WorldWideScience

Sample records for human cognitive functions

  1. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  2. Functional relations and cognitive psychology: Lessons from human performance and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction.

  3. Cognitive neuroscience 2.0: building a cumulative science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkoni, Tal; Poldrack, Russell A; Van Essen, David C; Wager, Tor D

    2010-11-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly recognize that continued progress in understanding human brain function will require not only the acquisition of new data, but also the synthesis and integration of data across studies and laboratories. Here we review ongoing efforts to develop a more cumulative science of human brain function. We discuss the rationale for an increased focus on formal synthesis of the cognitive neuroscience literature, provide an overview of recently developed tools and platforms designed to facilitate the sharing and integration of neuroimaging data, and conclude with a discussion of several emerging developments that hold even greater promise in advancing the study of human brain function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

  5. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  6. [Association of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene with human cognitive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Lezheĭko, T V; Gritsenko, I K; Golimbet, V E

    2012-08-01

    Active search for candidate genes whose polymorphisms are associated with human cognitive functions has been in progress in the past years. The study focused on the role that the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene may play in the variation of cognitive processes related to executive functions. The ApaI polymorphism of the IGF2 gene was tested for association with selective attention during visual search, working memory/mental control, and semantic verbal fluency in a group of 182 healthy individuals. The ApaI polymorphism was associated with the general cognitive index and selective attention measure. Carriers of genotype AA displayed higher values of the two parameters than carriers of genotype GG. It was assumed that the ApaI polymorphism of the IGF2 gene influences the human cognitive functions, acting possibly via modulation of the IGF-II level in the central nervous system.

  7. Empirical Network Model of Human Higher Cognitive Brain Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-31

    EEG potentials during cognition. Science. 1981. 213: 918-921- and mental activity in juvenile delinquents. Electroenceph. Gevns, .A.S.. Schafier. R.F...their latency and topography depend on the moda - litv. intensity, and other physical properties of the stimulus. The P100 and NIO0 peaks are also

  8. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  9. 50-60 Hz electric and magnetic field effects on cognitive function in humans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crasson, M

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time perception, as determined by electroencephalographic methods and performance measures. Overall, laboratory studies, which have investigated the acute effects of power frequency fields on cognitive functioning in humans are heterogeneous, in terms of both electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure and the experimental design and measures used. Results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret with regard to functional relevance for possible health risks. Statistically significant differences between field and control exposure, when they are found, are small, subtle, transitory, without any clear dose-response relationship and difficult to reproduce. The human performance or event related potentials (ERPs) measures that might specifically be affected by EMF exposure, as well as a possible cerebral structure or function that could be more sensitive to EMF, cannot be better determined. (author)

  10. The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratman, Gregory N; Hamilton, J Paul; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-02-01

    Scholars spanning a variety of disciplines have studied the ways in which contact with natural environments may impact human well-being. We review the effects of such nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health, synthesizing work from environmental psychology, urban planning, the medical literature, and landscape aesthetics. We provide an overview of the prevailing explanatory theories of these effects, the ways in which exposure to nature has been considered, and the role that individuals' preferences for nature may play in the impact of the environment on psychological functioning. Drawing from the highly productive but disparate programs of research in this area, we conclude by proposing a system of categorization for different types of nature experience. We also outline key questions for future work, including further inquiry into which elements of the natural environment may have impacts on cognitive function and mental health; what the most effective type, duration, and frequency of contact may be; and what the possible neural mechanisms are that could be responsible for the documented effects. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Recent Clinical History and Cognitive Dysfunction for Attention and Executive Function among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, David F.; DeLong, Allison; McCaffrey, Daniel E.; Kertesz, Kinga; Paul, Robert H.; Conley, Jared; Russell, Troy; Coop, Kathleen; Gillani, Fizza; Flanigan, Timothy; Tashima, Karen; Hogan, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between recent trends in CD4 and viral loads and cognitive test performance with the expectation that recent history could predict cognitive performance. Eighty-three human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with a mean CD4 count of 428 copies/ml were examined in this study (62% with undetectable plasma viral load [PVL]). We investigated the relationships between nadir CD4 cell count, 1-year trends in immunologic function/PVLs, and cognitive performance across several domains using linear regression models. Nadir CD4 cell count was predictive of current executive function (p = .004). One year clinical history for CD4 cell counts and/or PVLs were predictive of executive function, attention/working memory, and learning/memory measures (p < .05). Models that combined recent clinical history trends and nadir CD4 cell counts suggested that recent clinical trends were more important in predicting current cognitive performance for all domains except executive function. This research suggests that recent CD4 and viral load history is an important predictor of current cognitive function across several cognitive domains. If validated, clinical variables and cognitive dysfunction models may improve our understanding of the dynamic relationships between disease evolution and progression and CNS involvement. PMID:21873325

  12. Children's Perception of Death in Humans and Animals as a Function of Age, Anxiety and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Israel; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Findings indicate a main effect of age, anxiety, and cognition on the conception of animal and human death. Human death scores were higher than animal death scores. Anxiety had a stranger impact on cognitively high subjects than on cognitively low subjects. Cognition affected the animal death concept more than the human death concept. (Author/RH)

  13. Human olfactory consciousness and cognition: its unusual features may not result from unusual functions but from limited neocortical processing resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Attuquayefio, Tuki

    2013-01-01

    Human and animal olfactory perception is shaped both by functional demands and by various environmental constraints seemingly peculiar to chemical stimuli. These demands and constraints may have generated a sensory system that is cognitively distinct from the major senses. In this article we identify these various functional demands and constraints, and examine whether they can be used to account for olfaction's unique cognitive features on a case-by-case basis. We then use this as grounds to argue that specific conscious processes do have functional value, a finding that naturally emerges when a comparative approach to consciousness across the senses is adopted. More generally, we conclude that certain peculiar features of olfactory cognition may owe more to limited neocortical processing resources, than they do to the challenges faced by perceiving chemical stimuli. PMID:24198808

  14. Isolating human brain functional connectivity associated with a specific cognitive process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Michael A.; Landau, Ayelet N.; Lauritzen, Thomas Z.; Prinzmetal, William; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2010-02-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure functional connectivity among brain areas has the potential to identify neural networks associated with particular cognitive processes. However, fMRI signals are not a direct measure of neural activity but rather represent blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Correlated BOLD signals between two brain regions are therefore a combination of neural, neurovascular, and vascular coupling. Here, we describe a procedure for isolating brain functional connectivity associated with a specific cognitive process. Coherency magnitude (measuring the strength of coupling between two time series) and phase (measuring the temporal latency differences between two time series) are computed during performance of a particular cognitive task and also for a control condition. Subtraction of the coherency magnitude and phase differences for the two conditions removes sources of correlated BOLD signals that do not modulate as a function of cognitive task, resulting in a more direct measure of functional connectivity associated with changes in neuronal activity. We present two applications of this task subtraction procedure, one to measure changes in strength of coupling associated with sustained visual spatial attention, and one to measure changes in temporal latencies between brain areas associated with voluntary visual spatial attention.

  15. Parallel perceptual/cognitive functions in humans and rats: space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, R C; Buhrmann, K

    1989-06-01

    The nature of the evidence on the role played by early stimulation history in perceptual development related to an appreciation of intermodal attributes involving space and time is reviewed. In conjunction with this analysis, an examination was undertaken of the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability of dark- (DR) and light-reared (LR) rats to learn discriminations involving location of sounds or lights and to abstract the intersensory correspondence involved from the initial modality-specific training. Visually inexperienced DR rats were somewhat slower to acquire a discrimination involving the location of visual events under some stimulus/response arrangements. More importantly, such animals were not as effective as their visually experienced LR counterparts in demonstrating cross-modal transfer (CMT) to signals in a new modality. The present study also revealed that CMT involving location of signals was less salient than CMT of duration information in rats regardless of their rearing condition. Finally, findings are discussed more generally, providing contextual information that bears on issues related to parallel cognitive functions in rats and human neonates and on the role of early visual experience in the ontogeny of intersensory perceptual competence in mammals.

  16. What neurophysiological recordings tell us about cognitive and behavioral functions of the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceglia, Sara; Fumagalli, Manuela; Priori, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The behavioral implications of deep brain stimulation (DBS) observed in Parkinson's disease patients provided evidence for a possible nonexclusively motor role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in basal ganglia circuitry. Basal ganglia pathophysiology can be studied directly by the analysis of neural rhythms measured in local field potentials recorded through DBS electrodes. Recent studies demonstrated that specific oscillations in the STN are involved in cognitive and behavioral information processing: action representation is mediated through β oscillations (13-35 Hz); cognitive information related to decision-making processes is mediated through the low-frequency oscillation (5-12 Hz); and limbic and emotional information is mediated through the α oscillation (8-12 Hz). These results revealed an important involvement of STN in decisional processes, cognitive functions, emotion control and conflict that could explain the post-DBS occurrence of behavioral disturbances.

  17. Human evolution and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2010-09-01

    Human beings are distinguished from all other organisms by their symbolic way of processing information about the world. This unique cognitive style is qualitatively different from all the earlier hominid cognitive styles, and is not simply an improved version of them. The hominid fossil and archaeological records show clearly that biological and technological innovations have typically been highly sporadic, and totally out of phase, since the invention of stone tools some 2.5 million years ago. They also confirm that this pattern applied in the arrival of modern cognition: the anatomically recognizable species Homo sapiens was well established long before any population of it began to show indications of behaving symbolically. This places the origin of symbolic thought in the realms of exaptation, whereby new structures come into existence before being recruited to new uses, and of emergence, whereby entire new levels of complexity are achieved through new combinations of attributes unremarkable in themselves. Both these phenomena involve entirely routine evolutionary processes; special as we human beings may consider ourselves, there was nothing special about the way we came into existence. Modern human cognition is a very recent acquisition; and its emergence ushered in an entirely new pattern of technological (and other behavioral) innovation, in which constant change results from the ceaseless exploration of the potential inherent in our new capacity.

  18. A comparison of blue light and caffeine effects on cognitive function and alertness in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Martyn Beaven

    Full Text Available The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention.

  19. A comparison of blue light and caffeine effects on cognitive function and alertness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C Martyn; Ekström, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The alerting effects of both caffeine and short wavelength (blue) light have been consistently reported. The ability of blue light to enhance alertness and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways have been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for drowsiness across a range of occupational settings. Here we compare and contrast the alerting and psychomotor effects of 240 mg of caffeine and a 1-h dose of ~40 lx blue light in a non-athletic population. Twenty-one healthy subjects performed a computer-based psychomotor vigilance test before and after each of four randomly assigned trial conditions performed on different days: white light/placebo; white light/240 mg caffeine; blue light/placebo; blue light/240 mg caffeine. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale was used to assess subjective measures of alertness. Both the caffeine only and blue light only conditions enhanced accuracy in a visual reaction test requiring a decision and an additive effect was observed with respect to the fastest reaction times. However, in a test of executive function, where a distraction was included, caffeine exerted a negative effect on accuracy. Furthermore, the blue light only condition consistently outperformed caffeine when both congruent and incongruent distractions were presented. The visual reactions in the absence of a decision or distraction were also enhanced in the blue light only condition and this effect was most prominent in the blue-eyed participants. Overall, blue light and caffeine demonstrated distinct effects on aspects of psychomotor function and have the potential to positively influence a range of settings where cognitive function and alertness are important. Specifically, despite the widespread use of caffeine in competitive sporting environments, the possible impact of blue light has received no research attention.

  20. [Chewing and cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitive functions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects.

  1. Pulsed and continuous wave mobile phone exposure over left versus right hemisphere: effects on human cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarala, Christian; Takio, Fiia; Rintee, Taija; Laine, Matti; Koivisto, Mika; Revonsuo, Antti; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2007-05-01

    The possible effects of continuous wave (CW) and pulse modulated (PM) electromagnetic field (EMF) on human cognition was studied in 36 healthy male subjects. They performed cognitive tasks while exposed to CW, PM, and sham EMF. The subjects performed the same tasks twice during each session; once with left-sided and once with right-sided exposure. The EMF conditions were spread across three testing sessions, each session separated by 1 week. The exposed hemisphere, EMF condition, and test order were counterbalanced over all subjects. We employed a double-blind design: both the subject and the experimenter were unaware of the EMF condition. The EMF was created with a signal generator connected via amplifier to a dummy phone antenna, creating a power output distribution similar to the original commercial mobile phone. The EMF had either a continuous power output of 0.25 W (CW) or pulsed power output with a mean of 0.25 W. An additional control group of 16 healthy male volunteers performed the same tasks without any exposure equipment to see if mere presence of the equipment could have affected the subjects' performance. No effects were found between the different EMF conditions, separate hemisphere exposures, or between the control and experimental group. In conclusion, the current results indicate that normal mobile phones have no discernible effect on human cognitive function as measured by behavioral tests.

  2. Human reasoning and cognitive science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenning, K.; van Lambalgen, M.

    2008-01-01

    In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen—a cognitive scientist and a logician—argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the

  3. No Effect of TETRA Hand Portable Transmission Signals on Human Cognitive Function and Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2010-01-01

    paper-and-pencil, auditory and computer-based cognitive tasks was monitored in 53 male volunteers (mean age 36.41 years, SD 8.35) during 45-min exposure to a TETRA handset and sham control signals remotely controlled from a laboratory more than 100 km away. The main cognitive outcome was the Trail...

  4. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...... the world from others, to learn about other people, and to create a shared social world. Social signals can be processed automatically by the receiver and may be unconsciously emitted by the sender. These signals are non-verbal and are responsible for social learning in the first year of life. Social...... signals can also be processed consciously and this allows automatic processing to be modulated and overruled. Evidence for this higher-level social processing is abundant from about 18 months of age in humans, while evidence is sparse for non-human animals. We suggest that deliberate social signalling...

  5. Cognitive Robotics, Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction Greg Trafton, Ph.D Naval Research Laboratory Wednesday, November 3, 2010 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cognitive Robotics , Embodied Cognition and Human-Robot Interaction 5a. CONTRACT...that cognition is for action (embodied cognition) • We are building embodied models for cognitive robotics and human-robot interaction • Online

  6. Enhancing Human Cognition with Cocoa Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Socci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory. Through a variety of direct and indirect biological actions, in part still speculative, cocoa and cocoa-derived food have been suggested to possess the potential to counteract cognitive decline and sustain cognitive abilities, particularly among patients at risk. Although still at a preliminary stage, research investigating the relations between cocoa and cognition shows dose-dependent improvements in general cognition, attention, processing speed, and working memory. Moreover, cocoa flavanols administration could also enhance normal cognitive functioning and exert a protective role on cognitive performance and cardiovascular function specifically impaired by sleep loss, in healthy subjects. Together, these findings converge at pointing to cocoa as a new interesting nutraceutical tool to protect human cognition and counteract different types of cognitive decline, thus encouraging further investigations. Future research should include complex experimental designs combining neuroimaging techniques with physiological and behavioral measures to better elucidate cocoa neuromodulatory properties and directly compare immediate versus long-lasting cognitive effects.

  7. Conditioned medium from the stem cells of human dental pulp improves cognitive function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Tsuneyuki; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Hattori, Hisashi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities and the appearance of β-amyloid plaques in the brain. Although the pathogenic mechanisms associated with AD are not fully understood, activated microglia releasing various neurotoxic factors, including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress mediators, appear to play major roles. Here, we investigated the therapeutic benefits of a serum-free conditioned medium (CM) derived from the stem cells of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) in a mouse model of AD. The intranasal administration of SHEDs in these mice resulted in substantially improved cognitive function. SHED-CM contained factors involved in multiple neuroregenerative mechanisms, such as neuroprotection, axonal elongation, neurotransmission, the suppression of inflammation, and microglial regulation. Notably, SHED-CM attenuated the pro-inflammatory responses induced by β-amyloid plaques, and generated an anti-inflammatory/tissue-regenerating environment, which was accompanied by the induction of anti-inflammatory M2-like microglia. Our data suggest that SHED-CM may provide significant therapeutic benefits for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. An investigation into the role of neurotrophins in the effect of exercise on cognitive function in humans and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Éadaoin

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise is associated with maintenance of cognitive function, including a decreased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Candidate mediators of the effect of exercise on cognitive function are the neurotrophins. These secreted peptides promote the growth and differentiation of developing neurons, support maintenance and survival of adult mature neurons and modulate neuronal plasticity. Exercise can alter neurotrophin expression; serum brain-derived neurotrophin f...

  9. The serotonergic system and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivac, Nela; Mück-Šeler, Dorotea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Symptoms of cognitive dysfunction like memory loss, poor concentration, impaired learning and executive functions are characteristic features of both schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognition in healthy subjects and neuropsychiatric patients are not completely understood. Studies have focused on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as one of the possible cognitionrelated biomarkers. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current literature on the role of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system in cognitive function, particularly in AD and schizophrenia. The role of the 5-HTergic system in cognition is modulated by the activity and function of 5-HT receptors (5-HTR) classified into seven groups, which differ in structure, action, and localization. Many 5-HTR are located in the regions linked to various cognitive processes. Preclinical studies using animal models of learning and memory, as well as clinical in vivo (neuroimaging) and in vitro (post-mortem) studies in humans have shown that alterations in 5-HTR activity influence cognitive performance. The current evidence implies that reduced 5-HT neurotransmission negatively influences cognitive functions and that normalization of 5-HT activity may have beneficial effects, suggesting that 5-HT and 5-HTR represent important pharmacological targets for cognition enhancement and restoration of impaired cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:28123820

  10. The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickart, Loren; Vasquez-Soltero, Jessica Michelle; Margolina, Anna

    2017-02-15

    Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions. GHK, which declines with age, has health promoting effects on many tissues such as chondrocytes, liver cells and human fibroblasts, improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue), increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-anxiety effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Studies using the Broad Institute Connectivity Map show that GHK peptide modulates expression of multiple genes, resetting pathological gene expression patterns back to health. GHK has been recommended as a treatment for metastatic cancer, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, inflammation, acute lung injury, activating stem cells, pain, and anxiety. Here, we present GHK's effects on gene expression relevant to the nervous system health and function.

  11. The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickart, Loren; Vasquez-Soltero, Jessica Michelle; Margolina, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions. GHK, which declines with age, has health promoting effects on many tissues such as chondrocytes, liver cells and human fibroblasts, improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue), increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-anxiety effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Studies using the Broad Institute Connectivity Map show that GHK peptide modulates expression of multiple genes, resetting pathological gene expression patterns back to health. GHK has been recommended as a treatment for metastatic cancer, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, inflammation, acute lung injury, activating stem cells, pain, and anxiety. Here, we present GHK’s effects on gene expression relevant to the nervous system health and function. PMID:28212278

  12. The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions. GHK, which declines with age, has health promoting effects on many tissues such as chondrocytes, liver cells and human fibroblasts, improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue, increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-anxiety effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Studies using the Broad Institute Connectivity Map show that GHK peptide modulates expression of multiple genes, resetting pathological gene expression patterns back to health. GHK has been recommended as a treatment for metastatic cancer, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, inflammation, acute lung injury, activating stem cells, pain, and anxiety. Here, we present GHK’s effects on gene expression relevant to the nervous system health and function.

  13. Gene, environment and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Duan, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    population living under distinct environmental condition as the Western populations. OBJECTIVE: this study aims to explore the genetic and environmental impact on normal cognitive ageing in the Chinese twins. DESIGN/SETTING: cognitive function was measured on 384 complete twin pairs with median age of 50...... factors accounting for 23-33% of the total variances. In contrast, all cognitive performances showed moderate to high influences by the unique environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS: genetic factor and common family environment have a limited contribution to cognitive function in the Chinese adults......BACKGROUND: the genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive function in the old people have been well addressed for the Western populations using twin modelling showing moderate to high heritability. No similar study has been conducted in the world largest and rapidly ageing Chinese...

  14. Acupuncture improves cognitive function A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mason Chin Pang Leung; Ka Keung Yip; Chung Tsung Lam; Ka Shun Lam; Wai Lau; Wing Lam Yu; Amethyst King Man Leung; Kwok-fai So

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been used as a treatment for cognitive impairment.OBJECTIVE: This review assesses clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for cognitive impairment. This review also discusses the proposed mechanism(s) that could link acupuncture to improved cognitive function.RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 3 human studies and 9 animal studies. Levels of evidence ranged from level 1b to level 5.CONCLUSION: Most animal studies demonstrated a positive effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment. However, the results of human studies were inconsistent. Further high-quality human studies with greater statistical power are needed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and an optimal protocol.

  15. Genetic variations of human neuropsin gene and psychiatric disorders: polymorphism screening and possible association with bipolar disorder and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Aiko; Iijima, Yoshimi; Noguchi, Hiroko; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Okada, Takeya; Hori, Hiroaki; Kato, Tadafumi; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Kosuga, Asako; Kamijima, Kunitoshi; Asada, Takashi; Arima, Kunimasa; Saitoh, Osamu; Shiosaka, Sadao; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Human neuropsin (NP) (hNP) has been implicated in the progressive change of cognitive abilities during primate evolution. The hNP gene maps to chromosome 19q13, a region reportedly linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Therefore, hNP is a functional and positional candidate gene for association with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and cognitive ability. Polymorphism screening was performed for the entire hNP gene. The core promoter region was determined and whether or not transcriptional activity alters in an allele-dependent manner was examined by using the dual-luciferase system. Allelic and genotypic distributions of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between patients with schizophrenia (n=439), major depression (n=409), bipolar disorder (n=207), and controls (n=727). A possible association of the hNP genotype with memory index (assessed with Wechsler Memory Scale, revised, WMS-R) and intelligence quotient (IQ assessed with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, revised; WAIS-R) was examined in healthy controls (n=166). A total of 28 SNPs, including nine novel SNPs, were identified. No significant effects on transcriptional activity were observed for SNPs in the promoter region. A significant allelic association was found between several SNPs and bipolar disorder (for SNP23 at the 3' regulatory region; odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidential interval 1.16-1.88, P=0.0015). However, such an association was not detected for schizophrenia or depression. Significant differences were observed between SNP23 and attention/concentration sub-scale score of WMS-R (P=0.016) and verbal IQ (P<0.001). Genetic variation of the hNP gene may contribute to molecular mechanisms of bipolar disorder and some aspects of memory and intelligence.

  16. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  17. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  18. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation

  19. Cognition: Human Information Processing. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Belver C.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the key research issues and developments in cognitive science, especially with respect to the similarities, differences, and interrelationships between human and machine information processing. Nine references are listed. (JL)

  20. A functional MiR-124 binding-site polymorphism in IQGAP1 affects human cognitive performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Yang

    Full Text Available As a product of the unique evolution of the human brain, human cognitive performance is largely a collection of heritable traits. Rather surprisingly, to date there have been no reported cases to highlight genes that underwent adaptive evolution in humans and which carry polymorphisms that have a marked effect on cognitive performance. IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, a scaffold protein, affects learning and memory in a dose-dependent manner. Its expression is regulated by miR-124 through the binding sites in the 3'UTR, where a SNP (rs1042538 exists in the core-binding motif. Here we showed that this SNP can influence the miR-target interaction both in vitro and in vivo. Individuals carrying the derived T alleles have higher IQGAP1 expression in the brain as compared to the ancestral A allele carriers. We observed a significant and male-specific association between rs1042538 and tactile performances in two independent cohorts. Males with the derived allele displayed higher tactual performances as compared to those with the ancestral allele. Furthermore, we found a highly diverged allele-frequency distribution of rs1042538 among world human populations, likely caused by natural selection and/or recent population expansion. These results suggest that current human populations still carry sequence variations that affect cognitive performances and that these genetic variants may likely have been subject to comparatively recent natural selection.

  1. Human agency in social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, A

    1989-09-01

    The present article examines the nature and function of human agency within the conceptual model of triadic reciprocal causation. In analyzing the operation of human agency in this interactional causal structure, social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes. The issues addressed concern the psychological mechanisms through which personal agency is exercised, the hierarchical structure of self-regulatory systems, eschewal of the dichotomous construal of self as agent and self as object, and the properties of a nondualistic but nonreductional conception of human agency. The relation of agent causality to the fundamental issues of freedom and determinism is also analyzed.

  2. The effects of acute inflammation on cognitive functioning and emotional processing in humans: A systematic review of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Jessica; Trick, Leanne; Llewellyn, David; Dickens, Chris

    2017-03-01

    The cognitive neuropsychological model of depression proposes that negative biases in the processing of emotionally salient information have a central role in the development and maintenance of depression. We have conducted a systematic review to determine whether acute experimental inflammation is associated with changes to cognitive and emotional processing that are thought to cause and maintain depression. We identified experimental studies in which healthy individuals were administered an acute inflammatory challenge (bacterial endotoxin/vaccination) and standardised tests of cognitive function were performed. Fourteen references were identified, reporting findings from 12 independent studies on 345 participants. Methodological quality was rated strong or moderate for 11 studies. Acute experimental inflammation was triggered using a variety of agents (including endotoxin from E. coli, S. typhi, S. abortus Equi and Hepatitis B vaccine) and cognition was assessed over hours to months, using cognitive tests of i) attention/executive functioning, ii) memory and iii) social/emotional processing. Studies found mixed evidence that acute experimental inflammation caused changes to attention/executive functioning (2 of 6 studies showed improvements in attention executive function compared to control), changes in memory (3 of 5 studies; improved reaction time: reduced memory for object proximity: poorer immediate and delayed memory) and changes to social/emotional processing (4 of 5 studies; reduced perception of emotions, increased avoidance of punishment/loss experiences, and increased social disconnectedness). Acute experimental inflammation causes negative biases in social and emotional processing that could explain observed associations between inflammation and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with...

  4. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2014-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with...

  5. Emotional and cognitive functional imaging of estrogen and progesterone effects in the female human brain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, Simone; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Gingnell, Malin; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Comasco, Erika

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian hormones are pivotal for the physiological maintenance of the brain function as well as its response to environmental stimuli. There is mounting evidence attesting the relevance of endogenous ovarian hormones as well as exogenous estradiol and progesterone for emotional and cognitive processing. The present review systematically summarized current knowledge on sex steroid hormonal modulation of neural substrates of emotion and cognition revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-four studies of healthy naturally cycling and combined oral contraceptives (COC) user women, or women undergoing experimental manipulations, during their reproductive age, were included. Furthermore, six studies of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a hormonally based mood disorder, and three of gender dysphoria (GD), which provides an intriguing opportunity to examine the effect of high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) on brain functioning, were included. Globally, low (early follicular and the entire follicular phase for estrogen and progesterone, respectively) and high (COC, CSHT, late follicular and luteal phase for estrogen; COC, mid- and late-luteal phase for progesterone) hormonal milieu diversely affected the response of several brain regions including the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus, but their functional recruitment across groups and domains was scattered. The constellation of findings provides initial evidence of the influence of sex steroid hormones on cortical and subcortical regions implicated in emotional and cognitive processing. Further well-powered and multimodal neuroimaging studies will be needed to identify the neural mechanism of functional brain alterations induced by sex steroid hormones.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Mélanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group). Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, pfatty acids may represent a valuable dietary strategy to improve behavioural and cognitive functions.

  7. Cognitive neuroscience robotics B analytic approaches to human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Asada, Minoru; Osaka, Mariko; Fujikado, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume B describes to what extent cognitive science and neuroscience have revealed the underlying mechanism of human cognition, and investigates how development of neural engineering and advances in other disciplines could lead to deep understanding of human cognition.

  8. A Functional Cartography of Cognitive Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G Mattar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems-including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems-engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i stability vs. flexibility and (ii connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort

  9. A Functional Cartography of Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Marcelo G.; Cole, Michael W.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module) across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems—including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems—engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i) stability vs. flexibility and (ii) connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort, individual

  10. A Functional Cartography of Cognitive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Marcelo G; Cole, Michael W; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-12-01

    One of the most remarkable features of the human brain is its ability to adapt rapidly and efficiently to external task demands. Novel and non-routine tasks, for example, are implemented faster than structural connections can be formed. The neural underpinnings of these dynamics are far from understood. Here we develop and apply novel methods in network science to quantify how patterns of functional connectivity between brain regions reconfigure as human subjects perform 64 different tasks. By applying dynamic community detection algorithms, we identify groups of brain regions that form putative functional communities, and we uncover changes in these groups across the 64-task battery. We summarize these reconfiguration patterns by quantifying the probability that two brain regions engage in the same network community (or putative functional module) across tasks. These tools enable us to demonstrate that classically defined cognitive systems-including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, default mode, fronto-parietal, cingulo-opercular and salience systems-engage dynamically in cohesive network communities across tasks. We define the network role that a cognitive system plays in these dynamics along the following two dimensions: (i) stability vs. flexibility and (ii) connected vs. isolated. The role of each system is therefore summarized by how stably that system is recruited over the 64 tasks, and how consistently that system interacts with other systems. Using this cartography, classically defined cognitive systems can be categorized as ephemeral integrators, stable loners, and anything in between. Our results provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the dynamic integration and recruitment of cognitive systems in enabling behavioral adaptability across both task and rest conditions. This work has important implications for understanding cognitive network reconfiguration during different task sets and its relationship to cognitive effort, individual

  11. [Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-05-01

    The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy.

  12. Human mobility, cognition and GISc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welcome to Human Mobility, Cognition and GISc’ - a conference hosted by the University of Copenhagen on November 9, 2015. The present document encloses the abstracts contributed by five invited speakers and eight submitted as responses to a public call made on June 1st 2015. In GIS and related...... sciences (GISc) registration and analysis of human behavior and development of technologies to back us up during our daily activities has a long history behind. Such activities include navigation and wayfinding. At the same time a lot of effort has been spend to investigate and conceptualize...... the psychological/cognitive and neurophysiological background of our spatial behavior - including our abilities to perceive, memorize, apply and communicate spatial knowledge. It is the aim of the conference to bring together professionals from cognitive, analytical and geo-technical sciences (including...

  13. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  14. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  15. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vinot

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ω3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ω3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ω3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus, a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ω3 PUFA (n = 6 per group. Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ω3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05, while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ω3-supplemented animals (p<0.001, a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ω3 fatty

  17. Aluminium, iron and copper in human brain tissues donated to the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Esiri, Margaret; Forster, Gill; Ince, Paul G; Exley, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium, iron and copper are all implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. However, there are very few large cohort studies of the content of these metals in aged human brains. We have used microwave digestion and TH GFAAS to measure aluminium, iron and copper in the temporal, frontal, occipital and parietal lobes of 60 brains donated to the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Every precaution was taken to reduce contamination of samples and acid digests to a minimum. Actual contamination was estimated by preparing a large number of (170+) method blanks which were interspersed within the full set of 700+ tissue digests. Subtraction of method blank values (MBV) from tissue digest values resulted in metal contents in all tissues in the range, MBV to 33 μg g(-1) dry wt. for aluminium, 112 to 8305 μg g(-1) dry wt. for iron and MBV to 384 μg g(-1) dry wt. for copper. While the median aluminium content for all tissues was 1.02 μg g(-1) dry wt. it was informative that 41 brains out of 60 included at least one tissue with an aluminium content which could be considered as potentially pathological (> 3.50 μg g(-1) dry wt.). The median content for iron was 286.16 μg g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue iron contents were generally high which possibly reflected increased brain iron in ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. The median content for copper was 17.41 μg g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue copper contents were lower than expected for aged brains but they were commensurate with aged brains showing signs of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we have shown, in particular, the value of carrying out significant numbers of method blanks to identify unknown sources of contamination. When these values are subtracted from tissue digest values the absolute metal contents could be considered as conservative and yet they may still reflect aspects of ageing and neurodegenerative disease in individual brains.

  18. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  19. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation improves cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease mice by decreasing oxidative stress and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, YuanBo; Ma, ShanShan; Zhang, ChunYan; Cao, Wei; Liu, Min; Li, DongPeng; Lv, PengJu; Xing, Qu; Qu, RuiNa; Yao, Ning; Yang, Bo; Guan, FangXia

    2017-03-01

    Stem cell transplantation represents a promising therapy for central nervous system injuries, but its application to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still limited and the potential mechanism for cognition improvement remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we used Tg2576 mice which express AD-like pathological forms of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) intravenous transplantation on AD mice. Interestingly, hUC-MSCs transplantation significantly ameliorated cognitive function of AD mice without altering Aβ levels in hippocampus. Remarkably, hUC-MSCs transplantation reduced oxidative stress in hippocampus of AD mice by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), increasing the level of nitric oxide (NO), enhancing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The mechanisms underlying the improved cognitive function may be linked to hippocampal neurogenesis and an up-regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity related proteins levels including silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN). Taken together, our findings suggest that hUC-MSCs can improve cognition of AD mice by decreasing oxidative stress and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. These results suggest that modulating hUC-MSCs to generate excess neuroprotective factors could provide a viable therapy to treat AD.

  20. On the specificity of face cognition compared with general cognitive functioning across adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver; Schmiedek, Florian; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner

    2011-09-01

    Face cognition is considered a specific human ability, clearly differentiable from general cognitive functioning. Its specificity is primarily supported by cognitive-experimental and neuroimaging research, but recently also from an individual differences perspective. However, no comprehensive behavioral data are available, which would allow estimating lifespan changes of the covariance structure of face-cognition abilities and general cognitive functioning as well as age-differences in face cognition after accounting for interindividual variability in general cognition. The present study aimed to fill this gap. In an age-heterogeneous (18-82 years) sample of 448 adults, we found no factorial dedifferentiation between face cognition and general cognition. Age-related differences in face memory were still salient after taking into account changes in general cognitive functioning. Face cognition thus remains a specific human ability compared with general cognition, even until old age. We discuss implications for models of cognitive aging and suggest that it is necessary to include more explicitly special social abilities in those models.

  1. Uncovering genes for cognitive (dys)function and predisposition for alcoholism spectrum disorders: a review of human brain oscillations as effective endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2008-10-15

    Brain oscillations provide a rich source of potentially useful endophenotypes (intermediate phenotypes) for psychiatric genetics, as they represent important correlates of human information processing and are associated with fundamental processes from perception to cognition. These oscillations are highly heritable, are modulated by genes controlling neurotransmitters in the brain, and provide links to associative and integrative brain functions. These endophenotypes represent traits that are less complex and more proximal to gene function than either diagnostic labels or traditional cognitive measures, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. Our group has utilized heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations) as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We have discussed our findings of significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes in GABAergic, cholinergic and glutamatergic systems (GABRA2, CHRM2, and GRM8). We have also shown that some oscillatory indices from both resting and active cognitive states have revealed a common subset of genetic foci that are shared with the diagnosis of alcoholism and related disorders. Implications of our findings have been discussed in the context of physiological and pharmacological studies on receptor function. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of brain function and the genetic diathesis underlying complex psychiatric disorders.

  2. Vaccination with a non-human random sequence amyloid oligomer mimic results in improved cognitive function and reduced plaque deposition and micro hemorrhage in Tg2576 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Suhail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that vaccination of humans and transgenic animals against fibrillar Aβ prevents amyloid accumulation in plaques and preserves cognitive function in transgenic mouse models. However, autoimmune side effects have halted the development of vaccines based on full length human Aβ. Further development of an effective vaccine depends on overcoming these side effects while maintaining an effective immune response. Results We have previously reported that the immune response to amyloid oligomers is largely directed against generic epitopes that are common to amyloid oligomers of many different proteins and independent of a specific amino acid sequence. Here we have examined whether we can exploit this generic immune response to develop a vaccine that targets amyloid oligomers using a non-human random sequence amyloid oligomer. In order to study the effect of vaccination against generic oligomer epitopes, a random sequence oligomer (3A was selected as it forms oligomers that react with the oligomer specific A11 antibody. Oligomer mimics from 3A peptide, Aβ, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, and Aβ fibrils were used to vaccinate Tg2576 mice, which develop a progressive accumulation of plaques and cognitive impairment. Vaccination with the 3A random sequence antigen was just as effective as vaccination with the other antigens in improving cognitive function and reducing total plaque load (Aβ burden in the Tg2576 mouse brains, but was associated with a much lower incidence of micro hemorrhage than Aβ antigens. Conclusion These results shows that the amyloid Aβ sequence is not necessary to produce a protective immune response that specifically targets generic amyloid oligomers. Using a non-human, random sequence antigen may facilitate the development of a vaccine that avoids autoimmune side effects.

  3. The Structural and Functional Organisation of Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter John Snow

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex. Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain, (b BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain, (c BA46 (or BA46-9/46, enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain and (d BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9, material (BA47, abstract (BA46-9/46 and temporal (BA10 mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46 is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses from lower-order concepts originating both from our perceptual representations and the other three domains of cognition.

  4. The Structural and Functional Organization of Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a) BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain; (b) BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain; (c) BA46 (or BA46-9/46), enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain; and (d) BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9), material (BA47), abstract (BA46-9/46) and temporal (BA10) mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46) is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses) from lower-order concepts originating from the other three domains of cognition.

