation. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. [Research Progress in Technology of Using Soil Micro-organisms to Generate Electricity and Its Potential Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huan; Xue, Hong-jing; Jiang, Yun-bin; Zhong, Wen-hui

    2015-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells ( microbial fuel cells, MFCs) are devices in which micro-organisms convert chemical energy into electrical power. Soil has electrogenic bacteria and organic substrates, thus can generate electrical current in MFCs. Soil MFCs can be operated and applied to real-time and continuously monitor soil pollution, remove soil pollutants and to reduce methane emitted from flooded rice paddy, without energy consumption and the application of chemical reagents to the soil. Instead, the operation of soil MFCs generates small amount of electrical power. Therefore, soil MFCs are useful in the development of environment-friendly technology for monitoring and remediating soil pollution, which have potential value for applications in the domain of environmental science and engineering. However, much of advanced technology hasn't been applied into soil MFCs since the studies on soil MFCs was not started until recently. This paper summarized the research progress in related to soil MFCs combining with the frontier of MFCs technology, and brought forward the possible direction in studies on soil MFCs.

  7. Dynamic micro-organization of P2X7 receptors revealed by PALM based single particle tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amulya Nidhi Shrivastava

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP-gated P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs are members of the purinergic receptor family that are expressed in several cell types including neurons. A high concentration of ATP is required for the channel opening of P2X7Rs compared to other members of this receptor family. Recent work suggests that ATP binding to members of the P2X receptor family determines the diffusion and localization of these receptors on the plasma membrane of neurons. Here, we employed single particle tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM to study the diffusion and ATP-dependence of rat P2X7Rs. Dendra2-tagged P2X7Rs were transfected in hippocampal neurons and imaged on proximal dendrites. Our results suggest the presence of two populations of P2X7Rs within the extra-synaptic membrane: a population composed of rapidly diffusing receptors and one stabilized within nanoclusters (~100 nm diameter. P2X7R trajectories were rarely observed at synaptic sites. P2X7R mutations in the ATP-binding site (K64A or the conserved phosphorylation site (K17A resulted in faster- and slower-diffusing receptors, respectively. Furthermore, ATP differentially accelerated wild type and K17A-mutant receptors but not K64A-mutant receptors. Our results indicate that receptor conformation plays a critical role in regulating ATP-mediated changes in P2X7R diffusion and micro-organization.

  8. Dynamic micro-organization of P2X7 receptors revealed by PALM based single particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amulya N; Rodriguez, Pamela C; Triller, Antoine; Renner, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are members of the purinergic receptor family that are expressed in several cell types including neurons. A high concentration of ATP is required for the channel opening of P2X7Rs compared to other members of this receptor family. Recent work suggests that ATP binding to members of the P2X receptor family determines the diffusion and localization of these receptors on the plasma membrane of neurons. Here, we employed single particle tracking photoactivated localization microscopy (sptPALM) to study the diffusion and ATP-dependence of rat P2X7Rs. Dendra2-tagged P2X7Rs were transfected in hippocampal neurons and imaged on proximal dendrites. Our results suggest the presence of two populations of P2X7Rs within the extra-synaptic membrane: a population composed of rapidly diffusing receptors and one stabilized within nanoclusters (~100 nm diameter). P2X7R trajectories were rarely observed at synaptic sites. P2X7R mutations in the ATP-binding site (K64A) or the conserved phosphorylation site (K17A) resulted in faster- and slower-diffusing receptors, respectively. Furthermore, ATP differentially accelerated wild type and K17A-mutant receptors but not K64A-mutant receptors. Our results indicate that receptor conformation plays a critical role in regulating ATP-mediated changes in P2X7R diffusion and micro-organization.

  9. Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine power cycles for a small scale solar driven reverse osmosis desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchanche, B.F.; Lambrinos, Gr.; Frangoudakis, A.; Papadakis, G. [Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens (Greece)

    2010-04-15

    Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine heat engines is performed to identify the most suitable engine for driving a small scale reverse osmosis desalination system. Three modified engines derived from simple Rankine engine using regeneration (incorporation of regenerator or feedliquid heaters) are analyzed through a novel approach, called exergy-topological method based on the combination of exergy flow graphs, exergy loss graphs, and thermoeconomic graphs. For the investigations, three working fluids are considered: R134a, R245fa and R600. The incorporated devices produce different results with different fluids. Exergy destruction throughout the systems operating with R134a was quantified and illustrated using exergy diagrams. The sites with greater exergy destruction include turbine, evaporator and feedliquid heaters. The most critical components include evaporator, turbine and mixing units. A regenerative heat exchanger has positive effects only when the engine operates with dry fluids; feedliquid heaters improve the degree of thermodynamic perfection of the system but lead to loss in exergetic efficiency. Although, different modifications produce better energy conversion and less exergy destroyed, the improvements are not significant enough and subsequent modifications of the simple Rankine engine cannot be considered as economically profitable for heat source temperature below 100 C. As illustration, a regenerator increases the system's energy efficiency by 7%, the degree of thermodynamic perfection by 3.5% while the exergetic efficiency is unchanged in comparison with the simple Rankine cycle, with R600 as working fluid. The impacts of heat source temperature and pinch point temperature difference on engine's performance are also examined. Finally, results demonstrate that energy analysis combined with the mathematical graph theory is a powerful tool in performance assessments of Rankine based power systems and permits meaningful comparison of

  10. Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

    2014-10-01

    Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation.

  11. Quantifying Glosair™ 400 efficacy for surface disinfection of American Type Culture Collection strains and micro-organisms recently isolated from intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, R; Vizcaíno, M J; Herruzo, I

    2014-07-01

    Microbial contamination of hospital surfaces may be a source of infection for hospitalized patients. We evaluated the efficacy of Glosair™ 400 against two American Type Culture Collection strains and 18 clinical isolates, placed on glass germ-carriers. Carriers were left to air-dry for 60 min and then exposed to a cycle before detection of any surviving micro-organisms. Antibiotic-susceptible Gram-negative bacilli were less susceptible (although not significantly) to this technique than resistant Gram-negative bacilli or Gram-positive cocci and yeasts (3, 3.4 and 4.6 log10 reduction, respectively). In conclusion, in areas that had not been cleaned, aerosolized hydrogen peroxide obtained >3 log10 mean destruction of patients' micro-organisms.

  12. Application of groundwater residence time tracers and broad screening for micro-organic contaminants in the Indo-Gangetic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, Dan; Das, Prerona; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Petersen, Jade; Gooddy, Daren; Krishan, Gopal

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater abstracted from aquifers underlying urban centres across India provide a vital source of domestic water. Abstraction from municipal and private supplies is considerable and growing rapidly with ever increasing demand for water from expanding urban populations. This trend is set to continue. The vulnerability of deeper aquifers (typically >100 m below ground) used for domestic water to contamination migration from often heavily contaminated shallow aquifer systems has not been studies in detail in India. This paper focusses on the occurrence of micro-organic contaminants within sedimentary aquifers beneath urban centres which are intensively pumped for drinking water and domestic use. New preliminary results from a detailed case study undertaken across Varanasi, a city with an estimated population of ca. 1.5 million in Uttar Pradesh. Micro -organic groundwater quality status and evolution with depth is investigated through selection of paired shallow and deep sites across the city. These results are considered within the context of paired groundwater residence time tracers within the top 150m within the sedimentary aquifer system. Groundwater emerging contaminant results are compared with surface water quality from the Ganges which is also used for drinking water supply. Broad screening for >800 micro-organic compounds was undertaken. Age dating tools were employed to constrain and inform a conceptual model of groundwater recharge and contaminant evolution within the sedimentary aquifer system.

  13. Development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol for the identification of micro-organisms associated with wastewater particles and flocs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeci, Banu; Linden, Karl G

    2008-11-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) provides a unique tool to study micro-organisms associated with particles and flocs. FISH enables visual examination of micro-organisms while they are structurally intact and associated with particles. However, application of FISH to wastewater and sludge samples presents a specific set of problems. Wastewater samples generate high background fluorescence due to their organic and inorganic content making it difficult to differentiate a probe-conferred signal from naturally fluorescing particles with reasonable certainty. Furthermore, some of the FISH steps involve harsh treatment of samples, and are likely to disrupt the floc structure. This study developed a FISH protocol for studying micro-organisms that are associated with particles and flocs. The results indicate that choice of a proper fluorochrome and labeling technique is a key step in reducing the background fluorescence and non-specific binding, and increasing the intensity of the probe signal. Compared to other fluorochromes tested, CY3 worked very well and enabled the observation of particles and debris in red and probe signal from microbes in yellow. Fixation, hybridization, and washing steps disturbed the floc structure and particle-microbe association. Modifications to these steps were necessary, and were achieved by replacing centrifugation with filtration and employment of nylon filters. Microscope slides generated excellent quality images, but polycarbonate membrane filters performed better in preserving the floc structure.

  14. Determination of CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors. I. Novel method based on the resistance of sterile closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabediny, Ghassem; Büchs, Jochen

    2010-12-01

    Influence of carbon dioxide on growth and product kinetics of industrially important micro-organisms is essential for the interpretation of a bioprocess. In this research, the CO₂ effects on productivity and growth rate of micro-organisms have been studied by using a variety of kplug. The applied method is based on a different concentration of CO₂ in the headspace of ventilation flasks. The presented method is simple, inexpensive and shows similar results compared to large-scale fermentation regarding the evolution of CO₂ in a batch system. For the investigation of the proposed method, experiments employing Arxula adeninivorans LS3, Corynebacterium glutamicum (DM1730 and ATCC WT13032) and Hansenula polymorpha DSM70277 as model organisms in the ventilation flasks are performed. The fermentations in the RAMOS (respiratory activity monitoring system) device were carried out with a normal aeration rate (1 vvm) and under the same operating conditions as the ventilation flask f1. The modified unsteady-state model was used to predict the operation conditions of a biological system in the ventilation flasks. In the present study, a novel and easy method for the quantification of CO₂ sensitivity of micro-organisms in shaken bioreactors (called ventilation flask) was achieved.

  15. Growth-promoting Properties of Different Solid Nutrient Media Evaluated with Stressed and Unstressed Micro-organisms: Prestudy for the Validation of a Rapid Sterility Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer Claire; Staerk, Alexandra; Berchtold, Manfred; Hecker, Werner; Neuhaus, Gunther; Wirth, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Currently, sterility testing in the pharmaceutical industry-a mandatory release test for all sterile drug products-takes an incubation time of at least 14 days and is based on liquid media according to the pharmacopoeias. The search is on for a rapid sterility test to reduce this rather long time frame. For this we have chosen the Millipore Milliflex Rapid Microbiology Detection System, which is based on solid nutrient media. As a prerequisite for the validation of this rapid sterility test, a solid nutrient medium promoting the growth of stressed and unstressed micro-organisms replacing tryptic soy broth and fluid thioglycollate medium from the traditional sterility test had to be found. For this a wide variety of appropriate nutrient media were evaluated. After a prestudy with 10 different nutrient agar media, tryptic soy agar, Center for Disease Control (CDC) anaerobic blood agar, Schaedler blood agar, and Difco brewer anaerobic agar were tested in detail using a range of 22 micro-organisms (7 ATCC strains and 15 production site-specific strains). These strains were inoculated in their unstressed and in a stressed state. Stress was evoked by heat treatment and nutrient starvation in the case of the sporulating bacteria. This stress effect-resulting in deceleration in growth-was experimentally confirmed based on growth curve analysis. It was statistically evaluated which media and which incubation temperatures are best suitable. The resulting data showed that Schaedler blood agar has the best growth-promoting properties among the agars tested and is going to be used in the rapid sterility test with the incubation temperatures 20-25 °C for aerobes, 30-35 °C for aerobes, and also 30-35 °C for anaerobic micro-organisms.

  16. Chemical composition of essential oils of Anthemis secundiramea Biv. subsp. secundiramea (Asteraceae) collected wild in Sicily and their activity on micro-organisms affecting historical art craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice; Rosselli, Sergio

    2016-04-04

    In the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Anthemis secundiramea Biv. subsp. secundiramea L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of A. secundiramea were (Z)-lyratyl acetate (14.6%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (9.9%), (Z)-chrysanthenol (8.7%) and (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7%). The comparing with other studied oils of genus Anthemis belonging to the same clade is discussed. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some micro-organisms infesting historical art craft, were also determined.

  17. Sunlight-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected along a latitudinal gradient from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Jarah A; Baldwin, Amy J; Catala, Phillipe; Jeffrey, Wade H; Joux, Fabien; Moss, Joseph A; Dean Pakulski, J; Stevens, Richard; Mitchell, David L

    2009-01-01

    We examined ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in marine micro-organisms collected from surface seawater along a latitudinal transect in the Central Pacific Ocean from 70 degrees N to 68 degrees S. Samples were collected predawn and incubated under ambient UVR in transparent incubators at in situ temperatures until late afternoon at which time they were filtered into primarily bacterioplankton and eukaryotic fractions. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PDs] were quantified in DNA extracts using radioimmunoassays. UVB was lowest in the polar regions and highest near the equator and correlations between UVB and DNA damage were observed. The eukaryotic fraction showed significant CPDs across the entire transect; (6-4)PDs were detected only in the tropics. The bacterial fraction showed no accumulation of (6-4)PDs at any latitude, although residual (6-4)PDs were observed. Bacterial cell volumes were greatest in the sub-Arctic and northern temperate latitudes and lower in the tropics and southern hemisphere, a unique observation that parallels Bergmann's rule. A strong negative correlation was observed between cell volume and CPDs. The environmental impact of solar UVR on marine micro-organisms in the open ocean is complex and our results suggest that several factors such as DNA repair, cell size, temperature, salinity, nutrients and species composition are important in determining relative sensitivity.

  18. Evaluation of fertility outcome as a consequence of intravaginal inoculation with sperm-impairing micro-organisms in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander, Harpreet; Prabha, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    The concept of infertility as a result of asymptomatic microbial colonization of the female reproductive tract has been neglected to date. However, increasing incidence of infertility and advanced research has drawn attention towards this idea. Many of these micro-organisms have been reported to bring about adverse changes in sperm parameters in vitro, but their in vivo potential to cause infertility is still a controversy. The present study was carried out to observe what effect the intravaginal inoculation of sperm-agglutinating Serratia marcescens and sperm-immobilizing Candida albicans had in the reproductive tract and consequently in fertility outcome. When these strains were intravaginally inoculated into female BALB/c mice at 10(4), 10(6) and 10(8) c.f.u. in 20 µl PBS for 10 consecutive days, with mating of mice on day 12, the results showed 100 % decrease in fertility in all groups as compared with control mice receiving PBS alone. Furthermore, no clinical or histopathological changes were observed in the reproductive organs (i.e. ovary, uterus and vagina), suggesting that colonization of the genital tract with sperm-impairing micro-organisms could be a feasible reason for female infertility.

  19. Identifying inhibitory effects of lignocellulosic by-products on growth of lactic acid producing micro-organisms using a rapid small-scale screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Edwin C; Vaessen, Evelien; Weusthuis, Ruud A; Eggink, Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Sugars obtained from pretreated lignocellulose are interesting as substrate for the production of lactic acid in fermentation processes. However, by-products formed during pretreatment of lignocellulose can inhibit microbial growth. In this study, a small-scale rapid screening method was used to identify inhibitory effects of single and combined by-products on growth of lactic acid producing micro-organisms. The small-scale screening was performed in 48-well plates using 5 bacterial species and 12 by-products. Large differences were observed in inhibitory effects of by-products between different species. Predictions can be made for growth behaviour of different micro-organisms on acid pretreated or alkaline pretreated bagasse substrates using data from the small-scale screening. Both individual and combined inhibition effects were shown to be important parameters to predict growth. Synergy between coumaric acid, formic acid and acetic acid is a key inhibitory parameter in alkaline pretreated lignocellulose, while furfural is a key inhibitor in acid pretreated lignocellulose.

  20. A micro-tomography method based on X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging for the visualization of micro-organs and soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Luo, Shunqian; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Bo; Xu, Maolin; Yuan, Qingxi; Gao, Xiulai; Zhu, Peiping

    2006-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is one of the phase contrast imaging methods using the monochromatic X-ray from synchrotron, which provides information on the out-of-plane angular deviation of X-ray. DEI allows the investigation of micro-structures inside weakly absorbing samples at high spatial resolution without serious radiation exposure. Tomographic techniques can be applied readily to phase contrast images. The combination of DEI and tomography allows for a reconstruction of refractive index gradient distribution inside weakly absorbing samples with micrometer resolution, particularly suited for the 3D observation of micro-organisms and tissues. The existing phase contrast tomography methods based on DEI use phase contrast images as projections, such images contain not only the phase information, but also the absorption information. A novel method (DEI in the tomography mode) was developed to greatly increase the proportion of refraction information in phase contrast images by computing the difference between the two sets of images acquired at different angles of the rocking curve to adopt the projections with a complete set (2pi) for reconstruction. The reconstructed images of cochlea of a guinea pig showed the spatial structures and the micro-features inside the samples. The new method reveals higher spatial resolution compared to the conventional phase contrast tomography methods and is more suitable to the investigation of micro-structures of micro-organisms and tissue materials.

  1. 长江干流主要城市江段微量有机物污染分析%Analysis of Micro Organic Compound Pollution in Major City River Reaches of the Main Stem of the Changjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彻华; 彭彪

    2002-01-01

    It has become general for surface waters being polluted by micro organic compounds. In order to know the current pollution situation and the properties of micro organic compounds in the Changjiang River, a test was performed on micro organic compounds in the water, bottom material and fish bodies which were sampled from major city river reaches of the Changjiang River. Based on the test result, researchers described and analyzed the sorts, concentration level and distribution features of micro organic compounds. A comprehensive evaluation was conducted by adopting the method of MEG (Multimedia Environmental Goals). The study indicated that ① the water body of major city river reaches of the Changjiang River has been generally polluted. In the test, totally 12 types with 308 kinds of organic compounds were detected. The main pollutants were paraffins, PAHs and lipids; and ② micro organic pollutant content in fish bodies was generally higher than that in bottom material which is in turn higher than that in water; and ③ pollution is relatively severe in the river reaches of mid-to-large comprehensive industrial cities with fairly great TAS (Total Ambient Severity) of public health and ecological system.

  2. Disentangling the effects of water chemistry and substratum structure on moss-dwelling unicellular and multicellular micro-organisms in spring-fens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal HORSÁK

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water chemistry is known to be one of the most important factors controlling species composition of many macro-organisms in wetlands. It is unclear to what extent micro-organisms respond to water chemistry as compared to chemistry-mediated substratum structure. We explored how the assemblages of different groups of micro-organisms in bryophyte tufts of spring-fens were determined by water chemistry and substratum structure. The aim was to compare unicellular autotrophic diatoms, unicellular heterotrophic testate amoebae and multicellular heterotrophic monogonont rotifers. Assemblages of all three groups showed a strong compositional gradient correlated with water pH and conductivity, calcium concentration and dominance of Sphagnum. While a second strong gradient in species composition of diatoms and testate amoebae was explained by factors such as substratum structure and water content, that of rotifers remained unexplained. Unlike the other two groups, testate amoeba assemblages were significantly determined by phosphates. Nitrates and iron were important species composition determinants for diatoms. Rotifers differed from the other groups in that they did not respond significantly to silica, iron or nutrients. When variation caused by substratum characteristics and water chemistry were partitioned out, testate amoebae were controlled more by substratum, while rotifers and diatoms were controlled more by water chemistry. Variation explained by individual effects of substratum or water chemistry, as compared to shared effects, was much lower for rotifers than for testate amoebae and diatoms. Our results show that, in semi-terrestrial ecosystems, pH and calcium concentrations are generally the main drivers of variation in species composition of unicellular and multicellular microorganisms, mirroring well described patterns for macro-organisms, providing support for general ecological hypotheses. Other water chemistry variables differed between

  3. Multicenter Investigation of the Micro-Organisms Involved in Penile Prosthesis Infection: An Analysis of the Efficacy of the AUA and EAU Guidelines for Penile Prosthesis Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin S; Phillips, Elizabeth A; Carrasquillo, Robert J; Thornton, Amanda; Greenfield, Jason M; Levine, Laurence A; Alukal, Joseph P; Conners, William P; Glina, Sidney; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Honig, Stanton C; Becher, Edgardo F; Bennett, Nelson E; Wang, Run; Perito, Paul E; Stahl, Peter J; Rosselló Gayá, Mariano; Rosselló Barbará, Mariano; Cedeno, Juan D; Gheiler, Edward L; Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Ralph, David J; Köhler, Tobias S; Stember, Doron S; Carrion, Rafael E; Maria, Pedro P; Brant, William O; Bickell, Michael W; Garber, Bruce B; Pineda, Miguel; Burnett, Arthur L; Eid, J Francois; Henry, Gerard D; Munarriz, Ricardo M

    2017-03-01

    Penile prosthesis infections remain challenging despite advancements in surgical technique, device improvements, and adoption of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. To investigate penile prosthesis infection microbiology to consider which changes in practice could decrease infection rates, to evaluate current antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines, and to develop a proposed algorithm for penile prosthesis infections. This retrospective institutional review board-exempt multi-institutional study from 25 centers reviewed intraoperative cultures obtained at explantation or Mulcahy salvage of infected three-piece inflatable penile prostheses (IPPs). Antibiotic usage was recorded at implantation, admission for infection, and explantation or salvage surgery. Cultures were obtained from purulent material in the implant space and from the biofilm on the device. Intraoperative culture data from infected IPPs. Two hundred twenty-seven intraoperative cultures (2002-2016) were obtained at salvage or explantation. No culture growth occurred in 33% of cases and gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were found in 73% and 39% of positive cultures, respectively. Candida species (11.1%), anaerobes (10.5%) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%) constituted nearly one third of 153 positive cultures. Multi-organism infections occurred in 25% of positive cultures. Antibiotic regimens at initial implantation were generally consistent with American Urological Association (AUA) and European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. However, the micro-organisms identified in this study were covered by these guidelines in only 62% to 86% of cases. Antibiotic selection at admissions for infection and salvage or explantation varied widely compared with those at IPP implantation. This study documents a high incidence of anaerobic, Candida, and methicillin-resistant S aureus infections. In addition, approximately one third of infected penile prosthesis cases had negative cultures

  4. Isolation of Bacillus strains from the rhizosphere of cereals and in vitro screening for antagonism against phytopathogenic, food-borne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földes, T; Bánhegyi, I; Herpai, Z; Varga, L; Szigeti, J

    2000-11-01

    Bacillus strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of cereals in order to be used as natural biocontrol agents (BCAs). They were screened for antagonism in vitro against various test micro-organisms. The isolates showing antagonism were identified to species level. A combination of techniques was employed for the isolation of Bacillus species. Using the direct method, only one of the 25 isolates screened showed antagonistic properties. This strain (IFS-01) was identified by means of API test strips and the ATB Plus computer programme. It proved to be Bacillus subtilis and consequently has been designated as Bacillus subtilis IFS-01. This strain produced either a broad spectrum antimicrobial compound or several compounds with different activities. The fungi and Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the antagonistic isolate than the Gram-negative bacteria. A Bacillus strain producing BCAs which can be used as biopesticides or organic preservatives has been isolated and identified.