  5. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  6. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  7. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra G. Rosati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  8. Phytoestrogens and cognitive function: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Mira; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Soekardi, Rodiyah; Sulistyowati, Yenny; Lestariningsih; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Irsan, Atik; Hogervorst, Eef

    2014-03-01

    Neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogen compounds (found in soy) have been demonstrated in animal research and cell culture studies. In particular, phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related pathology, potentially alleviating risk of AD progression. In addition to their antioxidant properties, soy products also have the ability to affect cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors. However, observational studies and randomised controlled trials in humans have resulted in inconclusive findings within this domain. There are several possible reasons for these discrepant data. Studies which report no effect of phytoestrogens on cognition have mainly been carried out in European cohorts, with an average low dietary consumption. In contrast, investigation of Asian populations, with a higher general intake of tofu (a non-fermented soy product) have shown negative associations with cognitive function in those over the age of 65. Consideration of type of soy product is important, as in the latter sample, protective effects of tempe (fermented soy) were also observed. Limited data provide evidence that effects of phytoestrogens on cognition may be modified by dosage, duration of consumption and cognitive test used. Additionally, characteristics of the study population including age, gender, ethnicity and menopausal status appear to be mediating variables. Phytoestrogen treatment interventions have also shown time-limited positive effects on cognition. These findings are consistent with estrogen treatment studies, where initial positive short-term cognitive effects may occur, which reverse with long-term continuous use in elderly women. Well controlled, large scale studies are needed to assess the effects of phytoestrogens on the aging brain and provide further understanding of this association.

  9. Cognitive neuroscience robotics A synthetic approaches to human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Asada, Minoru; Osaka, Mariko; Fujikado, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume A describes how human cognitive functions can be replicated in artificial systems such as robots, and investigates how artificial systems could acquire intelligent behaviors through interaction with others and their environment.

  10. Human mobility, cognition and GISc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welcome to Human Mobility, Cognition and GISc’ - a conference hosted by the University of Copenhagen on November 9, 2015. The present document encloses the abstracts contributed by five invited speakers and eight submitted as responses to a public call made on June 1st 2015. In GIS and related...... exclusive) list of topics was suggested: • Wayfinding and navigation • Agent based simulation and modelling (ABM) • Movement analysis • Emerging and classic technologies for recording movement • Visualisation of moving objects • Spatial perception and memory • Efficient structures for storing movement data...

  11. Cognition and brain functional aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-jie LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest population of elderly adults. Meanwhile, it is one of the countries showing fastest aging speed in the world. Aging processing is always companied with a series of brain structural and functional changes, which result in the decline of processing speed, working memory, long-term memory and executive function, etc. The studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI found certain aging effects on brain function activation, spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in old people. However, few studies have explored the brain functional curve during the aging process while most previous studies explored the differences in the brain function between young people and old people. Delineation of the human brain functional aging curve will promote the understanding of brain aging mechanisms and support the normal aging monitoring and early detection of abnormal aging changes. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.005

  12. Cognitive approach to human-centered systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert M.

    1996-04-01

    User requirements and system cognitive quality are considered in relation to the integration of new technology, in particular for aiding cognitive functions. Intuitive interfaces and display design matching user mental models and memory schema are identified as human-centered design strategies. Situational awareness is considered in terms of schema theory and perceptual control. A new method for measuring cognitive compatibility is described, and linked to the SRK taxonomy of human performance, in order to provide a framework for analyzing and specifying user cognitive requirements.

  13. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Bégin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.

  14. Cognitive functioning and microvascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia form a major health issue, affecting a considerable proportion of the aging population. Cerebral vascular damage is increasingly recognized as one of the main causes of cognitive decline in aging and dementia. Another main cause of cognitive deterioration in older p

  15. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L

    2016-06-07

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition-which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change-have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved.

  16. Cognitive functioning in major depression - a summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Hammar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions (EF, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitive functioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted. .In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery.

  17. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    cognitive function and psychosocial function. We also identified clinical variables that predicted objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning. There was a correlation between global subjective and objective measures of cognitive dysfunction but not within the individual...... cognitive domains. However, the correlation was weak, suggesting that cognitive complaints are not an assay of cognition per se. Self-rated psychosocial difficulties were associated with subjective (but not objective) cognitive impairment and both subjective cognitive and psychosocial difficulties were...

  18. Circadian and Wakefulness-Sleep Modulation of Cognition in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth P Wright

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive and affective processes vary over the course of the 24 hour day. Time of day dependent changes in human cognition are modulated by an internal circadian timekeeping system with a near-24-hour period. The human circadian timekeeping system interacts with sleep-wakefulness regulatory processes to modulate brain arousal, neurocognitive and affective function. Brain arousal is regulated by ascending brain stem, basal forebrain and hypothalamic arousal systems and inhibition or disruption of these systems reduces brain arousal, impairs cognition, and promotes sleep. The internal circadian timekeeping system modulates cognition and affective function by projections from the master circadian clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei, to arousal and sleep systems and via clock gene oscillations in brain tissues. Understanding the basic principles of circadian and wakefulness-sleep physiology can help to recognize how the circadian system modulates human cognition and influences learning, memory and emotion. Developmental changes in sleep and circadian processes and circadian misalignment in circadian rhythm sleep disorders have important implications for learning, memory and emotion. Overall, when wakefulness occurs at appropriate internal biological times, circadian clockwork benefits human cognitive and emotion function throughout the lifespan. Yet, when wakefulness occurs at inappropriate biological times because of environmental pressures (e.g., early school start times, long work hours that include work at night, shift work, jet lag or because of circadian rhythm sleep disorders, the resulting misalignment between circadian and wakefulness-sleep physiology leads to impaired cognitive performance, learning, emotion, and safety.

  19. SUPPORT PROBLEM FOR COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN THE E-LEARNING

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    Liubov S. Lisitsyna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of such important human cognitive functions as attention, perception and information processing speed, working and long-term memory, thinking, etc. is a necessary foundation for increasing the effectiveness of e-learning. One way for further developments of students' cognitive functions in the process of e-learning consists in computer cognitive training sessions, which are included in the individual learning paths to promote a learner to the successful implementation of specific learning tasks of e-course. Analysis of the estimating problems for cognitive training effects (severity, stability and transfer is done and the ways for their solution are proposed. It is shown that the biological basis for cognitive training effects consists in the processes of neuroplasticity of the brain that influence the duration and intensity of training. An approach to the organization of research for the effects of cognitive training, based on the usage of random methods is suggested. The prospects of game mechanics application for cognitive training implementation in elearning are shown. A detailed analysis of the approaches to the training of the basic cognitive functions, including working memory of learners, is carried out. The practical significance of this paper is to identify priorities for research and development of cognitive training in e-learning.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone, Its Sulfate and Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Karina Junqueira; Peixoto, Clayton; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sérgio; Veras, André Barciela

    2016-01-01

    To present a review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between the hormones Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cognition. Methods: The cognition items included in this review were global cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, intelligence, perception and visuospatial ability. A systematic review was proceeded using three databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Results: Two thousand fifty five references about cognition and hormones were found; 772 duplicated references were excluded, resulting in 1.283 references to be evaluated. According to exclusion and inclusion criteria, 25 references were selected. A positive correlation between DHEA-S blood levels and global cognition was found in women and men. Other positive correlations between DHEA-S and working memory, attention and verbal fluency were found only in women. The DHEA effect on cognition is limited to one study conducted among young men with high-doses. PMID:27346998

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone, Its Sulfate and Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Karina Junqueira; Peixoto, Clayton; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Machado, Sérgio; Veras, André Barciela

    2016-01-01

    To present a review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between the hormones Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cognition. The cognition items included in this review were global cognitive function, memory, attention, executive function, intelligence, perception and visuospatial ability. A systematic review was proceeded using three databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Two thousand fifty five references about cognition and hormones were found; 772 duplicated references were excluded, resulting in 1.283 references to be evaluated. According to exclusion and inclusion criteria, 25 references were selected. A positive correlation between DHEA-S blood levels and global cognition was found in women and men. Other positive correlations between DHEA-S and working memory, attention and verbal fluency were found only in women. The DHEA effect on cognition is limited to one study conducted among young men with high-doses.

  2. Cognitive functioning in mild hyperphenylalaninemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de la Parra

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.

  3. The emergent coordination of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T; Beltz, Brandon C; Holden, John G; Van Orden, Guy C

    2007-11-01

    1/f scaling has been observed throughout human physiology and behavior, but its origins and meaning remain a matter of debate. Some argue that it is a byproduct of ongoing processes in the brain or body and therefore of limited relevance to psychological theory. Others argue that 1/f scaling reflects a fundamental aspect of all physiological and cognitive functions, namely, that they emerge in the balance of independent versus interdependent component activities. In 4 experiments, series of key-press responses were used to test between these 2 alternative explanations. The critical design feature was to take 2 measures of each key-press response: reaction time and key-contact duration. These measures resulted in 2 parallel series of intrinsic fluctuations for each series of key-press responses. Intrinsic fluctuations exhibited 1/f scaling in both reaction times and key-contact durations, yet the 2 measures were uncorrelated with each other and separately perturbable. These and other findings indicate that 1/f scaling is too pervasive to be idiosyncratic and of limited relevance. It is instead argued that 1/f scaling reflects the coordinative, metastable basis of cognitive function. 2007 APA

  4. Cognitive Function, Origin, and Evolution of Musical Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive function of music, its origin, and evolution has been a mystery until recently. Here we discuss a theory of a fundamental function of music in cognition and culture. Music evolved in parallel with language. The evolution of language toward a semantically powerful tool required freeing from uncontrolled emotions. Knowledge evolved fast along with language. This created cognitive dissonances, contradictions among knowledge and instincts, which differentiated consciousness. To sustain evolution of language and culture, these contradictions had to be unified. Music was the mechanism of unification. Differentiated emotions are needed for resolving cognitive dissonances. As knowledge has been accumulated, contradictions multiplied and correspondingly more varied emotions had to evolve. While language differentiated psyche, music unified it. Thus the need for refined musical emotions in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of cognition. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music.

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K

    2001-01-01

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS on cognitive function in ageing and dementia, we have undertaken a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans in properly controlled trials. The review will also provide a scientific basis for effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration, and side effect profiles. This review is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults or in individuals with dementia. Relevant electronic databases, journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA/S were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. There are four included studies, three cognition in normal older people, and Barnhart 1999 in perimenopausal women with decreased well-being. There were no studies in dementia. There were a few significant findings. Wolf 1997 found significant improvement following DHEA compared with placebo in both immediate recall (MD 0.8, 95% CI 0.16, 1.44) and delayed recall (MD 0.9, 95% CI 0.09, 1.71) of a visual memory test in women, estimated in a crossover

  6. WITHDRAWN: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, F A; Van Niekerk, J K

    2007-07-18

    In view of the theoretical rationale for beneficial effects of DHEA and DHEAS on cognitive function in ageing and dementia, we have undertaken a thorough investigation of well-conducted studies in this area. This will provide a basis for confirmation of any effect of DHEA/S administration in humans in properly controlled trials. The review will also provide a scientific basis for effective dosage, acceptable route and duration of administration, and side effect profiles. This review is especially pertinent at this time as DHEA is currently being sold in large quantities in health food stores, particularly in the USA. In some cases the recommended dose is different for men and women (50mg/day for men and 25mg/day for women) and the basis for this recommendation needs to be explored. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults or in individuals with dementia. Relevant electronic databases, journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All relevant randomised controlled trials of DHEA/S were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (FAH & JvN) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. There are four included studies, three cognition in normal older people, and Barnhart 1999 in perimenopausal women with decreased well-being. There were no studies in dementia. There were a few significant findings. Wolf 1997 found significant improvement following DHEA compared with placebo in both immediate recall (MD 0.8, 95% CI 0.16, 1.44) and delayed recall (MD 0.9, 95% CI 0.09, 1.71) of a visual memory test in women, estimated in a crossover

  7. The effect of retirement on cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Norma B; von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; Lindeboom, Maarten; Maurer, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive impairment has emerged as a major driver of disability in old age, with profound effects on individual well-being and decision making at older ages. In the light of policies aimed at postponing retirement ages, an important question is whether continued labour supply helps to maintain high levels of cognition at older ages. We use data of older men from the US Health and Retirement Study to estimate the effect of continued labour market participation at older ages on later-life cognition. As retirement itself is likely to depend on cognitive functioning and may thus be endogenous, we use offers of early retirement windows as instruments for retirement in econometric models for later-life cognitive functioning. These offers of early retirement are legally required to be nondiscriminatory and thus, inter alia, unrelated to cognitive functioning. At the same time, these offers of early retirement options are significant predictors of retirement. Although the simple ordinary least squares estimates show a negative relationship between retirement duration and various measures of cognitive functioning, instrumental variable estimates suggest that these associations may not be causal effects. Specifically, we find no clear relationship between retirement duration and later-life cognition for white-collar workers and, if anything, a positive relationship for blue-collar workers.

  8. Spatial cognition in apes and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Dedre

    2007-05-01

    The debate on whether language influences cognition is sometimes seen as a simple dichotomy: cognitive development is governed either by innate predispositions or by influences of language and culture. In two recent papers on spatial cognition, Haun and colleagues break new ground in bringing together a comparative cognition approach with a cross-linguistic framework to arrive at a third position: that humans begin with the same spatial reference frames as our near relatives, the great apes, and diverge later owing to the influence of language and culture.

  9. New thinking: the evolution of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-08-05

    Humans are animals that specialize in thinking and knowing, and our extraordinary cognitive abilities have transformed every aspect of our lives. In contrast to our chimpanzee cousins and Stone Age ancestors, we are complex political, economic, scientific and artistic creatures, living in a vast range of habitats, many of which are our own creation. Research on the evolution of human cognition asks what types of thinking make us such peculiar animals, and how they have been generated by evolutionary processes. New research in this field looks deeper into the evolutionary history of human cognition, and adopts a more multi-disciplinary approach than earlier 'Evolutionary Psychology'. It is informed by comparisons between humans and a range of primate and non-primate species, and integrates findings from anthropology, archaeology, economics, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. Using these methods, recent research reveals profound commonalities, as well striking differences, between human and non-human minds, and suggests that the evolution of human cognition has been much more gradual and incremental than previously assumed. It accords crucial roles to cultural evolution, techno-social co-evolution and gene-culture co-evolution. These have produced domain-general developmental processes with extraordinary power-power that makes human cognition, and human lives, unique.

  10. Functions of Cognitive Context in Utterance Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越; 李美涵

    2015-01-01

    Utterance understanding is a two-way activity which includes the generation and reception of information,in the process of utterance understanding,cognitive context functions utterance understanding from three aspects.

  11. Language Diversity and Cognitive Representations. Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Catherine, Ed.; Robert, Stephane, Ed.

    This book brings together the contributions of individual language scholars, linguists, anthropologists, psychologists, and neurophysicians. Each chapter focuses on the human cognitive processes involved in language activity and the impact of language diversity on them. The basic issue is how to correlate language diversity with the universality…

  12. [Atrial fibrillation and cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Emmanuelle; Hanon, Olivier

    2010-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), which prevalence increases with age, is a growing public health problem and a well known risk factor for stroke. On the other hand, dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly, and with aging of the population in developed countries, the number of demented patients will increase in absence of prevention. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia) have been found, with various degree of evidence, to be associated with vascular dementia but also, surprisingly, with Alzheimer's disease. This review is devoted to the links between atrial fibrillation, cognitive decline and dementia. Globally, transversal studies showed a significant association between atrial fibrillation, cognitive decline and dementia. However, these studies are particularly sensitive to various biases. In this context, recent longitudinal studies of higher level of evidence have been conducted to assess the link between AF and dementia. One study disclosed a high incidence of dementia among patients suffering from atrial fibrillation during a 4.6 years follow-up. Similarly another study showed that atrial fibrillation was significantly associated with conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia during a 3 years follow-up. Nevertheless two other longitudinal studies did not find any significant association between AF and dementia, but this discrepancy should be interpreted taking into account that the comparability of all these studies is moderate because they were using different methodologies (population, cognitive testing, and mean follow-up). Possible explanatory mechanisms for the association between AF and the risk of dementia are proposed, such as thrombo-embolic ischemic damage and cerebral hypo perfusion due to fluctuations in the cardiac output. Thus, there is some evidence that FA could be associated with cognitive decline and dementia but this

  13. The serotonergic system and cognitive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švob Štrac Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of cognitive dysfunction like memory loss, poor concentration, impaired learning and executive functions are characteristic features of both schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying cognition in healthy subjects and neuropsychiatric patients are not completely understood. Studies have focused on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT as one of the possible cognitionrelated biomarkers. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the current literature on the role of the serotonergic (5-HTergic system in cognitive function, particularly in AD and schizophrenia.

  14. Essential hypertension and cognitive function in elderly

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    Shilpa Gaidhane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential Hypertension is considered as an important independent risk factor for decline cognitive function leading to dementia and stroke. We assess cognitive function of essential hypertension over 60 years of age and its association with various socio-demographic in Indian setting. This cross sectional study includes 62 hypertensives (stage 1 and 2 as cases and 21 normotensives and 41 prehypertensives as comparison group. Cases and comparison group were age and sex matched. Data was collected through interview and investigations. Cognitive function was measured by minimental status examination scale. In hypertensives, total mean MMSE score as well as the score for orientation, attention-calculation, immediate recall and language (except registration was significantly less compared to normotensives (p<0.001 and prehypertensives (p<0.001. Similar trend was observed for hypertensives with age, gender, education, smoking and alcohol (p<0.001. The overall MMSE scores in prehypertensives and normotensives were almost similar. SBP, DBP and age shows independently statistically significant inverse relationship with cognitive function. Measuring the cognitive function in essential hypertensive patients may have important health implication, as cognitive function along with WML are considered as a prognostic factor for stroke and early marker of brain damage.

  15. Self stigmatization, cognitive functions and social functioning in mood disorders

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    Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Internalized stigmatization (IS generally has a negative effect on diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prognosis of diseases. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression both are in remission in terms of IS and social functioning (SF, cognitive function and secondly to consider relationship between IS, cognitive functions and SF. Methods: This cross-sectional study is carried out with bipolar (BD and unipolar depression (UD patients in remission, admitted to the psychiatry outpatient clinics of Akdeniz University Hospital. The sample size is estimated as 35 patients. Basic independent variable is the type of disease and dependent variables are; IS, cognitive functions and SF. Performed scales are: The internalized stigma of mental ilness scale, the social functioning scale and for the assesment of cognitive functions: Wisconsin card sorting, stroop test, test of verbal memory process. Results.Concerning the results there was negative corelation between IS and SF scores in all groups. There was only significant relationship between verbal memory and IS in UD patients. There was not any significant relationship between IS and cognitive function in BD patients. Conclusion: This study indicates that in terms of cognitive functions, patients with unipolar depression are effected as much as the patients with bipolar disorder also manifesting the inverse relation between IS and SF, however cognitive functions were relevant to IS only in UD patients. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 390-402

  16. Cognitive functioning in adolescents with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andréia Costa-Silva

    Full Text Available Although migraine is highly prevalent in children and teenagers, it often goes undetected in these patients, resulting in underdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. Several studies have investigated cognitive changes in adults with migraine. However, there are few studies focusing on children and adolescents. Objective : To investigate cognitive performance of adolescents with migraine. Methods : Twenty-eight adolescents diagnosed with migraine and twenty-six individuals without a history of headache were recruited for the study. All participants were evaluated using standardized neuropsychological tests. Results : Adolescents with migraine had worse performance on tests evaluating short- and long-term verbal memory, attention, executive function, and speed of processing information than controls. Conclusion : Cognitive dysfunction is common in adolescents with migraine. Since the cognitive deficits found in adolescents with migraine are similar to those reported in adults with migraine, cognitive impairment seems to persist throughout life.

  17. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  18. Cognitive representation of human action: theory, applications, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSeegelke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article, we propose a cognitive architecture model of human action that stresses the importance of cognitive representations stored in long-term memory (LTM as reference structures underlying and guiding voluntary motor performance. We introduce an experimental approach to ascertain cognitive representation structures, and provide evidence from a variety of different studies, ranging from basic research in manual action to application-oriented research such as athlete performance and rehabilitation. As results from these studies strongly support the presence of functional links between cognitive and motor processes, we regard this approach as a suitable and valuable tool for a variety of different disciplines related to cognition and movement. We conclude this article by highlighting current advances in ongoing research projects aimed at improving interaction capabilities in technical systems, particularly for rehabilitation and everyday support of the elderly, and outline future research directions.

  19. Children's Cognitive Functioning in Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Jacobs, Anne K; Varma, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    A growing literature has begun to address the cognitions that influence children's disaster reactions as well as the effects of disasters on children's cognitions. These cognitions must be viewed in the context of developmental and cultural considerations as well as disaster-related factors such as exposure and secondary stressors. This review examines the extant literature on children's cognitions related to disasters and terrorism including threat appraisal, beliefs, attention and concentration, memory, academic achievement, and executive functioning. The review highlights areas where research is lacking such as the effect of disasters on children's attention, concentration, content of disaster memories, and executive functioning. It also notes findings that may advance post-disaster screening and intervention.

  20. Cognitive modelling of human temporal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, AGB

    2003-01-01

    Modelling human reasoning characterizes the fundamental human cognitive capacity to describe our past experience and use it to form expectations as well as plan and direct our future actions. Natural language semantics analyzes dynamic forms of reasoning in which the real-time order determines the

  1. Testing for Cognitive Function in Animals in a Regulatory Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to dominate a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because peo...

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone levels and cognitive function in aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumari U, Padma K

    2013-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Recent research reports show that DHEA has various beneficial effects including neuro protective effects and that the decline in its production with aging may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, and thus cognitive decline.Aim: To assess the cognitive functions and estimate the levels of DHEA in subjects of the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional comparative study of sixty h...

  3. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  4. Human and animal cognition: continuity and discontinuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premack, David

    2007-08-28

    Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. On the other hand, cognitive studies have found animals to have abilities once thought unique to the human. This suggests a disparity between brain and mind. The suggestion is misleading. Cognitive research has not kept pace with neural research. Neural findings are based on microscopic study of the brain and are primarily cellular. Because cognition cannot be studied microscopically, we need to refine the study of cognition by using a different approach. In examining claims of similarity between animals and humans, one must ask: What are the dissimilarities? This approach prevents confusing similarity with equivalence. We follow this approach in examining eight cognitive cases--teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language--and find, in all cases, that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind.

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone levels and cognitive function in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathna Kumari U, Padma K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Recent research reports show that DHEA has various beneficial effects including neuro protective effects and that the decline in its production with aging may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration, and thus cognitive decline.Aim: To assess the cognitive functions and estimate the levels of DHEA in subjects of the same age group. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional comparative study of sixty healthy male participants between 60 to 70 years of age was done. They did not have other medical disorders likely to affect cognitive function. Their performance in the principal domains of cognition, i.e. memory, attention and concentration, verbal fluency, language and visuospatial functioning was observed.Serum levels of DHEA were estimated for all the participants by ELISA method. Results: A significant positive correlation was observed between DHEA level and three domains of cognition viz., visuospatial skills (r = 0.95, verbal fluency (r = 0.49 and short term memory (r = 0.28. No association was found with other domains of cognition. Conclusion: Subjects with low levels of serum DHEA among the same age group showed a significant decline in visuospatial skills, short term memory and verbal fluency.

  6. Relationship between physical prowess and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García López, Oscar; Burgos Postigo, Silvia

    2012-03-01

    There is some evidence about the low relationship between physical prowess and cognitive function (Posthuma, Mulder, Boomsma & de Geus, 2002). The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (spatial ability, reasoning, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and reasoning and verbal comprehension) and physical prowess in sport performance (agility circuit, coordination circuit, horizontal jump, swimming and sprint racing). Two studies were performance. In the first one we applied a battery of standardized cognitive tests and a battery of physical grading tests to 400 subjects. When we applied factor analysis to the physical prowess and the cognitive variables, we found one general factor in cognitive variables and one general factor in physical prowess. We found a low relationship between both factors (.21). In the second study we compare the cognitive abilities in elite and amateur sport people. Results show that elite gymnastics people present higher cognitive abilities than amateur sportspeople. It should be relevant in order to clarify the total set of variables involved in sport performance.

  7. Functional and cognitive decline in hospitalized elderly

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    EUGÉNIA MENDES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim – Understand if functional and cognitive decline is accentuated during hospitalization in elderly patients. Method – It was design a descriptive and correlational study. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were used. Results – Were evaluated at admission and discharge 51 elderly (75.53 ± 7.16 years, 53% women, admitted in an internal medicine unit with a length of stay of 14.27±6.45 days. For FIM and MMSE were found statistically significant differences with lower scores from admission to discharge. Negative correlations between age and length of stay and the scores of all measures were found. Except for the Cognitive FIM at admission, all elderly residents at home fared better than the institutionalized in all measures. Conclusions – The hospitalization contributes to a greater weakness/frailty of the elderly and is considered high risk for decline in physical fitness and cognitive function.

  8. Homocysteine and cognitive function in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is prevalent among elderly people, and projections show that the number of affected might triple over the next 50 years, because of a large increase in the oldest segment of the population. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive function and serum homocysteine level. This study was a cross-sectional study carried out in Mampang district, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study consisting of 44 females and 50 males. In this study serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function with the mini mental state examination (MMSE. In elderly women MMSE scores for plasma homocysteine concentrations of 14.9 mmol/L were 24.00 ± 3.68, 23.80 ± 6.51, and 20.80 ± 9.00 respectively, with p=0.000. In elderly men the MMSE scores for plasma homocysteine concentrations of 14.9 mmol/L were respectively 27.66 ± 2.06, 26.33 ± 3.79 and 24.03 ± 5.52 with p=0.008. Homocysteine concentrations of >14.9 mmol/L were more commonly found in males (66% than in females (22.70%. The results of a regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing cognitive function were level of education (p=0.001 and age (p=0.035, whereas gender and homocysteine concentration did not affect cognitive function (p=0.554 and p=0.714, respectively. Plasma homocysteine concentration was inversely related to cognitive function. The most important factors affecting cognitive function were level of education and age.

  9. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  10. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders.

  11. [From animal communication to the human language and cognition: evolution or revolution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskaia, T V

    2008-09-01

    The paper discusses the problem of language and cognitive specificity in humans as compared to other species. The main hypotheses of human evolution and the emergence of language seem to be well researched on genetic basis of higher functions. Cognitive abilities of other animals and their communication signals and the main views on basic principles of brain underlying these functions are described.

  12. Burned out cognition - cognitive functioning of burnout patients before and after a period with psychological treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterholt, B.G.; Linden, D. van der; Maes, J.H.R.; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Many employees with burnout report cognitive difficulties. However, the relation between burnout and cognitive functioning has hardly been empirically validated. Moreover, it is unknown whether the putative cognitive deficits in burnout are temporary or permanent. Therefore, the purpose

  13. Linked Sex Differences in Cognition and Functional Connectivity in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Wolf, Daniel H; Roalf, David R; Ruparel, Kosha; Erus, Guray; Vandekar, Simon; Gennatas, Efstathios D; Elliott, Mark A; Smith, Alex; Hakonarson, Hakon; Verma, Ragini; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-09-01

    Sex differences in human cognition are marked, but little is known regarding their neural origins. Here, in a sample of 674 human participants ages 9-22, we demonstrate that sex differences in cognitive profiles are related to multivariate patterns of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rsfc-MRI). Males outperformed females on motor and spatial cognitive tasks; females were faster in tasks of emotion identification and nonverbal reasoning. Sex differences were also prominent in the rsfc-MRI data at multiple scales of analysis, with males displaying more between-module connectivity, while females demonstrated more within-module connectivity. Multivariate pattern analysis using support vector machines classified subject sex on the basis of their cognitive profile with 63% accuracy (P cognitive profile was "male" or "female" was significantly related to the masculinity or femininity of their pattern of brain connectivity (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)). This relationship was present even when considering males and female separately. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that sex differences in patterns of cognition are in part represented on a neural level through divergent patterns of brain connectivity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [Overview and assessment of cognitive function in interpreting postoperative cognitive dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Rina; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2014-11-01

    The most important point for evaluation of the post-operative cognitive dysfunction is that we understand "cognitive function". First we described the definition of the "cognitive function" and second, outlined each function (dysfunction) and introduced the main assessment methods from the view point of neuropsychology. Cognitive function (dysfunction) described in this paper includes consciousness (confusional state, disturbance of consciousness), generalized attention (disorder of generalized attention), memory (amnesia), orientation (disorientation), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome), social cognition (social cognitive impairment), language (aphasia), cognition (agnosia), behavior (apraxia), directed attention (unilateral spatial neglect), and construction (constructional disorder).

  15. Educational Cognitive Technologies as Human Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Nesterova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity is characterized by profound changes in all spheres of human life caused by the global transformations on macro and micro levels of social reality. These changes allow us to speak about the present as the era of civilizational transition in the mode of uncertainty. Therefore, this situation demands qualitative transformations of human adaptive strategies and educational technologies accordingly. The dominant role in the dynamics of pedagogics and andragogy’s landscape belongs to transformative learning. The transformative learning theory is considered as the relevant approach to education of the individual, which is able to become an autonomous communicative actor of the social complexity. The article considers the cognitive technologies of social cohesion development and perspectives of their implementation in the educational dimension. In addition to implementing the principles of inclusion, equity in education, an important factor for improving social cohesion, stability and unity of society is the development of cognitive educational technologies. The key factors and foundations for the cognitive educational technologies are transversal competencies. They create the conditions for civil, public dialogue, non-violent type of communication. These “21st century skills” are extremely important for better human adaptation. One of the aspects and roots of social adaptation is social cohesion. Mutual determinations and connections between social cohesion development and transversal competences have been shown. The perspective direction of further researches is to find a methodological base for the further development of cognitive education technologies and platform for realization of innovative services for educational programs. New educational paradigm offers the concept of human adaptation as cognitive effectiveness and how to reach it through educational technologies. The article includes topics of creative thinking, teambuilding

  16. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  17. ELDERLY DRIVING BEHAVIOR AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuo HORIKAWA

    2009-01-01

    Discussions: Of the 30 items monitored in the study, significant differences were evident in only a few. Because the evidence did not suggest a particular link to accident experience, it will be necessary to obtain objective data from other cognitive function tests and driving behavior for reassessment. various problems related to elderly driving in Japan were discussed.

  18. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eKlanker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Striatal dopamine is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior towards a reward. Less is known about the contribution of dopamine to cognitive flexibility – the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder. Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in dopamine signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal dopamine in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD.

  19. How Has the Internet Reshaped Human Cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kep Kee; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-10-01

    Throughout our evolutionary history, our cognitive systems have been altered by the advent of technological inventions such as primitive tools, spoken language, writing, and arithmetic systems. Thirty years ago, the Internet surfaced as the latest technological invention poised to deeply reshape human cognition. With its multifaceted affordances, the Internet environment has profoundly transformed our thoughts and behaviors. Growing up with Internet technologies, "Digital Natives" gravitate toward "shallow" information processing behaviors characterized by rapid attention shifting and reduced deliberations. They engage in increased multitasking behaviors that are linked to increased distractibility and poor executive control abilities. Digital natives also exhibit higher prevalence of Internet-related addictive behaviors that reflect altered reward-processing and self-control mechanisms. Recent neuroimaging investigations have suggested associations between these Internet-related cognitive impacts and structural changes in the brain. Against mounting apprehension over the Internet's consequences on our cognitive systems, several researchers have lamented that these concerns were often exaggerated beyond existing scientific evidence. In the present review, we aim to provide an objective overview of the Internet's impacts on our cognitive systems. We critically discuss current empirical evidence about how the Internet environment has altered the cognitive behaviors and structures involved in information processing, executive control, and reward-processing.

  20. Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten eGiessing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with fMRI. Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e. the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the global workspace theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher

  1. Brain plasticity and recovery of cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Čuš

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through its capacity of plastic changes, the adult brain enables successful dealing with new demands of everyday life and recovery after an acquired brain damage either spontaneously or by the help of rehabilitation interventions. Studies which explored the effects of cognitive training in the normal population report on different types of changes in the performance of cognitive tasks as well as different types of changes in brain activation patterns.Following practice, brain activation can change in its extent, intensity or location, while cognitive processes can become more efficient or can be replaced by different processes.After acquired brain damage plastic changes are somewhat different. After the injury, the damaged brain area can either gradually regain its previous function, or different brain regions are recruited to perform that function.Studies of spontaneous and guided recovery of cognitive functions have revealed both types of plastic changes that follow each other, as well as significant correlations between these changes and improvement on the behavioural level.

  2. Comorbidities and cognitive functioning: implications for nursing research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David; Larsen, Kirsten I; Eagerton, Gregory; Wright, Mary A

    2011-08-01

    Optimal cognitive functioning is necessary to successfully negotiate one's environment, yet medical conditions can interfere with brain health, thus negatively impacting cognitive functioning. Such comorbidities include hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, depression, and HIV, as well as others. The physiological properties of these comorbidities can reduce one's cognitive reserve and limit one's cognitive efficiency. This article provides an overview of a few common comorbidities known to affect cognitive functioning and addresses ways in which cognitive functioning may be ameliorated and protected or mitigated in lieu of cognitive declines in such clinical populations. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited.

  3. Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J

    2011-11-01

    This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition.

  4. Cognitive Functions Influence Lightness Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Zdravkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lightness research offers ample evidence that visual scene contains all the cues necessary to perform lightness calculations. In real life, contrary to laboratory findings, familiarity of the objects seems to be more important than the temporarily viewing conditions. In our experiment observers were led to believe that they see the same object moving from one illumination to the other. The estimated shade in the second illumination varied as a function of the shade in the first illumination. In the second experiment, object identity was stressed by the introduction of targets with distinct geometrical shape. Subjects were familiarized with these targets and under the impression that those targets were the only targets used, even after illumination and background changed. Consequently, their matches corresponded to memorized and not viewed shade. In the third experiment observers were familiarized with two sets of targets. Only one set was used in the experiment, but twice, with different instructions. The targets were estimated based on the instruction mentioning the set from which the target presumably was taken. Nevertheless, imagery did not aid the process. When the observers were asked to keep imagining the gray shade they were previously observing, the lightness estimation depended exclusively on the factors presented in the visual scene. However, memory overpowers viewing condition. In the last experiment, observers were shown the same object in two illuminations simultaneously but were asked to estimate lightness when the object was removed from view. The value of this match-from-memory was in between the values for the two illumination levels.

  5. Cognitive function in peripheral autonomic disorders.

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    Pietro Guaraldi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: aims of the current study were 1 to evaluate global cognitive function in patients with autonomic failure (AF of peripheral origin and 2 to investigate the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure (BP fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH on cognitive performances. METHODS: we assessed 12 consecutive patients (10 males, 68±7 years old with pure AF (PAF or autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients had no clinical signs of central nervous system involvement and normal brain CT/MRI scan. Cognitive function was assessed on two consecutive days in 3 conditions: on day 1, while sitting, by means of a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests; on day 2, while tilted (HUT and during supine rest (supine in a randomized manner. BP and heart rate (HR were continuously recorded non-invasively for the whole duration of the examination. RESULTS: patients with PAF or AAN displayed a preserved global cognitive function while sitting. However, compared to supine assessment, during HUT patients scored significantly worse during the Trail Making Test A and B, Barrage test, Analogies test, Immediate Visual Memory, Span Forward and Span Backward test. Pathological scores, with regard to Italian normative range values, were observed only during HUT in the Barrage test and in the Analogies test in 3 and 6 patients respectively. On the contrary, in healthy controls, results to neuropsychological tests were not significantly different, during HUT compared to supine rest. CONCLUSIONS: these data demonstrate that patients with PAF and AAN present a normal sitting global cognitive evaluation. However, their executive functions worsen significantly during the orthostatic challenge, possibly because of transient frontal lobes hypoperfusion.

  6. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with

  7. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  8. Cognition, functionality and depression indicative among elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Andaki Nunes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly according to cognitive status, and, to associate the cognitive decline with functional disability and depression indicative among the elderly. Methods: this is a quantitative, retrospective and observational study with 92 elderly. The used instruments were: Mini Examination of Mental State; Katz Index; Lawton and Brody Scale and Abbreviated Geriatric Depression Scale. Statistical analysis and chi-square test (p<0.05 were used. Results: elderly with a cognitive decline for females were predominant, 80 years and older, widowed and living with children, with one to three years of study, individual income up to a minimum wage. The proportion of elderly with a dependent cognitive decline in basic activities of daily living (p=0.043 and instrumental activities of daily living (p=0.008 was higher than independent. There were no significant differences in the depression indicative (p=0.437. Conclusion: the proportion of dependent elderly was higher in those with cognitive decline.

  9. Cognitive function in patients with chronic pain treated with opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; de Mattos Pimenta, C A; Braga, P E

    2012-01-01

    The paucity of studies regarding cognitive function in patients with chronic pain, and growing evidence regarding the cognitive effects of pain and opioids on cognitive function prompted us to assess cognition via neuropsychological measurement in patients with chronic non-cancer pain treated...

  10. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  11. Does human cognition allow Human Factors (HF) certification of advanced aircrew systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Iain S.; Taylor, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper has examined the requirements of HF specification and certification within advanced or complex aircrew systems. It suggests reasons for current inadequacies in the use of HF in the design process, giving some examples in support, and suggesting an avenue towards the improvement of the HF certification process. The importance of human cognition to the operation and performance of advanced aircrew systems has been stressed. Many of the shortfalls of advanced aircrew systems must be attributed to over automated designs that show little consideration on either the mental limits or the cognitive capabilities of the human system component. Traditional approaches to system design and HF certification are set within an over physicalistic foundation. Also, traditionally it was assumed that physicalistic system functions could be attributed to either the human or the machine on a one to one basis. Moreover, any problems associated with the parallel needs, or promoting human understanding alongside system operation and direction, were generally equated in reality by the natural flexibility and adaptability of human skills. The consideration of the human component of a complex system is seen as being primarily based on manifestations of human behavior to the almost total exclusion of any appreciation of unobservable human mental and cognitive processes. The argument of this paper is that the considered functionality of any complex human-machine system must contain functions that are purely human and purely cognitive. Human-machine system reliability ultimately depends on human reliability and dependability and, therefore, on the form and frequency of cognitive processes that have to be conducted to support system performance. The greater the demand placed by an advanced aircraft system on the human component's basic knowledge processes or cognition, rather than on skill, the more insiduous the effects the human may have on that system. This paper discusses one

  12. Computational model of sustained acceleration effects on human cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlly, Richard A; Gallimore, Jennie J

    2013-08-01

    Extreme acceleration maneuvers encountered in modern agile fighter aircraft can wreak havoc on human physiology, thereby significantly influencing cognitive task performance. As oxygen content declines under acceleration stress, the activity of high order cortical tissue reduces to ensure sufficient metabolic resources are available for critical life-sustaining autonomic functions. Consequently, cognitive abilities reliant on these affected areas suffer significant performance degradations. The goal was to develop and validate a model capable of predicting human cognitive performance under acceleration stress. Development began with creation of a proportional control cardiovascular model that produced predictions of several hemodynamic parameters, including eye-level blood pressure and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSo2). An algorithm was derived to relate changes in rSo2 within specific brain structures to performance on cognitive tasks that require engagement of different brain areas. Data from the "precision timing" experiment were then used to validate the model predicting cognitive performance as a function of G(z) profile. The following are value ranges. Results showed high agreement between the measured and predicted values for the rSo2 (correlation coefficient: 0.7483-0.8687; linear best-fit slope: 0.5760-0.9484; mean percent error: 0.75-3.33) and cognitive performance models (motion inference task--correlation coefficient: 0.7103-0.9451; linear best-fit slope: 0.7416-0.9144; mean percent error: 6.35-38.21; precision timing task--correlation coefficient: 0.6856-0.9726; linear best-fit slope: 0.5795-1.027; mean percent error: 6.30-17.28). The evidence suggests that the model is capable of accurately predicting cognitive performance of simplistic tasks under high acceleration stress.

  13. From ear to uncertainty: Vestibular contributions to cognitive function.

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    Paul eSmith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and cortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarise the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, can modulate cognitive function.

  14. Cognitive and Psychological Functioning in Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Tchan, Michel C.; Knopman, Alex A.; Menzies, Graham C.; Batchelor, Jennifer; Sillence, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which can result in renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients are at increased risk of stroke and neuroimaging studies note cerebrovascular pathology. This study provides a cognitive profile of a cohort of individuals with Fabry disease and investigates the impact of pain, age, renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular functioning on cognition and psychological functioning. Seventeen Fabry patients (12 males) with ages ranging 25 to 60 years (M = 46.6+11.8), and 15 age-matched healthy controls (M = 46.2+12.7) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Fabry males demonstrated slower speed of information processing, reduced performance on measures of executive functions (verbal generation, reasoning, problem solving, perseveration), were more likely to show clinically significant reductions, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Fabry females performed at a similar level to controls. Correlational analyses indicated a link between cognitive and clinical measures of disease severity. PMID:25319043

  15. Apathy, cognitive function and motor function in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma S. Soleman Hernandez

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study were to characterize the presence of apathy in patients with AD, determine the relationship between apathy, motor function and cognitive function, and to verify differences among patients stratified by level of apathy in relation to cognitive and motor abilities. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 37 patients with AD. The following tests were used: MoCA, the Frontal Assessment Battery, Verbal Fluency, Clock Drawing Test, Andreotti & Okuma Battery Tests, Sit and Reach, Resistance of Upper Limbs - AAHPERD Battery Test, Sit and Lift Chair and the Apathy domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. After verifying the normality of the data distribution, comparisons were made using Student's t-test and the U Mann Whitney test; relationships were also assessed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. All analyses were considered to be statistically significant at a p-value of 0.05. Results: 46% of participants in this study showed mild symptoms of apathy. Significant and weak associations were found (p=0.04 between apathy and the attention domain on the MoCA and between apathy and the Walk Test. Analysis of differences in cognitive and motor functions according to participants' level of apathy revealed no significant differences for any of the variables. Conclusion: Apathy was reflected in attention and the Walk Test, suggesting these variables may be related to cognitive and functional decline in AD patients.

  16. Exploring the functional role of the CHRM2 gene in human cognition: results from a dense genotyping and brain expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Geus Eco JC

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CHRM2 gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q31-35, is involved in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and feedback regulation of acetylcholine release, and has been implicated in higher cognitive processing. The aim of this study is the identification of functional (noncoding variants underlying cognitive phenotypic variation. Methods We previously reported an association between polymorphisms in the 5'UTR regions of the CHRM2 gene and intelligence.. However, no functional variants within this area have currently been identified. In order to identify the relevant functional variant(s, we conducted a denser coverage of SNPs, using two independent Dutch cohorts, consisting of a children's sample (N = 371 ss; mean age 12.4 and an adult sample (N= 391 ss; mean age 37.6. For all individuals standardized intelligence measures were available. Subsequently, we investigated genotype-dependent CHRM2 gene expression levels in the brain, to explore putative enhancer/inhibition activity exerted by variants within the muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor. Results Using a test of within-family association two of the previously reported variants – rs2061174, and rs324650 – were again strongly associated with intelligence (P Conclusion Using a denser coverage of SNPs in the CHRM2 gene, we confirmed the 5'UTR regions to be most interesting in the context of intelligence, and ruled out other regions of this gene. Although no correlation between genomic variants and gene expression was found, it would be interesting to examine allele-specific effects on CHRM2 transcripts expression in much more detail, for example in relation to transcripts specific halve-life and their relation to LTP and memory.

  17. Impact of preeclampsia on cognitive function in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätsep, Matthew T; Hickman, Andrew F; Maser, Brandon; Pudwell, Jessica; Smith, Graeme N; Brien, Donald; Stroman, Patrick W; Adams, Michael A; Reynolds, James N; Croy, B Anne; Paolozza, Angelina

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a significant clinical disorder occurring in 3-5% of all human pregnancies. Offspring of PE pregnancies (PE-F1s) are reported to exhibit greater cognitive impairment than offspring from uncomplicated pregnancies. Previous studies of PE-F1 cognitive ability used tests with bias that do not assess specific cognitive domains. To improve cognitive impairment classification in PE-F1s we used standardized clinical psychometric testing and eye tracking studies of saccadic eye movements. PE-F1s (n=10) and sex/age matched control participants (n=41 for psychometrics; n=59 for eye-tracking) were recruited from the PE-NET study or extracted from the NeuroDevNet study databases. Participants completed a selected array of psychometric tests which assessed executive function, working memory, attention, inhibition, visuospatial processing, reading, and math skills. Eye-tracking studies included the prosaccade, antisaccade, and memory-guided tasks. Psychometric testing revealed an impairment in working memory among PE-F1s. Eye-tracking studies revealed numerous impairments among PE-F1s including additional saccades required to reach the target, poor endpoint accuracy, and slower reaction time. However, PE-F1s made faster saccades than controls, and fewer sequence errors in the memory-guided task. Our study provides a comprehensive assessment of cognitive function among PE-F1s. The development of PE may be seen as an early predictor of reduced cognitive function in children, specifically in working memory and oculomotor control. Future studies should extended to a larger study populations, and may be valuable for early studies of children born to pregnancies complicated by other disorders, such as gestational diabetes or intrauterine growth restriction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social isolation and cognitive function in Appalachian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest

    2014-03-01

    Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.

  19. Human nervous system function emulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a modular, extensible, open-systems design for a multiprocessor network which emulates the major functions of the human nervous system. Interchangeable hardware/software components, a socketed software bus with plug-and-play capability and self diagnostics are included. The computer hardware is based on IEEE P996.1 bus cards. Its operating system utilizes IEEE 1275 standard software. Object oriented design techniques and programming are featured. A machine-independent high level script-based command language was created for this project. Neural anatomical structures which were emulated include the cortex, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems. Motor, sensory, autoregulatory, and higher cognitive artificial intelligence, behavioral and emotional functions are provided. The author discusses how he has interfaced this emulator to machine vision, speech recognition/speech synthesis, an artificial neural network and a dexterous hand to form an android robotic platform.

  20. Human Behavior Cognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kaistinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on sensing context, modeling human behavior and developing a new architecture for a cognitive phone platform. We combine the latest positioning technologies and phone sensors to capture human movements in natural environments and use the movements to study human behavior. Contexts in this research are abstracted as a Context Pyramid which includes six levels: Raw Sensor Data, Physical Parameter, Features/Patterns, Simple Contextual Descriptors, Activity-Level Descriptors, and Rich Context. To achieve implementation of the Context Pyramid on a cognitive phone, three key technologies are utilized: ubiquitous positioning, motion recognition, and human behavior modeling. Preliminary tests indicate that we have successfully achieved the Activity-Level Descriptors level with our LoMoCo (Location-Motion-Context model. Location accuracy of the proposed solution is up to 1.9 meters in corridor environments and 3.5 meters in open spaces. Test results also indicate that the motion states are recognized with an accuracy rate up to 92.9% using a Least Square-Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM classifier.

  1. Holistic Linguistics: Anthropocentric Foundations and the Functional-Cognitive Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyurkan (Belichenko Elena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper dwells on some aspects of language, grammar in particular, through the prism of the functional-cognitive approach. It covers such issues as language and mind, the embodiment of language, the peculiarities of language acquisition, and the metaphoric nature of the human mind. The functional-cognitive approach is regarded as part of a holistic anthropocentric paradigm where language is conceived of as a natural biological phenomenon connected with the adaptive functions of a human being as a holistic living organism. A new paradigm gives rise to new epistemologies and generates new forms of scientific collaboration. Thus, neurosciences, quantum physics, and biology become involved in processing language data, influencing the direction and goals of linguistic research. As suggested by the author of this paper, changes in language can be viewed with regard to quantum effects observed in the macroworld, or an autopoietic reconstruction of the language system. Dwelling on the ideas of cognitive typology, the paper also makes an attempt to elucidate some reasons for the appearance of new structural features in language which influence the reconstruction of its grammatical interface in the first place. Such processes are viewed as the reflection of global shifts in the linguistic world image of language bearers under the influence of the outer world/extralinguistic factors, and as connected with encoding by language of the changes in socio-discursive parameters of the intercourse. Finally, some perspectives of grammar analysis are outlined

  2. Avian Models for Human Cognitive Neuroscience: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J

    2015-06-17

    Research on avian cognitive neuroscience over the past two decades has revealed the avian brain to be a better model for understanding human cognition than previously thought, despite differences in the neuroarchitecture of avian and mammalian brains. The brain, behavior, and cognition of songbirds have provided an excellent model of human cognition in one domain, namely learning human language and the production of speech. There are other important behavioral candidates of avian cognition, however, notably the capacity of corvids to remember the past and plan for the future, as well as their ability to think about another's perspective, and physical reasoning. We review this work and assess the evidence that the corvid brain can support such a cognitive architecture. We propose potential applications of these behavioral paradigms for cognitive neuroscience, including recent work on single-cell recordings and neuroimaging in corvids. Finally, we discuss their impact on understanding human developmental cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognition beyond the brain computation, interactivity and human artifice

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Arguing that a collective dimension has given cognitive flexibility to human intelligence, this book shows that traditional cognitive psychology underplays the role of bodies, dialogue, diagrams, tools, talk, customs, habits, computers and cultural practices.

  4. How older people nurses assess cognitive function through daily observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Cruijsen, M. Van der; Schlattmann, N.; Simmes, F.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To obtain knowledge and insight into how older people nurses observe the cognitive function of their patients. BACKGROUND: In cases of cognitive decline not due to delirium, the daily observation of cognitive function by nurses has not been standardised in hospital wards specialised in the care

  5. Neuroethical considerations: cognitive liberty and converging technologies for improving human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sententia, Wrye

    2004-05-01

    Developers of NBIC (Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno) technologies face a multitude of obstacles, not the least of which is navigating the public ethics of their applied research. Biotechnologies have received widespread media attention and spawned heated interest in their perceived social implications. Now, in view of the rapidly expanding purview of neuroscience and the growing array of technologic developments capable of affecting or monitoring cognition, the emerging field of neuroethics calls for a consideration of the social and ethical implications of neuroscientific discoveries and trends. To negotiate the complex ethical issues at stake in new and emerging kinds of technologies for improving human cognition, we need to overcome political, disciplinary, and religious sectarianism. We need analytical models that protect values of personhood at the heart of a functional democracy-values that allow, as much as possible, for individual decision-making, despite transformations in our understanding and ability to manipulate cognitive processes. Addressing cognitive enhancement from the legal and ethical notion of "cognitive liberty" provides a powerful tool for assessing and encouraging NBIC developments.

  6. Cognitive function following stroke and vascular cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Edward H.; Nys, Gudrun M.; Van Zandvoort, Martine J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of review This review of the cognitive status following stroke and vascular cognitive impairment starts by questioning the concept of vascular dementia and related concepts. Our position is that in many cases these labels promote a superficial conceptualization of an inherently complex and h

  7. Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Chanuk; Yong, Mi-hyun; Chung, Jaeyeop; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCo...

  8. Cognitive activity, cognitive function, and brain diffusion characteristics in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Wilson, Robert S; Barth, Christopher M; Capuano, Ana W; Vasireddi, Anil; Zhang, Shengwei; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work was to test the hypotheses that a) more frequent cognitive activity in late life is associated with higher brain diffusion anisotropy and lower trace of the diffusion tensor, and b) brain diffusion characteristics partially mediate the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, 379 older people without dementia rated their frequency of participation in cognitive activities, completed a battery of cognitive function tests, and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to test the association between late life cognitive activity and brain diffusion characteristics. Clusters with statistically significant findings defined regions of interest in which we tested the hypothesis that diffusion characteristics partially mediate the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition. More frequent cognitive activity in late life was associated with higher level of global cognition after adjustment for age, sex, education, and indicators of early life cognitive enrichment (p = 0.001). More frequent cognitive activity was also related to higher fractional anisotropy in the left superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, left fornix, and corpus callosum, and lower trace in the thalamus (p cognitive activity with cognition was reduced by as much as 26 %. These findings suggest that the association of late life cognitive activity with cognition may be partially mediated by brain diffusion characteristics.

  9. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  10. Comparative Developmental Psychology: How is Human Cognitive Development Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Victoria Wobber; Kelly Hughes; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In th...

  11. Enhancing cognitive functioning in the elderly: multicomponent vs resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forte R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Forte,1,2 Colin AG Boreham,1 Joao Costa Leite,3 Giuseppe De Vito,1 Lorraine Brennan,3 Eileen R Gibney,3 Caterina Pesce21Institute for Sport and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Human Movement and Sport Science, University of Rome "Foro Italico," Rome, Italy; 3Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandPurpose: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains.Methods: A sample of 42 healthy community dwelling adults aged 65 to 75 years participated twice weekly for 3 months in either: (1 multicomponent training, prioritizing neuromuscular coordination, balance, agility, and cognitive executive control; or (2 progressive resistance training for strength conditioning. Participants were tested at baseline (T1, following a 4-week control period (T2, and finally at postintervention (T3 for executive function (inhibition and cognitive flexibility and functional mobility (maximal walking speed with and without additional task requirements. Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were also assessed as potential mediators.Results: Indices of inhibition, the functions involved in the deliberate withholding of prepotent or automatic responses, and measures of functional mobility improved after the intervention, independent of training type. Mediation analysis suggested that different mechanisms underlie the effects of multicomponent and progressive resistance training. While multicomponent training seemed to directly affect inhibitory capacity, resistance training seemed to affect it indirectly through gains in muscular strength. Physical fitness and executive function variables did not

  12. Motor system evolution and the emergence of high cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Germán; Merchant, Hugo

    2014-11-01

    In human and nonhuman primates, the cortical motor system comprises a collection of brain areas primarily related to motor control. Existing evidence suggests that no other mammalian group has the number, extension, and complexity of motor-related areas observed in the frontal lobe of primates. Such diversity is probably related to the wide behavioral flexibility that primates display. Indeed, recent comparative anatomical, psychophysical, and neurophysiological studies suggest that the evolution of the motor cortical areas closely correlates with the emergence of high cognitive abilities. Advances in understanding the cortical motor system have shown that these areas are also related to functions previously linked to higher-order associative areas. In addition, experimental observations have shown that the classical distinction between perceptual and motor functions is not strictly followed across cortical areas. In this paper, we review evidence suggesting that evolution of the motor system had a role in the shaping of different cognitive functions in primates. We argue that the increase in the complexity of the motor system has contributed to the emergence of new abilities observed in human and nonhuman primates, including the recognition and imitation of the actions of others, speech perception and production, and the execution and appreciation of the rhythmic structure of music. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  14. Cognitive deficits and social functioning in schizophrenia : A clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Bouma, A; van Zomeren, Ed H.; Withaar, Frederiec; Arends, J; van den Bosch, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Impaired social functioning is one of the diagnostic features of schizophrenia. Cognitive functioning is also often impaired in several domains. Meta-analysis has shown a predictive value of cognition for a variety of domains related to social functioning (Green, Kern, Braff, & Mintz, 2000). The sig

  15. 2. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Cognitive Functioning in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    2Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. ABSTRACT ... Key words: Moderate alcohol consumption, Cognitive functioning, Zambia. ... neuropsychological test performance . ... Nine trained graduate students tested the 324.

  16. Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José

    2013-10-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency.

  17. Age Trajectory of High Cognitive Functioning Among the Oldest Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    individual differences. This decline of cognitive functioning at an individual level may suggest that cognitive function at a population level decreases with age. However, in the Danish 1905 cohort, the age trajectory of both average and high cognitive functioning is constant at a population level from......The chance of reaching age 90 years has increased markedly over the last 50 years, and this chance will probably continue to increase with successive cohorts. There is a widespread concern that a large fraction of the future oldest old will be cognitively impaired. However, there is strong evidence...... that later born cohorts may have better late-life cognitive function than earlier born cohorts as studies have shown a decline both in the prevalence and in the incidence of dementia. Cognitive functioning generally declines after the age of 40 years at an individual level, but there are substantial...

  18. Vitamin C Status and Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travica, Nikolaj; Ried, Karin; Sali, Avni; Scholey, Andrew; Hudson, Irene; Pipingas, Andrew

    2017-08-30

    Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library from 1980 to January 2017, finding 50 studies, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs, n = 5), prospective (n = 24), cross-sectional (n = 17) and case-control (n = 4) studies. Of these, 36 studies were conducted in healthy participants and 14 on cognitively impaired individuals (including Alzheimer's and dementia). Vitamin C status was measured using food frequency questionnaires or plasma vitamin C. Cognition was assessed using a variety of tests, mostly the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE). In summary, studies demonstrated higher mean vitamin C concentrations in the cognitively intact groups of participants compared to cognitively impaired groups. No correlation between vitamin C concentrations and MMSE cognitive function was apparent in the cognitively impaired individuals. The MMSE was not suitable to detect a variance in cognition in the healthy group. Analysis of the studies that used a variety of cognitive assessments in the cognitively intact was beyond the scope of this review; however, qualitative assessment revealed a potential association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and cognition. Due to a number of limitations in these studies, further research is needed, utilizing plasma vitamin C concentrations and sensitive cognitive assessments that are suitable for cognitively intact adults.

  19. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions.

  20. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murer Kurt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function in Midlife: Neuroprotection or Neuroselection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Israel, Salomon; Blumenthal, James A.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if better cognitive functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals reflects “neuroprotection,” in which fitness protects against age-related cognitive decline, or “neuroselection,” in which children with higher cognitive functioning select into more active lifestyles. Methods Children in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1,037) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Trail-Making, Rey-Delayed-Recall, and Grooved-Pegboard tasks as children and again at midlife (age-38). Adult cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a submaximal exercise test to estimate maximum-oxygen-consumption-adjusted-for-body-weight in milliliters/minute/kilogram (VO2max). We tested if more-fit individuals had better cognitive functioning than their less-fit counterparts (which could be consistent with neuroprotection), and if better childhood cognitive functioning predisposed to better adult cardiorespiratory fitness (neuroselection). Finally, we examined possible mechanisms of neuroselection. Results Participants with better cardiorespiratory fitness had higher cognitive test scores at midlife. However, fitness-associated advantages in cognitive functioning were present already in childhood. After accounting for childhood-baseline performance on the same cognitive tests, there was no association between cardiorespiratory fitness and midlife cognitive functioning. Socioeconomic and health advantages in childhood, and healthier lifestyles during young adulthood explained most of the association between childhood cognitive functioning and adult cardiorespiratory fitness. Interpretation We found no evidence for a neuroprotective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness as of midlife. Instead, children with better cognitive functioning are selecting into healthier lives. Fitness interventions may enhance cognitive functioning. But, observational and experimental studies testing neuroprotective effects of physical fitness should consider

  2. Sleep Apnea and Cognitive Function in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysten M. Knecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior research indicates that heart failure (HF patients exhibit significant cognitive deficits on neuropsychological testing. Sleep apnea is associated with both HF and reduced cognitive function, but the combined impact of these conditions on cognitive function is unknown. Methods. In the current study, 172 older adults with a dual diagnosis of HF and sleep apnea or HF alone completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring attention, executive functioning, and memory. Results. Relative to patients with HF alone, persons with both HF and sleep apnea performed worse on measures of attention after adjusting for demographic and medical variables. Conclusions. The current findings suggest that HF patients with comorbid sleep apnea may be at greater risk for cognitive impairment relative to HF patient without such history. Further work is needed to clarify mechanisms for these findings and to determine whether the interactive effects on cognitive function lead to poorer patient outcomes.

  3. Molecular networks and the evolution of human cognitive specializations

    OpenAIRE

    Fontenot, Miles; Konopka, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Inroads into elucidating the origins of human cognitive specializations have taken many forms, including genetic, genomic, anatomical, and behavioral assays that typically compare humans to non-human primates. While the integration of all of these approaches is essential for ultimately understanding human cognition, here, we review the usefulness of coexpression network analysis for specifically addressing this question. An increasing number of studies have incorporated coexpression networks ...

  4. Polyphenols found in berry fruit improve age-associated changes in cognitive function and brain inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that cognitive functioning decreases with age, to include deficits in processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. The cause of these functional declines is not entirely understood; however, neuronal losses and the associat...

  5. The relationship between anthocyanins found in berry fruit, inflammation, and cognitive function in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research in both human and animals has demonstrated that cognitive function decreases with age, to include deficits in processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. These functional declines may be caused by long-term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and infl...

  6. Cognitive Function, Origin, and Evolution of Musical Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive function of music, its origin, and evolution has been a mystery until recently. Here we discuss a theory of a fundamental function of music in cognition and culture. Music evolved in parallel with language. The evolution of language toward a semantically powerful tool required freeing from uncontrolled emotions. Knowledge evolved fast along with language. This created cognitive dissonances, contradictions among knowledge and instincts, which differentiated consciousness. To sustain ...

  7. Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-09-01

    Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60-64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p=.002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of human cognitive performance using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2014-01-15

    Here we review the usefulness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in modulating cortical networks in ways that might produce performance enhancements in healthy human subjects. To date over sixty studies have reported significant improvements in speed and accuracy in a variety of tasks involving perceptual, motor, and executive processing. Two basic categories of enhancement mechanisms are suggested by this literature: direct modulation of a cortical region or network that leads to more efficient processing, and addition-by-subtraction, which is disruption of processing which competes or distracts from task performance. Potential applications of TMS cognitive enhancement, including research into cortical function, rehabilitation therapy in neurological and psychiatric illness, and accelerated skill acquisition in healthy individuals are discussed, as are methods of optimizing the magnitude and duration of TMS-induced performance enhancement, such as improvement of targeting through further integration of brain imaging with TMS. One technique, combining multiple sessions of TMS with concurrent TMS/task performance to induce Hebbian-like learning, appears to be promising for prolonging enhancement effects. While further refinements in the application of TMS to cognitive enhancement can still be made, and questions remain regarding the mechanisms underlying the observed effects, this appears to be a fruitful area of investigation that may shed light on the basic mechanisms of cognitive function and their therapeutic modulation.

  9. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keypour, Maryam; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member. METHODS: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0). RESULTS: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers’ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention). CONCLUSIONS: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22091302

  10. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Keypour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member. Methods: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report, General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28 and Family Assessment Device (FAD, conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0. Results: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40% and conduct problem (33.3%. There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers′ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention. Conclusions: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  12. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H. J. J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity, f

  13. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H. J. J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity,

  14. Neuro-cognition and social cognition elements of social functioning and social quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Arnon-Ribenfeld, Nitzan; Kravetz, Shlomo; Roe, David

    2017-09-06

    Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. Results showed that emotion recognition and attributional bias were significant mediators such that cognitive assessment was positively related to both, which in turn, were negatively related to SQoL. While one interpretation of the data suggests that deficits in emotion recognition may serve as a possible defense mechanism, future studies should re-assess this idea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  16. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  17. Longitudinal mixed-effects models for latent cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, van den Ardo; Fox, Jean-Paul; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects regression model with a bent-cable change-point predictor is formulated to describe potential decline of cognitive function over time in the older population. For the individual trajectories, cognitive function is considered to be a latent variable measured through an item response t

  18. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  19. THE IMPACT OF ANXIETY UPON COGNITION: PERSPECTIVES FROM HUMAN THREAT OF SHOCK STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Joe Robinson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders constitute a sizeable worldwide health burden with profound social and economic consequences. The symptoms are wide-ranging; from hyperarousal to difficulties with concentrating. This latter effect falls under the broad category of altered cognitive performance; in this review we examine studies quantifying such impacts of anxiety on cognition. Specifically, we focus on the translational threat of unpredictable shock paradigm, a method previously used to characterize emotional responses and defensive mechanisms that is now emerging as valuable tool for examining the interaction between anxiety and cognition. In particular, we compare the impact of threat of shock on cognition in humans to that of pathological anxiety disorders. We highlight that both threat of shock and anxiety disorders promote mechanisms associated with harm avoidance across multiple levels of cognition (from perception to attention to learning and executive function – a ‘hot’ cognitive function which can be both adaptive and maladaptive depending upon the circumstances. This mechanism comes at a cost to other functions such as working memory, but leaves some functions, such as planning, unperturbed. We also highlight a number of cognitive effects that differ across anxiety disorders and threat of shock. These discrepant effects are largely seen in ‘cold’ cognitive functions involving control mechanisms and may reveal boundaries between adaptive (e.g. response to threat and maladaptive (e.g. pathological anxiety. We conclude by raising a number of unresolved questions regarding the role of anxiety in cognition that may provide fruitful avenues for future research.

  20. Association between myasthenia gravis and cognitive function: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of myasthenia gravis (MG is complicated by increased reports of cognitive defects in both human and animal models, which suggests potential central nervous system (CNS damage. We conducted a systematic review of the relationships between MG and cognitive function. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Major databases were searched to examine the neuropsychological studies of adults with MG. Weighted effect sizes were pooled by cognitive domain. Eight studies representing 300 subjects were included. Eight cognitive domain categories were identified: (i Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, (ii language, (iii processing speed, (iv verbal learning and memory, (v visual learning and memory, (vi attention span, (vii response fluency, and (viii motor performance. Nine (cognitive domain categories, MMSE, language, processing speed, verbal learning and memory (except for delayed recall memory, and motor performance of 16 cognitive tasks revealed significant moderate effect sizes. Verbal logical-delayed memory, finger tapping with the preferred hand, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test showed a greater magnitude relationship to cognitive function than did other specific cognitive domains. Verbal learning and memory seems to be the most significant affected according to cognitive domain categories. For MG, the ability of attention, response fluency, visual learning, and memory seems to be reserved. The MG patients seem to perform significantly worse than the non-MG controls in a range of cognitive domains. Our findings should be interpreted with caution because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies.

  1. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Michał; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning a Foreign Language: A New Path to Enhancement of Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi Javan, Sara; Ghonsooly, Behzad

    2017-08-30

    The complicated cognitive processes involved in natural (primary) bilingualism lead to significant cognitive development. Executive functions as a fundamental component of human cognition are deemed to be affected by language learning. To date, a large number of studies have investigated how natural (primary) bilingualism influences executive functions; however, the way acquired (secondary) bilingualism manipulates executive functions is poorly understood. To fill this gap, controlling for age, gender, IQ, and socio-economic status, the researchers compared 60 advanced learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to 60 beginners on measures of executive functions involving Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Wechsler's digit span tasks. The results suggested that mastering English as a foreign language causes considerable enhancement in two components of executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility and working memory. However, no significant difference was observed in inhibitory control between the advanced EFL learners and beginners.

  3. Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Larry.Moore.ctr2@wpafb.af.mil) L3 Communications 5950 East Sossaman Road, Suite 102, Mesa , AZ 85212 USA Abstract The last 2 decades have...activity and cognitive processing. The debate surrounding the role and utility of neuropsychological data in understanding human cognition has been

  4. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  5. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  6. Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Counterfactual Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eVan Hoeck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame. Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease.

  7. Neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosune Torio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A relationship has been found between cognition and functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Our objective was to study the relationship between the cognitive domains assessed by the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB, and functioning as evaluated using the functioning subscale of the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF-f. Methods: A sample of 83 clinically stable outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria were assessed using the MCCB and the GAF-f. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression analyses were performed. Results: Correlation analysis between the GAF-f and the cognitive domains of the MCCB showed a significant relationship between functioning and all of the cognitive domains. Regression yielded a statistically significant model (F2,74 = 20.4, p < 0.001 in which functioning was related to Speed of processing (standardized β = 0.369, p = 0.001 and to Social cognition (standardized β = 0.325, p = 0.003. Together, these two variables explained 33.8% of the variance of functioning. Conclusions: Both speed of processing and social cognition have an important association with functioning in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Gene by neuroticism interaction and cognitive function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Chapman, Benjamin P; Robbins, John A; Porsteinsson, Anton; Mapstone, Mark; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-11-01

    Both apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε-4 allele(s) and elevated trait neuroticism, the tendency to experience distress, are associated with cognitive function among older adults. We predicted that neuroticism moderates the association between ApoE and cognitive function and also explored whether other personality dimensions (openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness) affect the association between ApoE status and cognitive function. Five-hundred and ninety-seven older adults (mean age of 78 years) enrolled in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory study completed the NEO five-factor inventory of personality. Cognitive function was assessed via the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, and a blood sample for ApoE genotyping was drawn. As hypothesized, regression analysis indicated that neuroticism moderated the relationship between the presence of ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Individuals with high neuroticism scores had significantly lower scores on the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale compared with individuals with low neuroticism scores, but this was true only among carriers of ApoE ε-4 (interaction effect β = 0.124, p = 0.028). There was scant evidence that other personality dimensions moderate the association between ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Cognitive function may be affected by ApoE and neuroticism acting in tandem. Research on the underlying physiological mechanisms by which neuroticism amplifies the effect of ApoE ε-4 is warranted. The study of genotype by phenotype interactions provides an important and useful direction for the study of cognitive function among older adults and for the development of novel prevention programs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Diffusion changes predict cognitive and functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ropele, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) predict longitudinal cognitive decline and disability in older individuals independently of the concomitant magnetic...

  10. Characterizing healthy samples for studies of human cognitive aging

    OpenAIRE

    Geldmacher, David S.; Levin, Bonnie E.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the cognitive declines associated with aging, and differentiating them from the effects of disease in older adults, are important goals for human neuroscience researchers. This is also an issue of public health urgency in countries with rapidly aging populations. Progress toward understanding cognitive aging is complicated by numerous factors. Researchers interested in cognitive changes in healthy older adults need to consider these complexities when they design and interpre...

  11. Cognitive function in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne Maria; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department and a terti......OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department...

  12. [Comparison of Work Ability Index and cognitive function tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideki; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Kusanoi, Kayo; Shazuki, Shuichiro; Fuji, Atsunaru; Eto, Risa

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging with regard to scores for certain cognitive function tests and WAI (Work Ability Index), and to examine the relationship between cognitive function test scores and work ability as measured by WAI. The subjects were 139 male employees of a factory producing steel plate, and their average age was 48.1 yr (SD 16.4). The WAI and cognitive function tests were conducted and valid scores were obtained from 134 subjects as to WAI, and from 88 subjects as to cognitive function tests. The subjects were divided into two groups: young workers (under 45 yr) and middle-aged to elderly workers (45 yr and over). The WAI scores of the two groups were compared, but no significant differences were observed. Nevertheless, for two WAI items, WAI-2 and WAI-7, the scores of the middle-aged to elderly worker group were significantly higher than those of the young worker group. In contrast, the scores for WAI-3 of the middle-aged to elderly group were significantly lower than those of the young worker group. The cognitive function test scores for the two groups were also compared. The scores for Working Memory test, Tracking test, and Sentence-to-sentence Comparison test of the middle-aged to elderly worker group were significantly lower than those of the younger group. Moreover, for the middle-aged to elderly worker group, the average WAI-3 scores for those with good cognitive function test results and those with poor cognitive function test results were compared, but there were no significant differences. This result shows that deterioration of physical function caused by aging is not related to deterioration of cognitive function caused by aging in the subjects of this study. The reason for this may be that the subjects are blue-collar workers, and thus cognitive functions are less important for their work.

  13. Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, A; von Ehren, M; Skottheim, B; Grönbladh, A; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Raininko, R; Gordh, T; Nyberg, F

    2014-07-01

    During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported.

  14. Cooperation and human cognition: the Vygotskian intelligence hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Henrike; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-04-29

    Nicholas Humphrey's social intelligence hypothesis proposed that the major engine of primate cognitive evolution was social competition. Lev Vygotsky also emphasized the social dimension of intelligence, but he focused on human primates and cultural things such as collaboration, communication and teaching. A reasonable proposal is that primate cognition in general was driven mainly by social competition, but beyond that the unique aspects of human cognition were driven by, or even constituted by, social cooperation. In the present paper, we provide evidence for this Vygotskian intelligence hypothesis by comparing the social-cognitive skills of great apes with those of young human children in several domains of activity involving cooperation and communication with others. We argue, finally, that regular participation in cooperative, cultural interactions during ontogeny leads children to construct uniquely powerful forms of perspectival cognitive representation.

  15. Schooling, educational achievement, and cognitive functioning among young Guatemalan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R; DiGirolamo, Ann; Grajeda, Rubén; Martorell, Reynaldo; Quisumbing, Agnes; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2005-06-01

    Quantity and quality of schooling obtained and the resulting skills and knowledge acquired are important components of human capital. We describe the distribution of selected measures of schooling, educational achievement, and cognitive functioning among individuals who participated as children in a nutrition supplementation trial in Guatemala and were followed up in 2002-04. Among 1,469 respondents (response rate 80%), who were 26-41 years of age in 2003, more than 90% of men and women had attended at least some school; more than half of men and more than one-third of women had completed sixth grade. Schooling attainment of both men and women has increased across birth cohorts but the schooling gap between men and women has increased. Parental socioeconomic status, as measured in 1975, is a strong predictor of schooling attainment. Basic literacy is high among those studied, with more than 80% able to read simple sentences. The gap in educational achievement favoring men narrowed across birth cohorts due to increases among younger women. The greater performance among men on the Raven's Progressive Matrices test persisted despite increased scores in the younger birth cohorts for both men and women. Migrants to Guatemala City have completed more years of school and scored higher on the tests of educational achievement and cognitive functioning than have cohort members who have remained in the study villages.

  16. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  17. Cultural Change, Human Activity, and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Munroe, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cognitive performance across cultural contexts has been a standard result in comparative research. Here we discuss how societal changes occurring when a small-scale traditional community incorporates elements from industrialized society may contribute to cognitive development, and we illustrate this with an analysis of the cognitive…

  18. Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and…

  19. Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and…

  20. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  1. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  2. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  3. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  4. Standing worsens cognitive functions in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, R; Guaraldi, P; Solieri, L; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Marano, G; Gallassi, R; Cortelli, P

    2012-04-01

    In previous studies, addressing the association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive decline, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation in sitting position, and blood pressure values and cognition were not measured concurrently. Furthermore, no studies assessed the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on cognitive performances. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a documented fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of at least 20 mmHg on a battery of cognitive tests in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Ten consecutive patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, normal brain imaging, and a normal Mini Mental State Examination in supine position were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment (Brief Mental Deterioration battery and computerized tests) over two test sessions: the first while tilted to an angle able to cause a fall of at least 20 mmHg in SBP; the second while supine, after 30 min of rest. Parallel forms of the tests were presented on each testing session. Patients scored significantly worse in the visual search test, analogies test, immediate visual memory, and the measure of global cognitive functioning of Brief Mental Deterioration battery during the orthostatic challenge compared to the supine position. Orthostatic hypotension was associated with a significant worsening of cognitive performances, affecting both global cognitive functioning and specific tasks, mainly exploring executive functions. The assessment of cognitive function in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension should be performed considering the body's position of the subject.