  5. Ardrea characterisation of acidophilic micro-organisms isolated from gold mines in Marmato, Colombia Caracterización por Ardrea de microorganismos acidófilos aislados en minas de oro de Marmato, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio E. Victor Manuel; Márquez G. Marco; Márquez F. Edna Judith

    2007-01-01

    Mineral bio-oxidation improves the extraction of valuable metals and also decreases the impact caused by mining waste; however, the interactions between the micro-organisms so involved are little known. Double-layer solid culture media techniques and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction enzyme analysis (Ardrea), using Eco72I, Eco24I, XcmI and BsaAI enzymes, were used for characterising four micro-organisms isolated from gold mines located in Marmato, Colombia. This work was aimed at better und...

  6. Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of a Nanofluid Containing Motile Gyrotactic Micro-Organisms Passing a Nonlinear Stretching Vertical Sheet in the Presence of a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field; Numerical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Mehryan, S A; Moradi Kashkooli, Farshad; Soltani, M; Raahemifar, Kaamran

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a water-based nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms passing an isothermal nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field is studied numerically. The governing partial differential equations including continuity, momentums, energy, concentration of the nanoparticles, and density of motile micro-organisms are converted into a system of the ordinary differential equations via a set of similarity transformations. New set of equations are discretized using the finite difference method and have been linearized by employing the Newton's linearization technique. The tri-diagonal system of algebraic equations from discretization is solved using the well-known Thomas algorithm. The numerical results for profiles of velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration and density of motile micro-organisms as well as the local skin friction coefficient Cfx, the local Nusselt number Nux, the local Sherwood number Shx and the local density number of the motile microorganism Nnx are expressed graphically and described in detail. This investigation shows the density number of the motile micro-organisms enhances with rise of M, Gr/Re2, Pe and Ω but it decreases with augment of Rb and n. Also, Sherwood number augments with an increase of M and Gr/Re2, while decreases with n, Rb, Nb and Nr. To show the validity of the current results, a comparison between the present results and the existing literature has been carried out.

  7. Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis of a Nanofluid Containing Motile Gyrotactic Micro-Organisms Passing a Nonlinear Stretching Vertical Sheet in the Presence of a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field; Numerical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Mehryan, S. A.; Moradi Kashkooli, Farshad; Soltani, M.; Raahemifar, Kaamran

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a water-based nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms passing an isothermal nonlinear stretching sheet in the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field is studied numerically. The governing partial differential equations including continuity, momentums, energy, concentration of the nanoparticles, and density of motile micro-organisms are converted into a system of the ordinary differential equations via a set of similarity transformations. New set of equations are discretized using the finite difference method and have been linearized by employing the Newton’s linearization technique. The tri-diagonal system of algebraic equations from discretization is solved using the well-known Thomas algorithm. The numerical results for profiles of velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration and density of motile micro-organisms as well as the local skin friction coefficient Cfx, the local Nusselt number Nux, the local Sherwood number Shx and the local density number of the motile microorganism Nnx are expressed graphically and described in detail. This investigation shows the density number of the motile micro-organisms enhances with rise of M, Gr/Re2, Pe and Ω but it decreases with augment of Rb and n. Also, Sherwood number augments with an increase of M and Gr/Re2, while decreases with n, Rb, Nb and Nr. To show the validity of the current results, a comparison between the present results and the existing literature has been carried out. PMID:27322536

  8. Early evolution of large micro-organisms with cytological complexity revealed by microanalyses of 3.4 Ga organic-walled microfossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Lepot, K; Ito, S; Javaux, E J

    2015-11-01

    The Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is widely distributed in the East Pilbara Terrane (EPT) of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, and represents a Paleoarchean shallow-water to subaerial environment. It was deposited ~3.4 billion years ago and displays well-documented carbonate stromatolites. Diverse putative microfossils (SPF microfossils) were recently reported from several localities in the East Strelley, Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. Thus, the SPF provides unparalleled opportunities to gain insights into a shallow-water to subaerial ecosystem on the early Earth. Our new micro- to nanoscale ultrastructural and microchemical studies of the SPF microfossils show that large (20-70 μm) lenticular organic-walled flanged microfossils retain their structural integrity, morphology, and chain-like arrangements after acid (HF-HCl) extraction (palynology). Scanning and transmitted electron microscopy of extracted microfossils revealed that the central lenticular body is either alveolar or hollow, and the wall is continuous with the surrounding smooth to reticulated discoidal flange. These features demonstrate the evolution of large micro-organisms able to form an acid-resistant recalcitrant envelope or cell wall with complex morphology and to form colonial chains in the Paleoarchean era. This study provides evidence of the evolution of very early and remarkable biological innovations, well before the presumed late emergence of complex cells.

  9. Experimental test of whether electrostatically charged micro-organisms and their spores contribute to the onset of arcs across vacuum gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L. R.; Halle, A. von; Carpe, A. F.; Gilton, K. R.; Rossi, Guy; Stevenson, T. N. [Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Recently it was proposed [L. R. Grisham et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between conducting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which then become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. This note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maximum operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each case preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance.

  10. Encrusting micro-organisms from the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous Inalti Carbonates (Central Pontides, Turkey): Remarks on reefal / peri-reefal facies development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel Kaya, Mustafa; Altıner, Demir

    2015-04-01

    A detailed taxonomical study was carried out for the identification of encrusting micro-organisms including Bacinella-type structures, Calcistella jachenhausenensis, Crescentiella morronensis, Iberopora bodeuri, Koskinobullina socialis, Labes atramentosa, Lithocodium aggregatum, Perturbatacrusta leini, Pseudorothpletzella schmidi, Radiomura cautica, Sarsteinia babai, Terebella lapilloides and Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera. Among these microencrusters, Perturbatacrusta leini, Iberopora bodeuri, Calcistella Jachenhausenensis, Pseudorothpletzella schmidi have been taxonomically revealed for the first time in Turkey. Within the biostratigraphic frame of the İnalti carbonates consisting of Mesoendothyra izjumiana zone (Kimmeridgian), Calcistella jachenhausenensis zone (Lower Tithonian - Upper Tithonian) and Protopeneroplis ultragranulata zone (Upper Tithonian - Berriasian), carbonate sedimentation occured in 5 depositional environments comprising slope, fore-reef, reef, back-reef and lagoonal environments. Majority of the reefal deposits of the İnalti carbonates can be classified as coral-microbial-microencruster boundstones and frequently occur associated with back-reef and fore-reef deposits within Kimmeridgian - Berriasian interval. A shallowing and a subsequent deepening in the Berriasian have been revealed by the examination of stacking patterns and vertical evolution of the microfacies. Based on the observed microfacies and general features of micro-encrusting organisms it has been concluded that İnalti Limestones share many similarities with the reefal carbonate deposits of Intra-Tethyan domain in terms of microfacies types and microencruster content. These similarities manifest the extension of the European Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous reef belts to the northern Turkey.

  11. Monte Carlo implementation of Schiff's approximation for estimating radiative properties of homogeneous, simple-shaped and optically soft particles: Application to photosynthetic micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Julien; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Dauchet, Jérémi; El Hafi, Mouna; Fournier, Richard; Abboud, Mira Kaissar; Weitz, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, Schiff's approximation is applied to the study of light scattering by large and optically-soft axisymmetric particles, with special attention to cylindrical and spheroidal photosynthetic micro-organisms. This approximation is similar to the anomalous diffraction approximation but includes a description of phase functions. Resulting formulations for the radiative properties are multidimensional integrals, the numerical resolution of which requires close attention. It is here argued that strong benefits can be expected from a statistical resolution by the Monte Carlo method. But designing such efficient Monte Carlo algorithms requires the development of non-standard algorithmic tricks using careful mathematical analysis of the integral formulations: the codes that we develop (and make available) include an original treatment of the nonlinearity in the differential scattering cross-section (squared modulus of the scattering amplitude) thanks to a double sampling procedure. This approach makes it possible to take advantage of recent methodological advances in the field of Monte Carlo methods, illustrated here by the estimation of sensitivities to parameters. Comparison with reference solutions provided by the T-Matrix method is presented whenever possible. Required geometric calculations are closely similar to those used in standard Monte Carlo codes for geometric optics by the computer-graphics community, i.e. calculation of intersections between rays and surfaces, which opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of particles with complex shapes.

  12. Experimental Test Of Whether Electrostatically Charged Micro-organisms And Their Spores Contribute To The Onset Of Arcs Across Vacuum Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-24

    Recently it was proposed [L.R. Grisham, A. vonHalle, A.F. Carpe, Guy Rossi, K.R. Gilton, E.D. McBride, E.P. Gilson, A. Stepanov, T.N. Stevenson, Physics of Plasma 19 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between condu cting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which tnen become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. The note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maxium operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance

  13. The detection of BANA micro-organisms in adult periodontitis before and after scaling and root planing by BANA-Enzymatic TM test kit: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipun Dhalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many paraclinical methods are available today for an accurate assessment of the periodontal status prior and during the periodontal treatment. The microbial-enzymatic N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-napthylamide (BANA test is one of the modern alternatives to bacterial cultures. It detects the presence of three periodontal pathogens in the subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. Aims and Objective: The aim and objective of this study was to detect the presence of BANA micro-organisms and also to determine the effect of scaling and root planning in adult periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total number of 20 patients (80 sites all having periodontitis were selected. Four test sites (permanent molar from each quadrant were selected from each patient and assessed for plaque index, bleeding index and pocket depth before and after scaling and root planning. BANA test was used for the detection and prevalence of the "red complex" bacteria in plaque samples. Results: Showed that the BANA tests are statistically correlated with the severity of periodontal destruction. There was a significant correlation between the BANA test results and the quantity of bacterial plaque, the test being influenced by the composition of bacterial plaque. Conclusion: This study encourages the use of such chair-side tests for a proper diagnosis of periodontal disease and for a good evaluation of the treatment results.

  14. Human infektionsimmunologi. Basalvidenskabelige opdagelser og kliniske konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Pedersen, B K; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    During the last years studies on human immune responses to specific micro-organisms have contributed to an increased understanding of the structure and function of the immune system. T lymphocytes with a special antigen receptor (gamma/delta cells) are thus probably important in some infectious...

  15. Corrosion of copper in oxygen-deficient groundwater with and without deep bedrock micro-organisms: Characterisation of microbial communities and surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Rajala, P.; Bomberg, M.; Carpén, L.

    2017-02-01

    Copper specimens were exposed to oxygen-deficient artificial groundwater in the presence and absence of micro-organisms enriched from the deep bedrock of the planned nuclear waste repository site at Olkiluoto island on the western coast of Finland. During the exposure periods of 4 and 10 months, the copper specimens were subjected to electrochemical measurements. The biofilm developed on the specimens and the water used in the exposures were subjected to microbiological analyses. Changes in the water chemistry were also determined and surfaces of the copper specimens were characterized with respect to the morphology and composition of the formed corrosion products. The results showed that under biotic conditions, redox of the water and open circuit potential (OCP) of the copper specimens were generally negative and resulted in the build-up of a copper sulphide, Cu2S, layer due to the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that were included in the system. In the 4-month test, the electrochemical behaviour of the specimens changed during the exposure and alphaproteobactria Rhizobiales were the dominant bacterial group in the biofilm where the highest corrosion rate was observed. In the 10-month test, however, deltaproteobacteria SRB flourished and the initial electrochemical behaviour and the low corrosion rate of the copper were retained until the end of the test period. Under abiotic conditions, the positive water redox potential and specimen OCP correlated with the formation of copper oxide, Cu2O. Furthermore, in the absence of SRB, Cu2O provided slightly inferior protection against corrosion compared to that by Cu2S in the presence of SRB. The obtained results show that the presence of microorganisms may enhance the passivity of copper. In addition, the identification of key microbial species, such as SRB thriving on copper for long time periods, is important for successful prediction of the behaviour of copper.

  16. Buzz off! An evaluation of ultrasonic acoustic vibration for the disruption of marine micro-organisms on sensor-housing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, J S; Hopper, D J; Magiopoulos, I; Arundell, M; Brown, R; Shorter, S; Mowlem, M C; Pascal, R W; Connelly, D

    2016-12-01

    Biofouling is a process of ecological succession which begins with the attachment and colonization of micro-organisms to a submerged surface. For marine sensors and their housings, biofouling can be one of the principle limitations to long-term deployment and reliability. Conventional antibiofouling strategies using biocides can be hazardous to the environment, and therefore alternative chemical-free methods are preferred. In this study, custom-made testing assemblies were used to evaluate ultrasonic vibration as an antibiofouling process for marine sensor-housing materials over a 28-day time course. Microbial biofouling was measured based on (i) surface coverage, using fluorescence microscopy and (ii) bacterial 16S rDNA gene copies, using Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ultrasonic vibrations (20 KHz, 200 ms pulses at 2-s intervals; total power 16·08 W) significantly reduced the surface coverage on two plastics, poly(methyl methacrylate) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for up to 28 days. Bacterial gene copy number was similarly reduced, but the results were only statistically significant for PVC, which displayed the greatest overall resistance to biofouling, regardless of whether ultrasonic vibration was applied. Copper sheet, which has intrinsic biocidal properties was resistant to biofouling during the early stages of the experiment, but inhibited measurements made by PCR and generated inconsistent results later on. In this study, ultrasonic acoustic vibration is presented as a chemical-free, ecologically friendly alternative to conventional methods for the perturbation of microbial attachment to submerged surfaces. The results indicate the potential of an ultrasonic antibiofouling method for the disruption of microbial biofilms on marine sensor housings, which is typically a principle limiting factor in their long-term operation in the oceans. With increasing deployment of scientific apparatus in aquatic environments, including further offshore

  17. Potential of Effective micro-organisms and Eisenia fetida in enhancing vermi-degradation and nutrient release of fly ash incorporated into cow dung-paper waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupambwa, Hupenyu Allan; Ravindran, Balasubramani; Mnkeni, Pearson Nyari Stephano

    2016-02-01

    The interactions between earthworms and microorganisms activity has prompted several researchers to evaluate the potential of artificially inoculating vermicomposts with additional specific microbes, with the intention of enhancing the vermicomposting process. This study evaluated the potential of inoculating fly ash (F)-cow dung-paper waste (CP) mixture (F-CP) with a specialized microbial cocktail called Effective micro-organisms (EM) during vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida earthworms. Inoculation with EM alone did not result in significantly (P>0.05) different changes in C/N ratio and dissolved organic matter (DOC) compared to the control with no EM and E. fetida. A significant interaction between EM and E. fetida presence resulted in greater changes in C/N ratio and DOC, which were not statistically different from the E. fetida alone treatment. It was also noteworthy that the activity of ß-Glucosidase was not influenced by the presence of EM, but was significantly influenced (P=0.0014) by the presence of E. fetida. However, the EM+E. fetida treatment resulted in a rate of weekly Olsen P release of 54.32mgkg(-1) which was 12.3%, 89.2% and 228.0% more that the E. fetida alone, EM alone and control treatments, respectively. Similarly, though higher in the E. fetida plus EM treatment, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria counts were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the E. fetida alone treatment. It is concluded that inoculation of F-CP composts with EM alone may not be beneficial, while combining EM with E. fetida results in faster compost maturity and significantly greater Olsen P release. It would be interesting to evaluate higher optimized rates of EM inoculation and fortifying EM cocktails with phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on F-CP vermicompost degradation and phosphorus mineralization.

  18. In vivo estimation of pigment composition and optical absorption cross-section by spectroradiometry in four aquatic photosynthetic micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méléder, Vona; Laviale, Martin; Jesus, Bruno; Mouget, Jean Luc; Lavaud, Johann; Kazemipour, Farzaneh; Launeau, Patrick; Barillé, Laurent

    2013-12-05

    The objective of the present study was to estimate in vivo pigment composition and to retrieve absorption cross-section values, a(∗), of photosynthetic micro-organisms using a non-invasive technique of reflectance spectrometry. To test the methodology, organisms from different taxonomical groups and different pigment composition were used (Spirulina platensis a Cyanophyta, Porphyridium cruentum a Rhodophyta, Dunaliella tertiolecta a Chlorophyta and Entomoneis paludosa a Bacillariophyta) and photoacclimated to two different irradiance levels: 25 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (Low Light, LL) and 500 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (High Light, HL). Second derivative spectra from reflectance were used to identify pigment in vivo absorption bands that were linked to specific pigments detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Whereas some absorption bands such as those induced by Chlorophyll (Chl) a (416, 440, 625 and around 675 nm) were ubiquous, others were taxonomically specific (e.g. 636 nm for Chl c in E. paludosa) and/or photo-physiological dependent (e.g. 489 nm for zeaxanthin in the HL-acclimated S. platensis). The optical absorption cross-section, a(∗), was retrieved from reflectance data using a radiative transfer model previously developed for microphytobenthos. Despite the cellular Chl a decrease observed from LL to HL (up to 88% for S. platensis), the a(∗) increased, except for P. cruentum. This was attributed to a 'package effect' and to a greater absorption by photoprotective carotenoids that did not contribute to the energy transfer to the core Chl a.

  19. Effect of breeding activity on the microflora of the external genitalia and in the semen of stallions, and the relationship between micro-organisms on the skin and on the external genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, T; Miranda, C; Pinto, M; Silva, E; Damásio, L; Costa, A L; Correia, M J; Duarte, J C; Cosinha, C; Lopes, G; Thompson, G; Rocha, A

    2014-12-01

    A possible role of breeding activities in the composition of the microbial population in stallions' external genitalia (EG) and the relationship between micro-organisms colonizing the skin of the abdomen and the ones colonizing the EG have not been studied. In experiment 1, EG microbiological samples were collected from 41 stallions used for both natural cover and semen collection (BST) and from 18 non-breeding stallions (NBST). A higher (p micro-organisms isolated from the EG were present in semen, albeit with a numerically lower prevalence. In 7 stallions, six microbial species isolated from semen were absent from the EG cultures, suggesting contamination by the operator. In experiment 3, a numerically higher number of micro-organism species was isolated from the EG of 31 stallions, than from their skin of the ventral abdomen in contact with the penis or from the skin of the thorax. With the sole exception of Escherichia coli, potentially pathogenic bacteria were only isolated from the EG but not from the skin. Results suggest that breeding activity increased the number of species colonizing the EG; most species isolated from the EG were also found in semen even if with a lower frequency, and additional semen contamination seemed to occur during its manipulation. Many micro-organism species of the skin were also isolated from the penis, but independently of being or not in contact with the penis, skin did not seem to provide an adequate environment for the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria that were isolated from EG, with the sole exception for E. coli.