  5. DNA methylation and cognitive functioning in healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, O.J.G.; Boxtel, van M.P.J.; Groot, R.H.M.; Jolles, J.; Kok, F.J.; Verhoef, P.; Durga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term supplementation with folic acid may improve cognitive performance in older individuals. The relationship between folate status and cognitive performance might be mediated by changes in methylation capacity, as methylation reactions are important for normal functioning of the brain. Althoug

  6. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  7. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per G. Farup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria, cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests, and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression.

  8. Emotiogenic Cognitive Function of Modern School Teaching Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Любовь Васильевна Ерохина

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of emotional attractiveness of modern school educational texts and ecological/non-ecological influence upon pupils’ cognition in teaching communication. Reasoning is based on the thesis that - emotional attractiveness of modern school educational texts opposes their cognitive function. Emotional educational text profile and its components are under consideration. The article is concerned with ecological and cognitive and emotional asymmetry content. The material under focus is printed texts of some of modern school textbooks, teaching methodical aids, academic competitions, mass media information from the cognitive ecology point of view.

  9. Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive functioning in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-01-01

    The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitive functioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which

  10. Cognitive Functional Evaluation (CFE) Process for Individuals with Suspected Cognitive Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Maeir, Adina; Katz, Noomi; Baum, Carolyn M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the evaluation process for individuals with suspected cognitive disabilities. The Cognitive Functional Evaluation (CFE) process yields a comprehensive profile of the clients' cognitive strengths and weaknesses in occupational performance. The components of the CFE are outlined in six stages as a decision tree with examples of standardized instruments from which to choose the assessments for each client evaluated: (1) interview and background information; (2) cognitive screening and baseline status tests; (3) general measures of cognition and executive functions in occupation; (4) cognitive tests for specific domains; (5) measures of specific cognitive domains in occupations; and (6) environmental assessment. The first three stages are required to ascertain basic cognitive abilities underlying occupational performance. Tests for each stage can be chosen from the ones listed according to the client characteristics and the theory utilized, there is no need to use all of them. Once this data is available a further decision is made whether a more in-depth assessment is needed (stages (4) and (5)). The environmental component is evaluated in all instances with at least one of the assessments. The CFE process for individuals with suspected cognitive disabilities is recommended to be used by occupational therapists as a common ground for evaluation, documentation, and communicating information.

  11. Social-cognitive functioning and schizotypal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joseph; Shean, Glenn

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the relationship between social cognition and a feature of schizotypal personality referred to as magical ideation, defined broadly as the presence and intensity of illogical beliefs about causality and the nature of reality. The measures of social cognition used in this study were the Character Intention Task (CIT) and the adult version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Regression analyses indicated that understanding of character intentions, as measured by CIT scores, and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Principal components analysis of the Magical Ideation Scale generated 3 factors: Occult Beliefs, Non-Realism, and New Age Ideas. Results indicated that impaired understanding of character intentions and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Understanding the cognitive impairments associated with schizotypal characteristics can facilitate development of more targeted therapeutic interventions.

  12. The Essentials of a Global Index for Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Joseph Mathew; Weaver, Ian; Rueffer, Matthew; Guthrie, Najla; Evans, Malkanthi

    2017-01-01

    Cognition is comprised of the faculties: perception, creativity, intuition, and ratiocination. Optimal levels of cognition are needed for independent functioning and balanced living. With an aging population that continues to grow, dietary supplements that tilt the balance towards maintenance of cognition are being marketed for vulnerable populations facing these challenges. Randomized clinical trials provide the causal inference necessary to define the efficacy of emerging nutraceuticals. Cognition testing, in particular, requires a battery of tests that encompass all brain regions involved in cognition so as to provide endpoints necessary for product validation. The lack of well controlled studies for comparison analyses, limited sample sizes, ambiguous dosages, and poor cognitive measures result in data that cannot be compared across studies to determine the efficacy of supplements claiming to enhance cognition. Clinical trials for the nutraceutical industry should consider the multifaceted nature of supplements, where clinical endpoints must be comprehensive while remaining feasible. Combining endpoints of cognition with physiological biomarkers of immunity and metabolism to arrive at a global index for cognitive health may be necessary for claim substantiation in order to fully justify and scientifically validate improvements in cognitive health. The issues and needs of a global index will be discussed here.

  13. Dietary antioxidants, cognitive function and dementia--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Bryan, Janet; Murphy, Karen J

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant compounds, contained in fruit, vegetables and tea, have been postulated to have a protective effect against age-related cognitive decline by combating oxidative stress. However, recent research on this subject has been conflicting. The aim of this systematic review was to consider current epidemiological and longitudinal evidence for an association between habitual dietary intake of antioxidants and cognition, with consideration given to both cognitive functioning and risk for dementia and its subtypes, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Searches of electronic databases were undertaken to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on associations between antioxidant intakes (vitamins C, E, flavonoids, carotenoids) and cognitive function or risk for dementia. Eight cross-sectional and 13 longitudinal studies were identified and included in the review. There were mixed findings for the association between antioxidant intake, cognition and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Large heterogeneity in study design, differential control of confounders, insufficient measures of cognitive performance, and difficulties associated with dietary assessment may contribute to the inconsistent findings. Overall, findings do not consistently show habitual intakes of dietary antioxidants are associated with better cognitive performance or a reduced risk for dementia. Future intervention trials are warranted to elucidate the effects of a high intake of dietary antioxidants on cognitive functioning, and to explore effects within a whole dietary pattern.

  14. Genomic imprinting and human psychology: cognition, behavior and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Lisa M; Ragsdale, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted genes expressed in the brain are numerous and it has become clear that they play an important role in nervous system development and function. The significant influence of genomic imprinting during development sets the stage for structural and physiological variations affecting psychological function and behaviour, as well as other physiological systems mediating health and well-being. However, our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in behaviour lags far behind our understanding of their roles in perinatal growth and development. Knowledge of genomic imprinting remains limited among behavioral scientists and clinicians and research regarding the influence of imprinted genes on normal cognitive processes and the most common forms of neuropathology has been limited to date. In this chapter, we will explore how knowledge of genomic imprinting can be used to inform our study of normal human cognitive and behavioral processes as well as their disruption. Behavioural analyses of rare imprinted disorders, such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, provide insight regarding the phenotypic impact of imprinted genes in the brain, and can be used to guide the study of normal behaviour as well as more common but etiologically complex disorders such as ADHD and autism. Furthermore, hypotheses regarding the evolutionary development of imprinted genes can be used to derive predictions about their role in normal behavioural variation, such as that observed in food-related and social interactions.

  15. Transdiagnostic Associations Between Functional Brain Network Integrity and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Julia M; Kandala, Sridhar; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Sweeney, John A; Clementz, Brett A; Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Hill, S Kristian; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs across the psychosis spectrum and is associated with functional outcome. However, it is unknown whether these shared manifestations of cognitive dysfunction across diagnostic categories also reflect shared neurobiological mechanisms or whether the source of impairment differs. To examine whether the general cognitive deficit observed across psychotic disorders is similarly associated with functional integrity of 2 brain networks widely implicated in supporting many cognitive domains. A total of 201 healthy control participants and 375 patients with psychotic disorders from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium were studied from September 29, 2007, to May 31, 2011. The B-SNIP recruited healthy controls and stable outpatients from 6 sites: Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; and Hartford, Connecticut. All participants underwent cognitive testing and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data analysis was performed from April 28, 2015, to February 21, 2017. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was used to measure cognitive ability. A principal axis factor analysis on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia battery yielded a single factor (54% variance explained) that served as the measure of general cognitive ability. Functional network integrity measures included global and local efficiency of the whole brain, cingulo-opercular network (CON), frontoparietal network, and auditory network and exploratory analyses of all networks from the Power atlas. Group differences in network measures, associations between cognition and network measures, and mediation models were tested. The final sample for the current study included 201 healthy controls, 143 patients with schizophrenia, 103 patients with schizoaffective disorder, and 129 patients with psychotic bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [12.0] years

  16. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for severe Functional Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL   Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...... with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group...

  17. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for severe Functional Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

      MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...... with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group...

  18. The Specialization of Function: Cognitive and Neural Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Bradford Z.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2014-01-01

    A unifying theme that cuts across all research areas and techniques in the cognitive and brain sciences is whether there is specialization of function at levels of processing that are ‘abstracted away’ from sensory inputs and motor outputs. Any theory that articulates claims about specialization of function in the mind/brain confronts the following types of interrelated questions, each of which carries with it certain theoretical commitments. What methods are appropriate for decomposing complex cognitive and neural processes into their constituent parts? How do cognitive processes map onto neural processes, and at what resolution are they related? What types of conclusions can be drawn about the structure of mind from dissociations observed at the neural level, and vice versa? The contributions that form this Special Issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology represent recent reflections on these and other issues from leading researchers in different areas of the cognitive and brain sciences. PMID:22185234

  19. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?'

  20. Pilot Cognitive Functioning and Training Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    reducing physical stress and damage to the airframe. In summary, there has been extensive research in the USAF on the use of cognitive ability tests...has amassed a body of knowledge about many topics Comprehension Measures “social acculturation ,” “social intelligence,” and the conventional

  1. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann;

    2012-01-01

    higher scores on both digit forward and backward tasks (p = 5 10(-5) and p = 8 10(-4) respectively) as well as on a verbal fluency task (p = 0.008) when compared with their spouse controls. No differences between groups were found for the other cognitive tests assessed. We conclude that LLFS family...

  2. Influence of social support on cognitive function in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Shu-Chuan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social support is important in daily activities of the elderly. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between social support and cognitive function among the elderly in a community setting. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in a cross-sectional stratified random sample of 4,993 elderly (≥65 years city residents. Using multiple regression analysis, we investigated the influence of social support on cognitive function. Results 12% were over 80 years old. 53.28% were men. 67.14% were married. Higher Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ scores (higher score means better cognitive function were associated with strong social support, as measured by marital status and perceived positive support from friends. Lower cognitive function was associated with older and with female respondents. Only instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were statistically and negatively related to SPMSQ. Lower functional status was associated with lower cognitive function. Elders with grade school educations had lower SPMSQ scores than did elders with high school educations. Conclusions In Taiwan, higher cognitive function in community-living elderly was associated with increased social support. Life-style management should provide social activities for the elderly to promote a better quality of life.

  3. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction : Involvement of neuroinflammation and neuronal functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; Schoemaker, Regien G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Heineman, Erik; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been hypothesized to be mediated by surgery-induced inflammatory processes, which may influence neuronal functioning either directly or through modulation of intraneuronal pathways, such as the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediated pathway.

  4. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  5. Sleep and cognitive (memory) function: research and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T; Costa e Silva, J A; Chase, M H

    2001-09-01

    The field of memory and sleep is controversial and extremely interesting, and the relationships between thought processes, i.e. cognition and sleep, have recently been examined in a variety of clinical and basic research settings, as well as being the object of intense interest by the general public. For example, there are data which demonstrate that insomnia, as well as specific sleep disorders, can have a negative impact on sleep cognition as well as affect daytime patterns of cognitive functioning. Thus, sleep, disturbed sleep and the lack of sleep appear to affect cognitive and memory functions. An International Workshop dealing with Sleep and Cognitive Function: Research and Clinical Perspectives was convened in Cancún, Mexico, 1-4 March 1999 under the auspices of the World Health Organization Worldwide Project on Sleep and Health and the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies. A great number of areas of intersection between sleep and cognitive function were examined during the course of the Workshop, such as aging, cognition and sleep and the dream process and sleep. The results of these discussions are included in a WHO publication (WHO Doc.: MSD/MBD/00.8). In the present report we concentrate on presenting a summary of a coherent set of data which examine memory consolidation during sleep and the impact of insomnia on cognitive functions. Based upon these data, a review of memory and drug effects that are sleep-related, and an examination of the relationship between hypnotics and cognitive function are included. Finally, a summary of recommendations of the Workshop participants is presented.

  6. Smartphones and Cognition: A Review of Research Exploring the Links between Mobile Technology Habits and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Henry H.; Sherman, Lauren E.; Chein, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    While smartphones and related mobile technologies are recognized as flexible and powerful tools that, when used prudently, can augment human cognition, there is also a growing perception that habitual involvement with these devices may have a negative and lasting impact on users’ ability to think, remember, pay attention, and regulate emotion. The present review considers an intensifying, though still limited, area of research exploring the potential cognitive impacts of smartphone-related habits, and seeks to determine in which domains of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough to endorse any firm conclusions. We focus our review primarily on three facets of cognition that are clearly implicated in public discourse regarding the impacts of mobile technology – attention, memory, and delay of gratification – and then consider evidence regarding the broader relationships between smartphone habits and everyday cognitive functioning. Along the way, we highlight compelling findings, discuss limitations with respect to empirical methodology and interpretation, and offer suggestions for how the field might progress toward a more coherent and robust area of scientific inquiry. PMID:28487665

  7. Sex differences in obesity and cognitive function in a cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Li,* Qi Qiu,* Lin Sun, Ling Yue, Tao Wang, Xia Li, Shifu Xiao Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sex differences in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment have been well recognized. However, sex differences in cognitive function and obesity in cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population have not attracted much attention. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sex, obesity, and cognitive function in an elderly Chinese population with normal cognitive function. Subjects and methods: A total of 228 cognitively normal aging participants (males/females =93/135 entered this study. Their general demographic information (sex, age, and education was collected by standardized questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype and serum lipid levels were measured. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA was used to assess participants’ cognitive function. Results: The prevalence of obesity in elderly women (18/133, 13.5% was significantly higher than that in men (5/92, 5.4%, P=0.009. Regression analyses showed that obesity was associated with drinking alcohol (OR =13.695, P=0.045 and triglyceride (OR =1.436, P=0.048 in women and limited to low-density lipoprotein (OR =11.829, P=0.023 in men. Women performed worse on the naming score for MoCA than men (P<0.01. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that education (t=3.689, P<0.001 and smoking (t=2.031, P=0.045 were related to the score of naming in female, while high-density lipoprotein (t=–2.077, P=0.041 was related to the score of naming in male; however, no correlation was found between body mass index and cognitive function in both male and female (P>0.05. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that there are significant sex differences in obesity and

  8. The central role of RNA in human development and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, John S

    2011-06-06

    It appears that the genetic programming of humans and other complex organisms has been misunderstood for the past 50 years, due to the assumption that most genetic information is transacted by proteins. However, the human genome contains only about 20,000 protein-coding genes, similar in number and with largely orthologous functions as those in nematodes that have only 1000 somatic cells. By contrast, the extent of non-protein-coding DNA increases with increasing complexity, reaching 98.8% in humans. The majority of these sequences are dynamically transcribed, mainly into non-protein-coding RNAs, with tens if not hundreds of thousands that show specific expression patterns and subcellular locations, as well as many classes of small regulatory RNAs. The emerging evidence indicates that these RNAs control the epigenetic states that underpin development, and that many are dysregulated in cancer and other complex diseases. Moreover it appears that animals, particularly primates, have evolved plasticity in these RNA regulatory systems, especially in the brain. Thus, it appears that what was dismissed as 'junk' because it was not understood holds the key to understanding human evolution, development, and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Mélanie G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a clear association between changes in the microbiota and cognitive behavior. Intestinal dysbiosis, as modeled using GF mice (containing no microbiota), bacterial infection with an enteric pathogen, and administration of probiotics, can modulate cognitive behavior including learning and memory. This chapter will highlight recent findings in both human and animal studies indicating how changes in the composition and diversity of the microbiota can impact behavior and brain physiology in both disease states and in health. Cognitive behavior can not only be affected in cases of intestinal disease, but also manifests changes in extra-intestinal disease conditions.

  10. Early Functional Limitations in Cognitively Normal Older Adults Predict Diagnostic Conversion to Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Lau, Karen; Harvey, Danielle; Denny, Katherine G; Barba, Cheyanne; Mefford, Anthony N

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether specific types of early functional limitations in cognitively normal older adults are associated with subsequent development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as well as the relative predictive value of self versus informant report in predicting diagnostic conversion to MCI. As a part of a longitudinal study design, participants underwent baseline and annual multidisciplinary clinical evaluations, including a physical and neurological examination, imaging, laboratory work, and neuropsychological testing. Data used in this study were collected as part of longitudinal research at the University of California, Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center. Individuals diagnosed as having normal cognition at study baseline who had an informant who could complete informant-based ratings and at least one follow-up visit (N = 324). Participants and informants each completed the Everyday Cognition Scale (ECog), an instrument designed to measure everyday function in six cognitively relevant domains. Self- and informant-reported functional limitations on the ECog were associated with significantly greater risk of diagnostic conversion to MCI (informant: hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-3.2, P = .002), with self-report having a slightly higher hazard (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.4-3.6, P cognitive abilities, the effect remained significant for self- and informant-reported functional limitations. Deficits in everyday memory and executive function domains were the strongest predictors of diagnostic conversion to MCI. Detection of early functional limitations may be clinically useful in assessing the future risk of developing cognitive impairment in cognitively normal older adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Neuropsychological assessment of a new computerized cognitive task that developed for training several cognitive functions simultaneously.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoe eIchihara-Takeda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we did observe mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task could not measure subject’s working memory capacity specifically, but could measure the abilities of attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously.

  12. Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Morton, Deborah

    2002-11-01

    This study examined the association of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with cognitive function in a community-based sample of older adults in 1988-1992. Participants were 890 women with a mean age of 72.6 years and 638 men with a mean age of 73.3 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Cognitive function was assessed by 12 standardized tests, and lifetime consumption and current coffee consumption were obtained by questionnaire. After adjustment for confounders, higher lifetime coffee consumption in women was associated with better (p cognitive function tests; current caffeinated coffee intake was associated with better performance on two tests (p coffee intake was nonsignificantly associated with better performance on 11 of the 12 tests. No relation was found between coffee intake and cognitive function among men or between decaffeinated coffee intake and cognitive function in either sex. Lifetime and current exposure to caffeine may be associated with better cognitive performance among women, especially among those aged 80 or more years.

  13. Influence of carotid artery stenting on cognitive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quasar Grunwald, Iris [Saarland University Clinic, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Department of Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Papanagiotou, Panagiotis; Backens, Martin; Politi, Maria; Vedder, Verena; Zercher, K. [Saarland University Clinic, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Reith, Wolfgang; Supprian, Tilman; Muscalla, B.; Haass, Anton; Krick, Christoph M. [Saarland University Clinic, Clinic for Neurology, Homburg (Germany); Saarland University Clinic, Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Homburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    There have only been a few studies on cognitive changes in patients with carotid occlusive disease, and the results of these show major discrepancies in the extent to which treatment affects neuropsychological function. We sought to clarify these discrepancies by evaluating the effects of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on the cognitive function. Forty-one asymptomatic CAS patients were administered a test battery of neuropsychological tests measuring cognitive speed and memory function before and 3 months after the procedure. A control group was also evaluated. To test for thromboembolic lesions, diffusion-weighted imaging was used. CAS led to a significant increase in cognitive speed (p < 0.001) but did not afford any change in memory function. This was regardless of the degree or side of stenosis or patient age or gender. CAS significantly improved functions that involve cognitive speed. Earlier studies did not differentiate between speed and memory tests and thus might have missed these changes. Further studies correlating changes in brain perfusion with increase in cognitive speed are needed. (orig.)

  14. Impact of Cognitive Impairment on Functional Outcome in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Paker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cognitive impairment on functional status in patients with subacute stroke. Fifty-two patients with subacute stroke were included in the study. Mini mental state examination (MMSE test was used for the evaluation of cognitive status. Patients were separated into two groups according to their cognitive functions. Functional follow-up parameters were activities of daily living (ADL, global recovery and ambulation status. All patients were evaluated on admission to rehabilitation unit, at discharge and 6 months after discharge. Forty-four patients were completed the study. Mean age was 66 and 57 years; disease duration on admission was 4,8 and 3,5 months in the cognitively impaired and normal groups, respectively. Significant improvement was found in terms of functional follow-up parameters in both groups at discharge (<.05. Functional follow-up parameters did not show statistically significant difference between the groups. But community ambulation rate was higher in cognitively normal group at the sixth month visit. As a result of this study, inpatient rehabilitation was effective both cognitively normal and impaired subacute stroke patients.

  15. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide upon Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, V. E.; Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Lam, C. W.; Young, M.; Satish, U.; Basner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) originates from human metabolism and typically remains about 10-fold higher in concentration on the International Space Station (ISS) than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the ISS that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control CO2 below 3 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached, and there is evidence that CO2 has effects at levels below the threshold for headaches. This concern appears to be substantiated in reports that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. Therefore, we set out to determine if decision-making under volatile, uncertain, confusing and ambiguous circumstances, where feedback is delayed or absent, is correlated with low levels of CO2 during acute exposures (several hours) in crew-like subjects and to determine if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at, or below, current ISS levels by using a test battery that is currently available onboard ISS. We enrolled 22 volunteers (8 females, 14 males) between the ages of 30-55 (38.8 +/- 7.0) years whose training and professional experience reflect that of the astronaut corps. Subjects were divided among 4 study

  16. Congestive heart failure and cognitive functioning amongst older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Osvaldo P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congestive heart failure is associated with decline in quality of life and, possibly, cognitive functions such as memory and attention. AIMS: The present study was designed to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment amongst patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. We hypothesised that CHF patients would have lower scores than elderly controls on general measures of cognitive functioning. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined a sample of 50 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with CHF functional class III/IV and a convenience sample of 30 older adults assessed at the outpatient service of geriatric medicine of a teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. All subjects were interviewed with the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX, as well as the neuropsychological battery of the CAMDEX (CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making A and B, Digit Span, Digit Symbol, and Letter Cancellation Test. All CHF patients had left ventricular ejection fraction (EF below 45% and all controls above 65%. The cognitive performance of CHF patients was significantly worse than controls for all cognitive assessments. Twenty-seven of 50 CHF patients had a MMSE total score lower than 24, compared with only 10/30 controls (p=0.073. Similarly, 36/49 and 9/30 CHF subjects and controls respectively had CAMCOG scores below 80 (p<0.001. Cognitive scores were significantly associated with EF, which was the most robust predictor of cognitive impairment according to the CAMCOG in a logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CHF is associated with significant levels of cognitive impairment and show that mental performance is, at least partly, a consequence of EF. Physicians should be prepared to assess the mental state of patients, as poor cognitive functioning may interfere with treatment compliance and management plan.

  17. Body Mass Index and Decline of Cognitive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea.A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24 at baseline (2006, was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions.During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2 were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03. This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01 and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24-26 at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01. In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline.In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population.

  18. Apolipoprotein E Genotype Modifies the Association between Midlife Lung Function and Cognitive Function in Old Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Nissinen, A.; Giampaoli, S.; Kromhout, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Because poor lung function may be a risk factor for cognitive decline, we aimed to test the association of respiratory function with cognitive function and dementia later in life, as well as potential effect modification by APOE 4 carrier status. Methods: In a prospective

  19. Obesity Reduces Cognitive and Motor Functions across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.

  20. Does cognitive self-consciousness link older adults' cognitive functioning to obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouvost, Caroline; Calamari, John E; Woodard, John L

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate how obsessional symptoms might develop or intensify in late-life, we tested a risk model. We posited that cognitive self-consciousness (CSC), a tendency to be aware of and monitor thinking, would increase reactivity to aging-related cognitive changes and mediate the relationship between cognitive functioning and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Older adults (Mage = 76.7 years) completed the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2), a CSC measure, and an OCD symptom measure up to four times over 18 months. A model that included DRS-2 age and education adjusted total score as the indicator of cognitive functioning fit the data well, and CSC score change mediated the relationship between initial cognitive functioning and changes in OCD symptoms. In tests of a model that included DRS-2 Initiation/Perseveration (I/P) and Conceptualization subscale scores, the model again fit the data well. Conceptualization scores, but not I/P scores, were related to later OCD symptoms, and change in CSC scores again mediated the relationship. Lower scores on initial cognitive functioning measures predicted increases in CSC scores over time, which in turn predicted increases in OCD symptoms over the 18 months of the study. Implications for understanding late-life obsessional problems are discussed.

  1. Association between polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D2 and catechol-o-methyl transferase genes and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Marioni, Riccardo E; Deary, Ian J; Harris, Sarah E; Stewart, Marlene C; Murray, Gordon D; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Price, Jackie F

    2010-09-01

    The dopaminergic neurotransmitter system of the brain is involved in working memory and other cognitive functions. Studies suggest an important role for dopamine synthesis and uptake in modulation of human cognitive processes. We studied the association between polymorphisms in the catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) genes and general cognitive ability in a secondary analysis of 2091 men and women, aged 55-80 years living in Scotland. General cognitive ability 'g' was derived from five cognitive tests of different domains. COMT was not associated with cognitive ability in this population. The DRD2 C:C genotype of rs6277 was associated with decreased general cognitive ability 'g' (p = 0.003), and DRD2 rs1800497 heterozygotes had lowest mean general cognitive ability 'g' (p = 0.007). There was an indication of a potential interaction between the DRD2 SNPs.

  2. Models and theories of brain function in cognition within a framework of behavioral cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaş, Sirel; Başar, Erol

    2006-05-01

    The present article presents a nonexhaustive collection of contemporary models and theories on brain function and discusses these models and theories within a framework of explanatory formulations in behavioral cognitive psychology. Such a mission was accomplished by evaluating the cognitive implications in the explanatory formulations with respect to established laws/principles and models/theories of behavioral cognitive psychology. The article also points to problem areas of behavioral cognitive psychology for which the explanatory formulations have solutions to offer. The article shows that the cinematographic hypothesis, the new visual model, the synergetic model, and the theory of whole-brain-work emphasize various aspects of perception. The formulations on P300 theory emphasize attention and also working memory. The theory on cognits is a comprehensive account of memory. Characteristic to all of these explanatory formulations and also to that on the complexity and its evolution and that on neurocognitive networks is the emphasis on selective distribution, integration to the point of supersynergy, and dynamicity. Such a viewpoint was not only applied to the operations of the brain but also of cognition. With such a conceptualization, the explanatory formulations could account for cognitive processes other than the ones emphasized. A common aspect in a majority of the formulations is the utilization of the oscillatory activity as the valid activity of the brain. The article points out that a frontier in cognitive psychophysiology would be the study of the genetics of brain oscillations.

  3. Heritability of cognitive functions in families with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Mervi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Soronen, Pia; Palo, Outi M; Paunio, Tiina; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2007-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is highly heritable. Cognitive dysfunctions often observed in bipolar patients and their unaffected relatives implicate that these impairments may be associated with genetic predisposition to bipolar disorder and thus fulfill the criteria of a valid endophenotype for the disorder. However, the most fundamental criterion, their heritability, has not been directly studied in any bipolar population. This population-based study estimated the heritability of cognitive functions in bipolar disorder. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to a population-based sample of 110 individuals from 52 families with bipolar disorder. Heritability of cognitive functions as assessed with neuropsychological test scores were estimated using the Solar package. Significant additive heritabilities were found in verbal ability, executive functioning, and psychomotor processing speed. Genetic contribution was low to verbal learning functions. High heritability, in executive functioning and psychomotor processing speed suggest that these may be valid endophenotypic traits for genetic studies of bipolar disorder.

  4. Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Mann S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3 to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income. Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.

  5. Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bolender

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description” requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

  6. The effect of severe life events on cognitive function in elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of severe life events on the cognitive function and tendency of mild cognitive impairment(MCI) in elderly people. Methods The cognitive function and life events of 3098 people aged 60

  7. Cognition and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Julia M; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia consistently display deficits in a multitude of cognitive domains, but the neurobiological source of these cognitive impairments remains unclear. By analyzing the functional connectivity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) data in clinical populations like schizophrenia, research groups have begun elucidating abnormalities in the intrinsic communication between specific brain regions, and assessing relationships between these abnormalities and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Here we review studies that have reported analysis of these brain-behavior relationships. Through this systematic review we found that patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities within and between regions comprising 1) the cortico-cerebellar-striatal-thalamic loop and 2) task-positive and task-negative cortical networks. Importantly, we did not observe unique relationships between specific functional connectivity abnormalities and distinct cognitive domains, suggesting that the observed functional systems may underlie mechanisms that are shared across cognitive abilities, the disturbance of which could contribute to the “generalized” cognitive deficit found in schizophrenia. We also note several areas of methodological change that we believe will strengthen this literature. PMID:26698018

  8. A Functional Examination of Intermediate Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    perceptions clearly exceed the objective physical evidence ( Gregory , 1972; Rock, 1984). People "see" bands of colour in a rainbow although the rainbow...of CogniLive Psychology. London: Erlbaum. Fentress,J.C. (1973). Specific and non-specific factors in the causation of behavior. In P.P.G. Bateson & P.H...Norton. Greeno,J.G. (1974). Hobbits and orcs: acquisition of a sequential concept. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 270-292. Gregory ,R.L. (1972). Eye and Brain

  9. Selective Engagement of Cognitive Resources: Motivational Influences on Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    In this article, I present a framework for understanding the impact of aging-related declines in cognitive resources on functioning. I make the assumption that aging is associated with an increase in the costs of cognitive engagement, as reflected in both the effort required to achieve a specific level of task performance and the associated depletion or fatigue effects. I further argue that these costs result in older adults being increasingly selective in the engagement of cognitive resources in response to these declines. This selectivity is reflected in (a) a reduction in the intrinsic motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, which, in part, accounts for general reductions in engagement in such activities, and (b) greater sensitivity to the self-related implications of a given task. Both processes are adaptive if viewed in terms of resource conservation, but the former may also be maladaptive to the extent that it results in older adults restricting participation in cognitively demanding activities that could ultimately benefit cognitive health. I review supportive research and make the general case for the importance of considering motivational factors in understanding aging effects on cognitive functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Molecular networks and the evolution of human cognitive specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Miles; Konopka, Genevieve

    2014-12-01

    Inroads into elucidating the origins of human cognitive specializations have taken many forms, including genetic, genomic, anatomical, and behavioral assays that typically compare humans to non-human primates. While the integration of all of these approaches is essential for ultimately understanding human cognition, here, we review the usefulness of coexpression network analysis for specifically addressing this question. An increasing number of studies have incorporated coexpression networks into brain expression studies comparing species, disease versus control tissue, brain regions, or developmental time periods. A clearer picture has emerged of the key genes driving brain evolution, as well as the developmental and regional contributions of gene expression patterns important for normal brain development and those misregulated in cognitive diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognition, Emotion, and Other Inescapable Dimensions of Human Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascara, Jorge

    1999-01-01

    Looks at human information processing as a complex system, concentrating on certain insights about field interactions that will reposition the understanding of mental processes, moving it from an analysis of logical steps to the exploration of the influence that contexts have on human cognitive performance. (CR)

  12. Active glass-type human augmented cognition system considering attention and intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ojha, Amitash; Lee, Minho

    2015-10-01

    Human cognition is the result of an interaction of several complex cognitive processes with limited capabilities. Therefore, the primary objective of human cognitive augmentation is to assist and expand these limited human cognitive capabilities independently or together. In this study, we propose a glass-type human augmented cognition system, which attempts to actively assist human memory functions by providing relevant, necessary and intended information by constantly assessing intention of the user. To achieve this, we exploit selective attention and intention processes. Although the system can be used in various real-life scenarios, we test the performance of the system in a person identity scenario. To detect the intended face, the system analyses the gaze points and change in pupil size to determine the intention of the user. An assessment of the gaze points and change in pupil size together indicates that the user intends to know the identity and information about the person in question. Then, the system retrieves several clues through speech recognition system and retrieves relevant information about the face, which is finally displayed through head-mounted display. We present the performance of several components of the system. Our results show that the active and relevant assistance based on users' intention significantly helps the enhancement of memory functions.

  13. Clinical assessment of social cognitive function in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Molenberghs, Pascal; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-01-01

    Social cognition broadly refers to the processing of social information in the brain that underlies abilities such as the detection of others' emotions and responding appropriately to these emotions. Social cognitive skills are critical for successful communication and, consequently, mental health and wellbeing. Disturbances of social cognition are early and salient features of many neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and often occur after acute brain injury. Its assessment in the clinic is, therefore, of paramount importance. Indeed, the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive function, alongside memory and executive control. Failures of social cognition most often present as poor theory of mind, reduced affective empathy, impaired social perception or abnormal social behaviour. Standard neuropsychological assessments lack the precision and sensitivity needed to adequately inform treatment of these failures. In this Review, we present appropriate methods of assessment for each of the four domains, using an example disorder to illustrate the value of these approaches. We discuss the clinical applications of testing for social cognitive function, and finally suggest a five-step algorithm for the evaluation and treatment of impairments, providing quantitative evidence to guide the selection of social cognitive measures in clinical practice.

  14. Cognitive function in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Maj Vinberg; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2006-01-01

    is associated with cognitive impairment. METHOD: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers....... Cognitive performance of 203 High-Risk and Low-Risk twins was compared. RESULTS: Healthy twins discordant for unipolar disorder showed lower performance on almost all measures of cognitive function: selective and sustained attention, executive function, language processing and working and declarative memory......, and also after adjustment for demographic variables, subclinical symptoms and minor psychopathology. Healthy twins discordant for bipolar disorder showed lower performance on tests measuring episodic and working memory, also after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariables. The discrete cognitive...

  15. Current evidence on dietary pattern and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bernice H K; Ho, Ivan C H; Chan, Ruth S M; Sea, Mandy M M; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    With global aging population, age-related cognitive decline becomes epidemic. Lifestyle-related factor is one of the key preventative measures. Dietary pattern analysis which considers dietary complexity has recently used to examine the linkage between nutrition and cognitive function. A priori approach defines dietary pattern based on existing knowledge. Results of several dietary pattern scores were summarized. The heterogeneity of assessment methods and outcome measurements lead to inconsistent results. Posteriori approach derives a dietary pattern independently of the existing nutrition-disease knowledge. It showed a dietary pattern abundant with plant-based food, oily fish, lower consumption of processed food, saturated fat, and simple sugar which appears to be beneficial to cognitive health. Despite inconclusive evidence from both approaches, diet and exercise, beneficial for other diseases, remains to be the two key modifiable factors for cognitive function. Large-scale prospective studies in multiethics population are required to provide stronger evidence in the future.

  16. The relationship between change in cognition and change in functional ability in schizophrenia during cognitive and psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispaud, Samuel G; Rose, Jennifer; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2016-10-30

    While a wealth of studies have evaluated cross-sectional links between cognition and functioning in schizophrenia, few have investigated the relationship between change in cognition and change in functioning in the context of treatment trials targeted at cognition. Identifying cognitive skills that, when improved, predict improvement in functioning will guide the development of more targeted rehabilitation for this population. The present study identifies the relationship between change in specific cognitive skills and change in functional ability during one year of cognitive rehabilitation. Ninety-six individuals with schizophrenia were assessed with a battery of cognitive measures and a measure of performance-based functioning before and after cognitive training consisting of either drill-and-practice cognitive remediation or computer skills training. Results revealed that while working and episodic memory, problem-solving, and processing speed skills all improved during the trial, only improved working memory and processing speed skills predicted improvement in functional ability. Secondary analyses revealed these relationships were driven by individuals who showed a moderate level (SD≥0.5) of cognitive improvement during the trial. These findings suggest that while a variety of cognitive skills may improve during training targeted at cognition, only improvements in a subset of cognitive functions may translate into functional gains.

  17. Incidental use of ecstasy: no evidence for harmful effects on cognitive brain function in a prospective fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Win, M.M. de; Vervaeke, H.K.; Schilt, T.; Kahn, R.S.; Brink, W. van den; Ree, J.M. van; Ramsey, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Heavy ecstasy use in humans has been associated with cognitive impairments and changes in cognitive brain function supposedly due to damage to the serotonin system. There is concern that even a single dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine may be neurotoxic, but very little is known ab

  18. Genetic Determinants of Cognitive Function and Age-Related Brain Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuur (Maaike)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe brain is by far the most complicated structure of the human being, and its malfunction is characterized by various degrees and types of morbidity. Several brain functions deteriorate with increasing age during life. Cognitive decline and age-related brain pathology are common in the

  19. Ascorbic acid, cognitive function, and Alzheimer’s disease: a current review and future direction

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Gene L.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative review appraises the human and animal studies implicating ascorbic acid (AA) in normal cognitive function and Alzheimer’s disease. A research framework for how nutrition affects brain aging is proposed with emphasis on AA intake, status, metabolism, and transport into brain tissue. A final synopsis highlights areas for future research regarding AA nourishment and healthy brain aging.

  20. Effects of cognitive remediation therapy versus other interventions on cognitive functioning in schizophrenia inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Magdalena; Jankowski, Konrad S; Wichniak, Adam; Jarema, Marek; Wykes, Til

    2017-05-01

    Computerised cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) has been shown to improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia beyond effects of other forms of therapy. However, results vary between studies, and most are aimed at individuals who are living in the community. Very few studies have investigated its efficacy in psychiatric wards in order to assess whether or not this is a suitable site to start the therapy. This study evaluated CCRT efficacy among schizophrenia inpatients who received a broad range of therapeutic interventions in a psychiatric ward. A randomised controlled trial of CCRT versus an active control in 66 young inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was conducted. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks and its efficacy was assessed with the composite score of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Both groups improved similarly in cognitive function and psychopathological symptoms. However, the CCRT group improved more than the controls in negative symptoms. This result shows that providing a drill and practice cognitive remediation to inpatients does not produce benefits for cognitive functioning substantially greater than other forms of therapy provided in a ward, but it is more efficient in reduction of negative symptoms. Our results suggest that CRT might be considered as a promising intervention for reducing negative symptoms in schizophrenia individuals.

  1. Music Makes the World Go Round: The Impact of Musical Training on Non-musical Cognitive Functions-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Sarah; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Musical training is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree musical experience generalizes to cognitive functions unrelated to music abilities in healthy humans. In general, it seems that musical training is associated with enhancing effects, even if sometimes only restricted to the auditory domain, on various cognitive functions spanning from executive control to creativity. We conclude that musical engagement may be a useful cognitive training to promote cognitive enhancement, but more research using longitudinal studies and taking into account individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits.

  2. Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bonnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development.

  3. Does caregiving stress affect cognitive function in older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Grodstein, Francine

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women provide care to their ill spouses; however, no studies have examined possible effects of caregiving stress on cognitive function. We administered 6 tests of cognitive function to 13740 Nurses' Health Study participants aged 70-79 years. We collected information on caregiving and numerous potential confounding variables via biennial mailed questionnaires. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, education, mental health index, vitality index, use of antidepressants, and history of high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease), we found modest but significantly increased risks of low cognitive function on three of the cognitive tests among women who provided care to a disabled or ill spouse compared with women who did not provide any care. For example, on the TICS, a test of general cognition, the risk of a low score was 31% higher in women who provided care compared with women who did not (RR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.10, 1.56). We found a moderately increased risk of poor performance on several cognitive tests among women who provided care to their disabled or ill husbands.

  4. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for severe Functional Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

      MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently to their ......  MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...... with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group...

  5. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for severe Functional Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby

    MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL   Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently to their ......MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL   Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...... with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group...

  6. Depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ruth T; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2017-08-08

    The US population of older adults is growing, with an increase in diseases like cancer. As cancer rates increase, there is a concomitant increase in adverse correlates, such as cognitive impairment and depressive symptomatology. In order to develop appropriate interventions, it is vital to assess relationships among cancer, depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. The sample consisted of 403 older adults with cancer diagnoses from the Health and Retirement Study. Using latent class growth analysis, longitudinal data were explored. The goals were to investigate trajectories of cognitive functioning, and to identify whether depressive symptoms and demographic factors predicted membership in the cognitive classes. Three classes of cognitive functioning best fit the data: High, Middle and Low Recall, fairly stable trajectories from pre-diagnosis to a period four years after diagnosis. More depressive symptoms after diagnosis (but not prior) significantly predicted membership in the Low Recall class. Depressive symptoms did not distinguish between the High and Middle Recall classes. Depressive symptomatology is thought to affect cognition in late life. We found that depressive symptoms after a cancer diagnosis, but not before, successfully differentiated between those who had Low Recall from those with Middle and High Recall. Implications are discussed.

  7. Comparison of social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and high functioning autism: more convergence than divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Couture, S. M.; Penn, D. L.; Losh, M.; Adolphs, R.; Hurley, R; Piven, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) seem to share some social, behavioral and biological features. Although marked impairments in social cognition have been documented in both groups, little empirical work has compared the social cognitive functioning of these two clinical groups. Method: Forty-four individuals with schizophrenia, 36 with HFA and 41 non-clinical controls completed a battery of social cognitive measures that have been l...

  8. Correlation between physical function, cognitive function, and health-related quality of life in elderly persons

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, DeokJu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to assess the quality of life of elderly people related to physical function, cognitive function, and health, and devised methods to enhance their health-related quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in 140 people over 65 registered at welfare centers. Those with a functional psychological disorder or difficulty communicating were excluded. Data were collected for physical function, cognitive function, an...

  9. Assessment of cognitive function in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherifa A Hamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of cognitive function in myasthenia gravis (MG, neuromuscular transmission disorder caused by acetylcholine receptor auto-antibodies. However, the results of previous studies on cognition and MG are inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to evaluate cognition in patients with mild/moderate grades of MG. Methods: This study included 20 patients with MG with a mean age of 28.45 ± 8.89 years and duration of illness of 3.52 ± 1.15 years. Cognition was tested using a sensitive battery of psychometric testing (Mini-mental State Examination [MMSE], Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 4 th edition [SBIS] and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised [WMS-R] and by recording P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs, a neurophysiological analog for cognitive function. Results: Compared with healthy subjects (n = 20, patients had lower total scores of cognitive testing (MMSE, SBIS and WMS-R (P = 0.001, higher Beck Depression Inventory 2 nd edition scores (P = 0.0001 and prolonged latencies (P = 0.01 and reduced amplitudes (P = 0.001 of P300 component of ERPs. Correlations were identified between total scores of cognitive testing and age (r = -0.470, P = 0.010, duration of illness (r = -0.788, P = 0.001 and depression scores (r = -0.323, P = 0.045. Using linear regression analysis and after controlling for age and depression scores, a significant correlation was identified between total scores of cognitive testing and duration of illness (β = -0.305, P = 0.045. Conclusion: Patients with mild/moderate MG may have cognitive dysfunction. This is important to determine prognosis and managing patients.

  10. Does Cognitive Function Increase over Time in the Healthy Elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ≥ 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ≥ 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults. PMID:24244332

  11. Does cognitive function increase over time in the healthy elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne de Rotrou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. METHOD: A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008-2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ≥ 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. RESULTS: Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ≥ 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. CONCLUSION: This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults.

  12. Association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thajna, Kotrangada P; Hegde, Bhavya G; Gale, Catharine R; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2017-05-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured at 30±2 weeks of gestation. During pregnancy 320 (68%) women had 'vitamin D deficiency' (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration range) was unrelated to offspring cognitive function at both ages, either unadjusted or after adjustment for the child's current age, sex, maternal age, parity, season at the time of blood sampling, gestational age, the child's birth and current size, socio-economic status, parents' education, maternal intelligence and home environment. In this population, despite a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, there was no evidence of an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring cognitive function.

  13. Cognitive reserve moderates long-term cognitive and functional outcome in cerebral small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Melkas, Susanna; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José M; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterised by progressive white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognitive decline and loss of functional independence. The correspondence between neuroimaging findings and the severity of clinical symptoms has been modest, however, and thus the outcome may be affected by various host factors. We investigated the predictive value of educational and occupational attainments as proxy measures of cognitive reserve on long-term cognitive and functional outcome in patients with different degrees of WMH. In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study, 615 older individuals with WMH were evaluated with brain MRI and detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at 3-year follow-up. A prolonged follow-up of functional and cognitive status was administered with a structured telephone interview after up to 7 years. Higher levels of educational and occupational attainment were strongly related to baseline cognitive scores and predicted a slower rate of decline at 3-year follow-up in measures of processing speed, executive functions and memory independently of WMH volume and other confounders. The deleterious effect of WMH on processing speed and memory was moderated by education and occupation. Education mitigated the relation of WMH volume on 7-year cognitive status. Moreover, higher education and occupational attainments were related to favourable outcome at 7-year follow-up as defined by sustained functional independence and lower mortality. The results support the presumption that cognitive reserve plays a significant role as a buffer against the clinical manifestations of SVD and may in part explain high individual variability in outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert

    2009-11-01

    functional structure of human consciousness that includes personality, physicality, emotionality, cognition, and spirituality in a unified developmental framework.

  15. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    that transplanted hGPCs not only engraft and expand within murine hosts, but dynamically outcompete the resident progenitors so as to ultimately dominate the host brain. The engrafted human progenitor cells proceed to generate parenchymal astrocytes, and when faced with a hypomyelinated environment......, oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human...... cognition and information processing. In addition, the cellular humanization of these brains permits their use in studying glial infectious and inflammatory disorders unique to humans, and the effects of those disorders on the glial contributions to cognition. Perhaps most intriguingly, by pairing our...

  16. Aerobic exercise interacts with neurotrophic factors to predict cognitive functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M C; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lee, Jada Chia-Di; Yau, Suk-Yu; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have suggested that aerobic exercise may have a positive effect on brain functioning, in addition to its well-recognized beneficial effects on human physiology. This study confirmed the cognitive effects of aerobic exercise on the human brain. It also examined the relationships between exercise and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors (BDNF, IGI-1, and VEGF). A total of 91 healthy teens who exercised regularly participated in this study. A between-group design was adopted to compare cognitive functioning subserved by the frontal and temporal brain regions and the serum levels of neurotrophic factors between 45 regular exercisers and 46 matched controls. The exercisers performed significantly better than the controls on the frontal and temporal functioning parameters measured. This beneficial cognitive effect was region-specific because no such positive cognitive effect on task-tapping occipital functioning was observed. With respect to the serum levels of the neurotrophic factors, a negative correlation between neurotrophic factors (BDNF and VEGF) with frontal and medial-temporal lobe function was revealed. Furthermore, the levels of BDNF and VEGF interacted with exercise status in predicting frontal and temporal lobe function. This is the first report of the interaction effects of exercise and neurotrophic factors on cognitive functioning. Herein, we report preliminary evidence of the beneficial effects of regular aerobic exercise in improving cognitive functions in teens. These beneficial effects are region-specific and are associated with the serum levels of neurotrophic factors. Our findings lay the path for future studies looking at ways to translate these beneficial effects to therapeutic strategies for adolescents.

  17. Predictors of functional disability in mild cognitive impairment and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, M. E.; Koek, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Knowledge about factors predicting functional disability in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia would help health care providers to identify those patients who are at high risk of functional disability. Previous research is scarce and focused on only a small number of possible pre

  18. Contribution of physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and cognitive stimulation to cognitive function in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Gail A; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D; McMorris, Carly A; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hogan, David B; Poulin, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.

  19. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: What a Turing Test Reveals about Human Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hannagan; Maria Ktori; Myriam Chanceaux; Jonathan Grainger

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet CAPTCHAs) to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fastacting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked primi...

  20. Standards for thyroid laboratory testing, and cognitive functions after menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Bojar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The aim of the study is to analyze the relationship between normative and non-normative thyroid tests (TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR and the level of cognitive functions in postmenopausal women. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 383 women from south-eastern Poland, aged 50-65 years. The cognitive functions were evaluated using a diagnostic instrument – Central Nervous System – Vital Signs (CNS-VS. Blood was collected for determination of the following parameters: TSH, TT4, TT3, FT3, FT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, AB-TSHR. Results: There were significant differences in NCI, executive functions, psychomotor speed, reaction time, complex attention and cognitive flexibility, depending on the normative and non-normative level of TSH. Women whose level of FT3 was at the lower limit of the normal range obtained poorer results in psychomotor speed, while subjects with levels of FT4 below the standard achieved significantly lower scores for this function. The relationship between NCI and cognitive functions, and the normative and non-normative anti-TPO results, showed significant differences in verbal memory, visual memory, processing speed and reaction time. The level of AB-TSHR reported as normal or above the norm significantly differentiated from the results of NCI, processing speed, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions : Concentrations of laboratory parameters assessing the thyroid function located within the upper limits of the normal range showed a different relationship with the cognitive performance than concentrations located within the lower limits of the standard.

  1. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age. PMID:28245274

  2. Orientation toward humans predicts cognitive performance in orang-utans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerius, Laura A.; Forss, Sofia I. F.; Kosonen, Zaida K.; Willems, Erik P.; Burkart, Judith M.; Call, Josep; Galdikas, Birute M. F.; Liebal, Katja; Haun, Daniel B. M.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-human animals sometimes show marked intraspecific variation in their cognitive abilities that may reflect variation in external inputs and experience during the developmental period. We examined variation in exploration and cognitive performance on a problem-solving task in a large sample of captive orang-utans (Pongo abelii & P. pygmaeus, N = 103) that had experienced different rearing and housing conditions during ontogeny, including human exposure. In addition to measuring exploration and cognitive performance, we also conducted a set of assays of the subjects’ psychological orientation, including reactions towards an unfamiliar human, summarized in the human orientation index (HOI), and towards novel food and objects. Using generalized linear mixed models we found that the HOI, rather than rearing background, best predicted both exploration and problem-solving success. Our results suggest a cascade of processes: human orientation was accompanied by a change in motivation towards problem-solving, expressed in reduced neophobia and increased exploration variety, which led to greater experience, and thus eventually to higher performance in the task. We propose that different experiences with humans caused individuals to vary in curiosity and understanding of the physical problem-solving task. We discuss the implications of these findings for comparative studies of cognitive ability. PMID:28067260

  3. Cognitive stimulation of executive functions in mild cognitive impairment: specific efficacy and impact in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, V; Condoleo, M T; Valbusa, V; Broggio, E; Moretto, G; Gambina, G

    2015-03-01

    Executive functions play an important role in the maintenance of autonomy in day-to-day activities. Nevertheless, there is little research into specific cognitive training for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We present the results of a program which aims to teach specific strategies and metacognitive abilities in order for patients to be able to carry out attentional and executive tasks. Two groups (A and B) were compared in a cross-over design. After the first evaluation, Group A (but not B) participated in a six month cognitive stimulation program. After a second assessment, only Group B received treatment and then a final evaluation was carried out on both groups. The results show that: i) both groups improved their performance as an effect of training; ii) improvements generalized to memory and general cognitive tasks; iii) in the interval without training, Group B's performance worsened and iv) Group A partially maintained their results over time.

  4. Difficulties in academic writing and cognitive functions: review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rodrigo Avendaño Castro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze some of the difficulties of academic writing at postgraduate level, reported in certain studies within the framework of the cognitive functions concept developed by Reuven Feuerstein and other works, which allow to evidence the possible relationship between these two phenomena. To do this, we explored the conceptual framework of cognitive functions and mental operations, based on the theory of Feuerstein, et al. (1994; later, it was performed a synthesis of the difficulties described by Carlino (2007, Slafer (2009 and Hernández (2009; finally, it was established evidence of the relationship between cognitive functions and difficulties in academic writing. The results show that the different difficulties evidenced in the writing processes at postgraduate level have their source in the cognitive deficits presented in each phase of the mental act (entry, elaboration and output. It is concluded that the difficulties in academic writing recorded in the studies have a close link with cognitive functions of the elaboration and output stages of thought, even though they are only associated with the input phase.

  5. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... trained in distributional analysis, he reifies ‘words’. Though rejecting inner languages and grammatical universals, he ascribes mental reality to a lexicon. Reliant as he is on transcriptions, he takes the cognitivist view that brains represent word-forms. By contrast, in radical embodied cognitive...

  6. Plasticity of human spatial cognition: spatial language and cognition covary across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B M; Rapold, Christian J; Janzen, Gabriele; Levinson, Stephen C

    2011-04-01

    The present paper explores cross-cultural variation in spatial cognition by comparing spatial reconstruction tasks by Dutch and Namibian elementary school children. These two communities differ in the way they predominantly express spatial relations in language. Four experiments investigate cognitive strategy preferences across different levels of task-complexity and instruction. Data show a correlation between dominant linguistic spatial frames of reference and performance patterns in non-linguistic spatial memory tasks. This correlation is shown to be stable across an increase of complexity in the spatial array. When instructed to use their respective non-habitual cognitive strategy, participants were not easily able to switch between strategies and their attempts to do so impaired their performance. These results indicate a difference not only in preference but also in competence and suggest that spatial language and non-linguistic preferences and competences in spatial cognition are systematically aligned across human populations.

  7. Breast Cancer Patients’ Cognitive Functioning Before and After Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina Maar; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    patients who were to receive chemotherapy scored higher on executive function than the controls (effect size (ES)=-0.202, p=0.011), but significantly lower on overall cognitive functioning as well as on the specific domains of attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, motor function, visual......Introduction: With improvements in treatment, a growing number of breast cancer patients survive their primary cancer and require counseling from their general practitioner (GP) on how to handle long-term side-effects of treatment. Many breast cancer patients experience cognitive problems following...... chemotherapy which interfere with their abilities to fulfill social and work-related responsibilities. However, since the cause of the cognitive problems is unknown, it is difficult for GPs to offer appropriate counseling on this issue. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available...

  8. Brain Protection and Cognitive Function: Cocoa Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia are major public health social problems, suggesting the specific need to provide research into risk factors for cognitive decline as priority topic. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress and neuroinflammation might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cognitive decline. Further, cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Alzheimer's disease as well as in vascular dementia seem to be also the consequence of cerebral blood flow decrease and deregulation, also suggesting a putative pathophysiological convergence of mechanisms between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. In keeping with this, a growing interest has been addressed to flavonoids as potential nutraceuticals with neuroprotective effects. Of interest, cocoa beans have been described as a fundamental source of anti-oxidant flavonoids with the flavan-3-ols and their derivatives being present in high concentrations. Therefore, recent studies specifically focused on the favorable effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate on cerebrovascular risk factors and cognitive function. Aim of this review is to summarize new findings concerning the cocoa effects on cognitive function, particularly focusing on some putative mechanisms of vascular and antioxidant action involved in preventing dementia.

  9. Cognitive Performance and Long-Term Social Functioning in Psychotic Disorder : A Three-Year Follow-Up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Claudia J P; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies have linked cognitive functioning to everyday social functioning in psychotic disorders, but the nature of the relationships between cognition, social cognition, symptoms, and social functioning remains unestablished. Modelling the contributions of non-social and social cognitive a

  10. Predicting cognitive function from clinical measures of physical function and health status in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niousha Bolandzadeh

    Full Text Available Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia-including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline-is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies.We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1-L2 regularized regression model (elastic net to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1 based on baseline cognitive function, 2 based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3 a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation.Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33 and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98. Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year.We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a clinical setting.

  11. Cognitive impairment in human chronic Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Mangone

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We proposed to investigate subclinical cognitive impairment secondary to chronic Chagas' disease (CCD. No similar study was previously done. The neuropsychological performance of 45 chronic Chagasic patients and 26 matched controls (age, education place and years of residency in endemic area was compared using the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE, Weschler Memory Scale (WMS and the Weschler Adult Intelligent Scale (WAIS. Non-parametric tests and Chi2 were used to compare group means and multivariate statistics in two way frequency tables for measures of independence and association of categorical variables with the disease. Results: Chagasic patients showed lower MMSE scores (p<004, poor orientation (p<.004, and attention (p<.007. Lower WMS MQ were associated with CCD (Chi2 5.9; p<.01; Fisher test p<.02. Lower WAIS IQ were associated with CCD (Chi2 6.3, p<.01; Fisher test p<.01 being the digit symbol (p<.03, picture completion (p<.03, picture arrangement (p<.01 and object assembly (p<.03 subtests the most affected. The impairment in non-verbal reasoning, speed of information processing, problem solving, learning and sequencing observed in chronic Chagas disease patients resembles the cognitive dysfunction associated with white matter disease.

  12. Simulating Human Cognitive Using Computational Verb Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGTao

    2004-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of a life system is closely connected to the modeling of cognition,especially for advanced life systems. The primary difference between an advanced life system and a digital computer is that the advanced life system consists of a body with mind while a digital computer is only a mind in a formal sense. To model an advanced life system one needs to symbols into a body where a digital computer is embedded. In this paper, a computational verb theory is proposed as a new paradigm of grounding symbols into the outputs of sensors. On one hand, a computational verb can preserve the physical "meanings" of the dynamics of sensor data such that a symbolic system can be used to manipulate physical meanings instead of abstract tokens in the digital computer. On the other hand, the physical meanings of an abstract symbol/token, which is usually an output of a reasoning process in the digital computer, can be restored and fed back to the actuators. Therefore, the computational verb theory bridges the gap between symbols and physical reality from the dynamic cognition perspective.

  13. Recombinant human erythropoietin to target cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Christensen, Ellen M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Available drug treatments for bipolar disorder fail to reverse patients' cognitive deficits. Erythropoietin has neurotrophic actions and aids neurocognitive function. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of erythropoietin to treat cognitive dysfunction in bipolar......; secondary outcomes were sustained attention and facial expression recognition; and tertiary outcomes were attention, executive function, subjective cognitive function, and mood. Analysis was by intention to treat, using repeated-measures analysis of covariance adjusted for stratification variables and mood...... in erythropoietin versus saline groups (P = .10). However, erythropoietin enhanced sustained attention (P = .001), recognition of happy faces (P = .03), and speed of complex information processing across learning, attention, and executive function (P = .01). These effects occurred in absence of changes in simple...

  14. Embedding Human Expert Cognition Into Autonomous UAS Trajectory Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pritesh; Meyer, Patrick; Campbell, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the inclusion of human expert cognition into autonomous trajectory planning for unmanned aerial systems (UASs) operating in low-altitude environments. During typical UAS operations, multiple objectives may exist; therefore, the use of multicriteria decision aid techniques can potentially allow for convergence to trajectory solutions which better reflect overall mission requirements. In that context, additive multiattribute value theory has been applied to optimize trajectories with respect to multiple objectives. A graphical user interface was developed to allow for knowledge capture from a human decision maker (HDM) through simulated decision scenarios. The expert decision data gathered are converted into value functions and corresponding criteria weightings using utility additive theory. The inclusion of preferences elicited from HDM data within an automated decision system allows for the generation of trajectories which more closely represent the candidate HDM decision preferences. This approach has been demonstrated in this paper through simulation using a fixed-wing UAS operating in low-altitude environments.

  15. Language, Conceptualization and TAM Marking: A Cognitive-functional Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Nuyts

    2009-01-01

    At the level of empirical phenomena, this paper deals with the system of 'Tense Aspect Modality' marking or of 'qualificational categories' in language. How is this system organized? What are the principles behind it? The major focus is on the modal categories. At the theoretical level, this paper addresses issues pertaining to the organization and functioning of the cognitive systems involved in language use, with special focus on the differences and correspondences between two major theoretical strands in present day linguistics, viz. 'functional linguistics' and 'cognitive linguistics'.

  16. Characterizing Cognitive Aging of Working Memory and Executive Function in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lynn Bizon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions supported by prefrontal cortical systems provide essential control and planning mechanisms to guide goal-directed behavior. As such, age-related alterations in executive functions can mediate profound and widespread deficits on a diverse array of neurocognitive processes. Many of the critical neuroanatomical and functional characteristics of prefrontal cortex are preserved in rodents, allowing for meaningful cross-species comparisons relevant to the study of cognitive aging. In particular, as rodents lend themselves to genetic, cellular and biochemical approaches, rodent models of executive function stand to significantly contribute to our understanding of the critical neurobiological mechanisms that mediate decline of executive processes across the lifespan. Moreover, rodent analogues of executive functions that decline in human aging represent an essential component of a targeted, rational approach for developing and testing effective treatment and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. This paper reviews behavioral approaches used to study executive function in rodents, with a focus on those assays that share a foundation in the psychological and neuroanatomical constructs important for human aging. A particular emphasis is placed on behavioral approaches used to assess working memory and cognitive flexibility, which are sensitive to decline with age across species and for which strong rodent models currently exist. In addition, other approaches in rodent behavior that have potential for providing analogues to functions that reliably decline to human aging (e.g., information processing speed are discussed.

  17. Characterizing cognitive aging of working memory and executive function in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, Jennifer L; Foster, Thomas C; Alexander, Gene E; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2012-01-01

    Executive functions supported by prefrontal cortical (PFC) systems provide essential control and planning mechanisms to guide goal-directed behavior. As such, age-related alterations in executive functions can mediate profound and widespread deficits on a diverse array of neurocognitive processes. Many of the critical neuroanatomical and functional characteristics of prefrontal cortex are preserved in rodents, allowing for meaningful cross species comparisons relevant to the study of cognitive aging. In particular, as rodents lend themselves to genetic, cellular and biochemical approaches, rodent models of executive function stand to significantly contribute to our understanding of the critical neurobiological mechanisms that mediate decline of executive processes across the lifespan. Moreover, rodent analogs of executive functions that decline in human aging represent an essential component of a targeted, rational approach for developing and testing effective treatment and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. This paper reviews behavioral approaches used to study executive function in rodents, with a focus on those assays that share a foundation in the psychological and neuroanatomical constructs important for human aging. A particular emphasis is placed on behavioral approaches used to assess working memory and cognitive flexibility, which are sensitive to decline with age across species and for which strong rodent models currently exist. In addition, other approaches in rodent behavior that have potential for providing analogs to functions that reliably decline to human aging (e.g., information processing speed) are discussed.

  18. Social cognition, empathy and functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Amy; McDonald, Skye; Lino, Bianca; O'Donnell, Maryanne; Green, Melissa J

    2010-09-01

    Social and occupational functioning difficulties are a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that deficits in social cognition contribute significantly to these functional impairments. The present study sought to investigate whether the association between social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia would be mediated by self-reported levels of empathy. Thirty outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and twenty-five healthy controls completed a well-validated facial affect processing task (Ekman 60-faces facial task from the Facial Expressions of Emotion - Stimuli and Tests; FEEST), The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; to assess emotion perception and complex social cognitive skills such as the detection of sarcasm and deceit, from realistic social exchanges), and measures of self-reported empathy and social functioning. Participants with schizophrenia performed more poorly than controls in identifying emotional states from both FEEST and TASIT stimuli, and were impaired in their ability to comprehend counterfactual information in social exchanges, including sarcasm and lies, on the TASIT. Impairment in the comprehension of sarcasm was associated with higher empathic personal distress, and lower recreational functioning. Impairment in the identification of the emotions of others was found to be associated with lower satisfaction and lower empathic fantasy. However, empathy could not be explored as a mediator of associations between social cognition and functional outcome, due to lack of common associations with functional outcome measures. These findings have implications for the remediation of specific social cognitive deficits with respect to improving functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  19. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  20. Does cognitive function predict frequency compressed speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and normal cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rachel J; Munro, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and frequency compressed speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and normal cognition. Speech-in-noise recognition was measured using Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers sentences presented over earphones at 65 dB SPL and a range of signal-to-noise ratios. There were three conditions: unprocessed, and at frequency compression ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 (cut-off frequency, 1.6 kHz). Working memory and cognitive ability were measured using the reading span test and the trail making test, respectively. Participants were 15 young normally-hearing adults with normal cognition. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean speech recognition from around 80% when unprocessed to 40% for 2:1 compression and 30% for 3:1 compression. There was a statistically significant relationship between speech recognition and cognition for the unprocessed condition but not for the frequency-compressed conditions. The relationship between cognitive functioning and recognition of frequency compressed speech-in-noise was not statistically significant. The findings may have been different if the participants had been provided with training and/or time to 'acclimatize' to the frequency-compressed conditions.

  1. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time.

  2. Functionalism as a philosophical theory of the cognitive sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polger, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    Functionalism is a philosophical theory (or family of theories) concerning the nature of mental states. According to functionalism psychological/cognitive states are essentially functional states of whole systems. Functionalism characterizes psychological states essentially according to what they do, by their relations to stimulus inputs and behavioral outputs as well as their relations to other psychological and nonpsychological internal states of a system. The central constructive relation for functionalism is the so-called realization relation. Realization is a proposal for how psychological states can be real, physical, and causally efficacious while at the same time preserving the autonomy of cognitive explanations and avoiding reduction or elimination. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:337-348. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1170 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinaemia and cognitive function in a general population of elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kalmijn (Sandra); E.J.M. Feskens (Edith); L.J. Launer (Lenore); Th. Stijnen (Theo); D. Kromhout (Daan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCognitive impairment is highly prevalent among the elderly. Subjects with disturbed glucose metabolism may be at risk of impaired cognitive function, as these disturbances can influence cognition through atherosclerosis, thrombosis and hypertension. We therefore studied the

  4. Disturbed cognitive functioning and clinical symptoms : two independent problem areas in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, GHM; van Beilen, M; Arends, J; Holthausen, EAE; Withaar, FK

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research findings on the relationship between cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia have yielded inconsistent results. Although several models were postulated linking cognition and symptoms, the most recent studies point in the direction of cognition and symptom

  5. Cognitive functioning in depression period of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtalska, Julita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Study aims were to compare neuropsychological functioning of depressed bipolar patients and healthy controls and to estimate relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. Method. Cognitive functions were examined in 30 depressed bipolar patients aged 18-68 (M=45,6, SD=12,6; 18 women and 12 men who fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for depressive episode (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥11. The comparison group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 23-71 (M=46, 20 women and 10 men matched in age, years of education and gender to bipolar group. A neuropsychological battery assessed executive functions and working memory. Results. The bipolar patients in depression revealed neuropsychological deficits in working memory and some aspects of executive functions in comparison to healthy group. Only in WCST test both groups received similar results. Neuropsychological functioning seems to be independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. Discussion. Different aspects of working memory and executive functions are impaired in depression period of bipolar disorder and they seem independent of the severity of depressive symptoms. These results are consistent with previous reports. Conclusions. In patients with bipolar depression cognitive assessment should be taken into account in the diagnosis and the disturbances in executive functions and working memory should be treated with neuropsychological rehabilitation and / or pharmacotherapy.

  6. Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: a study of cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek ePreiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in Executive Control. We used computerized cognitive training in anattempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 minutes each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed Executive Control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found improvements in Executive Control. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvements did not predict the improvements in everyday coping, and mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six Executive Control tests and on the Global Executive Control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

  7. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ule

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest, mind (slo. um, and spirit (slo. duh. They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to consciously comprehend and understand contents and objects of human activity. I delineate three “types” of spirit: personal spirit, objective spirit, and the objectification of spirit in productions of human culture; I have doubts, however, about the existence of cosmic or super-cosmic dimensions of spirit, although some interpretations of quantum physics and modern cosmology suggest that such dimensions are possible.

  8. Dose-related effects of alcohol on cognitive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Dry

    Full Text Available We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N = 56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18-45 years were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%, employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention; the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory; Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding; the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization; the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function; and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function. Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties.

  9. Human strategic reasoning in dynamic games: Experiments, logics, cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Halder, Tamoghna; Sharma, Khyati; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.This article provides a three-way interaction between experiments, logic and cognitive modelling so as to bring out a shared perspective among these diverse areas, aiming towards better understanding and better modelling of human strategic reasoning in

  10. Environmental Stimulation, Parental Nurturance and Cognitive Development in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Martha J.; Betancourt, Laura; Shera, David M.; Savage, Jessica H.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Malmud, Elsa K.; Hurt, Hallam

    2008-01-01

    The effects of environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on brain development have been studied extensively in animals. Much less is known about the relations between childhood experience and cognitive development in humans. Using a longitudinally collected data set with ecologically valid in-home measures of childhood experience and later…

  11. Human strategic reasoning in dynamic games: Experiments, logics, cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Sujata; Halder, Tamoghna; Sharma, Khyati; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2015-01-01

    © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.This article provides a three-way interaction between experiments, logic and cognitive modelling so as to bring out a shared perspective among these diverse areas, aiming towards better understanding and better modelling of human strategic reasoning in dynami

  12. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Hannele; Eklund, Niina; Gandin, Ilaria; Nutile, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U.; Schurmann, Claudia; Smith, Albert V.; Zhang, Weihua; Okada, Yukinori; Stančáková, Alena; Faul, Jessica D.; Zhao, Wei; Bartz, Traci M.; Concas, Maria Pina; Franceschini, Nora; Enroth, Stefan; Vitart, Veronique; Trompet, Stella; Guo, Xiuqing; Chasman, Daniel I.; O’Connel, Jeffery R.; Corre, Tanguy; Nongmaithem, Suraj S.; Chen, Yuning; Mangino, Massimo; Ruggiero, Daniela; Traglia, Michela; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Kacprowski, Tim; Bjonnes, Andrew; van der Spek, Ashley; Wu, Ying; Giri, Anil K.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Wang, Lihua; Hofer, Edith; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; McLeod, Olga; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Pattaro, Cristian; Verweij, Niek; Baumbach, Clemens; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Warren, Helen R.; Vuckovic, Dragana; Mei, Hao; Bouchard, Claude; Perry, John R.B.; Cappellani, Stefania; Mirza, Saira S.; Benton, Miles C.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Medland, Sarah E.; Lind, Penelope A.; Malerba, Giovanni; Drong, Alexander; Yengo, Loic; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhi, Degui; van der Most, Peter J.; Shriner, Daniel; Mägi, Reedik; Hemani, Gibran; Karaderi, Tugce; Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Tian; Demuth, Ilja; Zhao, Jing Hua; Meng, Weihua; Lataniotis, Lazaros; van der Laan, Sander W.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Wood, Andrew R.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Hall, Leanne M.; Salvi, Erika; Yazar, Seyhan; Carstensen, Lisbeth; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Abney, Mark; Afzal, Uzma; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Barr, R. Graham; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Campbell, Archie; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chan, Yingleong; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Chen, Y.-D. Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John; Correa, Adolfo; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; Dörr, Marcus; Ehret, Georg; Ellis, Stephen B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ford, Ian; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Friedrich, Nele; Geller, Frank; Scotland, Generation; Gillham-Nasenya, Irina; Gottesman, Omri; Graff, Misa; Grodstein, Francine; Gu, Charles; Haley, Chris; Hammond, Christopher J.; Harris, Sarah E.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hocking, Lynne J.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ingelsson, Erik; Joensuu, Anni; Johansson, Åsa; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kähönen, Mika; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kerr, Shona M.; Khan, Nazir M.; Koellinger, Philipp; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Manraj K.; Kubo, Michiaki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lahti, Jari; Launer, Lenore J.; Lea, Rodney A.; Lehne, Benjamin; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.M.; Lind, Lars; Loh, Marie; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; London, Stephanie J.; Loomis, Stephanie J.; Loukola, Anu; Lu, Yingchang; Lumley, Thomas; Lundqvist, Annamari; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Masciullo, Corrado; Matchan, Angela; Mathias, Rasika A.; Matsuda, Koichi; Meigs, James B.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Menni, Cristina; Mentch, Frank D.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Montasser, May E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morrison, Alanna; Myers, Richard H.; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Navarro, Pau; Nelis, Mari; Nieminen, Markku S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O’Connor, George T.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmas, Walter R.; Pankow, James S.; Patarcic, Inga; Pavani, Francesca; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pietilainen, Kirsi; Poulter, Neil; Prokopenko, Inga; Ralhan, Sarju; Redmond, Paul; Rich, Stephen S.; Rissanen, Harri; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rose, Richard; Sala, Cinzia; Salako, Babatunde; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Saxena, Richa; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Laura J.; Scott, William R.; Sennblad, Bengt; Seshadri, Sudha; Sever, Peter; Shrestha, Smeeta; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Soranzo, Nicole; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Southam, Lorraine; Stanton, Alice V.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Strauch, Konstantin; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Suderman, Matthew J.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tang, Sian-Tsun; Taylor, Kent D.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Töglhofer, Anna Maria; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; van Setten, Jessica; Vasankari, Tuula; Vedantam, Sailaja; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Vozzi, Diego; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ware, Erin B.; Wentworth-Shields, William; Whitfield, John B.; Wild, Sarah; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yao, Jie; Zaza, Gianluigi; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Project, The BioBank Japan; Salem, Rany M.; Melbye, Mads; Bisgaard, Hans; Samani, Nilesh J.; Cusi, Daniele; Mackey, David A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Froguel, Philippe; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ferrucci, Luigi; Scott, Robert A.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Bertram, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tönjes, Anke; Munroe, Patricia B.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Arnett, Donna K.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Balkau, Beverley; Gambaro, Giovanni; Morris, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Wright, Margie J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hunt, Steven C.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Tiemeier, Henning; Pirastu, Nicola; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Pérusse, Louis; Wilson, James G.; Girotto, Giorgia; Caulfield, Mark J.; Raitakari, Olli; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gieger, Christian; van der Harst, Pim; Hicks, Andrew A.; Kraft, Peter; Sinisalo, Juha; Knekt, Paul; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Hamsten, Anders; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Becker, Diane M.; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boehnke, Michael; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Teumer, Alexander; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Metspalu, Andres; Gasparini, Paolo; Ulivi, Sheila; Ober, Carole; Toniolo, Daniela; Rudan, Igor; Porteous, David J.; Ciullo, Marina; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Dupuis, Josée; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Wright, Alan F.; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Vollenweider, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan; Ridker, Paul M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sattar, Naveed; Gyllensten, Ulf; North, Kari E.; Pirastu, Mario; Psaty, Bruce M.; Weir, David R.; Laakso, Markku; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Takahashi, Atsushi; Chambers, John C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Strachan, David P.; Campbell, Harry; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Perola, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders1 and Darwin was one of the first to recognise that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness2. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity, ROH), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power3,4. Here we use ROH to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity (SROH) and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in 1 second (FEV1), general cognitive ability (g) and educational attainment (nominal p<1 × 10−300, 2.1 × 10−6, 2.5 × 10−10, 1.8 × 10−10). In each case increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing convincing evidence for the first time that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples5,6, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection7, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been

  13. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Eric P; Sarnak, Mark J; Tighiouart, Hocine; Scott, Tammy; Giang, Lena M; Kirkpatrick, Bethany; Lou, Kristina; Weiner, Daniel E

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Cognitive Function (KDQOL-CF) scale in comparison to an extensive neuropsychological battery, building on a prior assessment of this potential cognitive screen. Cross-sectional cohort. Maintenance hemodialysis patients at 6 Boston area dialysis units were administered an extensive neurocognitive battery and the KDQOL-CF at the beginning of a hemodialysis session. KDQOL-CF score, depression symptom burden, and demographic and clinical characteristics. Neurocognitive performance classified into executive function and memory domains, determined using principal components analysis. Univariate and multivariable linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, and end-stage renal disease cause were used to evaluate the association between KDQOL-CF score and cognitive performance, and test metrics were determined for a KDQOL-CF cutoff score of 60 or less from a maximum score of 100. For 168 prevalent hemodialysis patients, KDQOL-CF score was 76 ± 19 and 40 (24%) had scores of 60 or less, consistent with self-identified worse cognitive performance. There was no significant correlation between KDQOL-CF score and either memory (P = 0.2 and P = 0.3) or executive function (P = 0.1 and P = 0.4) in univariate and multivariable models, respectively. There was a strong correlation between higher KDQOL-CF score and fewer depression symptoms (P range, 0.28-0.36), with modest specificity (range, 0.77-0.81) for identifying worse executive function and memory. Cross-sectional study, modest population size, and abbreviated gold-standard cognitive battery. The KDQOL-CF is a poor determinant of neurocognitive performance in hemodialysis patients, with limited sensitivity. To assess cognitive

  14. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood...... perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem...... is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we...