  20. Influence of autochthonous micro-organisms on sorption and remobilization of technetium and selenium. Final report; Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroflora auf die Sorption und Remobilisierung des Technetiums und des Selens. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maue, G.; Stroetmann, I.; Dott, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Umwelthygiene; Taute, T.; Winkler, A.; Pekdeger, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachrichtung Rohstoff- und Umweltgeologie

    1996-10-31

    Within this research project the influence of autochthonous mirco-organisms on immobilization and remobilization of Technetium and Selenium was investigated. Both redoxsensitive radionuclides are part of the waste of nuclear fuel (Tc app. 6%). Former investigations have shown, that immobilization behaviour of both elements could be influenced by micro-organisms. It has not been known, if the autochthonous (or in situ) organisms from greater depth do also have an influence on radionuclide mobility. The autochthonous populations of micro-organisms in deep sediments and their influence on the migration of Tc and Se were investigated in this study. For this reason recirculation column experiments were carried out. Absolutely sterile and anaerobic handling was necessary for the sampling and the further treatment of the sediments and waters used in the experiments. Therefor special methods for sampling, storage and handling had been developed. The results of recirculation column test with autochthonous micro-organisms were compared with sterile parallel tests and were verified with the results of an elaborated version of the hydrogeochemical equilibration code PHREEQE. It was shown that the autochthonous micro-organisms had only very little influence on the migration behaviour. The reason is the very low population (less than 10 E+6 CFU). Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration, that conventional laboratory experiments for the estimation of the retention capacities of sediments for hazardous waste lead to an overestimation, if the sediments are contaminated with allochthonous micro-organisms (CFU=colony forming units). (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Forschungsvorhaben wurde der Einfluss der autochthonen Mikroorgansimen auf die Mobilitaet von Technetium und Selen untersucht. Beide redoxsensitiven Radionuklide sind im Abfall von Kernbrennelementen enthalten (Tc ca. 6%). Aus vorangegangenen Forschungsarbeiten ist bekannt, dass die Mobilitaet der beiden Elemente durch

  1. Gender and age identities in rituals of comensality. The argaric societies

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Romero, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of meat offerings included in the grave goods of Argaric burials has shown the importance of commensality practices for these societies not only as a part of the funerary ritual but also as a way to manifest social inequalities. Our main interest in this paper will be to understand how gender and age identities are incorporated in this social negotiation. El análisis de ofrendas cárnicas que se incluyen en los ajuares funerarios argáricos de la Edad del Bronce del sudeste de la Pe...

  2. Gender and age identities in rituals of comensality. The argaric societies

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Romero, Margarita; Aranda Jiménez, Gonzalo; Alarcón García, Eva

    2007-01-01

    L’anàlisi de les ofrenes de carn que s’inclouen als aixovars funeraris argàrics de l’Edat del Bronze del sudest de la península Ibèrica, han mostrat la importància de les pràctiques de comensalitat per a aquestes societats no només com a part del ritual funerari sinó també com una forma de manifestar les desigualtat socials. En aquest article, el nostre principal interès consisteix en entendre com s’incorporen les identitats de gènere i d’edat en aquesta negociació social.

  3. 绿色化学与微型有机化学实验研究与实践分析%Research and Practice Analysis of Green Chemistry and Micro-organic Chemistry Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商桂君

    2014-01-01

    This paper will starts from establishing the people's green awareness to analyzes micro-organic chemistry experiment, and proposes using the concept of green chemistry to reform the organic chemistry experiment teaching, expects to better know the chemistry experiment teaching.%本文将从树立人们的绿色化意识出发,对微型有机化学实验进行深入分析,并提出利用绿色化学的理念对有机化学实验教学进行改革具体措施,以期更好的知道化学实验教学。

  4. Varying the morphology of silver nanoparticles results in differential toxicity against micro-organisms, HaCaT keratinocytes and affects skin deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy M; Lim, Julian; Studier, Hauke; Roberts, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) within the healthcare sector and consumer products is rapidly increasing. There are now a range of diverse-shaped Ag NPs that are commercially available and many of the products containing nanosilver are topically applied to human skin. Currently, there is limited data on the extent to which the antimicrobial efficacy and cytotoxicity of Ag NPs is related to their shape and how the shape of the Ag NPs affects their distribution in both intact and burn wounded human skin after topical application. In this study, we related the relative Ag NP cytotoxicity to potential skin pathogens and HaCaT keratinocytes in vitro with the shape of the Ag NPs. We employed multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to map the distribution of the native and unlabeled Ag NPs after topical application to both intact and burn wounded human skin using the localized surface plasmon resonance signal of the Ag NPs. Truncated plate shaped Ag NPs led to the highest cytotoxicity against both bacteria (IC50 ranges from 31.25 to 125 μg/mL depending on the bacterial species) and HaCaT keratinocytes (IC50 78.65 μg/mL [95%CI 63.88, 96.83]) thus both with similar orders of magnitude. All Ag NPs were less cytotoxic than solutions of silver nitrate (IC50 of 7.85 μg/mL [95%CI 1.49, 14.69]). Plate-shaped Ag NPs displayed the highest substantivity within the superficial layers of the stratum corneum when topically applied to intact skin and the highest deposition into the wound bed when applied to burned ex vivo human skin relative to other Ag NP shapes.

  5. 去除地下水中铁锰的复合微生物材料制备%On preparing compound micro-organic materials for removing iron( Ⅱ ) and manganese ( Ⅱ )ingredient from groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游亚平; 陈丽芳; 周志华; 李敏

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned about a renovated method for preparing the compound micro-organic material for removing iron( Ⅱ ) and manganese( Ⅱ ) from the groundwater. The method we have developed can be stated as follows: the compound micro-organic material used for removing the two heavy metal residue can be shown as follows: the natural bran mixed with the strain 4 - 05 ( Pseudomonas sp.) with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose(CMC) as adhesive can be separated in the laboratory, and then introduced into the globular micro-organic compound material. The prepared material can then be tested for its efficiency of Fe2+ and Mn2+ removal so as for the preparation processing to be optimized through batch experiments. The chief factors influencing the removing process are exactly what we want to find in our optimization experiments. So far as we know, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and the particle size are closely associated with the removing process. The adhesive contents were chosen from 6% to 14% while considering the molding condition and disintegration. The results of our adsorption experiments reveal that the Fe2+ and Mn2+ removing power are increasing on the condition of keeping the content of sodium carboxy methyl cellulose within a range from 6% to 14% . Moreover, in such a condition, the removing efficiency can be made to reach as high as 95.72% for Fe2+ and 41.93% for Mn2+ , respectively. In addition, we have done batch experiments with different sizes of particles, such as 0.5 cm ,1.5 cm and 2.5 cm. The above said experiments let us know that the removal efficiency of Fe2 + could be improved by increasing the particle size. The removal efficiency of Mn2+ was uptrend at the beginning, and then can reach its maximal removing rate to as high as 62.35 % with the particle size being 2.5 cm on average. But a 4-day period later, the residual content of Mn2 + tended to rise with its removal efficiency declining. And, finally, the results of our experiments show that

  6. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  7. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  8. Periodontal disease-associated micro-organisms in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women using or not using hormone replacement therapy. A two-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuholm Jussi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite conflicting results on the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT there is no doubt that many women benefit from it. Women using HRT are known to be more health conscious in general with putative positive implications in the mouth. However, we observed recently in our cohort hardly any difference in oral health status between HRT-users and non-users. There are only a few studies about HRT and oral microbiota. We hypothesized that counts of periodontal micro-organisms are lower in health-conscious HRT-users than non-users. Methods Two-year open follow-up study was conducted on originally 200 HRT-users and 200 non-users from age cohorts of 50-58 years. After clinical examination pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analyses. The results of finally 135 women meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed with cross-tabulation and chi-square test. Explanatory factors were studied by step-wise logistic regression analysis. Results In HRT group, the numbers of positive samples for Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, p Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia, p Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythia, p P. gingivalis (p T. forsythia (p Conclusion Although use of HRT did not correlate with periodontal health status, HRT led to decreasing numbers of positive samples of the periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. Further studies with longer observation time are needed to observe the clinical relevance of the results.

  9. Rapid Identification of Micro-Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-26

    apart. Price et al (28) and Trask (7) et al have also described -7- differences in light scattering signatures among different species of microalgae . The...characterization by other measurements. It has also become fairly common practice to use flow cytometry for analysis of cancer cells, which typically have an...cells. However, ethidium stained almost all cells in gram-positive cultures and in gram-negative cultures treated with EDrA, although staining

  10. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Köhl, J

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  11. Preliminary study of cultivable dominant micro-organisms in sediment of Dishui lake%滴水湖沉积物中可培养优势微生物种群初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江敏; 胡文婷; 凌云; 吴昊; 邢斌; 卢柳; 任治安

    2011-01-01

    于滴水湖湖心采集底泥样品,对底泥中可培养优势菌种进行分离、纯化,并利用Biolog微生物自动分析系统进行鉴定.结果显示,滴水湖沉积物中菌落总数为2.43×104CFU/g,分离纯化后的8株优势菌种中,革兰氏阴性菌占87.5%,其中7株为GN-NENT(革兰氏阴性非肠遭菌)、1株为GP-ROD SB(革兰氏阳性芽孢杆菌).鉴定结果显示,8株菌种分别为:鳗鱼气单孢菌(Aeromonas encheleia)、乙酸钙不动杆菌/基因型1(Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/genospecies 1)、舒氏气单胞菌(Aeromonas schubertiiDNA group 12)、腐败希瓦氏菌B(Shewanella Putrefaciens B)、维罗纳/温和气单胞菌(Aeromonas veronii/sobria DNA group 8)、坎氏弧菌(Vibrio campbelli)、蕈状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mycoides)和梅氏弧菌(Vibrio metschnikovii).%After collecting sediment sample from the center of Dishui lake, the cultivable dominant micro-organisms were separated,purificated and identificated with Biolog automatic microbiology analysis system. Results showed that the total number of bacterial colonies in Dishui lake were 2. 43 × 104 CFU/g. Gram-negative bacterium made up 87. 5% of eight dominant bacterium and among which seven types of CN-NENT and one type of CP-ROD were identified. The eight strains of bacterium were Aeromonas encheleia, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/genospecies , Aeromonas schubertii DNA group 12 , Shewanella putrefaciens B , Aeromonas veronii/sobria DNA group 8, Vibrio campbelli, Bacillus mycoides and Vibrio metschnikovii respectively.

  12. The roles of the micro-organisms and chromium content in the corrosion of iron-chromium steels in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria; Role des micro-organismes et de la teneur en chrome dans la corrosion d`aciers fer-chrome en presence de bacteries sulfato-reductrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, V.

    1991-12-01

    Although the ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to enhance the corrosion of steel is now widely accepted, the actual processes involved in such phenomena are still discussed. This work is dedicated to the study of the exact roles played in corrosion processes firstly, by the presence of D. vulgaris cells and, secondly, by chemical factors such as the material composition and the accumulation of sulfide ions in the solution. The use of microbiological, electrochemical and analytical experimental techniques lead to results that show the interdependence of the bacteria and the material as well as the importance of the steel composition in the adhesion of the micro-organisms and the general corrosion rates. The bacteria cells and dissolved sulfide ions do not markedly influence the general corrosion rates. They however induce surface state modifications that can result in localized corrosion phenomena.

  13. Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

  14. The sensitivity of brewing micro-organisms to silver

    OpenAIRE

    Strecker, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    With respect to microbiological food safety, beer is thought to be very safe. This is due to the inability of pathogenic organisms to survive in the harsh environment that beer presents, due to low pH, alcohol content and hop acids. However, there are some organisms which have adapted to brewery conditions and can cause off-flavours, hazes or low ethanol yield. The effects of spoilage and subsequent product recall can result in massive economic losses for brewing companies affected. Silver na...

  15. Evidence for widespread endemism among Antarctic micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyverman, Wim; Verleyen, Elie; Wilmotte, Annick; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Willems, Anne; Peeters, Karolien; Van de Vijver, Bart; De Wever, Aaike; Leliaert, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the international research agenda. In Antarctica, where terrestrial and lacustrine environments are predominantly microbial realms, an active and growing community of microbial ecologists is probing this diversity and its role in ecosystem processes. In a broader context, this work has the potential to make a significant contribution to the long-standing debate as to whether microbes are fundamentally different from macroorganisms in their biogeography. According to the ubiquity hypothesis, microbial community composition is not constrained by dispersal limitation and is solely the result of species sorting along environmental gradients. However, recent work on several groups of microalgae is challenging this view. Global analyses using morphology-based diatom inventories have demonstrated that, in addition to environmental harshness, geographical isolation underlies the strong latitudinal gradients in local and regional diversity in the Southern hemisphere. Increasing evidence points to a strong regionalization of diatom floras in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, mirroring the biogeographical regions that have been recognized for macroorganisms. Likewise, the application of molecular-phylogenetic techniques to cultured and uncultured diversity revealed a high number of Antarctic endemics among cyanobacteria and green algae. Calibration of these phylogenies suggests that several clades have an ancient evolutionary history within the Antarctic continent, possibly dating back to 330 Ma. These findings are in line with the current view on the origin of Antarctic terrestrial metazoa, including springtails, chironomids and mites, with most evidence suggesting a long history of geographic isolation on a multi-million year, even pre-Gondwana break-up timescale.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes: A Micro-organism of Concern?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temperature, presence of oxygen) and the electivity of the .... atmosphere packaging (MAP). The ... during slicing and packaging, and to shorten the rather .... formulation of the 'zero tolerance' for L. .... British Medical Journal 304 1583-. 1584.

  17. Elimination of micro-organisms in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Clean water supply and sanitation are regarded as major milestones in medical advances since the 19th century. Production and control of microbiologically safe drinking water has been an important challenge for the drinking water industry ever since. Based on recent progress in scientific literature

  18. Fossil micro-organisms evidenced by electronic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prashnowsky, A.A.; Oberlies, F.; Burger, K.

    1983-04-01

    Fossil microorganisms in colonies and in the form of isolated cells (iron bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes etc.) were detected by electron microscopy of rocks containing remains of plant roots, carbonaceous substance, and strata of clay iron stone with ooids. These findings suggest an environment favourable to bacterial activity during sedimentation in the Upper Carboniferous and during the later processes of peat and coal formation. They also suggest that bacterial processes are an important factor in coal formation. Accurate data on coal formation can only be obtained by systematic biochemical studies. Analyses of the defined organic substances provide a better understanding of the conversion processes of the original substances. For example, the results of sterine analysis provide information on the mycoplancton, phytoplancton and zooplancton of the Upper Carboniferous. For some types of rock, the ratio of saponifiable to non-saponifiable constituents of the organic compounds yield information on stability under various geochemical conditions. The interactions between the various groups of microorganisms also play a major role in the solution of ecological problems.

  19. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  20. Swimming fluctuations of micro-organisms due to heterogeneous microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Hyon, YunKyong; Fu, Henry C.

    2014-10-01

    Swimming microorganisms in biological complex fluids may be greatly influenced by heterogeneous media and microstructure with length scales comparable to the organisms. A fundamental effect of swimming in a heterogeneous rather than homogeneous medium is that variations in local environments lead to swimming velocity fluctuations. Here we examine long-range hydrodynamic contributions to these fluctuations using a Najafi-Golestanian swimmer near spherical and filamentous obstacles. We find that forces on microstructures determine changes in swimming speed. For macroscopically isotropic networks, we also show how the variance of the fluctuations in swimming speeds are related to density and orientational correlations in the medium.

  1. Studies of Copper Nanoparticles Effects on Micro-organisms

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T

    2011-01-01

    We discuss about the antibacterial activities of copper nanoparticles on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in this investigation. First time, we increase its antibacterial activities by using electrical power while on electrolysis synthesis and it is confirmed from its more antibacterial activities (For Escherichia coli bacteria). We investigate the changes of surface area to volume ratio of copper nanoparticles prepared in two different methods and its effects on antibacterial activities. We note that slight change of surface area to volume ratio results in the enhancement of its antibacterial activities.

  2. Micro-organization of humic acids in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klučáková, Martina; Věžníková, Kateřina

    2017-09-01

    The methods of dynamic light scattering and micro-rheology were used to investigate the molecular organization of humic acids in solutions. The obtained results were supplemented by ultraviolet/visible spectrometry and measurement of the zeta potential. Particle tracking micro-rheology was used for the first time as a novel method in humic research. Solutions of humic acids were prepared in three different mediums: NaOH, NaCl, and NaOH neutralized by HCl after dissolution of the humic sample. The molecular organization of humic acids was studied over a wide concentration range (0.01-10 g dm-3). Two breaks were detected in the obtained concentration dependencies. The rearrangements were observed at concentrations around 0.02 g dm-3 and 1 g dm-3. Changes in the measured values observed at around 0.02 g dm-3 were less noticeable and were related to the formation of particles between 100 and 1000 nm in size and the strong bimodal character of humic systems diluted by NaCl. The ;switch-over point; at around 1 g dm-3 indicated changes in the secondary structure of humic acids connected with the increase in colloidal stability (decrease of zeta potential), the decrease in polydispersity, and minimal values of viscosity.

  3. Crocodylians evolved scattered multi-sensory micro-organs

    OpenAIRE

    Di-Poï, Nicolas; Milinkovitch, Michel C.

    2013-01-01

    Background During their evolution towards a complete life cycle on land, stem reptiles developed both an impermeable multi-layered keratinized epidermis and skin appendages (scales) providing mechanical, thermal, and chemical protection. Previous studies have demonstrated that, despite the presence of a particularly armored skin, crocodylians have exquisite mechanosensory abilities thanks to the presence of small integumentary sensory organs (ISOs) distributed on postcranial and/or cranial sc...

  4. UV/H2O2联用工艺去除水中微量有机污染物的中试研究%Pilot study of UV/H2O2 combined process on removing micro organic pollutants in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏萍; 叶辉; 周新宇; 张东; 王铮

    2012-01-01

    为了考察UV/H2O2工艺对微量有机物的去除效果,在砂滤池出水后接UV/H2O2高级氧化中试设备,并投加了特征污染物(阿特拉津、臭味物质2-MIB与Geosmine).结果表明,UV/H2O2工艺对Geosmine去除效果最好,去除率能达到90%以上,对MIB和阿特拉津的去除效果比较接近,去除率均在50%以上,对UV254的去除率为20%~38%.在UV/H2O2工艺中无溴酸盐生成.%To study the removal efficiency of UV/H2O2 process on micro organic pollutants, UV/H2O2 pilot equipment was used to treat the sedimentation effluent dosed with target pollutants (including Atrazine, odor matter 2 - MIB, and Geosmine). The results showed: UV/H2O2 had the best efficiency on removing Geosmine with the removal rate over 90%. The removal effect of MIB and Atrazine was alike, and the removal rates both reached over 50%. The removal rate of UV254 was 20%-38%. No bromate was formed in the UV/H2O2 process.

  5. 基于营养均衡设计的低温乳化肠在贮藏期间品质及微生物的变化%Changes in quality and micro-organisms of low temperature type sausage which based on nutritionally balanced design during storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 杜萍; 黄蔡伦; 王鹏; 周光宏; 张万刚

    2013-01-01

    For the situation of high unsaturated fatty acids, high-carbohydrate, vitamin-rich condition in sausage products which based on nutritionally balanced design, this paper used quality (sensory evaluation, texture, color, fat oxidation case) and micro-organisms (total number of colonies and coliforms) as indicators, researched the changes regulation of the products during storage, which could guidance industrial production in the future. The results showed that,the products storaged at 25℃,the total number of colonies exceeded and the sensory quality of the product decreased significantly after about three days; the products storaged at 0 to 4℃,the total number of colonies had not yet excessive and the fat did not show significant oxidation in 42 days(p>0.05),but the product was faded(p<0.05),the hardness and chewiness increased(p<0.05),sensory quality was not very good and the products losed eating quality.%针对基于营养均衡设计的低温乳化肠中,其高不饱和脂肪酸、高碳水化合物、富含维生素的状况,本文以品质(感官评定、质构、色差、脂肪氧化情况)及微生物(菌落总数、大肠菌群)变化为指标,研究营养均衡设计的低温乳化肠在贮藏期间品质及微生物的变化规律,从而进一步指导工业生产结果表明,在常温25℃贮藏的此类产品,存放3d以后,产品的感官品质显著下降、菌落总数严重超标;在0~4℃贮藏的产品42d内菌落总数、大肠菌群均未超标,脂肪氧化情况并不显著(p>0.05),但产品在35d后褪色(p<0.05),硬度、咀嚼性增大(p<0.05),感官品质不理想,失去食用价值.

  6. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil A

    2015-10-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired in elderly humans, the molecular mechanisms which cause this dramatic functional decline are poorly understood. Our current understanding of the effects of aging on the physical and immunological properties of the intestinal epithelial barrier is also very limited. In this issue of Clinical Science, Man et al. provide further insight into the effects of aging on small intestinal barrier function in humans and the influence that gut luminal micro-organisms may have on it. Using human terminal ileal biopsy tissues they show that intestinal permeability to solutes, but not macromolecules, was significantly increased in the intestines of elderly humans. This was accompanied by elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 which appeared to modulate claudin-2 expression and solute permeability in the epithelium. Conversely, IL-8 synthesis in response to flagellin stimulation was reduced in intestines of the elderly subjects, but was not associated with effects on Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression. These data provide an important advance in our understanding on the effects of aging on intestinal permeability and innate mucosal immune responsiveness in elderly humans.