  15. [Functional impairment associated with cognitive impairment in hospitalised elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Chaparro, José Mauricio; Mosquera-Jiménez, José Ignacio; Davis, Annabelle S; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2017-06-24

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cognitive impairment on functional decline in hospitalised patients aged ≥60 years. Measurements at admission included demographic data, Charlson's comorbidity index, and cognitive impairment (according to education level). Data were also collected on hospital length of stay, depression, and delirium developed during hospitalisation. The outcome, Barthel Index (BI), was measured at admission, discharge, and 1-month post-discharge. Patients with BI≤75 at admission (n=54) or with a missing BI value were excluded (n=1). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore predictive factors with functional decline (BI≤75) from admission to discharge, and 1-month later. Of the 133 patients included, 24.8% and 19.6% had a BI≤75 at discharge and at 1-month, respectively. Compared with men, women had more than double risk for functional decline at discharge and 1-month (P<.05). Compared with those without delirium and without cognitive impairment, those with delirium and cognitive impairment had an increased risk for functional decline (BI≤75) at discharge (OR 5.15, 95% CI; 1.94-13.67), and at 1-month (OR 6.26, 95% CI; 2.30-17.03). Similarly, those with comorbidity (≥2) had increased functional decline at discharge (OR 2.36, 95% CI; 1.14-4.87), and at 1-month after discharge (OR 2.71, 95% CI; 1.25-5.89). Delirium during hospitalisation, together with cognitive impairment on admission, was a strong predictor of functional decline. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired cognitive function and mental performance in mild dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M-M G; Morley, J E

    2003-12-01

    Dehydration is a reliable predictor of impaired cognitive status. Objective data, using tests of cortical function, support the deterioration of mental performance in mildly dehydrated younger adults. Dehydration frequently results in delirium as a manifestation of cognitive dysfunction. Although, the occurrence of delirium suggests transient acute global cerebral dysfunction, cognitive impairment may not be completely reversible. Animal studies have identified neuronal mitochondrial damage and glutamate hypertransmission in dehydrated rats. Additional studies have identified an increase in cerebral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity (nitric oxide synthase, NOS) with dehydration. Available evidence also implicates NOS as a neurotransmitter in long-term potentiation, rendering this a critical enzyme in facilitating learning and memory. With ageing, a reduction of NOS activity has been identified in the cortex and striatum of rats. The reduction of NOs synthase activity that occurs with ageing may blunt the rise that occurs with dehydration, and possibly interfere with memory processing and cognitive function. Dehydration has been shown to be a reliable predictor of increasing frailty, deteriorating mental performance and poor quality of life. Intervention models directed toward improving outcomes in dehydration must incorporate strategies to enhance prompt recognition of cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Cognitive rehabilitation of working memory in juvenile multiple sclerosis-effects on cognitive functioning, functional MRI and network related connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, Martina; DeLuca, John; Weber, Peter; Steinlin, Maja; Kappos, Ludwig; Opwis, Klaus; Penner, Iris-Katharina

    2015-01-01

    To assess possible effects of working memory (WM) training on cognitive functionality, functional MRI and brain connectivity in patients with juvenile MS. Cognitive status, fMRI and inter-network connectivity were assessed in 5 cases with juvenile MS aged between 12 and 18 years. Afterwards they received a computerized WM training for four weeks. Primary cognitive outcome measures were WM (visual and verbal) and alertness. Activation patterns related to WM were assessed during fMRI using an N-Back task with increasing difficulty. Inter-network connectivity analyses were focused on fronto-parietal (left and right), default-mode (dorsal and ventral) and the anterior salience network. Cognitive functioning, fMRI and inter-network connectivity were reassessed directly after the training and again nine months following training. Response to treatment was seen in two patients. These patients showed increased performance in WM and alertness after the training. These behavioural changes were accompanied by increased WM network activation and systematic changes in inter-network connectivity. The remaining participants were non-responders to treatment. Effects on cognitive performance were maintained up to nine months after training, whereas effects observed by fMRI disappeared. Responders revealed training effects on all applied outcome measures. Disease activity and general intelligence may be factors associated with response to treatment.

  18. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  19. Prenatal maternal depression symptoms and nutrition, and child cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Kirkham, Natasha; Ng, Jane; Jensen, Sarah K G

    2013-12-01

    Little is currently known about how maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy nutrition during pregnancy may developmentally interrelate to negatively affect child cognitive function. To test whether prenatal maternal depression symptoms predict poor prenatal nutrition, and whether this in turn prospectively associates with reduced postnatal child cognitive function. In 6979 mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK, maternal depression symptoms were assessed five times between 18 weeks gestation and 33 months old. Maternal reports of the nutritional environment were assessed at 32 weeks gestation and 47 months old, and child cognitive function was assessed at age 8 years. During gestation, higher depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of healthy nutrition and higher levels of unhealthy nutrition, each of which in turn was prospectively associated with reduced cognitive function. These results were robust to postnatal depression symptoms and nutrition, as well as a range of potential prenatal and postnatal confounds (i.e. poverty, teenage mother, low maternal education, parity, birth complications, substance use, criminal lifestyle, partner cruelty towards mother). Prenatal interventions aimed at the well-being of children of parents with depression should consider targeting the nutritional environment.

  20. Cognitive functioning after whiplash injury: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Aleman, A.; Verhagen, W.I.M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Complaints of cognitive functioning are often reported in patients suffering from whiplash syndrome, although objective neuropsychological test results do not always support these. In addition, radiological abnormalities and anatomical lesions are found only in a minority of these patients. This has

  1. Cognitive functioning in meningioma patients : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskal, I.; Gehring, K.; Rutten, G.J.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review evaluates relevant findings and methodologic aspects of studies on cognitive functioning in meningioma patients prior to and/or following surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases were searched until December 2015. From 1012

  2. Impaired cognitive function in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H.; Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Reinisch, June M.

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder with a wide spectrum of severity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate cognitive function in CAH women. DESIGN: This was a case-control study. SETTING: This study was conducted at a tertiary center for pediatric...

  3. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Vojinovic (Dina); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); S. van der Lee (Sven); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); R.W.W. Brouwer (Rutger); M.C.G.N. van den hout (Mirjam); E. Oole (Edwin); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); A. Aartsma-Rus (Annemieke); G.-J.B. Van Ommen (Gert-Jan B.); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia M.); N. Amin (Najaf)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterd

  4. Vascular Burden and Cognitive Function in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, Marij; Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Naarding, Paul; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from genera

  5. Vascular burden and cognitive function in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, M.; Izaks, G.J.; Naarding, P.; Comijs, H.C.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from genera

  6. Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

  7. [Impaired cognitive function in hepatitis C - a review.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter; Hjerrild, Simon;

    2010-01-01

    Impaired cognitive function is commonly seen in patients with hepatitis C-virus (HCV). This might be due to a toxic effect of the virus itself or to neuroinflammatory processes with a direct damaging cerebral effect. The symptoms appear in the pre-cirrhotic stage and impair the patient's level...

  8. Vascular Burden and Cognitive Function in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidersma, Marij; Izaks, Gerbrand J.; Naarding, Paul; Comijs, Hannie C.; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of vascular risk factors, subclinical, and manifest vascular disease with four domains of cognitive functioning in a large sample of clinically depressed older persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was used, and depressed patients were recruited from

  9. Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

  10. Lifetime Musical Activities and Cognitive Function of the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Nevriana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing cognitive function of the elderly is one of the most common problems that might affect their quality of life. Music is an element that is believed to be able to contribute to the quality of life of the elderly. However, whether musical activities that are done throughout the life span related to cognitive function is unclear. In this research, we evaluated the association between lifetime musical activities and cognitive function. Fifty three older adults from three nursing homes in East Jakarta were selected and interviewed regarding their characteristics and lifetime musical activities. Cognitive function was also measured using Mini Mental State Examinaion (MMSE. The results of this preliminary study revealed that a possibility of an association between lifetime musical activities and cognitive function of the elderly was indicated. The result also showed that the participants who were not actively involved in musical activities during their lifetime were twice more likely to develop cognitive function impairment than the elderly who were actively involved in musical activities, after being adjusted by the characteristics. These correlational results suggest the beneficial effect of musical activities throughout the life span on cognitive functioning for the elderly. Penurunan fungsi kognitif merupakan salah satu masalah umum pada lanjut usia yang mampu memengaruhi kualitas hidup mereka. Musik merupakan sebuah elemen yang dipercaya mampu berkontribusi terhadap kualitas hidup mereka. Meski demikian, hubungan antara aktivitas musikal yang dilakukan sepanjang hidup dan fungsi kognitif lansia belum diketahui secara pasti. Pada penelitian ini, hubungan antara aktivitas musikal sepanjang hidup dan fungsi kognitif dievaluasi. Lima puluh tiga lansia penghuni panti tresna werdha di Jakarta Timur dipilih dan diwawancarai terkait karakteristik dan aktivitas musikal sepanjang hidup mereka. Fungsi kognitif juga diukur menggunakan MMSE. Hasil

  11. Cognitive function at 2443 μmol/l creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sabrina; Malecki, Anne-Kathrin; Boenisch, Olaf; Schönfeld, Robby; Kielstein, Jan T

    2012-08-15

    One hallmark of uremia is the impairment of neuro-cognitive function. Anecdotal clinical description from the early days of chronic dialysis therapy impressively illustrates the improvement of those functions by chronic hemodialysis treatment. Fortunately, today, uremia is only rarely observed in industrialized countries as many patients seek medical/nephrological attention prior to the occurrence of deadly complications of uremia. We report a rare case of severe uremia and describe the day to day improvement in neuro-cognitive function by dialysis using state of the arte test battery--starting at a serum creatinine of 2443 μmol/l. Especially executive functions, which are assumed to be localized in the frontal cerebral regions, are impaired in severe uremia and improve remarkably with the correction of severe uremia, i.e., initiation of dialysis.

  12. Cognitive-neuropsychological function in chronic physical aggression and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Jean R; Nagin, Daniel; Assaad, Jean-Marc; Tremblay, Richard E

    2004-11-01

    Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found. In a 1st model, both histories of problem behavior were independently associated with cognitive-neuropsychological function in most domains. In a second model controlling for IQ, General Memory, and test motivation, none of the three Working Memory tests (relevant to executive function) remained associated with physical aggression or hyperactivity. These results support an additive model but no specificity to executive function [corrected]. Copyright 2004 APA.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2014-10-01

    Image quality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain currently approximate gross anatomy as would be viewed at autopsy. During the first decade of the 21st Century incredible advances in image processing and quantification have occurred permitting more refined methods for studying brain-behavior-cognitive functioning. The current presentation overviews the current status of MRI methods for routine clinical assessment of brain pathology, how these techniques identify neuropathology and how pathological findings are quantified. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and resting state fMRI are all reviewed, emphasizing how these techniques permit an examination of brain function and connectivity. General regional relationships of brain function associated with cognitive control will be highlighted.

  14. Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

  15. Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

  16. Self-reported difficulties with everyday function, cognitive symptoms and cognitive function in people with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis J; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and ques......BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests...... when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work...

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer G.; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Ome...

  18. Effect of Smoking on Cognitive Functioning in Young Saudi Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shahid; Alghamdi, Faisal; Alhussien, Ahmed; Alohali, Meshal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Almusned, Tariq; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. Material/Methods We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18–29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive functions outcome variables were the response time (attention-switching task [AST]), and the percentage of correct response (pattern recognition memory [PRM] task). Clinical, demographic, blood markers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E) were assessed between groups. Results The 2 groups were matched for age and educational status. In comparison to the control group, smokers showed significant cognitive impairments in AST-Latency (p=0.001), AST-Congruent (p=0.001), and AST-Incongruent condition (p=0.001). There was not significant difference in BDNF APOE serum level between the 2 groups. Conclusions These results indicate that attention and alertness were significantly impaired in smokers compared to non-smokers. PMID:28223681

  19. Heredity of cognitive functions and personality in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalasūnienė, Loreta; Goštautas, Antanas; Sinkus, Algimantas

    2013-01-01

    The inheritance of cognitive functions and personality is still a problem under investigation. A classical method, investigation of twins, is often used to find relative contributions from genetics and the environment to quantitative traits. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible influence of heredity on cognitive functions (by applying the Raven test) and personality traits (according to the Eysenck's theory) in twins. In total, 139 pairs of same-sex twins were investigated. The zygosity of the twin pairs was confirmed through genotyping with 15 molecular DNA markers. Constructive thinking was assessed using the Raven test. Personality assessment was conducted using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) in Lithuanian. The difference in the total number of incorrect solutions between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs younger than 15 years was not significant; however, in the group older than 15 years, this difference was found to be significant. Based on the total number of incorrect solutions, the concordance in the MZ twins was greater than in the DZ twins. The same tendency was found with cumulative EPQ scores on the extraversion scale. The results imply that the quality of cognitive functions and personality traits (extraversion) can be influenced by heredity. This confirms previous findings on the heritability of cognitive factors and personality traits.

  20. L\\'evy flights in human behavior and cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    L\\'evy flights represent the best strategy to randomly search for a target in an unknown environment, and have been widely observed in many animal species. Here, we inspect and discuss recent results concerning human behavior and cognition. Different studies have shown that human mobility can be described in terms of L\\'evy flights, while fresh evidence indicates that the same pattern accounts for human mental searches in online gambling sites. Thus, L\\'evy flights emerge as a unifying concept with broad cross-disciplinary implications. We argue that the ubiquity of such a pattern, both in behavior and cognition, suggests that the brain regions responsible for this behavior are likely to be evolutionarily old (i.e. no frontal cortex is involved), and that fMRI techniques might help to confirm this hypothesis.

  1. White matter hyperintensities, executive function and global cognitive performance in vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Kenji Sudo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI represents an early symptomatic stage of vascular cognitive impairment and might be associated to fronto-executive dysfunction. Methods Twenty-six individuals (age: 73.11±7.90 years; 65.4% female; schooling: 9.84±3.61 years were selected through neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging. Clinical and neuroimaging data of VaMCI individuals (n=15 were compared to normal controls (NC, n=11 and correlated with Fazekas scale. Results VaMCI performed significantly worse than NC in Trail-Making Test (TMT B, errors in TMT B, difference TMT B-A and Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG final scores. Correlations were found among scores in modified Fazekas scale and performances in TMT B (time to complete and errors, difference TMT B-A and CAMCOG total score. Conclusion Extension of white matter hyperintensities might be correlated to poorer global cognition and impairments in a set of fronto-executive functions, such as cognitive speed, set shifting and inhibitory control in VaMCI.

  2. Anhedonia and cognitive function in adults with MDD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Soczynska, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which...... measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia...... variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia. METHOD: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled...

  3. [High ability children and their differential cognitive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S

    2008-01-01

    From the neuroconstructivist point of view, cognitive development is understood as a process of successive and continuous reorganization whose changing mechanisms and differential outcomes (typical and atypical) must be studied. High intellectual abilities are one of their differential manifestations but its concept and nature is confused conditioning the validity of its identification and the efficacy of the interventional programs. To propose a clarifying definition of the nature of high intellectual abilities and their manifestations: giftedness, talent and genious, as well as their cognitive functioning and neurological correlates. A qualitative task analysis is applied to 41 participants with intellectual profiles corresponding to: giftedness, talent and typical intelligence, previously obtained. Results show differences on the cognitive results, not only referred to the quantity of informations produced but in the data organization more complex and hard interrelated among the gifted participants. It must be a differential process of resolution adjusted to each one of the profiles studied.

  4. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  5. Smartphones and Cognition: A Review of Research Exploring the Links between Mobile Technology Habits and Cognitive Functioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jason M. Chein; Henry H. Wilmer; Lauren E. Sherman

    2017-01-01

    ... of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough...

  6. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Li Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane’s Risk of Bias (ROB tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD of −0.55 (−1.04, −0.06 and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (−0.001, 1.40. For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (−0.16, 1.42. Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE.

  7. Chicken Essence for Cognitive Function Improvement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Siew Li; Sudfangsai, Suthinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lai, Nai Ming; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-20

    Chicken essence (CE) is a popular traditional remedy in Asia, which is believed to improve cognitive functions. CE company claimed that the health benefits were proven with research studies. A systematic review was conducted to determine the cognitive-enhancing effects of CE. We systematically searched a number of databases for randomized controlled trials with human subjects consuming CE and cognitive tests involved. Cochrane's Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the quality of trials and meta-analysis was performed. Seven trials were included, where six healthy subjects and one subject with poorer cognitive functions were recruited. One trial had unclear ROB while the rest had high ROB. For executive function tests, there was a significant difference favoring CE (pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.55 (-1.04, -0.06)) and another with no significant difference (pooled SMD of 0.70 (-0.001, 1.40)). For short-term memory tests, no significant difference was found (pooled SMD of 0.63 (-0.16, 1.42)). Currently, there is a lack of convincing evidence to show a cognitive enhancing effect of CE.

  8. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  9. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan.

  10. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  11. What’s blocking sustainability? Human nature, cognition, and denial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rees

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, 1,700 of the world’s top scientists issued a public statement titled The World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity. They reported that “a great change in our stewardship of the Earth and the life on it is required if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated.” More than a decade later, the authors of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment were moved to echo the scientists’ warning asserting that “[h]uman activity is putting such a strain on the natural functions of the Earth that the ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted.” Ours is allegedly a science-based culture. For decades, our best science has suggested that staying on our present growth-based path to global development implies catastrophe for billions of people and undermines the possibility of maintaining a complex global civilization. Yet there is scant evidence that national governments, the United Nations, or other official international organizations have begun seriously to contemplate the implications for humanity of the scientists’ warnings, let alone articulate the kind of policy responses the science evokes. The modern world remains mired in a swamp of cognitive dissonance and collective denial seemingly dedicated to maintaining the status quo. We appear, in philosopher Martin Heidegger’s words, to be “in flight from thinking.” Just what is going on here? I attempt to answer this question by exploring the distal, biosocial causes of human economic behavior. My working hypothesis is that modern H. sapiens is unsustainable by nature—unsustainability is an inevitable emergent property of the systemic interaction between contemporary technoindustrial society and the ecosphere. I trace this conundrum to humanity’s once-adaptive, subconscious, genetic predisposition to expand (shared with all other species, a tendency reinforced by

  12. Cybersecurity systems for human cognition augmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Robinson E; Shevenell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book explores cybersecurity research and development efforts, including ideas that deal with the growing challenge of how computing engineering can merge with neuroscience. The contributing authors, who are renowned leaders in this field, thoroughly examine new technologies that will automate security procedures and perform autonomous functions with decision making capabilities. To maximize reader insight into the range of professions dealing with increased cybersecurity issues, this book presents work performed by government, industry, and academic research institutions working at the fr

  13. Telerobotic Pointing Gestures Shape Human Spatial Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibihan, John-John; Saj, Sujin; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore whether human beings can understand gestures produced by telepresence robots. If it were the case, they can derive meaning conveyed in telerobotic gestures when processing spatial information. We conducted two experiments over Skype in the present study. Participants were presented with a robotic interface that had arms, which were teleoperated by an experimenter. The robot could point to virtual locations that represented certain entities. In Experiment 1, the experimenter described spatial locations of fictitious objects sequentially in two conditions: speech condition (SO, verbal descriptions clearly indicated the spatial layout) and speech and gesture condition (SR, verbal descriptions were ambiguous but accompanied by robotic pointing gestures). Participants were then asked to recall the objects' spatial locations. We found that the number of spatial locations recalled in the SR condition was on par with that in the SO condition, suggesting that telerobotic pointing gestures c...

  14. Reduction of brain kynurenic acid improves cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Rouba; Campbell, Brian M; Strick, Christine A; Horner, Weldon; Hoffmann, William E; Kiss, Tamas; Chapin, Douglas S; McGinnis, Dina; Abbott, Amanda L; Roberts, Brooke M; Fonseca, Kari; Guanowsky, Victor; Young, Damon A; Seymour, Patricia A; Dounay, Amy; Hajos, Mihaly; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A

    2014-08-06

    The elevation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) observed in schizophrenic patients may contribute to core symptoms arising from glutamate hypofunction, including cognitive impairments. Although increased KYNA levels reduce excitatory neurotransmission, KYNA has been proposed to act as an endogenous antagonist at the glycine site of the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and as a negative allosteric modulator at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Levels of KYNA are elevated in CSF and the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients, and these elevated levels of KYNA could contribute to NMDAR hypofunction and the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms associated with this disease. However, the impact of endogenously produced KYNA on brain function and behavior is less well understood due to a paucity of pharmacological tools. To address this issue, we identified PF-04859989, a brain-penetrable inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for most brain KYNA synthesis. In rats, systemic administration of PF-04859989 dose-dependently reduced brain KYNA to as little as 28% of basal levels, and prevented amphetamine- and ketamine-induced disruption of auditory gating and improved performance in a sustained attention task. It also prevented ketamine-induced disruption of performance in a working memory task and a spatial memory task in rodents and nonhuman primates, respectively. Together, these findings support the hypotheses that endogenous KYNA impacts cognitive function and that inhibition of KAT II, and consequent lowering of endogenous brain KYNA levels, improves cognitive performance under conditions considered relevant for schizophrenia.

  15. A natural history of the human mind: tracing evolutionary changes in brain and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Subiaul, Francys; Zawidzki, Tadeusz W

    2008-01-01

    Since the last common ancestor shared by modern humans, chimpanzees and bonobos, the lineage leading to Homo sapiens has undergone a substantial change in brain size and organization. As a result, modern humans display striking differences from the living apes in the realm of cognition and linguistic expression. In this article, we review the evolutionary changes that occurred in the descent of Homo sapiens by reconstructing the neural and cognitive traits that would have characterized the last common ancestor and comparing these with the modern human condition. The last common ancestor can be reconstructed to have had a brain of approximately 300–400 g that displayed several unique phylogenetic specializations of development, anatomical organization, and biochemical function. These neuroanatomical substrates contributed to the enhancement of behavioral flexibility and social cognition. With this evolutionary history as precursor, the modern human mind may be conceived as a mosaic of traits inherited from a common ancestry with our close relatives, along with the addition of evolutionary specializations within particular domains. These modern human-specific cognitive and linguistic adaptations appear to be correlated with enlargement of the neocortex and related structures. Accompanying this general neocortical expansion, certain higher-order unimodal and multimodal cortical areas have grown disproportionately relative to primary cortical areas. Anatomical and molecular changes have also been identified that might relate to the greater metabolic demand and enhanced synaptic plasticity of modern human brain's. Finally, the unique brain growth trajectory of modern humans has made a significant contribution to our species’ cognitive and linguistic abilities. PMID:18380864

  16. A narrative review of physical activity, nutrition, and obesity to cognition and scholastic performance across the human lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Toni M; Hillman, Charles H

    2011-03-01

    We reviewed studies that examine the relationship of energy consumption, storage, and expenditure to cognition and scholastic performance. Specifically, the literature base on nutrient intake, body mass, and physical activity is described relative to cognitive development and academic achievement. The review of literature regarding the overconsumption of energy and excess body mass suggests poorer academic achievement during development and greater decay of brain structure and function accompanied by increased cognitive aging during older adulthood. The review of literature regarding energy expenditure through the adoption of increased physical activity participation suggests increased cognitive health and function. Although this area of study is in its infancy, the preliminary data are promising and matched with the declining physical health of industrialized nations; this area of science could provide insight aimed at improving brain health and cognitive function across the human lifespan.

  17. A functional approach for research on cognitive control: Analysing cognitive control tasks and their effects in terms of operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive control is an important mental ability that is examined using a multitude of cognitive control tasks and effects. The present paper presents the first steps in the elaboration of a functional approach, which aims to uncover the communalities and differences between different cognitive control tasks and their effects. Based on the idea that responses in cognitive control tasks qualify as operant behaviour, we propose to reinterpret cognitive control tasks in terms of operant contingencies and cognitive control effects as instances of moderated stimulus control. We illustrate how our approach can be used to uncover communalities between topographically different cognitive control tasks and can lead to novel questions about the processes underlying cognitive control.

  18. Functional evolution of new and expanded attention networks in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gaurav H; Yang, Danica; Jamerson, Emery C; Snyder, Lawrence H; Corbetta, Maurizio; Ferrera, Vincent P

    2015-07-28

    Macaques are often used as a model system for invasive investigations of the neural substrates of cognition. However, 25 million years of evolution separate humans and macaques from their last common ancestor, and this has likely substantially impacted the function of the cortical networks underlying cognitive processes, such as attention. We examined the homology of frontoparietal networks underlying attention by comparing functional MRI data from macaques and humans performing the same visual search task. Although there are broad similarities, we found fundamental differences between the species. First, humans have more dorsal attention network areas than macaques, indicating that in the course of evolution the human attention system has expanded compared with macaques. Second, potentially homologous areas in the dorsal attention network have markedly different biases toward representing the contralateral hemifield, indicating that the underlying neural architecture of these areas may differ in the most basic of properties, such as receptive field distribution. Third, despite clear evidence of the temporoparietal junction node of the ventral attention network in humans as elicited by this visual search task, we did not find functional evidence of a temporoparietal junction in macaques. None of these differences were the result of differences in training, experimental power, or anatomical variability between the two species. The results of this study indicate that macaque data should be applied to human models of cognition cautiously, and demonstrate how evolution may shape cortical networks.

  19. Imprinting and flexibility in human face cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M.; Terraube, Julien; Kaminski, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Faces are an important cue to multiple physiological and psychological traits. Human preferences for exaggerated sex typicality (masculinity or femininity) in faces depend on multiple factors and show high inter-subject variability. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying facial femininity preferences in men, we tested the interactive effect of family structure (birth order, sibling sex-ratio and number of siblings) and parenthood status on these preferences. Based on a group of 1304 heterosexual men, we have found that preference for feminine faces was not only influenced by sibling age and sex, but also that fatherhood modulated this preference. Men with sisters had a weaker preference for femininity than men with brothers, highlighting a possible effect of a negative imprinting-like mechanism. What is more, fatherhood increased strongly the preference for facial femininity. Finally, for fathers with younger sisters only, the more the age difference increased between them, the more femininity preference increased. Overall our findings bring new insight into how early-acquired experience at the individual level may determine face preference in adulthood, and what is more, how these preferences are flexible and potentially dependent on parenthood status in adult men. PMID:27680495

  20. Agent-based cognitive model for human resources competence management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Stefan; Gluz, João Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents an agent-based cognitive model aimed to represent human competency concepts and competence management processes of psychological nature. This model is implemented by a multiagent system application intended to help managers of software development projects to select, based on the competence management model, the right professionals to integrate a development team. There are several software engineering methodologies that can be used to design and develop multiagent systems. However, due to the necessity to handle human competency concepts of cognitive nature, like aptitudes, interests, abilities and knowledge, we were driven to choose methodologies that can handle these concepts since the inception of the system. To do so, we integrated the TROPOS methodology, and a set of software engineering methods derived from intelligent tutoring systems research to successfully analyze and design the proposed system. At the end of the paper we present a study case, showing how the proposed system should be applied to the domain of website development.

  1. Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals.

  2. Quantum Structure in Cognition and the Foundations of Human Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2015-12-01

    Traditional cognitive science rests on a foundation of classical logic and probability theory. This foundation has been seriously challenged by several findings in experimental psychology on human decision making. Meanwhile, the formalism of quantum theory has provided an efficient resource for modeling these classically problematical situations. In this paper, we start from our successful quantum-theoretic approach to the modeling of concept combinations to formulate a unifying explanatory hypothesis. In it, human reasoning is the superposition of two processes - a conceptual reasoning, whose nature is emergence of new conceptuality, and a logical reasoning, founded on an algebraic calculus of the logical type. In most cognitive processes however, the former reasoning prevails over the latter. In this perspective, the observed deviations from classical logical reasoning should not be interpreted as biases but, rather, as natural expressions of emergence in its deepest form.

  3. Resveratrol preserves cerebrovascular density and cognitive function in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Oomen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundant in grapes and red wine, has been reported to exert numerous beneficial health effects. Among others, acute neuroprotective effects of resveratrol have been reported in several models of neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we examined the neuroprotective effects of long term dietary supplementation with resveratrol in mice on behavioral, neurochemical and cerebrovascular level. We report a preserved cognitive function in resveratrol treated aging mice, as shown by an enhanced acquisition of a spatial Y-maze task. This was paralleled by a higher microvascular density and a lower number of microvascular abnormalities in comparison to aging non-treated control animals. We found no effects of resveratrol supplementation on cholinergic cell number or fiber density. The present findings support the hypothesis that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on the brain by maintaining cerebrovascular health. Via this mechanism resveratrol can contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during aging.

  4. Cognitive function in the affective disorders: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, A; Berrios, G E

    1993-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study of 50 subjects confirmed claims that major depression or mania may cause temporary disorders of attention, memory, visuo-spatial function, and choice reaction time, and cause-independently of medication-the appearance of glabellar tap, positive hand-face test, nuchocephalic reflex, and graphesthesia. On follow-up, all these phenomena either disappeared or markedly improved. Age and age of onset, but not pre-morbid intelligence or history of ECT, seemed to modulate the severity of the cognitive impairment. Presence of delusions predicted poor (but reversible) visuo-spatial function. Cognitive impairment accompanied by reversible soft neurological signs was more marked but patients thus affected surprisingly showed lower depressive scores; this was interpreted as representing a secondary, 'organic' form of affective disorder (i.e. a behavioural phenocopy of depression) characterised by a reduced capacity to experience depressive symptoms and by little improvement at follow-up.

  5. Sleep intensity and the evolution of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, David R; Nunn, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Over the past four decades, scientists have made substantial progress in understanding the evolution of sleep patterns across the Tree of Life. Remarkably, the specifics of sleep along the human lineage have been slow to emerge. This is surprising, given our unique mental and behavioral capacity and the importance of sleep for individual cognitive performance. One view is that our species' sleep architecture is in accord with patterns documented in other mammals. We promote an alternative view, that human sleep is highly derived relative to that of other primates. Based on new and existing evidence, we specifically propose that humans are more efficient in their sleep patterns than are other primates, and that human sleep is shorter, deeper, and exhibits a higher proportion of REM than expected. Thus, we propose the sleep intensity hypothesis: Early humans experienced selective pressure to fulfill sleep needs in the shortest time possible. Several factors likely served as selective pressures for more efficient sleep, including increased predation risk in terrestrial environments, threats from intergroup conflict, and benefits arising from increased social interaction. Less sleep would enable longer active periods in which to acquire and transmit new skills and knowledge, while deeper sleep may be critical for the consolidation of those skills, leading to enhanced cognitive abilities in early humans.

  6. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Pişkin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Methods: Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S or the Neostigmine group (Group N. The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. After baseline assessment 12-24 h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1 h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Results: Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p > 0.05. The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19 min in Group S and 6.47 min in Group N (p < 0.0001. Recovery time was 8.26 min in Group S and 16.93 min in Group N (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: We showed that the surgical procedure and/or accompanying anesthetic procedure may cause a temporary or permanent regression in cognitive function in the early postoperative period. However, better cognitive performance could not be proved in the Sugammadex compared to the Neostigmine.

  7. Effects of sleep manipulation on cognitive functioning of adolescents : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; van Run, C.; Staaks, J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are considered to be at risk for deteriorated cognitive functioning due to insufficient sleep. This systematic review examined the effects of experimental sleep manipulation on adolescent cognitive functioning. Sleep manipulations consisted of total or partial sleep restriction, sleep

  8. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  9. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  10. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  11. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris

    2017-01-01

    examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power......, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p

  12. Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Péter eKlivényi; Dezso eNemeth; Tamás eSefcsik; Karolina eJanacsek; Ildiko eHoffmann; Gábor Péter Háden; Zsuzsa eLonde; László eVécsei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with ...

  13. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Féart, Catherine; Samieri, Cécilia; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    International audience; PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has been largely evidenced. Although nutrition constitutes an interesting approach in preventing age-related brain disorders, the association between the Mediterranean-style diet and cognitive functions has been very occasionally explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Results are provided from only two recent prospective cohorts of older Americans and Fr...

  14. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Pişkin; Gamze Küçükosman; Deniz Utku Altun; Murat Çimencan; Banu Özen; Bengü Gülhan Aydın; Rahşan Dilek Okyay; Hilal Ayoğlu; Işıl Özkoçak Turan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Methods: Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized...

  15. Callosal degeneration topographically correlated with cognitive function in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Ning; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chang, Ni-Jung; Lin, Ker-Neng; Chen, Wei-Ta; Lan, Gong-Yau; Lin, Ching-Po; Lirng, Jiing-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) is evident in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the correlation of microstructural damage in the CC on the cognitive performance of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD dementia is undetermined. We enrolled 26 normal controls, 24 patients with AD dementia, and 40 single-domain aMCI patients with at least grade 1 hippocampal atrophy and isolated memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR) were measured. The entire CC was parcellated based on fiber trajectories to specific cortical Brodmann areas using a probabilistic tractography method. The relationship between the DTI measures in the subregions of the CC and cognitive performance was examined. Although the callosal degeneration in the patients with aMCI was less extended than in the patients with AD dementia, degeneration was already exhibited in several subregions of the CC at the aMCI stage. Scores of various neuropsychological tests were correlated to the severity of microstructural changes in the subregional CC connecting to functionally corresponding cortical regions. Our results confirm that CC degeneration is noticeable as early as the aMCI stage of AD and the disconnection of the CC subregional fibers to the corresponding Brodmann areas has an apparent impact on the related cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Functional Brain Network Changes Associated with Maintenance of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh A Helekar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis (MS functional changes in connectivity due to cortical reorganization could lead to cognitive impairment (CI, or reflect a re-adjustment to reduce the clinical effects of widespread tissue damage. Such alterations in connectivity could result in changes in neural activation as assayed by executive function tasks. We examined cognitive function in MS patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and age-matched controls. We evaluated brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the successful performance of the Wisconsin-card sorting (WCS task by MS patients, showing compensatory maintenance of normal function, as measured by response latency and error rate. To assess changes in functional connectivity throughout the brain, we performed a global functional brain network analysis by computing voxel by voxel correlations on the fMRI time series data and carrying out a hierarchical cluster analysis. We found that during the WCS task there is a significant reduction in the number of smaller size brain functional networks, and a change in the brain areas representing the nodes of these networks in MS patients compared to age-matched controls. There is also a concomitant increase in the strength of functional connections between brain loci separated at intermediate scale distances in these patients. These functional alterations might reflect compensatory neuroplastic reorganization underlying maintenance of relatively normal cognitive function in the face of white matter lesions and cortical atrophy produced by MS.

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Shukun Deng; Xiubin Wang; Qinfeng Wu; Aisong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury;however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney’s free fal ing method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was sig-nificantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibril ary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly im-proves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is me-diated by metabolic changes and nerve cellrestoration in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

    2013-12-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats' spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  19. Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease Patients with and without Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehgoetz Martens, K A; Szeto, J Y Y; Muller, A J; Hall, J M; Gilat, M; Walton, C C; Lewis, S J G

    2016-01-01

    Research on the implications of anxiety in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been neglected despite its prevalence in nearly 50% of patients and its negative impact on quality of life. Previous reports have noted that neuropsychiatric symptoms impair cognitive performance in PD patients; however, to date, no study has directly compared PD patients with and without anxiety to examine the impact of anxiety on cognitive impairments in PD. This study compared cognitive performance across 50 PD participants with and without anxiety (17 PDA+; 33 PDA-), who underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. Group performance was compared across the following cognitive domains: simple attention/visuomotor processing speed, executive function (e.g., set-shifting), working memory, language, and memory/new verbal learning. Results showed that PDA+ performed significantly worse on the Digit Span forward and backward test and Part B of the Trail Making Task (TMT-B) compared to the PDA- group. There were no group differences in verbal fluency, logical memory, or TMT-A performance. In conclusion, anxiety in PD has a measurable impact on working memory and attentional set-shifting.

  20. Everyday cognitive functioning in cardiac patients: relationships between self-report, report of a significant other and cognitive test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Peter C; Smith, Geoff; Ernest, Christine S; Murphy, Barbara M; Worcester, Marian U C; Higgins, Rosemary O; Le Grande, Michael R; Goble, Alan J; Andrewes, David; Tatoulis, James

    2010-01-01

    Candidates for cardiac bypass surgery often experience cognitive decline. Such decline is likely to affect their everyday cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac patients' ratings of their everyday cognitive functioning against significant others' ratings and selected neuropsychological tests. Sixty-nine patients completed a battery of standardised cognitive tests. Patients and significant others also completed the Everyday Function Questionnaire independently of each other. Patient and significant other ratings of patients' everyday cognitive difficulties were found to be similar. Despite the similarities in ratings of difficulties, some everyday cognitive tasks were attributed to different processes. Patients' and significant others' ratings were most closely associated with the neuropsychological test of visual memory. Tests of the patients' verbal memory and fluency were only related to significant others' ratings. Test scores of attention and planning were largely unrelated to ratings by either patients or their significant others.

  1. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  2. Implications of infant cognition for executive functions at age 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that executive functions, the cornerstone of higher-level cognitive operations, are driven by basic information processing abilities. Using structural equation modeling, with latent variables, the present study provides the first evidence that this driving force begins in infancy, such that abilities in infancy predict executive functions at age 11. Information processing abilities in three domains (attention, processing speed, and memory) were assessed when participants were infants (7 and 12 months) and toddlers (24 and 36 months) and were used to predict three executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and shifting) when participants were 11 years old. A model relating infant abilities to age-11 executive functions fit well, and accounted for 9% to 19% of the variance in the executive functions. Paths from both speed and memory in infancy to age-11 working memory were significant, as was the path from Speed in infancy to age-11 Shifting. A model using abilities in toddlerhood as predictors fit similarly. These findings implicate early basic cognitive abilities in the development of executive functions.

  3. Analysis of central mechanism of cognitive training on cognitive impairment after stroke: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Zhi-cheng; Tao, Jing; Gao, Yan-lin; Yin, Da-zhi; Chen, A-zhen; Chen, Li-dian

    2014-01-01

    ...) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Patients with stroke and executive function and memory deficit were randomized to receive computer-assisted cognitive training (treatment group; total 60...

  4. Speculations on the Impact of Global Electronic Networks on Human Cognition and Human Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilan, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between a society's communication technology and Marshall McLuhan's concerns for human cognition, and between the technology and the ways that humans organize their societies. It is suggested that appropriate development of global electronic networks could have a positive effect on individual and organizational abilities…

  5. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: what a Turing test reveals about human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet (CAPTCHAs to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fast-acting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked priming lexical decision experiment revealed efficient processing of CAPTCHA words in conditions that rule out the use of slow inferential processing. This shows that the human superiority in solving CAPTCHAs builds on a high degree of invariance to location and continuous transforms, which is achieved during the very early stages of visual word recognition in skilled readers.

  6. Deciphering CAPTCHAs: what a Turing test reveals about human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Thomas; Ktori, Maria; Chanceaux, Myriam; Grainger, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Turning Turing's logic on its head, we used widespread letter-based Turing Tests found on the internet (CAPTCHAs) to shed light on human cognition. We examined the basis of the human ability to solve CAPTCHAs, where machines fail. We asked whether this is due to our use of slow-acting inferential processes that would not be available to machines, or whether fast-acting automatic orthographic processing in humans has superior robustness to shape variations. A masked priming lexical decision experiment revealed efficient processing of CAPTCHA words in conditions that rule out the use of slow inferential processing. This shows that the human superiority in solving CAPTCHAs builds on a high degree of invariance to location and continuous transforms, which is achieved during the very early stages of visual word recognition in skilled readers.

  7. Whole-brain functional networks in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hyun Seo

    Full Text Available The conceptual significance of understanding functional brain alterations and cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD process has been widely established. However, the whole-brain functional networks of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, are not well clarified yet. In this study, we compared the characteristics of the whole-brain functional networks among cognitively normal (CN, MCI, and AD individuals by applying graph theoretical analyses to [(18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data. Ninety-four CN elderly, 183 with MCI, and 216 with AD underwent clinical evaluation and FDG-PET scan. The overall small-world property as seen in the CN whole-brain network was preserved in MCI and AD. In contrast, individual parameters of the network were altered with the following patterns of changes: local clustering of networks was lower in both MCI and AD compared to CN, while path length was not different among the three groups. Then, MCI had a lower level of local clustering than AD. Subgroup analyses for AD also revealed that very mild AD had lower local clustering and shorter path length compared to mild AD. Regarding the local properties of the whole-brain networks, MCI and AD had significantly decreased normalized betweenness centrality in several hubs regionally associated with the default mode network compared to CN. Our results suggest that the functional integration in whole-brain network progressively declines due to the AD process. On the other hand, functional relatedness between neighboring brain regions may not gradually decrease, but be the most severely altered in MCI stage and gradually re-increase in clinical AD stages.

  8. The relationship between motor function, cognition, independence and quality of life in myelomeningocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carolina Lundberg; Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares de; Becker, Karine Kyomi; Teixeira, Rosani Aparecida Antunes; Voos, Mariana Callil; Hasue, Renata Hydee

    2017-08-01

    Motor function, cognition, functional independence and quality of life have been described in myelomeningocele patients, but no study has investigated their relationships. We aimed to investigate the relationships between motor function, cognition, functional independence, quality of life, age, and lesion level in myelomeningocele patients, and investigate the influence of hydrocephalus on these variables. We assessed 47 patients with the Gross Motor Function Measure (motor function), Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (cognition), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (functional independence) and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé (quality of life). Spearman's correlation tests determined relationships between the variables. The Friedman ANOVAs determined the influence of hydrocephalus. Motor function was strongly related to mobility and lesion level, and moderately related to cognition, self-care and social function. Cognition and quality of life were moderately related to functional independence. Age correlated moderately with functional independence and quality of life. Hydrocephalus resulted in poorer motor/cognitive outcomes and lower functional independence.

  9. Sprint-based exercise and cognitive function in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Dring, Karah J; Stannard, Rebecca L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-12-01

    Moderate intensity exercise has been shown to enhance cognition in an adolescent population, yet the effect of high-intensity sprint-based exercise remains unknown and was therefore examined in the present study. Following ethical approval and familiarisation, 44 adolescents (12.6 ± 0.6 y) completed an exercise (E) and resting (R) trial in a counter-balanced, randomised crossover design. The exercise trial comprised of 10 × 10 s running sprints, interspersed by 50 s active recovery (walking). A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSST) and Corsi blocks tests) were completed 30 min pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 45 min post-exercise. Data were analysed using mixed effect models with repeated measures. Response times on the simple level of the Stroop test were significantly quicker 45 min following sprint-based exercise (R: 818 ± 33 ms, E: 772 ± 26 ms; p = 0.027) and response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were quicker immediately following the sprint-based exercise (R: 1095 ± 36 ms, E: 1043 ± 37 ms; p = 0.038), while accuracy was maintained. Sprint-based exercise had no immediate or delayed effects on the number of items recalled on the Corsi blocks test (p = 0.289) or substitutions made during the DSST (p = 0.689). The effect of high intensity sprint-based exercise on adolescents' cognitive function was dependant on the component of cognitive function examined. Executive function was enhanced following exercise, demonstrated by improved response times on the Stroop test, whilst visuo-spatial memory and general psycho-motor speed were unaffected. These data support the inclusion of high-intensity sprint-based exercise for adolescents during the school day to enhance cognition.

  10. Sprint-based exercise and cognitive function in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon B. Cooper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate intensity exercise has been shown to enhance cognition in an adolescent population, yet the effect of high-intensity sprint-based exercise remains unknown and was therefore examined in the present study. Following ethical approval and familiarisation, 44 adolescents (12.6 ± 0.6 y completed an exercise (E and resting (R trial in a counter-balanced, randomised crossover design. The exercise trial comprised of 10 × 10 s running sprints, interspersed by 50 s active recovery (walking. A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSST and Corsi blocks tests were completed 30 min pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 45 min post-exercise. Data were analysed using mixed effect models with repeated measures. Response times on the simple level of the Stroop test were significantly quicker 45 min following sprint-based exercise (R: 818 ± 33 ms, E: 772 ± 26 ms; p = 0.027 and response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were quicker immediately following the sprint-based exercise (R: 1095 ± 36 ms, E: 1043 ± 37 ms; p = 0.038, while accuracy was maintained. Sprint-based exercise had no immediate or delayed effects on the number of items recalled on the Corsi blocks test (p = 0.289 or substitutions made during the DSST (p = 0.689. The effect of high intensity sprint-based exercise on adolescents' cognitive function was dependant on the component of cognitive function examined. Executive function was enhanced following exercise, demonstrated by improved response times on the Stroop test, whilst visuo-spatial memory and general psycho-motor speed were unaffected. These data support the inclusion of high-intensity sprint-based exercise for adolescents during the school day to enhance cognition.

  11. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mi......-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies....... and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age...

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley Evans, J; Malouf, R; Huppert, F; van Niekerk, J K

    2006-10-18

    In view of the theoretical possibility of beneficial effects of DHEA or DHEAS in retarding age-associated deterioration in cognitive function, we have reviewed studies in this area. To establish whether administration of DHEA, or its sulphate, DHEAS, improves cognitive function or reduces the rate of decline of cognitive function in normal older adults. Trials were identified from a last updated search of the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group on 10 October 2005 using the terms dhea*, prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone*. In addition MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL were searched to find trials with volunteers who had no or minor memory complaints. Relevant journals, personal communications and conference abstracts were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of DHEA/S on cognition in older adults. All randomized placebo-controlled trials enrolling people aged over 50 without dementia and to whom DHEA/S in any dosage was administered for more than one day were considered for inclusion in the review. Data for the specified outcomes were independently extracted by two reviewers (JGE and RM) and cross-checked. Any discrepancies were discussed and resolved. No data pooling was undertaken owing to the lack of availability of the relevant statistics. Only three studies provided results from adequate parallel-group data. Barnhart 1999 enrolled perimenopausal women with complaints of decreased well-being and, using three cognitive measures, found no significant effect of DHEA compared with placebo at 3 months. Wolf 1998b enrolled 75 healthy volunteers (37 women and 38 men aged 59-81) in a study of the effect of DHEA supplements on cognitive impairment induced by stress; after two weeks of treatment, placebo group performance deteriorated significantly on a test of selective attention following a psychosocial stressor (pDHEA group (p=0.85). However, when compared with placebo, DHEA was associated with

  13. On the Morphology of Uncertainty in Human Perception and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madan M.; Solo, Ashu M. G.

    Human cognitive and perception processes have a great tolerance for imprecision or uncertainty. For this reason, the notions of perception and cognition have great importance in solving many decision making problems in engineering, medicine, science, and social science as there are innumerable uncertainties in real-world phenomena. These uncertainties can be broadly classified as either uncertainties arising from the random behavior of physical processes or uncertainties arising from human perception and cognition processes. Statistical theory can be used to model the former, but lacks the sophistication to process the latter. The theory of fuzzy logic has proven to be very effective in processing the latter. The methodology of computing with words and the computational theory of perceptions are branches of fuzzy logic that deal with the manipulation of words that act as labels for perceptions expressed in natural language propositions. New computing methods based on fuzzy logic can lead to greater adaptability, tractability, robustness, a lower cost solution, and better rapport with reality in the development of intelligent systems.

  14. Physical Activity and Cognitive Function in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirduso, Waneen W.; Asplund, Lesli A.

    1995-01-01

    A relationship between physical fitness and cognition has been difficult to document. The paper describes cognition and examines the effects of aging on cognition, the fitness-cognition relationship hypothesis, difficulties in determining the fitness-cognition relationship, and the current status of the relationship. (SM)

  15. Cognitive Dynamic Systems: A Technical Review of Cognitive Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Krishanth; Schwering, Taralyn; Sarraf, Saman

    2016-01-01

    We start with the history of cognitive radar, where origins of the PAC, Fuster research on cognition and principals of cognition are provided. Fuster describes five cognitive functions: perception, memory, attention, language, and intelligence. We describe the Perception-Action Cyclec as it applies to cognitive radar, and then discuss long-term memory, memory storage, memory retrieval and working memory. A comparison between memory in human cognition and cognitive radar is given as well. Atte...

  16. Prenatal Iron Deficiency, Neonatal Ferritin, and Infant Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireku, Michael O; Davidson, Leslie L; Boivin, Michael J; Zoumenou, Romeo; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the impact of prenatal maternal iron deficiency (ID) on cord blood serum ferritin (CBSF) concentration and infant cognitive and motor development. Our prospective cohort study included 636 mother-singleton child pairs from 828 eligible pregnant women who were enrolled during their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Allada, Benin, into a clinical trial comparing the efficacy of mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Venous blood samples of women were assessed for ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations at the first and second ANC visits (occurring at least 1-month apart) and at delivery. Women were prescribed daily iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. Hematologic examinations were repeated for cord blood at birth. At age 1 year, cognitive and motor functions of children were assessed by using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The prevalence of prenatal ID at first and second ANC visits, and at delivery was 30.5%, 34.0%, and 28.4%, respectively. CBSF concentrations were similar between ID and non-ID pregnant women. Neither prenatal ID nor CBSF concentration was associated with poor cognitive or gross motor function of children at age 1 year. CBSF concentrations were lower among mothers who had ID anemia (IDA) at delivery compared with non-IDA pregnant women (adjusted mean difference: -0.2 [95% confidence interval: -0.4 to -0.0]). In a malaria-endemic region, ID in pregnancy in the context of iron supplementation is neither associated with CBSF concentration nor with infant cognitive and motor development. Prenatal IDA around the time of delivery is associated with lower CBSF concentrations. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Functional network integrity presages cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Rachel F; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Papp, Kathryn V; Hanseeuw, Bernard J; Marshall, Gad; Sepulcre, Jorge; Smith, Emily E; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P

    2017-07-04

    To examine the utility of resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) measurements of network integrity as a predictor of future cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD). A total of 237 clinically normal older adults (aged 63-90 years, Clinical Dementia Rating 0) underwent baseline β-amyloid (Aβ) imaging with Pittsburgh compound B PET and structural and rs-fcMRI. We identified 7 networks for analysis, including 4 cognitive networks (default, salience, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control) and 3 noncognitive networks (primary visual, extrastriate visual, motor). Using linear and curvilinear mixed models, we used baseline connectivity in these networks to predict longitudinal changes in preclinical Alzheimer cognitive composite (PACC) performance, both alone and interacting with Aβ burden. Median neuropsychological follow-up was 3 years. Baseline connectivity in the default, salience, and control networks predicted longitudinal PACC decline, unlike connectivity in the dorsal attention and all noncognitive networks. Default, salience, and control network connectivity was also synergistic with Aβ burden in predicting decline, with combined higher Aβ and lower connectivity predicting the steepest curvilinear decline in PACC performance. In clinically normal older adults, lower functional connectivity predicted more rapid decline in PACC scores over time, particularly when coupled with increased Aβ burden. Among examined networks, default, salience, and control networks were the strongest predictors of rate of change in PACC scores, with the inflection point of greatest decline beyond the fourth year of follow-up. These results suggest that rs-fcMRI may be a useful predictor of early, AD-related cognitive decline in clinical research settings. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Operator function modeling: An approach to cognitive task analysis in supervisory control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    In a study of models of operators in complex, automated space systems, an operator function model (OFM) methodology was extended to represent cognitive as well as manual operator activities. Development continued on a software tool called OFMdraw, which facilitates construction of an OFM by permitting construction of a heterarchic network of nodes and arcs. Emphasis was placed on development of OFMspert, an expert system designed both to model human operation and to assist real human operators. The system uses a blackboard method of problem solving to make an on-line representation of operator intentions, called ACTIN (actions interpreter).

  19. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  20. Human Cognition and Emotion using Physio Psychological Approach : A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Amutha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A soldier’s responsibility in the military includes his physical and mental attitudes which makes him to support the army in a full-fledged manner. This type of human dimension recognizes Soldier readiness from training proficiency to motivation for the Army’s future success. It introduces the concept of holistic fitness, a comprehensive combination of the whole person, including all components of the human dimension as a triad of moral, cognitive and physical components. The human dimension concept is directly related to the human mind and memory system. In this research, a system which will be capable of recognizing human emotions based on physiological parameters of a human body is discussed. The data from the system is fed to a computer where it is stored. Stored information regarding human parameters is retrieved and classified using support vector machine to generate a data set about the various emotions the human poses at a specific situation. The emotion, thus calculated is grouped to generate a grade for his present status. This grade is used to recommend the suitable working environment for the person.

  1. DUF1220 domains, cognitive disease, and human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L; Sikela, J M

    2009-01-01

    We have established that human genome sequences encoding a novel protein domain, DUF1220, show a dramatically elevated copy number in the human lineage (>200 copies in humans vs. 1 in mouse/rat) and may be important to human evolutionary adaptation. Copy-number variations (CNVs) in the 1q21.1 region, where most DUF1220 sequences map, have now been implicated in numerous diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction, including autism, autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, schizophrenia, microcephaly, and macrocephaly. We report here that these disease-related 1q21.1 CNVs either encompass or are directly flanked by DUF1220 sequences and exhibit a dosage-related correlation with human brain size. Microcephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are deletions, whereas macrocephaly-producing 1q21.1 CNVs are duplications. Similarly, 1q21.1 deletions and smaller brain size are linked with schizophrenia, whereas 1q21.1 duplications and larger brain size are associated with autism. Interestingly, these two diseases are thought to be phenotypic opposites. These data suggest a model which proposes that (1) DUF1220 domain copy number may be involved in influencing human brain size and (2) the evolutionary advantage of rapidly increasing DUF1220 copy number in the human lineage has resulted in favoring retention of the high genomic instability of the 1q21.1 region, which, in turn, has precipitated a spectrum of recurrent human brain and developmental disorders.

  2. Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Cognitive Functions in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Antonenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has emerged as a tool to enhance human cognitive processes. Here, we provide a brief summary of the rationale behind tACS-induced effects on task-relevant brain oscillations and associated cognitive functions and review previous studies in young subjects that have applied tACS in cognitive paradigms. Additionally, we present pilot data where we administered theta-tACS (6 Hz over the temporoparietal cortex and a supraorbital reference for 20 min during implicit language learning in healthy young (mean/SD age: 22/2 and older (mean/SD age: 66/4 adults, in a sham-controlled crossover design. Linear mixed models revealed significantly increased retrieval accuracy following tACS-accompanied associative learning, after controlling for session order and learning success. These data provide the first implementation of tACS during cognitive performance in older adults and support recent studies suggesting that tACS in the theta frequency range may serve as a tool to enhance cognition, possibly through direct modulation of task-relevant brain oscillations. So far, studies have been heterogeneous in their designs, leaving a number of issues to be addressed in future research, including the setup of electrodes and optimal stimulation frequencies to be employed, as well as the interaction with age and underlying brain pathologies in specific patient populations.

  3. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eHelie; Srinivasa eChakravarthy; Ahmed A. Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  4. A Simple ERP Method for Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Workload in Myoelectric Prosthesis Control and Human-Machine Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Deeny; Caitlin Chicoine; Levi Hargrove; Todd Parrish; Arun Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of contro...

  5. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  6. The effect of regular exercise on cognitive functioning and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J

    1979-09-01

    The effect of regular exercise on cognitive functioning and personality was investigated in 32 subjects representing 4 discrete groups based on sex and age. Before and after a 10 week exercise programme of jogging, calisthenics, and recreational activities, a test battery was administered to assess functioning in a number of domains: intelligence (WAIS Digit Symbol and Block Design); brain function (Trail-Making); speed of performance (Crossing-Off); memory and learning (WMS Visual Reproduction and Associate Learning); morale and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction and Control Ratings); anxiety (MAACL); and depression (MAACL). Improvement was observed on several physiological parameters. ANOVA revealed significant sex and age differences on Digit Symbol and Block Design and age differences on Trail-Making, Crossing-Off, Associate Learning, and anxiety. Regardless of sex and age, significant improvement in performance was observed from pre to post-test on Digit Symbol, Block Design, Trail-Making, Crossing-Off, and on Associate Learning. In addition, an increase on health status rating (p less than .01) and decrease in anxiety were observed from pre to post-test. These data illustrate beneficial effects of exercise on certain measures of cognitive functioning and personality.

  7. Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter eKlivényi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2 is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic- memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate and speech tempo. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech and sequence learning.

  8. The effect of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive function for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Seok; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cognitive function in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] We enrolled 20 patients and divided them into CACR and rTMS groups. CACR and rTMS were performed thrice a week for 4 weeks. Cognitive function was measured with the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric (LOTCA-G) before and after treatment. The independent samples t-test was performed to test the homogeneity of K-MMSE and LOTCA-G before treatment and compare the differences in cognitive improvement between the CACR and rTMS groups. A paired samples t-test was used to compare cognitive function before and after treatment. [Results] Cognitive function of both the groups significantly improved after the intervention based on the K-MMSE and LOTCA-G scores. While the LOTCA-G score improved significantly more in the CACR group than in the rTMS group, no significant difference was seen in the K-MMSE scores. [Conclusion] We showed that CACR is more effective than rTMS in improving cognitive function after stroke.

  9. Literature review on the role of dietary protein and amino acids in cognitive functioning and cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rest, Ondine; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-11-01

    As the population of elderly people is growing rapidly, the number of individuals with dementia and cognitive impairment is also increasing. One of the preventive measures against cognitive decline is diet and different dietary factors have already been investigated. This review provides an overview of studies on dietary protein and cognitive functioning and cognitive decline. Also studies on the individual amino acids that are related to brain function, tryptophan and tyrosine, are discussed. Overall, the role of dietary protein intake on cognitive functioning as well as cognitive decline has hardly been studied; we found eight observational studies and three intervention studies. More studies investigated the role of tryptophan (14 studies) and tyrosine (nine studies) in relation to cognitive functioning, but all these studies were performed in young adult populations and mostly under special conditions. Research in elderly populations, in particular, is warranted. Also more research is needed to come to definitive conclusions and specific recommendations regarding protein intake or intake of specific amino acids for maintaining optimal cognitive functioning.

  10. Multimodal neural correlates of cognitive control in the Human Connectome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Sui, Jing; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Kandala, Sridhar; Calhoun, Vince D; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-08-31

    Cognitive control is a construct that refers to the set of functions that enable decision-making and task performance through the representation of task states, goals, and rules. The neural correlates of cognitive control have been studied in humans using a wide variety of neuroimaging modalities, including structural MRI, resting-state fMRI, and task-based fMRI. The results from each of these modalities independently have implicated the involvement of a number of brain regions in cognitive control, including dorsal prefrontal cortex, and frontal parietal and cingulo-opercular brain networks. However, it is not clear how the results from a single modality relate to results in other modalities. Recent developments in multimodal image analysis methods provide an avenue for answering such questions and could yield more integrated models of the neural correlates of cognitive control. In this study, we used multiset canonical correlation analysis with joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) to identify multimodal patterns of variation related to cognitive control. We used two independent cohorts of participants from the Human Connectome Project, each of which had data from four imaging modalities. We replicated the findings from the first cohort in the second cohort using both independent and predictive analyses. The independent analyses identified a component in each cohort that was highly similar to the other and significantly correlated with cognitive control performance. The replication by prediction analyses identified two independent components that were significantly correlated with cognitive control performance in the first cohort and significantly predictive of performance in the second cohort. These components identified positive relationships across the modalities in neural regions related to both dynamic and stable aspects of task control, including regions in both the frontal-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks, as well as regions

  11. The relationship of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to functional capacity and real-world functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Richard S E; Poe, Margaret; Walker, Trina M; Harvey, Philip D

    2006-02-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) assesses five different domains of cognitive function with six tests, and takes about 30-35 minutes to complete in patients with schizophrenia. Previous work has demonstrated the reliability of this measure, and its sensitivity to the deficits of schizophrenia. However, the relationship of this brief cognitive measure to functional outcome has not been determined. Further, future registration trials for potentially cognitive enhancing compounds may not only assess efficacy with cognitive performance measures, but with assessments of real-world functional outcome and functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the BACS and a potential co-primary measure for treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia, and to determine if such a measure accounts for significant variance in functioning beyond that provided by cognitive function. The current study assessed 60 patients with schizophrenia over the course of six months. Cognitive functions were measured with the BACS. Functional capacity was measured with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). Real-world functional outcome was measured with the Independent Living Skills Inventory (ILSI). BACS composite scores were significantly correlated with functional capacity as measured by the UPSA (r = .65, df = 55, p BACS. These data suggest that brief cognitive assessments such as the BACS are able to assess aspects of cognition that are related to important functional measures in clinical trials of cognitive enhancement. They also suggest that the measures being considered as potential co-primary indicators of cognitive function for registration trials are significantly correlated with cognition as assessed by brief cognitive assessments.

  12. Lithium improves hippocampal neurogenesis, neuropathology and cognitive functions in APP mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fiorentini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functions, extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles within neocortex and hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in learning and memory processes and its abnormal regulation might account for cognitive impairments associated with AD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The double transgenic (Tg CRND8 mice (overexpressing the Swedish and Indiana mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein, aged 2 and 6 months, were used to examine in vivo the effects of 5 weeks lithium treatment. BrdU labelling showed a decreased neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of Tg mice compared to non-Tg mice. The decrease of hippocampal neurogenesis was accompanied by behavioural deficits and worsened with age and pathology severity. The differentiation into neurons and maturation of the proliferating cells were also markedly impaired in the Tg mice. Lithium treatment to 2-month-old Tg mice significantly stimulated the proliferation and neuron fate specification of newborn cells and fully counteracted the transgene-induced impairments of cognitive functions. The drug, by the inhibition of GSK-3β and subsequent activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling promoted hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, the data show that the lithium's ability to stimulate neurogenesis and cognitive functions was lost in the aged Tg mice, thus indicating that the lithium-induced facilitation of neurogenesis and cognitive functions declines as brain Aβ deposition and pathology increases. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium, when given on time, stimulates neurogenesis and counteracts AD-like pathology.

  13. The effect of sugammadex on postoperative cognitive function and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Özcan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Altun, Deniz Utku; Çimencan, Murat; Özen, Banu; Aydın, Bengü Gülhan; Okyay, Rahşan Dilek; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent. When compared with neostigmine, following sugammadex administration patients wake earlier and have shorter recovery times. In this study, we hypothesized that fast and clear awakening in patients undergoing general anesthesia has positive effects on cognitive functions in the early period after operation. Approved by the local ethical committee, 128 patients were enrolled in this randomized, prospective, controlled, double-blind study. Patients were allocated to either Sugammadex group (Group S) or the Neostigmine group (Group N). The primary outcome of the study was early postoperative cognitive recovery as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). After baseline assessment 12-24h before the operation. After the operation, when the Modified Aldrete Recovery Score was ≥9 the MMSE and 1h later the MoCA tests were repeated. Although there was a reduction in MoCA and MMSE scores in both Group S and Group N between preoperative and postoperative scores, there was no statistically significant difference in the slopes (p>0.05). The time to reach TOF 0.9 was 2.19min in Group S and 6.47min in Group N (pSugammadex compared to the Neostigmine. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  15. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  16. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) genotype and cognitive function in persons aged 35 years or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Common polymorphisms of the Cholestryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene may predict lower risk of cognitive decline. We investigated the association of cognitive function with CETP genotype in a population-based cohort of 4135 persons aged 35-82 years. Cognitive function was measured with the Ruff

  17. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge.

  18. Change in Depression Symptomatology and Cognitive Function in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Inge; McGue, Matt; Tan, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    individual change. Additionally, we saw a small but significant cross-trait correlation at both occasions (-0.11 and -0.09, respectively), but cross-trait cross-occasion analysis revealed no evidence that either of the two traits predicts the other over a 10-year interval. Thus, our study was not able...... of correlated traits. Here, we have applied twin modeling approaches to shed light on the genetic correlation between both level and change of depression symptomatology and cognitive functioning, and to further explore the bidirectionality of any such correlation using assessments of both phenotypes at two...

  19. Cognitive functioning in female patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, R W; Kappes, M H; Kappes, M E

    1993-01-01

    The cognitive functioning of 27 female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (aged 11-41 yrs) and 13 of their healthy sisters (13-31 yrs) was compared using short versions of age-appropriate Wechsler scales. In contrast to other studies, neither a higher than average IQ level for CAH patients (mean: 99.0) nor for their sisters (97.7) was found. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to other reports, the subgroup of salt-wasting (SW) patients>16 yrs (N=6; mean score: 111.5) differed from their sisters as well as from simple-virilizing (SV) patients in "full IQ" (pgender-role behaviour were found.

  20. Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Christopher; Kramer, Arthur F; Wilson, Robert S; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-10-01

    In this monograph, we ask whether various kinds of intellectual, physical, and social activities produce cognitive enrichment effects-that is, whether they improve cognitive performance at different points of the adult life span, with a particular emphasis on old age. We begin with a theoretical framework that emphasizes the potential of behavior to influence levels of cognitive functioning. According to this framework, the undeniable presence of age-related decline in cognition does not invalidate the view that behavior can enhance cognitive functioning. Instead, the course of normal aging shapes a zone of possible functioning, which reflects person-specific endowments and age-related constraints. Individuals influence whether they function in the higher or lower ranges of this zone by engaging in or refraining from beneficial intellectual, physical, and social activities. From this point of view, the potential for positive change, or plasticity, is maintained in adult cognition. It is an argument that is supported by newer research in neuroscience showing neural plasticity in various aspects of central nervous system functioning, neurochemistry, and architecture. This view of human potential contrasts with static conceptions of cognition in old age, according to which decline in abilities is fixed and individuals cannot slow its course. Furthermore, any understanding of cognition as it occurs in everyday life must make a distinction between basic cognitive mechanisms and skills (such as working-memory capacity) and the functional use of cognition to achieve goals in specific situations. In practice, knowledge and expertise are critical for effective functioning, and the available evidence suggests that older adults effectively employ specific knowledge and expertise and can gain new knowledge when it is required. We conclude that, on balance, the available evidence favors the hypothesis that maintaining an intellectually engaged and physically active lifestyle

  1. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    simulation. In this work they were preparing for the Synthetic Theatre of War-1997 exercise where between 10,000 and 50,000 automated agents would...work with up to 1,000 humans.27 The results of this exercise are documented by Laird et al.28 5. Conclusions and Future Work To assess whether cognitive...RW, MacKenzie IS. Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts’ law research in HCI. International Journal of

  2. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in older people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, John V; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Martyr, Anthony; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C; Thomas, Enlli M; Clare, Linda

    2017-02-07

    Active lifelong cognitive lifestyles increase cognitive reserve and have beneficial effects on global cognition, cognitive decline and dementia risk in Parkinson's disease (PD). Executive function is particularly impaired even in early PD, and this impacts on quality of life. The effects of lifelong cognitive lifestyle on executive function in PD have not been studied previously. This study examined the association between lifelong cognitive lifestyle, as a proxy measure of cognitive reserve, and executive function in people with PD. Sixty-nine people diagnosed with early PD without dementia were recruited as part of the Bilingualism as a protective factor in Age-related Neurodegenerative Conditions study. Participants completed a battery of tests of executive function. The Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire was completed as a comprehensive assessment of lifelong cognitive lifestyle. Non-parametric correlations compared clinical measures with executive function scores. Cross-sectional analyses of covariance were performed comparing the performance of low and high cognitive reserve groups on executive function tests. Correlational analyses showed that better executive function scores were associated with younger age, higher levodopa dose and higher Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire scores. Higher cognitive reserve was associated with better motor function, but high and low cognitive reserve groups did not differ in executive function. Cognitive reserve, although associated with global cognition, does not appear to be associated with executive function. This differential effect may reflect the specific cognitive profile of PD. The long-term effects of cognitive reserve on executive function in PD require further exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pain medication and global cognitive functioning in dementia patients with painful conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooij, B.; Spek, K. van der; Scherder, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia patients are at an increased risk for undertreatment of pain, compared with older people without dementia, suggesting a relationship between pain medication prescription and cognitive functioning. Studies on a possible relationship between pain medication and cognitive functioni

  4. Effects on cognitive functioning after olanzapine-ziprasidone crossover in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K.P.; Veelen, N.M. van; Sitskoorn, M.M.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Peuskens, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Kahn, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To enhance functional outcome in schizophrenia improvement of cognitive symptoms is crucial. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: Using a comprehensive test battery, this follow-up examines cognitive effects in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia after a change of medication following

  5. Contrasting evolutionary patterns of functional connectivity in sensorimotor and cognitive regions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaigui eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a highly connected and integrated system. Local stroke lesions can evoke reorganization in multiple functional networks. However, the temporally-evolving patterns in different functional networks after stroke remain unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the dynamic evolutionary patterns of functional connectivity density (FCD and strength (FCS of the brain after subcortical stroke involving in the motor pathways. Eight male patients with left subcortical infarctions were longitudinally examined at five time points within a year. Voxel-wise FCD analysis was used to identify brain regions with significant dynamic changes. The temporally-evolving patterns in FCD and FCS in these regions were analyzed by a mixed-effects model. Associations between these measures and clinical variables were also explored in stroke patients. Voxel-wise analysis revealed dynamic FCD changes only in the sensorimotor and cognitive regions after stroke. FCD and FCS in the sensorimotor regions decreased initially, as compared to controls, remaining at lower levels for months, and finally returned to normal levels. In contrast, FCD and FCS in the cognitive regions increased initially, remaining at higher levels for months, and finally returned to normal levels. Most of these measures were correlated with patients’ motor scores. These findings suggest a network-specific dynamic functional reorganization after stroke. Besides the sensorimotor regions, the spared cognitive regions may also play an important role in stroke recovery.

  6. Dejian Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Cognitive Functions of a Child with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI, a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders.

  7. Effect of a ketogenic meal on cognitive function in elderly adults: potential for cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Ishida, Ikki; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Tonouchi, Hidekazu; Ashida, Kinya; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Glucose is the principal energy substrate for the brain, although ketone bodies are an effective alternative. Evidence suggests that elevation of plasma ketone body levels through oral intake of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive function. We tried to examine the possible effects of a ketogenic meal serving on cognition in elderly non-demented subjects. Subjects were 19 non-demented elderly adults over 60 years old (13 females; mean age: 66.1 ± 2.9 years) who underwent neurocognitive tests 90 and 180 min after oral intake of a ketogenic meal (Ketonformula®) containing 20 g of MCTs and an isocaloric placebo meal without MCTs on separate days. Elevation of plasma ketone concentration after intake of a single ketogenic meal containing 20 g of MCTs was confirmed (all p ketogenic meal and the change in the executive functioning score was positively correlated with that of the plasma β-hydroxybutyrate level. The cognition-enhancing effect was observed predominantly for individuals who had a relatively low global score at baseline (Z = -2.8, p = 0.005), compared to individuals with a high global score (Z = -0.7, p = 0.51). Plasma levels of ketone bodies were successfully increased after intake of the ketogenic meal. The ketogenic meal was suggested to have positive effects on working memory, visual attention, and task switching in non-demented elderly.

  8. Effect of trataka on cognitive functions in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwadkar, Shubhada; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2014-07-01

    Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitive functions of the elderly. Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2(nd) follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = -3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = -4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = -3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly.

  9. COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, N; Riklund, K; Andersson, M; Axelsson, J; Ögren, M; Lövdén, M; Lindenberger, U; Bäckman, L; Nyberg, L

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relation of neurocardiovascular instability to cognitive, emotional and functional domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, C; Angelini, A; Salsi, F; Finelli, M E; Martini, E; Neviani, F; Mussi, C; Neri, M

    2007-01-01

    There is bulk of evidence suggesting that blood pressure dysregulation, as low blood pressure (LBP) or hypotension, orthostatic hypotension (OH) and high blood pressure (HPB) or hypertension are associated with alterations in cognitive and emotional domains. Some studies suggest that LBP, neurocardiovascular instability, like the OH, and atherosclerosis resulting from long standing HBP, reduces cerebral blood flow, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment, morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate whether patients with cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease would show any differences in some anamnestic indicators and/or psychometric measures of cognitive performance and affective symptoms. We recruited 36 patients over 65 years of age admitted to both psycho- and cardio-geriatric ambulatories of our hospital during the last year. The population (mean age of 80.5 years, 72.2% females, 27.8% males) was divided in 2 groups, with OH (25%), and without OH (75%). The first group was subdivided in subgroups: patients with HBP, normal BP and LBP, respectively. Cognitive and depressive domains were assessed with the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Italian "scala di valutazione del benessere emotivo nell' anziano" (SVEBA). Information about the present status, comorbidities (cumulative illness rating scale=CIRS), functional ability (activities of daily living=ADL, instrumental ADL=IADL) and drugs were collected during clinical examination. BP was measured 4 times, at the beginning of examination, then with the patient in clinostatic and orthostatic position (1st and 3rd minute). Data were analyzed by MANCOVA, considering age and gender as covariates, MMSE, SVEBA, CIRS, ADL, IADL and drugs as dependent variables, and presence/absence of OH as factor. Covariates were not significant sources of variance, as well as overall factor. Due to the heuristic aim of the study, we considered of interest the results of subsequent ANOVAs showing

  11. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2014-09-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development.