  7. Human milk: mother nature's prototypical probiotic food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "probiotic" is generally attributed to Dr. Ilya Mechnikov, who hypothesized that longevity could be enhanced by manipulating gastrointestinal microbes using naturally fermented foods. In 2001, a report of the FAO and WHO (2001 Oct, http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_-management/en/probiotics.pdf) proposed a more restrictive definition of probiotic, as follows: "a live micro-organism which, when administered in adequate amounts, confers a health benefit on the host." As such, answering the fundamental question posed here-"Is human milk a probiotic?"-requires first grappling with the concept and meaning of the term probiotic. Nonetheless, one must also be convinced that human milk contains bacteria. Indeed, there are scores of publications providing evidence of a paradigm shift in this regard. Variation in the human-milk microbiome may be associated with maternal weight, mode of delivery, lactation state, gestation age, antibiotic use, and maternal health. Milk constituents (e.g., fatty acids and complex carbohydrates) might also be related to the abundance of specific bacterial taxa in milk. Whether these bacteria affect infant health is likely, but more studies are needed to test this hypothesis. In summary, a growing literature suggests that human milk, like all other fluids produced by the body, indeed contains viable bacteria. As such, and recognizing the extensive literature relating breastfeeding to optimal infant health, we propose that human milk should be considered a probiotic food. Determining factors that influence which bacteria are present in milk and if and how they influence the mother's and/or the recipient infant's health remain basic science and public health realms in which almost nothing is known.

  8. First reported case of Campylobacter lanienae enteritis in a human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Frédéric; Bekal, Sadjia; Frost, Eric H.; Michaud, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Campylobacters are the most frequently identified bacteria causing diarrhoea in humans worldwide. Campylobacter lanienae was isolated for the first time in 2000 from faecal samples of two asymptomatic abattoir workers in Switzerland during a routine hygiene screen, but has never been associated with human disease. Case presentation: At hospital admission, the patient reported diarrhoea, lower abdominal cramps, nausea, one episode of bilious vomiting and low-grade fever of 38 °C. The patient was having 10 or more diarrheic stools per day as well as during the night, and had noticed blood mixed with the stools on several occasions. Stool cultures were negative for species of Salmonella and Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica, but were positive for C. lanienae. Identification was made by classical biochemical testing, as well as 16S rRNA gene and cpn60 sequencing. The patient slowly improved without antibiotic treatment and was discharged nine days after admission with complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion: On the whole it seems very likely that C. lanienae was the causative agent. Clinical microbiologists should be aware of this micro-organism which can be identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The real burden of C. lanienae infection in humans might be underestimated and should be further investigated as a potential cause of human diarrhoea disease.

  9. Human milk for preterm infants: why, what, when and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Gopi; Williams, Thomas C

    2013-11-01

    A mother's expressed breast milk (MEBM) is overall the best feed for her preterm baby during the neonatal period, and is associated with improved short-term and long-term outcomes. Neonatal services should commit the resources needed to optimise its use. The place of banked donor expressed breast milk (DEBM) is less clear, but it probably has a role in reducing the risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis in preterm infants at particularly high risk. There is considerable variation in the composition of human milk and nutrient fortification is often needed to achieve intrauterine growth rates. Human milk can transmit potentially harmful micro-organisms, and pasteurisation, which denatures some of the bioactive factors, is the only known way of preventing this. This is carried out for DEBM but not MEBM in the UK. Future research on human milk should focus on (a) critical exposure periods, (b) understanding better its bioactive properties, (c) the role of DEBM and (d) nutritional quality assurance.

  10. [Role of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, C; Aránguiz, V; Giglio, M S; Fernández, A

    1990-04-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (AA), is a cocobacillus thin and small, non motile, uncapsulate and capnophilic. AA, is: one of the species encountered in the mouth's comensal flora being able to be isolated in gingival crevices culture and oral mucosa in a 20% of the healthy population. An important number of pathogenic factors make it well equipped, to protect itself from host's defense mechanisms, and to destroy the periodontal tissue. Between the most important we find lipopolisacarides and leucotoxines which promote tisular invasion and destructive qualities of this microorganism. Since 1912, there are numerous reports of infectious process associated to it, between which we find: endocarditis in native and prothesic valve, soft tissues abscess, pneumonia, brain's abscess, urethritis, vertebral osteomielitis, thyroid's abscess, pericarditis and periodontal juvenile illness, being this one in which its isolation is more frequent. In vitro, AA is very susceptible to tetracicline. This antibiotic reaches high concentrations in gingival crevices, has significant affinity to the alveolar bone and contributes to protect the collagen. These special feature make them the election drug in periodontal disease produced by this microorganism.

  11. Validation of Bioreactor and Human-on-a-Chip Devices for Chemical Safety Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Sofia P; Dehne, Eva-Maria; Brito, Catarina; Horland, Reyk; Alves, Paula M; Marx, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Equipment and device qualification and test assay validation in the field of tissue engineered human organs for substance assessment remain formidable tasks with only a few successful examples so far. The hurdles seem to increase with the growing complexity of the biological systems, emulated by the respective models. Controlled single tissue or organ culture in bioreactors improves the organ-specific functions and maintains their phenotypic stability for longer periods of time. The reproducibility attained with bioreactor operations is, per se, an advantage for the validation of safety assessment. Regulatory agencies have gradually altered the validation concept from exhaustive "product" to rigorous and detailed process characterization, valuing reproducibility as a standard for validation. "Human-on-a-chip" technologies applying micro-physiological systems to the in vitro combination of miniaturized human organ equivalents into functional human micro-organisms are nowadays thought to be the most elaborate solution created to date. They target the replacement of the current most complex models-laboratory animals. Therefore, we provide here a road map towards the validation of such "human-on-a-chip" models and qualification of their respective bioreactor and microchip equipment along a path currently used for the respective animal models.

  12. Human See, Human Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  13. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  14. Design and prototyping of a chip-based multi-micro-organoid culture system for substance testing, predictive to human (substance) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Frank; Schilling, Niels; Mader, Katja; Gruchow, Mathias; Klotzbach, Udo; Lindner, Gerd; Horland, Reyk; Wagner, Ilka; Lauster, Roland; Howitz, Steffen; Hoffmann, Silke; Marx, Uwe

    2010-07-01

    Dynamic miniaturized human multi-micro-organ bioreactor systems are envisaged as a possible solution for the embarrassing gap of predictive substance testing prior to human exposure. A rational approach was applied to simulate and design dynamic long-term cultures of the smallest possible functional human organ units, human "micro-organoids", on a chip the shape of a microscope slide. Each chip contains six identical dynamic micro-bioreactors with three different micro-organoid culture segments each, a feed supply and waste reservoirs. A liver, a brain cortex and a bone marrow micro-organoid segment were designed into each bioreactor. This design was translated into a multi-layer chip prototype and a routine manufacturing procedure was established. The first series of microscopable, chemically resistant and sterilizable chip prototypes was tested for matrix compatibility and primary cell culture suitability. Sterility and long-term human cell survival could be shown. Optimizing the applied design approach and prototyping tools resulted in a time period of only 3 months for a single design and prototyping cycle. This rapid prototyping scheme now allows for fast adjustment or redesign of inaccurate architectures. The designed chip platform is thus ready to be evaluated for the establishment and maintenance of the human liver, brain cortex and bone marrow micro-organoids in a systemic microenvironment.

  15. Passive immunization against dental caries and periodontal disease: development of recombinant and human monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Y

    2000-01-01

    Indigenous micro-organisms in the oral cavity can cause two major diseases, dental caries and periodontal diseases. There is neither agreement nor consensus as to the actual mechanisms of pathogenesis of the specific virulence factors of these micro-organisms. The complexity of the bacterial community in dental plaque has made it difficult for the single bacterial agent of dental caries to be determined. However, there is considerable evidence that Streptococcus mutans is implicated as the primary causative organism of dental caries, and the cell-surface protein antigen (SA I/II) as well as glucosyltransferases (GTFs) produced by S. mutans appear to be major colonization factors. Various forms of periodontal diseases are closely associated with specific subgingival bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as an important etiological agent of adult periodontitis. Adherence of bacteria to host tissues is a prerequisite for colonization and one of the important steps in the disease process. Bacterial coaggregation factors and hemagglutinins likely play major roles in colonization in the subgingival area. Emerging evidence suggests that inhibition of these virulence factors may protect the host against caries and periodontal disease. Active and passive immunization approaches have been developed for immunotherapy of these diseases. Recent advances in mucosal immunology and the introduction of novel strategies for inducing mucosal immune responses now raise the possibility that effective and safe vaccines can be constructed. In this regard, some successful results have been reported in animal experimental models. Nevertheless, since the public at large might be skeptical about the seriousness of oral diseases, immunotherapy must be carried out with absolute safety. For this goal to be achieved, the development of safe antibodies for passive immunization is significant and important. In this review, salient advances in passive immunization against caries

  16. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  17. Pathogenic micro-organisms and helminths in sewage products, Arabian Gulf, country of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, O M

    1988-03-01

    Fecal and sludge samples from the Arabian Gulf country of Bahrain contained poliomyelitis and coxackie viruses, coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella sonni, fecal streptococci, Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana eggs, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Sludge produced in the central sewage treatment plant is used for agricultural purposes and poses a threat to public health. Recommendations to reduce the potential health hazards are made.

  18. Potential of calcium to scaffold an endodontic biofilm, thus protecting the micro-organisms from disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms in the root canal of a tooth (endodontic biofilm) can induce and sustain apical periodontitis which is an oral inflammatory disease. Still, little is known about the composition of the endodontic biofilm. Studies on biofilms in root canals focus on the identification of the microbial specie

  19. Synthetic bugs on the loose: containment options for deeply engineered (micro)organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Markus; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic Biology (SynBio) has brought up again questions on the environmental fate of microorganisms carrying genetic modifications. The growing capacity of editing genomes for deployment of man-made programs opens unprecedented biotechnological opportunities. But the same exacerbate concerns regarding fortuitous or deliberate releases to the natural medium. Most approaches to tackle these worries involve endowing SynBio agents with containment devices for halting horizontal gene transfer and survival of the live agents only at given times and places. Genetic circuits and trophic restraint schemes have been proposed to this end in the pursuit of complete containment. The most promising include adoption of alternative genetic codes and/or dependency on xenobiotic amino acids and nucleotides. But the field has to still overcome serious bottlenecks.

  20. An immunomagnetic separator for concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms from large volume samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen (United Kingdom) and National Institute of R-D for Technical Physics I.F.T. Iasi, Mangeron 47 Blvd., Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: o.rotariu@abdn.ac.uk; Ogden, Iain D. [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); MacRae, Marion [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Badescu, Vasile [National Institute of R-D for Technical Physics I.F.T. Iasi, Mangeron 47 Blvd., Iasi (Romania); Strachan, Norval J.C. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-15

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation of pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels (<1 pathogenic bacteria per ml) will not be consistently detected by this method. Here a flow through immunomagnetic separator (FTIMS) has been designed and tested to process large volume samples (>50 ml). Preliminary results show that between 70 and 113 times more Escherchia coli O157 are recovered compared with the standard 1 ml method.

  1. Increased peri-ductal collagen micro-organization may contribute to raised mammographic density

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, James C; O’Connell, Oliver V.; Brennan, Keith; Weiping, Lisa; Howe, Miles; Joseph, Leena; Knight, David; O’Cualain, Ronan; Lim, Yit; Leek, Angela; Waddington, Rachael; Rogan, Jane; Astley, Susan M.; Gandhi, Ashu; Kirwan, Cliona C

    2016-01-01

    Background High mammographic density is a therapeutically modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Although mammographic density is correlated with the relative abundance of collagen-rich fibroglandular tissue, the causative mechanisms, associated structural remodelling and mechanical consequences remain poorly defined. In this study we have developed a new collaborative bedside-to-bench workflow to determine the relationship between mammographic density, collagen abundance and alignment, ti...

  2. Antimicrobial lysozyme-containing starch microgel to target and inhibit amylase-producing micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan; Kadam, S.; Abee, T.; Slaghek, T.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Kleijn, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the release of lysozyme from oxidized starch microgels and subsequently test its antimicrobial activity. The gels are made of oxidized potato starch polymers, which are chemically cross-linked by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). The microgel is negatively charged

  3. Linear bioconvection in a suspension of randomly swimming, gyrotactic micro-organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bees, Martin Alan; Hill, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed the initiation of pattern formation in a layer of finite depth for Pedley and Kessler's new model [J. Fluid Mech. 212, 155 (1990)] of bioconvection. This is the first analysis of bioconvection in a realistic geometry using a model that deals with random swimming in a rational man...

  4. Soaking grapevine cuttings in water: a potential source of cross contamination by micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen WAITE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine nurseries soak cuttings in water during propagation to compensate for dehydration and promote root initiation. However, trunk disease pathogens have been isolated from soaking water, indicating cross contamination. Cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv. Sunmuscat and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris rootstock cv. 140 Ruggeri were immersed in sterilized, deionised water for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The soaking water was cultured (25°C for 3 days on non-specific and specific media for fungi and bacteria. The base of each cutting was debarked and trimmed and three 3 mm thick, contiguous, transverse slices of wood cultured at 25°C for 3 days. The soaking water for both cultivars became contaminated with microorganisms within the first hour. Numbers of fungi iso-lated from the wood slices soaked for one hour were significantly greater than those from non-soaked cuttings. The number of bacterial colonies growing from the wood slices increased after soaking for 2‒4 h in Sunmuscat. In a second experiment Shiraz cuttings were soaked for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. The soaking water became contaminated within the first hour but only the bacterial count increased significantly over time. Microorganisms also established on the container surfaces within the first hour although there were no significant increases over 24 h. These results confirm that soaking cuttings is a potential cause of cross contamination and demonstrate contamination of cuttings occurs after relatively short periods of soaking. Avoiding exposing cuttings to water will reduce the transmission of trunk diseases in propagation.

  5. Formation of hydrocarbons by micro-organisms. [Review with 152 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, C.W. (Queen Elizabeth Coll., London); Lynch, J.M.

    1974-01-01

    A review covers the formation of methane, e.g., by Methanobacterium ruminantium on hydrogen and carbon dioxide substrate in swamps, sewage plants, etc.; ethylene, e.g., from plant pathogens such as Penicillium digitatum in citrus fruits; other short-chain hydrocarbons, e.g., hexa-1,3,5-triyne, formed by the fungus Fomes annosus; longer-chain hydrocarbons, e.g., C/sub 16/-C/sub 33/ alkanes formed by algae and fungi, with the chain lengths dependent upon the carbon source used for growth; isoprenoid hydrocarbons, e.g., squalene, formed by yeasts and fungi; and geochemical aspects, such as the microbial contributions to petroleum formation. 152 references.

  6. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Living Systems: Block C, Micro-Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This syllabus begins with a list of program objectives and performance criteria for seven general topic areas related to the study of microorganisms and a list of 23 science processes. Following this information, concepts and understandings for subtopics within the general topic areas are listed as follows: (1) introduction; (2) the cell (basic…

  7. Effect of denture adhesive on the micro-organisms in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozkan, Yasemin Kulak; Ucankale, Mert; Ozcan, Mutlu; Uner, Nurver

    2012-01-01

    Background: Denture adhesives increase the retention and stability of dentures in edentulous patients, especially in cases where salivary flow is impaired or in the management of traumatised oral mucosa. Objectives: The effect of a denture adhesive on the oral flora at different time intervals. Meth

  8. Micro-organism for the production of stereo-specific s, s-2,3-butanediol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a genetically modified lactic acid bacterium capable of producing (S,S)-2,3-butanediol stereo specifically from glucose under aerobic conditions. Additionally the invention relates to a method for producing (S,S)-2,3-butanediol and L-acetoin using the genetically modified...

  9. A model for gyrotactic pattern formation of motile micro-organisms in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gustavsson, K; Jonsson, P R; Mehlig, B

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that the dynamics of motile organisms subject to gravitational torques in turbulence gives rise to patchiness. Spherical motile organisms gather in down-welling regions of the turbulent flow. We determine how shape affects preferential sampling and small-scale spatial clustering (determining local encounter rates) by analysing a statistical model in two and three spatial dimensions. By recursively refining approximations for the paths the organisms take through the flow we determine analytically how preferential sampling and small-scale clustering in the model depend upon the dimensionless parameters of the problem. We show that singularities ("caustics") occur in the dynamics and discuss how these singularities affect spatial patterns.

  10. Unit: Micro-Organisms and Man, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This unit, intended for students in grades eight or nine, is a revised version of ED 053 990. The teacher's guide lists the aims of the unit, behavioral objectives, suitable references and audio-visual aids, required apparatus and materials, and provides teaching notes for each activity, including comments concerning microbiological techniques.…

  11. Plumage micro-organisms and preen gland size in an urbanizing context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Stikeleather, Ryan; McKenna, Jennifer; Hutton, Pierce; McGraw, Kevin J

    2017-02-15

    Urbanization of Earth's habitats has led to considerable loss of biodiversity, but the driving ecological mechanism(s) are not always clear. Vertebrates like birds typically experience urban alterations to diet, habitat availability, and levels of predation or competition, but may also be exposed to greater or more pathogenic communities of microbes. Birds have been popular subjects of urban ecological research but, to our knowledge, no study has assessed how urban conditions influence the microbial communities on bird plumage. Birds carry a large variety of microorganisms on their plumage and some of them have the capacity to degrade feather keratin and alter plumage integrity. To limit the negative effects of these feather-degrading bacteria, birds coat their feathers with preen gland secretions containing antibacterial substances. Here we examined urban-rural variation in feather microbial abundance and preen gland size in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We found that, although urban and rural finches carry similar total-cultivable microbial loads on their plumage, the abundance of feather-degrading bacteria was on average three times higher on the plumage of urban birds. We also found an increase in preen gland size along the gradient of urbanization, suggesting that urban birds may coat their feathers with more preen oil to limit the growth or activity of feather-degrading microbes. Given that greater investment in preening is traded-off against other immunological defenses and that feather-degrading bacteria can alter key processes like thermoregulation, aerodynamics, and coloration, our findings highlight the importance of plumage microbes and microbial defenses on the ecology of urban birds.

  12. A novel sponge disease caused by a consortium of micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Michael; Bulling, Mark; Cerrano, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    In healthy sponges, microbes have been shown to account for up to 40 % of tissues. The majority of these are thought to originate from survivors evading digestion and immune responses of the sponge and growing and residing in the microenvironments of the mesophyll. Although a large percentage of these microbes are likely commensals, they may also include potentially pathogenic agents, which under specific conditions, such as temperature stress, may cause disease. Here we report a novel disease (sponge necrosis syndrome) that is severely affecting populations of the sponge Callyspongia ( Euplacella) aff biru. Both ITS fungal and 16S rDNA bacterial diversities were assessed in healthy and diseased individuals, highlighting six potential primary causal agents for this new disease: two bacteria, a Rhodobacteraceae sp. and a cyanobacterium, Hormoscilla spongeliae (formally identified as Oscillatoria spongeliae), and four fungi, a Ascomycota sp., a Pleosporales sp., a Rhabdocline sp., and a Clasosporium sp. Furthermore, histological analysis showed the dominance of fungal hyphae rather than bacteria throughout the disease lesion, which was absent or rare in healthy tissues. Inoculation trails showed that only a combination of one bacterium and one fungus could replicate the disease, fulfilling Henle-Koch's postulates and showing that this sponge disease is caused by a poly-microbial consortium.

  13. Interactions of micro-organisms near a wall in Stokes flow using a regularized image system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Olson, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    We present an extension of the regularized image system for Stokeslets, where regularization functions and parameters are chosen to satisfy zero flow at the wall for several different fundamental solutions. We study elastic rods near a wall using a Kirchhoff rod formulation. Results are presented for equilibrium states of straight rods and the effect of wall to the time required to reach equilibrium.

  14. Streptomyces mexicanus sp. nov., a xylanolytic micro-organism isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Pavel; García-Varela, Martin; Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Huitrón, Carlos; Flores, María Elena

    2003-01-01

    The taxonomic position of a thermophilic actinomycete strain isolated from soil was examined using a polyphasic approach. The strain, designated CH-M-1035T, was assigned to the genus Streptomyces on the basis of chemical and morphological criteria. It formed Rectiflexibiles aerial hyphae that carried long chains of rounded, smooth spores. The almost complete nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of strain CH-M-1035T was determined and its comparison with the 16S rDNA sequences of previously studied streptomycetes confirmed the assignment of the novel strain to the genus Streptomyces. Strain CH-M-1035T clustered with species belonging to the Streptomyces thermodiastaticus clade in the 1 6S-rDNA-based phylogenetic tree. However, the phenotypic properties of strain CH-M-1035T differed from those of the recognized species within this clade. Therefore, it is proposed that strain CH-M-1035T be classified as a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, as Streptomyces mexicanus (type strain CH-M-1035T =DSM 41796T =BM-B-384T =NRRL B-24196T).

  15. Recombinant micro-organism for use in method with increased product yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Guadalupe Medina, V.G.; Wisselink, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a recombinant yeast cell, in particular a transgenic yeast cell, functionally expressing one or more recombinant, in particular heterologous, nucleic acid sequences encoding ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK). The invention

  16. Raman sorting and identification of single living micro-organisms with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changan; Chen, De; Li, Yong-Qing

    2005-07-01

    We report on a novel technique for sorting and identification of single biological cells and food-borne bacteria based on laser tweezers and Raman spectroscopy (LTRS). With this technique, biological cells of different physiological states in a sample chamber were identified by their Raman spectral signatures and then they were selectively manipulated into a clean collection chamber with optical tweezers through a microchannel. As an example, we sorted the live and dead yeast cells into the collection chamber and validated this with a standard staining technique. We also demonstrated that bacteria existing in spoiled foods could be discriminated from a variety of food particles based on their characteristic Raman spectra and then isolated with laser manipulation. This label-free LTRS sorting technique may find broad applications in microbiology and rapid examination of food-borne diseases.

  17. Hazardous concentrations of pollutants for micro-organisms in river sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beelen P; van Vlaardingen PLA

    1992-01-01

    The toxic effects of 5 toxicants on 5 anaerobic microbial processes in fresh water sediments were measured. Four 14-C labelled substrates were mineralized to 14-CO2 at concentrations from 1-4 mug/l in fresh sediment microcosms. The half-lives of the substrates acetate, benzoate and 4-monochlorophe

  18. Coral-associated micro-organisms and their roles in promoting coral health and thwarting diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krediet, Cory J.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Paul, Valerie J.; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in characterization of the coral microbiota. Shifts in its composition often correlate with the appearance of signs of diseases and/or bleaching, thus suggesting a link between microbes, coral health and stability of reef ecosystems. The understanding of interactions in coral-associated microbiota is informed by the on-going characterization of other microbiomes, which suggest that metabolic pathways and functional capabilities define the ‘core’ microbiota more accurately than the taxonomic diversity of its members. Consistent with this hypothesis, there does not appear to be a consensus on the specificity in the interactions of corals with microbial commensals, even though recent studies report potentially beneficial functions of the coral-associated bacteria. They cycle sulphur, fix nitrogen, produce antimicrobial compounds, inhibit cell-to-cell signalling and disrupt virulence in opportunistic pathogens. While their beneficial functions have been documented, it is not certain whether or how these microbes are selected by the hosts. Therefore, understanding the role of innate immunity, signal and nutrient exchange in the establishment of coral microbiota and in controlling its functions will probably reveal ancient, evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that dictate the outcomes of host–microbial interactions, and impact the resilience of the host. PMID:23363627

  19. Positioning lipid membrane domains in giant vesicles by micro-organization of aqueous cytoplasm mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cans, Ann-Sofie; Andes-Koback, Meghan; Keating, Christine D

    2008-06-11

    We report localization of lipid membrane microdomains to specific "poles" of asymmetric giant vesicles (GVs) in response to local internal composition. Interior aqueous microdomains were generated in a simple model cytoplasm composed of a poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) encapsulated in the vesicles. The GV membrane composition used here was a modification of a DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol mixture known to form micrometer-scale liquid ordered and liquid disordered domains; we added lipids with PEG 2000 Da-modified headgroups. Osmotically induced budding of the ATPS-containing GVs led to structures where the PEG-rich and dextran-rich interior aqueous phases were in contact with different regions of the vesicle membrane. Liquid ordered (L o) membrane domains rich in PEG-terminated lipids preferentially coated the PEG-rich aqueous phase vesicle "body", while coexisting liquid disordered (L d) membrane domains coated the dextran-rich aqueous phase "bud". Membrane domain positioning resulted from interactions between lipid headgroups and the interior aqueous polymer solutions, e.g., PEGylated headgroups with PEG and dextran polymers. Heating resulted first in patchy membranes where L o and L d domains no longer showed any preference for coating the PEG-rich vs dextran-rich interior aqueous volumes, and eventually complete lipid mixing. Upon cooling lipid domains again coated their preferred interior aqueous microvolume. This work shows that nonspecific interactions between interior aqueous contents and the membrane that encapsulates them can drive local chemical heterogeneity, and offers a primitive experimental model for membrane and cytoplasmic polarity in biological cells.

  20. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D J; Baran, N; Stuart, M E; Manamsa, K; Talbot, J

    2015-08-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n=16), pesticides (n=14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n=12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings.

  1. Antimicrobial lysozyme-containing starch microgel to target and inhibit amylase-producing micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yuan; Kadam, S.; Abee, T.; Slaghek, T.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Norde, W.; Kleijn, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the release of lysozyme from oxidized starch microgels and subsequently test its antimicrobial activity. The gels are made of oxidized potato starch polymers, which are chemically cross-linked by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). The microgel is negatively charged

  2. Hydrocarbon-utilising micro-organisms from Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Twenty-three hydrocarbon-utilising bacteria and one yeast were isolated, using enrichment techniques, from water and sediment samples. Vibrio and Pseudomonas were the predominant genera. Of the different organisms screened, Bacillus, Candida...

  3. Hazardous concentrations of pollutants for micro-organisms in river sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beelen P; van Vlaardingen PLA

    1992-01-01

    The toxic effects of 5 toxicants on 5 anaerobic microbial processes in fresh water sediments were measured. Four 14-C labelled substrates were mineralized to 14-CO2 at concentrations from 1-4 mug/l in fresh sediment microcosms. The half-lives of the substrates acetate, benzoate and

  4. Lack of transparency on environmental risks of genetically modified micro-organisms in industrial biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Dommelen, van A.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2009-01-01

    For the sustainable development of technological innovations the involvement of non-specialist stakeholders is crucial, which requires transparency of the knowledge base of the risks and benefits concerned. This paper evaluates the basic assumptions of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and D

  5. [Effect of burn blister fluid on human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) in vitro and its phenotypic modulation in culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Zhu; Rong, Xin-Zhou; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Rong-Hua; Wang, Zhen

    2009-06-01

    To study the effect of blister fluid obtained from burn patient on human MSCs in vitro and its phenotypic modulation in culture. Blister fluid from burn patients was collected at 12, 24, 48 post burn hour (PBH). The human MSCs were isolated, cultured, amplified and identified in vitro, then were divided into A (culture with 20% blister fluid collected at 12 PBH) , B (culture with 20% blister fluid collected at 24 PBH), C (culture with 20% blister fluid collected at 48 PBH), N (with ordinary culture medium) groups. The growth of MSCs and micro-organisms in blister fluid were observed. Positive expression rates of CD44 and CK7 were detected by flow cytometry after culture for 8 days. Bacterial and fungal growths were absent in 15 blister fluid samples. There was no obvious change in MSC morphology in each group. Compared with that of N group, the number of MSCs in A, B, C groups was decreased, especially in C group. CD44 positive expression rate in A, B, C groups was (83.0 +/- 3.1)%, (77.2 +/- 2.9)% and (65.1 +/- 2.3)%, respectively,which was obviously lower than that in N group [(89.5 +/- 3.2)%, P blister fluid can obviously inhibit the growth of human MSC cultured in vitro, and may promote modulation of its phenotype to certain extent.

  6. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards an

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  8. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation ...... often mentioned post-human condition....

  9. Islet formation in mice and men: lessons for the generation of functional insulin-producing β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopika; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    The Islets of Langerhans are crucial 'micro-organs' embedded in the glandular exocrine pancreas that regulate nutrient metabolism. They not only synthesize, but also secrete endocrine hormones in a modulated fashion in response to physiologic metabolic demand. These highly sophisticated structures with intricate organization of multiple cell types, namely endocrine, vascular, neuronal and mesenchymal cells, have evolved to perform this task to perfection over time. Not surprisingly, islet architecture and function are dissimilar between humans and typically studied model organisms, such as rodents and zebrafish. Further, recent findings also suggest noteworthy differences in human islet development from that in mouse, including delayed appearance and gradual resolution of key differentiation markers, a single-phase of endocrine differentiation, and prenatal association of developing islets with neurovascular milieu. In light of these findings, it is imperative that a systematic study is undertaken to compare islet development between human and mouse. Illuminating inter-species differences in islet development will likely be critical in furthering our pursuit to generate an unlimited supply of truly functional and fully mature β-cells from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) sources for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Microbiota diversity and gene expression dynamics in human oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Simón-Soro, Aurea; Mira, Alex

    2014-04-27

    Micro-organisms inhabiting teeth surfaces grow on biofilms where a specific and complex succession of bacteria has been described by co-aggregation tests and DNA-based studies. Although the composition of oral biofilms is well established, the active portion of the bacterial community and the patterns of gene expression in vivo have not been studied. Using RNA-sequencing technologies, we present the first metatranscriptomic study of human dental plaque, performed by two different approaches: (1) A short-reads, high-coverage approach by Illumina sequencing to characterize the gene activity repertoire of the microbial community during biofilm development; (2) A long-reads, lower-coverage approach by pyrosequencing to determine the taxonomic identity of the active microbiome before and after a meal ingestion. The high-coverage approach allowed us to analyze over 398 million reads, revealing that microbial communities are individual-specific and no bacterial species was detected as key player at any time during biofilm formation. We could identify some gene expression patterns characteristic for early and mature oral biofilms. The transcriptomic profile of several adhesion genes was confirmed through qPCR by measuring expression of fimbriae-associated genes. In addition to the specific set of gene functions overexpressed in early and mature oral biofilms, as detected through the short-reads dataset, the long-reads approach detected specific changes when comparing the metatranscriptome of the same individual before and after a meal, which can narrow down the list of organisms responsible for acid production and therefore potentially involved in dental caries. The bacteria changing activity during biofilm formation and after meal ingestion were person-specific. Interestingly, some individuals showed extreme homeostasis with virtually no changes in the active bacterial population after food ingestion, suggesting the presence of a microbial community which could be

  11. Ecological impact of MCB3837 on the normal human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Dalhoff, Axel; Bäckström, Tobias; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2014-08-01

    MCB3837 is a novel, water-soluble, injectable prodrug that is rapidly converted to the active substance MCB3681 in vivo following intravenous (i.v.) administration. Both MCB3837 and MCB3681 are oxazolidinone-quinolone hybrid molecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of MCB3681 on the human skin, nose, oropharyngeal and intestinal microbiota following administration of MCB3837. Twelve healthy male subjects received i.v. MCB3837 (6 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. Skin, nose, saliva and faecal samples were collected on Day -1 (pre dose), during administration on Days 2 and 5, and post dose on Days 8, 12 and 19. Micro-organisms were identified to genus level. No measurable concentrations of MCB3681 were found in any saliva samples or in the faecal samples on Day -1. On Day 2, 10 volunteers had faecal MCB3681 concentrations between 16.5 mg/kg faeces and 275.1mg/kg faeces; no MCB3681 in faeces could be detected in two of the volunteers. On Day 5, all volunteers had faecal concentrations of MCB3681 ranging from 98.9 to 226.3 mg/kg. MCB3681 caused no ecological changes in the skin, nasal and oropharyngeal microbiota. The numbers of enterococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and clostridia decreased in the intestinal microbiota during administration of the drug. Numbers of Escherichia coli, other enterobacteria and Candida were not affected during the study. There was no impact on the number of Bacteroides. The faecal microbiota was normalised on Day 19. No new colonising aerobic or anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria with MCB3681 minimum inhibitory concentrations of ≥4 mg/L were found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. The functions of human saliva: A review sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, A M L; Villa, A; Ekström, J; Proctor, G B; Vissink, A; Aframian, D; McGowan, R; Aliko, A; Narayana, N; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; Jensen, S B; Kerr, A R; Wolff, A

    2015-06-01

    This narrative review of the functions of saliva was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Additional references relevant to the topic were used, as our key words did not generate references which covered all known functions of saliva. These functions include maintaining a moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all surfaces in the mouth and act as a lubricant during such processes as mastication, formation of a food bolus, swallowing and speaking. Saliva provides the fluid in which solid tastants may dissolve and distributes tastants around the mouth to the locations of the taste buds. The hypotonic unstimulated saliva facilitates taste recognition. Salivary amylase is involved in digestion of starches. Saliva acts as a buffer to protect oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal mucosae from orally ingested acid or acid regurgitated from the stomach. Saliva protects the teeth against acid by contributing to the acquired enamel pellicle, which forms a renewable lubricant between opposing tooth surfaces, by being supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, by containing bicarbonate as a buffer and urea and by facilitating clearance of acidic materials from the mouth. Saliva contains many antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents which modulate the oral microbial flora in different ways. Saliva also facilitates the healing of oral wounds. Clearly, saliva has many functions which are needed for proper protection and functioning of the human body.

  13. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; P. Gunasekaran

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  14. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  15. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  16. DnaK from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis is a surface-exposed human plasminogen receptor upregulated in response to bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Centanni, Manuela; Fiori, Jessica; Biagi, Elena; Turroni, Silvia; Orrico, Catia; Bergmann, Simone; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2010-06-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lives in the gastrointestinal tract of most mammals, including humans. Recently, for the probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07, a dose-dependent plasminogen-binding activity was demonstrated and five putative plasminogen-binding proteins were identified. Here we investigated the role of surface DnaK as a B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 plasminogen receptor. DnaK was visualized on the bacterial cell surface by transmission electron microscopy. The His-tagged recombinant DnaK protein showed a high affinity for human plasminogen, with an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. The capability to tolerate physiological concentrations of bile salts is a crucial feature for an intestinal symbiont micro-organism. By proteome analysis we demonstrated that the long-term exposure of B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 to bile salts results in the upregulation of important surface plasminogen receptors such as DnaK and enolase. Moreover, adaptation of B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 to physiological concentrations of bile salts significantly increased its capacity to interact with the host plasminogen system. By enhancing the bacterial capacity to interact with the host plasminogen, the gut bile environment may facilitate the colonization of the human host by B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07.

  17. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  18. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  19. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  20. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  1. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  2. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  3. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    , and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  4. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  5. Teaching humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David T; Cohen, Jordan J; Bruder, Ann; Packer, Barbara; Sole, Allison

    2008-01-01

    As the "passion that animates authentic professionalism," humanism must be infused into medical education and clinical care as a central feature of medicine's professionalism movement. In this article, we discuss a current definition of humanism in medicine. We will also provide detailed descriptions of educational programs intended to promote humanism at a number of medical schools in the United States (and beyond) and identify the key factors that make these programs effective. Common elements of programs that effectively teach humanism include: (1) opportunities for students to gain perspective in the lives of patients; (2) structured time for reflection on those experiences; and (3) focused mentoring to ensure that these events convert to positive, formative learning experiences. By describing educational experiences that both promote and sustain humanism in doctors, we hope to stimulate the thinking of other medical educators and to disseminate the impact of these innovative educational programs to help the profession meet its obligation to provide the public with humanistic physicians.

  6. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S.M.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective: Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method: 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old. Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results: Our results showed significant increase in ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated.

  7. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  8. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary societies, the humanities are under constant pressure and have to justify their existence. In the ongoing debates, Humboldt’s ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’ are often used to justify the unique function of the humanities of ensuring free research and contributing to a vital...... philosophy. Contrary to Humboldt’s idea that the non-practical is the most practical in the long run, philosophical pragmatism recommends to the humanities to situate knowledge in practices and apply knowledge to practices....

  9. Subunits of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Cluster of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Are Surface-Displayed Proteins that Bind and Activate Human Plasminogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gründel

    Full Text Available The dual role of glycolytic enzymes in cytosol-located metabolic processes and in cell surface-mediated functions with an influence on virulence is described for various micro-organisms. Cell wall-less bacteria of the class Mollicutes including the common human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae possess a reduced genome limiting the repertoire of virulence factors and metabolic pathways. After the initial contact of bacteria with cells of the respiratory epithelium via a specialized complex of adhesins and release of cell-damaging factors, surface-displayed glycolytic enzymes may facilitate the further interaction between host and microbe. In this study, we described detection of the four subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHA-D among the cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins of M. pneumoniae. Subunits of PDH were cloned, expressed and purified to produce specific polyclonal guinea pig antisera. Using colony blotting, fractionation of total proteins and immunofluorescence experiments, the surface localization of PDHA-C was demonstrated. All recombinant PDH subunits are able to bind to HeLa cells and human plasminogen. These interactions can be specifically blocked by the corresponding polyclonal antisera. In addition, an influence of ionic interactions on PDHC-binding to plasminogen as well as of lysine residues on the association of PDHA-D with plasminogen was confirmed. The PDHB subunit was shown to activate plasminogen and the PDHB-plasminogen complex induces degradation of human fibrinogen. Hence, our data indicate that the surface-associated PDH subunits might play a role in the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae infections by interaction with human plasminogen.

  10. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  11. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . The first section of this chapter outlines the complete cause-effect pathway, from emissions of toxic substances to intake by the population up to damages in terms of human health effects. Section 2 outlines the framework for assessing human toxicity in LCIA. Section 3 discusses the contributing substances......This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... – demonstrates the importance to account for both outdoor and indoor exposure, including consumer products. Analysing the variations in intake fraction (the fraction of the emitted or applied chemical that is taken in by the consumer and the general population), effect factor and characterisation factor across...

  12. Human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Kasparek, L.; Novicky, O.; Querner, E.P.; Fendeková, M.; Kupczyk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Human activities can cause drought, which was not previously reported (man-induced hydrological drought). Groundwater abstractions for domestic and industrial use are a well-known example of such an environmental change

  13. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  14. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  15. Human babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Gołąb, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging parasitic, anthropo-zoonotic tick-borne disease, seldom diagnosed in humans. Caused by Protozoa, Babesia (also called Piroplasma) intraerytrocytic piriform microorganism. Infection of vertebrates is transmitted by ticks. Out of more than 100 Babesia species/genotypes described so far, only some were diagnosed in infected humans, mostly B. microti, B. divergens and B. venatorum (Babesia sp. EU1). Infection in humans is often asymptomatic or mild but is of a particular risk for asplenic individuals, those with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and elderly. Infections transmitted with blood and blood products raise concerns in hemotherapy. Epidemiological situation of babesiosis varies around the world. In Europe, no increase in the number of cases was reported, but in the USA its prevalence is increasing and extension of endemic areas is observed. The aim of this publication is to describe the problems connected with the current epidemiological situation, diagnosis and treatment of human babesiosis with regard to clinical status of patients.

  16. Human energy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of big-oil record profits and growing debate on global warming, the Chevron Corporation launched its “Human Energy” public relations campaign. In television commercials and print advertisements, Chevron portrays itself as a compassionate entity striving to solve the planet’s energy crisis. Yet, the first term in this corporate oxymoron misleadingly reframes the significance of the second, suggesting that the corporation has a renewed focus. In depicting Chevron as a green/human o...

  17. Human Echolocation

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani

    2013-01-01

    The use of active natural echolocation as a mobility aid for blind humans has received increased scientific and popular attention in recent years (Engber, 2006; Kreiser, 2006; NPR, 2011), in part due to a focus on several blind individuals who have developed remarkable expertise. However, perhaps surprisingly, the history of empirical human echolocation research is not much younger than the era of echolocation research (cf. Griffin, 1958). Nevertheless, compared to its bat and cetacean count...

  18. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  19. A Histopathologic Study on Pulp Response to Glass Ionomer Cements in Human Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghavamnasiri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Despite the wide range of new dental materials, there is still a need for biomaterials demonstrating high biocompatibility, antimicrobial effects and ideal mechanical properties.Purpose: The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the pulpal response to a conventional glass ionomer, a resin modified glass ionomer and a calcium hydroxide in human teeth.Materials and Methods: Fifty five deep class V cavities were prepared in premolars of 31 patients and were divided into 3 groups based on application of the following liners:resin modified glass ionomer (Vivaglass Liner, conventional glass ionomer (ChembondSuperior and calcium hydroxide (Dycal. After applying varnish, teeth were filled with amalgam. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to time intervals of 7, 30 and 60 days. Teeth were then extracted and their crowns were fixed in formalin. Each sample was assessed microscopically for odontoblastic changes,inflammatory cell infiltration, reactionary dentin formation, remaining dentinal thickness and presence of microorganisms. Statistical analysis including Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney was carried out for comparison of mean ranks. (P=0.05.Results: In the Vivaglass Liner group, pulpal response was significantly higher on day 7 as compared to days 30 and 60 (P0.05. There was no correlation between pulpal responses with micro-organisms and remaining dentin thickness (P>0.05.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, light-cured glass ionomer as well as the other tested lining materials were determined to be biologically compatible with vital pulps in deep cavities of sound human teeth.

  20. [Human influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2006-10-01

    Human influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, contributing to approximately one million deaths every year. In Germany, each year between 5.000 and 20.000 individuals die from severe influenza infections. In several countries, the morbidity and mortality of influenza is greatly underestimated. This is reflected by general low immunization rates. The emergence of avian influenza against the background of the scenario of a human influenza pandemic has revived public interest in the disease. According to the World Health Organisation, it is only the question on the beginning of a new influenza pandemic. The virus type of the new pandemic is still uncertain and it is also unclear, if a pandemic spread of the virus may be prevented by consistent controlling of avian influenza.

  1. [Humanized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  2. Beyond Humanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer to the leading question of this paper, namely: ‘what does it mean to go beyond humanisms?’ The conclusion exposes briefly an ethics of hospitality and care from an angeletic perspective.

  3. N-nitrosation of medicinal drugs catalysed by bacteria from human saliva and gastro-intestinal tract, including Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, D; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    1997-02-01

    Micro-organisms commonly present in human saliva and three DSM strains (Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria cinerea), which can be isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract, were assayed in vitro for their capacity to catalyse N-nitrosation of a series of medicinal drugs and other compounds. Following incubation at pH 7.2 in the presence of nitrate (or nitrite) for up to 24 (48) h, the yield of N-nitroso compounds (NOC) was quantified by HPLC equipped with a post-column derivatization device, allowing the sensitive detection of acid-labile and acid-stable NOC. Eleven out of the 23 test compounds underwent bacteria-catalysed nitrosation by salivary bacteria, the yield of the respective nitrosation products varying 800-fold. 4-(Methylamino)antipyrine exhibited the highest rate of nitrosation, followed by dichlofenac > metamizole > piperazine > five other drugs, whilst L-proline and L-thioproline had the lowest nitrosation rate. Ten drugs including aminophenazone, cimetidine and nicotine, did not inhibit bacterial growth, allowing transitory nitrite to be formed, but no N-nitroso derivatives were detected. Three drugs inhibited the proliferation of bacteria and neither nitrite nor any NOC were formed. Using metamizole as an easily nitrosatable precursor, two strains, Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, were shown to catalyse nitrosation in the presence of nitrite at pH 7.2. As compared to Neisseria cinerea used as a nitrosation-proficient control strain, H. pylori was 30-100 times less effective, whilst C. jejuni had intermediary activity. The results of our sensitive nitrosation assay further confirm that bacteria isolated from human sources, possessing nitrate reductase and/or nitrosating enzymes such as cytochrome cd1-nitrite reductase (Calmels et al., Carcinogenesis, 17, 533-536, 1996), can contribute to intragastric nitrosamine formation in the anacidic stomach when nitrosatable precursors from exogenous and endogenous sources

  4. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  5. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  6. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  7. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  8. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  9. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  10. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  11. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  12. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  13. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  14. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  15. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  16. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  17. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  18. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  19. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    steroid concentrations cause alterations in endometrial development, affecting oocyte viability in assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, it has been proposed that elevated progesterone levels have a negative effect on the reproductive outcome of COS. This may arise from an asynchrony between...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  20. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  1. Raman spectroscopy to monitor the effects of temperature regime and medium composition on micro-organism growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, O.; Haroniková, A.; Ježek, J.; Bernatová, S.; Márová, I.; Breierová, E.; Šerý, M.; Šiler, M.; Zemánek, P.

    2016-12-01

    A biomass of yeast strains has been studied using Raman spectroscopy due to their potential applications in the field of biofuel generation, food industry and biotechnological applications. In order to utilize biomass for efficient industrial/biotechnological production, the optimal cultivation parameters have to be determined which in turn lead to high production of desired substances such as oil, carotenoids, and pigments in the selected cell line of yeast. Therefore, we focused on different cultivation conditions (the effects of temperature regime and medium composition) and their influence on microorganisms growth and metabolic changes.

  2. Hunter of Micro-organism LOUIS PASTEUR%微生物猎人路易·巴斯德

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    稿方圆

    2014-01-01

    19世纪的法国,曾被马克思称之为“冷静务实的资本主义社会”。七月革命之后,拿破仑时期的英雄主义逐渐消散干净,追求“真实”成为这个国家崇尚的精神品质,著名作家福楼拜就提出“不要妖怪,不要英雄”。在文学中尚且如此,科学界更是没有“英雄”这一说法,因为从事科学研究的人大部分比较务实。然而,“英雄”或许拥有其他身份,比如化身为一个低调行事的猎人,用自己的冷静与执着,为千千万万的人类寻求生存的福音。他就是路易·巴斯德,带领人们走进微生物世界的人。

  3. Rapid, ultrasensitive detection of micro-organisms based on interferometry and lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ymeti, Aurel; Dudia, A.; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Nederkoom, Paul H.J.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S.; Halvorson, Craig S.; Southern, Sarka O.; Kumar, B.V.K. Vijaya; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.

    2009-01-01

    Future viral outbreaks are a major threat to societal and economic development throughout the world. A rapid, sensitive, and easy-to-use test for viral infections is essential to prevent and to control such viral pandemics. Furthermore, a compact, portable device is potentially very useful in remote

  4. Power source for inactivation of micro-organisms with partial high voltage discharge in a continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.; Beurskens, R.; Fiala, A.; Haan, S.W.H. de

    2002-01-01

    An electrical discharge technology is investigated as non-thermal method for inactivation of microorganisms. Potential applications include treatment of drinking water (e.g. legionella) and liquid food pasteurization (e.g. fruit juices). A strong interest exists in mild food conservation processes

  5. Automated detection of micro-organisms in blood cultures by means of the Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D F; Warner, M; Taylor, C E; Warren, R E

    1984-01-01

    A prototype Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser was compared with conventional methods for examining blood cultures in a trial of 651 cultures mostly from patients with haematological malignancy or undergoing haemodialysis or renal transplantation. Of 100 significantly positive cultures, organisms from 82 grew in the conventional aerobic (+ CO2) bottle, 78 in the conventional anaerobic bottle and 71 in the Malthus bottle. The differences were not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). The Malthus system detected 83.6% of significantly positive cultures earlier than the comparable conventional bottles while 7.3% positive cultures were detected earlier by the conventional system. When use of the Malthus system was restricted to the hours of 09.00 to 17.30 daily 27.3% positive cultures were detected earlier by the Malthus system and 16.4% were detected earlier by the conventional system. One of the organisms which grew in the Malthus bottle, a contaminating Staphylococcus epidermidis, was not detected by the Malthus system. Instability of electrodes resulted in 26.9% false positive cultures with the prototype Malthus system. Contamination rates in both the Malthus and conventional anaerobic bottles were lower than in the aerobic bottles.

  6. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...

  7. Inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms using ultraviolet-A light in combination with ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, A; Watanabe, T; Matsuki, H

    2017-02-01

    The low energy of UV-A (315-400 nm) is insufficient for disinfection. To improve UV-A disinfection technology, we evaluated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) addition on disinfection by UV-A light-emitting diode (LED) (350-385 nm) against various food spoilers and pathogens (seven bacteria and four fungi species). Photoantimicrobial assays were performed at FA concentrations below the MIC. The MIC of the isomerized FA, consisting of 93% cis-form and 7% trans-form, was very similar to that of the commercially available FA (trans-form). Irradiation with UV-A (1·0 J cm(-2) ) in the presence of 100 mg l(-1) FA resulted in enhanced reducing of all of the tested bacterial strains. A combination of UV-A (10 J cm(-2) ) and 1000 mg l(-1) FA resulted in enhanced reducing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of the tested filamentous fungi. These results demonstrated that the combination of a short-term application of UV-A and FA at a low concentration yielded synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial activity, especially against bacteria.

  8. Ecology of micro-organisms in a small closed system - Potential benefits and problems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Seale, D. B.; Boraas, M. E.; Sommer, C. V.

    1989-01-01

    The probable sources and implications of microbial contamination on the proposed Space Station are discussed. Because of the limited availability of material, facilities and time on the Space Station, we are exploring the feasibility of replacing traditional incubation methods for assessing microbial contamination with rapid, automated methods. Some possibilities include: ATP measurement, microscopy and telecommunications, and molecular techniques such as DNA probes or monoclonal antibodies. Some of the important ecological factors that could alter microbes in space include microgravity, exposure to radiation, and antibiotic resistance.

  9. Effect of cleaning and disinfection of toys on infectious diseases and micro-organisms in daycare nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, T.; Engelund, E. H.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites with the......Background: The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites...... with the highest pathogen load, but their role in disease transmission is unknown. Aim: To determine if washing and disinfection of toys can reduce sickness absence and microbial pathogen load in the nursery environment. Methods: Twelve nurseries (caring for 587 children) were randomized to intervention...... and control groups. The intervention consisted of washing and disinfection of toys and linen every two weeks for three months by a commercial cleaning company. The extent and causes of sickness absence among the children were recorded in both groups before and after introduction of the intervention. Ten...

  10. Preclinical and clinical studies of photodynamic action on some pathogenic micro-organisms of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Ivanov, Krill I.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.

    2001-10-01

    The work is devoted to an analysis of pre-clinical and clinical experiments on photodynamic action of HeNe laser radiation in aggregate with a cation thiazinium dye Methylene Blue (MB) on a mix of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic aerobic bacteria being activators of pyoinflammatory diseases of oral cavity. Concentration of photosensitizes at which there is no own bactericidal influence on dying microflora, and parameters of influence at which the efficiency of irradiated microflora defeat reaches 99% are determined.

  11. Development of a high throughput screening method to test flavour-forming capabilities of anaerobic micro-organisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Development of a fast, automated and reliable screening method for screening of large collections of bacterial strains with minimal handling time. Methods and Results: The method is based on the injection of a small headspace sample (100 µl) from culture vials (2 ml) in 96-well format directly

  12. Power source for inactivation of micro-organisms with partial high voltage discharge in a continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.; Beurskens, R.; Fiala, A.; Haan, S.W.H. de

    2002-01-01

    An electrical discharge technology is investigated as non-thermal method for inactivation of microorganisms. Potential applications include treatment of drinking water (e.g. legionella) and liquid food pasteurization (e.g. fruit juices). A strong interest exists in mild food conservation processes w

  13. Viability of probiotic micro-organism Lactobacillus acidophilus in dairy chocolate dessert and its action against foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Justo Beserra Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The ability to produce antimicrobial factors is considered an important feature of probiotic microorganisms. Bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and lactic acid are examples of these substances. The present research aimed to develop probiotic dairy desserts (DD with Lactobacillus acidophilusand evaluate the viability of this strain, as well as its action on food pathogens. Treatments with and without interactions between L. acidophilusand pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonellasp. andEscherichiacoli O157:H7 and Gram positive (Bacillus cereusand Staphylococcus aureus were produced. The products were stored at a temperature of 8°C and analyzed at the times 24, 48, 72 hours, 7 days and 28 days (at 28 days, only T1 was analyzed because the other products were deteriorated. In an analysis of the potential for development of new products, the dairy dessert with L. acidophiluswas considered a probiotic product. Assessment of the counts of pathogens in dairy desserts with or without L. acidophilusshowed different behaviors of these products in response to pathogens, which could be justified by a possible action of bacteriocins or microbial competition, but there has been no overall reduction or reduction up to a safe level. It is concluded that the probiotic products developed reduced significant food pathogens, but not up to safe levels. Thus, we emphasize the importance of the use of quality tools in the development and monitoring of dairy desserts.

  14. Improved methods for binding acma-type protein anchor fusions yo cell-wall material of micro-organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, Cornelis; Ramasamy, R.; Steen, Anton; Kok, Jan; Buist, Girbe; Kuipers, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The invention provides a method for improving binding of a proteinaceous substance to cell-wall material of a Gram-positive bacterium, said substance comprising an AcmA cell wall binding domain or homolog or functional derivative thereof, said method comprising treating said cell-wall material with

  15. Engineered marine Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: a promising micro-organism for the bioremediation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, R; Parrilli, E; Sannia, G

    2009-01-01

    The recombinant Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 (P. haloplanktis TAC/tou) expressing toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) can efficiently convert several aromatic compounds into their corresponding catechols in a broad range of temperature. When the genome of P. haloplanktis TAC125 was analysed in silico, the presence of a DNA sequence coding for a putative laccase-like protein was revealed. It is well known that bacterial laccases are able to oxidize dioxygenated aromatic compounds such as catechols. We analysed the catabolic features, conferred by recombinant ToMO activity and the endogenous laccase enzymatic activity, of P. haloplanktis TAC/tou engineered strain and its ability to grow on aromatic compounds as sole carbon and energy sources. Results presented highlight the broad potentiality of P. haloplanktis TAC/tou cells expressing recombinant ToMO in bioremediation and suggest the use of this engineered Antarctic bacterium in the bioremediation of chemically contaminated marine environments and/or cold effluents. This paper demonstrates the possibility to confer new and specific degradative capabilities to a bacterium isolated from an unpolluted environment (Antarctic seawater) transforming it into a bacterium able to grow on phenol as sole carbon and energy source.

  16. Force-controlled spatial manipulation of viable mammalian cells and micro-organisms by means of FluidFM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörig, Pablo; Stiefel, Philipp; Behr, Pascal; Sarajlic, Edin; Bijl, Daniel; Gabi, Michael; Vörös, János; Vorholt, Julia A.; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2010-07-01

    The FluidFM technology uses microchanneled atomic force microscope cantilevers that are fixed to a drilled atomic force microscope cantilevers probeholder. A continuous fluidic circuit is thereby achieved extending from an external liquid reservoir, through the probeholder and the hollow cantilever to the tip aperture. In this way, both overpressure and an underpressure can be applied to the liquid reservoir and hence to the built-in fluidic circuit. We describe in this letter how standard atomic force microscopy in combination with regulated pressure differences inside the microchanneled cantilevers can be used to displace living organisms with micrometric precision in a nondestructive way. The protocol is applicable to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells (e.g., mammalian cells, yeasts, and bacteria) in physiological buffer. By means of this procedure, cells can also be transferred from one glass slide to another one or onto an agar medium.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  18. Transient biouptake flux and accumulation by micro-organisms: The case of two types of sites with Langmuir adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galceran, J.; Monne, J.; Puy, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of a chemical species by an aquatic microorganism is modelled considering two kinds of sites where Langmuirian adsorption is followed by first order internalisation kinetics. Simpler models, such as only one internalisation route (while most of the adsorption takes place on non-internalis

  19. Effect of plant growth promoting micro organisms on increasing water use efficiency of alfalfa in water-stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of bacterial growth on water use efficiency of alfalfa, a greenhouse experiment, as factorial based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, in 2012. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of water stress (75, 55 and 35% of field capacity and seed inoculation at 4 levels (no inoculation (control, inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae, inoculation with rhyzobium S. meliloti, and inoculation with combination of mycorhhiza and rhyzobium. Results showed that water stress and seed inoculation have significant effect (P&le0.01 on leaf nutrients content. Water stress reduced absorption of phosphorus (23%, potassium (8%, iron (4% and increased sodium absorption (14% in non-inoculated seeds. Inoculation of seeds reduced stress effects and combined inoculation had the highest effect. Stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were affected (P&le0.01 by inoculation and water stress. Stomatal conductance was decreased during the stress period and seed inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae was most effective on increasing stomatal conductance (47% at the highest level of stress. Water use efficiency increased as a result of water stress and inoculation. The highest value of water use efficiency (0.166 mg/kg was obtained in the combined inoculation with 35% field capacity treatment. Results of regression equations showed that during the inoculation, contribution of phosphorus and potassium in regulation of stomatal conductance was increased and contribution of sodium was decreased.  However, during the stress period, the share of potassium and sodium was increased in stomatal conductance and the share of phosphorus was reduced. Also, stress increased the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency. However, inoculation reduced the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency.

  20. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of immunodetection techniques for the enumeration of micro-organisms and toxins in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available and disadvantages in the water field include the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and radio-immuno-assays (RIA) for the direct detection of viruses from water concentrates; cyto-immuno-labelling and immunofluorescence techniques specific for rota...

  2. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nine essential oils (EO) on P. phosphoreum and determine the effect of oregano oil on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) cod fillets. Methods and Results: The antimicrobial effect of EO was studied in a liquid medium and in product...... storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...... at 2degreesC. Conclusions: Oregano oil reduced the growth of P. phosphoreum and extended the shelf-life of MAP cod fillets. Significance and Impact of the Study: Mild and natural preservation using EO can extend the shelf-life of MAP seafood through inhibiting the specific spoilage organism P...

  3. Dynamic micro-organization of P2X7 receptors revealed by PALM based single particle tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Amulya N.; Rodriguez, Pamela C.; Triller, Antoine; Renner, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are members of the purinergic receptor family that are expressed in several cell types including neurons. A high concentration of ATP is required for the channel opening of P2X7Rs compared to other members of this receptor family. Recent work suggests that ATP binding to members of the P2X receptor family determines the diffusion and localization of these receptors on the plasma membrane of neurons. Here, we employed single particle t...

  4. Human Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak Selek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis is an parasitic infection caused by the ingestion of larvae of dog nematode Toxocara canis and less frequently of cat nematode T.cati. Toxocara eggs, shed to environment by infected dogs' and cats' droppings, become infective by embryonation. Humans, particularly children, can be infected by accidentally ingesting embryonated Toxocara eggs. Larvae hatch in the small intestine, penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate to other parts of body via the bloodstream. It is generally a benign, asymptomatic, and self-limiting disease, although migrating larvae can cause damage to tissues and organs, especially brain involvement can cause severe morbidity. The two main clinical presentations of toxocariasis are visceral larva migrans (VLM (a systemic disease caused by larval migration through major organs and ocular larva migrans (OLM (a disease limited to the eyes and optic nerves. There are also two less-severe syndromes which have recently been described, one mainly in children (covert toxocariasis and the other mainly in adults (common toxocariasis. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of immunological methods (ELISA or western-blot. On the other hand definitive diagnosis is much more challenging, since it requires the demonstration of larvae via biopsy or autopsy. Most cases of toxocariasis clear up without any treatment. VLM is primarily treated with antihelmintic drugs, such as; albendazole or mebendazole. Treatment of OLM is more difficult and usually consists of measures to prevent progressive damage to the eye like steroids. Laser photocoagulation and cryoretinopexy may also be used to treat severe cases. Since eradicating T.canis infection is difficult due to the complexity of its life cycle, prevention of toxocariasis is always preferred. Toxocara eggs have a strong protective layer which makes the eggs able to survive in the environment for months or

  5. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  6. [Human papillomaviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G

    2003-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect exclusively the basal cells of the skin and of mucosal epithelia adjacent to the skin such as the mouth, the upper respiratory tract, the lower genital tract and the anal canal. HPV does not lead to a viremia. Basically there are three different types of HPV infection: Clinically visible lesions, subclinical HPV infections and latent HPV infections. Distinct HPV types induce morphologically and prognostically different clinical pictures. The most common HPV associated benign tumor of the skin is the common wart. Infections of the urogenitoanal tract with specific HPV-types are recognised as the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections. So-called "high-risk" HPV-types (HPV16, 18 and others) are regarded by the world health organisation as important risk-factors for the development of genital cancer (mainly cervical cancer), anal cancer and upper respiratory tract cancer in both genders. Antiviral substances with a specific anti-HPV effect are so far unknown. Conventional therapies of benign skin warts and of mucosal warts are mainly nonspecific. They comprise tissue-destroying therapies such as electrocautery, cryotherapy and laser. In addition cytotoxic substances such as podophyllotoxin and systemic therapy with retinoids are in use. Systemically and topically administered immunotherapies represent a new approach for treatment. Both interferons and particularly the recently developed imiquimod, an interferon-alpha and cytokine-inductor lead to better results and are better tolerated then conventional therapies. HPV-specific vaccines have been developed in the last 5 years and will be used in future for prevention and treatment of benign and malignant HPV-associated tumors of the genitoanal tract in both sexes.

  7. Human Development Report 1991: Financing Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    1991-01-01

    Lack of political commitment rather than financial resources is often the real barrier to human development. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991 - the second in a series of annual reports on the subject.

  8. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  9. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  10. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  11. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  12. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  13. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  14. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  15. From Human Past to Human Future

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic an...

  16. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  17. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLETON, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  18. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  19. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  20. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  1. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which ... infections? Can HPV infections be prevented? What HPV vaccines are available? Who should get the HPV vaccines? ...

  3. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  4. Telling the Human Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that one of the fundamental human attributes is telling stories. Explores the debate on whether Neanderthals possessed language ability. Discusses the role of the "human story" in teaching anthropology. (DH)

  5. Human Services Offices

    Data.gov (United States)

    Fairfax County, Virginia — This data contains point features representing the human services offices within Fairfax County.“HS_Region” is the office for each human services region, “DFS_Area”...

  6. Human Resource Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael J.

    1974-01-01

    Main objectives of human resource accounting systems are to satisfy the informational demands made by investors and by operating managers. The paper's main concern is with the internal uses of a human asset system. (Author)

  7. The Growing Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  8. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  9. Monogenic human obesity syndromes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farooqi, I S; O'Rahilly, S

    2004-01-01

    .... This chapter will consider the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterized to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  10. antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmids from escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-10-10

    Oct 10, 2001 ... transmission to humans of E. coli containing antibiotic resistance plasmids ... resistant micro-organisms, which may in turn transfer resistance to .... cells were washed with sterile normal saline to remove leached. Я-lactamase ...

  11. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007......) article 'Visualizing the mind: Looking at Titian's Flaying of Marsyas', addressing features of the painting not commented on by Hart, and supplementing Hart's (Kleinian) theoretical frame by involving Didier Anzieu's 'skin ego', Slavoj Zizek's concept of the 'non-human', Giorgio Agamben's term...

  12. Human productivity program definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The optimization of human productivity on the space station within the existing resources and operational constraints is the aim of the Human Productivity Program. The conceptual objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to identify long lead technology; (2) to identify responsibility for work elements; (3) to coordinate the development of crew facilities and activities; and (4) to lay the foundation for a cost effective approach to improving human productivity. Human productivity work elements are also described and examples are presented.

  13. Human Resource Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; V.Sangeetha; Gopalakrishnan,S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  14. Human nature and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Allen

    2009-03-01

    Appeals to the idea of human nature are frequent in the voluminous literature on the ethics of enhancing human beings through biotechnology. Two chief concerns about the impact of enhancements on human nature have been voiced. The first is that enhancement may alter or destroy human nature. The second is that if enhancement alters or destroys human nature, this will undercut our ability to ascertain the good because, for us, the good is determined by our nature. The first concern assumes that altering or destroying human nature is in itself a bad thing. The second concern assumes that human nature provides a standard without which we cannot make coherent, defensible judgments about what is good. I will argue (1) that there is nothing wrong, per se, with altering or destroying human nature, because, on a plausible understanding of what human nature is, it contains bad as well as good characteristics and there is no reason to believe that eliminating some of the bad would so imperil the good as to make the elimination of the bad impermissible, and (2) that altering or destroying human nature need not result in the loss of our ability to make judgments about the good, because we possess a conception of the good by which we can and do evaluate human nature. I will argue that appeals to human nature tend to obscure rather than illuminate the debate over the ethics of enhancement and can be eliminated in favor of more cogent considerations.

  15. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.; Abelmann, L.; Manz, A.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project” is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly focuss

  16. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  17. Has human evolution stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  18. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    More and more, the ability to compete in today’s market is viewed as being dependent on human capital. One of the most challenging aspects of human resource management involves supplying the organization with the human capital necessary to fulfill its objectives. This task becomes especially...

  19. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  20. Monogenic human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2008-01-01

    We and others have identified several single gene defects that disrupt the molecules in the leptinmelanocortin pathway causing severe obesity in humans. In this review, we consider these human monogenic obesity syndromes and discuss how far the characterisation of these patients has informed our understanding of the physiological role of leptin and the melanocortins in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  1. From Human Past to Human Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic and neural detriments and pathologies. Uniformitarian reasoning based on ontogenic homology suggests that the cognitive abilities of hominins are consistently underrated in the unstable orthodoxies of Pleistocene archaeology. A scientifically guided review establishes developmental trajectories defining recent changes in the human genome and its expressions, which then form the basis of attempts to extrapolate from them into the future. It is suggested that continuing and perhaps accelerating unfavorable genetic changes to the human species, rather than existential threats such as massive disasters, pandemics, or astrophysical events, may become the ultimate peril of humanity.

  2. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...... human and animal value and agency with approaches that focus on human experience and virtue ethics, we argue that ‘the human’ at stake in the moral laboratory of feeding precarious lives puts ‘the human’ in anthropology at disposal for moral experimentation....

  3. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  4. Human Beings And Water

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The writer of this paper on this writing is talking about the human beings and water. Water is one of the very fundamentally things that human beings need to keep their lives. Human beings sometimes do not realise that the water is very important for them because they actually cannot live their lives without the present of water. Human beings can keep their lives without rice, but cannot without water. For instances the use of water for human beings are domestic use, cooking, washing, bathing...

  5. Human rights and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2008-05-01

    In the first part of this article we survey the concept of human rights from a philosophical perspective and especially in relation to the "right to healthcare". It is argued that regardless of meta-ethical debates on the nature of rights, the ethos and language of moral deliberation associated with human rights is indispensable to any ethics that places the victim and the sufferer in its centre. In the second part we discuss the rise of the "right to privacy", particularly in the USA, as an attempt to make the element of personal free will dominate over the element of basic human interest within the structure of rights and when different rights seem to conflict. We conclude by discussing the relationship of human rights with moral values beyond the realm of rights, mainly human dignity, free will, human rationality and response to basic human needs.

  6. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  7. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  8. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  9. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept.

  10. Chimeras and human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2008-12-01

    Discussions about whether new biomedical technologies threaten or violate human dignity are now common. Indeed, appeals to human dignity have played a central role in national and international debates about whether to allow particular kinds of biomedical investigations. The focus of this paper is on chimera research. I argue here that both those who claim that particular types of human-nonhuman chimera research threaten human dignity and those who argue that such threat does not exist fail to make their case. I first introduce some of the arguments that have been offered supporting the claim that the creation of certain sorts of chimeras threatens or violates human dignity. I next present opponents' assessments of such arguments. Finally I critically analyze both the critics' and the supporters' claims about whether chimera research threatens human dignity.

  11. Human Performance in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  12. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  13. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  14. Advancing Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2012-2015) was initiated after the successful conclusion of the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010).The Chinese government in late July published an assessment report on the implementation of the plan,elaborating on the full implementation of China's first-ever national program on human rights development,which was drafted in April 2009.

  15. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  16. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  17. Robotics for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  18. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  19. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  20. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...... to fulfil their possible obligations to protect against human rights violations by corporations.......The book addresses the issue of corporate respect for human rights by examining if and how states are obligated to ensure that corporations originating from their jurisdiction respect human rights when they operate abroad. The existence of such a duty is much debated by academics at national...

  1. The psychology of humanness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures.

  2. The Human Toolmaker

    OpenAIRE

    Kassuba, Tanja; Kastner, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Do you enjoy building airplanes, cars, houses, or robots with Lego blocks? Humans are the only animal species that can create complicated constructions from simple Lego blocks – our Lego building ability is “human-specific,” since it is only found in human beings. What would our closest relatives, apes or monkeys, do with a box of Lego blocks? They would probably chew on them, and lose interest when they find out that they are not edible! Why are humans the only Lego builders in the animal ki...

  3. Photography after the Human

    OpenAIRE

    Zylinska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    How can we visualise and subsequently reimagine the abstraction that is the extinction of human species while there is still time? The article addresses this question by considering the existence of images – and, in particular, light-induced mechanical images known as photographs – after the human. The “after the human” designation does not just refer to the material disappearance of the human in some kind of distant future, but also to the present imagining of the disappearance of the human ...

  4. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...... in pharmacological management of chronic atrial fibrillation....

  5. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  6. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  7. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  8. Introduction to human factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  9. Human Capital and Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Alders

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by

  10. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  11. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  12. Human Resource Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An interview is reported which discussed the implications for the hiring, recruiting, screening and development of employees in the light of human resource accounting, here defined as the identification, accumulation and dissemination of information about human resources in dollar terms. (SA)

  13. Hooking Kids with Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Neil L.

    1993-01-01

    Humanitas is part of Collaboratives for Humanities and Arts Teaching (CHART), a nationwide network funded primarily by the Rockefeller Foundation. In 11 large school districts and numerous rural districts, high school teachers, academics, artists, and business and community leaders are cooperating to promote teaching of the arts and humanities.…

  14. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    with fundamental human values like intuition, vision and sensing; all the qualities the technology, the industrialisation and rationalisation, or in short modernity, has been criticized for having taken away from human existence. What technology has taken away now comes back through new technology as an aid...

  15. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  16. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and urogenit

  17. Human Rights Guaranteed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Report says China’s human rights plan successfully implemented According to a detailed assessment report published by China’s State Council Information Office (SCIO),all the measures outlined in the National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-10) had been successfully put into place by the end of 2010.

  18. Defects in Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    By tracing the defects of society back to the defects of human nature, humanity's essence is proved to be inherent evil. Man's natural tendency to do evil remain harnessed through the controls and conventions imposed by civilization, however, when rules or civilization are weakened, man' s dark side is unleashed.

  19. Humanism within Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  20. Report Details Human Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China issues its first white paper on human resources The Chinese Government issued a white paper on its human resources on September 10, highlighting the country’s policies to cope with employment pressures and a lack of "high-level innovative talents.

  1. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    2008-01-01

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a Colo

  2. Humanism within Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  3. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    Passive humans (sitting or standing) might well be present on flooring-systems, footbridges or other structures that carry humans. An active croud of people might generate structural vibrations, and these might be problematic. The passive crowd of people, however, will interact with the structural...

  4. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  5. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and urogenit

  6. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  7. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  8. Human Rights Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China issues a white paper on its human rights,highlighting freedom of speech on the Interne The Chinese Government released a white paper on its human rights in 2009 on September 26,highlighting the role of Internet freedom and the country’s efforts in safeguarding citizens’legitimate civil and political rights.

  9. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century lib

  10. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... a shared interdisciplinary research and educational collaboration. As a creative research initiative it focuses on change and innovative thinking. The innovativeness is a result of the strongly interdisciplinary perspective which is at the heart of Designing Human Technologies. Designing Human Technologies...

  11. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...... der mellem Human Relations (Hawthorne-eksperimenter ne) og Neo-Human Relations (behovsteorierne), men i denne fremstilling bruges Human Relations som en samlebetegnelse for begge disse – noget forskellige – forskningstraditioner. De har i dag opnået stor udbredelse og er praktisk talt obligatorisk...

  12. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vigeant

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely mode of transmission in this case.

  13. Human to Human Transmission of Brucella Melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Vigeant; Jack Mendelson; Miller, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Human brucellosis is acquired mainly through contact with infected animal tissues, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or infected aerosols. Person to person transmission is still considered uncertain. The case of a woman diagnosed with proven brucellosis after her husband suffered a relapse of bacteremia with Brucella melitensis biotype 3, which was originally acquired abroad by eating goat cheese, is described. It was postulated that person to person spread of brucellosis is a likely ...

  14. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  15. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  16. Human pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes.

  17. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  18. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  20. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  1. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  2. Role of gut commensal microbiota regulating colonic sensory-related systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera Pujabet, Mònica

    2015-01-01

    La microbiota comensal del intestino se considera un factor clave en la homeostasis gastrointestinal. Las alteraciones funcionales gastrointestinales (síndrome del intestino irritable, SII) y las enfermedades inflamatorias intestinales (EII) se han relacionado con alteraciones de la microbiota comensal (disbiosis). Estos pacientes muestran una activación inmune local anormal, con respuestas motoras y sensoriales alteradas, que en el SII se traducen en estados de hipersensibilidad visceral. El...

  3. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  4. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Page Content Article Body According to the Centers ... and how to prevent it. How to Prevent HPV: There are 3 types of HPV vaccine: Cervarix , ...

  6. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  7. Human Emotion Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc... Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I have achieved 97 percent accurate results and it is easy and simplest way than Emotion recognition using brain activity system. Purposed system depends upon human face as we know face also reflects the human brain activities or emotions. In this paper neural network has been used for better results. In the end of paper comparisons of existing Human Emotion Recognition System has been made with new one.

  8. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  9. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  10. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  11. Human Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  12. Viruses and human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  13. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Humanism Education in Language Class,Innovative model university English teaching,Analysis on Information Literacy of College English Teachers Based On Net Environment,Cultural Differences between E-C Idioms and Teaching of English Idioms

  14. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  15. Will Technology Humanize Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    The author considers the question of whether technology will cause humanization or dehumanization in the schools. He concludes that we can not stop tecchnology; we can only give it direction and purpose. (Author/MS)

  16. Report Details Human Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Chinese Government issued a white paper on its human resources on September I0, highlighting the coun-try's policies to cope with employ-ment pressures and a lack of "high-level innovative talents."

  17. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ban on efforts to implant a human cloned embryo for the purpose of reproduction. The scientific evidence ... stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also known as research or therapeutic cloning), ...

  18. Science and Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Pierre

    1971-01-01

    Science and humanism are separated so completely as to bring about the creation of two cultures quite distinct from each other within contemporary civilization. Pragmatic, rational attitudes are needed on both sides to bring them together. (DF)

  19. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  20. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  1. Human Resources Accounting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 21 st century will be the epoch of knowled ge economy. Knowledge economy is to develop economy on the basis of knowledge will surely become the major resources of economy development. Therefore, human resources accounting which provides such information as the ebb and follow of hu man resources investment, the size of the human resources employment, will bec ome the main stream of accounting the time of knowledge economy. To face China 's reality, to develop economy, and to flourish enterprise...

  2. Human motricity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sérgio Vieira e Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If human motricity science intends to study motor conduct (or actions in which the human being pursues transcendence (or surmounting, it inevitably relates to the large realm of health. What are the aspects it evinces? Transdisciplinarity, solidarity among the various knowledge types (including poetical, complexity, (where the physical is integrated but surmounted and the firm belief that to be healthy is to have in ourselves, alive and working, the capacity for surmounting anything.

  3. Human Happiness Is Sensuous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕静

    2003-01-01

    All human happiness is biological happiness. That is strictly scientific. At the risk of being misunderstood. I must make it clearer: all human happiness is sensuous happiness. The spiritualists will misunderstand me. I am sure; the spiritualists and materialists must forever misunderstand each other, because they don’t talk the same language, or mean by the same word different things. Are we, too, in this problem

  4. Evolution and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory.

  5. Meeting human needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    The degree of autonomy of future long duration manned missions will emphasize interactions between human operators and automated systems aimed at the most effective allocations of tasks between humans and machines. Knowledge of crewmembers' physical status, encompassing both capabilities and limitations, will also be critical during EVA and planetary roving missions; psychological evaluation and support, with a view to both individual health and group cohesion and productivity, may become a critical consideration. Attention is here given to crewmembers' medical and psychological vulnerabilities.

  6. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  7. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  8. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  9. Genomics of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagboom, P E; Beekman, M; Passtoors, W M; Deelen, J; Vaarhorst, A A M; Boer, J M; van den Akker, E B; van Heemst, D; de Craen, A J M; Maier, A B; Rozing, M; Mooijaart, S P; Heijmans, B T; Westendorp, R G J

    2011-01-12

    In animal models, single-gene mutations in genes involved in insulin/IGF and target of rapamycin signalling pathways extend lifespan to a considerable extent. The genetic, genomic and epigenetic influences on human longevity are expected to be much more complex. Strikingly however, beneficial metabolic and cellular features of long-lived families resemble those in animals for whom the lifespan is extended by applying genetic manipulation and, especially, dietary restriction. Candidate gene studies in humans support the notion that human orthologues from longevity genes identified in lower species do contribute to longevity but that the influence of the genetic variants involved is small. Here we discuss how an integration of novel study designs, labour-intensive biobanking, deep phenotyping and genomic research may provide insights into the mechanisms that drive human longevity and healthy ageing, beyond the associations usually provided by molecular and genetic epidemiology. Although prospective studies of humans from the cradle to the grave have never been performed, it is feasible to extract life histories from different cohorts jointly covering the molecular changes that occur with age from early development all the way up to the age at death. By the integration of research in different study cohorts, and with research in animal models, biological research into human longevity is thus making considerable progress.

  10. Human Milk Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population.

  11. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  12. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  13. Creating a collaborative network for the study of bacteraemia in Denmark: frequency of recurrence with the same and different micro-organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich S.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2009-01-01

    the frequency range was 0% to 4.1% with the exception of Enterococcus faecalis (range 0% to 9.4%; table). A recurrent episode with any microorganism was most frequent following bacteraemia caused by E. faecalis (range 8.9% to 24.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (range 6.7 to 11.3%). The frequency of recurrent......, recurrent Escherichia coli bacteraemia was the most frequent with 23 to 31 episodes (table). A recurrent episode of either Staphyloccus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia was rare in the participating hospitals (2.0% to 3.9% and 0.6% to 1.0%, respectively). For all major blood culture pathogens...... candidaemia ranged from 6.9% to 13.6% (table). Conclusion: The frequency of recurrent S. aureus and S. pneumoniae bacteraemia was lower than reported in previous studies. We found only small differences among major pathogens in the frequency of recurrence with the same microorganism. However, recurrent...

  14. Reform and management of environmental micro-organism experiment teaching system%环境微生物实验教学体系改革和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余阳; 吴小倩; 杨静; 朱艳彬; 谢学辉

    2016-01-01

    通过介绍实验体系改革、教学安排和管理及实验考察方式,探讨设立“设计型实验”在学生创新能力培养中的作用,并对改革后实验体系对学生创新能力培养的作用进行分析。环境微生物实验教学体系如果仅仅以验证型实验教学为主,会造成学生学习被动,缺乏学习兴趣,而增加设计型实验,可培养学生创新思维和学习主动性。理工科实验教学应该设置设计型实验,并多给予学生在实验课中的自主权。%The experimental system reform,teaching schedule,and management and experimental score mode are described in detail,and the role of the designing experiments for students’innovative ability establishment is explored;how the reformed experimental system benefits the students’innovative ability is analyzed and discussed.In Environmental Microbiology experimental teaching system,if only the validating experiments were existed,the students would learn passively and lose interest in learning,“designing experiment ”can improve students’motivation to learn and cultivate students’innovative thinking,in order to give students more autonomy in the experimental class, more designing experiments should be set up in science and engineering experimental teaching.

  15. The effect of irrigation and foliar fertilization on the colonization of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium l. diseased parts by different micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pastucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on the health of American ginseng cultivated in the Lublin district on poor sandy soil were conducted in the years 2004-2006. The studies involved treatment combinations with irrigation and without irrigation as well as foliar fertilization with Alkalin PK and Resistim of American ginseng plants. Mycological analysis was made of diseased ginseng parts with the aim of determining the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi-like organisms and fungi threatening the cultivation of this plant. Fungi from the genera of Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and the following species Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, as well as fungi-like organisms: Pythium irregulare and Phytophthora sp., were isolated from the infected parts of ginseng. The smallest number of fungi was isolated from the plants growing on the plots without irrigation and those where foliar application with Alkalin PK was applied.

  16. Biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse by a mixed culture of micro organisms: Effect of aeration conditions and pH control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Lutoslawski; Agnieszka Ryznar-Luty; Edmund Cibis; Malgorzata Krzywonos; Tadeusz Mi(s)kiewicz

    2011-01-01

    The effect of aeration conditions and pH control on the progress and efficiency of beet molasses vinasse biodegradation was investigated during four batch processes at 38℃ with the mixed microbial culture composed of Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Lactococcus,Streptococcus,Bacillus,Rhodopseudomonas,and Saccharomyces.The four processes were carried out in a shake flask with no pH control,an aerobic bioreactor without mixing with no pH control,and a stirred-tank reactor (STR) with aeration with and without pH control,respectively.All experiments were started with an initial pH 8.0.The highest efficiency of biodegradation was achieved through the processes conducted in the STR,where betaine (an organic pollutant occurring in beet molasses in very large quantities) was completely degraded by the microorganisms.The process with no pH control carried out in the STR produced the highest reduction in the following pollution measures:organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand determined by the dichromatic method + theoretical COD of betaine (CODsum,85.5%),total organic carbon (TOC,78.8%) and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5,98.6%).The process conditions applied in the shake flask experiments,as well as those used in the aerobic bioreactor without mixing,failed to provide complete betaine assimilation.As a consequence,reduction in CODwum,TOC and BOD5 was approximately half that obtained with STR.

  17. RUMINAL MICRO-ORGANISMS DO NOT ADAPT TO INCREASE UTILIZATION OF POLY-PHENOL OXIDASE PROTECTED RED CLOVER PROTEIN AND GLYCEROL-BASED LIPID

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants with subsequent increases in the efficiency of N utilization and the level of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in their products (meat and milk). It has also been reported t...

  18. A Mach-Zender digital holographic microscope with sub-micrometer resolution for imaging and tracking of marine micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Jonas; Niraula, Bimochan; Liewer, Kurt; Kent Wallace, J.; Serabyn, Eugene; Graff, Emilio; Lindensmith, Christian; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2014-12-01

    Digital holographic microscopy is an ideal tool for investigation of microbial motility. However, most designs do not exhibit sufficient spatial resolution for imaging bacteria. In this study we present an off-axis Mach-Zehnder design of a holographic microscope with spatial resolution of better than 800 nm and the ability to resolve bacterial samples at varying densities over a 380 μm × 380 μm × 600 μm three-dimensional field of view. Larger organisms, such as protozoa, can be resolved in detail, including cilia and flagella. The instrument design and performance are presented, including images and tracks of bacterial and protozoal mixed samples and pure cultures of six selected species. Organisms as small as 1 μm (bacterial spores) and as large as 60 μm (Paramecium bursaria) may be resolved and tracked without changes in the instrument configuration. Finally, we present a dilution series investigating the maximum cell density that can be imaged, a type of analysis that has not been presented in previous holographic microscopy studies.

  19. Inhibition of the Nitrification Process of Activated Sludge Micro-Organism by Scrubber Water from an Industrial Flue Gas Cleaning Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    The microbial transformation of ammonia to nitrate, the nitrification, is a central process in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle. In a modern wastewater treatment plant, the nitrification process is a key process in the removal of nitrogen and inhibitory compounds in sewage can seriously affect t...

  20. Spatial heterogeneity of extensively grazed watersheds. Consequences for the modeling of the fate of fecal micro-organisms and the quality of superficial waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, D.; Dorioz, J. M.; Poulenard, J.

    2009-04-01

    The quality of superficial water of extensively grazed watersheds is substantially affected by critical source areas. The latter correspond to demarcated areas whose location may vary in space and time according to environmental factors and farming practices. The objective of our work was to identify the critical source areas involved in the microbiological quality of superficial water of extensively grazed watersheds in mountain area. In such conditions, soils are characterized by a strong spatial diversity in terms of intrinsic properties, vegetation biomass or amount of cow-pats deposition. This leads to a great spatial heterogeneity of both the release and transfer of microbial pollutants. To identify the zones where there is a spatial and temporal coincidence between a source of contaminants and superficial runoff one need models that explicitly take in account this heterogeneity and noticeably the interactions between cow-pats deposition and evolution, together with soils hydrodynamic. We have developed such an approach by analyzing the studied area within a geographical information system and identifying the pixels giving rise to bacteria and runoff. These critical pixels are defined by modeling the distribution and evolution of cow-pats and the variable sources of surface runoff. The flows of fecal bacteria (E. coli) transmitted to the outflow of the watershed are calculated by accumulating the unit bacterial flows originating from critical pixels. Functions for bacterial emission from the cow-pats and for retention during their transmission to the drainage basin outflow are calibrated by inverse analysis. Along the course of the water flow, the bacterial retention on the surface of the soils is very influential. Nevertheless the contents in the water remain very high and basically it is the age of the cow-pats, the volumes of runoff water, the location and the proportions of bacteria-emitting and non-emitting surfaces which determine the critical source areas, flows and contents at the watershed outflow. These data are discussed to find out solutions for the managing of watercourses and grazing practices.

  1. An Overview of Common Micro-organisms in Drinking Water%生活饮用水中常见微生物概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭继征

    2010-01-01

    本文详细介绍了饮用水中常见的微生物及其危害,并结合生产实际从源水的预处理、水厂净化、消毒到管网的输送等多过程采取一系列措施来控制微生物的生长繁殖使其危害降至最低.

  2. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: antimicrobial properties of copper and its effects on micro-organisms in drinking water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available iva l a t diffe re nt coppe r conc .s (mg /L ) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 0 60 120 1080 2520 3960 t ime (mins ) co n t ro l 0 .5 m g/L co p p e r 1 m g /L co p p e r 1 .5 m g/L co p p e r Figure 1 Figure 2 copper.indd 2 8/6/07 10...

  3. Why Geo-Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  4. [Human ehrlichiosis. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraga-Alvarado, C

    1994-12-01

    Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized tick-borne disease. Since 1935 Ehrlichia canis has been known as a cause of illness in dogs and other canine species, and for a few years it was related with human disease. In 1990, Ehrlichia chaffeensis was isolated from a man suspected of having ehrlichiosis. Partial sequencing of the rRNAS from the human isolate and E. canis, indicated that they are 98.7% related. More recently (May 1994) an "human granulocytic ehrlichiosis" have been reported in USA. PCR amplification and sequence of 16S rDNA, showed that the human isolate was virtually identical to those reported for E. phagocytophila y E. equi, organisms that cause ehrlichiosis in rumiant and in horses. Most patients shows fever, headache, malaise, nausea or vomiting, anorexia and in a minority of cases rash is present. Some of them have complications such as pulmonary infiltrates, gastrointestinal problems, renal dysfunction or failure, hepatoesplenomegaly, neurologic abnormalities, DIC and some times death. Leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzyme values have been common findings. Tetracycline and cloramphenicol have been using in adults and children as especific theraphy.

  5. The human serum metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Psychogios

    Full Text Available Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca.

  6. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  7. NOOSPHERE HUMAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novozhilova Elena Olegovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author dwells upon typical features of noosphere human communities, assessing prospects and hazards of genetic engineering, namely of recombinant DNA technology. Background: Socio-historical ecology ushers in a new approach to studying society in its relation to nature. This interrelation is regarded as a series of socio-ecological transformations ending up in certain types of socio-ecological systems being formed. One of such historical types is represented by a noosphere human community [1]. Results: A number of characteristic features of this kind of community have been outlined, namely: its existence and functioning on global scale, major role of information in making up social wealth, creation of living matter. Conclusion: The noosphere human community is currently the latest stage in the sequence of historical types of socio-ecological systems. Widespread use of information and genetic technology may enable noosphere people to create in future a totally man-made world superseding evolutionary biosphere.

  8. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    , men også arbejdssociologien, arbejdspsykologien og human resource development. Den første retning udsprang af de såkaldte Hawthorne-eksperimenter og psykologen Elton Mayos bearbejdelse af resultaterne derfra. Den anden er en løsere gruppering bestående af navne som Abraham Maslow og Frederick Herzberg......Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...

  9. [Human pulmonary trichomonoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboucher, Christophe; Caby, Stéphanie; Chabé, Magali; Gantois, Nausicaa; Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Pierce, Raymond; Capron, Monique; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2007-05-01

    Colonization of human lungs by various Trichomonas species is a frequent occurrence, but is unknown to most physicians. At this site of infection, the parasite develops into an amoeboid form that renders it unrecognizable. For this reason it has been overlooked until recently. Morphological identification is not feasible under these conditions and molecular tools provide the only means of identification. The species involved are not restricted to Trichomonas tenax, a saprophyte of the mouth that is usually cited in the rare cases of pleuropulmonary trichomoniasis reported in the literature. The recent discovery of species previously unknown in humans raises further questions, including the zoonotic potential of these microorganisms and the existence of species of animal origin that have adapted to humans. Anaerobiosis in poorly ventilated alveolar lumen, rather than immunodepression, seems to be the factor that promotes proliferation of this parasite. The diagnosis of trichomoniasis and its treatment by specific drugs will make it possible to evaluate the pathogenicity of these parasites.

  10. Scientists and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  11. Helicopter human factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  12. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions.......This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...

  13. Reflections on humanizing biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2008-01-01

    Although biomedicine is responsible for the "miracles" of modern medicine, paradoxically it has also led to a quality-of-care crisis in which many patients feel disenfranchised from the health-care industry. To address this crisis, several medical commentators make an appeal for humanizing biomedicine, which has led to shifts in the philosophical boundaries of medical knowledge and practice. In this paper, the metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical boundaries of biomedicine and its humanized versions are investigated and compared to one another. Biomedicine is founded on a metaphysical position of mechanistic monism, an epistemology of objective knowing, and an ethic of emotionally detached concern. In humanizing modern medicine, these boundaries are often shifted to a metaphysical position of dualism/holism, an epistemology of subject knowing, and an ethic of empathic care. In a concluding section, the question is discussed whether these shifts in the philosophical boundaries are adequate to resolve the quality-of-care crisis.

  14. HUMAN MISSION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  15. (Human) Resourcing For CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2005-01-01

    More and more, the ability to compete in today’s market is viewed as being dependent on human capital. One of the most challenging aspects of human resource management involves supplying the organization with the human capital necessary to fulfill its objectives. This task becomes especially...... challenging in organizations involved in change processes such as Continuous Improvement (CI), as the technical skills traditionally valued are no longer adequate. These companies are faced with the question: “What competencies should our employees possess in order to contribute to our success, given...... the change processes in which we are engaged?” Without a clear picture of the types of competencies required to implement CI, it is impossible for companies to make informed decisions regarding recruitment, hiring, and training of their workforce. The objective of this paper is therefore to define...

  16. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...... and technologies relating to performances and experiences, urban design, climate adaptation, etc. The research takes a process-oriented and participatory approach and involves interaction between different user interests and designs. It is based on empirical, typical case- and action research-oriented studies...

  17. Abortion and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-10-01

    Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus.

  18. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  19. Human immune system variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Petter; Davis, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    The human immune system is highly variable between individuals but relatively stable over time within a given person. Recent conceptual and technological advances have enabled systems immunology analyses, which reveal the composition of immune cells and proteins in populations of healthy individuals. The range of variation and some specific influences that shape an individual's immune system is now becoming clearer. Human immune systems vary as a consequence of heritable and non-heritable influences, but symbiotic and pathogenic microbes and other non-heritable influences explain most of this variation. Understanding when and how such influences shape the human immune system is key for defining metrics of immunological health and understanding the risk of immune-mediated and infectious diseases.

  20. [Human rights and procreation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, F

    1990-04-01

    The impact of procreation on freedom, health and welfare of human beings, is considerable. This relationship, however, is not mirrored in texts devoted to Human Rights. This omission obviously implies a neglect of women's and children's rights. The history of anticonceptive methods exemplifies the struggle for these rights. This conquest, which has lasted two hundred years, is far from completed. Because of the demographic outbreak in Third World countries, an ideological conflict has appeared between first generation Human Rights concerned with individual freedom ("rights of") and those of second generation aiming at social fairness ("rights to"). Adequate political and economic adjustment between North and South is a prerequisite to any balanced compromise that would resolve this conflict through democratic, albeit intensive, birth control.

  1. Monogenic obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the small number of identifiable inherited human diseases associated with marked obesity were complex, pleiotropic developmental disorders, the molecular basis for which were entirely obscure. The molecular basis for many of these complex syndromes, such as Bardet Beidl syndrome, has been revealed, providing novel insights into processes essential for human hypothalamic function and energy balance. In addition to these discoveries, which were the fruits of positional cloning, the molecular constituents of the signaling pathways responsible for the control of mammalian energy homeostasis have been identified, largely through the study of natural or artificial mutations in mice. We discuss the increasing number of human disorders that result from genetic disruption of the leptin-melanocortin pathways that have been identified. Practical implications of these findings for genetic counseling, prognostication, and even therapy have already emerged.

  2. Monogenic human obesity syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I S

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade we have witnessed a major increase in the scale of scientific activity devoted to the study of energy balance and obesity. This explosion of interest has, to a large extent, been driven by the identification of genes responsible for murine obesity syndromes, and the novel physiological pathways revealed by those genetic discoveries. Others and we have also recently identified several single gene defects causing severe human obesity. Many of these defects have been in molecules identical or similar to those identified as a cause of obesity in rodents. I will review the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterised to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.

  3. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  4. Human Security Agendas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Ⅰ.IntroductionThe need for governments and international organisations to gain a better understanding of "security" is ever more urgent.For example in the conflict in Libya in early 2011,many security dilemmas were visible:the protection of Libyan civilians,the security of the regime,whether and how the UN or NATO should intervene,whether Europe would be threatened with a massive refugee flow,how to protect or evacuate foreign citizens (including Chinese),how to secure food and medical supplies in the midst of armed conflict.Such events may be termed "complex emergencies" which often raise legal, military and humanitarian issues simultaneously.International law and practice do not provide clear guidelines on such situations,and responses can be random,contingent on a variety of factors.Traditional concepts of security,for example protection of national borders,are certainly still relevant and legally enforceable,but more sophisticated concepts are needed to respond to security dilemmas in today's globalised world.Human security as a concept was first developed within the UN system in the 1990s,and set out,for example,in Human Security Now [1] The first section of this paper tracks the development of Human Security discourse,and also examines the broadening of the "security"concept in recent years.The second section reports on institutions with a specific interest in Human Security,for example within the UN system and in universities.The third section acknowledges some critiques of the Human Security paradigm.The last section reports on new directions that may enrich the Human Security agenda.

  5. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    The need for experimental models is obvious. In animal models it is possible to study vascular responses, neurogenic inflammation, c-fos expression etc. However, the pathophysiology of migraine remains unsolved, why results from animal studies not directly can be related to the migraine attack......, which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  6. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  7. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  8. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  9. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  10. We Are Human Beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine Jeff McMahan’s arguments for his claim that we are not human organisms, and the arguments of Derek Parfit to the same effect in a recent paper. McMahan uses these arguments to derive conclusions concerning the moral status of embryos and permanent vegetative state (PVS) patients. My claim will be that neither thinker has successfully shown that we are not human beings, and therefore these arguments do not establish the ethical conclusions that McMahan has sought to draw from the arguments in respect of the moral status of embryos and PVS patients. PMID:26810918

  11. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...... to be constant across individuals and over time: it seems that death is being delayed because people are reaching old age in better health. Research by demographers, epidemiologists and other biomedical researchers suggests that further progress is likely to be made in advancing the frontier of survival...... - and healthy survival - to even greater ages....

  12. Understanding digital humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, D

    2012-01-01

    The application of new computational techniques and visualisation technologies in the Arts and Humanities are resulting in fresh approaches and methodologies for the study of new and traditional corpora. This 'computational turn' takes the methods and techniques from computer science to create innovative means of close and distant reading. This book discusses the implications and applications of 'Digital Humanities' and the questions raised when using algorithmic techniques. Key researchers in the field provide a comprehensive introduction to important debates surrounding issues such as th

  13. Artificial human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  14. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  15. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  16. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  17. Pragmatic Challenges to Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatism offers a platform for posing relevant questions. This article uses a pragmatic point of departure to question a natural law conception of human rights and to take a closer look at three pressing human rights problems: The human rights situation in states with little or no state capacity......; the revision and adaptation of human rights law; and the not straightforward relationship betweemn human rights and democracy....

  18. Human automation integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, M.; Cosenzo, K.; Galster, s.; Hollnagel, E.; Miller, C.; Parasuraman, R.; Reising, J.; Taylor, R.; Breda, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Many versions of future concept of operations (CONOPS) rely heavily on UMVs. The pressure to take the human out of immediate control of these vehicles is being driven by several factors. These factors include a reduction in cost for the production and maintenance of the vehicle, operational viabilit

  19. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  20. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical group...

  1. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  2. Predictors of human rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  3. Humanizing science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, James F.

    2004-09-01

    This paper argues that the diverse curriculum reform agendas associated with science education are strongly and critically associated with the educational characteristics of the humanities. The article begins with a survey of interpretations of the distinctive contribution which the humanities make to educational purposes. From this survey four general characteristics of the humanities are identified: an appeal to an autonomous self with the right and capacity to make independent judgements and interpretations; indeterminacy in the subject matter of these judgements and interpretations; a focus on meaning, in the context of human responses, actions, and relationships, and especially on the ethical, aesthetic, and purposive; and finally, the possibility of commonality in standards of judgement and interpretation, under conditions of indeterminacy. Inquiry and science technology and society (STS) orientated curriculum development agendas within science education are explored in the light of this analysis. It is argued that the four characteristics identified are central to the educational purposes of these and other less prominent modes of curriculum development in science, though not unproblematically so. In the light of this discussion the prognosis and challenges for science curriculum development are explored.

  4. Learning to Be Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmurray, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents "Learning to be Human", which John Macmurray delivered on 5 May 1958 as the annual public lecture at Moray House College of Education, now part of Edinburgh University. The key themes of the paper are ones to which Macmurray returned again and again in both his educational and his philosophical writing for over 40 years and…

  5. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  6. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  7. Parasites and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of human evolutionary and population history can be advanced by ecological and evolutionary studies of our parasites. Many parasites flourish only in the presence of very specific human behaviors and in specific habitats, are wholly dependent on us, and have evolved with us for thousands or millions of years. Therefore, by asking when and how we first acquired those parasites, under which environmental and cultural conditions we are the most susceptible, and how the parasites have evolved and adapted to us and we in response to them, we can gain considerable insight into our own evolutionary history. As examples, the tapeworm life cycle is dependent on our consumption of meat, the divergence of body and head lice may have been subsequent to the development of clothing, and malaria hyperendemicity may be associated with agriculture. Thus, the evolutionary and population histories of these parasites are likely intertwined with critical aspects of human biology and culture. Here I review the mechanics of these and multiple other parasite proxies for human evolutionary history and discuss how they currently complement our fossil, archeological, molecular, linguistic, historical, and ethnographic records. I also highlight potential future applications of this promising model for the field of evolutionary anthropology.

  8. Antihumanism in the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the antihumanistic elements of Jacques Derrida's theory of deconstruction. Argues that the modern French intellectuals, including Foucault, Derrida, and Lacan, have had an antihumanistic effect on the American social sciences and humanities by rejecting the existence of truth, morality, and rationality. (FMW)

  9. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  10. Human thimet oligopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P M; Brown, M A; Barrett, A J

    1993-01-01

    We have purified human thimet oligopeptidase to homogeneity from erythrocytes, and compared it with the enzyme from rat testis and chicken liver. An antiserum raised against rat thimet oligopeptidase also recognized the human and chicken enzymes, suggesting that the structure of the enzyme has been strongly conserved in evolution. Consistent with this, the properties of the human enzyme were very similar to those for the other species. Thus human thimet oligopeptidase also is a thiol-dependent metallo-oligopeptidase with M(r) about 75,000. Specificity for cleavage of a number of peptides was indistinguishable from that of the rat enzyme, but Ki values for the four potent reversible inhibitors tested were lower. In discussing the results, we consider the determinants of the complex substrate specificity of thimet oligopeptidase. We question whether substrates containing more than 17 amino acid residues are cleaved, as has been suggested. We also point out that the favourable location of a proline residue and a free C-terminus in the substrate may be as important as the hydrophobic residues in the P2, P1 and P3' positions that have been emphasized in the past. Images Figure 1 PMID:8373360

  11. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library of Medicine thanks the men and the women who will their body to science, thereby enabling medical research and development. Further Information General Information A description of The Visible Human Project ® image data and how to obtain it (includes license ...

  12. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  13. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies dif

  14. Human Power Empirically Explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the users’ muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are conven

  15. Narratology beyond the Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses Lauren Groff’s 2011 short story “Above and Below” to explore aspects of a narratology beyond the human, considering how ideas developed by scholars of narrative bear on questions about the nature and scope of human-animal relationships in the larger biosphere. Bringing Groff’s text into dialogue with the concept of “self-narratives” as developed by Kenneth J. Gergen and Mary M. Gergen, anthropological research on the ontologies projected by the members of different cultures, and ideas from literary narratology, I discuss how the structure and narration of Groff’s story reveal a fault line between two competing ontologies in the culture of modernity, one parsimonious and the other prolific when it comes to allocating possibilities for selfhood across species lines. More generally, in addition to illuminating how a given self-narrative locates the human agent in a transspecies constellation of selves, a narratology beyond the human can assist with the construction of new, more sustainable individual and collective self-narratives that situate the self within wider webs of creatural life.

  16. Communicating Humanism Nonverbally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillison, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of nonverbal communication by counselors in expressing humanistic feeling. Notes that facial expression (i.e., smiling) provides immediate feedback to the observer; use of space (i.e., close proximity) communicates warmth and humaneness; and tone of voice can complement spoken words and give them more meaning. (WAS)

  17. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in constru

  18. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  19. Human social genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing literature in human social genomics has begun to analyze how everyday life circumstances influence human gene expression. Social-environmental conditions such as urbanity, low socioeconomic status, social isolation, social threat, and low or unstable social status have been found to associate with differential expression of hundreds of gene transcripts in leukocytes and diseased tissues such as metastatic cancers. In leukocytes, diverse types of social adversity evoke a common conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA characterized by increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in innate antiviral responses and antibody synthesis. Mechanistic analyses have mapped the neural "social signal transduction" pathways that stimulate CTRA gene expression in response to social threat and may contribute to social gradients in health. Research has also begun to analyze the functional genomics of optimal health and thriving. Two emerging opportunities now stand to revolutionize our understanding of the everyday life of the human genome: network genomics analyses examining how systems-level capabilities emerge from groups of individual socially sensitive genomes and near-real-time transcriptional biofeedback to empirically optimize individual well-being in the context of the unique genetic, geographic, historical, developmental, and social contexts that jointly shape the transcriptional realization of our innate human genomic potential for thriving.

  20. Lessons in Human Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Joanne Lozar

    2003-01-01

    Explores the importance of relationship literacy--the ability to create good relationships with others--in the next economy and offers perspectives on how business education instructors can help students develop and improve their human relations skills for business success. (Author/JOW)

  1. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  2. Human health and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  3. Humanizing the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Norman K., Ed.; Saylor, J. Galen, Ed.

    These papers, presented during ASCD-sponsored conference, confront educators with issues in and alternatives for making secondary schools a more humanizing experience for students. The contributors and their articles are: Norman K. Hamilton, "Alternatives in Secondary Education"; Thornton B. Monez and Norman L. Bussiere, "The High School in Human…

  4. Humanism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  5. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  6. Hauntings of Human Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The central conflicts of Stephen King’s horror novel The Shining are rooted in human nature and reflect evolutionarily recurrent adaptive problems—the problem of balancing conflicting evolved motives, such as motives for selfish status striving versus motives for affiliative nurturing behavior...

  7. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  8. Computational human body models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Happee, R.; Dommelen, J.A.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Computational human body models are widely used for automotive crashsafety research and design and as such have significantly contributed to a reduction of traffic injuries and fatalities. Currently crash simulations are mainly performed using models based on crash-dummies. However crash dummies

  9. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  10. Designers of Human Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  11. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never ...

  12. Haptocorrin in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2007-01-01

    knowledge concerning its function and its distribution in adult and foetal life is limited. In this study, we present data on the tissue expression of haptocorrin and on the relation between analogues on haptocorrin and vitamin B(12) status in humans. Methods: Polyclonal antibodies towards haptocorrin were...

  13. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  14. Humanism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  15. Animal and Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks…

  16. Conceptualizations of Human Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.

    1973-01-01

    Presents six major methods by which characteristics of environments have been related to indexes of human functioning: (1) ecological dimensions; (2) behavior settings; (3) dimensions of organizational structure; and, (4) dimensions identifying the collective personal and/or behavioral characteristics of the milieu inhabitants; and two others.…

  17. Radar: Human Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  18. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  19. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  20. Towards International Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Julian

    1971-01-01

    The basic task before the educational profession today is to study and understand the evolutionary-humanist revolution, to follow up its educational implications; and to enable as many as possible of the world's growing minds to be illuminated by its new vision of human destiny. (Author/JB)