  12. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Suwalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM, planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions.

  13. Cognitive Performance associated to functional outcomes in stable outpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Zaragoza Domingo, MA

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Most prevalent impairments were on executive function and processing speed domains; however, working memory showed the strongest relationship to functional disability. Monitoring cognitive function during follow up is critical to understand patient’s everyday functional capacity.

  14. Cognitive function and gait speed under normal and dual-task walking among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    .... We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n = 191) and non-amnestic MCI (n = 198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions...

  15. The tangle of space and time in human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Rafael; Cooperrider, Kensy

    2013-05-01

    Everyday concepts of duration, of sequence, and of past, present, and future are fundamental to how humans make sense of experience. In culture after culture, converging evidence from language, co-speech gesture, and behavioral tasks suggests that humans handle these elusive yet indispensable notions by construing them spatially. Where do these spatial construals come from and why do they take the particular, sometimes peculiar, spatial forms that they do? As researchers across the cognitive sciences pursue these questions on different levels--cultural, developmental--in diverse populations and with new methodologies, clear answers will depend upon a shared and nuanced set of theoretical distinctions. Time is not a monolith, but rather a mosaic of construals with distinct properties and origins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Zero magnetic field effect observed in human cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binhi, V N; Sarimov, R M

    2009-01-01

    In our previous works, we reported that compensation of the geomagnetic field to a level less than 0.4 microT ("zero magnetic field," or ZMF) affected human cognitive processes. ZMF exposure increased the number of errors and the task processing time by 2.4% in average. However, in the array of the magnetic effects calculated from the experimental data, some readings have been found to deviate from the mean magnetic effect by more than three standard deviations. This finding could give rise to doubt as to whether the magnetic effect observed was a mere sequence of the presence of such unlikely data values. In the present work we examine the results of the unlikely data elimination and show that the corrected magnetic effect in tested humans remains statistically significant, though at a reduced magnitude 1.5%.

  17. The hyperactive child at adolescence: cognitive, emotional, and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, E; Weiss, G; Minde, K; Cohen, N

    1978-09-01

    In view of the paucity of detailed follow-up studies on hyperactive children, the performance of 15 adolescents diagnosed hyperactive 5 years previously was compared to that of a control group of equivalent age, sex, intelligence, and social class. Eleven cognitive tests measuring sustained attention, visual-motor and motor skills, abstraction, and reading ability, as well as three self-assessment tests examining self-esteem, activity level, social functioning, academic status, and career aspirations were administered. The hyperactives performed significantly worse than the controls on the sustained attention, visual-motor, and motor tasks, and on two of the four reading tests. They also gave themselves significantly lower ratings on some of the self-esteem and sociability items. It would appear that the hyperactives at adolescence still have attentional and stimulus-processing difficulties, which affect not only their academic performance but also their social functioning.

  18. Naturalistic Cognition: A Research Paradigm for Human-Centered Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Storkerson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic thinking and knowing, the tacit, experiential, and intuitive reasoning of everyday interaction, have long been regarded as inferior to formal reason and labeled primitive, fallible, subjective, superstitious, and in some cases ineffable. But, naturalistic thinking is more rational and definable than it appears. It is also relevant to design. Inquiry into the mechanisms of naturalistic thinking and knowledge can bring its resources into focus and enable designers to create better, human-centered designs for use in real-world settings. This article makes a case for the explicit, formal study of implicit, naturalistic thinking within the fields of design. It develops a framework for defining and studying naturalistic thinking and knowledge, for integrating them into design research and practice, and for developing a more integrated, consistent theory of knowledge in design. It will (a outline historical definitions of knowledge, attitudes toward formal and naturalistic thinking, and the difficulties presented by the co-presence of formal and naturalistic thinking in design, (b define and contrast formal and naturalistic thinking as two distinct human cognitive systems, (c demonstrate the importance of naturalistic cognition in formal thinking and real-world judgment, (d demonstrate methods for researching naturalistic thinking that can be of use in design, and (e briefly discuss the impact on design theory of admitting naturalistic thinking as valid, systematic, and knowable.

  19. Effects of childhood trauma exposure and cortisol levels on cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Scheiber, Caroline; Janelsins, Michelle; Jo, Booil; Shen, Hanyang; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-08-14

    Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive). We examined correlations between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning, then used linear regression to control for factors associated with cognition (age, education, time since chemotherapy, depression, anxiety, and insomnia), and the MacArthur approach to test whether cortisol levels mediated the relationship between trauma and cognitive functioning. 57.1% of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in childhood, with 19.6% of the sample witnessing a serious injury, 17.9% experiencing physical abuse, and 14.3% experiencing sexual abuse. Childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning were moderately associated (r=-0.29). This association remained even when controlling for other factors associated with cognition; the final model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive functioning. The association between childhood trauma and cognitive functioning was mediated by steeper cortisol slope (partial r=0.35, p=0.02). Childhood trauma exposure is associated with self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors and is mediated by cortisol dysregulation. Trauma should be considered, among other factors, in programs aiming to address cognition in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low selenium and reduced cognitive function in a cohort elderly study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianchao Bian; Sujuan Gao; Qiliang Qin; Zhongjie Yun; Yuan Liu; Shuliang Song; Chuanjiao Liu; Xiaohong Luo; Jie Gao; Chaoke Liang

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive function in the elderly is affected by various environmental,social,and individual factors.Studies show that chemical trace elements are closely related to cognitive function.As a protective factor,selenium promotes cognition in the elderly.However,study results into the effects of selenium on cognition have varied.By eliminating unstable environmental and other related factors,the present study selected elderly individuals from rural areas of the Shandong province to verify whether low selenium exposure is a risk factor for decreased cognitive function.Results demonstrated that age,sex,education,occupation,hypertension,stroke,and body selenium levels were factors affecting cognitive function in the elderly,and that selenium was an important protective factor.Moreover,results supported the hypothesis that a lifelong low selenium level is associated with low cognitive function.

  1. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26884745

  4. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Catherine E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Guercio, Brendan J.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as apathy and depression, commonly accompany cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies have shown associations between affective NPS symptoms and neurodegeneration of medial frontal and inferior temporal regions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia. Objective To investigate the association between functional connectivity in four brain networks and NPS in elderly with MCI. Methods NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 42 subjects with MCI. Resting-state functional connectivity in four networks (default mode network, fronto-parietal control network (FPCN), dorsal attention network, and ventral attention network) was assessed using seed-based magnetic resonance imaging. Factor analysis was used to identify two factors of NPS: Affective and Hyperactivity. Linear regression models were utilized with the neuropsychiatric factors as the dependent variable and the four networks as the predictors of interest. Covariates included age, sex, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, memory, head movement, and signal-to-noise ratio. These analyses were repeated with the individual items of the Affective factor, using the same predictors. Results There was a significant association between greater Affective factor symptoms and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.03). There was no association between the Hyperactivity factor and any of the networks. Secondary analyses revealed an association between greater apathy and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.005), but none in other networks. Conclusions Decreased connectivity in the FPCN may be associated with greater affective symptoms, particularly apathy, early in AD. These findings extend prior studies, using different functional imaging modalities in individuals with greater disease severity. PMID:25854929

  5. Specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms as predictors of activities of daily living in older adults with heterogeneous cognitive backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas J; Diniz, Breno S; Bicalho, Maria A; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Nicolato, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Edgar N; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning influences activities of daily living (ADL). However, studies reporting the association between ADL and neuropsychological performance show inconsistent results regarding what specific cognitive domains are related to each specific functional domains. Additionally, whether depressive symptoms are associated with a worse functional performance in older adults is still under explored. We investigated if specific cognitive domains and depressive symptoms would affect different aspects of ADL. Participants were 274 older adults (96 normal aging participants, 85 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 93 patients probable with mild Alzheimer's disease dementia) with low formal education (∼4 years). Measures of ADL included three complexity levels: Self-care, Instrumental-Domestic, and Instrumental-Complex. The specific cognitive functions were evaluated through a factorial strategy resulting in four cognitive domains: Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, and Visuospatial Abilities. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis showed executive functions and episodic memory as significant predictors of Instrumental-Domestic ADL, and executive functions, episodic memory and language/semantic memory as predictors of Instrumental-Complex ADL (22 and 28% of explained variance, respectively). Ordinal regression analysis showed the influence of specific cognitive functions and depressive symptoms on each one of the instrumental ADL. We observed a heterogeneous pattern of association with explained variance ranging from 22 to 38%. Different instrumental ADL had specific cognitive predictors and depressive symptoms were predictive of ADL involving social contact. Our results suggest a specific pattern of influence depending on the specific instrumental daily living activity.

  6. Cognitive function, treatment response to lithium, and social functioning in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoshi; Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Ohmori, Kenichi; Honda, Gyo; Mori, Harunobu; Kato, Kazuko; Kuroda, Jinichi; Aoki, Akiko; Asahi, Haruhiko; Sato, Hayato; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Akiyama, Kazufumi

    2017-07-10

    Patients with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairment that significantly influences their functional outcome. However, it remains unknown whether lithium has a central role in cognition and functional outcome. We examined whether cognition and functional outcome were predicted by demographic and clinical variables, including the response to lithium, in lithium-treated patients with bipolar disorder. We evaluated 96 lithium-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 196 age- and-gender-matched healthy controls, using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). The patients were also assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and "The Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder" (Alda) scale, which was evaluated as either a continuous measure of the total scale or a dichotomous criterion. Multiple regression analysis revealed two key findings: first, that the premorbid intelligence quotient, age, and number of mood episodes were predictors of the BACS composite score; and, second, that the BACS composite score, negative symptoms, and continuous measure on the total Alda scale (but not its dichotomy) predicted the total SFS score. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to confirm these findings, and additionally revealed that the Alda scale was significantly associated with negative symptoms and also the number of mood episodes, regardless of how it was evaluated. SEM delineated how demographic and clinical variables, cognitive performance, and response to lithium treatment were causally associated with, and converged on, social function. The putative role of the Alda scale for social function warrants further study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Human Space Exploration and Human Space Flight: Latency and the Cognitive Scale of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    The role of telerobotics in space exploration as placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While telerobotics and virtual presence is a technology that is rapidly becoming more sophisticated, with strong commercial interest on the Earth, this time delay, along with the neurological timescale of a human being, quantitatively defines the cognitive horizon for any locale in space. That is, how distant can an operator be from a robot and not be significantly impacted by latency? We explore that cognitive timescale of the universe, and consider the implications for telerobotics, human space flight, and participation by larger numbers of people in space exploration. We conclude that, with advanced telepresence, sophisticated robots could be operated with high cognition throughout a lunar hemisphere by astronauts within a station at an Earth-Moon Ll or L2 venue. Likewise, complex telerobotic servicing of satellites in geosynchronous orbit can be carried out from suitable terrestrial stations.

  8. On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link Between Cognition and the Physical World A Role for Psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D

    2002-01-01

    A straightforward explanation of fundamental tenets of quantum mechanics concerning the wave function results in the thesis that the quantum mechanical wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world. The reticence on the part of physicists to adopt this thesis is discussed. A comparison is made to the behaviorists' consideration of mind, and the historical roots of how the problem concerning the quantum mechanical wave function arose are discussed. The basis for an empirical demonstration that the wave function is a link between human cognition and the physical world is provided through developing an experiment using methodology from psychology and physics. Based on research in psychology and physics that relied on this methodology, it is likely that Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's theoretical result that mutually exclusive wave functions can simultaneously apply to the same concrete physical circumstances can be implemented on an empirical level.

  9. Participation in cognitively-stimulating activities is associated with brain structure and cognitive function in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Larson, Jordan; Oh, Jennifer; Koscik, Rebecca; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark; LaRue, Asenath; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitively-stimulating activities, specifically those related to playing games and puzzles, is beneficial to brain health and cognition among middle-aged adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred twenty-nine cognitively normal, middle-aged adults (age range, 43.2-73.8 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participated in this study. They reported their current engagement in cognitive activities using a modified version of the Cognitive Activity Scale (CAS), underwent a structural MRI scan, and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery. FreeSurfer was used to derive gray matter (GM) volumes from AD-related regions of interest (ROIs), and composite measures of episodic memory and executive function were obtained from the cognitive tests. Covariate-adjusted least squares analyses were used to examine the association between the Games item on the CAS (CAS-Games) and both GM volumes and cognitive composites. Higher scores on CAS-Games were associated with greater GM volumes in several ROIs including the hippocampus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and middle frontal gyrus. Similarly, CAS-Games scores were positively associated with scores on the Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility domains. These findings were not modified by known risk factors for AD. In addition, the Total score on the CAS was not as sensitive as CAS-Games to the examined brain and cognitive measures. For some individuals, participation in cognitive activities pertinent to game playing may help prevent AD by preserving brain structures and cognitive functions vulnerable to AD pathophysiology.

  10. Subjective cognitive complaints and the role of executive cognitive functioning in the working population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC, involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. METHODS: Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases or low (controls levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

  11. Severity of negative symptoms significantly affects cognitive functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia: the slowing in cognitive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia S. Galaverna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown a decreased overall cognitive performance, and it was found that processing speed and working memory functions are affected. The aim of this study was to describe the general cognitive performance of patients with chronic schizophrenia and analyze its relationship with the severity of psychotic symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients diagnosed with DSM IV-TR schizophrenia disorder were examined for symptom improvement, measured by scales SAPS and SANS. Participants also completed the full scale WAIS-III. Results: The results show a generalized cognitive deficit, reflected in the low level of general intelligence, as well as the different index that comprise the scale. The most compromised index was the processing speed. The correlations showed that the overall severity of negative symptoms significantly affects cognitive functioning of chronic patients. The formal thought disorder and alogia significantly correlated with almost all the WAIS-III measures. Conclusions: Multiple studies of specific cognitive domains in schizophrenia have shown that deficits in processing speed are the core element of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. We support the hypothesis about the slowing in cognitive processing affect both the performance of the basic and more complex cognitive task.

  12. Diagnostics of cognitive functions of treated clients with an anamnesis of long-term drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Krupčík

    2014-12-01

    obstruction for optimal performance, such as enhanced anxiety, can be detected. Probably, long-term drug abusers can have a larger tendency to be anxious, due to a problematical self-image and fighting other difficulties. An effect of comorbidity should also be taken into account. A depression or anxious syndromes or other common problems can take their part anyway. But it is important to notify that in our sample are not present any confirmed psychiatric diagnoses other than the syndrome of dependence. Standard aftercare programmes devote a lot of attention to another aspect of a treatment like psychosocial, physical and/or socioeconomic issues, but the cognitive assessment and the cognitive training is not a standard part of their effort. We believe that individualized and detailed assessment of cognitive functions of clients in the aftercare programmes can contribute to creating an optimal therapeutic plan which has a larger chance to be effective and successful. This paper is a pilot study for a more extensive quantitative study with larger number of clients in which we will try to compare specific effect of different kind of drugs. We would like to describe the long-term effect of abuse of drugs like alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine and heroin. Negative effects of drugs for human cognitive functioning are evident. But we can't say that an effect of specific drugs itself is the only cause. Patterns of use, combinations with other substances, and effects of additives or regime of life and so on are also very important. From the point of view of methodology, this area is therefore rather problematic. We would like to bring more awareness of this theme using already tested battery of psychodiagnostic methods.

  13. Evolution of the Human Nervous System Function, Structure, and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, André M M; Meyer, Kyle A; Santpere, Gabriel; Gulden, Forrest O; Sestan, Nenad

    2017-07-13

    The nervous system-in particular, the brain and its cognitive abilities-is among humans' most distinctive and impressive attributes. How the nervous system has changed in the human lineage and how it differs from that of closely related primates is not well understood. Here, we consider recent comparative analyses of extant species that are uncovering new evidence for evolutionary changes in the size and the number of neurons in the human nervous system, as well as the cellular and molecular reorganization of its neural circuits. We also discuss the developmental mechanisms and underlying genetic and molecular changes that generate these structural and functional differences. As relevant new information and tools materialize at an unprecedented pace, the field is now ripe for systematic and functionally relevant studies of the development and evolution of human nervous system specializations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is cognitive impairment following early life stress in severe mental disorders based on specific or general cognitive functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Steen, Nils E; Agartz, Ingrid; Aminoff, Sofie R; Lorentzen, Steinar; Sundet, Kjetil; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2012-08-15

    Schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorder are characterized by high levels of childhood trauma as well as of cognitive dysfunction. Our aim is to investigate the association between these two factors in the largest study in the literature so far. A total of 406 patients with schizophrenia spectrum- or bipolar disorders were recruited from a catchment area based organization in Oslo, Norway. Information about early life stress was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive and standardized neuropsychological test battery. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and physical neglect were significantly associated with reduced scores on working memory and executive function scales (p=0.04 to pIntelligence (WASI) (p=0.059 to pdisorders, in particular working memory and executive function as well as general cognition. Moreover, these dysfunctions seem to be driven by underlying deficits in general cognitive tasks as measured by the WASI.

  15. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  16. Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after

  17. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of brain in healthy aging: A MEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia eLopez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently healthy aging is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve.21 subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of cognitive reserve; one group comprised subjects with high cognitive reserve (9 members and the other contained those with low cognitive reserve (12 members. To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg´s Task. We then applied two algorithms (Phase Locking Value & Phase-Lag Index to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower cognitive reserve presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher cognitive reserve.These results may indicate that participants with low cognitive reserve needed a greater 'effort' than those with high cognitive reserve to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that cognitive reserve contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain.

  18. Cognitive functions and autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bogaczewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autoantibodies may occur in the course of various diseases. In the case of systemic lupus erythematosus the presence of specific autoantibodies is included in the classification criteria of the disease. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the presence of the serologic markers of systemic lupus erythematosus, i.e. anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm and anticardiolipin antibodies of the class IgM and IgG are linked with the results of neuropsychological tests evaluating selected cognitive functions in patients without overt neuropsychiatric lupus and without antiphospholipid syndrome. Material and methods: The study included 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. For the assessment of anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm and anticardiolipin antibodies the immunoenzymatic method was used. For neuropsychological estimation of the selected cognitive functions the attention switching test and the choice reaction time were applied, in which the results are expressed as the average delay i.e. mean correct latency, using the computer-based Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. Results: The results of attention switching test in patients with anti-Sm antibodies were lower, but not significantly different from those obtained by the patients without such antibodies: 75.0 (73.12–88.12 vs. 92.5 (85–95. Choice reaction time was significantly longer in patients with anti-Sm antibodies in comparison to the patients without antiSm antibodies: 614.9 (520.6–740.8 vs. 476.7 (396.6–540 (p = 0.01. No significant difference was demonstrated in the results of attention switching test and choice reaction time with regard to the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies. The results of attention switching test and choice reaction time were not different between the groups of patients with and without anticardiolipin antibodies in the IgM and IgG class. Conclusions: Anti-Sm antibodies seem to contribute to

  19. Enabling Robotic Social Intelligence by Engineering Human Social-Cognitive Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Warta, Samantha F.; Barber, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    for artificial cognitive systems. We discuss a recent integrative perspective of social cognition to provide a systematic theoretical underpinning for computational instantiations of these mechanisms. We highlight several commitments of our approach that we refer to as Engineering Human Social Cognition. We...... then provide a series of recommendations to facilitate the development of the perceptual, motor, and cognitive architecture for this proposed artificial cognitive system in future work. For each recommendation, we highlight their relation to the discussed social-cognitive mechanisms, provide the rationale...

  20. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: An integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eHelie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 basal ganglia models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the basal ganglia that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the basal ganglia in behavioral functions.

  1. Fast optical imaging of human brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gratton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Great advancements in brain imaging during the last few decades have opened a large number of new possibilities for neuroscientists. The most dominant methodologies (electrophysiological and magnetic resonance-based methods emphasize temporal and spatial information, respectively. However, theorizing about brain function has recently emphasized the importance of rapid (within 100 ms or so interactions between different elements of complex neuronal networks. Fast optical imaging, and in particular the event-related optical signal (EROS, a technology that has emerged over the last 15 years may provide descriptions of localized (to sub-cm level brain activity with a temporal resolution of less than 100 ms. The main limitations of EROS are its limited penetration, which allows us to image cortical structures not deeper than 3 cm from the surface of the head, and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Advantages include the fact that EROS is compatible with most other imaging methods, including electrophysiological, magnetic resonance, and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation techniques, with which can be recorded concurrently. In this paper we present a summary of the research that has been conducted so far on fast optical imaging, including evidence for the possibility of recording neuronal signals with this method, the properties of the signals, and various examples of applications to the study of human cognitive neuroscience. Extant issues, controversies, and possible future developments are also discussed.

  2. Components of a Mediterranean diet and their impact on cognitive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eHuhn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi is known to be beneficial with regard to age-associated diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies also suggest an impact on cognition and brain structure, and increasing effort is made to track effects down to single nutrients.Aims: To review whether two MeDi components, i.e. long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA derived from sea-fish, and plant polyphenols including resveratrol (RSV, exert positive effects on brain health in aging. Content: We summarized health benefits associated with the MeDi and evaluated available studies on the effect of (1 fish-consumption and LC-n3-FA supplementation as well as (2 diet-derived or supplementary polyphenols such as RSV, on cognitive performance and brain structure in animal models and human studies. Also, we discussed possible underlying mechanisms.Conclusion: A majority of available studies suggest that consumption of LC-n3-FA with fish or fishoil-supplements exerts positive effects on brain health and cognition in older humans. However, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to draw definite recommendations. Considering polyphenols and RSV, only a few controlled studies are available to date, yet the evidence based on animal research and first interventional human trials is promising and warrants further investigation. In addition, the concept of food synergy within the MeDi encourages future trials that evaluate the impact of comprehensive lifestyle patterns to help maintaining cognitive functions into old age.

  3. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB): performance and functional correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Falkum, Erik; Mohn, Christine; Haaland, Vegard Øksendal; Bull, Helen; Evensen, Stig; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Ueland, Torill

    2014-12-30

    Neurocognitive impairment is a core feature in psychotic disorders and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) is now widely used to assess neurocognition in this group. The MATRICS has been translated into several languages, including Norwegian; although this version has yet to be investigated in an adult clinical population. Further, the relationship between the MATRICS and different measures of functioning needs examination. The purpose of this study was to describe neurocognition assessed with the Norwegian version of the MATRICS battery in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders compared to age and gender matched healthy controls and to examine the association with educational-, occupational- and social-functioning in the patient group. One hundred and thirty one patients and 137 healthy controls completed the battery. The Norwegian version of the MATRICS was sensitive to the magnitude of neurocognitive impairments in patients with psychotic disorders, with patients displaying significant impairments on all domains relative to healthy controls. Neurocognition was also related to both self-rated and objective functional measures such as social functioning, educational- and employment-history.

  4. Reorganization of functional networks in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M Buldú

    Full Text Available Whether the balance between integration and segregation of information in the brain is damaged in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI subjects is still a matter of debate. Here we characterize the functional network architecture of MCI subjects by means of complex networks analysis. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG time series obtained during a memory task were evaluated by synchronization likelihood (SL, to quantify the statistical dependence between MEG signals and to obtain the functional networks. Graphs from MCI subjects show an enhancement of the strength of connections, together with an increase in the outreach parameter, suggesting that memory processing in MCI subjects is associated with higher energy expenditure and a tendency toward random structure, which breaks the balance between integration and segregation. All features are reproduced by an evolutionary network model that simulates the degenerative process of a healthy functional network to that associated with MCI. Due to the high rate of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer Disease (AD, these results show that the analysis of functional networks could be an appropriate tool for the early detection of both MCI and AD.

  5. Cognitive Functioning after Surgery in Middle-aged and Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokkedal, Unni; Hansen, Tom G; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common, but it remains unclear whether there are long-term adverse cognitive effects of surgery combined with anesthesia. The authors examined the association between exposure to surgery and level of cognitive functioning in a sample of 8,503 mid...

  6. Physical Frailty and Cognitive Functioning in Depressed Older Adults : Findings From the NESDO Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Matheus H. L.; Collard, Rose M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Zuidersma, Marij; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Naarding, Paul; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive frailty has recently been defined as the co-occurrence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment. Late-life depression is associated with both physical frailty and cognitive impairment, especially processing speed and executive functioning. The objective of this study was to

  7. Evaluation of the effects of group psychotherapy on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis with cognitive dysfunction and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bilgi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study will evaluate how decreasing depression severity via group psychotherapy affects the cognitive function of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who are also diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction. Method MS patients completed the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. The group members diagnosed with depression and cognitive dysfunction underwent group psychotherapy for 3 months. Upon completion of psychotherapy, both tests were readministered. Results Depression and cognitive dysfunction were comorbid in 15 (13.9% of patients. Although improvement was detected at the end of the 3-month group psychotherapy intervention, it was limited to the BDI and the Paced Auditory Test. Conclusion Group psychotherapy might decrease cognitive impairment in MS patients.

  8. Influence of Mushroom-Basidiomycetes Ganoderma Lucidum on the Cognitive Function of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unzira Kapysheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the fungus G. Lucidum, thanks to the presence in its composition of a large group of polysaccharides that provide energy and strengthens the immune system, terpenes, and amino acids that affect the operation of almost all human body systems, including the brain blood circulation, it has had a positive effect on the cognitive function of the respondents – it improves memory for numbers on the images, heightened attention and response to an external signal, increased mobility and balance the basic nervous processes in the cerebral cortex.

  9. tDCS-enhanced motor and cognitive function in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöel, Agnes

    2014-01-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation tool that is now being widely used in neuroscientific and clinical research in humans. While initial studies focused on modulation of cortical excitability, the technique quickly progressed to studies on motor and cognitive functions in healthy humans and in patients with neurological diseases. In the present review we will first provide the reader with a brief background on the basic principles of tDCS. In the main part, we will outline recent studies with tDCS that aimed at enhancing behavioral outcome or disease-specific symptoms in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and epilepsy, or persistent deficits after stroke. The review will close with a summary statement on the present use of tDCS in the treatment of neurological disorders, and an outlook to further developments in this realm. tDCS may be an ideal tool to be administered in parallel to intensive cognitive or motor training in neurological disease, but efficacy for the areas of activities and participation still needs to be established in controlled randomized trials. Its use in reducing disease-specific symptoms like dystonia or epileptic seizures is still unclear.

  10. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  11. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  12. Cognitive models applied to human effectiveness in national security environments (ergonomics of augmented cognition system design and application).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntuen, Celestine (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC); Winchester, Woodrow III (North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC)

    2004-06-01

    In complex simulation systems where humans interact with computer-generated agents, information display and the interplay of virtual agents have become dominant media and modalities of interface design. This design strategy is reflected in augmented reality (AR), an environment where humans interact with computer-generated agents in real-time. AR systems can generate large amount of information, multiple solutions in less time, and perform far better in time-constrained problem solving. The capabilities of AR have been leveraged to augment cognition in human information processing. In this sort of augmented cognition (AC) work system, while technology has become the main source for information acquisition from the environment, the human sensory and memory capacities have failed to cope with the magnitude and scale of information they encounter. This situation generates opportunity for excessive cognitive workloads, a major factor in degraded human performance. From the human effectiveness point of view, research is needed to develop, model, and validate simulation tools that can measure the effectiveness of an AR technology used to support the amplification of human cognition. These tools will allow us to predict human performance for tasks executed under an AC tool construct. This paper presents an exploration of ergonomics issues relevant to AR and AC systems design. Additionally, proposed research to investigate those ergonomic issues is discussed.

  13. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients...... disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent...... investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency...

  14. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Shao; Xiao Han; Shuang Shao; Weiwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. [Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

    2014-03-01

    Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight.

  16. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    status, and low level of maternal education were factors apart from HIV infection that were significantly associated with low cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Keywords: pediatric human immunodeficiency virus, cognitive assessment, school-aged children, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Nigeria

  17. THE FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF DELTA OSCILLATIONS IN COGNITIVE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalia eHarmony

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ample evidence suggests that EEG oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (1-3.5 Hz during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world versus the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1-3.5 Hz activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task.

  18. A virtual shopping test for realistic assessment of cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahashi, Sayaka; Seki, Keiko; Nagano, Akinori; Luo, Zhiwei; Kojima, Maki; Futaki, Toshiko

    2013-06-18

    Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients' ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age.

  19. A virtual shopping test for realistic assessment of cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients’ ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. Methods The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Results Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. Conclusions The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age. PMID:23777412

  20. Putamen FDOPA uptake and its relationship tot cognitive functioning in PD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2006-01-01

    Impaired executive functioning is frequently found in PD patients. As a result, impairments in the executive components of other cognitive functions such as memory, visuo-spatial functions and fluency are also present. From a neuroanatomical point of view, different loops are mediating cognitive, em

  1. Allocation of cognitive processing capacity during human autonomic classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M E; Schell, A M; Beers, J R; Kelly, A

    1982-09-01

    expected UCS. Fourth, large electrodermal responders to the CSs exhibited patterns of capacity allocation during the CSs, particularly during the CS+, different from those of small electrodermal responders. In particular, they exhibited significantly longer RTs at 300 msec after CS+ onset than did the small responders, followed by a shortening of RT at 500 msec relative to the small responders. This finding suggests that large electrodermal responders devote greater processing capacity to significant environmental stimuli than do small responders and that their processing may begin and be completed more rapidly. All in all, the data indicate the complexity of the cognitive processes that occur during human classical conditioning and the usefulness of the secondary-task technique in integrating conditioning theories and psychophysiology with cognitive psychology.

  2. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.C. Paas (Fred); J. Sweller (John)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ame

  3. "Minding the gap": imagination, creativity and human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaprat, Etienne; Cole, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Inquiry into the nature of mental images is a major topic in psychology where research is focused on the psychological faculties of imagination and creativity. In this paper, we draw on the work of L.S. Vygotsky to develop a cultural-historical approach to the study of imagination as central to human cognitive processes. We characterize imagination as a process of image making that resolves "gaps" arising from biological and cultural-historical constraints, and that enables ongoing time-space coordination necessary for thought and action. After presenting some basic theoretical considerations, we offer a series of examples to illustrate for the reader the diversity of processes of imagination as image making. Applying our arguments to contemporary digital media, we argue that a cultural-historical approach to image formation is important for understanding how imagination and creativity are distinct, yet inter-penetrating processes.

  4. Artificial cognitive memory—changing from density driven to functionality driven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L. P.; Yi, K. J.; Ramanathan, K.; Zhao, R.; Ning, N.; Ding, D.; Chong, T. C.

    2011-03-01

    Increasing density based on bit size reduction is currently a main driving force for the development of data storage technologies. However, it is expected that all of the current available storage technologies might approach their physical limits in around 15 to 20 years due to miniaturization. To further advance the storage technologies, it is required to explore a new development trend that is different from density driven. One possible direction is to derive insights from biological counterparts. Unlike physical memories that have a single function of data storage, human memory is versatile. It contributes to functions of data storage, information processing, and most importantly, cognitive functions such as adaptation, learning, perception, knowledge generation, etc. In this paper, a brief review of current data storage technologies are presented, followed by discussions of future storage technology development trend. We expect that the driving force will evolve from density to functionality, and new memory modules associated with additional functions other than only data storage will appear. As an initial step toward building a future generation memory technology, we propose Artificial Cognitive Memory (ACM), a memory based intelligent system. We also present the characteristics of ACM, new technologies that can be used to develop ACM components such as bioinspired element cells (silicon, memristor, phase change, etc.), and possible methodologies to construct a biologically inspired hierarchical system.

  5. Effects of gestational age at birth on cognitive performance: a function of cognitive workload demands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jaekel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n = 1326 children (gestation range: 23-41 weeks were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. RESULTS: Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA² (quadratic term on low cognitive workload: R²  = .02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R²  = .09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R²  = .14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation and moderately (32-33 weeks gestation preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5% compared with moderate (8.1% and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

  6. Associative and Implicit Memory Performance as a Function of Cognitive Reserve in Elderly Adults with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, Salvador; Sales, Alicia; Pitarque, Alfonso; Meléndez, Juan C; Escudero, Joaquín; Mayordomo, Teresa

    2016-02-18

    This study aims to analyze implicit and explicit memory performance as a function of cognitive reserve (CR) in a healthy control group (N = 39) and a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group (N = 37). Both groups were subdivided into high and low cognitive reserve, and were asked to complete an explicit and implicit associative recognition tasks. The results showed that the control group was able to learn both tasks (η2 = .19, p association task. Participants diagnosed with MCI showed little plasticity in learning associations regardless of CR (η2 = .12, p < .01).

  7. Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in China:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojiao Lü; Weijie Fu; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to benefit cognitive function in older adults. However, the cognitive benefits of exercising for older Chinese adults have not been systematically documented. This study was to conduct a systematic review on evidence that PA is beneficial for cognitive functioning in older Chinese adults. Methods: Major databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WanFang, CNKI, and VIP, were searched for studies published in English or Chinese between January 2000 and December 2015. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-RCTs), cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies that evaluated PA and cognitive function among older Chinese adults were included in this review. Results: Of 53 studies included and reviewed, 33 were observational (22 cross-sectional, 7 case-control, and 4 cohort) and 20 were experimental (15 RCTs, 5 non-RCTs). Observational studies showed an association of reduced risk of cognitive-related diseases (i.e., mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia) through PA, whereas experimental studies reported exercise-induced improvement in multiple domains of cognitive function (i.e., global cognitive function, memory, executive function, attention, language, and processing recourse). Conclusion: This systematic review provides initial evidence that PA may benefit cognition in older Chinese adults. Further studies of individuals with cognitive impairments and prospective and RCT studies having high scientific rigor are needed to corroborate the findings reported in this review.

  8. Cognitive and functional impairment in patients suffering from stroke: the importance of cognitive assessment for Occupational Therapy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa de Oliveira Ferro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Stroke (CVA can generate motor, sensory and cognitive development deficits, affecting the individual’s performance in daily activities. Changes in any cognitive area can affect the individual’s occupational engagement. Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and functional capacity in patients suffering from stroke, showing the importance of cognitive assessment for occupational therapy intervention. Method: A comparative study with cross-sectional sampling of 44 subjects aged 30-80 years, both sexes. The subjects were divided in three groups: Adult: 11 individuals affected by stroke, 30-59 years old; Elderly: 10 individuals affected by stroke, 60-80 years old; Control: 23 normal subjects, 30-80 years old. Tests applied: MMSE, Clock Test, Test of tracks A and B, and functional capacity (BOMFAQ. Results: Cognitive changes were identified in the Adult and Elderly groups. The Adult group showed poorer performance on the Clock test (visuospatial and executive functions compared with the Control group. The Adult and Elderly groups presented worse performance in the Track A test (attention compared with the Control group. In the Track B test (visual attention, graphomotor skills, and mental flexibility, applied with absolute numbers, no significant differences were observed between the Adult and Elderly groups and the Control group, but cognitive impairment was perceived when the test was applied with categories. The Adult group showed higher prevalence of moderate/severe impairment in the carrying out of daily activities. Conclusion: As a rule, individuals suffering from stroke, in addition to having impaired functional capacity, present cognitive impairments that can negatively impact the performance of daily tasks, whether they are occupational, leisure or self-care activities. Accordingly, we observed the need to evaluate cognitive rehabilitation for better targeting and quality of life improvement.

  9. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:22251311

  10. Control of human trophoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondi Carla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trophoblast, i.e. the peripheral part of the human conceptus, exerts a crucial role in implantation and placentation. Both processes properly occur as a consequence of an intimate dialogue between fetal and maternal tissues, fulfilled by membrane ligands and receptors, as well as by hormone and local factor release. During blastocyst implantation, generation of distinct trophoblast cell types begins, namely the villous and the extravillous trophoblast, the former of which is devoted to fetal-maternal exchanges and the latter binds the placental body to the uterine wall. Physiological placentation is characterized by the invasion of the uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells arising from anchoring villi. Due to this invasion, the arterial structure is replaced by amorphous fibrinoid material and endovascular trophoblastic cells. This transformation establishes a low-resistance, high-capacity perfusion system from the radial arteries to the intervillous space, in which the villous tree is embedded. The physiology of pregnancy depends upon the orderly progress of structural and functional changes of villous and extravillous trophoblast, whereas a derangement of such processes can lead to different types of complications of varying degrees of gravity, including possible pregnancy loss and maternal life-threatening diseases. In this review we describe the mechanisms which regulate trophoblast differentiation, proliferation, migration and invasiveness, and the alterations in these mechanisms which lead to pathological conditions. Furthermore, based on the growing evidence that proper inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are needed for successful gestation, we explain the mechanisms by which agents able to influence such processes may be useful in the prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders.