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Sample records for human chronic obstructive

  1. Chlamydophila spp. infection in horses with recurrent airway obstruction: similarities to human chronic obstructive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotzel Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO in horses is a naturally occurring dust-induced disease mainly characterized by bronchiolitis which shows histological and pathophysiological similarities to human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In human COPD previous investigations indicated an association with Chlamydophila psittaci infection. The present study was designed (1 to clarify a possible role of this infectious agent in RAO and (2 to investigate the suitability of this equine disorder as a model for human COPD. Methods Clinico-pathological parameters of a total of 45 horses (25 horses with clinical signs of RAO and 20 clinically healthy controls were compared to histological findings in lung tissue samples and infection by Chlamydiaceae using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Results Horses with clinical signs of RAO vs. controls revealed more inflammatory changes in histology (p = 0.01, and a higher detection rate of Chlamydia psittaci antigens in all cells (p OmpA sequencing identified Chlamydophila psittaci (n = 9 and Chlamydophila abortus (n = 13 in both groups with no significant differences. Within the group of clinically healthy horses subgroups with no changes (n = 15 and slight inflammation of the small airways (n = 5 were identified. Also in the group of animals with RAO subgroups with slight (n = 16 and severe (n = 9 bronchiolitis could be formed. These four subgroups can be separated in parts by the number of cells positive for Chlamydia psittaci antigens. Conclusion Chlamydophila psittaci or abortus were present in the lung of both clinically healthy horses and those with RAO. Immunohistochemistry revealed acute chlamydial infections with inflammation in RAO horses, whereas in clinically healthy animals mostly persistent chlamydial infection and no inflammatory reactions were seen. Stable dust as the known fundamental abiotic factor in RAO is comparable to smoking in human disease. These

  2. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Børvig

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures....

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to FVC (forced vital capacity ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure, hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity, bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia, stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  4. Haemophilus influenzae genome evolution during persistence in the human airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Ahearn, Christian P; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Gallo, Mary C; Munro, James B; D'Mello, Adonis; Sethi, Sanjay; Tettelin, Hervé; Murphy, Timothy F

    2018-04-03

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exclusively colonize and infect humans and are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In vitro and animal models do not accurately capture the complex environments encountered by NTHi during human infection. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 269 longitudinally collected cleared and persistent NTHi from a 15-y prospective study of adults with COPD. Genome sequences were used to elucidate the phylogeny of NTHi isolates, identify genomic changes that occur with persistence in the human airways, and evaluate the effect of selective pressure on 12 candidate vaccine antigens. Strains persisted in individuals with COPD for as long as 1,422 d. Slipped-strand mispairing, mediated by changes in simple sequence repeats in multiple genes during persistence, regulates expression of critical virulence functions, including adherence, nutrient uptake, and modification of surface molecules, and is a major mechanism for survival in the hostile environment of the human airways. A subset of strains underwent a large 400-kb inversion during persistence. NTHi does not undergo significant gene gain or loss during persistence, in contrast to other persistent respiratory tract pathogens. Amino acid sequence changes occurred in 8 of 12 candidate vaccine antigens during persistence, an observation with important implications for vaccine development. These results indicate that NTHi alters its genome during persistence by regulation of critical virulence functions primarily by slipped-strand mispairing, advancing our understanding of how a bacterial pathogen that plays a critical role in COPD adapts to survival in the human respiratory tract.

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabulut, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) denote progressive lung diseases characterized by airway obstruction. COPD exhibits specific morphologic changes in the lung parenchyma, central and peripheral airways and pulmonary vasculature. A person with COPD may have either emphysema or chronic bronchitis, but most have both. Some people with COPD may also have an asthma-like or reactive component. Imaging modalities play important role in the detection or exclusion of COPD, distribution and extent of disease processes. Combined inspiratory and expiratory high resolution CT allows phenotyping of COPD (emphysema predominant, airway predominant, or mixed) and quantification of severity. Magnetic resonance imaging enables functional evaluation and demonstrates ventilation defects correlating closely with pulmonary function tests. Imaging techniques are also helpful in guiding the treatment, such as bullectomy in patients with bullous emphysema, lung volume reduction surgery or endoscopic interventions in those with severe emphysema, and smoking cessation and medical treatment designed to stop lung destruction in patients with mild or moderate emphysema or bronchiectasis.

  6. Frequency and clinical relevance of human bocavirus infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Ringshausen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Felix C Ringshausen1, Ai-Yui M Tan1, Tobias Allander2, Irmgard Borg1, Umut Arinir1, Juliane Kronsbein1, Barbara M Hauptmeier1, Gerhard Schultze-Werninghaus1, Gernot Rohde11Clinical Research Group “Significance of viral infections in chronic respiratory diseases of children and adults,” University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Internal Medicine III–Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: Human bocavirus (HBoV is a recently discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of HBoV infection in adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD.Methods: We retrospectively tested 212 COPD patients, 141 (66.5% with AE-COPD and 71 (33.5% with stable disease, of whom nasal lavage and induced sputum had been obtained for the presence of HBoV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. The specificity of positive polymerase chain reaction results was confirmed by sequencing.Results: Two hundred two of 212 patients for whom PCR results were available both for nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were eligible for data analysis. HBoV DNA was detected in three patients (1.5%. Of those, only one patient had AE-COPD. Thus, the frequency of HBoV infection demonstrated to be low in both AE-COPD (0.8% and stable COPD (2.9%. HBoV was found in two sputum and one nasal lavage sample in different patients, respectively. Sequencing revealed >99% sequence identity with the reference strain.Conclusion: HBoV detection was infrequent. Since we detected HBoV in both upper and lower respiratory tract specimens and in AE-COPD as well as stable disease, a major role of HBoV infection in adults with AE-COPD is unlikely

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing up dark mucus Your fingertips or the skin around your fingernails are blue Alternative Names COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; ...

  8. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome.

  10. Danish Register of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Sorknæs, Anne Dichmann

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Register of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (DrCOPD) is a nationwide database aiming to describe the quality of treatment of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DrCOPD comprises data on all patients...

  11. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Schwarz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence.......The purpose of this review is to examine the state of knowledge and clinical practice in the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to osteoporosis and fracture incidence....

  12. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Beiko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant decreases in morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and cancers, morbidity and cost associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continue to be increasing. Failure to improve disease outcomes has been related to the paucity of interventions improving survival. Insidious onset and slow progression halter research successes in developing disease-modifying therapies. In part, the difficulty in finding new therapies is because of the extreme heterogeneity within recognized COPD phenotypes. Novel biomarkers are necessary to help understand the natural history and pathogenesis of the different COPD subtypes. A more accurate phenotyping and the ability to assess the therapeutic response to new interventions and pharmaceutical agents may improve the statistical power of longitudinal clinical studies. In this study, we will review known candidate biomarkers for COPD, proposed pathways of pathogenesis, and future directions in the field.

  13. Models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung K Fan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem and is predicted to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Apart from the important preventive steps of smoking cessation, there are no other specific treatments for COPD that are as effective in reversing the condition, and therefore there is a need to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to new therapeutic strategies. The development of experimental models will help to dissect these mechanisms at the cellular and molecular level. COPD is a disease characterized by progressive airflow obstruction of the peripheral airways, associated with lung inflammation, emphysema and mucus hypersecretion. Different approaches to mimic COPD have been developed but are limited in comparison to models of allergic asthma. COPD models usually do not mimic the major features of human COPD and are commonly based on the induction of COPD-like lesions in the lungs and airways using noxious inhalants such as tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide, or sulfur dioxide. Depending on the duration and intensity of exposure, these noxious stimuli induce signs of chronic inflammation and airway remodelling. Emphysema can be achieved by combining such exposure with instillation of tissue-degrading enzymes. Other approaches are based on genetically-targeted mice which develop COPD-like lesions with emphysema, and such mice provide deep insights into pathophysiological mechanisms. Future approaches should aim to mimic irreversible airflow obstruction, associated with cough and sputum production, with the possibility of inducing exacerbations.

  14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook ... Percent of visits to office-based physicians with COPD indicated on the medical record: 3.2% Source: ...

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – diagnosis and classification of ... biomass fuel exposure/household pollution, tuberculosis, HIV and mining ... There is a very high prevalence of COPD in SA and it is the third leading cause of mortality ...

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : a proteomics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Bruno Miguel Coelho, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Molecular), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airflow limitation that is not fully reversible even under bronchodilators effect, caused by a mixture of small airway disease – obstructive bronchiolitis – and parenchymal destruction – emphysema. At the present time, COPD is the fourth leading cause of death and its prevalence and mortality are expected to contin...

  17. Influence of lung CT changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD on the human lung microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Engel

    Full Text Available Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited.Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons.We could show that bacterial community composition in patients with changes in CT (either airway or emphysema type changes, designated as severe subtypes was different from community composition in lungs of patients without visible changes in CT as well as from healthy subjects (designated as mild COPD subtype and control group (PC1, Padj = 0.002. Higher abundance of Prevotella in samples from patients with mild COPD subtype and from controls and of Streptococcus in the severe subtype cases mainly contributed to the separation of bacterial communities of subjects. No significant effects of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on bacterial community composition were detected within COPD cases with and without abnormalities in CT in PCoA. Co-occurrence analysis suggests the presence of networks of co-occurring bacteria. Four communities of positively correlated bacteria were revealed. The microbial communities can clearly be distinguished by their associations with the CT defined disease phenotype.Our findings indicate that CT detectable structural changes in the lung of COPD patients, which we termed severe subtypes, are associated with alterations in bacterial communities, which may induce further changes in the interaction between microbes and host cells. This might result in a changed interplay with the host immune system.

  18. Influence of lung CT changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the human lung microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Marion; Endesfelder, David; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Kublik, Susanne; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boschetto, Piera; Stendardo, Mariarita; Barta, Imre; Dome, Balazs; Deleuze, Jean-François; Boland, Anne; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje; Welte, Tobias; Hohlfeld, Jens; Subramanian, Deepak; Parr, David; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Greulich, Timm; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Nowinski, Adam; Gorecka, Dorota; Singh, Dave; Gupta, Sumit; Brightling, Christopher E; Hoffmann, Harald; Frankenberger, Marion; Hofer, Thomas P; Burggraf, Dorothe; Heiss-Neumann, Marion; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Schloter, Michael; Zu Castell, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited. Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons. We could show that bacterial community composition in patients with changes in CT (either airway or emphysema type changes, designated as severe subtypes) was different from community composition in lungs of patients without visible changes in CT as well as from healthy subjects (designated as mild COPD subtype and control group) (PC1, Padj = 0.002). Higher abundance of Prevotella in samples from patients with mild COPD subtype and from controls and of Streptococcus in the severe subtype cases mainly contributed to the separation of bacterial communities of subjects. No significant effects of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on bacterial community composition were detected within COPD cases with and without abnormalities in CT in PCoA. Co-occurrence analysis suggests the presence of networks of co-occurring bacteria. Four communities of positively correlated bacteria were revealed. The microbial communities can clearly be distinguished by their associations with the CT defined disease phenotype. Our findings indicate that CT detectable structural changes in the lung of COPD patients, which we termed severe subtypes, are associated with alterations in bacterial communities, which may induce further changes in the interaction between microbes and host cells. This might result in a changed interplay with the host immune system.

  19. Natural histories of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Concepts relating to the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) arise most importantly from the classic study of Fletcher and colleagues (The Natural History of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976). This study, which evaluated working...

  20. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema......-20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter...... and emphysema, respectively. Conclusions – Airway distensibility decreases significantly with increasing severity of both GOLD status and emphysema, indicating that in COPD the dynamic change in airway calibre during respiration is compromised. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema appear to be interacting...

  1. The genetics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Edwin K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that COPD aggregates in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition to airflow obstruction. Many candidate genes have been assessed, but the data are often conflicting. We review the genetic factors that predispose smokers to COPD and highlight the future role of genomic scans in identifying novel susceptibility genes.

  2. Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, E; Leisewitz, A L; Van der Lugt, J J

    2001-05-01

    A case of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog is described. The dog was presented with chronic weight loss and vomiting. An intestinal obstruction was suspected based on clinical and radiological findings. A diagnosis of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was made on the basis of full thickness intestinal biopsies. The dog was refractory to any antiemetic therapy. Necropsy revealed marked atrophy and fibrosis of the tunica muscularis, together with a mononuclear cell infiltrate extending from the duodenum to the colon. This case was presented with clinical findings consistent with visceral myopathy in humans--namely, atony and dilatation of the whole gut--but the histological findings resembled sclerosis limited to the gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases are major co-morbidities in both. Co-existence of both disorders (overlap syndrome) occurs in 1% of adults and overlap patients have worse nocturnal hypoxemia and hypercapnia than COPD and OSA patients alone. The present review discusses recent data concerning the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of obstructive ventilatory impairment and hyperinflation, especially the inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, correlates with the severity of sleep-related breathing disturbances. Early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves survival, reduces hospitalization and pulmonary hypertension, and also reduces hypoxemia. Evidence of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in COPD and sleep apnea provides insight into potential interactions between both disorders that may predispose to cardiovascular disease. Long-term outcome studies of overlap patients currently underway should provide further evidence of the clinical significance of the overlap syndrome. SUMMARY: Studies of overlap syndrome patients at a clinical, physiological and molecular level should provide insight into disease mechanisms and consequences of COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to identifying potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Jesper; Kristensen, Gustav N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the 80s and 90s the mortality and number of hospitalisations due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the country of Denmark almost doubled. Since then there has been a plateau. OBJECTIVE: To analyse age, period, and cohort effects on rates of deaths and first...

  6. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Kharitonov, Sergei A.; Magnussen, Helgo; Page, Clive P.; Postma, Dirkje; Saetta, Marina

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using pulmonary biomarkers to understand and monitor the inflammation in the respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this Pulmonary Perspective we discuss the merits of the various approaches by reviewing the current

  7. Iliocaval Confluence Stenting for Chronic Venous Obstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Wolf, Mark de, E-mail: markthewolf@gmail.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Laanen, Jorinde van, E-mail: jorinde.van.laanen@mumc.nl; Wittens, Cees, E-mail: c.wittens@me.com [Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Jalaie, Houman, E-mail: hjalaie@ukaachen.de [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Surgery (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeDifferent techniques have been described for stenting of venous obstructions. We report our experience with two different confluence stenting techniques to treat chronic bi-iliocaval obstructions.Materials and MethodsBetween 11/2009 and 08/2014 we treated 40 patients for chronic total bi-iliocaval obstructions. Pre-operative magnetic resonance venography showed bilateral extensive post-thrombotic scarring in common and external iliac veins as well as obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Stenting of the IVC was performed with large self-expandable stents down to the level of the iliocaval confluence. To bridge the confluence, either self-expandable stents were placed inside the IVC stent (24 patients, SECS group) or high radial force balloon-expandable stents were placed at the same level (16 patients, BECS group). In both cases, bilateral iliac extensions were performed using nitinol stents.ResultsRecanalization was achieved for all patients. In 15 (38 %) patients, a hybrid procedure with endophlebectomy and arteriovenous fistula creation needed to be performed because of significant involvement of inflow vessels below the inguinal ligament. Mean follow-up was 443 ± 438 days (range 7–1683 days). For all patients, primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency rate at 36 months were 70, 73, and 78 %, respectively. Twelve-month patency rates in the SECS group were 85, 85, and 95 % for primary, assisted-primary, and secondary patency. In the BECS group, primary patency was 100 % during a mean follow-up period of 134 ± 118 (range 29–337) days.ConclusionStenting of chronic bi-iliocaval obstruction shows relatively high patency rates at medium follow-up. Short-term patency seems to favor confluence stenting with balloon-expandable stents.

  8. Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, M A; Kale, I T; Cöl, C; Tekeli, A; Tanik, A; Köksoy, C

    1999-01-01

    Significant bacterial translocation was demonstrated following experimental biliary obstruction, however very little is known about the importance and the prevalence of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundice patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the concept of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundiced patients and its clinical importance. Twenty-one patients requiring laparotomy for obstructive jaundice (group I) and thirty patients operated on electively mainly for chronic cholecystitis (group II) were studied. Peritoneal swab, mesenteric lymph node, portal venous blood, liver wedge biopsy and bile were sampled for culture immediately after opening the peritoneum. Additionally, peripheral blood samples were taken pre- and post-operatively from all patients. Post-operatively, patients were monitored for infectious complications. The mean serum bilirubin concentration, gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in jaundiced patients before therapeutic intervention were significantly higher than in control patients. Five patients demonstrated bacterial translocation in group I (24%), whereas only one did so in group II (3.5%, p jaundice significantly promotes bacterial translocation in humans, however, its clinical importance has yet to be defined.

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis of Lung Tissue from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema Murine Models and Human Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Show Shared and Distinct Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeong H; Morrow, Jarrett; Owen, Caroline A; Qiu, Weiliang; Glass, Kimberly; Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Perrella, Mark A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo; Hersh, Craig P

    2017-07-01

    Although cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the underlying molecular mechanisms for the significant variability in developing COPD in response to CS are incompletely understood. We performed lung gene expression profiling of two different wild-type murine strains (C57BL/6 and NZW/LacJ) and two genetic models with mutations in COPD genome-wide association study genes (HHIP and FAM13A) after 6 months of chronic CS exposure and compared the results to human COPD lung tissues. We identified gene expression patterns that correlate with severity of emphysema in murine and human lungs. Xenobiotic metabolism and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response were commonly regulated molecular response patterns in C57BL/6, Hhip +/- , and Fam13a -/- murine strains exposed chronically to CS. The CS-resistant Fam13a -/- mouse and NZW/LacJ strain revealed gene expression response pattern differences. The Fam13a -/- strain diverged in gene expression compared with C57BL/6 control only after CS exposure. However, the NZW/LacJ strain had a unique baseline expression pattern, enriched for nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response and xenobiotic metabolism, and converged to a gene expression pattern similar to the more susceptible wild-type C57BL/6 after CS exposure. These results suggest that distinct molecular pathways may account for resistance to emphysema. Surprisingly, there were few genes commonly modulated in mice and humans. Our study suggests that gene expression responses to CS may be largely species and model dependent, yet shared pathways could provide biologically significant insights underlying individual susceptibility to CS.

  10. Biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Don D; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, with exception of lung function tests, there are no well validated biomarkers or surrogate endpoints that can be used to establish efficacy of novel drugs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the lung function test is not an ideal surrogate for short-term drug...... trials because it (1) does not provide information regarding disease activity or the underlying pathologic process, (2) cannot separate the various phenotypes of COPD, (3) is not specific for COPD, and (4) is relatively unresponsive to known therapies that prolong survival. Accordingly, there are large...

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, T.; Thomsen, S.F.; Vestbo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation and is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs primarily caused by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important environmental risk factor for COPD, but less than half of all heavy...... smokers develop COPD. This indicates a genetic contribution to the individual disease susceptibility. Although many genes have been examined, the puzzle of COPD genetics seems still largely unsolved. It is therefore important to measure phenotypes and to perform genome-wide scans of COPD patients in order...

  12. Imaging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Bach, Karen S; Mortensen, Jann

    2007-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is divided into pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis (CB). Emphysema is defined patho-anatomically as "permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, accompanied by the destruction of their walls, and without obvious fibrosis" (1). These lesions are readily identified and quantitated using computed tomography (CT), whereas the accompanying hyperinflation is best detected on plain chest X-ray, especially in advanced disease. The diagnosis of CB is clinical and relies on the presence of productive cough for 3 months in 2 or more successive years. The pathological changes of mucosal inflammation and bronchial wall thickening have been more difficult to identify with available imaging techniques. However, recent studies using Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) reported more reproducible assessment of air wall thickening.

  13. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  14. Autoantibodies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation based on obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema, and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled toxic gases and particles, e.g., cigarette smoke, are major etiologic factors for COPD, while the pathogenesis of the disease is only partially understood. Over the past decade, an increasing body of evidence has been accumulated for a link between COPD and autoimmunity. Studies with clinical samples have demonstrated that autoantibodies are present in sera of COPD patients and some of these antibodies correlate with specific disease phenotypes. Furthermore, evidence from animal models of COPD has shown that autoimmunity against pulmonary antigens occur during disease development and is capable of mediating COPD-like symptoms. The idea that autoimmunity could contribute to the development of COPD provides a new angle to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review article, we provide an advanced overview in this field and critically discuss the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  15. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, U. Ahmed; Pahlplatz, J.M.; Nealon, W.H.; Goor, H. van; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice for patients with chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct (obstructive chronic pancreatitis). Physicians face, without clear consensus, the choice between endoscopy or surgery for this group of patients. OBJECTIVES: To

  17. Inflammatory biomarkers and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients.......Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients....

  18. Predictors of objective cough frequency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Helen; Woodcock, Ashley; Kolsum, Umme

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood.......Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood....

  19. Inflammatory biomarkers and comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Dahl, Morten; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have evidence of systemic inflammation that may be implicated in the development of comorbidities.......Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have evidence of systemic inflammation that may be implicated in the development of comorbidities....

  20. Danish Register of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peter Lange,1,2 Sandra Søgaard Tøttenborg,1 Anne Dichmann Sorknæs,3 Jørgen Steen Andersen,4 Mette Søgaard,5 Henrik Nielsen,5 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,5 Katrine Abildtrup Nielsen6 1Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, 2Lung Diseases Department, Respiratory Medicine Section, Lung Diseases Department, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Medical Department, Odense Universitetshospital–Svendborg Hospital, Svendborg, 4Danish College of General Practitioners, Copenhagen, 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, 6Registry Support Centre of Clinical Quality and Health Informatics (West, Århus, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Register of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (DrCOPD is a nationwide database aiming to describe the quality of treatment of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Denmark. Study population: DrCOPD comprises data on all patients with a diagnosis of COPD. In the hospital setting, both in- and outpatients are included. In the setting of the general practice (GP, DrCOPD aims to include all patients with a COPD diagnosis who attend an annual control visit for COPD. Main variables: DrCOPD includes information on forced expiratory volume in 1 second, smoking status, body mass index, dyspnea, treatment modalities such as rehabilitation, smoking cessation, medical treatment, and the use of noninvasive ventilation during hospitalization due to exacerbations. The outcome variables include frequency of readmission and death 30 days after discharge from hospital. Descriptive data: Since 2008, the registration in the Danish hospitals has gradually become more comprehensive. In 2014, ~90% of 16,106 eligible patients had complete data sets that showed an improvement in the processes describing quality of care, including increased offering of smoking cessation, rehabilitation, and correct treatment with inhaled

  1. Obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutritional abnormalities have one of the most important systematic effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A relationship between COPD and obesity has been observed and recognized. In COPD patients, beside changes in the total body weight, changes in body composition are also possible with the loss of fat-free mass (FFM. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of obesity and the change of body composition on the pulmonary function, dyspnoea level and the quality of life in COPD patients. Methods. Seventy-nine patients in the stable state of COPD were evaluated. Pulmonary function and arterial blood gas analysis were assessed. Nutritional status was analyzed according to Body Mass Index (BMI. Body composition was evaluated by using anthropometric measurement by fat free mass index (FFMI. Quality of life was assessed using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to evaluate dyspnoea. Results. The highest prevalence of obesity (50.0% was found in patients with mild COPD, while the lowest prevalence was detected in very severe COPD patients (10.0%. The loss of FFM occurred in 22.2% patients with normal body weight and in 9.0% of overweight COPD patients. The quality of life was lower in obese patients compared to other COPD patients. A higher dyspnoea level was also present in obese patients. The lowest airflow obstruction was in obese patients (p=0.023. We found a significant positive correlation between forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1% and BMI (r=0.326, p=0.003, FEV1% and FFMI (r=0.321, p=0.004. Conclusion. The highest prevalence of obesity was in patients with mild COPD. Obese patients with COPD had the lowest level of airflow obstruction, higher dyspnoea level and lower quality of life in comparison to other COPD patients.

  2. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, pdisease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Kristine Dames da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm as well as values for the inspiration (Zi and expiration cycles (Ze at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi and expiration (Zbe, respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. RESULTS: Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=−0.65, p90%. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude the following: (1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2 this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3 the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the diagnosis of respiratory abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  5. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekov Evgeni V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a preventable, treatable disease with significant extrapulmonary manifestations that could affect negatively its course in some patients. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV, on the other hand, is associated with a number of extrahepatic manifestations. COPD patients have increased prevalence of HCV and patients with HCV, especially older ones, have increased prevalence and faster progression of COPD. HCV infection exerts long-term effects on lung tissue and is an additional risk factor for the development of COPD. The presence of HCV is associated with an accelerated loss of lung function in COPD patients, especially in current smokers. COPD could represent extrahepatic manifestation associated with HCV infection. The aim of this article was to review the literature on prevalence of HCV in COPD and vice versa, pathogenetic link and the consequences of their mutual existence.

  6. Analysis of electrocardiogram in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, Biljana; Svenda, Mirjana Zlatković; Mazić, Sanja; Stajić, Zoran; Delić, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of mortality worldwide. It is defined as a persistent airflow limitation usually progressive and not fully reversible to treatment. The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severity of disease is confirmed by spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease produces electrical changes in the heart which shows characteristic electrocardiogram pattern. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate diagnostic values of electrocardiogram changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with no other comorbidity. We analyzed 110 electrocardiogram findings in clinically stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the forced expiratory volume in the first second, ratio of forces expiratory volume in the first second to the fixed vital capacity, chest radiographs and electrocardiogram changes such as p wave height, QRS axis and voltage, right bundle branch block, left bundle branch block, right ventricular hypertrophy, T wave inversion in leads V1-V3, S1S2S3 syndrome, transition zone in praecordial lead and QT interval. We found electrocardiogram changes in 64% patients, while 36% had normal electrocardiogram. The most frequent electrocardiogram changes observed were transition zone (76.36%) low QRS (50%) and p pulmonale (14.54%). Left axis deviation was observed in 27.27% patients. Diagnostic values of electrocardiogram in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients should be screened electrocardiographically in addition to other clinical investigations.

  7. Prognostic value of weight change in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Almdal, T; Mikkelsen, K L

    2002-01-01

    An association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been found in a number of studies. The prevalence and prognostic importance of weight change in unselected subjects with COPD was examined. Subjects with COPD...... change: in the normal-to-underweight (BMI or = 25), best survival was seen in stable weight. A high proportion of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experienced a significant weight loss......, which was associated with increased mortality. The results support further intervention studies that aim at avoiding weight loss in normal-to-underweight chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients....

  8. Role of the inflammasome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Chiara; Terlizzi, Michela; Molino, Antonio; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Rosalinda

    2017-10-10

    Inflammation is central to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a pulmonary disorder characterized by chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, emphysema, associated to progressive and irreversible decline of lung function. Emerging genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that IL-1-like cytokines are highly detected in the sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of COPD patients, implying the involvement of the multiprotein complex inflammasome. So far, scientific evidence has focused on nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a specialized inflammatory signaling platform that governs the maturation and secretion of IL-1-like cytokines through the regulation of caspase-1-dependent proteolytic processing. Some studies revealed that it is involved during airway inflammation typical of COPD. Based on the influence of cigarette smoke in various respiratory diseases, including COPD, in this view we report its effects in inflammatory and immune responses in COPD mouse models and in human subjects affected by COPD. In sharp contrast to what reported on experimental and clinical studies, randomized clinical trials show that indirect inflammasome inhibitors did not have any beneficial effect in moderate to severe COPD patients.

  9. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre F, Carlos E; Torres D, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a relatively common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its appearance during the course of COPD is associated with a worsened prognosis, due to reduced life expectancy and greater use of health care resources. Although a well-defined lineal relationship has not been shown, the prevalence of PH in patients with COPD is higher in cases characterized by greater obstruction and severity. PH is infrequent in cases of mild and moderate COPD. In cases of COPD, PH is generally mild or moderate, and seldom impairs right ventricular function. In many cases it is not apparent during rest, and manifests itself during exercise. PH can be severe or out of proportion with the severity of COPD. In this situation, the possibility of associated conditions should be explored, although COPD might be the only final explanation. There is scarce knowledge about the prevalence and behavior of PH in patients with COPD residing at intermediate and high altitudes (>2.500 meters above sea level), which is a common situation in Latin America and Asia. PH in COPD is not exclusively related with hypoxia/hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. The mechanical disturbances related with COPD (hyper inflation and high alveolar pressure) and inflammation may prevail as causes of endothelial injury and remodeling of pulmonary circulation, which contribute to increased pulmonary vascular pressure and resistance. The appearance of signs of cor p ulmonale indicates advanced PH. This condition should therefore be suspected early when dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, and impairment of diffusion are not in keeping with the degree of obstruction. PH is confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Right heart catheterization may be justified in selected cases. Long-term oxygen therapy is the only intervention proven to be temporarily useful. Conventional vasodilators do not produce medium- or long-term improvement and can be detrimental to the ventilation-perfusion relation

  10. Airway inflammation in nonobstructive and obstructive chronic bronchitis with chronic haemophilus influenzae airway infection. Comparison with noninfected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, P.; Out, T. A.; van Alphen, L.; Jansen, H. M.; Lutter, R.

    2000-01-01

    Nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae often causes chronic infections of the lower respiratory tract in both nonobstructive and obstructive chronic bronchitis. We assessed airway inflammation in clinically stable, chronically H. influenzae-infected patients with nonobstructive (CB-HI, n = 10) and

  11. Chronic constipation causing obstructive nephropathy in a delayed toddler.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Chronic constipation causing obstructive nephropathy is very rare in children. However, it can cause urinary tract obstruction with acute impairment of renal function with a need for emergent disimpaction. The authors discuss a 2 years 4 months old child who presented to our emergency department with acute renal failure due to faecal impaction.

  12. Six-minute-walk test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polkey, Michael I; Spruit, Martijn A; Edwards, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes other than spirometry are required to assess nonbronchodilator therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Estimates of the minimal clinically important difference for the 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD) have been derived from narrow cohorts using nonblinded intervention....

  13. Emerging bronchoscopic treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Wouter H.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease characterized by pathophysiological factors including airflow limitation, hyperinflation and reduced gas exchange. Treatment consists of lifestyle changes, lung rehabilitation and pharmacological therapies such as long acting

  14. Genetically increased antioxidative protection and decreased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Klaus; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Marklund, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Increased oxidative stress is involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, plasma and bronchial lining fluid contains the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase. Approximately 2% of white individuals carry the R213G polymorphism in the gene encoding extrac...

  15. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, U.; Pahlplatz, J.M.; Nealon, W.H.; Goor, H. van; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice in patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Physicians face the decision between endoscopy and surgery for this group of patients, without clear consensus. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness and

  16. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Pahlplatz, Johanna M.; Nealon, Wiliam H.; van Goor, Harry; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice in patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Physicians face the decision between endoscopy and surgery for this group of patients, without clear consensus. Objectives To assess and compare the effectiveness and

  17. Physical Activity Recommendations in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; Zuidema, Menno J.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Boezen, Hendrika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity recommendations are hardly studied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and specifically recommendations that are individualized to a patient's aerobic fitness level are not studied. Objectives: To compare individualized (relative) and

  18. [Diaphragm dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, A.J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by alterations in the airways and lung parenchyma resulting in an increased respiratory workload. Besides an increased load and hyperinflation of the thorax, additional factors, such as systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia and

  19. Chronic obstructive airway diseases: Is the EDL sufficient? A study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STG's) and Essential Drug List (EDL) in 1996 some of the traditional medication for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were removed from the medication list, e.g. slow release oral theophylline.

  20. Inhaled corticosteroids and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, DD; Wu, L; Anderson, JA; Anthonisen, NR; Buist, AS; Burge, PS; Calverley, PM; Connett, JE; Lindmark, B; Pauwels, RA; Postma, DS; Soriano, JB; Szafranski, W; Vestbo, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies suggest that inhaled corticosteroids reduce exacerbations and improve health status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, their effect on mortality is unknown. Methods: A pooled analysis, based on intention to treat, of individual patient data from

  1. Electrocardiographic Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, M.J.; Rutten, F.H.; Numans, M.E.; Kors, J.A.; Tan, H.L.; de Boer, A.; Hoes, A.W.; de Bruin, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Electrocardiography (ECG) carries information about cardiac disease and prognosis, but studies comparing ECG characteristics between patients with and without COPD are lacking. We related ECG

  2. Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ... loss to improve pulmonary mechanics and compliance, thereby reducing the work of breathing. ... of obtaining similar functional advantages to surgical lung volume reduction, ...

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death world-wide and a further increase in the prevalence as well as mortality of the disease is predicted for coming decades. There is now an increased appreciation for the need to build awareness regarding COPD and to help the thousands of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely from COPD or its associated complication(s. Peripheral neuropathy in COPD has received scanty attention despite the fact that very often clinicians come across COPD patients having clinical features suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. Electrophysiological tests like nerve conduction studies are required to distinguish between axonal and demyelinating type of disorder that cannot be analyzed by clinical examination alone. However, various studies addressing peripheral neuropathy in COPD carried out so far have included patients with COPD having markedly varying baseline characteristics like severe hypoxemia, elderly patients, those with long duration of illness, etc. that are not uniform across the studies and make it difficult to interpret the results to a consistent conclusion. Almost one-third of COPD patients have clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy and two-thirds have electrophysiological abnormalities. Some patients with no clinical indication of peripheral neuropathy do have electrophysiological deficit suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. The more frequent presentation consists of a polyneuropathy that is subclinical or with predominantly sensory signs, and the neurophysiological and pathological features of predominantly axonal neuropathy. The presumed etiopathogenic factors are multiple: chronic hypoxia, tobacco smoke, alcoholism, malnutrition and adverse effects of certain drugs.

  4. [Investigation of the presence of human metapneumovirus in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma and its relationship with the attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilvan, Ahmet; Aslan, Gönül; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Calıkoğlu, Mukadder; Yılmaz, Fatma Mehtap; Tezcan, Seda; Taş, Dilaver; Ayrık, Cüneyt; Uygungül, Evren; Sezer, Ogün; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2013-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), an enveloped RNA virus classified in Paramyxoviridae family, was first characterized in 2001 from children with acute respiratory tract infection. Recent studies have suggested hMPV to play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma attacks. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of hMPV in patients with COPD and asthma, its effects on the severity of the attacks and the relationship between demographical and clinical factors. A total of 123 patients, including 66 with COPD (45 were in attack and 21 were stable) and 57 with asthma (33 were in attack and 24 were under control) diagnosed according to the criteria of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, respectively, were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples collected from all of the patients have been evaluated for the presence of hMPV-RNA by using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting F gene region of the virus. hMPV-RNA positivity rates in patients with COPD and asthma were observed as 30.3% (20/66) and 31.6% (18/57), respectively, and the difference between the groups were not statistically significant (p= 1.00). When patients were compared according to their disease status, hMPV was detected in 31.1% (14/45) of patients with COPD attack and 28.6% of stable patients (p> 0.05). These rates were found as 36.4% (12/33) and 25% (6/24) in patients with asthma attack and controlled asthma, respectively (p> 0.05). Although the virus detection rates in patients with COPD and asthma attacks (26/78; 33.3%) were higher than the patients with stable/controlled disease (12/45; 26.7%), the difference was not found as statistically significant (p= 0.57). The detection rate of hMPV-RNA was 26.1% in patients who can be treated at home and hospital without any need of intensive care and mechanical ventilation, while this rate was 36

  5. ANESTHETIC CONSIDERATION S IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMON ARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a spectrum of diseases that includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and small airway disease. It i s characterized by progressive increased resistance to breathing. Patients with marked obstructive pulmonary disease are at increased risk for both intraoperative and Postoperative pulmonary complications. These patients require thorough preoperative prepa ration, meticulous intraoperative management & postoperative care. This article describes anesthetic considerations in a patient with COPD.

  6. Genetic influences on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted.......Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted....

  7. C reactive protein and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Zacho, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design.......It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design....

  8. Pulmonary artery hypertension in chronic obstructive lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Mundinger, A.; Reinbold, W.D.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1989-01-01

    Standard biplane chest X-rays were tested for the validity of morphometric criteria in the diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension. Twenty-seven patients suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease were examined and compared with a control group without cardiopulmonary disease. The diameter of the right and left pulmonary artery, pulmonary conus and the hilar-to-thoracic ratio were significantly increased in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (p [de

  9. X-ray diagnosis of bronchial obstruction in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Combined radiobronchological examination of patients with chronic pneumonia in the phase of reverse development of the disease has been performed. Severity, localization and extent of bronchial obstruction have been studied, depending on the phase of chronic pneumonia and aspects of lung tissue alterations. Bronchial lesions characteristic of chronic pneumonia were defined, as well as importance of x-ray examination methods for bronchial obstruction diagnosis. Three types of bronchial obstruction were distinguished: bronchoconstriction, bronchodilatation and their combination. With regard to the character and severity of bronchial and pulmonary tissue lesions 3 variants of chronic pneumonia are offered to be differentiated: bronchitic, bronchoectatic, and abscess-forming. The main significance in diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is attributed to combined x-ray examination, which also includes radiobronchological investigation in the first two variants of the disease [ru

  10. Cognitive impairment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru F Crişan

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, especially in severe forms, is commonly associated with multiple cognitive problems. Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA is used to detect cognitive impairment evaluating several areas: visuospatial, memory, attention and fluency. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of stable COPD and exacerbation (AECOPD phases on cognitive status using MoCA questionnaire.We enrolled 39 patients (pts, smokers with COPD group D (30 stable and 9 in AECOPD and 13 healthy subjects (control group, having similar level of education and no significant differences regarding the anthropometric measurements. We analyzed the differences in MoCA score between these three groups and also the correlation between this score and inflammatory markers.Patients with AECOPD had a significant (p<0.001 decreased MoCA score (14.6±3.4 compared to stable COPD (20.2±2.4 and controls (24.2±5.8. The differences between groups were more accentuated for the language abstraction and attention (p<0.001 and delayed recall and orientation (p<0.001 sub-topics. No significant variance of score was observed between groups regarding visuospatial and naming score (p = 0.095. The MoCA score was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume (r = 0.28 and reverse correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP (r = -0.57, fibrinogen (r = -0.58, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (r = -0.55 and with the partial pressure of CO2 (r = -0.47.According to this study, COPD significantly decreases the cognitive status in advanced and acute stages of the disease.

  11. Lung transplantation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liou TG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Theodore G Liou, Sanjeev M Raman, Barbara C CahillDivision of Respiratory, Critical Care and Occupational Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USAAbstract: Patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD comprise the largest single lung disease group undergoing transplantation. Selection of appropriate candidates requires consideration of specific clinical characteristics, prognosis in the absence of transplantation, and likely outcome of transplantation. Increased availability of alternatives to transplantation for end-stage patients and the many efforts to increase the supply of donor organs have complicated decision making for selecting transplant candidates. Many years of technical and clinical refinements in lung transplantation methods have improved survival and quality of life outcomes. Further advances will probably come from improved selection methods for the procedure. Because no prospective trial has been performed, and because of confounding and informative censoring bias inherent in the transplant selection process in studies of the existing experience, the survival effect of lung transplant in COPD patients remains undefined. There is a lack of conclusive data on the impact of lung transplantation on quality of life. For some patients with end-stage COPD, lung transplantation remains the only option for further treatment with a hope of improved survival and quality of life. A prospective trial of lung transplantation is needed to provide better guidance concerning survival benefit, resource utilization, and quality of life effects for patients with COPD.Keywords: outcomes, emphysema, COPD, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, survival, single lung transplant, bilateral sequential single lung transplant, lung volume reduction, referral, guidelines, health related quality of life

  12. Epidemiology and treatment effects in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S.M. Afonso (Ana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health epidemic, which has important consequences for patients and community, and still receives insufficient attention from the health care professionals and scientists. COPD is a leading cause of chronic morbidity (affects 210

  13. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Pahlplatz, Johanna M.; Nealon, Wiliam H.; van Goor, Harry; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice for patients with chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct (obstructive chronic pancreatitis). Physicians face, without clear consensus, the choice between endoscopy or surgery for this group of patients. To assess and compare the

  14. The Unfolded Protein Response in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of nonfunctional and potentially cytotoxic, misfolded proteins in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is believed to contribute to lung cell apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy. Because of its fundamental role as a quality control system in protein metabolism, the "unfolded protein response" (UPR) is of potential importance in the pathogenesis of COPD. The UPR comprises a series of transcriptional, translational, and post-translational processes that decrease protein synthesis while enhancing protein folding capacity and protein degradation. Several studies have suggested that the UPR contributes to lung cell apoptosis and lung inflammation in at least some subjects with human COPD. However, information on the prevalence of the UPR in subjects with COPD, the lung cells that manifest a UPR, and the role of the UPR in the pathogenesis of COPD is extremely limited and requires additional study.

  15. Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis in Seven Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Alastair E.; Burgener, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Seven icteric dogs were determined to have bile duct obstruction secondary to chronic pancreatitis. All dogs had histories of intermittent vomiting and diarrhea. Alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and total bilirubin concentrations were markedly elevated. Diagnosis was based on exploratory laparotomy and histological examination. Each dog had a 3 to 10 cm mass in the body of the pancreas and obstruction of the common bile duct. Three dogs treated with pancreatectomy,...

  16. Severity of Airflow Obstruction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Proposal for a New Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Sonia; Vollmer, William M; Bateman, Eric; Marks, Guy B; Tan, Wan; Mejza, Filip; Juvekar, Sanjay; Janson, Christer; Mortimer, Kevin; P A, Mahesh; Buist, A Sonia; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-10-01

    Current classifications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) severity are complex and do not grade levels of obstruction. Obstruction is a simpler construct and independent of ethnicity. We constructed an index of obstruction severity based on the FEV 1 /FVC ratio, with cut-points dividing the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study population into four similarly sized strata to those created by the GOLD criteria that uses FEV 1 . We measured the agreement between classifications and the validity of the FEV 1 -based classification in identifying the level of obstruction as defined by the new groupings. We compared the strengths of association of each classification with quality of life (QoL), MRC dyspnoea score and the self-reported exacerbation rate. Agreement between classifications was only fair. FEV 1 -based criteria for moderate COPD identified only 79% of those with moderate obstruction and misclassified half of the participants with mild obstruction as having more severe COPD. Both scales were equally strongly associated with QoL, exertional dyspnoea and respiratory exacerbations. Severity assessed using the FEV 1 /FVC ratio is only in moderate agreement with the severity assessed using FEV 1 but is equally strongly associated with other outcomes. Severity assessed using the FEV 1 /FVC ratio is likely to be independent of ethnicity.

  17. Volvulus as a complication of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.; Boersma, Doeke; Oomen, Matthijs W.; Benninga, Marc A.; de Jong, Justin R.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome (CIPS) is a severe motility disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that presents with continuous or recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without evidence of a structural lesion occluding the intestinal lumen. Mechanical obstruction

  18. Fibroblast growth factor 10 haploinsufficiency causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Joakim; Blomstrand, Peter; Brunmark, Charlott; Badhai, Jitendra; Håkansson, Hanna Falk; Brange, Charlotte Sollie; Bergendal, Birgitta; Dahl, Niklas

    2011-10-01

    Genetic factors influencing lung function may predispose to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) signalling pathway is critical for lung development and lung epithelial renewal. The hypothesis behind this study was that constitutive FGF10 insufficiency may lead to pulmonary disorder. Therefore investigation of the pulmonary functions of patients heterozygous for loss of function mutations in the FGF10 gene was performed. The spirometric measures of lung function from patients and non-carrier siblings were compared and both groups were related to matched reference data for normal human lung function. The patients show a significant decrease in lung function parameters when compared to control values. The average FEV1/IVC quota (FEV1%) for the patients is 0.65 (80% of predicted) and reversibility test using Terbutalin resulted in a 3.7% increase in FEV1. Patients with FGF10 haploinsufficiency have lung function parameters indicating COPD. A modest response to Terbutalin confirms an irreversible obstructive lung disease. These findings support the idea that genetic variants affecting the FGF10 signalling pathway are important determinants of lung function that may ultimately contribute to COPD. Specifically, the results show that FGF10 haploinsufficiency affects lung function measures providing a model for a dosage sensitive effect of FGF10 in the development of COPD.

  19. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Brian T; Jarjoura, David; Lambert, Lynn; Roy, Sashwati; Gordillo, Gayle; Schlanger, Richard; Sen, Chandan K; Khayat, Rami N

    2010-12-15

    Chronic non-healing wounds are a major human and economic burden. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in patients with obesity, diabetes, aging, and cardiovascular disease, all of which are risk factors for chronic wounds. We hypothesized that OSA would have more prevalence in patients of a wound center than the general middle-aged population. Consecutive patients of the Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center (CWC) were surveyed with the Berlin and Epworth questionnaires. In the second stage of the protocol, 50 consecutive unselected CWC patients with lower extremity wounds underwent home sleep studies. In 249 patients of the CWC who underwent the survey study, OSA had been previously diagnosed in only 22%. The prevalence of high-risk status based on questionnaires for OSA was 46% (95% CI 40%, 52%). In the 50 patients who underwent home sleep studies, and using an apnea hypopnea index of 15 events per hour, the prevalence of OSA was 57% (95% CI 42%, 71%). There was no difference between the Berlin questionnaire score and weight between patients with OSA and those without. The prevalence of OSA in patients with chronic wounds exceeds the estimated prevalence of OSA in the general middle aged population. This study identifies a previously unrecognized population with high risk for OSA. Commonly used questionnaires were not sufficiently sensitive for the detection of high risk status for OSA in this patient population.

  20. ChronicOnline: Implementing a mHealth solution for monitoring and early alerting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsaki, Marina; Koutras, Christos; Koutras, George; Leymann, Frank; Steimle, Frank; Wagner, Sebastian; Wieland, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Lack of time or economic difficulties prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from communicating regularly with their physicians, thus inducing exacerbation of their chronic condition and possible hospitalization. Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online proposes a new, sustainable and innovative business model that provides at low cost and at significant savings to the national health system, a preventive health service for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, by combining human medical expertise with state-of-the-art online service delivery based on cloud computing, service-oriented architecture, data analytics, and mobile applications. In this article, we implement the frontend applications of the Enhancing Chronic patients' Health Online system and describe their functionality and the interfaces available to the users.

  1. Bile Duct Obstruction Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis in Seven Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Alastair E.; Burgener, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.

    1988-01-01

    Seven icteric dogs were determined to have bile duct obstruction secondary to chronic pancreatitis. All dogs had histories of intermittent vomiting and diarrhea. Alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities and total bilirubin concentrations were markedly elevated. Diagnosis was based on exploratory laparotomy and histological examination. Each dog had a 3 to 10 cm mass in the body of the pancreas and obstruction of the common bile duct. Three dogs treated with pancreatectomy, gastrojejunostomy, and cholecystojejunostomy died within five weeks. Three dogs treated with conservative surgical procedures were alive at 8, 16, and 26 months postoperatively. One dog was euthanized because of suspected neoplasia. Hepatic enzyme activity and bilirubin levels decreased markedly in the surviving dogs. Histological examination of the pancreatic masses indicated chronic pancreatitis. Hepatic biopsies revealed evidence of cholestasis. Chronic pancreatitis should be included in the differential diagnoses of icterus, bile duct obstruction, and masses in the pancreas. PMID:17423102

  2. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Zamarrón1, Vanesa García Paz1, Emilio Morete1, Felix del Campo Matías21Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago, Spain; 2Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Universitario Rio Ortega de Vallaclolid, Vallaclolid, SpainAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are two diseases that often coexist within an individual. This coexistence is known as overlap syndrome and is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological link. Although there are claims of a very high incidence of OSAS in COPD patients, recent studies report that it is similar to the general population. Overlap patients present sleep-disordered breathing associated to upper and lower airway obstruction and a reduction in respiratory drive. These patients present unique characteristics, which set them apart from either COPD or OSAS patients. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their coexistence in overlap syndrome probably increases this risk. The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular risk are still unclear, but may involve systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and tonic elevation of sympathetic neural activity. The treatment of choice for overlap syndrome in stable patients is CPAP with supplemental oxygen for correction of upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, overlap syndrome, sleep, cardiovascular disease

  3. Outpatient Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management: Going for the GOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Christina R; Peters, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States with a burden of $50 billion in direct health care costs. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) defines airflow obstruction as spirometry where the ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity after bronchodilation is less than 0.70. The guidelines also provided graded recommendations on current therapy for COPD. Treatment can be guided based on severity of disease and severity of symptoms. We review the GOLD guidelines to provide an overview of treatment modalities aimed at improving lung function, reducing hospitalization, and reducing mortality. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Features of neurologic semiotics at chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, I V; Baranov, V L; Kolcheva, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is actual pathology, when it forms the mixed hypoxemia. In the conditions of a chronic hypoxemia structures of organism with high level of metabolic processes, namely brain tissues, suffer. Character of defeat of the central nervous system at that pathology is insufficiently studied. In this article we studied and analysed the presence of such changes as depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment and features of neurologic semiotics at COPD in 50 patients.

  5. Consequences of physical inactivity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E; Boezen, H Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2010-01-01

    The many health benefits of regular physical activity underline the importance of this topic, especially in this period of time when the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in the population is increasing. Physical activity levels are especially low in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  6. Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a case report. AO Tade. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(2) 2006: 165-166. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v15i2.37104.

  7. Patient-Centered Medical Home in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Ortiz1, Len Fromer21Pediatric Pulmonary Services, El Paso, TX; 2Department of Family Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive and debilitating but preventable and treatable disease characterized by cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and fixed or incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Most patients with COPD rely on primary care practices for COPD management. Unfortunately, only about 55% of US outpatients with COPD receive all guideline-recommended care. Proactive and consistent primary care for COPD, as for many other chronic diseases, can reduce hospitalizations. Optimal chronic disease management requires focusing on maintenance rather than merely acute rescue. The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH, which implements the chronic care model, is a promising framework for primary care transformation. This review presents core PCMH concepts and proposes multidisciplinary team-based PCMH care strategies for COPD.Keywords: Patient-Centered Medical Home, chronic care model, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, patient education, physician assistants, nurse practitioners

  8. Airway hyperresponsiveness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : A marker of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tkacova, Ruzena; Dai, Darlene L. Y.; Vonk, Judith M.; Leung, Janice M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; van den Berge, Maarten; Kunz, Lisette; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Tashkin, Donald; Wise, Robert; Connett, John; Ng, Raymond; McManus, Bruce; Man, S. F. Paul; Postma, Dirkje S.; Sin, Don D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) on respiratory mortality and systemic inflammation among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is largely unknown. We used data from 2 large studies to determine the relationship between AHR and FEV1 decline, respiratory

  9. Chronic partial ureteral obstruction and the developing kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Robert L. [University of Virginia, Department of Pediatrics, Box 800386, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Although congenital urinary tract obstruction is a common disorder, its pathophysiology remains poorly understood and clinical practice is controversial. Animal models have been used to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for obstructive nephropathy, and the models reveal that renal growth and function are impaired in proportion to the severity and duration of obstruction. Ureteral obstruction in the neonatal rat or mouse leads to activation of the renin-angiotensin system, renal infiltration by macrophages, and tubular apoptosis. Nephrons are lost by glomerular sclerosis and the formation of atubular glomeruli, and progressive injury leads to tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Recovery following release of obstruction depends on the timing, severity, and duration of obstruction. Growth factors and cytokines are produced by the hydronephrotic kidney, including MCP-1 and TGF-{beta}1, which are excreted in urine and can serve as biomarkers of renal injury. Because MRI can be used to monitor renal morphology, blood flow, and filtration rate, its use might supplant current imaging modalities (ultrasonography and diuretic renography), which have significant drawbacks. Combined use of MRI and new urinary biomarkers should improve our understanding of human congenital obstructive nephropathy and should lead to new approaches to evaluation and management of this challenging group of patients. (orig.)

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prognostic diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms of COPD are characterized by chronic coughing, shortness of breadth, wheezing, sputum, cyanosis, blue lip, blue skin, blue nail and insomnia. In this paper, the traditional procedure of the medical diagnosis of COPD employed by physicians was expressed using Fuzzy classifier. The proposed expert system ...

  11. Animal models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Girón-Martínez, Álvaro; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2015-03-01

    Animal models of disease have always been welcomed by the scientific community because they provide an approach to the investigation of certain aspects of the disease in question. Animal models of COPD cannot reproduce the heterogeneity of the disease and usually only manage to represent the disease in its milder stages. Moreover, airflow obstruction, the variable that determines patient diagnosis, not always taken into account in the models. For this reason, models have focused on the development of emphysema, easily detectable by lung morphometry, and have disregarded other components of the disease, such as airway injury or associated vascular changes. Continuous, long-term exposure to cigarette smoke is considered the main risk factor for this disease, justifying the fact that the cigarette smoke exposure model is the most widely used. Some variations on this basic model, related to exposure time, the association of other inducers or inhibitors, exacerbations or the use of transgenic animals to facilitate the identification of pathogenic pathways have been developed. Some variations or heterogeneity of this disease, then, can be reproduced and models can be designed for resolving researchers' questions on disease identification or treatment responses. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although we know that exacerbations are key events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), our understanding of their frequency, determinants, and effects is incomplete. In a large observational cohort, we tested the hypothesis that there is a frequent-exacerbation phenotype...... of follow-up were 0.85 per person for patients with stage 2 COPD (with stage defined in accordance with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stages), 1.34 for patients with stage 3, and 2.00 for patients with stage 4. Overall, 22% of patients with stage 2 disease, 33% with stage 3...... of COPD that is independent of disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and associations of exacerbation in 2138 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study. Exacerbations were defined as events that led a care provider...

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, K K; Kjaergaard, J; Akkan, D

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important differential diagnosis in patients with heart failure (HF). The primary aims were to determine the prevalence of COPD and to test the accuracy of self-reported COPD in patients admitted with HF. Secondary aims were to study...... valve. CONCLUSION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is frequent in patients admitted with HF and self-reported COPD only identifies a minority. The prevalence of COPD was high in both patients with systolic and nonsystolic HF....... a possible relationship between right and left ventricular function and pulmonary function. DESIGN: Prospective substudy. SETTING: Systematic screening at 11 centres. SUBJECTS: Consecutive patients (n = 532) admitted with HF requiring medical treatment with diuretics and an episode with symptoms...

  14. [Experience in treating patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis with fenspirid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, A A; Shabanova, T M

    2002-01-01

    To study a clinical effect of fenspirid and its impact on external respiration function in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) in the exacerbation phase. 30 COB patients participated in the trial (20 males, 10 females, age 39-80 years). The severity of clinical symptoms (cough, sputum, dyspnea) was studied using special scales. External respiration function was examined by a spirometric system "Tamrac system spiro sense Y2 14". Fenspirid treatment was conducted in a dose 80 mg twice a day for 3 months. Control examinations were made 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months after the treatment start. A 3-month treatment with fenspirid resulted in regression of COB symptoms: cough and sputum ceased, dyspnea decreased. This led to improvement in external respiration function, especially in patients with mixed ventilatory disorders with prevailing restriction. Fenspirid is an effective and well tolerated treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis.

  15. [Effectiveness of fenspiride in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorokhova, T D; Medvedeva, I V; Lapik, S V; Solov'eva, O G; Gracheva, E Iu; Iusupova, R S

    2001-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of moderate severity were investigated for two months for assessment of fenspiride activity. Examination of the patients (age 42.6 +/- 5.3) took place before and after fenspiride therapy. In comparison to the control group, fenspiride patients showed improvement of external respiration function: FEV 1, FVC, FEF 50-75, PEF increased. Dienic conjugates, malonic dialdehyde levels decreased, alpha-tocopherol in platelet membranes rose, functional activity of platelets fell. Side effects were rare and not serious. It is concluded that fenspiride has an antiinflammatory effect, reduces bronchoconstriction and depresses platelet aggregation, is well tolerated. Fenspiride is an effective drug for the treatment of moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis.

  16. Obstructive sleep apnoea and atopy among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Devender; Mallick, Adeeb; Kumar, Manoj; Tarke, Chandrakant R; Goel, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is associated with significant morbidity. A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) symptoms has been reported in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited studies regarding relationship between atopy and OSA. To study the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients by a home based sleep study and its association with atopy. Patients with asthma and COPD were evaluated for OSA symptoms by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and Berlin questionnaire (BQ). ESS score > or = 9 was considered as high risk for OSA. Patients having high risk for OSA by ESS and BQ were further evaluated for OSA by home based sleep study. Skin prick test against common allergens was done to diagnose atopy in these patients. Among 400 patients (229, 57.25% male and 171, 42.75% female) 328 were asthmatics and 72 were COPD patients. ESS and BQ was positive in 11.25% (45/400) and 18.25% (73/400) patients respectively. ESS was positive in 10.67% (35/328) of asthma and 13.88% (10/72) of COPD patients. BQ was positive in 18.29% (60/328) of asthmatic and 18.05% (13/72) of COPD patients. Skin prick test was positive in 74.16% patients. The maximum positivity was found in asthmatics (139/155, 89.68%) compared to COPD patients (16/155, 10.32%). Skin prick test was done for 40 patients out of 73 of Asthma and COPD patients who were found positive by ESS and BQ. 72.5% patients were found to be atopic. Out of 19 patients in whom home polysomnography was done, 13 patients consented for skin prick test with common aeroallergens and 9 (69.23%) patients were found to be atopic. There is an increased risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients. Atopy could be associated with OSA. The association needs to be proved in a larger study.

  17. Airway inflammation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turato, Graziella; Zuin, Renzo; Miniati, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    Very few studies have been made in-patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and some of them carried out, have demonstrated an increment in the intensity of the inflammatory answer in the space and these patients' alveolar walls. However, there are not enough studies on the inflammatory answer in the small airway and in the lung glasses, object of the present study, comparing it with patient with light (COPD) or without COPD, in spite of similar history of smoker

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: More than meets the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Umur

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem which had not received the attention commensurate with the magnitude of its global burden. This is finally changing with the help of a vibrant community of health-care professionals, public officials, and academic researchers. Advances in characterization of the disease, treatment options, imaging modalities, and better understanding of the comorbidities promise to revolutionize how the disease is managed. COPD should no longer augur despair among physicians and patients.

  19. Early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: definition, assessment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, Stephen I; Drummond, M Bradley

    2015-05-02

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. COPD, however, is a heterogeneous collection of diseases with differing causes, pathogenic mechanisms, and physiological effects. Therefore a comprehensive approach to COPD prevention will need to address the complexity of COPD. Advances in the understanding of the natural history of COPD and the development of strategies to assess COPD in its early stages make prevention a reasonable, if ambitious, goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous globe luxation is a rarely reported condition which can lead to complications like optic neuropathy. Common causes are thyroid eye disease, shallow orbit and floppy eyelid syndrome. We report a case of spontaneous globe luxation with the onset and severity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous globe luxation associated with COPD.

  1. Nano-based theranostics for chronic obstructive lung diseases: challenges and therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Neeraj

    2011-01-01

    The major challenges in the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of nano-delivery systems in chronic obstructive airway conditions is airway defense, severe inflammation and mucous hypersecretion. Chronic airway inflammation and mucous hypersecretion are hallmarks of chronic obstructive airway diseases, including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and CF (cystic fibrosis). Distinct etiologies drive inflammation and mucous hyper secretion in these diseases, that is further induc...

  2. Comorbidity between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meteran, Howraman; Backer, Vibeke; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with several systemic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. It has been suggested that comorbidity between COPD and type 2 diabetes is due to shared genetic factors. AIM: To examine...... the relationship between type 2 diabetes and chronic bronchitis and COPD in adult twins, and to examine to what extent comorbidity between these diseases is explained by shared genetic or environmental factors. METHODS: Questionnaire data on chronic bronchitis and hospital discharge data on diagnosed COPD in 13.......5 vs. 2.3%), OR = 1.57 (1.10-2.26), p = 0.014, and in individuals with diagnosed COPD than in those without the diagnosis (6.6 vs. 2.3%), OR = 2.62 (1.63-4.2), p chronic...

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Association, consequences and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronzato, C

    2010-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two diseases that often co-exist within an individual. This co-existence, known as overlap syndrome (OS), is the result of chance rather than a pathophysiological linkage and epidemiological studies indicate a prevalence of 1% in adult males. Patients vith OS have a more important sleep-related O2 desaturation than COPD patients with the same degree of bronchial obstruction and show an increased risk of developing hypercapnic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension when compared with patients affected by only one of he diseases. COPD and OSAS are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events and their co-existence in OS probably increases this risk. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea and consequentely OS, is interesting because it may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Treatment consists of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), with or without associated O2, for correction of the upper airway obstructive episodes and hypoxemia during sleep.

  4. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  5. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo?Obstruction in 6 Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zacuto, A.C.; Pesavento, P.A.; Hill, S.; McAlister, A.; Rosenthal, K.; Cherbinsky, O.; Marks, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo?obstruction in humans and animals. Objective To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Animals Six client?owned dogs. Methods Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to de...

  6. Overlap Syndrome in Respiratory Medicine: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Corlateanu; Valeria Pripa; Gloria Montanari; Victor Botnaru

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by similar mechanisms: airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the distinction between the two obstructive diseases is not always clear. Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrate that in elderly people with obstructive airway disease, as many as half or more may have overlapping diagnoses of asthma and COPD...

  7. Prediction of the clinical course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using the new GOLD classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The new Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stratification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into categories A, B, C, and D is based on symptoms, level of lung function, and history of exacerbations.......The new Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stratification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into categories A, B, C, and D is based on symptoms, level of lung function, and history of exacerbations....

  8. Morphological measurements in computed tomography correlate with airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, X.Q.; de Jong, P.A.; Oudkerk, M.; Wang, Y.; ten Hacken, N.H.T.; Miao, J.T.; Zhang, GuiXiang; de Bock, G.H.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlation between CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways and airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1976 to 2011. Two reviewers independently screened 1,763 citations to identify

  9. Sleep-related disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crinion, Sophie J

    2014-02-01

    Sleep may have several negative consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sleep is typically fragmented with diminished slow wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, which likely represents an important contributing factor to daytime symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy. Furthermore, normal physiological adaptations during sleep, which result in mild hypoventilation in normal subjects, are more pronounced in COPD, which can result in clinically important nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea and COPD is also common, principally because of the high prevalence of each disorder, and there is little convincing evidence that one disorder predisposes to the other. Nonetheless, this co-existence, termed the overlap syndrome, typically results in more pronounced nocturnal oxygen desaturation and there is a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in such patients. Management of sleep disorders in patients with COPD should address both sleep quality and disordered gas exchange. Non-invasive pressure support is beneficial in selected cases, particularly during acute exacerbations associated with respiratory failure, and is particularly helpful in patients with the overlap syndrome. There is limited evidence of benefit from pressure support in the chronic setting in COPD patients without obstructive sleep apnea.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  11. Phenotype of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chin Kook

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have overlapping characteristics of both diseases. By spirometric definition, patients with both fixed airflow obstruction (AO) and bronchodilator reversibility or fixed AO and bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be considered to have asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, patients regarded to have ACOS by spirometric criteria alone are heterogeneous and can be classified by phenotype. Eosinophilic inflammation, a history of allergic disease, and smoke exposure are important components in the classification of ACOS. Each phenotype has a different underlying pathophysiology, set of characteristics, and prognosis. Medical treatment for ACOS should be tailored according to phenotype. A narrower definition of ACOS that includes both spirometric and clinical criteria is needed.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sheila C

    2017-03-01

    Sleep related disorders are common and under-recognized in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) population. COPD symptoms can disrupt sleep. Similarly, sleep disorders can affect COPD. This review highlights the common sleep disorders seen in COPD patients, their impact, and potential management. Treatment of sleep disorders may improve quality of life in COPD patients. Optimizing inhaler therapy improves sleep quality. Increased inflammatory markers are noted in patients with the overlap syndrome of COPD and obstructive sleep apnea versus COPD alone. There are potential benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy for overlap syndrome patients with hypercapnia. Nocturnal supplemental oxygen may be beneficial in certain COPD subtypes. Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic therapy for insomnia has shown benefit without associated respiratory failure or worsening respiratory symptoms. Melatonin may provide mild hypnotic and antioxidant benefits. This article discusses the impact of sleep disorders on COPD patients and the potential benefits of managing sleep disorders on respiratory disease control and quality of life.

  13. Computed tomography-based subclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Asger; Wille, Mathilde M W

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways...... observed in COPD are subtle. Furthermore, recent results indicate that emphysema may also be the essential pathophysiologic mechanism behind the airflow limitation of COPD. The definition of COPD excludes bronchiectasis as a symptomatic subtype of COPD, and CT findings in chronic bronchitis...... and exacerbations of COPD are rather unspecific. This leaves emphysema as the most obvious candidate for subclassification of COPD. Both chest radiologists and pulmonary physicians are quite familiar with the appearance of various patterns of emphysema on HRCT, such as centrilobular, panlobular, and paraseptal...

  14. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  15. Benefits and complications of noninvasive mechanical ventilation for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo; Carneiro, Elida Mara

    2008-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by usually progressive chronic airflow limitation which is associated to a bronchial hyperresponsiveness and is partially reversible. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is an alternative treatment for patients with COPD exacerbations. The objective of the literature reviews was to verify noninvasive mechanical ventilation benefits and complications in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients. This national and international's scientific literature review was developed according to criteria established for documentary research in the MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed and Cochrane, databases using the key words: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Inclusion criteria were articles published from 1995 to 2007; in English, Spanish and Portuguese; studies in the human model and with no gender restriction. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation can reduce partial pressure of carbon dioxide, improve gas exchange, alleviate symptoms as dyspnea caused by fatigue of the respiratory muscles, reduce duration of hospitalization, decrease need for invasive mechanical ventilation, reduce number of complications and also lessen hospital mortality. The main complications found were: facial skin erythema, claustrophobia, nasal congestion, face pain, eye irritation, aspiration pneumonia, hypotension, pneumothorax, aerophagia, hypercapnia, gastric insufflation, vomit, bronchoaspiration, morning headaches, face injuries, air embolism and, last but not least, discomfort of the patient. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation can be more effective in patients with moderate-severe exacerbations of COPD and these complications can be minimized by an adequate interface also by the contribution of the physiotherapist experience.

  16. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aka Akt?rk, ?lk?; G?rek Dilekta?l?, Asl?; ?eng?l, Aysun; Musaffa Salep?i, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; D?ger, Mustafa; Ar?k Ta?y?kan, Hale; Durmu? Ko?ak, Nagihan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admi...

  17. The Christmas Season as a Risk Factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections.

  18. Comparative efficacy of indacaterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcos Ribeiro, Kenneth R ChapmanAsthma and Airway Centre, University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Long-acting bronchodilators have been shown to improve multiple clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD including lung function, symptoms, dyspnea, quality of life, and exacerbations. Indacaterol is a novel, inhaled, long-acting β2-agonist providing 24-hour bronchodilation with once-daily dosing. It is currently approved for the maintenance treatment of COPD to be administered as 150 or 300 µg once-daily doses as licensed in many countries and 75 µg as licensed in the US by means of a single-dose dry powder inhaler. The data from clinical development support a favorable safety and tolerability profile within the β2-agonist drug class, with no relevant issues identified. Current evidence indicates that indacaterol is suitable for use as first-line monotherapy in COPD patients with moderate disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage II and beyond that do not require an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS as per GOLD guidelines, or in combination with an ICS in severe or very severe patients with repeated exacerbations. Data from trials with the novel once-daily β2-agonist, indacaterol, indicate superior bronchodilation and clinical efficacy over twice-daily long-acting β2-agonists and at least equipotent bronchodilation as once-daily tiotropium. Bronchodilators are central in the symptomatic management of COPD. It is likely that once-daily dosing of a bronchodilator would be a significant convenience and probably a compliance-enhancing advantage, leading to improved overall clinical outcomes in patients with COPD.Keywords: indacaterol, onset of action, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchodilators, once-daily, long-acting β2-agonists

  19. Tiotropium Bromide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gonzalez, Alcibey; Arce, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including β2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists. Tiotropium bromide, a long-acting antimuscarinic bronchodilator (LAMA), is a treatment choice for moderate-to-severe COPD; its efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in recent trials. Studies also point to a beneficial role of tiotropium in the treatment of difficult-to-control asthma and a potential function in the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Combination of different bronchodilator molecules and addition of inhaled corticosteroids are viable therapeutic alternatives. A condensation of the latest trials and the rationale behind these therapies will be presented in this article.

  20. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: I. Long-term prognostic scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2013-10-16

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD will probably be in the year 2020 the third cause of death in the world. It appears therefore appropriate to try to make available tools capable of assessing the prognosis of patients with this disease. In the first part of this series of two papers, the question of the prognosis of stable COPD over several years is addressed. Eight prognostic scores are discussed, all of them published between 2004 and 2012. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon, with, in particular, emphasis on their discriminating power. An Internet program (www.medhyg. ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  1. Overlap syndrome: obstructive sleep apnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenblum, Emmanuel; Chaouat, Ari; Kessler, Romain; Canuet, Matthieu

    2008-02-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) are both common diseases affecting respectively 10 and 5% of the adult population over 40 years of age, and their coexistence, which is denominated overlap syndrome, can be expected to occur in about 0.5% of this population. A recent epidemiologic study has shown that the prevalence of SAHS is not higher in COPD than in the general population, and that the coexistence of the two conditions is due to chance and not through a pathophysiologic linkage between these two diseases. Patients with overlap have a more important sleep-related O(2) desaturation than do patients with COPD with the same degree of bronchial obstruction. They have an increased risk of developing hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension when compared with patients with SAHS alone and with patients with "usual" COPD. In patients with overlap, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and pulmonary hypertension can be observed in the presence of mild to moderate bronchial obstruction, which is different from "usual" COPD. Therapy of the overlap syndrome consists of nasal continuous positive airway pressure or nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV), with or without associated nocturnal O(2). Patients who are markedly hypoxemic during daytime (Pa(O(2)) < 55-60 mm Hg) should be given conventional long-term O(2) therapy in addition to nocturnal ventilation.

  2. Caecal volvulus in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, C

    2011-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterised by recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without an underlying mechanical cause. Caecal volvulus remains a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that often requires operative intervention. We describe the previously unreported case of caecal volvulus occurring in an adult patient with CIPO, together with his subsequent management. PMID:22004621

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure: two muscle diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troosters, Thierry; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure are two increasingly prevalent chronic diseases. Although care for these patients often is provided by different clinical teams, both disease conditions have much in common. In recent decades, more knowledge about the systemic impact of both diseases has become available, highlighting remarkable similarities in terms of prognostic factors and disease management. Rehabilitation programs deal with the systemic consequences of both diseases. Although clinical research also is conducted by various researchers investigating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure, it is worthwhile to compare the progress in relation to these two diseases over recent decades. Such comparison, the purpose of the current review, may help clinicians and scientists to learn about progress made in different, yet related, fields. The current review focuses on the similarities observed in the clinical impact of muscle weakness, the mechanisms of muscle dysfunction, the strategies to improve muscle function, and the effects of exercise training on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure.

  4. Early Detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Yanai, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of an early detection program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a primary care setting in Japan. Methods Participants of ≥40 years of age who regularly visited a general practitioner's clinic due to chronic disease were asked to complete a COPD screening questionnaire (COPD Population Screener; COPD-PS) and undergo simplified spirometry using a handheld spirometric device. Patients who showed possible COPD were referred to a respiratory specialist and underwent a detailed examination that included spirometry and chest radiography. Results A total of 111 patients with possible COPD were referred for close examination. Among these patients, 27 patients were newly diagnosed with COPD. The patients with COPD were older, had lower BMI values, and had a longer smoking history in comparison to non-COPD patients. COPD patients also had more comorbid conditions. A diagnosis of COPD was significantly associated with a high COPD-PS score (pearly detection of undiagnosed COPD in primary care.

  5. Nutrition Therapy in Elderly with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minidian Fasitasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important health element for elderly people and influence aging process. Malnutrition prevalence is increasing in this population. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the chronic diseases in elderly that is related to malnutrition. The association between malnutrition and pulmonary disease (including COPD has been known for a long time. Malnutrition has negative impacts on pulmonary structure, elasticity, and function, strength and endurance of respiratory muscles, pulmonary immunity defense mechanism, and breath control. Inversely, pulmonary disease (including COPD will increase energy need and may reduce dietary intake. Nutrition intervention in COPD patient is intended for regulating anorexia, improving pulmonary function, and controlling weight loss. Nutrient requirements will be calculated according to the results of nutrition assessment. This article will discuss about nutrition therapy in elderly with COPD. It describes respiratory system in aging, association COPD and nutrition, and nutrition assessment, as well as nutrition intervention in elderly people with COPD.

  6. Emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, L.H.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Coal mining remains a major industry that has workers at risk for developing chronic lung disease. Aside from simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis, the development of emphysema and obstructive lung disease independent of smoking may be underappreciated. This article reviews more recent studies that may help rectify this faulty view. Cumulative exposure to coal dust is a significant risk factor for the development of emphysema and has an additive effect to smoking. Increased coal dust exposure is associated with increased risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In newly employed coal miners, bronchitic symptoms are associated with a rapid decline in lung function within 2 years after starting work. In evaluating impairment, the chest radiograph may be helpful as a marker of exposure but the diffusing capacity is most correlated with dyspnea, whereas the emphysema computed tomography score has good association with expiratory flow limitation. Latest studies further support the association of emphysema and COPD with coal dust exposure. Increased cumulative exposure may also increase risk of death from these diseases.

  7. Formoterol in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis Steiropoulos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paschalis Steiropoulos, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Demosthenes BourosDepartment of Pneumonology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Bronchodilators represent the hallmark of symptomatic treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. There are four categories of bronchodilators: anticholinergics, methylxanthines, short-acting β2-agonists, and long-acting β2-agonists such as formoterol. Significant research has been performed to investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of formoterol in the therapeutic field of COPD. Formoterol exhibits a rapid onset of bronchodilation similar to that observed with salbutamol, yet its long bronchodilatory duration is comparable to salmeterol. In addition, formoterol presents with a clear superiority in lung function improvement compared with either ipratropium bromide or oral theophylline, while its efficacy improves when administered in combination with ipratropium. Formoterol has been shown to better reduce dynamic hyperinflation, which is responsible for exercise intolerance and dyspnea in COPD patients, compared with other bronchodilators, whereas it exerts synergistic effect with tiotropium. Moreover, formoterol reduces exacerbations, increases days free of use of rescue medication and improves patients’ quality of life and disease symptoms. Formoterol has a favorable safety profile and is better tolerated than theophylline. Collectively, data extracted from multicenter clinical trials support formoterol as a valid therapeutic option in the treatment of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, formoterol, long-acting β2-agonists

  8. Effect of metabolic alkalosis on respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, R.; Goldstein, M.; Phillipson, E.; Ho, M.; Hammeke, M.; Feldman, R.; Handelsman, S.; Halperin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven instances of a mixed acid-base disorder consisting of chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis were recognized in eight patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Correction of the metabolic alkalosis led to substantial improvement in blood gas values and clinical symptoms. Patients with mixed chronic respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis constitute a common subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention; these patients benefit from correction of the metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21028

  9. Mortality prediction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comparing the GOLD 2007 and 2011 staging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Joan B; Lamprecht, Bernd; Ramírez, Ana S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no universal consensus on the best staging system for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although documents (eg, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] 2007) have traditionally used forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) for staging, clin...

  10. Short telomere length, lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 46,396 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig Egil; Weischer, Maren

    2013-01-01

    A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......A previous case-control study of 100 individuals found that short telomere length was associated with a 28-fold increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  11. Myocardial infarction and other co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is nominally the most important co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the one with the greatest potential for treatment and prevention to improve the overall prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We assessed the extent...

  12. Natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm with and without coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Heickendorff, Lene; Antonsen, Sebastian

    1998-01-01

    To study the relation between abdominal aortic aneurysms and chronical obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in particular the suggested common elastin degradation caused by elastase and smoking.......To study the relation between abdominal aortic aneurysms and chronical obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in particular the suggested common elastin degradation caused by elastase and smoking....

  13. The European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) : recruitment methods and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lofdahl, CG; Postma, DS; Laitinen, LA; Ohlsson, SV; Pauwels, RA; Pride, NB

    The European Respiratory Society's study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) is a multicentre study performed initially in 12 countries to assess the effect of 3 years' treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on lung function decline in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  14. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, GOLD Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Hurd, Suzanne S; Agusti, Alvar G

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem and since 2001 the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published its strategy document for the diagnosis and management of COPD. This executive summary presents the main contents of the second 5...

  15. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: DEFINITION, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, CLINICAL PICTURE AND TREATMENT (GOLD 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Vatutin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical picture (GOLD 2013. Vatutin M.T., Smyrnova G.S., Taradin G.G. The represented translation of the new international guidelines (GOLD 2013 reflected the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical picture and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  16. Long-acting beta 2-agonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, the use of long-acting beta 2-agonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been understated. There is now evidence that they may offer benefits beyond bronchodilation. This article reviews the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and looks at the place of long-acting beta 2-agonists as a first-line treatment option.

  17. Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Ali, Usama; Pahlplatz, Johanna M; Nealon, Wiliam H; van Goor, Harry; Gooszen, Hein G; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-03-19

    Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice for patients with chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct (obstructive chronic pancreatitis). Physicians face, without clear consensus, the choice between endoscopy or surgery for this group of patients. To assess and compare the effects and complications of surgical and endoscopic interventions in the management of pain for obstructive chronic pancreatitis. We searched the following databases in The Cochrane Library: CENTRAL (2014, Issue 2), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2014, Issue 2), and DARE (2014, Issue 2). We also searched the following databases up to 25 March 2014: MEDLINE (from 1950), Embase (from 1980), and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (from 1990). We performed a cross-reference search. Two review authors independently performed the selection of trials. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of endoscopic or surgical interventions in obstructive chronic pancreatitis. We included trials comparing endoscopic versus surgical interventions as well as trials comparing either endoscopic or surgical interventions to conservative treatment (i.e. non-invasive treatment modalities). We included relevant trials irrespective of blinding, the number of participants randomised, and the language of the article. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently extracted data from the articles. We evaluated the methodological quality of the included trials and requested additional information from study authors in the case of missing data. We identified three eligible trials. Two trials compared endoscopic intervention with surgical intervention and included a total of 111 participants: 55 in the endoscopic group and 56 in the surgical group. Compared with the endoscopic group, the surgical group had a higher proportion of participants with pain relief, both at middle/long-term follow-up (two to

  18. Clinical and fiberoptic endoscopic assessment of swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macri, Marina Rodrigues Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive and partially reversible obstruction of pulmonary airflow. Aim: To characterize swallowing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and correlate the findings with the degree chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and smoking. Method: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 19 patients (12 men and 7 women; age range, 50–85 years with confirmed medical diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was performed in 2 stages (clinical evaluation and functional assessment using nasolaryngofibroscopy on the same day. During both stages, vital signs were checked by medical personnel. Results: Clinical evaluation of swallowing in all patients showed the clinical signs of cough. The findings of nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted subsequent intraoral escape in 5 patients (26.5%. No patient had tracheal aspiration. There was no association of subsequent intraoral escape with degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking. Conclusion: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there was a prevalence of oral dysphagia upon swallowing and nasolaryngofibroscopy highlighted the finding of subsequent intraoral escape. There was no correlation between intraoral escape and the degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart and respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, or smoking.

  19. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera López, Carlos; Juliá Serdá, Gabriel; Cabrera Lacalzada, Cristina; Martín Medina, Ana; Gullón Blanco, José Antonio; García Bello, Miguel Ángel; Cabrera Navarro, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies significantly among the different geographical areas reported. In Spain, two epidemiological studies have shown a prevalence of 9-10% in the population aged over 40. However, neither of these studies included the Canary Islands, which are of interest due to their climatic conditions and high incidence of smoking. A random group of 1,353 subjects aged between 40 and 70years was selected from a sample population of 596,478 individuals. Participants completed a questionnaire and then performed spirometry with bronchodilator testing if obstruction was observed. COPD was diagnosed when the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio was less than 0.70. The prevalence of COPD was 7.3% (95%CI: 5.5-9.5) and was higher in males than in females (8.7% vs. 6.3%, P=.134). The incidence of smoking was 29.4% (95%CI: 25.4-33.1) and was also higher in males than in females (35.1% vs 25.4%, P<.001). The prevalence of COPD stratified by severity of obstruction, according to the GOLD criteria, was 16% in groupi, 69.9% in groupii, 10.4% in groupiii and 3.3% in groupiv. 71.6% of the subjects were underdiagnosed and 63.5% undertreated. Despite having one of the highest rates of smoking in Spain, the prevalence of COPD in the Canary Islands is lower than in most of the Spanish regions studied. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic value of nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, C; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    1999-01-01

    The association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common clinical observation. We prospectively examined whether BMI is an independent predictor of mortality in subjects with COPD from the Copenhagen City Heart...... Study. In total, 1,218 men and 914 women, aged 21 to 89 yr, with airway obstruction defined as an FEV(1)-to-FVC ratio of less than 0.7, were included in the analyses. Spirometric values, BMI, smoking habits, and respiratory symptoms were assessed at the time of study enrollment, and mortality from COPD...... with that in subjects of normal weight of 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 2.23) in men and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.89) in women. However, the association between BMI and survival differed significantly with stage of COPD. In mild and moderate COPD there was a nonsignificant U-shaped relationship...

  1. Fatigue and multidimensional disease severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inal-Ince Deniz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Fatigue is associated with longitudinal ratings of health in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Although the degree of airflow obstruction is often used to grade disease severity in patients with COPD, multidimensional grading systems have recently been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived and actual fatigue level and multidimensional disease severity in patients with COPD. Materials and methods Twenty-two patients with COPD (aged 52-74 years took part in the study. Multidimensional disease severity was measured using the SAFE and BODE indices. Perceived fatigue was assessed using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS and the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS. Peripheral muscle endurance was evaluated using the number of sit-ups, squats, and modified push-ups that each patient could do. Results Thirteen patients (59% had severe fatigue, and their St George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores were significantly higher (p Conclusions Peripheral muscle endurance and fatigue perception in patients with COPD was related to multidimensional disease severity measured with both the SAFE and BODE indices. Improvements in perceived and actual fatigue levels may positively affect multidimensional disease severity and health status in COPD patients. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of fatigue perception and exercise training on patients with different stages of multidimensional COPD severity.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Does gender really matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited data is available on the clinical expression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD from India. The impact of gender on expression of COPD has received even less attention. Apart from tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution, especially from biomass fuel may play an important role in development of COPD in women. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and two patients of COPD were studied regarding the etiological and risk factors leading to COPD, gender-related differences in clinical presentation, radiological expression of COPD and the co-morbidities in COPD. Results: Tobacco smoke in the form of beedi smoking was the predominant smoke exposure in males, whereas smoke from biofuel burning was the predominant exposure in females. As compared to males, females were younger, reported more dyspnea, more severe bronchial obstruction, more exacerbations, and exhibited higher prevalence of systemic features. Also, females smoked less and had lesser incidence of productive cough, lower body mass index, lesser co-morbidities and less number of hospital admissions as compared to males. Males were more likely than females to have an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while airway-predominant disease was more common among females. Conclusion: The current study shows that gender-related differences do exist in COPD patients. Understanding these differences in etiological agent and clinical picture will help early diagnosis of COPD in females.

  3. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  4. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  5. Oral hygiene in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    SCOPING REVIEW OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that systematic oral hygiene may reduce airway infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Before considering doing a systematic review, a scoping review is necessary to explore and map literature on the subject and identify......-invasive interventions that have been carried out to improve oral hygiene and relieve and/or reduce respiratory tract infections, exacerbation and/or hospital readmission in patients with diagnosed with COPD. A further objective is to undertake a comprehensive search to identify qualitative literature reporting...... on the experiences of oral hygiene in people diagnosed with COPD and/or their relatives and/or healthcare providers (HCPs).Specifically, the scoping review questions are as follows....

  6. Lung-Function Trajectories Leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Celli, Bartolome; Agustí, Alvar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to result from an accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time. Yet it is possible that a normal decline in FEV1 could also lead to COPD in persons whose maximally attained FEV1 is less than...... 40 years) and the presence or absence of COPD at the last study visit. We then determined the rate of decline in FEV1 over time among the participants according to their FEV1 at cohort inception and COPD status at study end. RESULTS: Among 657 persons who had an FEV1 of less than 80% of the predicted...... value before 40 years of age, 174 (26%) had COPD after 22 years of observation, whereas among 2207 persons who had a baseline FEV1 of at least 80% of the predicted value before 40 years of age, 158 (7%) had COPD after 22 years of observation (PCOPD...

  7. CD8 chemokine receptors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, L J C; Starkey, C; Gordon, F S

    2008-01-01

    Increased lung CD8 cells and their expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 have been previously reported in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alterations of CD8-CCR3 and -CCR4 expression and their ligands in COPD patients have not been fully investigated. The objective...... there was low level CCL11 production. CD8CCR3 and CCR5 expression appear to be regulated by cigarette smoke exposure. We show that COPD lung tissue released more CCL5, suggesting a role for CCL5-CCR3 signalling in pulmonary CD8 recruitment in COPD....... of this study was to assess in COPD patients: (i) broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) CD8 CCR3 and CCR4 expression in COPD patients; and (ii) airway levels of the CCR3 ligands, CCL11 and CCL5. Multi-parameter flow cytometric analysis was used to assess BAL CD3 and CD8-chemokine receptor expression in COPD patients...

  8. Genetically increased antioxidative protection and decreased chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Klaus; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Marklund, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Increased oxidative stress is involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, plasma and bronchial lining fluid contains the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase. Approximately 2% of white individuals carry the R213G polymorphism in the gene encoding......-sectionally and prospectively (during 24 yr) 9,258 individuals from the Danish general population genotyped for R213G. MEASUREMENTS: We determined plasma extracellular superoxide dismutase concentration, pulmonary function and COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry or through national hospitalization and death registers. MAIN...... extracellular superoxide dismutase, which increases plasma extracellular superoxide dismutase 10-fold and presumably also renders bronchial lining fluid high in extracellular superoxide dismutase. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that R213G reduces the risk of COPD. METHODS: We studied cross...

  9. Rehabilitation of discharged patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Sall Jensen, Morten; von Plessen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation after hospital stay implies several benefits for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); still few patients are referred and participate in rehabilitation programs. We conducted a case study to investigate the effects of interventions targeting...... the referral, uptake, and completion for a program of early rehabilitation in the primary health-care sector. METHODS: We undertook targeted initiatives to make patients participate in an individualized rehabilitation program with gradual increased intensity. After discharge, primary care COPD nurses....... RESULTS: Sixteen (23% of discharged patients) patients were referred to rehabilitation. In comparison, only 1 (0.8%) in 131 patients from Vejle hospital was referred to Vejle hospital. Twelve patients completed rehabilitation, all having severe COPD. All started the program within 2 weeks and proceeded...

  10. The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannino, DM; Watt, G; Hole, D

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA, and it remains one of the few diseases that continues to increase its numbers. The development and progression of COPD can vary dramatically between individuals. A low level of lung function...... remains the cornerstone of COPD diagnosis and is a key predictor of prognosis. Lung function, however, is not the only factor in determining morbidity and mortality related to COPD, with factors such as body mass index, exercise capability and comorbid disease being important predictors of poor outcomes....... Exacerbations of COPD are additional important indicators of both quality of life and outcomes in COPD patients. Definitions of exacerbations can vary, ranging from an increase in symptoms to COPD-related hospitalisations and death. COPD exacerbations are more common in patients with lower levels of lung...

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes: the future of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, MeiLan K; Agusti, Alvar; Calverley, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Significant heterogeneity of clinical presentation and disease progression exists within chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although FEV(1) inadequately describes this heterogeneity, a clear alternative has not emerged. The goal of phenotyping is to identify patient groups with unique...... prognostic or therapeutic characteristics, but significant variation and confusion surrounds use of the term "phenotype" in COPD. Phenotype classically refers to any observable characteristic of an organism, and up until now, multiple disease characteristics have been termed COPD phenotypes. We, however......, propose the following variation on this definition: "a single or combination of disease attributes that describe differences between individuals with COPD as they relate to clinically meaningful outcomes (symptoms, exacerbations, response to therapy, rate of disease progression, or death)." This more...

  12. Quadriceps exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gifford, Jayson R; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine if qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration, associated with decreased mitochondrial efficiency, contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using permeabilized muscle fibers from.......05). Overall, this study indicates that COPD is associated with qualitative alterations in skeletal muscle mitochondria that affect the contribution of CI and CII-driven respiration, which potentially contributes to the exercise intolerance associated with this disease....... the vastus lateralis of 13 patients with COPD and 12 healthy controls, complex I (CI) and complex II (CII)-driven State 3 mitochondrial respiration were measured separately (State 3:CI and State 3:CII) and in combination (State 3:CI+CII). State 2 respiration was also measured. Exercise tolerance was assessed...

  13. Vitamin D status and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is common among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether vitamin D affects the development and deterioration of COPD or is a consequence of the disease lacks clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent...... and incident COPD in the general population. METHODS: We included a total of 12,041 individuals from three general population studies conducted in 1993-94, 1999-2001, and 2006-2008, respectively, with vitamin D measurements. Information on COPD was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register...... and The Danish Registry of Causes of Death. RESULTS: There were 85 prevalent and 463 incident cases of COPD (median follow-up 9.7 years). We found a statistically significant inverse association between vitamin D status and prevalent COPD with odds ratio = 0.89 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.79, 1...

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This review article focuses on the risk of infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Throughout the years there have been a number of studies describing the risk of pulmonary infections in patients with COPD, whereas only few studies have focused on the risk...... of infection outside the lungs. With increasing severity of COPD the risk of respiratory tract infection also increases. The impairment of the innate immune system is most likely responsible for both the colonization of respiratory tract with bacteria and for an increased risk of infection with new strains...... of bacteria causing acute exacerbations. Also lung infections like pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema are more often seen in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects. With regard to extrapulmonary infections, it seems that COPD patients are not at higher risk of infection compared with subjects without...

  15. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD

  16. [Lung dysfunction in patients with severe chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2005-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TCL, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 36 patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (FEV1 volumes and capacities; 83.3% of the patients had pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction. Impaired bronchial patency mainly appeared as decreased FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, Raw, Rin, Rex; altered lung volumes and capacities manifested by increased RV, TGV, and TLC, and by decreased VC and FVC; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as lowered PaO2 and DLCO-SS, as decreased or increased PaCO2. The observed bronchial patency disorders varied from significant to severe; functional changes in lung volumes and capacities were mild to severe.

  17. Is exercise important in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make, Barry; Casaburi, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease impairs the ability of patients to perform maximal physical exercise, particularly in patients with severe lung disease. However, differing perceptions of the meaning and importance of exercise to patients and caregivers is likely to impair patient-physician communication about current medical status and outcomes of therapeutic interventions. Other outcomes of importance to patients including actual performance of functional activity during daily life and health-related quality of life may also be affected by impaired exercise capacity. However, the relationships between exercise, activity, and quality of life are inconsistent. Thus, measurement of physiologic and patient-centered outcomes may provide the best approach to assessing responses to therapeutic interventions. These concepts were explored in a conference sponsored by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Pfizer Inc and reviewed in the articles generated from the symposium in this issue of COPD.

  18. CYTOKINE PROFILE FEATURES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Р. Kalinina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We studied cytokine profile in blood and exhaled breath condensate (EBC in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD being in remission state. It is shown that pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine contents depended on the disease severity, both in whole blood and EBC of the COPD patients. We have revealed an increase in TNFα, s-TNFα RI, TGF-β1 and bFGF in EBC of patients with COPD manifestations, thus being indicative for progression of metabolic changes in lung tissue, and advanced stage of respiratory functional disturbances. Cytokine profile abnormalities in COPD patients resulting, in part, from systemic and local disorders of cellular immunity, represent a major pathogenetic mechanism determining the disease progression.

  19. Comparison of Multiple Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Indices in Chinese COPD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinsong; Miller, Anastasia; Li, Yongxia; Lan, Qinqin; Zhang, Ning; Chai, Yanling; Hai, Bing

    2018-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious chronic condition with a global impact. Symptoms of COPD include progressive dyspnea, breathlessness, cough, and sputum production, which have a considerable impact on the lives of patients. In addition to the human cost of living with COPD and the resulting death, COPD entails a huge economic burden on the Chinese population, with patients spending up to one-third of the average family income on COPD management in some regions is clinically beneficial to adopt preventable measures via prudent COPD care utilization, monetary costs, and hospitalizations. Toward this end, this study compared the relative effectiveness of six indices in predicting patient healthcare utilization, cost of care, and patient health outcome. The six assessment systems evaluated included the three multidimensional Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise capacity index, Dyspnea, Obstruction, Smoking, Exacerbation (DOSE) index, and COPD Assessment Test index, or the unidimensional measures that best predict the future of patient healthcare utilization, cost of care, and patient health outcome among Chinese COPD patients. Multiple linear regression models were created for each healthcare utilization, cost, and outcome including a single COPD index and the same group of demographic variables for each of the outcomes. We conclude that the DOSE index facilitates the prediction of patient healthcare utilization, disease expenditure, and negative clinical outcomes. Our study indicates that the DOSE index has a potential role beyond clinical predictions. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  20. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Carmen; van Essen, Fabian; Linnhoff, Fabian; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Weber, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro(®) device were performed. Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (-13.3%±5.4% vs -17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04). On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003) and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02). With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001) that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01). Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08). As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and did not significantly vary either in comparison to controls (P=0.07) or throughout the COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.49). COPD-OSA overlap solely correlated with nocturnal hypoxemic events, whereas LV performance status was unrelated to coexisting OSA. To conclude, COPD itself seems to be

  1. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagnon P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Gagnon,1,2 Jordan A Guenette,3,4 Daniel Langer,5 Louis Laviolette,2 Vincent Mainguy,1 François Maltais,1,2 Fernanda Ribeiro,1,2 Didier Saey1,2 1Faculté de Médecine, Université Laval, 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 3Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, St Paul's Hospital, 4Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Department of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In a significant proportion of patients with COPD, reduced lung elastic recoil combined with expiratory flow limitation leads to lung hyperinflation during the course of the disease. Development of hyperinflation during the course of COPD is insidious. Dynamic hyperinflation is highly prevalent in the advanced stages of COPD, and new evidence suggests that it also occurs in many patients with mild disease, independently of the presence of resting hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is clinically relevant for patients with COPD mainly because it contributes to dyspnea, exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle limitations, morbidity, and reduced physical activity levels associated with the disease. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of ventilatory limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to address the more recent literature regarding the pathogenesis, assessment, and management of both static and dynamic lung hyperinflation in patients with COPD. We also address the influence of biological sex and obesity and new developments in our understanding of hyperinflation in patients with mild COPD and its evolution during

  2. Loss of Dignity in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brahm K; Wilson, Keith G; Henderson, Peter R; Poulin, Patricia A; Kowal, John; McKim, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    The maintenance of dignity is an important concept in palliative care, and the loss of dignity is a significant concern among patients with advanced cancer. The goals of this study were to examine whether loss of dignity is also a concern for patients receiving interdisciplinary rehabilitation for Stage III or IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We examined the prevalence and correlates of loss of dignity and determined whether it improves with treatment. Inpatients underwent a structured interview inquiry around their sense of dignity and completed measures of pulmonary, physical, and psychological function at admission (n = 195) and discharge (n = 162). Loss of dignity was identified as a prominent ongoing concern for 13% of patients. It was correlated with measures of depression and anxiety sensitivity, but not with pulmonary capacity or functional performance. A robust improvement in loss of dignity was demonstrated, with 88% of those who reported a significant problem at admission no longer reporting one at discharge. The prevalence of a problematic loss of dignity among patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is at least as high as among those receiving palliative cancer care. Loss of dignity may represent a concern among people with medical illnesses more broadly, and not just in the context of "death with dignity" at the end of life. Furthermore, interdisciplinary care may help to restore a sense of dignity to those individuals who are able to participate in rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological measurements in computed tomography correlate with airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, XueQian; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands (CMI-NEN), Department of Radiology, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, RB, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, University of Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, P.O. Box 85.500, CX, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wang, Ying [Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tianjin (China); Hacken, Nick H.T. ten [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, RB, Groningen (Netherlands); Miao, Jingtao; Zhang, GuiXiang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated First People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, RB, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    To determine the correlation between CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways and airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1976 to 2011. Two reviewers independently screened 1,763 citations to identify articles that correlated CT measurements to airflow obstruction parameters of the pulmonary function test in COPD patients, rated study quality and extracted information. Three CT measurements were accessed: lung attenuation area percentage < -950 Hounsfield units, mean lung density and airway wall area percentage. Two airflow obstruction parameters were accessed: forced expiratory volume in the first second as percentage from predicted (FEV{sub 1} %pred) and FEV{sub 1} divided by the forced volume vital capacity. Seventy-nine articles (9,559 participants) were included in the systematic review, demonstrating different methodologies, measurements and CT airflow obstruction correlations. There were 15 high-quality articles (2,095 participants) in the meta-analysis. The absolute pooled correlation coefficients ranged from 0.48 (95 % CI, 0.40 to 0.54) to 0.65 (0.58 to 0.71) for inspiratory CT and 0.64 (0.53 to 0.72) to 0.73 (0.63 to 0.80) for expiratory CT. CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways are significantly related to airflow obstruction in COPD patients. CT provides a morphological method to investigate airway obstruction in COPD. (orig.)

  4. Preclinical murine models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2015-07-15

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major incurable global health burden and is the 4th leading cause of death worldwide. It is believed that an exaggerated inflammatory response to cigarette smoke causes progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages, neutrophils and T lymphocytes are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, small airway fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. Much of the disease burden and health care utilisation in COPD is associated with the management of its comorbidities and infectious (viral and bacterial) exacerbations (AECOPD). Comorbidities, defined as other chronic medical conditions, in particular skeletal muscle wasting and cardiovascular disease markedly impact on disease morbidity, progression and mortality. The mechanisms and mediators underlying COPD and its comorbidities are poorly understood and current COPD therapy is relatively ineffective. Thus, there is an obvious need for new therapies that can prevent the induction and progression of COPD and effectively treat AECOPD and comorbidities of COPD. Given that access to COPD patients can be difficult and that clinical samples often represent a "snapshot" at a particular time in the disease process, many researchers have used animal modelling systems to explore the mechanisms underlying COPD, AECOPD and comorbidities of COPD with the goal of identifying novel therapeutic targets. This review highlights the mouse models used to define the cellular, molecular and pathological consequences of cigarette smoke exposure and the recent advances in modelling infectious exacerbations and comorbidities of COPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enteral nutrition in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBellis, Heather F; Fetterman, James W

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic disease, in which malnutrition can have an undesirable effect. Therefore, the patient's nutritional status is critical for optimizing outcomes in COPD. The initial nutrition assessment is focused on identifying calorically compromised COPD patients in order to provide them with appropriate nutrition. Nutritional intervention consists of oral supplementation and enteral nutrition to prevent weight loss and muscle mass depletion. Evaluation of nutritional status should include past medical history (medications, lung function, and exercise tolerance) and dietary history (patient's dietary habits, food choices, meal patterns, food allergy information, and malabsorption issues), in addition to physiological stress, visceral proteins, weight, fat-free mass, and body mass index. The current medical literature conflicts regarding the appropriate type of formulation to select for nutritional intervention, especially regarding the amount of calories from fat to provide COPD patients. This review article focuses on the enteral product formulations currently available, and how they are most appropriately utilized in patients with COPD.

  6. Saber-sheath trachea as a marker of severe airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Federica; Poerio, Antonio; Stagni, Silvia; Attinà, Domenico; Fasano, Luca; Carbonara, Paolo; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Saber-sheath trachea is a specific radiographic parameter for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which consists of marked coronal narrowing associated with sagittal widening (tracheal index saber-sheath trachea and clinical-radiological findings in a group of patients with COPD of varying severity. We evaluated the chest radiographs of 71 patients with COPD distributed as follows: GOLD class I, 8/71 (11.3 %); class II, 34/71 (47.9 %); class III, 16/71(22.5 %); class IV, 13/71 (18.3 %). In 52/71 (73.2 %) patients we also evaluated chest computed tomography (CT) scans. We analyzed the prevalence of saber-sheath trachea and its correlation with the Tiffenau index, GOLD stage and radiological signs of COPD. Moreover, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of chest radiography as compared to CT taken as the gold standard, and the correlation between the radiographic and CT tracheal index. Saber-sheath trachea was found in 18/71 (25.4 %) patients, with a greater prevalence in patients with lower Tiffenau Index (p = 0.02), GOLD stages III-IV and visual severity score 3 (severe) on chest CT. Saber-sheath trachea was not found to be related to other radiological signs of COPD. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values of radiography were 72.2, 97.0 and 88.5 %, with perfect concordance between the radiographic and CT tracheal index (p Saber-sheath trachea is linked to the functional severity of airway obstruction, but not to other radiological signs of COPD. Thus, evaluation of the trachea at chest radiography is strongly recommended.

  7. Barriers for recruitment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to a controlled telemedicine trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broendum, Eva; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Gregersen, Thorbjorn

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this analysis is to investigate reasons why patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease decline to participate in a controlled trial of telemedicine. Patients with previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations were invited to participate in a 6-month randomized...... not want to participate in clinical research. Compared to consenting patients, subjects declining participation were significantly older, more often female, had higher lung function (%predicted), lower body mass index, higher admission-rate for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the previous year...

  8. Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Goseva

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: GER symptoms are more prevalent in patients with severe airways obstruction when compared to less airways obstructed group and controls. We could suggest an association between the degree of airways obstruction in patients with COPD and the increased rate of GER symptoms.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure.

  10. Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omland, Oyvind; Würtz, Else Toft; Aasen, Tor Brøvig; Blanc, Paul; Brisman, Jonas Brisman; Miller, Martin Reginald; Pedersen, Ole Find; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Viskum, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures. We used PubMed and Embase to identify relevant original epidemiological peer-reviewed articles, supplemented with citations identified from references in key review articles. This yielded 4528 citations. Articles were excluded for lack of lung function measurement, insufficient occupational exposure classification, lack of either external or internal referents, non-accounting of age or smoking effect, or major analytic inadequacies preventing interpretation of findings. A structured data extraction sheet was used for the remaining 147 articles. Final inclusion was based on a positive qualitative Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) score (≥2+) for study quality, yielding 25 population-wide and 34 industry/occupation-specific studies, 15 on inorganic and 19 on organic dust exposure, respectively. There was a consistent and predominantly significant association between occupational exposures and COPD in 22 of 25 population-based studies, 12 of 15 studies with an inorganic/mineral dust exposure, and 17 of 19 studies on organic exposure, even though the studies varied in design, populations, and the use of measures of exposure and outcome. A nearly uniform pattern of a dose-response relationship between various exposures and COPD was found, adding to the evidence that occupational exposures from vapors, gas, dust, and fumes are risk factors for COPD. There is strong and consistent evidence to support a causal association between multiple categories of occupational exposure and COPD, both within and across industry groups.

  11. Nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: role of hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguso, Comasia A; Luthy, Christophe

    2011-02-01

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malnutrition and limited physical activity are very common and contribute to disease prognosis, whereas a balance between caloric intake and exercise allows body weight stability and muscle mass preservation. The goal of this review is to analyze the implications of chronic hypoxia on three key elements involved in energy homeostasis and its role in COPD cachexia. The first one is energy intake. Body weight loss, often observed in patients with COPD, is related to lack of appetite. Inflammatory cytokines are known to be involved in anorexia and to be correlated to arterial partial pressure of oxygen. Recent studies in animals have investigated the role of hypoxia in peptides involved in food consumption such as leptin, ghrelin, and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase. The second element is muscle function, which is strongly related to energy use. In COPD, muscle atrophy and muscle fiber shift to the glycolytic type might be an adaptation to chronic hypoxia to preserve the muscle from oxidative stress. Muscle atrophy could be the result of a marked activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as found in muscle of patients with COPD. Hypoxia, via hypoxia inducible factor-1, is implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. Third, hormonal control of energy balance seems to be affected in patients with COPD. Insulin resistance has been described in this group of patients as well as a sort of "growth hormone resistance." Hypoxia, by hypoxia inducible factor-1, accelerates the degradation of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine, decreasing cellular oxygen consumption, suggesting an adaptive mechanism rather than a primary cause of COPD cachexia. COPD rehabilitation aimed at maintaining function and quality of life needs to address body weight stabilization and, in particular, muscle mass preservation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto EF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available EF Porto,1,2 AAM Castro,1,3 VGS Schmidt,4 HM Rabelo,4 C Kümpel,2 OA Nascimento,5 JR Jardim5 1Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Adventist University, São Paulo, 3Federal University of Pampa, Rio Grande do Sul, 4Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Adventist University, 5Respiratory Diseases, Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control.Methods: Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using “balance”, “postural control”, and “COPD” as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers.Results: A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the “balance in COPD or postural control in COPD” keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study

  13. Association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lih-Hwa; Siu, Justin Ji-Yuen; Liao, Po-Chi; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, a specific physiological and pathological relationship exists between the lungs and the large intestine. The aim of this study is to delineate the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hemorrhoids in order to verify the “interior–exterior” relationship between the lungs and the large intestine. A retrospective cohort study is conceived from the National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan. The 2 samples (COPD cohort and non-COPD cohort) were selected from the 2000 to 2003 beneficiaries of the NHI, representing patients age 20 and older in Taiwan, with the follow-up ending on December 31, 2011. The COPD cohort (n = 51,506) includes every patient newly diagnosed as having Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, ICD-9-CM: 490–492, 494, 496), who have made at least 2 confirmed visits to the hospital/clinic. The non-COPD cohort (n = 103,012) includes patients without COPD and is selected via a 1:2 (COPD: non-COPD) matching by age group (per 5 years), gender, and index date (diagnosis date of COPD for the COPD cohort). Compared with non-COPD cohorts, patients with COPD have a higher likelihood of having hemorrhoids and the age-, gender- and comorbidies-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hemorrhoids is 1.56 (95% confidence intervals [CI]:1.50–1.62). The adjusted HR of hemorrhoids for females is 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77–0.83), which is significantly less than that for males. The elderly groups, 40 to 59 years and aged 60 or above, have higher adjusted HRs than younger age groups (20–39 years), 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14–1.26), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12–1.24), respectively. Patients with COPD may have a higher likelihood to have hemorrhoids in this retrospective cohort study. This study verifies the fundamental theorem of TCM that there is a definite pathogenic association between the lungs and large intestine. PMID:28272246

  14. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrams TE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thad E Abrams,1,2 Amy Blevins,1,3 Mark W Vander Weg1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, 2Center for Comprehensive Access and Delivery Research and Evaluation, Iowa City VA Health Care System, 3Hardin Health Sciences Library, 4Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature.Objectives: The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1 determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2 identify targeted areas for further research.Methods: A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1 the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2 the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology.Results: A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD

  15. Role of clinical questionnaires in optimizing everyday care of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Paul W.; Price, David; van der Molen, Thys

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability in all its stages, and death in patients with moderate or severe obstruction. At present, COPD is suboptimally managed; current health is often not measured properly and hardly taken into account in management plans, and

  16. Intestinal smooth muscle response to chronic obstruction : possible applications in jejunoileal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, R

    1975-02-01

    Hyperplasia is the main change occurring in intestinal smooth muscle above a chronic obstruction and explains the functional obstruction seen in the proximal bowel of a jejunoileal atresia. With an experimental model in dogs, this hyperplasia has been shown to be reversible. However, changes are extreme in atresia, and experiments in animals with induced atresia will best evaluate various kinds of treatment.

  17. Volvulus as a complication of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. de Betue (Carlijn); D. Boersma (Doeke); M.W. Oomen (Matthijs W.); M.A. Benninga (Marc); J.R. de Jong (Justin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction syndrome (CIPS) is a severe motility disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that presents with continuous or recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without evidence of a structural lesion occluding the intestinal lumen. Mechanical

  18. An immune basis for lung parenchymal destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Grumelli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema are a frequent result of long-term smoking, but the exact mechanisms, specifically which types of cells are associated with the lung destruction, are unclear.We studied different subsets of lymphocytes taken from portions of human lungs removed surgically to find out which lymphocytes were the most frequent, which cell-surface markers these lymphocytes expressed, and whether the lymphocytes secreted any specific factors that could be associated with disease. We found that loss of lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema was associated with a high percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that expressed chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 (both markers of T helper 1 cells, but not CCR3 or CCR4 (markers of T helper 2 cells. Lung lymphocytes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema secrete more interferon gamma--often associated with T helper 1 cells--and interferon-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by interferon, both of which bind to CXCR3 and are involved in attracting T helper 1 cells. In response to interferon-inducible protein 10 and monokine induced by interferon, but not interferon gamma, lung macrophages secreted macrophage metalloelastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12, a potent elastin-degrading enzyme that causes tissue destruction and which has been linked to emphysema.These data suggest that Th1 lymphoctytes in the lungs of people with smoking-related damage drive progression of emphysema through CXCR3 ligands, interferon-inducible protein 10, and monokine induced by interferon.

  19. Morphological measurements in computed tomography correlate with airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, XueQian; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Jong, Pim A. de; Wang, Ying; Hacken, Nick H.T. ten; Miao, Jingtao; Zhang, GuiXiang; Bock, Geertruida H. de

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlation between CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways and airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1976 to 2011. Two reviewers independently screened 1,763 citations to identify articles that correlated CT measurements to airflow obstruction parameters of the pulmonary function test in COPD patients, rated study quality and extracted information. Three CT measurements were accessed: lung attenuation area percentage 1 %pred) and FEV 1 divided by the forced volume vital capacity. Seventy-nine articles (9,559 participants) were included in the systematic review, demonstrating different methodologies, measurements and CT airflow obstruction correlations. There were 15 high-quality articles (2,095 participants) in the meta-analysis. The absolute pooled correlation coefficients ranged from 0.48 (95 % CI, 0.40 to 0.54) to 0.65 (0.58 to 0.71) for inspiratory CT and 0.64 (0.53 to 0.72) to 0.73 (0.63 to 0.80) for expiratory CT. CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways are significantly related to airflow obstruction in COPD patients. CT provides a morphological method to investigate airway obstruction in COPD. (orig.)

  20. Nano-based theranostics for chronic obstructive lung diseases: challenges and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Neeraj

    2011-09-01

    The major challenges in the delivery and therapeutic efficacy of nano-delivery systems in chronic obstructive airway conditions are airway defense, severe inflammation and mucous hypersecretion. Chronic airway inflammation and mucous hypersecretion are hallmarks of chronic obstructive airway diseases, including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and CF (cystic fibrosis). Distinct etiologies drive inflammation and mucous hypersecretion in these diseases, which are further induced by infection or components of cigarette smoke. Controlling chronic inflammation is at the root of treatments such as corticosteroids, antibiotics or other available drugs, which pose the challenge of sustained delivery of drugs to target cells or tissues. In spite of the wide application of nano-based drug delivery systems, very few are tested to date. Targeted nanoparticle-mediated sustained drug delivery is required to control inflammatory cell chemotaxis, fibrosis, protease-mediated chronic emphysema and/or chronic lung obstruction in COPD. Moreover, targeted epithelial delivery is indispensable for correcting the underlying defects in CF and targeted inflammatory cell delivery for controlling other chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We propose that the design and development of nano-based targeted theranostic vehicles with therapeutic, imaging and airway-defense penetrating capability, will be invaluable for treating chronic obstructive lung diseases. This paper discusses a novel nano-theranostic strategy that we are currently evaluating to treat the underlying cause of CF and COPD lung disease.

  1. Mortality from respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associations with environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory infections (RI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been identified by the World Health Organization as conditions which may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. We examined the associations between environmental quality and U.S. county m...

  2. Physiological and morphological determinants of maximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); H.O. Coxson (Harvey); P.D. Pare

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMaximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be reduced by three different mechanisms; loss of lung elastic recoil, decreased airway conductance upstream of flow-limiting segments; and increased collapsibility of airways.

  3. Opsonic Phagocytosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is Enhanced by Nrf2 Agonists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, Martin A; Budd, Richard C; Ryan, Eilise; Cole, Joby; Collini, Paul; Marshall, Jennifer; Kolsum, Umme; Beech, Gussie; Emes, Richard D; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Walmsley, Sarah R; Donaldson, Gavin; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Kilty, Iain; Rumsey, William; Sanchez, Yolanda; Brightling, Christopher E; Donnelly, Louise E; Barnes, Peter J; Singh, Dave; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have identified defects in bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AM) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the mechanisms and clinical consequences remain incompletely defined.

  4. Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : assessment of respiratory muscle activity and the benefits of noninvasive ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duiverman, Marieke Leontine

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with two main topics. First, we investigated respiratory muscle function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) by surface electromyography. Second, we focused on the benefits of noninvasive ventilation in patients with respiratory failure, both in restrictive pulmonary

  5. The Burden of Illness in Patients with Moderate to Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Reza Maleki-Yazdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: No recent Canadian studies with physician- and spirometry-confirmed diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that assessed the burden of COPD have been published.

  6. Prevalence, predictors, and survival in pulmonary hypertension related to end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Iversen, Martin Jes; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, prognostic importance, and factors that predict the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed with right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear....

  7. Bronchodilator responsiveness as a phenotypic characteristic of established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Paul; Agusti, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness is a potential phenotypic characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We studied whether change in lung function after a bronchodilator is abnormal in COPD, whether stable responder subgroups can be identified, and whether these subgroups experience...

  8. Characteristics and outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in never smokers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have never smoked. We tested the hypothesis that, in individuals with COPD, never smokers have different characteristics and less severe outcomes of the disease than smokers do....

  9. EFFECTS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS ON BRONCHODILATOR ACTION IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; POSTMA, DS; BREEDERVELD, N; KORT, E; VANDERMARK, TW; KOETER, GH

    Background Short term treatment corticosteroids does not usually reduce airflow limitation and airway responsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. We investigated whether corticosteroids modulate the effects of inhaled salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. Methods Ten non-allergic

  10. Diaphragm muscle fiber dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: toward a pathophysiological concept.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenheijm, C.A.C.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    Inspiratory muscle weakness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is of major clinical relevance; maximum inspiratory pressure generation is an independent determinant of survival in severe COPD. Traditionally, inspiratory muscle weakness has been ascribed to

  11. Exhaled Breath Profiling Enables Discrimination of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fens, Niki; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; van der Schee, Marc P.; de Nijs, Selma B.; Dijkers, Erica; Roldaan, Albert C.; Cheung, David; Bel, Elisabeth H.; Sterk, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma can exhibit overlapping clinical features. Exhaled air contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may qualify as noninvasive biomarkers. VOC profiles can be assessed using integrative analysis by electronic nose, resulting in

  12. How virtual admission affects coping – telemedicine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emme, Christina; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Østergaard, Birte

    2014-01-01

    To describe what characterises chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' coping of physical, emotional and social problems before, during and after virtual admission, in interaction with health professionals and relatives....

  13. Defining and targeting health disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasants RA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roy A Pleasants,1–3 Isaretta L Riley,1–3 David M Mannino4 1Duke Asthma, Allergy, and Airways Center, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, 3Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, 4Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Pulmonary Epidemiology Research Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: The global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to grow in part due to better outcomes in other major diseases and in part because a substantial portion of the worldwide population continues to be exposed to inhalant toxins. However, a disproportionate burden of COPD occurs in people of low socioeconomic status (SES due to differences in health behaviors, sociopolitical factors, and social and structural environmental exposures. Tobacco use, occupations with exposure to inhalant toxins, and indoor biomass fuel (BF exposure are more common in low SES populations. Not only does SES affect the risk of developing COPD and etiologies, it is also associated with worsened COPD health outcomes. Effective interventions in these people are needed to decrease these disparities. Efforts that may help lessen these health inequities in low SES include 1 better surveillance targeting diagnosed and undiagnosed COPD in disadvantaged people, 2 educating the public and those involved in health care provision about the disease, 3 improving access to cost-effective and affordable health care, and 4 markedly increasing the efforts to prevent disease through smoking cessation, minimizing use and exposure to BF, and decreasing occupational exposures. COPD is considered to be one the most preventable major causes of death from a chronic disease in the world; therefore, effective interventions could have a major impact on reducing the global burden of the disease, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Keywords: health disparities

  14. Noninvasive ventilation in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Avdeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV of lungs during the last two decades significantly improved the results of management of severe COPD patients with acute or chronic respiratory failure during both periods of exacerbation and stability. At present, NIV is considered to be the first-line therapy for acute exacerbation of COPD with hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis. This method of airway support turned out to be effective in patients after extubation both for the relief of excommunication from a respirator and for prophylaxis and treatment of postextubation respiratory failure. NIV was proven to be successful in patients with a combination of COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (overlap syndrome, in COPD with pneumonia and in postoperative COPD patients who have undergone lung resectional surgery. The efficacy of NIV under intensive care and intensive therapy unit conditions has stimulated the interest to the use of mask ventilation in hospitals and out-patient departments (for a prolonged domestic therapy. This article presents a review of NIV use in patients with COPD during both periods of exacerbation and stability. 

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity is associated with severe pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seop Eom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a heterogeneous disorder, and various aspects of COPD may be associated with the severity of pneumonia in such patients. AIMS: We examined the risk factors associated with severe pneumonia in a COPD population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study using a prospectively collected database of pneumonia patients who were admitted to our hospital through emergency department between 2008 and 2012. Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and those with an immunocompromised status were excluded. RESULTS: Of 148 pneumonia patients with COPD for whom chest computed tomography (CT scans were available, 106 (71.6% and 42 (28.4% were classified as non-severe and severe pneumonia, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the severity of airflow limitation [odds ratio (OR, 2.751; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.074-7.050; P = 0.035] and the presence of emphysema on a chest CT scan (OR, 3.366; 95% CI, 1.104-10.265; P = 0.033 were independently associated with severe pneumonia in patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD including the airflow limitation grade and the presence of pulmonary emphysema were independently associated with the development of severe pneumonia.

  16. Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanervisto, Merja; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain family dynamics of Finnish patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the basis of Barnhill's framework for healthy family functioning. This study used description and comparison and an interview-administered questionnaire and survey. Participants were patients with COPD and their family members (n = 65) living in the Tampere University Hospital catchment area. The sample consisted of families of home oxygen therapy patients (n = 36) and families of inpatients (n = 29). Families consisted of patients and their family members. Data were collected from patients by interview-administered questionnaires and from family members by survey. The instrument used was the Family Dynamics Measure 2, operationalized and tested by the American Family Research Group. Families of home oxygen therapy patients experienced significantly more mutuality (P =.03) and made decisions about their illness and life significantly more independently (P =.05) than families of inpatients. Families of home oxygen therapy patients handled change significantly more flexibly (P =.03) than families of inpatients. For the most part, families of both patient groups functioned well, but overall family functioning was clearly better in families of home oxygen therapy patients. The sample included some dysfunctional and even severely dysfunctional families. The results of this study cannot be generalized beyond the study sample because of the small sample size, but they provide suggestions for developing the care of patients with COPD and their families.

  17. Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent a unique leukocyte population that responds to airborne irritants and microbes. This distinct microenvironment coordinates the maturation of long-lived AMs, which originate from fetal blood monocytes and self-renew through mechanisms dependent on GM-CSF and CSF-1 signaling. Peripheral blood monocytes can also replenish lung macrophages; however, this appears to occur in a stimuli specific manner. In addition to mounting an appropriate immune response during infection and injury, AMs actively coordinate the resolution of inflammation through efferocytosis of apoptotic cells. Any perturbation of this process can lead to deleterious responses. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is an accumulation of airway macrophages that do not conform to the classic M1/M2 dichotomy. There is also a skewed transcriptome profile that favors expression of wound-healing M2 markers, which is reflective of a deficiency to resolve inflammation. Endogenous mediators that can promote an imbalance in inhibitory M1 vs. healing M2 macrophages are discussed, as they are the plausible mechanisms underlying why AMs fail to effectively resolve inflammation and restore normal lung homeostasis in COPD. PMID:25309536

  18. Role of Proteases in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash C. Pandey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is generally associated with progressive destruction of airways and lung parenchyma. Various factors play an important role in the development and progression of COPD, like imbalance of proteases, environmental and genetic factors and oxidative stress. This review is specifically focused on the role of proteases and their imbalance in COPD. There are three classes (serine, mettalo, and cysteine of proteases involved in COPD. In serine proteases, neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 are involved in destruction of alveolar tissue. Matrix-mettaloproteinase-9, 12, 13, plays an influential role in severity of COPD. Among cysteine proteases, caspase-3, caspases-8 and caspase-9 play an important role in controlling apoptosis. These proteases activities can be regulated by inhibitors like α-1-antitrypsin, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, and leukocyte protease inhibitor. Studies suggest that neutrophil elastase may be a therapeutic target for COPD, and specific inhibitor against this enzyme has potential role to control the disease. Current study suggests that Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV is a potential marker for COPD. Since the expression of proteases and its inhibitors play an important role in COPD pathogenesis, therefore, it is worth investigating the role of proteases and their regulation. Understanding the biochemical basis of COPD pathogenesis using advanced tools in protease biochemistry and aiming toward translational research from bench-to-bedside will have great impact to deal with this health problem.

  19. Pathogenesis of hyperinflation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Philippe; Guenette, Jordan A; Langer, Daniel; Laviolette, Louis; Mainguy, Vincent; Maltais, François; Ribeiro, Fernanda; Saey, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. In a significant proportion of patients with COPD, reduced lung elastic recoil combined with expiratory flow limitation leads to lung hyperinflation during the course of the disease. Development of hyperinflation during the course of COPD is insidious. Dynamic hyperinflation is highly prevalent in the advanced stages of COPD, and new evidence suggests that it also occurs in many patients with mild disease, independently of the presence of resting hyperinflation. Hyperinflation is clinically relevant for patients with COPD mainly because it contributes to dyspnea, exercise intolerance, skeletal muscle limitations, morbidity, and reduced physical activity levels associated with the disease. Various pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions have been shown to reduce hyperinflation and delay the onset of ventilatory limitation in patients with COPD. The aim of this review is to address the more recent literature regarding the pathogenesis, assessment, and management of both static and dynamic lung hyperinflation in patients with COPD. We also address the influence of biological sex and obesity and new developments in our understanding of hyperinflation in patients with mild COPD and its evolution during progression of the disease. PMID:24600216

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Elena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both industrialized and developing countries. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. However, relevant information from the literature published within the last years, either on general population samples or on workplaces, indicate that about 15% of all cases of COPD is work-related. Specific settings and agents are quoted which have been indicated or confirmed as linked to COPD. Coal miners, hard-rock miners, tunnel workers, concrete-manufacturing workers, nonmining industrial workers have been shown to be at highest risk for developing COPD. Further evidence that occupational agents are capable of inducing COPD comes from experimental studies, particularly in animal models. In conclusion, occupational exposure to dusts, chemicals, gases should be considered an established, or supported by good evidence, risk factor for developing COPD. The implications of this substantial occupational contribution to COPD must be considered in research planning, in public policy decision-making, and in clinical practice.

  1. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients.

  2. [Lung dysfunction in patients with mild chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TCL, TGV, RV, Ravt, Riin, Rex, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaO2 were determined in 33 patients with mild chronic obstructive lung disease (FEV1 > 70% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency; most (63.6%) patients had lung volume and capacity changes, almost half (45.5%) the patients had pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction. Impaired bronchial patency mainly appeared as decreased MEF50, MEF15, and FEV1/VC%; altered lung volumes and capacities manifested chiefly by increased RV and decreased VC; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up primarily as lowered PaO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and VC dropped to 59-20 and 79-70% of the normal value, respectively. RV increased up to 142-196% of the normal value; PaO2 reduced up to 79-60% mm Hg.

  3. Primary prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys; Schokker, Siebrig

    2009-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent disease, with cigarette smoking being the main risk factor. Prevention is crucial in the fight against COPD. Whereas primary prevention is targeted on whole populations, patient populations are the focus of primary care; therefore, prevention in this setting is mainly aimed at preventing further deterioration of the disease in patients who present with the first signs of disease (secondary prevention). Prevention of COPD in primary care requires detection of COPD at an early stage. An accurate definition of COPD is crucial in this identification process. The benefits of detecting new patients with COPD should be determined before recommending screening and case-finding programs in primary care. No evidence is available that screening by spirometry results in significant health gains. Effective treatment options in patients with mild disease are lacking. Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of COPD prevention. Because cigarette smoking is not only a major cause of COPD but is also a major cause of many other diseases, a decline in tobacco smoking would result in substantial health benefits.

  4. Health Status Measurement Instruments in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Lacasse

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with primary respiratory impairment, disability and handicap, as well as with secondary impairments not necessarily confined to the respiratory system. Because the primary goals of managing patients with COPD include relief of dyspnea and the improvement of health-related quality of life (HRQL, a direct measurement of HRQL is important. Fourteen disease-specific and nine generic questionnaires (four health profiles and five utility measures most commonly used to measure health status in patients with COPD were reviewed. The measures were classified according to their domain of interest, and their measurement properties - specifications, validity, reliability, responsiveness and interpretability - were described. This review suggests several findings. Currently used health status instruments usually refer to the patients’ perception of performance in three major domains of HRQL - somatic sensation, physical and occupational function, and psychological state. The choice of a questionnaire must be related to its purpose, with a clear distinction being made between its evaluative and discriminative function. In their evaluative function, only a few instruments fulfilled the criteria of responsiveness, and the interpretability of most questionnaires is limited. Generic questionnaires should not be used alone in clinical trials as evaluative instruments because of their inability to detect change over time. Further validation and improved interpretability of existing instruments would be of greater benefit to clinicians and scientists than the development of new questionnaires.

  5. Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.

  6. Teaching inhaler use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Suzanne C; Hodder, Richard

    2012-02-01

    To review barriers to the successful use of inhalers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the role of the nurse practitioner (NP) in facilitating optimum inhaler use. Review of the national and international scientific literature. Pharmacologic treatment of COPD patients comprises mainly inhaled medications. Incorrect use of inhalers is very common in these individuals. Some of the consequences of poor inhaler technique include reduced therapeutic dosing, medication adherence, and disease stability, which can lead to increased morbidity, decreased quality of life, and a high burden on the healthcare system. Knowledgeable evaluation and frequent reassessment of inhaler use coupled with education of patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals can significantly improve the benefits COPD patients derive from inhaled therapy. Patient education is vital for correct use of inhalers and to ensure the effectiveness of inhaled medications. The NP has a critical role in assessing potential barriers to successful learning by the patient and improving inhaler technique and medication management. The NP can also facilitate success with inhaled medications by providing up-to-date inhaler education for other healthcare team members, who may then act as patient educators. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: nature-nurture interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, John; Nobes, Maggie

    A person's health status is rarely constant, it is usually subject to continual change as a person moves from health to illness and usually back to health again; the health-illness continuum illustrates this dynamism. This highlights the person's various states of health and illness (ranging from extremely good health to clinically defined mild, moderate and severe illness) and their fluctuations throughout the life span, until ultimately leading to the pathology associated with the person's death. Maintenance of a stable homeostatic environment within the body to support the stability of this continuum depends on a complex series of ultimately intracellular chemical reactions. These reactions are activated by environmental factors that cause the expression of genes associated with healthy phenotypes as well as illness susceptibility genes associated with homeostatic imbalances. Obviously, the body aims to support intracellular and extracellular environments allied with health; however, the complexity of these nature-nurture interactions results in illness throughout an individual's life span. This paper will discuss the nature-nurture interactions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  8. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Off-Pump Coronary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalı, Cengiz; Şahin, Aykut

    2018-05-18

    To determine to what extent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects mortality and morbidity rates in patients treated with off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). A total of 321 patients treated with off-pump CABG were included in the present study. Of the 321 patients, 46 patients had COPD and they were designated as Group 1 and the remaining 275 patients did not have COPD and they were considered as Group 2. We compared the data obtained from the patients in both groups. While preoperative spirometry values and arterial blood gas oxygen saturation levels were significantly lower, the partial values of carbon dioxide were higher in Group 1. Likewise, extubation time, the amount of drainage and blood transfusion, inotropic support, prolonged intubation, pulmonary complications, the use of bronchodilators, and steroids were statistically higher in Group 1 when compared with Group 2. Overall, there was no marked difference between the two groups in terms of mortality incidence. We found similar morbidity and mortality rates among the patients with COPD and without COPD when they were treated with off-pump CABG. Therefore, the present results indicate that the presence of COPD is not associated with in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity post-CABG by off-pump approach.

  9. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg Mohammed F S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A; Habib, Syed S; Abba, Abdullah A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naive asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 22.00 + -6.69; P =0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 84.78+ - 39.32 P 0.0285). The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. (author)

  10. Exercise tolerance in mitral stenosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenami, Atsushi; Mizuno, Toshikazu; Chiba, Hiroshi; Ohno, Masanori; Wakino, Kouichi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Joichi; Kume, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Serial radionuclide ventriculography was performed using a newly developed ''real-time'' system, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) were measured during graded supine exercise in five patients with mitral stenosis (MS), in five patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in five healthy subjects. Simultaneous pulmonary gas exchange analysis permitted determining the anaerobic threshold, which is the point during incremental exercise when lactate begins to accumulate in the blood. LVEF at the anaerobic threshold was not significantly changed in any patient groups and in healthy subjects, but RVEF at the anaerobic threshold was lower in COPD and MS patients as compared with healthy subjects. In MS, SV during exercise was reduced at the anaerobic threshold, but not in COPD or in healthy subjects. In conclusion, reduced working capacity is related to decreased RVEF in both COPD and MS, but the inhibited increase in CO during exercise is also important for the working capacity in MS. (author)

  11. [Methodological controversies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapeutic trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Samy

    2009-03-01

    Pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) relies principally on long-acting bronchodilators. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were introduced for COPD two decades ago, despite the fact that no randomized trial had yet assessed their efficacy for this indication. Since then, the numerous randomized trials and meta-analyses performed to justify their use in COPD have been contradictory and controversial. Moreover, observational studies have reported efficacy rates so exceptional that they are almost too good to be true. These studies contain important methodological flaws that produce the appearance of efficacy. The randomized trials infringe the fundamental principle of intention-to-treat analysis, an analysis necessary to prevent important biases. Two other complications are the interruption of treatment at the moment of randomization and the use of a run-in period; in both cases, the withdrawal of treatment can introduce bias. The observational studies reporting phenomenal reductions in mortality with ICS were distorted by "immortal time" bias. Finally, recent data suggest that the effect of ICS/bronchodilator combinations is due mainly to the effect of the long-acting bronchodilator. Given the absence of proof of the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD and their associated risks, especially of ocular damage and pneumonia, and particularly among the elderly, as well as the high doses currently prescribed in COPD, it is difficult to recommend their use in this indication. They should be prescribed in COPD for at most a limited population of patients.

  12. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, José; Mensa, José

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common infection in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies or allogenic stem cell transplantation, and is less frequent in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucociliary activity impairment, immunosuppression due to the inhibition of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils by steroids, and receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, play a role in the development of IPA in COPD patients. Colonized patients or those with IPA are older, with severe CODP stage (GOLD≥III), and have a higher number of comorbidities. The mortality rate is high due to the fact that having a definitive diagnosis of IPA in COPD patients is often difficult. The main clinical and radiological signs of IPA in these types of patients are non-specific, and tissue samples for definitive diagnosis are often difficult to obtain. The poor prognosis of IPA in COPD patients could perhaps be improved by faster diagnosis and prompt initiation of antifungal treatment. Some tools, such as scales and algorithms based on risk factors of IPA, may be useful for its early diagnosis in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Substantial need for early diagnosis, rehabilitation and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Marott, Jacob Louis; Dahl, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to estimate the number of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Capital Region of Denmark and the need of resources required to implement the regional management programme for COPD.......Our goal was to estimate the number of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Capital Region of Denmark and the need of resources required to implement the regional management programme for COPD....

  14. Long-term survival in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation.......Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation....

  15. The impact of virtual admission on self-efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emme, Christina; Mortensen, Erik L; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate how virtual admission during acute exacerbation influences self-efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, compared with conventional hospital admission. BACKGROUND: Telemedicine solutions have been highlighted as a possible way to increas......-efficacy. Clinicians should consider the timing, duration and the content in the design of telemedical interventions directed at improving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' self-efficacy, as telemedicine solutions alone may not be sufficient to enhance self-efficacy....

  16. Headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects of chronic hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Ozge, Cengiz; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Yalin, Osman Ozgür; Unal, Ozgür; Ozgür, Eylem S

    2006-02-01

    The frequency and characteristics of headache in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not clear and there are only a few studies that have assessed the relationship between chronic hypoxaemia and headache. We performed this study in order to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of headache in COPD patients. A total of 119 patients, with a mean age of 63.4 +/- 8.2 years, diagnosed with moderate or severe stable COPD were included in the study. Overall 31.9% of the patients complained of headache and 45.4% were reported to have sleep disorders. There were significant effects of family history of COPD, having other systemic disorders or sleep disorders (snoring, bruxism, restless leg syndrome, etc.) and laboratory data of chronic hypoxaemia and airway obstruction on headache co-morbidity. In conclusion, possibly being a specific subtype of elderly headache, headache in patients with moderate or severe COPD is a common problem and future studies are needed to obtain more knowledge about its pathophysiological and clinical basis.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lisbon, Portugal: The burden of obstructive lung disease study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bárbara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a great heterogeneity in the prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD across the world. The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD initiative was started to measure the prevalence of COPD in a standardized way. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of COPD in Portuguese adults aged 40 years or older of a target population of 2,700,000 in the Lisbon region, in accordance with BOLD protocol. Methods: A stratified, multi-stage random sampling procedure was used which included 12 districts. The survey included a questionnaire with information on risk factors for COPD and reported respiratory disease and a post-bronchodilator spirometry performed at survey centres. Results: For the 710 participants with questionnaires and acceptable spirometry, the overall weighted prevalence of GOLD stage I+ COPD was 14.2% (95% C.I. 11.1, 18.1, and stage II+ was 7.3% (95% C.I. 4.7, 11.3. Unweighted prevalence was 20.2% (95% C.I.17.4, 23.3 for stage I+ and 9.5% (95% C.I. 7.6, 11.9 for stage II+. Prevalence of COPD in GOLD stage II+ increased with age and was higher in men. The prevalence of GOLD stage I+ COPD was 9.2% (95% C.I. 5.9, 14.0 in never smokers versus 27.4% (95% C.I. 18.5, 38.5 in those who had smoked ≥20 pack-years. The agreement between previous doctor diagnosis and spirometric diagnosis was low, with 86.8% of underdiagnosed individuals. Conclusions: The 14.2% of COPD estimated prevalence indicates that COPD is a common disease in the Lisbon region. In addition, a large proportion of underdiagnosed disease was detected. The high prevalence of COPD with a high level of underdiagnosis, points to the need of raising awareness of COPD among health professionals, and requires more use of spirometry in the primary care setting. Resumo: Introdução: A prevalência da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC apresenta valores muito heterogéneos em todo o mundo. A iniciativa Burden of Obstructive Lung

  18. Genome-wide linkage analysis of bronchodilator responsiveness and post-bronchodilator spirometric phenotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, LJ; Celedon, JC; Chapman, HA; Speizer, FE; Weiss, ST; Silverman, EK

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex disease associated with significant and increasing morbidity and mortality. The cardinal feature of COPD is persistent airflow obstruction, measured by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices including forced expiratory volume

  19. Factors influencing self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disler, R T; Gallagher, R D; Davidson, P M

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a common, chronic and burdensome condition requiring the individual to engage in a range of self-management strategies. The capacity to engage in self-management is dependent on a range of internal (e.g., personal) and external (e.g., health service) factors. This paper seeks to define self-management, identify the determinants which influence the individual's ability to cope and adjust to living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the community, and identify implications for clinical practice and research. Integrative review. Medline, Embase, PubMed, CINAHL, Google Scholar. Integrative review using prospective research questions. Papers were included in the review if they were published in peer reviewed journals and written in English between 2000 and 2010. Articles were accepted for inclusion if they discussed the determinants that influenced self-management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the community. Confirmation of results and discussion themes was validated by specialists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and complex care. Self-management is less well characterised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with other chronic conditions. Functional limitation and the need to balance disease management with everyday life are the two key elements that patients face in managing their condition. Provider characteristics, socioeconomic status and health literacy are sparsely discussed yet are known to influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management must be a key focus internationally as the disease incidence increases. Collaborative care is required between patients and health providers in order facilitate patients in confident management of their condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thad E; Blevins, Amy; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature. The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1) determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2) identify targeted areas for further research. A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1) the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2) the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology. A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD measures (such as a physician exam) generally failed to find a relationship. Among studies that examined the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes, there was more consistent evidence that PTSD affects the perception of respiratory symptom burden and management. In addition, methods for measuring an important confounder (smoking) were generally lacking. There is inconclusive evidence to

  1. A review of halotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashleigh R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rachael Rashleigh,1 Sheree MS Smith,1,2 Nicola J Roberts3 1Family and Community Health University Research Group, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown Campus, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Division of Experimental Medicine, Imperial College, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom; 3Institute of Applied Health Research, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic, progressive disease and is treated with inhaled medication to optimize the patient's lung health through decreasing their symptoms, especially breathlessness. Halotherapy is the inhalation of micronized dry salt within a chamber that mimics a salt cave environment. Recent media reports suggest that this therapy may help with the symptoms of COPD. Objective: To critically evaluate and summarize the evidence for the use of halotherapy as a treatment for COPD. Design: A review using systematic approach and narrative synthesis. Data sources: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were searched. Two reviewers independently reviewed abstracts and selected eligible studies based on predetermined selection criteria. Results: Of the 151 articles retrieved from databases and relevant reference lists, only one randomized controlled trial met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was unable to be conducted due to the limited number of published studies. Inclusion criteria were subsequently expanded to allow three case-control studies to be included, ensuring that a narrative synthesis could be completed. From the pooled data of the four studies, there were 1,041 participants (661 in the intervention group and 380 in the control group. The assessment of methodological quality raised issues associated with randomization and patient selection

  2. Redefining Cut-Points for High Symptom Burden of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Classification in 18,577 Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smid, Dionne E; Franssen, Frits M E; Gonik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be classified into groups A/C or B/D based on symptom intensity. Different threshold values for symptom questionnaires can result in misclassification and, in turn, different treatment recommendations. The primary aim was ...

  3. Welding fume exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D-H; Kim, J-I; Kim, K-H; Yoo, S-W

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure is estimated to contribute 15% to the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Welding fumes are suspected to accelerate the decline of lung function and development of COPD. To examine the relationship between welding fume exposure and COPD in Korean shipyard welders. The study involved a group of male welders working at two shipyards who underwent an annual health examination in 2010. Subjects completed a questionnaire about smoking habits and occupational history and a pulmonary function test (PFT) was carried out with strict quality control measures. Welding fume exposure concentrations were estimated using 884 measurements taken between 2002 and 2009 in one of the shipyards. Multiple linear and logistic regression was employed to evaluate the association between cumulative fume exposure and lung function parameters, controlling for age, height and cigarette smoking. Two hundred and forty subjects participated, with a mean age of 48 and mean work duration of 15 years. The mean cumulative fume exposure was 7.7mg/m(3). The prevalence of COPD was 15%. FEV1 and FVC showed non-significant negative correlations with cumulative fume exposure. Odds ratios of COPD were significantly elevated for the middle (3.9; 95% CI 1.4-13.3) and high exposure groups (3.8; 95% CI 1.03-16.2) compared with the low fume exposure group. Our findings support an association between welding fume exposure and increased risk of COPD. Further prospective study is needed to investigate whether this is a causal relationship. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Postural control in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

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    Porto, E F; Castro, A A M; Schmidt, V G S; Rabelo, H M; Kümpel, C; Nascimento, O A; Jardim, J R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) fall frequently, although the risk of falls may seem less important than the respiratory consequences of the disease. Nevertheless, falls are associated to increased mortality, decreased independence and physical activity levels, and worsening of quality of life. The aims of this systematic review was to evaluate information in the literature with regard to whether impaired postural control is more prevalent in COPD patients than in healthy age-matched subjects, and to assess the main characteristics these patients present that contribute to impaired postural control. Five databases were searched with no dates or language limits. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PEDro databases were searched using "balance", "postural control", and "COPD" as keywords. The search strategies were oriented and guided by a health science librarian and were performed on March 27, 2014. The studies included were those that evaluated postural control in COPD patients as their main outcome and scored more than five points on the PEDro scale. Studies supplied by the database search strategy were assessed independently by two blinded researchers. A total of 484 manuscripts were found using the "balance in COPD or postural control in COPD" keywords. Forty-three manuscripts appeared more than once, and 397 did not evaluate postural control in COPD patients as the primary outcome. Thus, only 14 studies had postural control as their primary outcome. Our study examiners found only seven studies that had a PEDro score higher than five points. The examiners' interrater agreement was 76.4%. Six of those studies were accomplished with a control group and one study used their patients as their own controls. The studies were published between 2004 and 2013. Patients with COPD present postural control impairment when compared with age-matched healthy controls. Associated factors contributing to impaired postural control were

  5. Epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a literature review

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    Rycroft CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine E Rycroft,1 Anne Heyes,1 Lee Lanza,2 Karin Becker31Market Access and Outcomes Strategy, RTI Health Solutions, Manchester, United Kingdom; 2Epidemiology, RTI Health Solutions, Waltham, MA, USA; 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ingelheim, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this study is to quantify the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD – incidence, prevalence, and mortality – and identify trends in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. A structured literature search was performed (January 2000 to September 2010 of PubMed and EMBASE, identifying English-language articles reporting COPD prevalence, incidence, or mortality. Of 2838 articles identified, 299 full-text articles were reviewed, and data were extracted from 133 publications. Prevalence data were extracted from 80 articles, incidence data from 15 articles, and mortality data from 58 articles. Prevalence ranged from 0.2%–37%, but varied widely across countries and populations, and by COPD diagnosis and classification methods. Prevalence and incidence were greatest in men and those aged 75 years and older. Mortality ranged from 3–111 deaths per 100,000 population. Mortality increased in the last 30–40 years; more recently, mortality decreased in men in several countries, while increasing or stabilizing in women. Although COPD mortality increased over time, rates declined more recently, likely indicating improvements in COPD management. In many countries, COPD mortality has increased in women but decreased in men. This may be explained by differences in smoking patterns and a greater vulnerability in women to the adverse effects of smoking.Keywords: COPD, incidence, literature review, mortality, prevalence

  6. Hepcidin: A useful marker in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Serap Duru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the levels of hepcidin in the serum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: In the study, 74 male patients (ages 45-75 in a stable period for COPD were grouped as Group I: Mild COPD (n:25, Group II: Moderate COPD (n:24, and Group III: Severe COPD (n:25. Healthy non-smoker males were included in Group IV (n:35 as a control group. The differences of hepcidin level among all the groups were examined. Also, in the patient groups with COPD, hepcidin level was compared with age, body mass index, cigarette (package/year, blood parameters (iron, total iron binding capacity, ferritin, hemoglobin, hematocrit [hct], respiratory function tests, and arterial blood gas results. Results: Although there was no difference between the healthy control group and the mild COPD patient group (P=0.781 in terms of hepcidin level, there was a difference between the moderate (P=0.004 and the severe COPD patient groups (P=0.002. The hepcidin level of the control group was found to be higher than the moderate and severe COPD patient groups. In the severe COPD patients, hepcidin level increased with the increase in serum iron (P=0.000, hct (P=0.009, ferritin levels (P=0.012, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2, P=0.000. Conclusion: The serum hepcidin level that is decreased in severe COPD brings into mind that it may play a role in the mechanism to prevent hypoxemia. The results suggest that serum hepcidin level may be a useful marker in COPD. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings between hepcidin and COPD.

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

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    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  8. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dong-mei; MA Jun-peng; ZOU Shao-hong; LENG Qiu-ping; YANG Xiao-hong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depression may have deleterious effects on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the evidence underlying the increased risks of anxiety and depression in COPD patients in Xinjiang are poorly defined. This study aimed to investigate the burden and related factors of depression and anxiety among patients with COPD in Xinjiang. Methods: The study included 62 patients with COPD, aged (64.48±9.83) years, 59 patients were hospitalized due to exacerbations, 3 patients were included due to periodically check-up in the hospital. Depression and anxiety in these patients were evaluated through the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the clinical characteristics correlated to depression and anxiety. Results: The prevalences of depression and anxiety were higher (62.9% and 95.2%) in COPD patients in Xinjiang. Anxiety was more common in patients than depression. Respectively, the female population with COPD was differentiated from males by higher levels of depression score, female COPD patients were more strongly correlated with depression (correction for regression coefficient: β=0.87; P=0.04). Patients received university education level were more likely to suffer the pain of anxiety (correction for regression coefficient: β=0.61; P=0.002) than lower education level. In addition, patients with the average monthly income less than ¥1 000 was more likely to suffer both the pain of anxiety and depression (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in COPD patients in Xinjiang, even in the condition of moderate COPD in terms of FEV1%. Both anxiety and depression were correlated with the lower monthly income. Female COPD patients were more exposed to depression in this group. Patients with higher educational level tended to be correlated with anxiety. Screening tools may help recognition of

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Scottish military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Beverly P; Mackay, D F; Pell, J P

    2018-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serving military personnel have previously been shown to be more likely to smoke, and to smoke more heavily, than civilians, but there is no clear consensus as to whether in later life, as veterans, they experience a higher prevalence and mortality from COPD than do non-veterans. We examined the risk of COPD in Scottish veterans and assessed the impact of changes in military smoking. Retrospective 30-year cohort study of 56 205 veterans born 1945-1985, and 172 741 people with no record of military service, matched for age, sex and area of residence, using Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between veteran status, birth cohort, length of service and risk of COPD resulting in hospitalisation or death. There were 1966 (3.52%) cases of COPD meeting the definition in veterans, compared with 5434 (3.19%) in non-veterans. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.001) in the unadjusted model although it became non-significant after adjusting for deprivation. The highest risk was seen in the oldest (1945-1949) birth cohort and in veterans with the shortest service (Early Service Leavers). The risk was significantly reduced in veterans born from 1960, and in those with over 12 years' service. Our findings are consistent with falling rates of military smoking since the 1960s, and with the reduction in smoking with longer service. The oldest veterans, and those with the shortest service, are least likely to have benefited from this, as reflected in their higher risk for COPD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Welsh slate miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C J; MacNeill, S J; Williams, J; Hodges, N G; Campbell, M J; Newman Taylor, A J; Cullinan, P

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) causes emphysema, airflow limitation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Slate miners are exposed to slate dust containing RCS but their COPD risk has not previously been studied. To study the cumulative effect of mining on lung function and risk of COPD in a cohort of Welsh slate miners and whether these were independent of smoking and pneumoconiosis. The study was based on a secondary analysis of Medical Research Council (MRC) survey data. COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) ratio association between mining and lung function after adjusting for age and smoking status. We used linear regression models for FEV 1 and FVC and logistic regression for COPD. In the original MRC study, 1255 men participated (726 slate miners, 529 unexposed non-miners). COPD was significantly more common in miners (n = 213, 33%) than non-miners (n = 120, 26%), P mining was associated with a reduction in %predicted FEV 1 [β coefficient = -3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.65, -1.29] and FVC (β coefficient = -2.32, 95% CI -4.31, -0.33) and increased risk of COPD (odds ratio: 1.38, 95% CI 1.06, 1.81). Slate mining may reduce lung function and increase the incidence of COPD independently of smoking and pneumoconiosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Genetics of sputum gene expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Weiliang Qiu

    Full Text Available Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. We examined the genetics of gene expression in a relevant disease tissue from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients to identify functional effects of known susceptibility genes and to find novel disease genes. By combining gene expression profiling on induced sputum samples from 131 COPD cases from the ECLIPSE Study with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data, we found 4315 significant cis-eQTL SNP-probe set associations (3309 unique SNPs. The 3309 SNPs were tested for association with COPD in a genomewide association study (GWAS dataset, which included 2940 COPD cases and 1380 controls. Adjusting for 3309 tests (p<1.5e-5, the two SNPs which were significantly associated with COPD were located in two separate genes in a known COPD locus on chromosome 15: CHRNA5 and IREB2. Detailed analysis of chromosome 15 demonstrated additional eQTLs for IREB2 mapping to that gene. eQTL SNPs for CHRNA5 mapped to multiple linkage disequilibrium (LD bins. The eQTLs for IREB2 and CHRNA5 were not in LD. Seventy-four additional eQTL SNPs were associated with COPD at p<0.01. These were genotyped in two COPD populations, finding replicated associations with a SNP in PSORS1C1, in the HLA-C region on chromosome 6. Integrative analysis of GWAS and gene expression data from relevant tissue from diseased subjects has located potential functional variants in two known COPD genes and has identified a novel COPD susceptibility locus.

  12. Genetics of Sputum Gene Expression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiliang; Cho, Michael H.; Riley, John H.; Anderson, Wayne H.; Singh, Dave; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Rennard, Stephen; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Fox, Steven M.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hersh, Craig P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. We examined the genetics of gene expression in a relevant disease tissue from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to identify functional effects of known susceptibility genes and to find novel disease genes. By combining gene expression profiling on induced sputum samples from 131 COPD cases from the ECLIPSE Study with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we found 4315 significant cis-eQTL SNP-probe set associations (3309 unique SNPs). The 3309 SNPs were tested for association with COPD in a genomewide association study (GWAS) dataset, which included 2940 COPD cases and 1380 controls. Adjusting for 3309 tests (p<1.5e-5), the two SNPs which were significantly associated with COPD were located in two separate genes in a known COPD locus on chromosome 15: CHRNA5 and IREB2. Detailed analysis of chromosome 15 demonstrated additional eQTLs for IREB2 mapping to that gene. eQTL SNPs for CHRNA5 mapped to multiple linkage disequilibrium (LD) bins. The eQTLs for IREB2 and CHRNA5 were not in LD. Seventy-four additional eQTL SNPs were associated with COPD at p<0.01. These were genotyped in two COPD populations, finding replicated associations with a SNP in PSORS1C1, in the HLA-C region on chromosome 6. Integrative analysis of GWAS and gene expression data from relevant tissue from diseased subjects has located potential functional variants in two known COPD genes and has identified a novel COPD susceptibility locus. PMID:21949713

  13. Mechanisms of atherothrombosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Filippo Luca Fimognari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Filippo Luca Fimognari1,2, Simone Scarlata1, Maria Elisabetta Conte1, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi11Health Centre for Elderly, Chair of Geriatrics, University Campus Bio Medico, Rome, Italy; 2Internal Medicine; ASL Roma G, Leopoldo Parodi-Delfino Hospital; Colleferro, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have an increased risk of atherothrombotic acute events, independent of smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors. As a consequence, myocardial ischemia is a relevant cause of death in these patients. We reviewed studies concerning the potential mechanisms of atherothrombosis in COPD. Bronchial inflammation spreads to the systemic circulation and is known to play a key role in plaque formation and rupture. In fact, C-reactive protein blood levels increase in COPD and provide independent prognostic information. Systemic inflammation is the first cause of the hypercoagulable state commonly observed in COPD. Furthermore, hypoxia is supposed to activate platelets, thus accounting for the increased urinary excretion of platelet-derived thromboxane in COPD. The potential metabolic risk in COPD is still debated, in that recent studies do not support an association between COPD and diabetes mellitus. Finally, oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD and may promote oxidation of low-density-lipoproteins with foam cells formation. Retrospective observations suggest that inhaled corticosteroids may reduce atherothrombotic mortality by attenuating systemic inflammation, but this benefit needs confirmation in ongoing randomized controlled trials. Physicians approaching COPD patients should always be aware of the systemic vascular implications of this disease.Keywords: COPD, atherothrombosis, cardiovascular risk, mortality

  14. Nutritional status of Vietnamese outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D; Lan, L T T; Diep, D T N; Gallegos, D; Collins, P F

    2017-02-01

    Nutritional screening and assessment is not currently part of routine clinical practice in Vietnam. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the utility of the commonly used methods for identifying malnutrition in outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cross-sectional pilot study and a larger retrospective study were carried out in outpatients with COPD who were attending a respiratory clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Routine clinical data were collected [body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )]. Nutritional screening and assessment were performed using the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) as the gold standard to diagnose malnutrition. In total, 393 outpatients had documented BMI and 29 were prospectively assessed using SGA: males, n = 25; females, n = 4; mean (SD) age 69.7 (9.6) years; mean (SD) BMI 21.0 (3.4) kg m -2 ; mean (SD) FEV 1 percentage predicted 57.0% (19.7%). Malnutrition risk was identified in 20.7% (n = 6) of patients using the MST (38% sensitivity; 94% specificity). However, 45% (n = 13) were diagnosed as malnourished using the SGA (31% mild/moderate; 14% severe). All malnourished patients not identified by the MST had evidence of muscle wasting. BMI had a strong negative correlation with muscle wasting as assessed using the SGA (r = -0.857, n = 28; P Vietnamese outpatients with COPD. A BMI threshold of <21 kg m -2 appears to represent a useful and pragmatic cut-off point for identifying outpatients requiring comprehensive nutritional assessment and support. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Palliative care provision for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Yohannes Abebaw

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of disability, morbidity and mortality in old age. Patients with advanced stage COPD are most likely to be admitted three to four times per year with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD which are costly to manage. The adverse events of AECOPD are associated with poor quality of life, severe physical disability, loneliness, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Currently there is a lack of palliative care provision for patients with advanced stage COPD compared with cancer patients despite having poor prognosis, intolerable dyspnoea, lower levels of self efficacy, greater disability, poor quality of life and higher levels of anxiety and depression. These symptoms affect patients' quality of life and can be a source of concern for family and carers as most patients are likely to be housebound and may be in need of continuous support and care. Evidence of palliative care provision for cancer patients indicate that it improves quality of life and reduces health care costs. The reasons why COPD patients do not receive palliative care are complex. This partly may relate to prognostic accuracy of patients' survival which poses a challenge for healthcare professionals, including general practitioners for patients with advanced stage COPD, as they are less likely to engage in end-of-life care planning in contrast with terminal disease like cancer. Furthermore there is a lack of resources which constraints for the wider availability of the palliative care programmes in the health care system. Potential barriers may include unwillingness of patients to discuss advance care planning and end-of-life care with their general practitioners, lack of time, increased workload, and fear of uncertainty of the information to provide about the prognosis of the disease and also lack of appropriate tools to guide general practitioners when to refer patients for palliative care. COPD is a chronic

  16. Chronic intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: an experimental and clinical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Roche, Fréderic

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder considered as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, metabolic disorders, and cognitive dysfunction. The pathogenesis of OSA-related consequence is assumed to be chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) inducing alterations at the molecular level, oxidative stress, persistent systemic inflammation, oxygen sensor activation, and increase of sympathetic activity. Overall, these mechanisms have an effect on vessel permeability and are considered to be important factors for explaining vascular, metabolic, and cognitive OSA-related consequences. The present review attempts to examine together the research paradigms and clinical studies on the effect of acute and chronic IH and the potential link with OSA. We firstly describe the literature data on the mechanisms activated by acute and chronic IH at the experimental level, which are very helpful and beneficial to explaining OSA consequences. Then, we describe in detail the effect of IH in patients with OSA that we can consider “the human model” of chronic IH. In this way, we can better understand the specific pathophysiological mechanisms proposed to explain the consequences of IH in OSA. PMID:27800512

  17. A microsimulation model for the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.; Boessen, R.; Fishwick, D.; Klein Entink, R.H.; Meijster, T.; Pronk, A.; Van Duuren-Stuurman, B.; Warren, N.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is thought to affect over one million people in Great Britain. The main factor contributing to the development of COPD is tobacco smoke. This paper presents a microsimulation model for the development of COPD, incorporating

  18. A microsimulation model for the development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.; Boessen, R.; Fishwick, D.; Klein Entink, R.; Meijster, T.; Pronk, A.; Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Warren, N.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease that is thought to affect over one million people in Great Britain. The main factor contributing to the development of COPD is tobacco smoke. This paper presents a microsimulation model for the development of COPD, incorporating

  19. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provide a unique opportunity to take care of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Beghé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD identifies the acute phase of COPD. The COPD patient is often frail and elderly with concomitant chronic diseases. This requires the physician not only looks at specific symptoms or organs, but to consider the patient in all his or her complexity.

  20. Pancreatic Calculus Causing Biliary Obstruction: Endoscopic Therapy for a Rare Initial Presentation of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Anurag J; Pai, C Ganesh; Shetty, Shiran; Balaraju, Girisha

    2015-09-01

    Biliary obstruction in chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) is often caused by inflammatory or fibrotic strictures of the bile duct, carcinoma of head of pancreas or less commonly by compression from pseudocysts. Pancreatic calculi causing ampullary obstruction and leading to obstructive jaundice is extremely rare. The medical records of all patients with CCP or biliary obstruction who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) over 4 years between 2010-2014 at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal were analyzed. Five patients of CCP with impacted pancreatic calculi at the ampulla demonstrated during ERCP were identified. All 5 presented with biliary obstruction and were incidentally detected to have CCP when evaluated for the same; 3 patients had features of cholangitis. All the patients were managed successfully by endoscopic papillotomy and extraction of pancreatic calculi from the ampulla with resolution of biliary obstruction. Pancreatic calculus causing ampullary obstruction, though very rare, should be considered as a possibility in patients with CCP complicated by biliary obstruction. Endoscopic therapy is affective in the resolution of biliary obstruction in such patients.

  1. Childhood Lung Function Predicts Adult Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dinh S; Burgess, John A; Lowe, Adrian J; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Bui, Minh; Morrison, Stephen; Thompson, Bruce R; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Jarvis, Debbie; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-07-01

    The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing, yet there are limited data on early life risk factors. To investigate the role of childhood lung function in adult COPD phenotypes. Prebronchodilator spirometry was performed for a cohort of 7-year-old Tasmanian children (n = 8,583) in 1968 who were resurveyed at 45 years, and a selected subsample (n = 1,389) underwent prebronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry. For this analysis, COPD was spirometrically defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC less than the lower limit of normal. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was defined as the coexistence of both COPD and current asthma. Associations between childhood lung function and asthma/COPD/ACOS were examined using multinomial regression. At 45 years, 959 participants had neither current asthma nor COPD (unaffected), 269 had current asthma alone, 59 had COPD alone, and 68 had ACOS. The reweighted prevalence of asthma alone was 13.5%, COPD alone 4.1%, and ACOS 2.9%. The lowest quartile of FEV 1 at 7 years was associated with ACOS (odds ratio, 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-6.52), but not COPD or asthma alone. The lowest quartile of FEV 1 /FVC ratio at 7 years was associated with ACOS (odds ratio, 16.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-55.9) and COPD (odds ratio, 5.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-17.4), but not asthma alone. Being in the lowest quartile for lung function at age 7 may have long-term consequences for the development of COPD and ACOS by middle age. Screening of lung function in school age children may identify a high-risk group that could be targeted for intervention. Further research is needed to understand possible modifiers of these associations and develop interventions for children with impaired lung function.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease history assessment in Spain: a multidimensional chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluation. Study methods and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Peces-Barba, Germán; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Soriano, Joan B; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; de-Torres, Juan P; Marín, José M; Casanova, Ciro

    2012-12-01

    This present paper describes the method and the organization of the study known as the COPD History Assessment In SpaiN (CHAIN), whose main objective is to evaluate the long-term natural history of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient cohort from a multidimensional standpoint and to identify clinical phenotypes, in comparison with another non-COPD control cohort. CHAIN is a multicenter, observational study of prospective cohorts carried out at 36 Spanish hospitals. Both cohorts will be followed-up during a 5-year study period with complete office visits every 12 months and telephone interviews every 6 months in order to evaluate exacerbations and the vital state of the subjects. The recruitment period for cases was between 15 January 2010 and 31 March 2012. At each annual visit, information will be collected on: (i) clinical aspects (socio-economic situation, anthropometric data, comorbidities, smoking, respiratory symptoms, exacerbations, quality of life, anxiety-depression scale, daily life activities, treatments); (ii) respiratory function (spirometry, blood gases, hyperinflation, diffusion, respiratory pressures); (iii) BODE index (main study variable); (iv) peripheral muscle function, and (v) blood work-up (including IgE and cardiovascular risk factors). In addition, a serum bank will be created for the future determination of biomarkers. The data of the patients are anonymized in a database with a hierarchical access control in order to guarantee secure information access. The CHAIN study will provide information about the progression of COPD and it will establish a network of researchers for future projects related with COPD. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Mortality among Subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Asthma at Two Respiratory Disease Clinics in Ontario

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    Murray M Finkelstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma are common; however, mortality rates among individuals with these diseases are not well studied in North America.

  4. THE ROLE OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES OF AIRWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fedosenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the results of studies on the composition of microbial communities in the airways of healthy subjects and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Modern technologies of molecular-genetic identification methods of microorganisms allow to perform a deep analysis  of  the  respiratory  microbiom.  It  is  of  considerable  interest  to  determine  the  role  of  the microbiome in the development of human diseases of the bronchopulmonary system, and to understand the impact of the microbes communities as a course of disease and the important factor for the efficacy of current therapy.

  5. Impact of nutritional status on body functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and how to intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniwidyaningsih, Wahju; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Cano, Noel; Pison, Christophe

    2008-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. This study reviews diet as a risk or protective factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mechanisms of malnutrition, undernutrition consequences on body functioning and how to modulate nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Different dietary factors (dietary pattern, foods, nutrients) have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the course of the disease. Mechanical disadvantage, energy imbalance, disuse muscle atrophy, hypoxemia, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress have been reported to cause systemic consequences such as cachexia and compromise whole body functioning. Nutritional intervention makes it possible to modify the natural course of the disease provided that it is included in respiratory rehabilitation combining bronchodilators optimization, infection control, exercise and, in some patients, correction of hypogonadism. Diet, as a modifiable risk factor, appears more as an option to prevent and modify the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reduction of mechanical disadvantage, physical training and anabolic agents should be used conjointly with oral nutrition supplements to overcome undernutrition and might change the prognosis of the disease in some cases. Major research challenges address the role of systemic inflammation and the best interventions for controlling it besides smoking cessation.

  6. Hand grip strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong M

    2017-08-01

    HGS test could be used as a marker of QoL in patients with COPD and could assist risk stratification in clinical practice. Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, hand strength, respiratory function tests, quality of life, biomarker 

  7. Does gastroesophageal reflux increase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliaz, Sinem; Iliaz, Raim; Onur, Seda Tural; Arici, Serpil; Akyuz, Umit; Karaca, Cetin; Demir, Kadir; Besisik, Fatih; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Akyuz, Filiz

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been investigated less than asthma-GER. We aimed to evaluate the presence of GER in patients with COPD and its impact on exacerbations. We included 24 patients with stable mild-moderate stage COPD and 19 volunteers as the control group. We conducted a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptom questionnaire, gastroscopy, manometry, and an ambulatory 24-h pH-impedance study. According to the GERD questionnaire, only 5 (20.8%) patients with COPD had typical GER symptoms. According to the 24-h pH-impedance study, the mean DeMeester score (DMS) was 38.1 ± 34.6 in the COPD group and 13.3 ± 16.8 in the control group (p = 0.01). The acid reflux (DMS > 14.7) rate was higher in patients with COPD than in controls (73.9% vs 26.3%, p = 0.01). The symptom association probability positivity rate was 17.4% (n = 4) in the COPD group, which was similar to the controls (p = 0.11). The mean proximal extension rate of reflux (Z 17 cm) was 26.4 ± 12.9% in the COPD group. The proximal extent of reflux was positively correlated with the number of COPD exacerbations per year (p = 0.03, r = 0.448). In the motility results, only 2 (20%) patients in the control group had a minor motility disorder. Seventeen (70.8%) patients in the COPD group had a minor motility disorder, and 4 (16.7%) had major motility disorders (p gastroesophageal reflux was frequent in patients with COPD, but only a quarter had typical reflux symptoms. The proximal extent of reflux may trigger frequent exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni Mekov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The metabolic syndrome (MS affects 21–53% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with a higher prevalence in the early stages of COPD, with results being highly variable between studies. MS may also affect natural course of COPD—number of exacerbations, quality of life and lung function.Aim. To examine the prevalence of MS and its correlation with comorbidities and COPD characteristics in patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation.Material and methods. 152 patients with COPD admitted for exacerbation were studied for presence of MS. All of them were also assessed for vitamin D status and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM. Data were gathered for smoking status and exacerbations during the last year. All patients completed CAT (COPD assessment test and mMRC (Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale questionnaires and underwent spirometry. Duration of current hospital stay was recorded.Results. 25% of patients have MS. 23.1% of the male and 29.5% of the female patients have MS (p > 0.05. The prevalence of MS in this study is significantly lower when compared to a national representative study (44.6% in subjects over 45 years. 69.1% of all patients and 97.4% from MS patients have arterial hypertension. The presence of MS is associated with significantly worse cough and sleep (1st and 7th CAT questions; p = 0.002 and p = 0.001 respectively and higher total CAT score (p = 0.017. Average BMI is 27.31. None of the patients have MS and BMI <25. There is a correlation between the presence of MS and DM (p = 0.008 and with the number of exacerbations in the last year (p = 0.015. There is no correlation between the presence of MS and the pulmonary function.Conclusion. This study among hospitalized COPD patients finds comparable but relatively low prevalence of MS (25% compared to previously published data (21–53% and lower prevalence compared to general population (44.6%. MS may impact quality of life and the

  9. Balance impairment and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorache E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Emanuela Tudorache,1 Cristian Oancea,1 Claudiu Avram,2 Ovidiu Fira-Mladinescu,1 Lucian Petrescu,3 Bogdan Timar4 1Department of Pulmonology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes”, 2Physical Education and Sport Faculty, West University of Timisoara, 3Department of Cardiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes”, 4Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes”, Timisoara, Romania Background/purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, especially in severe forms, is commonly associated with systemic inflammation and balance impairment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact on equilibrium of stable and exacerbation (acute exacerbation of COPD [AECOPD] phases of COPD and to investigate if there is a connection between lower extremity muscle weakness and systemic inflammation.Methods: We enrolled 41 patients with COPD (22 stable and 19 in AECOPD and 20 healthy subjects (control group, having no significant differences regarding the anthropometric data. We analyzed the differences in balance tests scores: Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I questionnaire, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Timed Up and Go (TUG test, Single Leg Stance (SLS, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD, isometric knee extension (IKE between these groups, and also the correlation between these scores and inflammatory biomarkers.Results: The presence and severity of COPD was associated with significantly decreased score in IKE (P<0.001, 6MWD (P<0.001, SLS (P<0.001, and BBS (P<0.001, at the same time noting a significant increase in median TUG score across the studied groups (P<0.001. The AECOPD group vs stable group presented a significant increase in high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels (10.60 vs 4.01; P=0.003 and decrease in PaO2 (70.1 vs 59.1; P<0.001. We observed that both IKE scores were significantly and positive correlated with all the respiratory volumes

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes and balance impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voica AS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alina Sorina Voica,1 Cristian Oancea,1 Emanuela Tudorache,1 Alexandru F Crisan,2 Ovidiu Fira-Mladinescu,1 Voicu Tudorache,1 Bogdan Timar3 1Department of Pulmonology, Victor Babeş University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center, Hospital of Pneumoftiziology and Infectious Diseases “Dr Victor Babeş”, 3Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Victor Babeş University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, Romania Background/objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a respiratory disease that results in airflow limitation and respiratory distress, also having many nonrespiratory manifestations that affect both function and mobility. Preliminary evidence suggests that balance deficits constitute an important secondary impairment in individuals with COPD. Our objective was to investigate balance performance in two groups of COPD patients with different body compositions and to observe which of these groups are more likely to experience falls in the future.Methods: We included 27 stable COPD patients and 17 healthy individuals who performed a series of balance tests. The COPD patients were divided in two groups: emphysematous and bronchitic. Patients completed the activities balance confidence scale and the COPD assessment test questionnaire and afterward performed the Berg Balance Scale, timed up and go, single leg stance and 6-minute walking distance test. We analyzed the differences in the balance tests between the studied groups.Results: Bronchitic COPD was associated with a decreased value when compared to emphysematous COPD for the following variables: single leg stance (8.7 vs 15.6; P<0.001 and activities balance confidence (53.2 vs 74.2; P=0.001. Bronchitic COPD patients had a significantly higher value of timed up and go test compared to patients with emphysematous COPD (14.7 vs 12.8; P=0.001.Conclusion: Patients with COPD have a higher balance impairment than their healthy peers

  11. Undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in patients admittet to an acute assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikhof, Karin Dam; Olsen, Kristine R; Wrengler, NCH

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is very prevalent worldwide, yet underdiagnosed. Aim: This study investigates feasibility of performing spirometry in patients in need of acute hospital admission as well as the prevalence of undiagnosed COPD in the same cohort. Methods....../3 was in GOLD group A. In total, 75% of the patients with airflow obstruction at the initial examination remained obstructive. Conclusion: Performing spirometry in patients in need of acute hospital admission is feasible, abnormal findings are common, and COPD is the most prevalent diagnosis....

  12. Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction treated with jejunostomy: case report and literature review

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    Carlos Renato dos Reis Lemos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a very rare condition. CASE REPORT: This study describes a male patient who had presented obstructive symptoms for 24 years. He had been treated clinically and had undergone two previous operations in different services, with no clinical improvement or correct diagnosis. He was diagnosed with intestinal obstruction without mechanical factors in our service and underwent jejunostomy, which had a significant decompressive effect. The patient was able to gain weight and presented improvements in laboratory tests. Jejunostomy is a relatively simple surgical procedure that is considered palliative but, in this case, it was resolutive.

  13. Singing for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; Epsley, Charlotte; Coren, Esther; McKeough, Zoe J

    2017-12-19

    Singing is a complex physical activity dependent on the use of the lungs for air supply to regulate airflow and create large lung volumes. In singing, exhalation is active and requires active diaphragm contraction and good posture. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic lung disease characterised by airflow obstruction. Singing is an activity with potential to improve health outcomes in people with COPD. To determine the effect of singing on health-related quality of life and dyspnoea in people with COPD. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Specialised Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization trials portal and PEDro, from their inception to August 2017. We also reviewed reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for additional references. We included randomised controlled trials in people with stable COPD, in which structured supervised singing training of at least four sessions over four weeks' total duration was performed. The singing could be performed individually or as part of a group (choir) facilitated by a singing leader. Studies were included if they compared: 1) singing versus no intervention (usual care) or another control intervention; or 2) singing plus pulmonary rehabilitation versus pulmonary rehabilitation alone. Two review authors independently screened and selected trials for inclusion, extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted authors of trials for missing data. We calculated mean differences (MDs) using a random-effects model. We were only able to analyse data for the comparison of singing versus no intervention or a control group. Three studies (a total of 112 participants) were included. All studies randomised participants to a singing group or a control group. The comparison groups included a film workshop, handcraft work, and no intervention. The frequency of the singing intervention in the studies ranged from 1 to 2 times a week over a 6 to 24

  14. Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jimmy; Leung, Bonnie; Poole, Phillippa

    2017-09-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE 4 ) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral PDE 4 inhibitors in the management of stable COPD. We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register (date of last search October 2016). We found other trials from web-based clinical trials registers. We included RCTs if they compared oral PDE 4 inhibitors with placebo in people with COPD. We allowed co-administration of standard COPD therapy. One review author extracted data and a second review author checked the data. We reported pooled data in Review Manager as mean differences (MD), standardised mean differences (SMD) or odds ratios (OR). We converted the odds ratios into absolute treatment effects in a 'Summary of findings' table. Thirty-four separate RCTs studying roflumilast (20 trials with 17,627 participants) or cilomilast (14 trials with 6457 participants) met the inclusion criteria, with a duration of between six weeks and one year. These included people across international study centres with moderate to very severe COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) grades II-IV), with a mean age of 64 years.We considered that the methodological quality of the 34 published and unpublished trials was acceptable overall. Treatment with a PDE 4 inhibitor was associated with a significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) over the trial period compared with placebo (MD 51.53 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 43.17 to 59.90, 27

  15. [Polarization of neutrophils from patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fan; Dong, Hangming; Zou, Mengchen; Zhao, Haijin; Cai, Chunqing; Cai, Shaoxi

    2014-12-30

    To explore the polarization of migration dynamics of neutrophils isolated from patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) compared with healthy smoking and non-smoking controls. Recruited volunteers were classified as healthy controls, healthy smokers, asthma, COPD and ACOS at Nanfang Hospital from April 2013 to June 2014 according to the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD 2011, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention 2011 and Consensus on Overlap Phenotype COPD-asthma in COPD 2012. Neutrophils were freshly isolated from whole blood with density gradient technique. The proportion of polarized cells with gradient concentration of formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) in Zigmond chamber and vital component of Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) (stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1, 2 and Orai1) in neutrophils was detected by Western blot. Asthma, COPD and ACOS neutrophils demonstrated a higher spontaneous polarization rate versus healthy controls and healthy smokers ((25.05 ± 4.06)%, (16.20 ± 4.46)%, (29.43 ± 5.53)% vs (7.27 ± 0.99)%, (7.06 ± 3.12)%, all P polarization rate ((14.62 ± 2.26)%, (8.00 ± 1.75)%, all P polarization rate than healthy controls and healthy smokers ((2.45 ± 0.54)% vs (5.12 ± 1.28)%, (5.24 ± 1.34)%, all P vs 0.26 ± 0.14, 0.38 ± 0.12; STIM2: 0.52 ± 0.19, 0.22 ± 0.13, 0.24 ± 0.10 vs 0.05 ± 0.03, 0.10 ± 0.06; Orai1: 0.56 ± 0.04, 0.39 ± 0.05, 0.48 ± 0.05 vs 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.13 ± 0.03) (all P < 0.01). Asthma, COPD and ACOS neutrophils are intrinsically different than counterparts from healthy control subjects and healthy smokers. And vital components of SOCE from patient neutrophils are intrinsically up-regulated.

  16. Diagnostic Instability and Reversals of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Diagnosis in Individuals with Mild to Moderate Airflow Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Shawn D; Tan, Wan C; Bourbeau, Jean; Sin, Don D; Loves, Robyn H; MacNeil, Jenna; Whitmore, George A

    2017-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease, and reversal of COPD diagnosis is thought to be uncommon. To determine whether a spirometric diagnosis of mild or moderate COPD is subject to variability and potential error. We examined two prospective cohort studies that enrolled subjects with mild to moderate post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction. The Lung Health Study (n = 5,861 subjects; study duration, 5 yr) and the Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease (CanCOLD) study (n = 1,551 subjects; study duration, 4 yr) were examined to determine frequencies of (1) diagnostic instability, represented by how often patients initially met criteria for a spirometric diagnosis of COPD but then crossed the diagnostic threshold to normal and then crossed back to COPD over a series of annual visits, or vice versa; and (2) diagnostic reversals, defined as how often an individual's COPD diagnosis at the study outset reversed to normal by the end of the study. Diagnostic instability was common and occurred in 19.5% of the Lung Health Study subjects and 6.4% of the CanCOLD subjects. Diagnostic reversals of COPD from the beginning to the end of the study period occurred in 12.6% and 27.2% of subjects in the Lung Health Study and CanCOLD study, respectively. The risk of diagnostic instability was greatest for subjects whose baseline FEV 1 /FVC value was closest to the diagnostic threshold, and the risk of diagnostic reversal was greatest for subjects who quit smoking during the study. A single post-bronchodilator spirometric assessment may not be reliable for diagnosing COPD in patients with mild to moderate airflow obstruction at baseline.

  17. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. Results: The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was ‘no recommendation by doctors’: 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p0.05. Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients

  18. Prediction of differential creatinine clearance in chronically obstructed kidneys by non-contrast helical computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Cheuk Fan; Chan, L.W.; Cheng, C.W.; Yu, S.C.H.; Wong, W.S.; Wong, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate the use of non-contrast helical computerized tomography (NCHCT) in the measurement of differential renal parenchymal volume as a surrogate for differential creatinine clearance (Cr Cl) for unilateral chronically obstructed kidney. Materials And Methods: Patients with unilateral chronically obstructed kidneys with normal contralateral kidneys were enrolled. Ultrasonography (USG) of the kidneys was first done with the cortical thickness of the site with the most renal substance in the upper pole, mid-kidney, and lower pole of both kidneys were measured, and the mean cortical thickness of each kidney was calculated. NCHCT was subsequently performed for each patient. The CT images were individually reviewed with the area of renal parenchyma measured for each kidney. Then the volume of the slices was summated to give the renal parenchymal volume of both the obstructed and normal kidneys. Finally, a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) was inserted to the obstructed kidney, and Cr Cl of both the obstructed kidney (PCN urine) and the normal side (voided urine) were measured two 2 after the relief of obstruction. Results: From March 1999 to February 2001, thirty patients were enrolled into the study. Ninety percent of them had ureteral calculi. The differential Cr Cl of the obstructed kidney (%CrCl) was defined as the percentage of Cr Cl of the obstructed kidney as of the total Cr Cl, measured 2 weeks after relief of obstruction. The differential renal parenchymal volume of the obstructed kidney (%CTvol) was the percentage of renal parenchymal volume as of the total parenchymal volume. The differential USG cortical thickness of the obstructed kidney (%USGcort) was the percentage of mean cortical thickness as of the total mean cortical thickness. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) between %CTvol and %CrCl and that between %USGcort and %CrCl were 0.756 and 0.543 respectively. The regression line was %CrCl = (1.00) x %CTvol - 14.27. The %CTvol

  19. Prediction of differential creatinine clearance in chronically obstructed kidneys by non-contrast helical computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng C.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We investigate the use of non-contrast helical computerized tomography (NCHCT in the measurement of differential renal parenchymal volume as a surrogate for differential creatinine clearance (CrCl for unilateral chronically obstructed kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with unilateral chronically obstructed kidneys with normal contralateral kidneys were enrolled. Ultrasonography (USG of the kidneys was first done with the cortical thickness of the site with the most renal substance in the upper pole, mid-kidney, and lower pole of both kidneys were measured, and the mean cortical thickness of each kidney was calculated. NCHCT was subsequently performed for each patient. The CT images were individually reviewed with the area of renal parenchyma measured for each kidney. Then the volume of the slices was summated to give the renal parenchymal volume of both the obstructed and normal kidneys. Finally, a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN was inserted to the obstructed kidney, and CrCl of both the obstructed kidney (PCN urine and the normal side (voided urine were measured two 2 after the relief of obstruction. RESULTS: From March 1999 to February 2001, thirty patients were enrolled into the study. Ninety percent of them had ureteral calculi. The differential CrCl of the obstructed kidney (%CrCl was defined as the percentage of CrCl of the obstructed kidney as of the total CrCl, measured 2 weeks after relief of obstruction. The differential renal parenchymal volume of the obstructed kidney (%CTvol was the percentage of renal parenchymal volume as of the total parenchymal volume. The differential USG cortical thickness of the obstructed kidney (%USGcort was the percentage of mean cortical thickness as of the total mean cortical thickness. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r between %CTvol and %CrCl and that between %USGcort and %CrCl were 0.756 and 0.543 respectively. The regression line was %CrCl = (1.00 x %CTvol - 14.27. The %CTvol

  20. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease as Measured By FEVl, FVC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both subjects and control groups, we assessed ventilatory function using a vitalograph spirometer to measure FEVl, FVC, andFEVl/FVC ratio. Results: Amongst the control group, various respiratory symptoms were prevalent in 0-2% of subjects, while impaired FEVl and FVC values suggestive of an obstructive ventilatory ...

  1. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in 6 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacuto, A C; Pesavento, P A; Hill, S; McAlister, A; Rosenthal, K; Cherbinsky, O; Marks, S L

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in humans and animals. To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Six client-owned dogs. Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to describe signalment, clinicopathologic and imaging findings, histopathologic diagnoses, treatment, and outcome. All biopsy specimens were reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. Median age of dogs was 5.4 years (range, 15 months-9 years). Consistent clinical signs included vomiting (6/6), regurgitation (2/6), and small bowel diarrhea (3/6). Median duration of clinical signs before presentation was 13 days (range, 5-150 days). Diagnostic imaging showed marked gastric distension with dilated small intestines in 4/6 dogs. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies were obtained in all dogs by laparotomy. Histopathology of the stomach and intestines disclosed mononuclear inflammation, myofiber degeneration and necrosis, and fibrosis centered within the region of myofiber loss in the intestinal muscularis propria. All dogs received various combinations of immunomodulatory and prokinetic treatment, antimicrobial agents, antiemetics, and IV fluids, but none of the dogs showed a clinically relevant improvement with treatment. Median survival was 19 days after diagnosis (range, 3-270 days). Intestinal leiomyositis is a cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction and must be diagnosed by full-thickness intestinal biopsy. This disease should be considered in dogs with acute and chronic vomiting, regurgitation, and small bowel diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Pulmonary hemodynamic profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portillo K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Karina Portillo,1 Yolanda Torralba,1,2 Isabel Blanco,1,2 Felip Burgos,1,2 Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin,1,2 Jose Rios,3 Josep Roca,1,2 Joan A Barberà1,21Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Clínic-Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi iSunyer (IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Madrid, Spain; 3Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, Hospital Clínic-Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi iSunyer (IDIBAPS, Biostatistics Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainIntroduction: Few data are available in regards to the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH in the broad spectrum of COPD. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of PH in a cohort of COPD patients across the severity of airflow limitation, and reporting the hemodynamic characteristics at rest and during exercise.Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis on COPD patients who underwent right-heart catheterization in our center with measurements obtained at rest (n=139 and during exercise (n=85. PH was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP ≥25 mmHg and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure <15 mmHg. Exercise-induced PH (EIPH was defined by a ratio of ∆mPAP/∆cardiac output >3.Results: PH was present in 25 patients (18%. According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification, PH prevalence in GOLD 2 was 7% (3 patients; 25% (14 patients in GOLD 3; and 22% (8 patients in GOLD 4. Severe PH (mPAP ≥35 mmHg was identified in four patients (2.8%. Arterial partial oxygen pressure was the outcome most strongly associated with PH (r=-0.29, P<0.001. EIPH was observed in 60 patients (71% and had a similar prevalence in both GOLD 2 and 3, and was present in all GOLD 4 patients. Patients with PH had lower cardiac index during exercise than patients without PH (5

  3. Predicting Acute Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samp, Jennifer C; Joo, Min J; Schumock, Glen T; Calip, Gregory S; Pickard, A Simon; Lee, Todd A

    2018-03-01

    With increasing health care costs that have outpaced those of other industries, payers of health care are moving from a fee-for-service payment model to one in which reimbursement is tied to outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease where this payment model has been implemented by some payers, and COPD exacerbations are a quality metric that is used. Under an outcomes-based payment model, it is important for health systems to be able to identify patients at risk for poor outcomes so that they can target interventions to improve outcomes. To develop and evaluate predictive models that could be used to identify patients at high risk for COPD exacerbations. This study was retrospective and observational and included COPD patients treated with a bronchodilator-based combination therapy. We used health insurance claims data to obtain demographics, enrollment information, comorbidities, medication use, and health care resource utilization for each patient over a 6-month baseline period. Exacerbations were examined over a 6-month outcome period and included inpatient (primary discharge diagnosis for COPD), outpatient, and emergency department (outpatient/emergency department visits with a COPD diagnosis plus an acute prescription for an antibiotic or corticosteroid within 5 days) exacerbations. The cohort was split into training (75%) and validation (25%) sets. Within the training cohort, stepwise logistic regression models were created to evaluate risk of exacerbations based on factors measured during the baseline period. Models were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The base model included all confounding or effect modifier covariates. Several other models were explored using different sets of observations and variables to determine the best predictive model. There were 478,772 patients included in the analytic sample, of which 40.5% had exacerbations during the outcome period. Patients with

  4. The impact of chronic heart failure on misinterpretation and misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Vyshnyvetskyy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the impact of comorbid chronic heart failure (CHF on the severity of symptoms and correctness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD classification. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study included 177 patients with COPD and concomitant cardiovascular diseases. All patients were undergone spirometry, chest radiography, echocardiography, validated questionnaires (COPD assessment test (CAT, Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS. Multiple regression was used to establish adjusted impact of CHF presence on CAT scores and COPD severity misclassification. Results. It was established that the presence of comorbid CHF increases CAT score by 3.29, 95% CI [1.71–5.02] points. In the overall cohort of COPD patients CAT scores adjustment for the presence of CHF has resulted in reclassification of 15.5% of patients from group B to group A, and 4.3% of patients from group D to group C. Among selective patients with COPD and CHF the rate of revised classification constituted 32.1% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion. The presence of comorbid CHF is able to significantly change the correct assessment of the intensity of COPD symptoms, disease-specific health status and classification of COPD severity.

  5. Organizational structure for chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Seppo T; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Wong, Edwin S; Hebert, Paul L; Heidenreich, Paul; Bastian, Lori A; Au, David H

    2016-03-01

    In contrast to chronic heart failure (CHF), measures of quality of care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poor. Our objective was to examine differences in organizational structure available to support quality of care for patients with CHF and COPD. We performed 2 nationwide surveys exploring organizational structure for the management of CHF and COPD. We surveyed the chief of medicine and the chief of cardiology and pulmonary medicine at 120 Veterans Affairs facilities in the United States. Analogous questions about organizational structure that enhanced adherence to guideline-based care were compared between CHF and COPD surveys. We found large and notable differences in the organizational structure for disease management, with systematically less attention given to COPD than CHF. These differences were evident in multiple processes of care. Key differences included fewer facilities: having COPD clinics than CHF clinics (12.7% vs 50.8%; P organizational structure existed for COPD than CHF. Lack of organizational structure for COPD likely impedes an organization's abilities to encourage high-quality care and avoid recently implemented hospital readmission penalties. Our results suggest the need to develop a systematic approach for healthcare systems to provide essential organizational structure based on the burden of disease in the population.

  6. An evolutionary medicine approach to understanding factors that contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Tsuji, Takao; Itoh, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have been published on the causes and mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the reason for the existence of COPD and the reasons why COPD develops in humans have hardly been studied. Evolutionary medical approaches are required to explain not only the proximate factors, such as the causes and mechanisms of a disease, but the ultimate (evolutionary) factors as well, such as why the disease is present and why the disease develops in humans. According to the concepts of evolutionary medicine, disease susceptibility is acquired as a result of natural selection during the evolutionary process of traits linked to the genes involved in disease susceptibility. In this paper, we discuss the following six reasons why COPD develops in humans based on current evolutionary medical theories: (1) evolutionary constraints; (2) mismatch between environmental changes and evolution; (3) co-evolution with pathogenic microorganisms; (4) life history trade-off; (5) defenses and their costs, and (6) reproductive success at the expense of health. Our perspective pursues evolutionary answers to the fundamental question, 'Why are humans susceptible to this common disease, COPD, despite their long evolutionary history?' We believe that the perspectives offered by evolutionary medicine are essential for researchers to better understand the significance of their work.

  7. Overlap Syndrome in Respiratory Medicine: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Corlateanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are highly prevalent chronic diseases in the general population. Both are characterized by similar mechanisms: airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. However, the distinction between the two obstructive diseases is not always clear. Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrate that in elderly people with obstructive airway disease, as many as half or more may have overlapping diagnoses of asthma and COPD. A COPD-Asthma overlap syndrome is defined as an airflow obstruction that is not completely reversible, accompanied by symptoms and signs of increased obstruction reversibility. For the clinical identification of overlap syndrome COPD-Asthma Spanish guidelines proposed six diagnostic criteria. The major criteria include very positive bronchodilator test [increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ≥15% and ≥400 ml], eosinophilia in sputum, and personal history of asthma. The minor criteria include high total IgE, personal history of atopy and positive bronchodilator test (increase in FEV1 ≥12% and ≥200 ml on two or more occasions. The overlap syndrome COPD-Asthma is associated with enhanced response to inhaled corticosteroids due to the predominance of eosinophilic bronchial inflammation.The future clinical studies and multicenter clinical trials should lead to the investigation of disease mechanisms and simultaneous development of the novel treatment.

  8. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a dog: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Bicalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare disorder that affects gastrointestinal propulsion. It may be secondary to several pathological conditions or it may develop without a known cause. A 1.2 year-old intact Pug bitch had a history of vomiting and constipation, which were followed by diarrhea and distended abdomen. Hypomotility and dilation of the small intestine, which was filled with gas, were observed during laparotomy. Histologically, full thickness biopsy specimens demonstrated a severe loss and degeneration of leiomyocytes in the inner and outer muscular layers of the intestinal wall, whereas there was a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells in the lamina propria, and extremely thickened muscularis mucosae arranged in bundles oriented in different directions with marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of leiomyocytes. Distribution of leiomyocytes was further characterized by immunohistochemistry. These findings support the diagnosis of intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Pug, associated with degeneration and loss of leiomyocytes in the muscular layer.

  9. [Clinicofunctional features of arterial hypertension in chronic broncho-obstructive syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadionchenko, V S; Kuz'micheva, N V; Sviridov, A A; Ol'kha, R P; Kashcheeva, E V

    2000-01-01

    To describe clinicofunctional features of essential and pulmogenic hypertension in chronic bronchoobstructive syndrome, 24-h profile of arterial pressure (AP), intracardiac hemodynamics and to propose differential diagnostic criteria for these hypertension forms. 24-h monitoring of arterial pressure (MAP), cardiohemodynamics, external respiration function (ERF) and blood gases examinations were made in 100 hypertensive subjects with chronic obstructive bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Significant differences were found between the groups of essential and pulmogenic hypertension by major values of MAP, echo-CG and ERF. Early disturbances in diastolic function of both the ventricles in essential and pulmonary hypertension in chronic bronchial obstruction arise long before clinical, x-ray and ECG signs of chronic pulmonary heart. The findings enable formulation of criteria of differential diagnosis of essential and pulmogenic hypertension and identify the latter as an independent nosological entity.

  10. Caffeine consumption and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The modulation of adenosine receptors has been proposed as new therapeutic target for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but studies in humans were negative. Caffeine is widely consumed and acts by non-selective modulation of these receptors, allowing for a non-interventional evaluation of the purinergic effects on COPD. We evaluated the effects of chronic caffeine consumption on the risk for COPD exacerbations. Methods: Retrospective study including patients with COPD. The total number of exacerbations during a three-year period and the mean daily caffeine consumption in the last twenty years were evaluated. A univariate and multiple regression analysis were performed for evaluation of the significant predictors of exacerbations. Results: A total of 90 patients were included. Most were males (82.2% and had a mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 of 57.0 ± 17.1% predicted. The mean daily caffeine consumption was 149.7 ± 140.9 mg. There was no correlation between the mean caffeine consumption and exacerbations (p > 0.05. Discussion: Our results suggest that caffeine has no significant effect on the frequency of COPD exacerbations. These conclusions are limited by the sample size and the retrospective nature of the study. Keywords: COPD, Caffeine, Disease exacerbation, Purines, Pharmacology, Coffee, Respiratory Tract Diseases

  11. Ductal Mucus Obstruction and Reduced Fluid Secretion Are Early Defects in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Balázs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Defective mucus production in the pancreas may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of chronic pancreatitis (CP, therefore we aimed to (i investigate the qualitative and quantitative changes of mucus both in human CP and in an experimental pancreatitis model and (ii to correlate the mucus phenotype with epithelial ion transport function.Design: Utilizing human tissue samples and a murine model of cerulein induced CP we measured pancreatic ductal mucus content by morphometric analysis and the relative expression of different mucins in health and disease. Pancreatic fluid secretion in CP model was measured in vivo by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP and in vitro on cultured pancreatic ducts. Time-changes of ductal secretory function were correlated to those of the mucin production.Results: We demonstrate increased mucus content in the small pancreatic ducts in CP. Secretory mucins MUC6 and MUC5B were upregulated in human, Muc6 in mouse CP. In vivo and in vitro fluid secretion was decreased in cerulein-induced CP. Analysis of time-course changes showed that impaired ductal ion transport is paralleled by increased Muc6 expression.Conclusion: Mucus accumulation in the small ducts is a combined effect of mucus hypersecretion and epithelial fluid secretion defect, which may lead to ductal obstruction. These results suggest that imbalance of mucus homeostasis may have an important role in the early-phase development of CP, which may have novel diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  12. Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Marcello Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to development of acidosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its deleterious effects on outcome and mortality rate. Renal compensatory adjustments consequent to acidosis are also described in detail with emphasis on differences between acute and chronic respiratory acidosis. Mixed acid-base disturbances due to comorbidity and side effects of some drugs in these patients are also examined, and practical considerations for a correct diagnosis are provided.

  13. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabe, K.F.; Hurd, S.; Anzueto, A.; Barnes, P.J.; Buist, S.A.; Calverley, P.; Fukuchi, Y.; Jenkins, C.; Rodriguez-Roisin, R.; Weel, C. van; Zielinski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the United States, and is projected to rank fifth in 2020 in burden of disease worldwide, according to a study published by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Yet, COPD remains relatively unknown or ignored by the public as well as public health and government officials. In 1998, in an effort to bring more attention to COPD, its manage...

  14. Biomarker Discovery In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Using Epithelial Lining Fluid : A Proteomic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franciosi, L.; Govorukhina, N.; Fusetti, F.; Poolman, B.; Hacken, N. ten; Postma, D.; Bischoff, R.

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third most frequent disease worldwide with increasing mortality. Cigarette smoking is the principle risk factor and 15-20% of smokers develop COPD. Epithelial Lining Fluid (ELF) covers the internal part of the airways and can be collected

  15. Changes in outer membrane proteins of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, K.; van Alphen, L.; Eijk, P. P.; Jansen, H. M.; Zanen, H. C.

    1988-01-01

    Five individual colonies of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from each of one to three cultures of sputum collected from 18 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The isolates were studied to investigate whether the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs) changed during

  16. Physical and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H.; ten Hacken, Nick H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess physical activity and sitting time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate which physical and psychosocial factors are associated with physical activity and sitting time. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were recruited at

  17. Deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality and mobility in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacIntyre, Donna L

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Midthigh intramuscular fat (IF), a feature of reduced muscle quality, is an important predictor of self-reported mobility loss in the elderly. This study compared measures of muscle strength, mass, IF, and mobility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy...

  18. Controlled expiration in mechanically-ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim); B.W. van den Berg (Bart); J.M. Bogaard (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung emptying may be affected by flow limitation. We tested the hypothesis that the airway compression leading to flow limitation can be counteracted by controlling the expiratory flow. The effects

  19. The role of endogenous and exogenous AMP in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, M; Polosa, R; Kerstjens, HAM; Postma, DS

    2004-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is present in virtually all patients with asthma and in more than two thirds of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus far, methacholine and histamine are usually used to measure bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Both are direct stimuli, because they act

  20. Recommendations for the measurement of FIV(1) values in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.J.; Ramlal, S.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Heijdra, Y.F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to static inspiratory parameters such as vital capacity and inspiratory capacity, information on forced inspiratory volume in 1 s (FIV(1)) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of this study to investigate the

  1. Pulmonary haemodynamics in coal workers pneumoconiosis and non-plneumoconiotic patients with chronic obstructive airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho de Almeida, A A; Schott, D; Zimmermann, I; Ulmer, W T

    1980-01-01

    The pulmonary haemodynamics of 22 patients with advanced forms of coal workers pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive airways disease, and 24 patients with advanced forms of COAD without pneumoconiosis were studied. The results obtained permitted a haemodynamic distinction between these two groups of patients. The differences, at rest and during 25 W exercise, are discussed.

  2. Echocardiographic predictors of exercise capacity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduces exercise capacity, but lung function parameters do not fully explain functional class and lung-heart interaction could be the explanation. We evaluated echocardiographic predictors of mortality and six minutes walking distance (6MWD), a marker...... for quality of life and mortality in COPD....

  3. Once-daily glycopyrronium bromide, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators are central in the pharmacological management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of inhaled glycopyrronium bromide, a novel...... long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with COPD....

  4. Plasma YKL-40 and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Mygind, Lone; Titlestad, Ingrid Louise

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is hallmarked by inflammatory processes and a progressive decline of lung function. YKL-40 is a potential biomarker of inflammation and mortality in patients suffering from inflammatory lung disease, but its prognostic value in patients with COPD remains...... unknown. We investigated whether high plasma YKL-40 was associated with increased mortality in patients with moderate to very severe COPD....

  5. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Calverley, Peter M A; Casaburi, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The follow-up of the ECLIPSE study, a prospective longitudinal study to identify and define parameters that predict disease progression over 3 years in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allows the examination of the effect of body composition changes on COPD-related outcomes....

  6. Surfactant protein D, a clinical biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with excellent discriminant values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akiki, Zeina; Fakih, Dalia; Jounblat, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Biological markers can help to better identify a disease or refine its diagnosis. In the present study, the association between surfactant protein D (SP-D) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was studied among subjects consulting for respiratory diseases or symptoms and was compared ...

  7. Elevated plasma fibrinogen associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Vestbo, J

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether increased concentrations of the acute-phase reactant fibrinogen correlate with pulmonary function and rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalization. We measured plasma fibrinogen and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), and assessed prospectively COPD...

  8. Self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monninkhof, E.; van der Valk, P.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van Herwaarden, C.; Partridge, M.R.; Zielhuis, G.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The idea of self-management is to teach patients how to carry out the activities of daily living optimally in the face of their physiological impairment, and to prevent or decrease the severity of exacerbations by means of life style adaptation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  9. Self-management education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monninkhof, E.M.; Valk, P.D.L.P.M. van der; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Herwaarden, C.L.A. van; Partridge, M.R.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The idea of self-management is to teach patients how to carry out the activities of daily living optimally in the face of their physiological impairment, and to prevent or decrease the severity of exacerbations by means of life style adaptation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  10. Sialendoscopy-assisted treatment for chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-Feng; Sun, Ning-Ning; Wu, Chuan-Bin; Xue, Lei; Zhou, Qing

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome is not uncommon, but it is rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe our experience in the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome. Seventeen cases of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome treated with sialendoscopy from June 2014 to June 2015 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, were retrospectively reviewed. The cohort underwent ultrasonography, salivary gland scintigraphy, and sialography before sialendoscopy. All patients were asked to complete a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluation before and 6 months after surgery. A paired t test was conducted, and P parotid glands) successfully underwent interventional sialendoscopy under local anesthesia. The mean preoperative VAS score was 6, and the mean VAS score 6 months after sialendoscopy was significantly lower at 4.5 (P < .05). Interventional sialendoscopy plays a significant role in the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of a comprehensive self-management programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monninkhof, E.M.; Valk, P.D.L.P.M. van der; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Herwaarden, C.L.A. van; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a comprehensive self-management intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), symptoms and walking distance in patients with stable moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was part of the overall COPD

  12. Canadian Practice Assessment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Respiratory Specialist Physician Perception Versus Patient Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common respiratory condition and the fourth leading cause of death in Canada. Optimal COPD management requires patients to participate in their care and physician knowledge of patients’ perceptions of their disease.

  13. NFE2L2 pathway polymorphisms and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandford, Andrew J.; Malhotra, Deepti; Boezen, H. Marike; Siedlinski, Mateusz; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wong, Vivien; Akhabir, Loubna; He, Jian-Qing; Connett, John E.; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.; Pare, Peter D.; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    Sandford AJ, Malhotra D, Boezen HM, Siedlinski M, Postma DS, Wong V, Akhabir L, He JQ, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD, Biswal S. NFE2L2 pathway polymorphisms and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Physiol Genomics 44: 754-763, 2012. First published June 12, 2012;

  14. Increased YKL-40 and Chitotriosidase in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Anna J.; Reinius, Lovisa E.; Verhoek, Marri; Gomes, Anna; Kupczyk, Maciej; Hammar, Ulf; Ono, Junya; Ohta, Shoichiro; Izuhara, Kenji; Bel, Elisabeth; Kere, Juha; Söderhäll, Cilla; Dahlén, Barbro; Boot, Rolf G.; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Gaga, Mina; Siafakas, Nikos M.; Papi, Alberto; Fabbri, Leonardo M.; Joos, Guy; Brusselle, Guy; Rabe, Klaus F.; Kanniess, Frank; Hiemstra, Pieter; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Chanez, Pascal; Vachier, Isabelle; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Sterk, Peter J.; Howarth, Peter H.; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Middelveld, Roelinde; Holgate, Stephen T.; Wilson, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Serum chitinases may be novel biomarkers of airway inflammation and remodeling, but less is known about factors regulating their levels. To examine serum chitotriosidase activity and YKL-40 levels in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and evaluate clinically

  15. Increased YKL-40 and Chitotriosidase in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Anna J.; Reinius, Lovisa E.; Verhoek, Marri; Gomes, Anna; Kupczyk, Maciej; Hammar, Ulf; Ono, Junya; Ohta, Shoichiro; Izuhara, Kenji; Bel, Elisabeth; Kere, Juha; Soderhall, Cilia; Dahlen, Barbro; Boot, Rolf G.; Dahlen, Sven-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Serum chitinases may be novel biomarkers of airway inflammation and remodeling, but less is known about factors regulating their levels. Objectives: To examine serum chitotriosidase activity and YKL-40 levels in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and

  16. Nutritional status and long-term mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Runa; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Suppli Ulrik, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have difficulties with keeping their weight. The aim of this investigation was to study nutritional status in hospitalised Nordic COPD patients and to investigate the association between nutritional status and long-term mortality in...

  17. eHealth to stimulate physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, S.N.W.

    2016-01-01

    Persons with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) demonstrate reduced physical activity (PA) levels compared to healthy age-matched controls. Regular PA is associated with positive health outcomes. Inactivity leads to deconditioning, which leads to increased symptoms and a further reduction

  18. Falls in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacIntyre, Donna L

    2011-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate incidence, risk factors and impact of falls on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients completed these questionnaires at baseline and at 6-months...

  19. Airway Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : Role of Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghapour, Mahyar; Raee, Pourya; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Heijink, Irene H.

    The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults, such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are

  20. Do health-status measures play a role in improving treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, T; Kocks, JWH

    During the past few decades, health status has become increasingly important in the clinical research of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The use of health-status questionnaires in routine practice can enhance understanding about the impact of the disease on the patient, improve

  1. Development of non-invasive ventilation treatment practice for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle M; Titlestad, Ingrid L; Huniche, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Non-invasive ventilation treatment for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is well documented. Communication with patients during treatment is inhibited because of the mask, the noise from the machine and patient distress. Assessing life expectanc...

  2. Relationship between anxiety and dyspnea on exertion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, J.N.; Sanderman, R.; Postema, K.; van Sonderen, E.; Wempe, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Dyspnea limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is known to induce anxiety. Little is known whether anxiety contributes to exercise-induced dyspnea, which in turn might influence the outcome of diagnostic tests. The aim of the present study was to examine

  3. Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenweider, Daniela J; Jarrett, Harish; Steurer-Stey, Claudia A; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Puhan, Milo A

    2012-12-12

    Many patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics remains uncertain as systematic reviews and clinical trials have shown conflicting results. To assess the effects of antibiotics in the management of acute COPD exacerbations on treatment failure as observed between seven days and one month after treatment initiation (primary outcome) and on other patient-important outcomes (mortality, adverse events, length of hospital stay). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and other electronically available databases up to September 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in people with acute COPD exacerbations comparing antibiotic therapy and placebo with a follow-up of at least seven days. Two review authors independently screened references and extracted data from trial reports. We kept the three groups of outpatients, inpatients and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) separate for benefit outcomes and mortality because we considered them to be clinically too different to be summarised in one group. We considered outpatients to have a mild to moderate exacerbation, inpatients to have a severe exacerbation and ICU patients to have a very severe exacerbation. Where outcomes or study details were not reported we requested missing data from the authors of the primary studies. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) for treatment failure, Peto odds ratios (OR) for rare events (mortality and adverse events) and weighted mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes using fixed-effect models. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. Sixteen trials with 2068 participants were included. In outpatients (mild to moderate exacerbations), there was evidence of low quality that antibiotics did statistically significantly reduce the risk for treatment failure between seven days and one month after treatment

  4. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Samantha C; Poole, Phillippa

    2013-11-28

    There has been renewal of interest in the use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the frequency of exacerbations and improve quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether or not regular treatment of COPD patients with prophylactic antibiotics reduces exacerbations or affects quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was August 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared prophylactic antibiotics with placebo in patients with COPD. We used the standard methods of The Cochrane Collaboration. Data were extracted and analysed by two independent review authors. Seven RCTs involving 3170 patients were included in this systematic review. All studies were published between 2001 and 2011. Five studies were of continuous antibiotics and two studies were of intermittent antibiotic prophylaxis (termed 'pulsed' for this review). The antibiotics investigated were azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Azithromycin, erythromycin and clarithromycin are macrolides while moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent. The study duration varied from three months to 36 months and all used intention-to-treat analysis. Most of the results were of moderate quality. The risk of bias of the included studies was generally low, and we did not downgrade the quality of evidence for risk of bias.The trials recruited participants with a mean age of 66 years and with at least a moderate severity of COPD. Three trials included participants with frequent exacerbations and two trials recruited participants requiring systemic steroids or antibiotics, or both, or who were at the end stage of their disease and required oxygen.The primary outcomes for this review were the number of exacerbations and quality of life.With use of continuous prophylactic antibiotics the number of patients experiencing

  5. Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Shirley P C; Jones, Alice Y M; Tam, Wilson Wai San

    2016-06-07

    Tai Chi, a systematic callisthenic exercise first developed in ancient China, involves a series of slow and rhythmic circular motions. It emphasises use of 'mind' or concentration to control breathing and circular body motions to facilitate flow of internal energy (i.e. 'qi') within the body. Normal flow of 'qi' is believed to be essential to sustain body homeostasis, ultimately leading to longevity. The effect of Tai Chi on balance and muscle strength in the elderly population has been reported; however, the effect of Tai Chi on dyspnoea, exercise capacity, pulmonary function and psychosocial status among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. • To explore the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing dyspnoea and improving exercise capacity in people with COPD.• To determine the influence of Tai Chi on physiological and psychosocial functions among people with COPD. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials (which included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and PsycINFO); handsearched respiratory journals and meeting abstracts; and searched Chinese medical databases including Wanfang Data, Chinese Medical Current Contents (CMCC), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), China Journal Net (CJN) and China Medical Academic Conference (CMAC), from inception to September 2015. We checked the reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for relevant additional references. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Tai Chi (Tai Chi alone or Tai Chi in addition to another intervention) versus control (usual care or another intervention identical to that used in the Tai Chi group) in people with COPD. Two independent review authors screened and selected studies. Two independent review authors extracted data from included

  6. Multi-component assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : an evaluation of the ADO and DOSE indices and the global obstructive lung disease categories in international primary care data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Rupert C.; Price, David; Chavannes, Niels H.; Lee, Amanda J.; Hyland, Michael E.; Stallberg, Bjorn; Lisspers, Karin; Sundh, Josefin; van der Molen, Thys; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Suitable tools for assessing the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include multi-component indices and the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) categories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation (DOSE)

  7. Approaches to daily body condition management in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Terue

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of sub-groups of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having similar approaches to daily body condition management. Prior literature has shed light on the experience of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and revealed that these patients engage in many activities and try different things in their daily lives to regulate and manage their body condition. The research so far has all been qualitative, comprising mostly interviews, and no quantitative studies have been performed. In this study, cluster analysis was used to show that subgroups of patients with similar characteristics undertake similar approaches to body condition management. Descriptive, correlational study. Invitations to participate in the survey were extended to patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of questionnaire scores relating to nine different categories of daily body condition management actions. The characteristics of the body condition management approaches, in each subgroup, were investigated using analysis of variance and multiple comparisons. The cluster analysis produced six subgroups, each defined by the effort expended as part of their body condition management. The subgroups also differed depending on patient age and disease severity. Body condition management approaches taken by patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are overall, comprehensive approaches. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were subgrouped based on their engagement in body conditioning. Relationships between the subgroups and the engagement in body conditioning, age and shortness of breath severity were observed. The care of patient support should be comprehensive and depend on their age and the duration of the disease. In addition, it should be long term and recognise that the patients are living their own respective lives. Such considerations and

  8. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining the diagnostic value of endogenous carbon monoxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, N. O.; Corbacioglu, S. K.; Bildik, F.; Kilicaslan, I.; Hakoglu, O.; Gunaydin, G. P.; Cevik, Y.; Ulker, V.; Gokcen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether endogenous carbon monoxide levels in exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were higher compared to healthy individuals and to investigate alteration of carbon monoxide levels across the three different severity stages of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from January to March 2011 at two medical institutions in Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients of acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The severity of the exacerbations was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Patients with active tobacco smoking, suspicious carbon monoxide poisoning and uncertain diagnosis were excluded. healthy control subjects who did not have any comorbid diseases and smoking habitus were also enrolled to compare the differences between carboxyhaemoglobin levels A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was done following a Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical purposes. Results: There were 90 patients and 81 controls in the study. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were higher in the patients than the controls (p<0.001). As for the three severity stages, Group 1 had a median carboxyhaemoglobin of 1.6 (0.95-2.00). The corresponding levels in Group 2 (1.8 (1.38-2.20)) and Group 3 (1.9 (1.5-3.0)) were higher than the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.005 respectively). No statistically significant difference between Group 1 and the controls (1.30 (1.10-1.55)) was observed (p<0.434). Conclusion: Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly higher in exacerbations compared with the normal population. Also, in more serious exacerbations, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly increased compared with healthy individuals and mild exacerbations. (author)

  10. Chronic Respiratory Infection in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: What Is the Role of Antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Anzueto, Antonio

    2017-06-23

    Chronic infections are associated with exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The major objective of the management of these patients is the prevention and effective treatment of exacerbations. Patients that have increased sputum production, associated with purulence and worsening shortness of breath, are the ones that will benefit from antibiotic therapy. It is important to give the appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent treatment failure, relapse, and the emergence of resistant pathogens. In some patients, systemic corticosteroids are also indicated to improve symptoms. In order to identify which patients are more likely to benefit from these therapies, clinical guidelines recommend stratifying patients based on their risk factor associated with poor outcome or recurrence. It has been identified that patients with more severe disease, recurrent infection and presence of purulent sputum are the ones that will be more likely to benefit from this therapy. Another approach related to disease prevention could be the use of prophylactic antibiotics during steady state condition. Some studies have evaluated the continuous or the intermittent use of antibiotics in order to prevent exacerbations. Due to increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the presence of side effects, several antibiotics have been developed to be nebulized for both treatment and prevention of acute exacerbations. There is a need to design long-term studies to evaluate these interventions in the natural history of the disease. The purpose of this publication is to review our understanding of the role of bacterial infection in patients with COPD exacerbation, the role of antibiotics, and future interventions.

  11. ed quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... measures can capture the non-respiratory effects of. Chronic ... Key words: Peak expiratory flow, quality of life, spi- ... device. For spirometry, a minimum of three and a maximum of eight spirometry maneuvers were done.

  12. An Overview of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    countries a good knowledge of disease burden and process is essential. ... is important to note that chronic bronchitis is an epidemiological ... n E and asthma. Occupation ... Cigarette smoking: Tobacco smoke is by far the. 5 most important risk ...

  13. Work-related chronic obstructive pulmo- nary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Society.3 The disease includes the symptoms of chronic productive cough, airway .... approximately 19% in the total population, ... fertiliser manufacture, food processors, farmers/agriculture, cotton .... maintenance of equipment is stipulated.

  14. Modeling Chronic Dacryocystitis in Rabbits by Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction with Self-Curing Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We established a chronic dacryocystitis model by injecting of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 ml self-curing resin via the lacrimal punctum in rabbits. Animals were randomized into four groups (n=11 animals/group. The control group received 0.15 ml normal saline. Within three months postinjection, epiphora and eye discharge were observed. At the 90th day postlacrimal passage irrigation, CT dacryocystography was performed to find changes in the lacrimal image, and hematoxylin and eosin staining was made to identify pathological changes of the lacrimal sac. Three months postinjection, the rabbits in control group and those who received 0.05 and 0.1 ml self-curing resin failed to develop chronic dacryocystitis. However, 8/11 (72.7% rabbits those received 0.15 ml self-curing resin were symptomatic and showed complete reflux in lacrimal passage irrigation, indicating the obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. CT dacryocystography showed that the obstruction was present only in the animals with chronic dacryocystitis. Pathological examinations of chronic dacryocystitis also revealed significantly inflammatory changes, such as mucus epithelium thickening, irregular papillary proliferation, and submucosal fibrous deposition. Local injection of 0.15 ml self-curing resin can induce permanent obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct in rabbits and establish a model of chronic dacryocystitis.

  15. Clinical response to dorsal duct drainage via the minor papilla in refractory obstructing chronic calcific pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Gromski, Mark A.; Sherman, Stuart; El Hajj, Ihab I.; Easler, Jeffrey J.; Watkins, James; McHenry, Lee; Lehman, Glen A.; Fogel, Evan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Complete stone removal from the main pancreatic duct might not be achieved in all patients with obstructive chronic calcific pancreatitis. We report our results for endoscopic dorsal pancreatic duct (DPD) bypass of obstructing stones in the ventral pancreatic duct (VPD). Patients and methods 16 patients with obstructive chronic calcific pancreatitis were treated with a DPD bypass. Clinical success was defined as significant pain relief and no hospital admissions for pain management during the ongoing treatment period. Results Among 16 patients meeting entry criteria, 10 (62.5%) had a history of unsuccessful endoscopic therapy, and 8 had failed extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). Clinical success was achieved in 12 patients (75 %). Among these responders, 10 patients (83.3 %) had markedly improved or complete pain relief after the first stent placement, which persisted throughout the follow-up period; 11 patients (91.7 %) were able to discontinue their daily analgesics. Conclusions In selected patients with obstructive chronic calcific pancreatitis, the DPD bypass may be considered as a rescue endoscopic therapy, potentially obviating the need for surgery when standard endoscopic methods and ESWL fail. PMID:28201840

  16. Non-smoking Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Attributed to Occupational Exposure to Silica Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Toyoshima, Mikio; Kamiya, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yutaro; Baba, Satoshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    An 85-year-old, never-smoking man presented with exertional dyspnea. He had been exposed to silica dust in the work place. Chest computed tomography revealed bronchial wall thickening without emphysema. A pulmonary function test showed airflow obstruction without impaired gas transfer. Airway hyperresponsiveness and reversibility were not evident. A transbronchial lung biopsy showed findings suggestive of mineral dust exposure, such as fibrosis and slight pigmentation of bronchioles. He was diagnosed with non-smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to occupational exposure to silica dust. His symptoms were improved using an inhaled long-acting bronchodilator. The clinical characteristics of non-smoking COPD are discussed in this report.

  17. Prevalence and global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease group distribution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease detected by preoperative pulmonary function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Choi

    Full Text Available Despite being a major public health problem, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains underdiagnosed, and only 2.4% COPD patients are aware of their disease in Korea. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD detected by spirometry performed as a preoperative screening test and to determine the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD group distribution and self-awareness of COPD.We reviewed the medical records of adults (age, ≥ 40 years who had undergone spirometry during preoperative screening between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. COPD was defined as a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of 40 years who had undergone spirometry as a preoperative screening test, 474 (15.6%; 404 men; median age, 70 years; range, 44-93 years were diagnosed with COPD. Only 26 (5.5% patients reported previous diagnosis of COPD (2.1%, emphysema (0.8%, or chronic bronchitis (2.5%. The GOLD group distribution was as follows: 63.3% in group A, 31.2% in group B, 1.7% in group C, and 3.8% in group D.The prevalence of COPD diagnosed by preoperative spirometry was 15.6%, and only 5.5% patients were aware of their disease. Approximately one-third of the COPD patients belonged to GOLD groups B, C, and D, which require regular treatment.

  18. Online Communication and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per; Lindgren, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    in “Online Viva”, the objective of which was to support the citi-zens’ participatory health and to prevent exacerbation of COPD. The intention was to include 30 citizens with COPD or another chronic disease. As the demographic development results in more elderly people living longer with chronic dis-eases......In 2013 Slagelse Municipality implemented an online rehabili-tation program, “Online Viva” with respiratory training and district nursing consultancy for elderly people (aged 61-90) with COPD. In September 2014, 20 citizens with moderate (50%) to severe (15%) reduced lung function were included...

  19. Effects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognitive Functions: Evidence for a Common Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Andreou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS show similar neurocognitive impairments. Effects are more apparent in severe cases, whereas in moderate and mild cases the effects are equivocal. The exact mechanism that causes cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases is still unknown and only suggestions have been made for each disease separately. The primary objective of this review is to present COPD and OSAS impact on cognitive functions. Secondly, it aims to examine the potential mechanisms by which COPD and OSAS can be linked and provide evidence for a common nature that affects cognitive functions in both diseases. Patients with COPD and OSAS compared to normal distribution show significant deficits in the cognitive abilities of attention, psychomotor speed, memory and learning, visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive skills, and language. The severity of these deficits in OSAS seems to correlate with the physiological events such as sleep defragmentation, apnea/hypopnea index, and hypoxemia, whereas cognitive impairments in COPD are associated with hypoventilation, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. These factors as well as vascocerebral diseases and changes in systemic hemodynamic seem to act in an intermingling and synergistic way on the cause of cognitive dysfunctions in both diseases. However, low blood oxygen pressure seems to be the dominant factor that contributes to the presence of cognitive deficits in both COPD and OSAS.

  20. Anesthetic considerations in the patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing laparoscopic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Bali, Kusum; Chatrath, Veena; Bansal, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the various anesthetic options which can be considered for laparoscopic surgeries in the patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The literature search was performed in the Google, PubMed, and Medscape using key words "analgesia, anesthesia, general, laparoscopy, lung diseases, obstructive." More than thirty-five free full articles and books published from the year 1994 to 2014 were retrieved and studied. Retrospective data observed from various studies and case reports showed regional anesthesia (RA) to be valid and safer option in the patients who are not good candidates of general anesthesia like patients having obstructive pulmonary diseases. It showed better postoperative patient outcome with respect to safety, efficacy, postoperative pulmonary complications, and analgesia. So depending upon disease severity RA in various forms such as spinal anesthesia, paravertebral block, continuous epidural anesthesia, combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA), and CSEA with bi-level positive airway pressure should be considered.

  1. C-reactive protein as a predictor of prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an ongoing systemic inflammation, which can be assessed by measuring serum C-reactive protein (CRP). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased serum CRP in individuals with airway obstruction predicts future hospitalization...... and death from COPD. METHODS: We performed a cohort study with a median of 8-yr follow-up of 1,302 individuals with airway obstruction selected from the ongoing Copenhagen City Heart Study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We measured serum CRP at baseline, and recorded COPD admissions and deaths as outcomes...... consumption, and ischemic heart disease, the hazard ratios for hospitalization and death due to COPD were increased at 1.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.0) and 2.2 (1.2-3.9) in individuals with baseline CRP > 3 mg/L versus

  2. Study the relationship of erythropoietin and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. El-Korashy

    2012-07-01

    It also appeared that response to erythropoietin in COPD is probably blunted especially with increased severity of the condition. This might be considered as a contributing factor in the development of anemia in COPD which is considered as anemia of chronic disease.

  3. Physical inactivity and obesity: relation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2009-12-01

    Physical inactivity and obesity are modifiable risk factors for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and depression. Both physical inactivity and obesity are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation that may contribute to the inflammatory processes present in many chronic diseases. In asthma, almost no studies are available in which physical inactivity has been studied using performance-based instruments. In contrast, the association between obesity and a higher prevalence of asthma has often been suggested in a large number of studies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) physical inactivity has been demonstrated in a few studies that used performance-based instruments; this was associated with the higher COPD Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages and a higher degree of systemic inflammation, independent of body mass index. In contrast to physical inactivity, obesity in COPD is associated with the lower GOLD stages. Additionally, obesity is associated with the chronic obstructive phenotype and features of the metabolic syndrome. To elucidate the independent relation of physical inactivity and obesity with systemic inflammation, performance-based studies of physical inactivity in asthma and COPD are highly needed.

  4. Analysis of visceral fat in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenártová, Petra; Habánová, Marta; Mrázová, Jana; Chlebo, Peter; Wyka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem, which leads to the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is one of the main causes of avoidable death and disability worldwide. The aim of study was analysis and comparison of the visceral fat in the body of the three groups of subjects (non-smokers, smokers and COPD patients) by Tanita Viscan 140. The control group was composed of: (1) non-smokers (n=30), consisted of 13 males (43.4%) and 17 women (56.6%) - the average age was 52 ± 6.51 years and (2) smokers (n=30), consisted of 12 men (40%) and 18 women (60%) - the average age 46.53 ± 9.22 years. Study group consisted of patients with COPD (n=60), which consisted of 48 men (80%) and 12 women (20%). Mean age was 69.25 ± 9.90 years. The measurement of visceral fat by Tanita Viscan device 140, which uses bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure fat in the abdomen of the patient in the supine position. High levels of visceral fat (women from 36.9% to 52.3% and more, men from 27.1% to 40.3% or more) were observed in 19 patients (3 women and 16 men), with 19 smokers (10 women and 9 men) and non-smokers in 22 subjects (10 women and 12 men). The average value of waist circumference measured with a Tanita Viscan 140 was in the group of patients 96.38 ± 12.27 cm, in the group of smokers 95.23 ± 10.12 cm and in group of non-smokers 96.86 ± 10.88 cm. The results of our work are of great importance for the health assessment not only among patients with COPD but also in the group of smokers. Therefore it would be appropriate to remind the general public, eg. by campaign for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its serious complications and reduce the life quality of these patients and thus help protect human health and in particular young people from the harmful effects of tobacco products.

  5. [Airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome : 2011 update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdekamp, C

    2011-09-01

    For many years the airway clearance techniques used in chest physical therapy were assimilated with the singular technique of postural drainage, percussions and vibrations. However the side effects and counter indications and the lack of scientific proof regarding this technique have forced reflection and development of other techniques more comfortable and without deleterious effects. If all these techniques show a high efficiency in terms of improved mucociliary clearance, the literature is unanimous on how little effect these techniques have in the short and the long-term with regards to lung function and arterial blood gases. In view of the scientific literature, it is clear that the airway clearance techniques don't have the same recognition concerning their efficiency in all obstructive pulmonary diseases. As the cornerstone in the management of cystic fibrosis, the efficiency of the bronchial hygiene techniques are in general poorly documented in the management of the non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, bronchitis or emphysema. The use of the chest physical therapy seems more to do with the interpretation of the imagery and symptomatology. The airway clearance techniques should be individualised according to symptoms, the amount of expectorated mucus and the objectives signs of secretions retention or subjective signs of difficulty expectorating secretions with progression of the disease.

  6. The 15q24/25 Susceptibility Variant for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Is Associated with Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, Diether; Buysschaert, Ian; Zanen, Pieter; Coolen, Johan; Lays, Natacha; Cuppens, Harry; Groen, Harry J. M.; Dewever, Walter; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Verschakelen, Johny; Wijmenga, Cisca; Postma, Dirkje S.; Decramer, Marc; Janssens, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) on chromosome 15q24/25 as a risk for nicotine dependence, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Assessment of bronchial obstruction by spirometry,

  7. Expansion of the prognostic assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : the updated BODE index and the ADO index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puhan, Milo A.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Frey, Martin; ter Riet, Gerben; Anto, Josep M.; Agusti, Alvar G.; Gomez, Federico P.; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Moons, Karel G. M.; Kessels, Alphons G.; Held, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Background The BODE index (including body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise capacity) was an important contribution to the prognostic assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no study has assessed whether the risk of mortality predicted

  8. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in adult patients: multidetector row helical CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, Aurelie; Soyer, Philippe; Boudiaf, Mourad; Hamzi, Lounis; Rymer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare condition due to severe gastrointestinal motility disorder. Adult patients with CIPO experience symptoms of mechanical obstruction, but reliable clinical signs that may help distinguish between actual mechanical obstruction and CIPO are lacking. Additionally, abdominal plain films that commonly show bowel dilatation with air-fluid levels do not reach acceptable degrees of specificity to exclude actual obstruction. Therefore, most adult patients with CIPO usually undergo multiple and often fruitless surgery, often leading to repeated bowel resections before diagnosis is made. In these patients who present with abdominal signs mimicking symptoms that would warrant surgical exploration, multidetector-row helical CT (MDCT) is helpful to resolve this diagnostic dilemma. MDCT shows a diffusely distended bowel and helps to rule out a mechanical cause of obstruction, thus suggesting CIPO and obviating the need for unnecessary laparotomy. In adult patients with CIPO, MDCT may show pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumoperitoneum or intussusception. However, these conditions generally do not require surgery in patients with CIPO. This pictorial essay presents the more and less common MDCT features of CIPO in adult patients, to make the reader more familiar with this disease. (orig.)

  9. Restoration of Corticosteroid Sensitivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Akihisa; Ito, Kazuhiro; Vuppusetty, Chaitanya; Barnes, Peter J; Mercado, Nicolas

    2016-01-15

    Corticosteroid resistance is a major barrier to the effective treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed, such as activations of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. However, the mechanism for corticosteroid resistance is still not fully elucidated. To investigate the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in corticosteroid sensitivity in COPD. The corticosteroid sensitivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from patients with COPD, smokers, and nonsmoking control subjects, or of human monocytic U937 cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), was quantified as the dexamethasone concentration required to achieve 30% inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced CXCL8 production in the presence or absence of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. mTOR activity was determined as the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, using Western blotting. mTOR activity was increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COPD, and treatment with rapamycin inhibited this as well as restoring corticosteroid sensitivity. In U937 cells, CSE stimulated mTOR activity and c-Jun expression, but pretreatment with rapamycin inhibited both and also reversed CSE-induced corticosteroid insensitivity. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin restores corticosteroid sensitivity via inhibition of c-Jun expression, and thus mTOR is a potential novel therapeutic target for COPD.

  10. Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a true paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Mathew Suji; Myers, Stephen; Walters, Eugene Haydn; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh

    2017-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is primarily an airway condition, which mainly affects cigarette smokers and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and poorly reversible. In COPD research, there has been a long held belief that airway disease progression is due to inflammation. Although this may be true in the airway lumen with innate immunity activated by the effect of smoke or secondary to infection, the accurate picture of inflammatory cells in the airway wall, where the pathophysiological COPD remodeling occurs, is uncertain and debatable. Areas covered: The current review provides a comprehensive literature survey of the changes in the main inflammatory cells in human COPD patients and focuses on contrarian views that affect the prevailing dogma on inflammation. The review also delves into the role of oxidative stress and inflammasomes in modulating the immune response in COPD. Further, the effects of inflammation in affecting the epithelium, fibroblasts, and airway remodeling are discussed. Expert commentary: Inflammation as a driving force for airway wall damage and remodelling in early COPD is at the very least 'oversimplified' and is likely to be misleading. This has serious implications for rational thinking about the illness, including pathogenesis and designing therapy.

  11. Detection and Severity Scoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Volumetric Analysis of Lung CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Parsa; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Akhlaghpoor, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease.While there is no cure for COPD and the lung damage associated with this disease cannot be reversed, it is still very important to diagnose it as early as possible. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the measurement of air trapping in the lungs from CT images to detect COPD and to evaluate its severity. Twenty-five patients and twelve normal adults were included in this study. The proposed method found volumetric changes of the lungs from inspiration to expiration. To this end, trachea CT images at full inspiration and expiration were compared and changes in the areas and volumes of the lungs between inspiration and expiration were used to define quantitative measures (features). Using these features,the subjects were classified into two groups of normal and COPD patients using a Bayesian classifier. In addition, t-tests were applied to evaluate discrimination powers of the features for this classification. For the cases studied, the proposed method estimated air trapping in the lungs from CT images without human intervention. Based on the results, a mathematical model was developed to relate variations of lung volumes to the severity of the disease. As a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, the proposed method may assist radiologists in the detection of COPD. It quantifies air trapping in the lungs and thus may assist them with the scoring of the disease by quantifying the severity of the disease

  12. Flavonoids and Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Patrizia; Prinzi, Giulia; Lamonaca, Palma; Cardaci, Vittorio; Fini, Massimo

    2018-05-13

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CV) often coexist. COPD and CVD are complex diseases characterized by a strict interaction between environment and genetic. The mechanisms linking these two diseases are complex, multifactorial and not entirely understood, influencing the therapeutic approach. COPD is characterized by several comorbidities, it is hypothesizable that treatment of cardiovascular co-morbidities may reduce morbidity and mortality. Flavonoids are an important class of plant low molecular weight secondary metabolites (SMs). Convincing data from laboratory, epidemiological, and human clinical studies point to an important effects on CVD risk prevention. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the ability of Flavonoids to reduce the CVD risk. Current studies support the potential of Flavonoids to prevent the risk of CVD. Well-designed clinical studies are suggested to evaluate advantages and limits of Flavonoids for managing CVD comorbidity in COPD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Radionuclide determination of individual kidney function in the treatment of chronic renal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belis, J.A.; Belis, T.E.; Lai, J.C.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabriele, O.F.

    1982-01-01

    Differential radionuclide renal scans can be useful in the management of patients with chronic partial obstruction of 1 kidney. The /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid perfusion scan can be used to assess glomerular blood flow. The 131 I orthoiodohippurate renal scan provides qualitative functional information from scintigrams and quantitative evaluation of effective renal plasma flow to each kidney, as well as a total excretory index. Sequential /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and 131 I orthoiodohippurate renal scans were used to assess individual renal function before and after surgical correction of unilateral chronic renal obstruction in 31 patients. The preservation of cortical perfusion on /supb 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans indicated that potential existed for partial recovery of renal function. Effective renal plasma flow and excretory index determined in conjunction with the 131 I orthoiodohippurate scans provided a quantitative assessment of preoperative renal function, an evaluation of the effect of surgery and a sensitive method for long-term evaluation of differential renal function. Correction of ureteropelvic junction obstruction usually resulted in improvement in unilateral renal function. Neither nephrolithotomy nor extended pyelolithotomy diminished renal function in the kidney subjected to an operation and often improved it. Patients with long-standing distal ureteral obstruction had the least improvement in renal function postoperatively

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive and interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte U; Mellemkjær, Søren; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    , and is considered one of the most frequent types of PH. However, the prevalence of PH among patients with COPD and ILD is not clear. The diagnosis of PH in chronic lung disease is often established by echocardiographic screening, but definitive diagnosis requires right heart catheterization, which...... is not systematically performed in clinical practice. Given the large number of patients with chronic lung disease, biomarkers to preclude or increase suspicion of PH are needed. NT-proBNP may be used as a rule-out test, but biomarkers with a high specificity for PH are still required. It is not known whether specific...... treatment with existent drugs effective in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is beneficial in lung disease related PH. Studies investigating existing PAH drugs in animal models of lung disease related PH have indicated a positive effect, and so have case reports and open label studies. However...

  15. EVALUATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA - OVERLAP SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi Sailendra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The drop in oxygen saturation during sleep is more than during exercise and patients of COPD who spend more time in sleeping. Significant sleep desaturation and the sleep disturbances are greater in overlap syndrome than in OSA alone. The present study is conducted in Gayathri Vidya Parishad Institute of Healthcare and Medical Technology, Visakhapatnam, AP, India, to find the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in the patients with COPD. AIMS The present study was a cross-sectional study prospectively carried out with an aim to evaluate the breathing disorders during sleep in patients with COPD and to correlate these disorders with the stage of the disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN The study Cohort was constituted by patients of COPD registered into Chest OPD or admitted in Indoor units of Gayathri Vidya Parishad Institute of Healthcare and Medical Technology, Visakhapatnam, AP, India, from July 2014 to May 2016. A total of thirty six consecutive COPD patients who consented to be enrolled into the study were classified into Mild, Moderate and Severe stages based on the Indian Guidelines for the management of COPD. METHODS AND MATERIAL Spirometric evaluation and bronchial reversibility testing was conducted in all the patients. Arterial Blood Gas Analysis was done using ABL3 arterial blood gas analyser (Radiometer, Copenhagen. POLYSOMNOGRAPHY Patients were hooked to Compumedics ProFusion Polysomnographic Machine (Compumedics Private Limited 2001, USA, by standard gold cups/electrodes. Thereafter, the patients were subjected to a full night sleep study (Overnight polysomnography. The electrode and sensor connection system utilises E-series EEG/PSG system in order to record the PSG study. The impedance of electrodes was checked and set to <10. A total of 20 leads were utilised for the study. The various parameters monitored included Electroencephalogram (EEG, Electro-oculogram (EOG, Electrocardiogram (ECG, chin and leg Electromyogram (EMG

  16. [Evaluation of the course of chronic obstructive lung diseases according to the classifications of the European Respiratory Society and the Global Initiative on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2006-01-01

    In 91 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), the severity of this disease according to the Classifications of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the Global Initiative on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) was compared with that of pulmonary dysfunction according to the data of a comprehensive study, involving the determination of bronchial patency, lung volumes, capacities, and gas-exchange function. This follows that the ERS and GOLD classifications are to be positively appraised as they provide an eligible group of patients for clinical practice in terms of the severity of pulmonary dysfunction and that of COLD. However, the concomitant clinical use of both classifications cannot be regarded as justifiable due to that there are differences in the number of detectable grades (stages) of COLD and borderline (COLD differentiating grades (stages) values of EFV1). In this connection, both classifications have approximately equally significant merits and shortcomings and it is practically impossible to give preference to one of them as the best one. The optimal way out of the established situation is to develop a new (improved) classification of the severity of COLD on the bases of these two existing classifications.

  17. Involvement of patients' perspectives on treatment with noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Marie; Huniche, Lotte; Titlestad, Ingrid L

    2018-01-01

    and hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: Investigation of patient perspectives generated results that were highly productive in facilitating multidisciplinary collaboration and in developing and sustaining new management strategies. Critical psychological practice research facilitated ongoing development of clinical practice...... is needed to develop treatment practices in respiratory medicine. METHOD: This study is based on critical psychological practice research. DESIGN: A co-researcher group comprising diverse health professionals was set up and headed by the principal researcher. The group convened seven times over 12 months......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To clarify chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' perspectives on treatment with noninvasive ventilation and develop management strategies for the treatment based on these perspectives. BACKGROUND: The effect of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...

  18. Obstructing urethral calculus in a woman revealed to be the cause of chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J S; Crew, J

    2012-10-01

    Urethral calculi are extremely rarely reported in Caucasian females and are usually associated with an anatomical abnormality such as a diverticulum or a stricture. Ureteric calculi can move to become lodged in the urethra, although this is rare in women because of their short urethral length. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with urinary retention secondary to an obstructing upper tract calculus that had moved into the urethra. Four years previously, the patient had been diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain following a primary posterior vaginal wall repair. Following treatment of the obstructing calculus, her symptoms of pelvic pain completely resolved. We report a very unusual case that highlights the importance of investigating chronic pelvic pain. This patient's symptom of vaginal pain, though highly localized, was caused by pathology elsewhere in the pelvis. Alternative diagnoses should be sought for such patients and investigation performed to detect any nonvisible hematuria.

  19. Guideline-oriented perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, Michiaki; Iwasaki, Sohshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Increased airway hyperresponsiveness is a major concern in the perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Guidelines using evidence-based medicine are continually being updated and published regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these respiratory disorders. Perioperative management in these patients involves: (1) adequate control of airway hyperresponsiveness, including detection of purulent sputum and infection before surgery; (2) evidence-based control of anesthesia; and (3) the aggressive use of beta-2 adrenergic stimulants and the systemic administration of steroids for the treatment of acute attacks. Good preoperative control, including the use of leukotriene antagonists, can reduce the incidence of life-threatening perioperative complications. Awareness of recent guidelines is thus important in the management of patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. This review covers the most recent guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y levels changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanhong; Pan Jiongwei; Cao Zhuo; Ji Naijun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y level changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum neuropeptide Y levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 30 patients without COPD. Results: Mean serum neuropeptide Y level in patients with COPD was significantly higher than that in patients without COPD (130.36 ± 20.58 pg/ml vs 86.62 ± 13.02 pg/ml; t=10.201, p<0.01). Moreover, the levels in patients of the different stages (I, II, III) of COPD were significantly different from one another (F=20.334, p<0.01). Conclusion: the serum neuropeptide Y levels increased significantly in patients with COPD and were correlated to the different disease stages

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Tiotropium in Canadian Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles KN Chan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who smoke have a greater annual rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 than those patients who have stopped smoking.

  2. Responsiveness to Ipratropium Bromide in Male and Female Patients with Mild to Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xuan; Obeidat, Ma'en; Zhou, Guohai; Leung, Janice M; Tashkin, Donald P.; Wise, Robert; Connett, John; Joubert, Philippe; Bossé, Yohan; van den Berge, Maarten; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Nickle, David C.; Hao, Ke; Paré, Peter D; Sin, Don

    Introduction: Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is similar between men and women, current evidence used to support bronchodilator therapy has been generated in therapeutic trials that have predominately enrolled male patients. Here, we determined whether there

  3. Can a Self-Management Education Program for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Improve Quality of Life ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Labrecque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a self-management program on health-related quality of life (HRQoL and morbidity commonly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.

  4. Early assisted discharge with generic community nursing for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: Results of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. Utens (Cecile); L.M.A. Goossens (Lucas); F.W.J.M. Smeenk (Frank); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); M. van Vliet (Monique); M.W. Braken (Maria); L. van Eijsden (Loes); O.C.P. Schayck (Onno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To determine the effectiveness of early assisted discharge for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, with home care provided by generic community nurses, compared with usual hospital care. Design: Prospective, randomised controlled and multicentre trial

  5. Falls in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a call for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Roig, M; Eng, JJ; MacIntyre, DL; Road, JD; Reid, WD.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that results in airflow limitation and respiratory distress. The effects of COPD, however, are not exclusively limited to respiratory function and people with COPD face many non-respiratory manifestations that affect both function and mobility. Deficits in function and mobility have been associated with an increased risk for falling in older adults. The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical framework to identif...

  6. Trajectories of change in cognitive function in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung

    2018-04-01

    To describe changes in cognitive function, as measured by the trail making test; to identify distinct patterns of change in cognitive function; and to examine predictors of change in cognitive function in people with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. How cognitive function changes in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and what factors influence those changes over time is not well known, despite the fact that it declines rapidly in this population and significantly impacts functional decline in healthy older adults. A secondary analysis and longitudinal study with a follow-up period of 3 years. A data set from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial provided participant data. Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 307) were recruited at a clinical site. Several demographic and clinical measures were assessed at baseline. Trail making test scores were measured at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 years. Cognitive function was stable for 3 years in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, four distinct patterns of change in cognitive function were identified. Age, education, 6-min walk distance and cognitive impairment scores at baseline on the trail making test Part B were significant predictors of worsening cognitive function and below-average cognitive function over 3 years. These findings suggest that increasing exercise capacity improves cognitive function and delays deterioration of cognitive function in people with COPD. Understanding the trajectories of change in cognitive function and predictors of change in cognitive function over 3 years may enable health care providers to identify patients at greatest risk of developing mental deterioration and those who might benefit from interventions to improve cognitive function. Health care providers should periodically assess and frequently screen people with COPD for cognitive function. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of Fenspiride on Bronchial Smooth Muscle of Rats with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzubova, Nataliya A.; Lebedeva, Elena S.; Fedin, Anatoliy N.; Dvorakovskaya, Ivetta V.; Preobrazhenskaya, Tatiana N.; Titova, Olga N.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Glucocorticoids are currently the most applicable anti-inflammatory treatment for COPD. However, a subset of COPD subjects is relatively insensitive to this treatment. Fenspiride, a non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory drug, has been described to have beneficial effects in patients with COPD, although the mechanism of its action is not well known. The effect of fenspiride on contract...

  8. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: VASCULAR WALL AS THE TARGET ORGAN IN COMORBID PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Karoli; A. P. Rebrov

    2017-01-01

    Studies of endothelial dysfunction in patients with respiratory diseases have become relevant in recent years. Perhaps endothelial dysfunction and high arterial stiffness bind bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.Aim. To reveal features of disturbances of arterial wall vasoregulatory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the presence and absence of arterial hypertension (HT).Material and methods. The study included 50 patients with COPD with normal ...

  9. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conduct...

  10. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Balmes John; Eisner Mark D; Katz Patricia P; Trupin Laura; Yelin Edward H; Blanc Paul D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing...

  11. Nutritional status and long-term mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Runa; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Suppli Ulrik, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have difficulties with keeping their weight. The aim of this investigation was to study nutritional status in hospitalised Nordic COPD patients and to investigate the association between nutritional status and long-term mortality in...... years. Further studies are needed in order to show whether identifying and treating weight loss and depletion of fat-free mass (FFM) is a way forward in improving the prognosis for hospitalised COPD patients. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep...

  12. Selected aspects of nursing care for an elderly patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Budnik, Marta; Galikowska, Anna; Marzec, Izabela; Balcerak, Dominika; Kobus, Edyta; Posieczek, Zuzanna

    2017-01-01

    Budnik Marta, Galikowska Anna, Marzec Izabela, Balcerak Dominika, Kobus Edyta, Posieczek Zuzanna. Selected aspects of nursing care for an elderly patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(6):34-44. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.802926 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4501 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation...

  13. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Hvidberg, Martin; Jensen, Steen S

    2011-01-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas the role of long-term exposures on the development of COPD is not yet fully understood.......Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas the role of long-term exposures on the development of COPD is not yet fully understood....

  15. [Living with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The impact of dyspnoea on patients and caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Xavier; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Pla, Margarida; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Blay, Carles; Vila, Laura

    2016-12-01

    To understand the experiences of patients and caregivers living with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the impact of their symptoms and care needs arising from a functional, emotional, and social context. Qualitative study. Phenomenological perspective. Data were collected during 2013-2015. Primary, secondary and intermediate care. Osona (Barcelona). The study included 10 Primary Care patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, their respective 10 caregivers, and 19 primary care professionals, as well as 2 lung specialists, 2 palliative care professionals involved in their care, and one clinical psychologist. Theoretical sampling. Semi-structured and in-depth interviews with patients, caregivers, and professionals (47 interviews). The emergent topics identified in patients and caregivers interviews refer to dyspnoea, the predominant symptom without effective treatment and with a major impact on patients and caregivers lives. A symptom with great functional, emotional and social repercussions to which they need to adapt in order to survive. Beyond pharmacological measures to control respiratory symptoms, proper care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, requires understanding of suffering, the losses and limitations that it causes in their lives and those of their caregivers. A palliative, holistic and closer approach to their real experiences, together with an empowerment to adapt to debilitating symptoms, could contribute to a better life in the end-stages of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship of Bone Mineral Density in Men with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Classified According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Combined Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Assessment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai-Iesato, Yoriko; Kawata, Naoko; Tada, Yuji; Iesato, Ken; Matsuura, Yukiko; Yahaba, Misuzu; Suzuki, Toshio; Ikari, Jun; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Kasahara, Yasunori; West, James; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men. Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category. Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV 1 % predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], pCOPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis.

  17. Caecal impaction and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J M; McInnes, E F; White, R N; Elwood, C M; Stock, G

    2005-02-01

    A 10-year-old female neutered cross-breed dog presented with a 4-month history of chronic intermittent diarrhoea and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound showed dilated loops of small intestine and a suspected faecolith. Exploratory surgery revealed a caecal impaction and a typhlectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of caecal and full thickness small intestine sections demonstrated atrophy of smooth muscle fibres as well as an influx of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages, and mild lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic enteritis. This combination of caecal impaction and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction has not been reported previously in the dog.

  18. Childhood-onset asthma in smokers. association between CT measures of airway size, lung function, and chronic airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alejandro A; Hardin, Megan E; Come, Carolyn E; San José Estépar, Raúl; Ross, James C; Kurugol, Sila; Okajima, Yuka; Han, MeiLan K; Kim, Victor; Ramsdell, Joe; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James D; Lynch, David A; Make, Barry; Barr, R Graham; Hersh, Craig P; Washko, George R

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is associated with chronic airflow obstruction. Our goal was to assess the association of computed tomographic measures of airway wall volume and lumen volume with the FEV1 and chronic airflow obstruction in smokers with childhood-onset asthma. We analyzed clinical, lung function, and volumetric computed tomographic airway volume data from 7,266 smokers, including 590 with childhood-onset asthma. Small wall volume and small lumen volume of segmental airways were defined as measures 1 SD below the mean. We assessed the association between small wall volume, small lumen volume, FEV1, and chronic airflow obstruction (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio childhood-onset asthma, those with childhood-onset asthma had smaller wall volume and lumen volume (P childhood-onset asthma, those with the smallest wall volume and lumen volume had the lowest FEV1 and greatest odds of chronic airflow obstruction. A similar tendency was seen in those without childhood-onset asthma. When comparing these two groups, both small wall volume and small lumen volume were more strongly associated with FEV1 and chronic airflow obstruction among subjects with childhood-asthma in multivariate models. In smokers with childhood-onset asthma, smaller airways are associated with reduced lung function and chronic airflow obstruction. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608764).

  19. Evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea symptoms in pregnant women with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Mevlüt; Sarı, Oktay; Aydoğan, Umit; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Semiz, Altuğ; Yılanlıoğlu, Necip Cihangir; Keskin, Uğur

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disease which is estimated to be undiagnosed to a large extent. Hence, the prevalence of OSAS in pregnant women is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnant women with chronic diseases. In the study, 97 pregnant women with chronic diseases and 160 healthy pregnant women were included. A form questioning socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy characteristics, Epworth scale and the Berlin questionnaire to evaluate the risk of OSAS were applied to participants. It has been determined that 10-12.5% of healthy pregnant women, 34-45.4% of pregnants with chronic diseases and 20.6-23.3% of all pregnant women had a high risk of OSAS, the pregnants with chronic disease compared to healthy pregnant women had statistically significant higher risk of OSAS. The risk of OSAS was found to be significantly higher especially in pregnant women with hypertension and diabetes. OSAS can lead to the adverse consequences in pregnancy, should be questioned for all pregnants especially those with chronic diseases. Pregnant women with OSAS should be monitored more carefully in terms of diabetes and hypertension in antenatal care.

  20. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  1. Confirmatory spirometry for adults hospitalized with a diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Objective measurement of airflow obstruction by spirometry is an essential part of the diagnosis of asthma or COPD. During exacerbations, the feasibility and utility of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unclear. Addressing these gaps in knowledge may help define the need for confirmatory testing in clinical care and quality improvement efforts. This study was designed to determine the feasibility of spirometry and to determine its utility to confirm the diagnosis in patients hospitalized with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Methods Multi-center study of four academic healthcare institutions. Spirometry was performed in 113 adults admitted to general medicine wards with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Two board-certified pulmonologists evaluated the spirometry tracings to determine the proportion of patients able to produce adequate quality spirometry data. Findings were interpreted to evaluate the utility of spirometry to confirm the presence of obstructive lung disease, according to the 2005 European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations. Results There was an almost perfect agreement for acceptability (κ = 0.92) and reproducibility (κ =0.93) of spirometry tracings. Three-quarters (73%) of the tests were interpreted by both pulmonologists as being of adequate quality. Of these adequate quality tests, 22% did not present objective evidence of obstructive lung disease. Obese patients (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were more likely to produce spirometry tracings with no evidence of obstructive lung disease, compared to non-obese patients (33% vs. 8%, p = 0.007). Conclusions Adequate quality spirometry can be obtained in most hospitalized adults with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Confirmatory spirometry could be a useful tool to help reduce overdiagnosis of obstructive lung disease, especially among obese

  2. Examination of Pulse Oximetry Tracings to Detect Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne S Scott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal hypoxemia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA are common comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The authors sought to develop a strategy to interpret nocturnal pulse oximetry and assess its capacity for detection of OSA in patients with stage 3 to stage 4 COPD. A review of consecutive patients with COPD who were clinically prescribed oximetry and polysomnography was conducted. OSA was diagnosed if the polysomnographic apnea-hypopnea index was >15 events/h. Comprehensive criteria were developed for interpretation of pulse oximetry tracings through iterative validation and interscorer concordance of ≥80%. Criteria consisted of visually identified desaturation ‘events’ (sustained desaturation ≥4%, 1 h time scale, ‘patterns’ (≥3 similar desaturation/saturation cycles, 15 min time scale and the automated oxygen desaturation index. The area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. Of 59 patients (27 male, 31 had OSA (53%. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 46% of predicted (range 21% to 74% of predicted and 52% of patients were on long-term oxygen therapy. Among 59 patients, 35 were correctly identified as having OSA or not having OSA, corresponding to an accuracy of 59%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 60%, respectively. The AUC was 0.57 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.59. Using software-computed desaturation events (hypoxemia ≥4% for ≥10 s indexed at ≥15 events/h of sleep as diagnostic criteria, sensitivity was 60%, specificity was 63% and the AUC was 0.64 (95%CI 0.62 to 0.66. No single criterion demonstrated important diagnostic utility. Pulse oximetry tracing interpretation had a modest diagnostic value in identifying OSA in patients with moderate to severe COPD.

  3. Functional connectivity and information flow of the respiratory neural network in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Yu, Lianchun; De Mazancourt, Marine; Hess, Agathe; Ashadi, Fakhrul R; Klein, Isabelle; Mal, Hervé; Courbage, Maurice; Mangin, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Breathing involves a complex interplay between the brainstem automatic network and cortical voluntary command. How these brain regions communicate at rest or during inspiratory loading is unknown. This issue is crucial for several reasons: (i) increased respiratory loading is a major feature of several respiratory diseases, (ii) failure of the voluntary motor and cortical sensory processing drives is among the mechanisms that precede acute respiratory failure, (iii) several cerebral structures involved in responding to inspiratory loading participate in the perception of dyspnea, a distressing symptom in many disease. We studied functional connectivity and Granger causality of the respiratory network in controls and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), at rest and during inspiratory loading. Compared with those of controls, the motor cortex area of patients exhibited decreased connectivity with their contralateral counterparts and no connectivity with the brainstem. In the patients, the information flow was reversed at rest with the source of the network shifted from the medulla towards the motor cortex. During inspiratory loading, the system was overwhelmed and the motor cortex became the sink of the network. This major finding may help to understand why some patients with COPD are prone to acute respiratory failure. Network connectivity and causality were related to lung function and illness severity. We validated our connectivity and causality results with a mathematical model of neural network. Our findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy involving the modulation of brain activity to increase motor cortex functional connectivity and improve respiratory muscles performance in patients. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2736-2754, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Egr-1 regulates autophagy in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Zhi-Hua Chen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by abnormal cellular responses to cigarette smoke, resulting in tissue destruction and airflow limitation. Autophagy is a degradative process involving lysosomal turnover of cellular components, though its role in human diseases remains unclear.Increased autophagy was observed in lung tissue from COPD patients, as indicated by electron microscopic analysis, as well as by increased activation of autophagic proteins (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B, LC3B, Atg4, Atg5/12, Atg7. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE is an established model for studying the effects of cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In human pulmonary epithelial cells, exposure to CSE or histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor rapidly induced autophagy. CSE decreased HDAC activity, resulting in increased binding of early growth response-1 (Egr-1 and E2F factors to the autophagy gene LC3B promoter, and increased LC3B expression. Knockdown of E2F-4 or Egr-1 inhibited CSE-induced LC3B expression. Knockdown of Egr-1 also inhibited the expression of Atg4B, a critical factor for LC3B conversion. Inhibition of autophagy by LC3B-knockdown protected epithelial cells from CSE-induced apoptosis. Egr-1(-/- mice, which displayed basal airspace enlargement, resisted cigarette-smoke induced autophagy, apoptosis, and emphysema.We demonstrate a critical role for Egr-1 in promoting autophagy and apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke exposure in vitro and in vivo. The induction of autophagy at early stages of COPD progression suggests novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cigarette smoke induced lung injury.

  5. Long-term outcome of self expandable metal stents for biliary obstruction in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldthaler, Alexander; Schütte, Kerstin; Weigt, Jochen; Kropf, Siegfried; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kahl, Stefan

    2013-01-10

    Insertion of a self-expandable metal stent is still controversial for treatment of benign common bile duct stenosis but can be a valuable alternative to surgical treatment. Aim of our study was to analyze the efficacy of covered and uncovered self-expandable metal stent in patients with chronic pancreatitis and common bile duct stenosis. Twenty patients with common bile duct stenosis due to alcoholic chronic pancreatitis were retrospective analyzed. All patients had advanced chronic pancreatitis, presenting with calcifications in pancreatic head. Uncovered self-expandable metal stent (uSEMS) were used in 11 patients (3 females, 8 males) while in 9 patients (3 females, 6 males) partially covered self-expandable metal stent (cSEMS) were inserted. All patients treated with self-expandable metal stent had contraindications for surgery. Overall mean follow up time was 155 weeks: 206 (52-412) weeks in uSEMS, and 93 (25-233) weeks in cSEMS, respectively. Stent patency was in mean 118 weeks: 159 (44-412) weeks in uSEMS and 67 (25-150) weeks in cSEMS (P=0.019). In the uSEMS group, reintervention was necessary in 5 patients (45%) due to stent obstruction, whereas in the cSEMS group 4 patients (44%) needed reintervention (2 obstructions, 2 migration). Stent migration is an early complication, compared to obstruction (P<0.05), and in cSEMS obstruction occurred significantly earlier compared to uSEMS (P<0.05). Patency of uSEMS was significantly longer compared to partially cSEMS. Available self-expandable metal stent, unfortunately, do not meet the demands on successful treatment of benign common bile duct stenosis.

  6. Implementation of a Targeted Screening Program to Detect Airflow Obstruction Suggestive of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease within a Presurgical Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Robitaille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted spirometry screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been studied in primary care and community settings. Limitations regarding availability and quality of testing remain. A targeted spirometry screening program was implemented within a presurgical screening (PSS clinic to detect undiagnosed airways disease and identify patients with COPD/asthma in need of treatment optimization.

  7. The role of trigeminal function in the sensation of nasal obstruction in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Joe; Fnais, Naif; Tomaszewski, Marcel; Carriere, Junie S; Frenkiel, Saul; Frasnelli, Johannes; Tewfik, Marc A

    2016-05-01

    Trigeminal sensation (TS) within the nasal cavity is important for the perception of nasal airflow. The objective of this study is to examine whether impaired TS contributes to the sensation of nasal obstruction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Prospective case-control study conducted in a tertiary referral rhinology clinic. Cases consisted of CRS patients with subjective nasal obstruction, not previously treated with oral corticoids. Controls consisted of patients without CRS. Neither group demonstrated obvious anatomical obstructions. Both groups underwent peak nasal inspiratory flows (PNIF), olfactory testing (quick eight-item odor identification test), and trigeminal testing (lateralization task using eucalyptol and odorless solvent). A total of 28 subjects (14 CRS patients and 14 controls) were recruited. Analyses revealed no statistical differences in age (P = .93), gender (P = .47), or PNIF (P = .82) between the two groups, but they differed in Lund-Mackay scores (P sensation of nasal obstruction in CRS. 3b. Laryngoscope, 126:E174-E178, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. The Nature and Causes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Historical Perspective

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    C Peter W Warren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the currently favoured name for the diseases formerly known as emphysema and bronchitis. COPD has been recognized for more than 200 years. Its cardinal symptoms are cough, phlegm and dyspnea, and its pathology is characterized by enlarged airspaces and obstructed airways. In the 19th century, the diagnosis of COPD depended on its symptoms and signs of a hyperinflated chest, and reduced expiratory breath sounds. The airflow obstruction evident on spirometry was identified in that century, but did not enter into clinical practice. Bronchitis, and the mechanical forces required to overcome its obstruction, was believed to be responsible for emphysema, although the inflammation present was recognized. The causes of bronchitis, and hence emphysema, included atmospheric and domestic air pollution, as well as dusty occupations. Cigarette smoking only became recognized as the dominant cause in the 20th century. The lessons learned of the risks for COPD in 19th-century Britain are very pertinent to the world today.

  9. Use of time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toby Hunt,1,2 Sarah Madigan,2 Marie T Williams,3 Tim S Olds1 1Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA, Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, City East Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Respiratory Clinical Research Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Daw Park, SA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of South Australia, City East Campus, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: “Physical inactivity” and “sedentary lifestyles” are phrases often used when describing lifestyles of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Evidence suggests activity types, independent of energy expenditure, influence health outcomes, so understanding patterns of time use is important, particularly in chronic disease. We aimed to identify reports of time use in people with COPD. Predefined search strategies were used with six electronic databases to identify individual activity reports (including frequencies and/or durations in which community-dwelling people with COPD engaged. Eligible studies were assessed independently against predefined criteria and data were extracted by two reviewers. Data synthesis was achieved by aggregating activity reports into activity domains (sports/exercise, screen time, transport, quiet time, self-care, sociocultural, work/study, chores, and sleep. Twenty-six publications reported 37 specific daily activities. People with COPD were found to spend extended periods in sedentary behaviors (eg, standing [194 min/day]; sitting [359 min/day]; lying [88 min/day], have limited engagement in physical activity (eg, walking [51 min/day]; exercising [1.2 episodes per week {ep/w}, 13 min/day], have high health care needs (medical appointments [1.0 ep/w], and experience difficulties associated with activities of daily living (eg, showering [2.5 ep/w, 60 minutes per episode]; preparing meals [4.7 ep/w]. Little data could be found

  10. Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Etiology, Impact, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Siddiqi, Tauseef A.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and may frequently be complicated by sleep disorders. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are commonly encountered in patients with COPD. Nocturnal hypoxemia is also prevalent in COPD may occur despite adequate awake oxygenation and can be especially severe in rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, several factors—some of them unique to COPD—can contribute to sleep-related hypoventilation. Recognition of hypoventilation can be vital as supplemental oxygen therapy itself can acutely worsen hypoventilation and lead to disastrous consequences. Finally, accruing data establish an association between restless leg syndrome and COPD— an association that may be driven by hypoxemia and/or hypercapnia. Comorbid sleep disorders portend worse sleep quality, diminished quality of life, and multifarious other adverse consequences. The awareness and knowledge regarding sleep comorbidities in COPD has continued to evolve over past many years. There are still several lacunae, however, in our understanding of the etiologies, impact, and therapies of sleep disorders, specifically in patients with COPD. This review summarizes the latest concepts in prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diverse sleep disorders in COPD. Citation: Budhiraja R, Siddiqi TA, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: etiology, impact, and management. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):259–270. PMID:25700872

  11. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A P; Rowe, B H

    2000-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to July 1997. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  12. WITHDRAWN: Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Arthur P; Rowe, Brian H

    2011-07-06

    Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is a form of chest physical therapy including chest percussion and postural drainage to remove lung secretions. These are applied commonly to patients with both acute and chronic airway diseases. Despite controversies in the literature regarding its efficacy, it remains in use in a variety of clinical settings. The various forms of this therapy are labour intensive and need to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles up to January 2007. We also wrote to study authors. Randomised trials in which postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing or forced exhalation technique was compared to other drainage or breathing techniques, placebo or no treatment. Two reviewers applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria on masked publications independently. They assessed the trial quality independently. Only data from the first arm of crossover trials were included. The seven included trials involved six comparisons and a total of 126 people. The trials were small and not generally of high quality. The results could not be combined as trials addressed different patient groups and outcomes. In most comparisons, bronchial hygiene physical therapy produced no significant effects on pulmonary function, apart from clearing sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in bronchiectasis. An update search carried out in January 2007 did not identify any new studies for inclusion. There is not enough evidence to support or refute the use of bronchial hygiene physical therapy in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis.

  13. Prevalence of pulmonary artery hypertension in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its correlation with stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercising capacity, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Roy, Bidyut; Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Mishra, Arvind; Patel, M L; Singh, Jitendra; Kumar, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in advance stages, and its presence indicates poor prognosis. The present study was design to know the prevalence of PAH in patients with COPD and its correlation with stages of COPD, exercising capacity, and quality of life. It is a cross-sectional prevalence study over a period of 1 year from August 2015 to July 2016. The study included 109 COPD patients, diagnosed by spirometry, and severity was determined according Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification criteria. Screening two-dimensional echocardiography was done to determine pulmonary arterial hypertension and exercising capacity assessed by 6 min walk test (6MWT) while the quality of life was assessed by St George respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C) Questionnaires. Out of 109 patients, PAH was present in 68 (62.4%) cases consisting of mild grade 41 (37.6%), moderate grade 11 (10.1%), and severe grade 16 (14.7%). In GOLD A stage, there were 20 cases of mild PAH and Stage B included 18 cases of mild and 3 cases of moderate PAH. Stage C had 3 cases of mild and 8 cases of moderate PAH while Stage D had 16 cases of severe PAH. In 6MWT, patients with severe grade PAH fail to perform the test while patients with mild to moderate PAH walked short distance. In SGRQ-C Questionnaires symptom, activity, impact, and total score were high with the severity of PAH. The prevalence of PAH in COPD was significant. Therefore, every COPD patient should be evaluated for PAH.

  14. The Evaluation of Interstitial Abnormalities in Group B of the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Classification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgiya, Masahiro; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Kato, Takafumi; Akagawa, Shinobu; Ohta, Ken

    2017-10-15

    Objective In 2011, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification categorized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into 4 groups. A report demonstrated that the mortality in Group B was higher than that in Group C. Ischemic heart disease and cancer were suggested to be the cause. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are more prevalent in Group B than Group C and that they may be responsible for the higher mortality in Group B. Methods Patients were selected based on their pulmonary function test results. The inclusion criterion was a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) of COPD patients, ILAs were detected in 10.3% of the patients in Group A, 22.5% of the patients in Group B, 5.6% of the patients in Group C, and 23.1% of the patients in Group D. In Group B, the frequency of ILAs was significantly higher and the area affected by the ILAs was significantly greater in comparison to Group C. Among the patterns of interstitial abnormalities, the area of honeycombing in Group B was significantly greater than that in Group C. Furthermore, among the patients in Group B, the LAA in the ILA-positive patients was significantly greater than that in the ILA-negative patients. Conclusion In Group B, the area occupied by ILAs-especially honeycombing-was greater than that in Group C. This contributed to the preserved %FEV 1 and possibly to the poorer prognosis of the patients in Group B.

  15. Classification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) according to the new Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017: Comparison with GOLD 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçôa, Raquel; Rodrigues, Daniela Marta; Dias, Margarida; Ladeira, Inês; Vaz, Ana Paula; Lima, Ricardo; Guimarães, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) project has been working to improve awareness, prevention and management of this disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate how COPD patients are reclassified by the 2017 GOLD system (versus GOLD 2011), to calculate the level of agreement between these two classifications in allocation to categories and to compare the performance of each classification to predict future exacerbations. Two-hundred COPD patients (>40 years, post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity<0.7) followed in pulmonology consultation were recruited into this prospective multicentric study. Approximately half of the patients classified as GOLD D [2011] changed to GOLD B [2017]. The extent of agreement between GOLD 2011 and GOLD 2017 was moderate (Cohen's Kappa = 0.511; p < 0.001) and the ability to predict exacerbations was similar (69.7% and 67.6%, respectively). GOLD B [2017] exacerbated 17% more than GOLD B [2011] and had a lower percent predicted post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). GOLD B [2017] turned to be the predominant category, more heterogeneous and with a higher risk of exacerbation versus GOLD B [2011]. Physicians should be cautious in assessing the GOLD B [2017] patients. The assessment of patients should always be personalized. More studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the 2017 reclassification in predicting outcomes such as future exacerbations and mortality.

  16. Low Use and Adherence to Maintenance Medication in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that use of and adherence to maintenance medication is low among individuals in the general population who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , even in cases of severe and very severe COPD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 5,812 individuals...... with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study, and classified them according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) airflow limitation grades 1-4. Dispensing of fixed-dose combinations of inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting beta2-agonists, long-acting anti...... for COPD in the general population was associated with the severity of COPD as defined by GOLD, but even in severe and very severe COPD, use and adherence was low....

  17. Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-01-01

    RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1...... to airflow obstruction in COPD. These phenotypes show independent aggregation within families of individuals with COPD, suggesting that different genetic factors influence these disease processes....... the severity of airway wall thickening and emphysema. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 3,096 individuals were recruited to the study, of whom 1,159 (519 probands and 640 siblings) had technically adequate high-resolution computed tomography scans without significant non-COPD-related thoracic disease...

  18. United in Prevention–Electrocardiographic Screening for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazic, Sanja; Stajic, Zoran; Djelic, Marina; Zlatkovic-Svenda, Mirjana; Putnikovic, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction P-wave abnormalities on the resting electrocardiogram have been associated with cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. So far, “Gothic” P wave and verticalization of the frontal plane axis is related to lung disease, particularly obstructive lung disease. Aim We tested if inverted P wave in AVl as a lone criteria of P wave axis >70° could be screening tool for emphysema. Material and method 1095 routine electrocardiograms (ECGs) were reviewed which yielded 478 (82,1%) ECGs with vertical P-axis in sinus rhythm. Charts were reviewed for the diagnosis of COPD and emphysema based on medical history and pulmonary function tests. Conclusion Electrocardiogram is very effective screening tool not only in cardiovascular field but in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The verticality of the P axis is usually immediately apparent, making electrocardiogram rapid screening test for emphysema. PMID:24058253

  19. United in prevention-electrocardiographic screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovic, Biljana; Mazic, Sanja; Stajic, Zoran; Djelic, Marina; Zlatkovic-Svenda, Mirjana; Putnikovic, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. P-wave abnormalities on the resting electrocardiogram have been associated with cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. So far, "Gothic" P wave and verticalization of the frontal plane axis is related to lung disease, particularly obstructive lung disease. We tested if inverted P wave in AVl as a lone criteria of P wave axis >70° could be screening tool for emphysema. 1095 routine electrocardiograms (ECGs) were reviewed which yielded 478 (82,1%) ECGs with vertical P-axis in sinus rhythm. Charts were reviewed for the diagnosis of COPD and emphysema based on medical history and pulmonary function tests. Electrocardiogram is very effective screening tool not only in cardiovascular field but in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The verticality of the P axis is usually immediately apparent, making electrocardiogram rapid screening test for emphysema.

  20. Relief of chronic partial ureteral obstruction attenuates salt-sensitive hypertension in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, M.; Wåhlin, N.; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    shown that animals with chronic partial unilateral ureteral obstruction develop salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, the effects of ipsilateral and contralateral nephrectomy and ureterovesicostomy on blood pressure were studied in hydronephrotic animals. METHODS: Partial unilateral ureteral...... obstruction was created in 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and blood pressure was measured telemetrically 4-6 weeks later during a normal and high salt diet before and after uninephrectomy or ureterovesicostomy. Plasma samples for renin assay were collected during both diets before and after ipsilateral...... nephrectomy. RESULTS: All hydronephrotic animals developed salt-sensitive hypertension, of different degrees. Before nephrectomy the plasma renin concentration was significantly higher in the hydronephrotic animals than in controls (160 +/- 15 microGU mL(-1) vs. 96 +/- 12 microGU mL(-1), respectively...

  1. Hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and breathing pattern in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, S; Miara, B; Milic-Emili, J; Gautier, H

    1982-11-01

    The results of lung function tests (total and functional residual capacities, residual volume/total lung capacity ratio, forced expiratory volume in one second) breathing patterns and arterial PO2 and PCO2 were studied in 651 ambulatory male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, functionally and clinically stable. Function tests were only loosely correlated with gas tensions: abnormalities in mechanics and in gas exchange are not necessarily related. In patients matched for the degree of obstruction, the breathing pattern depended upon both PaO2 and PaCO2. Isolated hypoxemia was accompanied by increased respiratory frequency without any variation in tidal volume: this suggests that the chemoreceptive systems still responded to changes in PaO2. Isolated hypercapnia was accompanied by a decrease in tidal volume and an increase in respiratory frequency. Consequently, the dead space/tidal volume ratio increased, leading to a drop in alveolar ventilation and to CO2 retention.

  2. [Condition of neurohumoral regulation of bronchial tone and gallbladder in patients with chronic cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, T V; Khukhlina, O S; Dudka, I V

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The paper presents data from a study of the neuroendocrine regulation of nonstriated muscles, bronchial tree and the gallbladder tones by means of an assessment of the adrenergic and cholinergic systems state in patients, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Adrenergic and cholinergic activities as well as cortisol secretion have significantly changed. To study the features of adrenergic and cholinergic regulations of bronchial tone and that of the gallbladder in patients with combined course of chronic acalculous cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 92 patients were involved in the study: 30 patients with COPD (1st group), 30 patients with COPD of comorbid CAC in the acute phase (2nd group), 32 patients with CAC in the acute phase (3rd group) and a control group--30 practically healthy individuals (PHI) of the respective age. All the patients with COPD and COPD combined with CAC had a marked predominance of the parasympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the established significant decrease of CDE (Table) in patients with isolated COPD is 1.4 times (p instance, the CDA in the individuals of groups 1 and 2 was lower by 1.6 and 2.4 times respectively (p instance, the first group patients' blood contained 2.7 times (p base of regulatory neuroendocrine and paracrine mecganisms imbalance, contributing to a development of COPD, is the cholinergic imbalance (reduction in blood acetylcholinesterase activity, hypertensive sphincter of Oddi dysfunction), adrenergic imbalance, reduction in catecholamine-depositing erythrocytes function, hypokinetic gallbladder dysfunction, adrenal dysfunction (decreased cortisol levels) that contribute to the development and progression of chronic cholecystitis against a background of hypokinetic gallbladder dysfunction.

  3. Self-management programmes for people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a call for a reconceptualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Helga

    2013-03-01

    To synthesise findings from previously published studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Self-management is a widely valued concept to address contemporary issues of chronic health problems. Yet, findings of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are indecisive. Literature review of (1) previously published systematic reviews and (2) an integrative literature review. Synthesis of findings from previously published systematic reviews (n = 4) of the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an integrated review that was performed on papers published between January 2007-June 2012 (n = 9). Findings demonstrate that there are few studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes on people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease despite more than a decade of research activities. Outcomes of the studies reveal some increase in health-related quality of life and reduction in use of healthcare resources. The methodological approaches vary, and the sample size is primarily small. Families are not acknowledged. Features of patient-centredness exist in self-management programmes, particularly in the more recent articles. The effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains indecisive. A reconceptualisation of self-management programmes is called for with attention to a family-centred, holistic and relational care focusing on living with and minimising the handicapping consequences of the health problems in their entirety. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Aquaporin 5 polymorphisms and rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia N Hansel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Aquaporin-5 (AQP5 can cause mucus overproduction and lower lung function. Genetic variants in the AQP5 gene might be associated with rate of lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. METHODS: Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in AQP5 were genotyped in 429 European American individuals with COPD randomly selected from the NHLBI Lung Health Study. Mean annual decline in FEV(1 % predicted, assessed over five years, was calculated as a linear regression slope, adjusting for potential covariates and stratified by smoking status. Constructs containing the wildtype allele and risk allele of the coding SNP N228K were generated using site-directed mutagenesis, and transfected into HBE-16 (human bronchial epithelial cell line. AQP5 abundance and localization were assessed by immunoblots and confocal immunofluorescence under control, shear stress and cigarette smoke extract (CSE 10% exposed conditions to test for differential expression or localization. RESULTS: Among continuous smokers, three of the five SNPs tested showed significant associations (0.02>P>0.004 with rate of lung function decline; no associations were observed among the group of intermittent or former smokers. Haplotype tests revealed multiple association signals (0.012>P>0.0008 consistent with the single-SNP results. In HBE16 cells, shear stress and CSE led to a decrease in AQP5 abundance in the wild-type, but not in the N228K AQP5 plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in AQP5 were associated with rate of lung function decline in continuous smokers with COPD. A missense mutation modulates AQP-5 expression in response to cigarette smoke extract and shear stress. These results suggest that AQP5 may be an important candidate gene for COPD.

  5. Clinical factors associated with the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath KD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karthik D Nath,1,2 Julie G Burel,1 Viswanathan Shankar,3 Antonia L Pritchard,1 Michelle Towers,2 David Looke,1,2 Janet M Davies,1 John W Upham1,2 1The University of Queensland (School of Medicine, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background and objective: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at a high risk of developing significant complications from infection with the influenza virus. It is therefore vital to ensure that prophylaxis with the influenza vaccine is effective in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of the 2010 trivalent influenza vaccine in persons with COPD compared to healthy subjects without lung disease, and to examine clinical factors associated with the serological response to the vaccine. Methods: In this observational study, 34 subjects (20 COPD, 14 healthy received the 2010 influenza vaccine. Antibody titers at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI assay. Primary endpoints included seroconversion (≥4-fold increase in antibody titers from baseline and the fold increase in antibody titer after vaccination. Results: Persons with COPD mounted a significantly lower humoral immune response to the influenza vaccine compared to healthy participants. Seroconversion occurred in 90% of healthy participants, but only in 43% of COPD patients (P=0.036. Increasing age and previous influenza vaccination were associated with lower antibody responses. Antibody titers did not vary significantly with cigarette smoking, presence of other comorbid diseases, or COPD severity. Conclusion: The humoral immune response to the 2010 influenza vaccine was lower in persons with COPD compared to non-COPD controls. The antibody response also declined with increasing age and in those with

  6. Productivity losses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Marta; Johannessen, Ane; Askildsen, Jan Erik; Eagan, Tomas; Gulsvik, Amund; Grønseth, Rune

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate incremental productivity losses (sick leave and disability) of spirometry-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a population-based sample and in hospital-recruited patients with COPD. Furthermore, we examined predictors of productivity losses by multivariate analyses. We performed four quarterly telephone interviews of 53 and 107 population-based patients with COPD and controls, as well as 102 hospital-recruited patients with COPD below retirement age. Information was gathered regarding annual productivity loss, exacerbations of respiratory symptoms and comorbidities. Incremental productivity losses were estimated by multivariate quantile median regression according to the human capital approach, adjusting for sex, age, smoking habits, education and lung function. Main effect variables were COPD/control status, number of comorbidities and exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. Altogether 55%, 87% and 31% of population-based COPD cases, controls and hospital patients, respectively, had a paid job at baseline. The annual incremental productivity losses were 5.8 (95% CI 1.4 to 10.1) and 330.6 (95% CI 327.8 to 333.3) days, comparing population-recruited and hospital-recruited patients with COPD to controls, respectively. There were significantly higher productivity losses associated with female sex and less education. Additional adjustments for comorbidities, exacerbations and FEV1% predicted explained all productivity losses in the population-based sample, as well as nearly 40% of the productivity losses in hospital-recruited patients. Annual incremental productivity losses were more than 50 times higher in hospital-recruited patients with COPD than that of population-recruited patients with COPD. To ensure a precise estimation of societal burden, studies on patients with COPD should be population-based.

  7. Haemophilus influenzae from Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation Induce More Inflammation than Colonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cecilia L.; Manzel, Lori J.; Lehman, Erin E.; Humlicek, Alicia L.; Shi, Lei; Starner, Timothy D.; Denning, Gerene M.; Murphy, Timothy F.; Sethi, Sanjay; Look, Dwight C.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Airway infection with Haemophilus influenzae causes airway inflammation, and isolation of new strains of this bacteria is associated with increased risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine whether strains of H. influenzae associated with exacerbations cause more inflammation than strains that colonize the airways of patients with COPD. Methods: Exacerbation strains of H. influenzae were isolated from patients during exacerbation of clinical symptoms with subsequent development of a homologous serum antibody response and were compared with colonization strains that were not associated with symptom worsening or an antibody response. Bacterial strains were compared using an in vivo mouse model of airway infection and in vitro cell culture model of bacterial adherence and defense gene and signaling pathway activation in primary human airway epithelial cells. Results: H. influenzae associated with exacerbations caused more airway neutrophil recruitment compared with colonization strains in the mouse model of airway bacterial infection. Furthermore, exacerbation strains adhered to epithelial cells in significantly higher numbers and induced more interleukin-8 release after interaction with airway epithelial cells. This effect was likely mediated by increased activation of the nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results indicate that H. influenzae strains isolated from patients during COPD exacerbations often induce more airway inflammation and likely have differences in virulence compared with colonizing strains. These findings support the concept that bacteria infecting the airway during COPD exacerbations mediate increased airway inflammation and contribute to decreased airway function. PMID:15805181

  8. Determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The DOC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Sarah J; Dyson, Lisa; Clark, Laura; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J; Cooper, Brendan G; Kearney, Matt; Laughey, William; Raghunath, Raghu; Steele, Lisa; Rhodes, Rebecca; Adamson, Joy

    2018-06-01

    Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires. Current smokers aged 35 or more were invited to undertake a series of case-finding tools, which comprised lung function tests (specifically, spirometry, microspirometry, peak flow meter, and WheezoMeter) and several case-finding questionnaires. The effectiveness of these tests, individually or in combination, to identify small airways obstruction was evaluated against the gold standard of spirometry, with the quality of spirometry tests assessed by independent overreaders. The study was conducted with general practices in the Yorkshire and Humberside area, in the UK. Six hundred eighty-one individuals met the inclusion criteria, with 444 participants completing their study appointments. A total of 216 (49%) with good-quality spirometry readings were included in the analysis. The most effective case-finding tools were found to be the peak flow meter alone, the peak flow meter plus WheezoMeter, and microspirometry alone. In addition to the main analysis, where the severity of airflow obstruction was based on fixed ratios and percent of predicted values, sensitivity analyses were conducted by using lower limit of normal values. This research informs the choice of test for COPD identification; case-finding by use of the peak flow meter or microspirometer could be used routinely in primary care for suspected COPD patients. Only those testing positive to these tests would move on to full spirometry, thereby reducing unnecessary spirometric testing. © 2018 John Wiley

  9. Reducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease readmissions: the role of the durable medical equipment provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Exacerbation and frequent rehospitalization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacts a heavy toll on the US health care system. To address these issues, new initiatives have been proposed that are largely based on financial penalties to promote patient education and postdischarge care. However, as laudable as these goals are, improving outcomes in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease population is more confounding than it may first appear. Chronic hypoxia, cognitive dysfunction, poor nutrition, and economic disadvantage are just a few of the challenges that require creative solutions and ongoing support. Case managers need to utilize all the potential products and services that can assist in improving outcomes for these patients. Durable medical equipment providers are often viewed as purveyors of medical equipment that offer little in the form of clinical support. However, in many cases these providers represent an overlooked resource that provides individualized, highly structured patient education and ongoing support programs. The challenge is in identifying those durable medical equipment providers that offer patients contemporary technology, and have both the resources and the commitment to provide patient support that is amenable to the goals of the hospital. This article reviews many of the confounding issues that contribute to the frequent rehospitalization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Recommendations to improve patient education and oxygen therapy outcomes are provided along with suggestions to aid in the vetting of durable medical equipment providers. Acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, extended care facilities, integrated delivery systems. 1. An understanding of the complex variables that play in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will help the case manager to plan an effective course of care. 2. Case managers need to ensure that patients receive long-term oxygen technology that

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Using an Ontario Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, K; Blackhouse, G; McCurdy, BR; Bornstein, M; Campbell, K; Costa, V; Franek, J; Kaulback, K; Levin, L; Sehatzadeh, S; Sikich, N; Thabane, M; Goeree, R

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  11. Are We overestimating the prevalence of depression in chronic illness using questionnaires? Meta-analytic evidence in obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is common in chronic illness, albeit prevalence can be highly variable. This variability may be a function of symptom overlap between depression and chronic illness. Using Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) as an exemplar, this meta-analysis explored whether the proportion of overlapping s...

  12. [Rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases at the lung hospital (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, W

    1979-12-01

    The modern lung hospital offers favorable conditions for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In the years from 1972 to 1976 2398 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and pulmonary emphysema were subjected to a rehabilitation process at the central hospital for heart and lung diseases Bad Berka. A long-term therapy plan based on a most accurate investigation possible of all the factors which trigger off the complaint in each case was used as baseline. An account is given of the resulting diagnostic and therapeutic program carried out. In the case of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases it is particularly difficult to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures. One aspect dealt with is the restoration of working capacity. 56.7% of the men and 56.8% of the women were capable of working when they were dismissed. 31.6% of male and 26.4% of female patients were invalids, 11.7% and 16.8% respectively were old age pensioners. Rehabilitation success depended on variables such as age, degree of cardio-pulmonary limitation in performance, as well as on certain concomitant diseases and the patient's cooperation. A decisive factor in some cases was also whether suitable employment could be found for these patients whose age ranges between 40 and 60.

  13. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: management considerations for the dental team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J

    2014-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects an estimated 3 million people in the United Kingdom, and is most common among elderly smokers. Patients may present with recurrent coughing of mucoid secretions (chronic bronchitis) or breathlessness caused by destruction of the airways (emphysema). If possible, it is advisable to treat the severely affected patients with them sitting upright in the dental chair as they may find it difficult to breathe when lying in the horizontal position. Periodontal bacteria can be carried into the lung where they can cause respiratory infection; therefore oral hygiene instruction should be emphasised in these patients. The objective of this article is to describe the oral and dental implications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In particular, there have been a number of recent developments in the management of patients with COPD that have direct relevance to the dentist. The drug regime used in the treatment of patients with COPD can have profound implications for clinical dental practice, manifested as dry mouth or oral candidiasis. There is also increasing evidence of a link between COPD and both gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and periodontal disease.

  14. Bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy in bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A; Rowe, B H

    2000-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis; (2) to determine any differences between manual and mechanical techniques for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy. The study design was a systematic review of the literature that used an exhaustive search for trials and review methods prescribed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Randomized controlled trials examined patient groups, interventions, and dependent variables. Patients included those with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (emphysema or chronic bronchitis) or bronchiectasis. Any of the following interventions or combinations thereof were included: manual interventions, such as postural drainage, chest percussion, vibration, chest shaking, directed coughing, or forced exhalation technique. Controls of the study were as follows: no intervention; placebo; coughing; and mechanical interventions, such as mechanical vibration. The search identified 99 potential trials; inclusion or exclusion analysis left 7, which examined a total of 126 patients. Mean score on trial quality was 1.4 (5 = greatest). Three separate trials (N = 51) found statistically significant effects for bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy on sputum production and radioaerosol clearance. No trials (N = 126) found statistically significant effects on pulmonary function variables or differences between manual and mechanical techniques. Considering the small sizes, low quality, and mixed results from the trials, the research on bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy is inconclusive. There is a need for adequately sized, high-quality, randomized controlled trials with uniform patient populations to examine the effects of bronchopulmonary hygiene physical therapy.

  15. Incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a cohort of young adults according to the presence of chronic cough and phlegm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Marco, Roberto; Accordini, Simone; Cerveri, Isa; Corsico, Angelo; Anto, Josep M.; Kunzli, Nino; Janson, Christer; Sunyer, Jordi; Jarvis, Deborah; Chinn, Susan; Vermeire, Paul; Svanes, Cecilie; Ackermann-Liebrich, Ursula; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Leynaert, Benedicte; Neukirch, Francoise; Schouten, Jan P.; Wjst, Matthias; Burney, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The few prospective studies aimed at assessing the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to the presence of chronic cough/phlegm have produced contrasting results. Objectives: To assess the incidence of COPD in a cohort of young adults and to test whether

  16. Impact of GOLD groups of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease on surgical complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HJ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyung-Jun Kim,1,2 Jinwoo Lee,1,2 Young Sik Park,1,2 Chang-Hoon Lee,1,2 Sang-Min Lee,1,2 Jae-Joon Yim,1,2 Chul-Gyu Yoo,1,2 Young Whan Kim,1,2 Sung Koo Han,1,2 Sun Mi Choi1,2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with increased postoperative complications. Recently, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classified COPD patients into four groups based on spirometry results and the severity of symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of GOLD groups on postoperative complications. Patients and methods: We reviewed the medical records of COPD patients who underwent preoperative spirometry between April and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. We divided the patients into GOLD groups according to the results of spirometry and self-administered questionnaires that assessed the symptom severity and exacerbation history. GOLD groups, demographic characteristics, and operative conditions were analyzed. Results: Among a total of 405 COPD patients, 70 (17.3% patients experienced various postoperative complications, including infection, wound, or pulmonary complications. Thoracic surgery, upper abdominal surgery, general anesthesia, large estimated blood loss during surgery, and longer anesthesia time were significant risk factors for postoperative complications. Patients in high-risk group (GOLD groups C or D had an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those in low-risk group (GOLD groups A or B. Conclusion: COPD patients in GOLD groups representing a high exacerbation risk have an increased risk of postoperative complications compared to those with low risk. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary

  17. Integrated Genomics Reveals Convergent Transcriptomic Networks Underlying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusko, Rebecca L; Brothers, John F; Tedrow, John; Pandit, Kusum; Huleihel, Luai; Perdomo, Catalina; Liu, Gang; Juan-Guardela, Brenda; Kass, Daniel; Zhang, Sherry; Lenburg, Marc; Martinez, Fernando; Quackenbush, John; Sciurba, Frank; Limper, Andrew; Geraci, Mark; Yang, Ivana; Schwartz, David A; Beane, Jennifer; Spira, Avrum; Kaminski, Naftali

    2016-10-15

    Despite shared environmental exposures, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are usually studied in isolation, and the presence of shared molecular mechanisms is unknown. We applied an integrative genomic approach to identify convergent transcriptomic pathways in emphysema and IPF. We defined the transcriptional repertoire of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF, or normal histology lungs using RNA-seq (n = 87). Genes increased in both emphysema and IPF relative to control were enriched for the p53/hypoxia pathway, a finding confirmed in an independent cohort using both gene expression arrays and the nCounter Analysis System (n = 193). Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of HIF1A, MDM2, and NFKBIB members of this pathway in tissues from patients with emphysema or IPF. Using reads aligned across splice junctions, we determined that alternative splicing of p53/hypoxia pathway-associated molecules NUMB and PDGFA occurred more frequently in IPF or emphysema compared with control and validated these findings by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the nCounter Analysis System on an independent sample set (n = 193). Finally, by integrating parallel microRNA and mRNA-Seq data on the same samples, we identified MIR96 as a key novel regulatory hub in the p53/hypoxia gene-expression network and confirmed that modulation of MIR96 in vitro recapitulates the disease-associated gene-expression network. Our results suggest convergent transcriptional regulatory hubs in diseases as varied phenotypically as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and IPF and suggest that these hubs may represent shared key responses of the lung to environmental stresses.

  18. Lung Deflation and Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ian S; Barnes, Neil C; James, Wai-Yee; Midwinter, Dawn; Boubertakh, Redha; Follows, Richard; John, Leonette; Petersen, Steffen E

    2016-04-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease develop increased cardiovascular morbidity with structural alterations. To investigate through a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study the effect of lung deflation on cardiovascular structure and function using cardiac magnetic resonance. Forty-five hyperinflated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomized (1:1) to 7 (maximum 14) days inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 μg or placebo (7-day minimum washout). Primary outcome was change from baseline in right ventricular end-diastolic volume index versus placebo. There was a 5.8 ml/m(2) (95% confidence interval, 2.74-8.91; P volume index and a 429 ml (P volume with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol versus placebo. Left ventricular end-diastolic and left atrial end-systolic volumes increased by 3.63 ml/m(2) (P = 0.002) and 2.33 ml/m(2) (P = 0.002). In post hoc analysis, right ventricular stroke volume increased by 4.87 ml/m(2) (P = 0.003); right ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged. Left ventricular adaptation was similar; left atrial ejection fraction improved by +3.17% (P Pulmonary artery pulsatility increased in two of three locations (main +2.9%, P = 0.001; left +2.67%, P = 0.030). Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol safety profile was similar to placebo. Pharmacologic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has consistent beneficial and plausible effects on cardiac function and pulmonary vasculature that may contribute to favorable effects of inhaled therapies. Future studies should investigate the effect of prolonged lung deflation on intrinsic myocardial function. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01691885).

  19. Effectiveness of a respiratory rehabilitation programme in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunera-Pardell, María Jesús; Padín-López, Susana; Domenech-Del Rio, Adolfo; Godoy-Ramírez, Ana

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary respiratory rehabilitation (RR) programme in patients with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pre the RR programme, at the end of the programme and one year after the RR, measuring changes in ability to exercise (walking test), effort tolerance(forced expiratory volume (FEV1)) and health-related quality of life. Quasi-experimental single group design. We included patients diagnosed with severe or very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stages III and IV of the GOLD classification) who entered the rehabilitation programme for the years 2011 and 2012. Demographic data, questionnaires on general health-related quality of life (SF-36) and specific to respiratory patients (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire), FEV1% and exercise capacity test (running test 6minutes) were collected. Data were collected before the RR programme, at the end of the RR programme and a year after completing the program. No significant differences in FEV1% values were observed. Regarding exercise capacity, an increase in distance walked in the walking test was noted, which changed significantly after training, 377±59.7 to 415±79 m after one year (P<.01). A statistically significant improvement in mean scores of HRQoL was observed, except for the emotional role dimension of the SF-36 questionnaire. A pulmonary rehabilitation programme for 8 weeks improved the exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life of patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic airflow obstruction after successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L. Byrne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies reveal an association between tuberculosis (TB and chronic airflow obstruction, but cannot adequately address confounding. We hypothesised that treated pulmonary TB is an independent risk factor for chronic airflow obstruction. The Pulmones Post TB cohort study enrolled participants from Lima, Peru, aged 10–70 years with a history of drug-susceptible (DS- or multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB who had completed treatment and were clinically cured. Unexposed participants without TB were randomly selected from the same districts. We assessed respiratory symptoms, relevant environmental exposures, and spirometric lung function pre- and post-bronchodilator. In total, 144 participants with DS-TB, 33 with MDR-TB and 161 unexposed participants were fully evaluated. Compared with unexposed participants, MDR-TB patients had lower lung volumes (adjusted mean difference in forced vital capacity −370 mL, 95% CI −644– −97 and post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (adjusted OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.27–18.78. Participants who had recovered from DS-TB did not have lower lung volumes than unexposed participants, but were more likely to have a reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio <0.70 (adjusted OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.01–6.03. Individuals successfully treated for TB may experience long-lasting sequelae. Interventions facilitating earlier TB treatment and management of chronic respiratory disease should be explored.

  1. Deposition and clearance of inhaled 18FDG powder in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, M.; Sasaki, H.; Hatazawa, J.; Ojima, F.; Itoh, M.; Ido, T.

    1998-01-01

    As freon is limited in its use as a generator for aerosol inhalation, powder particles are used as an alternative for inhalation therapy. The pulmonary deposition and clearance of inhaled powder particles was studied by positron emission tomography (PET) in ten patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in five normal controls. The powder, 5 μm in mean diameter, was water soluble and labelled with 2-deoxy-2[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 FDG). Powder inhalation was done with single deep inspiration from residual volume to total lung capacity. The initial deposition ratio in the right or left lung field to total inhaled dose, measured by an anteroposterior rectilinear scan, did not differ between normal and COPD patients. Ratios of radioactivity detected within the central and peripheral regions (the central to peripheral ratio) measured by the PET scan was not significantly different between COPD patients (4.8±2.6, mean±SD) and normals (2.6±0.8, mean±SD). However, the regional powder deposition in peripheral lung fields measured by the PET scan was significantly more uneven in COPD patients than in normal patients. The clearance rate of 18 FDG, defined as the retention ratio of 18 FDG activity to the initially deposited 18 FDG at 60 and 120 min after inhalation, in the trachea, large bronchi or peripheral lung fields measured by tomographic scan showed a wider variation in COPD patients than in normals. To conclude, inhaled powder tended to be deposited more centrally and was distributed more unevenly in the peripheral lung in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients than in normals. This could be a limitation of powder inhalation used for therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. (au)

  2. 4-Meter Gait Speed Test in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: INTERRATER RELIABILITY USING A STOPWATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisca, Gianna Waldrich; Fava, Lucas Rodrigues; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Machado, Felipe Vilaça Cavallari; Pitta, Fabio; Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida

    2017-12-14

    4-meter gait speed (4MGS) is increasingly used to assess functional performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the current literature lacks information regarding some technical standards for this test. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare and to evaluate the interrater reliability between a stopwatch and video recording used as timing systems for the 4MGS in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as to verify the interrater reliability between 2 observers measuring the 4MGS time using a manual stopwatch. Fifty-one patients performed the 4MGS using 4 different protocols (random order): walking at the usual and maximum speed in a 4-meter course and walking at the same 2 speeds on an 8-m course using a 2-m acceleration zone, a 4-meter timing area, and a 2-m deceleration zone. Gait speed was measured simultaneously using a stopwatch and a video recording. In a subanalysis (n = 24), 2 independent observers timed the 4MGS using a stopwatch. There was no significant difference in comparison between the 2 timing methods (P > .05 for all), and the reliability between video recording and stopwatch was excellent in all 4MGS studied protocols (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.91). Moreover, when comparing gait speed measured by 2 observers using a stopwatch, no significant difference was found among all proposed protocols (P > .05 for all), and there was also excellent reliability between the 2 independent observers (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.94). The stopwatch, a low-cost and feasible tool, is reliable as a timing device for the 4MGS in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. The clinical meaning of oxaluria in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with comorbid chronic pyelonephritis on the background of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Khukhlina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study clinical peculiarities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with comorbid chronic pyelonephritis on the background of urolithiasis with oxaluria. Materials and methods. 60 patients were included into the study and divided into 3 groups. Study groups: I-st group - 18 patients with isolated course of chronic pyelonephritis (CP and urolithiasis (U of oxalic and mixed genesis, II-nd group - 19 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, study group III - 23 patients with COPD, CP and U of oxalic genesis. Additional control group consisted of 20 practically healthy individuals (PHI of corresponding age and gender. Laboratory and clinical examination of the patients was conducted. Spectrophotometry with polarization of biologic material was performed. Statistical analysis was done in Primer of Biostatistics, Origin 8.0. Results. Systemic inflammation in patients with COPD and comorbid CP with oxaluria form the syndrome of mutual burdening. This fact was proved by inverse correlation between oxalate salts in sputum (15,5±1,0 mg/24h and reduction of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 in group III. This result was in 2,1 lower than in PHI (r = -0,53,р<0,05. Conclusions. Taking into account data of the anamnesis, patients with COPD, comorbid CP and urolithiasis with oxaluria, had more severe course of COPD than patients with isolated COPD. This can be explained by the oxalic acid crystals deposition in bronchial wall. Stated above clinical characteristics are the features of respiratory oxalosis that needs special treatment.

  4. Long-term prognosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap in the Copenhagen City Heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Çolak, Yunus; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term prognosis of patients with characteristics of both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, named asthma-COPD overlap, is poorly described. We investigated the long-term prognosis of individuals with different types of chronic airway disease, with a special...... were 39·48 (95% CI 25·93-60·11) in asthma-COPD overlap with early-onset asthma, 83·47 (61·67-112·98) in asthma-COPD overlap with late-onset asthma, 23·80 (17·43-33·50) in COPD, and 14·74 (10·06-21·59) in asthma compared with never-smokers without lung disease (all p... focus on individuals with asthma-COPD overlap. METHODS: We assigned participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study into six subgroups: healthy never-smokers, ever-smokers without asthma and COPD, those with asthma with low cumulated smoking exposure and no airflow limitation, those with COPD, those...

  5. Relationship between diminution of small pulmonary vessels and emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Shuko; Chubachi, Shotaro; Tsutsumi, Akihiro; Kameyama, Naofumi; Sasaki, Mamoru; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Asano, Koichiro; Reilly, John J; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    To investigate the relationship between small pulmonary vessels and extent of emphysema on CT in individual lungs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-nine patients were included. The percentage of cross-sectional area of vessels emphysema were assessed. Less than half of the COPD patients demonstrated an inverse correlation between %CSA <5 and percentage of low attenuation area (LAA%). In the remaining patients, %CSA <5 was homogeneously distributed. Not all patients with COPD demonstrated an inverse correlation of the distributions between %CSA <5 and LAA% in individual lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and subclinical coronary artery disease in long-term smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Køber, Lars; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular conditions are reported to be the most frequent cause of death in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it remains unsettled whether severity of COPD per se is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional cardiovascular risk...... factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the presence and severity of COPD and the amount of coronary artery calcium deposit, an indicator of CAD and cardiac risk, in a large population of current and former long-term smokers....

  7. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, lung function and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter; Bojesen, Stig Egil

    2014-01-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk o...... of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with lung function through modulation of pulmonary protease-antiprotease imbalance, airway inflammation, lung remodelling and oxidative stress. We examined the association of plasma 25(OH)D levels with lung function, lung function decline and risk...

  8. Clinical assessment, staging, and epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Patients presenting with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are initially assessed to ensure that a proper diagnosis has been made and that relevant differential diagnoses are excluded. Although guidelines provide indicators for use, very little systematic research has...... been done in initial assessment of COPD exacerbations. Next, the assessment should aim at stratifying patients for risk of poor outcome. For this, predictors of poor prognosis as well as knowledge of favorable treatments can be used. However, no formal and validated staging system exists today. Given...... the frequency and impact of COPD exacerbations, there seems to be a need for systematic research in this area....

  9. C reactive protein and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a Mendelian randomisation approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Vestbo, Jørgen; Zacho, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether elevated plasma C reactive protein (CRP) is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated plasma CRP causes COPD using a Mendelian randomisation design. Methods The authors measured high......-sensitivity CRP in plasma, genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRP gene, and screened for spirometry-defined COPD and hospitalisation due to COPD in 7974 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and in 32¿652 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. Results Elevated...... plasma CRP >3 mg/l compared with Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively. Genotype combinations...

  10. Vitamin d status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who participate in pulmonary rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Durakovic, Amal

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; however, no study has evaluated the influence of vitamin D status on effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). METHODS: We studied 311 patients, who participated in a 7-week outpatient PR. Vitamin D...... higher body mass index and fat-free mass index, had worse quality of life score, tended to have lower percent predicted value for forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration, and more frequently were current smokers. They had a 3-time higher risk of dropout from the PR program (P = .003...

  11. Relationship between heart failure, concurrent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and beta-blocker use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessa, Maurizio; Mascolo, Annamaria; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark

    2018-01-01

    Aims: To compare the hazard of all-cause, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in carvedilol vs. metoprolol/bisoprolol/nebivolol users with COPD and concurrent HF from 2009 to 2012, and to evaluate the use and persistence in treatment of these β-blockers...... with COPD and concurrent HF. Additionally, we found a widespread phenomenon of carvedilol prescription at variance with the European Society of Cardiology guidelines and potential for improving the proportion of patients treated with β-blockers....

  12. Antitrypsin and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Japanese-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A; Kagan, A; Rhoads, G G; Pierce, J A; Bruce, R M

    1977-10-01

    A total of 161 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) plus 100 control subjects (identified during a study of heart disease in 6,860 Japanese-American men aged 52 to 75 years who were residing in Hawaii) were analyzed for phenotype in search of the antitrypsin gene Z, which has been shown to be associated with pulmonary emphysema in other racial groups. No carriers of the Z gene were found, and the question of whether the rarity or absence of this gene relates to a low frequency of COPD among Japanese-Americans is reviewed.

  13. The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, Peter; Holme, I

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease, where the initial symptoms are often cough as a result of excessive mucus production and dyspnea. With disease progression several other symptoms may develop, and patients with moderate to severe COPD have often multiorganic disease...... sufficient daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. In 15 patients, X-ray revealed compression fractures previously not diagnosed. Bone density measurements showed osteoporosis in 22 patients and osteopenia in 16. In total, 26 of the COPD patients were osteoporotic as evaluated from both X-ray and bone density...

  14. Influence of obstructive sleep apnea on fatty liver disease: role of chronic intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Cansel; Ozol, Duygu; Kasapoğlu, Benan; Kirbas, Ismail; Yıldırım, Zeki; Yiğitoğlu, Ramazan

    2012-02-01

    Currently the common pathogenetic mechanisms in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are gaining increased attention. The aim of this study is to find out the influence of chronic intermittent hypoxemia and OSA related parameters to the severity of NAFLD. We examined the liver functions tests and ultrasonographic data of liver as well as markers of OSA severity (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], oxygen desaturation index, minimum oxygen saturation, percentage of time spent with S(pO(2)) hypoxia during sleep. The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in patients with severe OSA, suggesting a role for nocturnal hypoxemia in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease.

  15. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2. Short-term prognostic scores for acute exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2014-01-22

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is a slowly progressive disease whose course is frequently the subject of acute episodes, of variable severity, although, in general, reversible, called acute exacerbations. In the past five years (between 2008 and 2013), seven prognostic scores have been published to try to assess the short-term risk of these acute exacerbations. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon. An Internet program with a detailed compilation of the main features of these scores (www.medhyg.ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  16. Diagnosis and management of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Van; Slack, Donald; McCurdy, Michael T; Shah, Nirav G; Gupta, Nachi; Nusbaum, Jeffrey

    2017-10-20

    Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical diagnosis that is based on changes in dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production in a COPD patient; however, patients presenting with an acute exacerbation may be undiagnosed or have a variety of comorbid conditions that can complicate diagnosis. This issue presents strategies and algorithms for the early use of evidence-based interventions, including appropriate use of antibiotics, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids, along with noninvasive ventilation with capnography, to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.].

  17. Equine protease inhibitor system as a marker for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinocur Myriam E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The protease inhibitor system (PI was investigated to ascertain if it can be used as a marker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in thoroughbred horses. Serum samples were taken from healthy thoroughbreds (n = 13 and those diagnosed as having COPD (n = 24 or inflammatory airway disease (IAD, n = 38 as well as from 3,600 undiagnosed thoroughbred horses. PI allelic and genotypic frequencies were estimated using protein electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The four groups of horses showed high genotypic similarity and none of the observed alleles or genotypes of the equine PI system were found to be associated with COPD.

  18. The asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS): opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrecheguren, Miriam; Esquinas, Cristina; Miravitlles, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Some individuals share characteristics of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has been defined as symptoms of increased variability of airflow in association with an incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. In this review, we present the latest findings in the diagnosis, characterization and management of ACOS. Around 15-20% of COPD patients may have an ACOS. Patients with ACOS are characterized by increased reversibility of airflow obstruction, eosinophilic bronchial and systemic inflammation, and increased response to inhaled corticosteroids, compared with the remaining patients with COPD. Patients with ACOS have more frequent exacerbations, more wheezing and dyspnoea, but similar cough and sputum production compared with COPD. The relevance of the ACOS is to identify patients with COPD who may have underlying eosinophilic inflammation that responds to inhaled corticosteroids. So far, the previous diagnosis of asthma in a patient with COPD is the more reliable criterion for ACOS. Ongoing studies will clarify if concentrations of blood eosinophils may be useful to identify this subgroup of patients with COPD. If this is the case, the interest of ACOS may shift to that of eosinophilic COPD, which is easier to diagnose and has clear therapeutic implications.

  19. [Potential of antiinflammatory therapy in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, T A; Ekkert, N V; Chernekhovskaia, N E; Roĭtman, A P; Makarova, O V; Zhidkova, N V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of erespal (fenspirid) on the clinical manifestations and parameters of inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). The two stages of the study included 3-weak treatment during exacerbation periods and a 3-month outpatient follow-up during clinical remission periods. Erespal was administered twice a day in a total dose of 160 mg/day. The study included evaluation of clinical symptoms, respiratory function, bronchoscopic data, laboratory indices of inflammation, antioxydative status, life quality (LQ), as well as cytological and cytochemical analysis of induced sputum (IS). During exacerbation periods of COLD the researchers observed early and noticeable antitussive and mucolytic action of erespal, which were associated with lessening of bronchial obstruction and inflammation, significant fall of C-reactive protein level, cytosis in IS, proportion of neutrophiles (p < 0.01), elevation of lysosomal cation proteins in neutrophiles (p < 0.01), increase of total oxidant serum level (in 46.2% of the patients vs. 26.3% of the patients in the conventional therapy group). Long term (3 months) treatment with erespal led to further positive dynamics of clinical and laboratory indices of inflammation, and improved the results of cytological and cytochemical study of IS. The results of the study demonstrate that inclusion of erespal in complex therapy of COLD increases efficacy of treatment, due to its anti-inflammatory action during the periods of exacerbation and relative remission, prevents augmenting of bronchial obstruction, and improves patients' LQ.

  20. Lung function testing according leptin levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Radchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD belongs to urgent medical and social problems of our time. Prognosis of COPD is often determined by a comorbidity, in particular obesity. The key chain, which unites COPD and obesity, is systemic inflammation, in the development of which the hormone of fatty tissue leptin plays an important role. The presence of receptors to leptin in the alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells, in smooth muscle tissue and submucous bronchial membrane allowes to assume that leptin takes pathogenetic part in COPD progression. The aim of our research was to estimate the leptin level in COPD patient and analyze changes of the respiratory function depending on it. Methods. We have been examined 26 patients with exacerbation of COPD (13 male and 13 female, 58 y.o. and 20 healthy people representative by gender, age and body mass. The level of serum leptin has been defined by the solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent analysis, lung function – by computed testing. Results and conclusion. With the leptin level increase all of the lung function parameters progressively decreased, most significant - forced vital capacity and peak expiratory flow. Patients with hyperleptinemia had significantly lower measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and vital lungs capacity. Severe degree of both obstructive and restrictive changes has been found more often among patients with hyperleptinemia and leptin level has been associated with the bronchial obstruction severity.

  1. A multicenter family practitioners' research on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease screening using the COPD Assessment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Eniste, Koncuy; Basaran, Ebru Onuker; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Tuna, Sumeyye

    2017-11-01

    Spirometry is known to be a gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an eight-item questionnaire currently in use to evaluate patients with COPD. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate if CAT is an adequate tool for screening COPD. In total, 600 persons aging ⩾40 years old were randomly selected from three different family practice units located in the city center. CAT was asked to the participants and a spirometry was used to assess pulmonary obstruction. Pulmonary obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)COPD diagnosis was confirmed with the reversibility test. The relationship between CAT results and pulmonary function test values was evaluated. In this sampling, the prevalence of COPD was 4.2%. Reliability of the CAT in the study group was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.84). The CAT scores was significantly higher in patients with COPD (PCOPD. CAT is a reliable questionnaire and there is an apparent relationship between the total CAT scores and COPD. However, CAT's ability to screen COPD is limited since it may miss the symptom-free cases.

  2. Association between the length of the MUC8-minisatellite 5 region and susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Nam; Nam, Jong Kil; Kim, Woo Jin; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2018-01-01

    In asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), mucins display disease-related alterations caused by airway mucus obstruction. MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC8 are known as the major secretory mucins in human airway epithelial cells. Analysis of mucin genes has identified the presence of several features with a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR; minisatellites) in the central region of each mucin. In our previous study, six minisatellites in the region of the MUC8 gene were identified, and the MUC8-MS5 minisatellite showed the highest heterozygosity among them. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between MUC8-MS5 and susceptibility to asthma and COPD. A case-control study was performed with 229 controls, 123 COPD cases and 77 asthma cases. A significant association (OR 3.96) between short alleles (2/2 repeats) and the occurrence of COPD was observed [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-11.88; p = 0.008]. Hence, the increased frequency of 2/2 homo-short alleles were also found in asthma cases (3.11; CI 0.88-11.05; p = 0.066), though this association was not statistically significant. These results revealed a genetic association between MUC8 and COPD, and that the specific short minisatellite alleles (2/2) of MUC8-MS5 may be a risk factor for COPD.

  3. NFATc3 and VIP in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Szema

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are both debilitating lung diseases which can lead to hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension (PH. Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT is a transcription factor implicated in the etiology of vascular remodeling in hypoxic PH. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ability to generate Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP develop spontaneous PH, pulmonary arterial remodeling and lung inflammation. Inhibition of NFAT attenuated PH in these mice suggesting a connection between NFAT and VIP. To test the hypotheses that: 1 VIP inhibits NFAT isoform c3 (NFATc3 activity in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells; 2 lung NFATc3 activation is associated with disease severity in IPF and COPD patients, and 3 VIP and NFATc3 expression correlate in lung tissue from IPF and COPD patients. NFAT activity was determined in isolated pulmonary arteries from NFAT-luciferase reporter mice. The % of nuclei with NFAT nuclear accumulation was determined in primary human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC cultures; in lung airway epithelia and smooth muscle and pulmonary endothelia and smooth muscle from IPF and COPD patients; and in PASMC from mouse lung sections by fluorescence microscopy. Both NFAT and VIP mRNA levels were measured in lungs from IPF and COPD patients. Empirical strategies applied to test hypotheses regarding VIP, NFATc3 expression and activity, and disease type and severity. This study shows a significant negative correlation between NFAT isoform c3 protein expression levels in PASMC, activity of NFATc3 in pulmonary endothelial cells, expression and activity of NFATc3 in bronchial epithelial cells and lung function in IPF patients, supporting the concept that NFATc3 is activated in the early stages of IPF. We further show that there is a significant positive correlation between NFATc3 mRNA expression and VIP RNA expression only in lungs from IPF patients

  4. Peak flow as predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Vestbo, Jørgen; Phanareth, K

    2001-01-01

    Lung function is a strong predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). FEV1 is considered to be the "gold standard," whereas peak expiratory flow (PEF) is mostly used in absence of FEV1 measurements. We compared the predictive power of PEF and FEV1......, measured after maximal bronchodilation, which included a short course of oral corticosteroids. The study population comprised 491 asthmatics and 1,095 subjects with COPD. Pulmonary function tests were performed between 1983 and 1988, and survival data were obtained by September 1997, when 127 asthmatics...... reflecting different components of COPD, i.e., chronic bronchitis, small airways disease, and emphysema. Furthermore, extrapulmonary components such as muscle mass and general "vigour" probably affect PEF to a greater extent than they affect FEV1....

  5. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Among 9622 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we identified 1259 individuals with COPD...... applied a multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for well-established risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations or gastro-esophageal reflux disease, including COPD severity, and symptoms. RESULTS: Individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease had more chronic bronchitis...... and information on gastro-esophageal reflux disease and the regular use of acid inhibitory treatment. These individuals were followed for 5 years with regard to medically treated COPD exacerbations, which we defined as a short course treatment with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics. We...

  6. Biomarkers in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in general practice: A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Halling, Anders; Ledderer, Loni

    Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common chronic disease primarily treated in primary care. It is a complex and heterogeneous disease and the trajectory is difficult to predict. The overall aim of this study is to investigate predictors of the trajectory of COPD...... were a diagnosis of COPD (ICPC code R95-), age ≥ 40 years, Danish language speaking, no severe psychiatric or cognitive disease and ability to visit the GP surgery. Prevalent as well as incident patients diagnosed with COPD were eligible. Baseline data included a patient questionnaire and validated...... treated in primary care and to determine the added value of selected biomarkers such as microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) and surfactant protein D (SP-D). Methods: Prospective cohort study comprising COPD patients. A total of 38 Danish practices were included in the study. Criteria for inclusion...

  7. Biomarkers in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Halling, Anders; Ledderer, Loni Kraus

    Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common chronic disease primarily treated in primary care. It is a complex and heterogeneous disease and the trajectory is difficult to predict. The overall aim of this study is to investigate predictors of the trajectory of COPD...... were a diagnosis of COPD (ICPC code R95-), age ≥ 40 years, Danish language speaking, no severe psychiatric or cognitive disease and ability to visit the GP surgery. Prevalent as well as incident patients diagnosed with COPD were eligible. Baseline data included a patient questionnaire and validated...... treated in primary care and to determine the added value of selected biomarkers such as microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) and surfactant protein D (SP-D). Methods: Prospective cohort study comprising COPD patients. A total of 38 Danish practices were included in the study. Criteria for inclusion...

  8. The Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Cells in the Immunopathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Damayanti, Triya; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the airways and lungs that results in limitations of continuous airflow and is caused by exposure to noxious gasses and particles. A major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults, COPD is a complex disease pathologically mediated by many inflammatory pathways. Macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes are the key inflammatory cells involved in COPD. Recently, the non-coding small RNA, micro-RNA, have also been intensively investigated and evidence suggest that it plays a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Here, we discuss the accumulated evidence that has since revealed the role of each inflammatory cell and their involvement in the immunopathogenesis of COPD. Mechanisms of steroid resistance in COPD will also be briefly discussed.

  9. Physical Activity, Air Pollution and the Risk of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E; Loft, Steffen; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Physical activity enhances uptake of air pollutants in the lung, possibly augmenting their harmful effects on chronic lung disease during exercise. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether benefits of physical activity with respect to the risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...... (COPD) are moderated by exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: A total of 53,113 subjects (50-65 yr) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort reported physical activity at recruitment (1993-1997) and were followed until 2013 in the National Patient Register.......03-1.27]) hospitalizations (comparing ≥21.0 μg/m(3) to pollution during exercise does not outweigh beneficial effects of physical activity...

  10. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, calprotectin and YKL-40 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Klitgaard; Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Mygind, Lone Hagens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive decline in pulmonary function. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), YKL-40 and calprotectin are biomarkers of inflammation and predict mortality in patients with different inflammatory...... diseases. We aimed to investigate the correlation between levels of these three biomarkers and neutrophil granulocyte and lymphocyte count in patients with moderate to very severe COPD stratified by use of systemic glucocorticoids. Furthermore, we studied the ability of these biomarkers to predict all......- and multivariate Cox regression analyses with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Plasma calprotectin was positively correlated with neutrophil granulocyte count and NLR. No significant association was found between plasma YKL-40 and the cellular biomarkers, irrespective...

  11. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Davood Attaran1, Shahrzad M Lari1, Mohammad Towhidi1, Hassan Ghobadi Marallu2, Hossein Ayatollahi1, Mohammad Khajehdaluee1, Mostafa Ghanei3, Reza Basiri11Lung Disease and Tuberculosis Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, 2Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 3Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six-minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups.Results: Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03. There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04 and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01. There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = -0.36, P = 0.016.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation.Keywords: sulfur mustard, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  12. Resource allocation and the burden of co-morbidities among patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a leading cause of mortality, and associated with increased healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. In several countries, morbidity-based systems have changed the way resources are allocated in general practice. In primary care, fee......-for-services tariffs are often based on political negotiation rather than costing systems. The potential for comprehensive measures of patient morbidity to explain variation in negotiated expenditures for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has not previously been examined. The aim of this study...... is to analyze fee-for-service expenditure of patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease visiting Danish general practice clinics and further to assess what proportion of fee-for-service expenditure variation was explained by patient morbidity and general practice clinic characteristics...

  13. Relationship between sleep quality and mental health according to demographics of 850 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Alireza; Safa, Mitra; Ghassem Boroujerdi, Fatemeh; Hajizadeh, Farzaneh; Pashm Foroush, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to study sleep problems in hospitalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and assess the relationship of sleep quality with mental health and demographics of patients. Our study sample consisted of 850 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients hospitalized in Masih Daneshvari Hospital. Demographic data were collected and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and mental health questionnaires were filled out for patients. The results showed that 5.9 percent were suffering from severe sleep problems, while 4.7 percent had severe mental problems. A strong positive correlation was found between the total scores of mental health and sleep quality ( p mental health problems was higher in females compared to males. Mental health and sleep quality play important roles in quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  14. Resilience as a concept for understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Francesca; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Kendall, Sally; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-04-01

    This paper was a report of the synthesis of evidence on examining the origins and definitions of the concept of resilience, investigating its application in chronic illness management and exploring its utility as a means of understanding family caregiving of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Resilience is a concept that is becoming relevant to understanding how individuals and families live with illness, especially long-term conditions. Caregivers of adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease must be able to respond to exacerbations of the condition and may themselves experience cognitive imbalances. Yet, resilience as a way of understanding family caregiving of adults with COPD is little explored. Literature review - integrative review. CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar and EBSCO were searched between 1989-2015. The principles of rapid evidence assessment were followed. We identified 376 relevant papers: 20 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in family caregivers of chronic diseases patients but only 12 papers reported the presence of the concept of resilience in caregivers of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients and have been included in the synthesis. The term resilience in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease caregiving is most often understood using a deficit model of health.

  15. Influence of sex on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shambhu Aryal,1 Enrique Diaz-Guzman,2 David M Mannino3 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, 3Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, one of the most common chronic diseases and a leading cause of death, has historically been considered a disease of men. However, there has been a rapid increase in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of COPD in women over the last two decades. This has largely been attributed to historical increases in tobacco consumption among women. But the influence of sex on COPD is complex and involves several other factors, including differential susceptibility to the effects of tobacco, anatomic, hormonal, and behavioral differences, and differential response to therapy. Interestingly, nonsmokers with COPD are more likely to be women. In addition, women with COPD are more likely to have a chronic bronchitis phenotype, suffer from less cardiovascular comorbidity, have more concomitant depression and osteoporosis, and have a better outcome with acute exacerbations. Women historically have had lower mortality with COPD, but this is changing as well. There are also differences in how men and women respond to different therapies. Despite the changing face of COPD, care providers continue to harbor a sex bias, leading to underdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of COPD in women. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the influence of sex on COPD risk factors, epidemiology, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes, and how this knowledge may be applied to improve clinical practices and advance research. Keywords: chronic obstructive lung disease, sex, smoking, comorbidity, sex bias

  16. Severity of Anxiety Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Mitra Safa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients with chronic physical diseases sometimes show increased loss of function; such patients need more care. Anxiety is a well-known symptom that is prevalent among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients that can prolong and increase the risk of hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the severity of anxiety in the mentioned patients and to examine the presence of symptoms and appropriate treatment strategies to understand the role of psychological functions in physical patients.Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted in Masih Daneshvari Hospital. One hundred forty- three patients entered into the project by accessible method and signed the informed consent; they filled demographic information and Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS-16 .Results: Of the participants, 68% were above 60 years of age; 78% were male; 89% were married; and 38% were self-employed. Also, among the participants, 51% were illiterate; 72% had history of smoking; 46% had history of substance abuse; and 49% had moderate to severe anxiety disorder. Moreover, of the patients with severe anxiety, 41.3% had severe muscle spasms; and severe sleeplessness was found in 38.5% of those with severe anxiety disorder. Severe anxiety related symptoms were found in 20.3% of the patients with severe anxiety disorder. Depressed mood was found in 27.3% of the patients with severe anxiety disorder. Severe physical and muscular signs were found in 35.7% of those with severe anxiety disorder .Conclusion: According to our findings, many chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may contain anxiety and depression which result in vulnerability. Therefore, evaluation of anxiety in such patients is of importance for alleviating the disease.

  17. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Davood; Lari, Shahrzad M; Towhidi, Mohammad; Marallu, Hassan Ghobadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Khajehdaluee, Mohammad; Ghanei, Mostafa; Basiri, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease. Methods Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six- minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity), and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups. Results Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD) 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04) and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01). There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = −0.36, P = 0.016). Conclusion Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation. PMID:21037957

  18. Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Lindsay; Kirby, Miranda; Etemad-Rezai, Roya; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David G.; Parraga, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ( 3 He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for 3 He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, 1 H MRI and hyperpolarized 3 He MRI at 3.0 T. 3 He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from 3 He static ventilation images and 1 H thoracic images and the 3 He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant 3 He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for 3 He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  19. PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE RELAXATION INCREASE PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS

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    Tintin Sukartini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited progressive air flow in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can caused by small airway disease (bronchiolitis obstructive and loss of elasticity of the lung (emphysema. Further it can be decreasing the quality of life in COPD patients because dyspnea and uncomfortable in activity. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR is one of the relaxation technique that can repair pulmonary ventilation by decreasing chronic constriction of the respiratory muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on raised peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Method: A pre-experimental one group pre-post test design was used in this study. Population was all of the COPD patients at Pulmonary Specialist Polyclinic Dr Mohamad Soewandhie Surabaya. There were 8 respondents taken by using purposive sampling. PEFR was counted by using peak flow meter every six day. Data were analyzed by using Paired t-Test with significance level  p≤0.05. Result: The result showed that PMR had significance level on increasing of PEFR (p=0.012. Discussion: It can be concluded that PMR has an effect on raise PEFR. Further studies are recommended to measure the effect of PMR on respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR subjective dyspnoe symptoms, forced expiration volume on the first minute (FEV1 and mid maximum flow rate (MMFR in COPD patients.

  20. Correlation of the perfusion scintigram with pulmonary functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Uchida, Kou; Ashitaka, Tsuyoshi; Uchibori, Shigeyasu [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Takano, Masaaki

    1992-11-01

    The authors carried out ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and pulmonary function tests in 21 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It was used [sup 99m]Tc-macroaggregate for perfusion scintigram and [sup 133]Xe gas for ventilation scintigram. It was added the radioactivities of rebreathing phase and made lung volume image using a computer. Regions of interest (ROIs) were derived from radioactivities in each image. ROIs on lung volume image included each whole lung and those on perfusion image included the areas which had relatively high radioactivity. The authors counted the area of ROIs on lung volume (L) and perfusion (P) images. Then it was used the ratio of perfusion to lung volume (P/L) as a parameter of pulmonary perfusion. P/L had the significant correlations with the vital capacity, the actual FFV[sub 1.0], arterial oxygen partial pressure, diffusing capacity, RV/TLC and peak flow rate. These results suggested that P/L was a useful parameter of pulmonary perfusion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (author).

  1. Lead Screening for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease of IKK2 Inhibited by Traditional Chinese Medicine

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    Yung-An Tsou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic obstructive lung disease and is frequently found in well-developed countries due to the issue of aging populations. Not all forms of medical treatment are unable to return a patient's limited pulmonary function back to normal and eventually they could require a lung transplant. At this time, COPD is the leading cause of death in the world. Studies surveying I-kappa-B-kinase beta (IKK2 are very relevant to the occurrence and deterioration of the condition COPD. The sinapic acid-4-O-sulfate, kaempferol, and alpha-terpineol were found to be IKK2 inhibitors and helped prevent COPD occurrence and worsening according to a screening of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM database. The protein-ligand interaction of these three compounds with regard to IKK2 was also done by molecular dynamics. The docking poses, hydrogen bond variation, and hydrophobic interactions found Asp103 and Lys106 are crucial to IKK2 binding areas for IKK2 inhibition. Finally, we found the three compounds that have an equally strong effect in terms of IKK2 binding proven by the TCM database and perhaps these may be an alternative treatment for COPD in the future.

  2. Protective effect of fenspiride on the bronchi in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzubova, N A; Lebedeva, E S; Fedin, A N; Dvorakovskaya, I V; Titova, O N

    2013-06-01

    We studied the effect of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride on contractive activity of bronchial smooth muscles on the model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of rats induced by 60-day exposure to nitrogen dioxide. The administration of fenspiride during the acute stage of the disease (day 15) abolished the constricting effect of the pollutant on the bronchial smooth muscles. Dilatation effect of fenspiride in a low dose (0.15 mg/kg) was mediated by its interaction with nerve endings of bronchial capsaicin-sensitive nerve C-fibers. The interaction of drug with receptors of C-fibers prevented neurogenic inflammation, which was confirmed by the absence of structural changes in the lungs typical of this pathology. The broncholytic effect of fenspiride in a high dose (15 mg/kg) was mediated by not only afferent pathways, but also its direct relaxing action on smooth muscle cells. The observed anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatation effect of fenspiride in very low doses can be used for prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in risk-group patients contacting with aggressive environmental factors.

  3. Community-acquired pneumonia in patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos, L; Clemente, M G; Miranda, B; Alvarez, C; del Busto, B; Cocina, B R; Alvarez, F; Gorostidi, J; Orejas, C

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the possible differences, especially those regarding mortality, between patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the risk factors related to mortality in the COPD group. 710 patients with CAP were included in a prospective multicenter observational study. 244 of the patients had COPD confirmed by spirometry. COPD was associated with mortality in patients with CAP (OR=2.62 CI: 1.08-6.39). Patients with COPD and CAP had a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate as compared to patients without COPD. Multivariate analysis showed that PaO(2) or =45 mmHg (OR=4.6; CI: 2.3-15.1); respiratory rate > or =30/min (OR=12.25; CI: 3.45-35.57), pleural effusion (OR=8.6; 95% CI: 2.01-24.7), septic shock (OR=12.6; 95% CI: 3.4-45.66) and renal failure (OR=13.4; 95% CI: 3.2-37.8) were significantly related to mortality. Purulent sputum and fever were considered as protective factors. COPD was an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with CAP. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are associated with mortality in patients with CAP with and without COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and PaCO(2) value could be useful prognostic factors and should be incorporated in risk stratification in patients with CAP.

  4. End of life care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: in search of a good death

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    Anna Spathis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Anna Spathis, Sara BoothPalliative Care Service, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, England, UKAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an incurable, progressive illness that is the fourth commonest cause of death worldwide. Death tends to occur after a prolonged functional decline associated with uncontrolled symptoms, emotional distress and social isolation. There is increasing evidence that the end of life needs of those with advanced COPD are not being met by existing services. Many barriers hinder the provision of good end of life care in COPD, including the inherent difficulties in determining prognosis. This review provides an evidence-based approach to overcoming these barriers, summarising current evidence and highlighting areas for future research. Topics include end of life needs, symptom control, advance care planning, and service development to improve the quality of end of life care.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (MeSH, palliative care (MeSH, dyspnoea (MeSH, advance care planning (MeSH

  5. Profile of aclidinium bromide in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Sims MW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael W Sims, Reynold A Panettieri, Jr. Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, Airways Biology Initiative, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Bronchodilators provide the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular, appear to be the most effective. There are currently two anticholinergic agents available in the US for the treatment of COPD (ipratropium bromide and tiotropium bromide, but several others are in various stages of development. Aclidinium bromide, a novel, long-acting, anticholinergic bronchodilator, is currently in Phase III trials for the management of COPD. Available evidence suggests that aclidinium is a safe and well tolerated drug with a relatively rapid onset and a sufficient duration of action to provide once-daily dosing. This article will provide a pharmacologic profile of aclidinium bromide and review the preclinical and clinical studies evaluating its safety and efficacy in the treatment of COPD. Keywords: aclidinium bromide, bronchodilators, pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, muscarinic antagonists, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology

  6. Self-management strategies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a first step toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrecheguren, Miriam; Bourbeau, Jean

    2018-03-01

    Self-management has gained increased relevance in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The heterogeneity in self-management interventions has complicated the development of recommendations for clinical practice. In this review, we present the latest findings regarding conceptual definition, effectiveness of self-management interventions and self-management strategies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a first step toward personalized medicine: what, how and to whom? Self-management interventions have shown benefits in improving health-related quality of life and reducing hospital admissions. Favorable outcomes can only be achieved if patients have an ultimate goal, that is their desired achievements in their life. In the continuum of care, the components of the self-management program will vary to adapt to the condition of the patient (disease severity, comorbidities) and to factors such as patient motivation, confidence (self-efficacy), access to health care, family and social support. A combination of education, case management and patient-centric action plan has shown the best chance of success. The individual patient's needs, own preferences and personal goals should inform the design of any intervention with a behavioral component. A continuous loop process has to be implemented to constantly assess what work and does not work, aiming at achieving the desired outcomes for a given patient.

  7. Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Time for a paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nici, Linda; Bontly, Thomas D; Zuwallack, Richard; Gross, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, centering on an action plan for the exacerbation and enhanced communication between the patient and health care providers, makes good clinical sense. However, five relatively large trials of self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have had inconsistent results: only two demonstrated reductions in health care utilization and one had to be discontinued prematurely because of increased mortality. Do these discordant findings require a paradigm shift in our concept of self-management? Probably not-but an analysis of the negative studies can give us valuable insights. There are data to support the idea that patients in the trial that showed increased mortality did not self-manage appropriately. Only 4.5% of these patients called in before starting treatment for their exacerbation, the time to initiation of antibiotics or steroids was unsatisfactorily long, and the intervention arm used minimally more prednisone and antibiotics than the control arm. The reasons for a higher mortality will likely never be known, but it is possible that these high-risk patients may have needed earlier assessment by a trained professional, or that self-management led to overconfidence and treatment delays. We clearly need more effective ways to implement self-management and better define which groups of patients stand to benefit (or be harmed) by this intervention. This will require an investment in well-thought-out clinical trials.

  8. [Severity classification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease based on deep learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yang, Ceyuan; Li, Quanzheng; Xue, Wanguo; Li, Tanshi; Cao, Wenzhe

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a deep learning method has been raised to build an automatic classification algorithm of severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Large sample clinical data as input feature were analyzed for their weights in classification. Through feature selection, model training, parameter optimization and model testing, a classification prediction model based on deep belief network was built to predict severity classification criteria raised by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). We get accuracy over 90% in prediction for two different standardized versions of severity criteria raised in 2007 and 2011 respectively. Moreover, we also got the contribution ranking of different input features through analyzing the model coefficient matrix and confirmed that there was a certain degree of agreement between the more contributive input features and the clinical diagnostic knowledge. The validity of the deep belief network model was proved by this result. This study provides an effective solution for the application of deep learning method in automatic diagnostic decision making.

  9. Frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, R.; Ghaffar, T.; Khan, I.; Muhammad, R.; Salman, S.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) is considered as risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) along with other risk factors. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of undiagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pulmonology and Cardiology wards/OPD's of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar. Patients more than 35 years of age, diagnosed with CAD of either gender were included. Patients already diagnosed with COPD, recent myocardial infarction (within 7 days), left ventricular impairment, pneumothorax, bronchiectasis, comatose patient, asthmatic and those with chest trauma were excluded. All the patients underwent spirometry examination before and after administration of salbutamol (5 mg for 5 minutes) via nebulizer. FEV1/FVC less than 70% confirmed the presence of COPD. Results: Out of 151 patients, 57 (37.7%) were found to have COPD. Among them, 39 (68.42%) were male and 18 (31.57%) were female. Among male patients with COPD, 82.05% (n=32) were smokers and 17.94% (n=7) were nonsmokers while in females with COPD no one was smoker. Conclusion: COPD is an under-diagnosed progressive disease in patients with high risk patients with coronary artery disease. (author)

  10. Level of daily physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients according to GOLD classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó-Pin, Anna; Balañá, Ana; Molina, Lluís; Gea, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Diego A

    2017-02-09

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guideline) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease does not adequately reflect the impact of the disease because does not take into account daily physical activity (DPA). Forty eight patients (12 in each GOLD group) were prospectively recruited. DPA was evaluated by accelerometer. Patients were classified into 3 levels of activity (very inactive, sedentary, active). No significant differences in levels of physical activity among GOLD groups (P=.361) were observed. The percentages of very inactive patients were 33% in group A, 42% in group B, 42% in group C and 59% in group D. In addition, high percentage of sedentary patients were observed through 4 groups, in group A (50%), B and C (42%, each), and group D (41%). COPD patients has very low levels of physical activity at all stages of GOLD classification even those defined as low impact (such as GOLD A). Is necessary to detect patients at risk who might benefit from specific interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain management at the end of life: A comparative study of cancer, dementia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romem, Anat; Tom, Sarah E; Beauchene, Michelle; Babington, Lynn; Scharf, Steven M; Romem, Ayal

    2015-05-01

    Limited data exist concerning the unique pain characteristics of patients with non-cancer terminal diseases referred for inpatient hospice care. To define the unique pain characteristics of patients admitted to an acute inpatient hospice setting with end-stage dementia or chronic obstructive lung disease (or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and to compare them to patients with end-stage cancer. Retrospective patient chart review. Demographic, physiological, pain parameters, and medication utilization data were extracted. Associations between pain characteristics, medication utilization, and admission diagnoses were assessed. Analyses included descriptive statistics. In total, 146 patients admitted to an acute inpatient hospice between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2012 with an underlying primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 51), dementia (n = 48), or cancer (n = 47). Pain was highly prevalent in all diagnostic groups, with cancer patients experiencing more severe pain on admission. Cancer patients received a significantly higher cumulative opioid dose compared with dementia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Pain control within 24 h of pain onset was achieved in less than half of all patient groups with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients the least likely to achieve pain control. Despite the fact that pain is the most common complaint at the end of life, pain management may be suboptimal for some primary diagnoses. Admission diagnosis is the strongest predictor of pain control. Patient with cancer achieve the best pain control, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the least likely to have their pain adequately treated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Self-care 3 months after attending chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient education: a qualitative descriptive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Camilla A; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors performed a qualitative descriptive analysis to explore how group patient education influences the self-care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients and methods: In the period 2009–2010, eleven patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary...... their symptoms, and that the social aspect of patient education had motivated them to utilize their new habits after finishing the course. The data indicate that patients need a period of adjustment (a "ripening period"): it took time for patients to integrate new habits and competencies into everyday life...

  13. Branched-chain aminoacids and retraining of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menier, R; Talmud, J; Laplaud, D; Bernard, M P

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the efficacy of rehabilitation by retraining, by oral supply in branched-chain aminoacids (BCAA). Patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency mainly suffer from obstructive bronchitis due to tobacco or asthma. Nutritional assessment is one of the components of respiratory rehabilitation, with retraining. Intense physical training for several days negativates the nitrogen balance, the beginning of a training programme for sedentary patients increases their need in proteins. An additional supply in branched-chain aminoacids increases proteic anabolism, by synthesis increase and catabolism slackening of proteins. Moreover it is known that exposure to high altitude reduces lean mass by inducing a muscular atrophy, which can be avoided by the BCAA provided. This leads to wonder if extra supply of BCAA could play similar role in muscular mass loss induced by pathological chronic hypoxia. The prospective and comparative survey carried out in Toki-Eder (private hospital in Cambo) consisted in supplying (during five weeks or more) 30 retrained patients suffering from chronic obstructive bronchitis, and in matching them with 30 witnesses (obstructive patients retrained without additional supply in BCAA). Their mean hypoxemia amounted to 7 torr for age. Each of them improved their reached maximal power, and their VO2 SL, very highly significantly. Each of them developed a moderate metabolic acidosis (whose possible mechanisms are discussed) and slightly increased their ventilation at rest. On the other hand only the supplied patients improved their PaO2 at rest highly significantly, a result which poses the question of the responsible mechanism, most likely a decrease of pulmonary shunt effect. The hypotheses concerning the acid load due to BCAA ingestion are discussed. Only the supplied patients developed hypocapnia expressing a gaseous alkalosis which might be due to a direct effect of BCAA on the respiratory centers. This observation

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: getting it right. Does optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease alter disease progression and improve survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard E

    2014-03-01

    We live in a world where people live longer lives. The standardized mortality rate for many diseases is decreasing. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not following this trend. Over the last 10 years, interventions for COPD have been developed, but have any changed the prognosis or trajectory of this modern epidemic? We review the most recent and classical literature in order to answer this question. Recent analyses of data have clarified which interventions are effective in COPD and which are not. New studies have defined what is achievable with the current therapies. Only two interventions have been demonstrated to improve survival: smoking cessation and long-term oxygen therapy. Other treatments do reduce exacerbations, improve lung function and improve the patient's quality of life, but do not affect physiological disease progression or mortality. There is much work to do, not only to improve the treatments we have for this disease, but also to diagnose it early, intervene at the right time, reduce the treatment side-effects and most importantly understand the pathophysiology better. Moreover, we are duty bound to look at each patient and review what we are trying to achieve for each one through appropriate phenotyping as well as sometimes taking a more palliative approach.

  15. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: The Reference Therapy for Undernourished Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Samaras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD combines the deleterious effects of chronic hypoxia, chronic inflammation, insulin-resistance, increased energy expenditure, muscle wasting, and exercise deconditioning. As for other chronic disorders, loss of fat-free mass decreased survival. The preservation of muscle mass and function, through the protection of the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, is an important challenge in the management of COPD patients. As the prevalence of the disease is increasing and the medical advances make COPD patients live longer, the prevalence of COPD-associated nutritional disorders is expected to increase in future decades. Androgenopenia is observed in 40% of COPD patients. Due to the stimulating effects of androgens on muscle anabolism, androgenopenia favors loss of muscle mass. Studies have shown that androgen substitution could improve muscle mass in COPD patients, but alone, was insufficient to improve lung function. Two multicentric randomized clinical trials have shown that the association of androgen therapy with physical exercise and oral nutritional supplements containing omega-3 polyinsaturated fatty acids, during at least three months, is associated with an improved clinical outcome and survival. These approaches are optimized in the field of pulmonary rehabilitation which is the reference therapy of COPD-associated undernutrition.

  16. Occupational exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.

  17. Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda : FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda: FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, in many low and middle-income

  18. Expert consensus on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai BQ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bai-qiang Cai,1 Shao-xi Cai,2 Rong-chang Chen,3 Li-ying Cui,4 Yu-lin Feng,5 Yu-tong Gu,6 Shao-guang Huang,7 Rong-yu Liu,8 Guang-nan Liu,9 Huan-zhong Shi,10 Yi Shi,11 Yuan-lin Song,6 Tie-ying Sun,12 Chang-zheng Wang,13 Jing-lan Wang,1 Fu-qiang Wen,5 Wei Xiao,14 Yong-jian Xu,15 Xi-xin Yan,16 Wan-zhen Yao,17 Qin Yu,18 Jing Zhang,6 Jin-ping Zheng,3 Jie Liu,6 Chun-xue Bai6 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Southern Medical University South Hospital, Guangzhou, 3The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou, 4Affiliate Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhehaote, 5Huaxi Hospital of Sichuan University, Chendu, 6Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University and Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Shanghai, 7Ruijing Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 8The First Affiliated University of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 9The First Affiliated University of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 10Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 11General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Nanjing, 12Beijing Hospital of the Ministry of Health, Beijing, 13Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 14Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 15Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 16The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University and Hebei Research Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Shijiazhuang, 17The Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University, Beijing, 18The First Affiliated University of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common disease that severely threatens human health. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD is a major cause of

  19. Advances in Remote Respiratory Assessments for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroi, Sidney; McNamara, Renae J; McKenzie, David K; Gandevia, Simon; Brodie, Matthew A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality. Advances in remote technologies and telemedicine provide new ways to monitor respiratory function and improve chronic disease management. However, telemedicine does not always include remote respiratory assessments, and the current state of knowledge for people with COPD has not been evaluated. Systematically review the use of remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD, including the following questions: What devices have been used? Can acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) be predicted by using remote devices? Do remote respiratory assessments improve health-related outcomes? The review protocol was registered (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016049333). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COMPENDEX databases were searched for studies that included remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD. A narrative synthesis was then conducted by two reviewers according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Forced expiratory volume assessed daily by using a spirometer was the most common modality. Other measurements included resting respiratory rate, respiratory sounds, and end-tidal carbon dioxide level. Remote assessments had high user satisfaction. Benefits included early detection of AECOPD, improved health-related outcomes, and the ability to replace hospital care with a virtual ward. Remote respiratory assessments are feasible and when combined with sufficient organizational backup can improve health-related outcomes in some but not all cohorts. Future research should focus on the early detection, intervention, and rehabilitation for AECOPD in high-risk people who have limited access to best care and investigate continuous as well as intermittent monitoring.

  20. Comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in family practice: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Olmos, Luis; Alberquilla, Angel; Ayala, Victoria; García-Sagredo, Pilar; Morales, Leticia; Carmona, Montserrat; de Tena-Dávila, María José; Pascual, Mario; Muñoz, Adolfo; Salvador, Carlos H; Monteagudo, Jose L

    2013-01-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequent and often coexists with other diseases. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of COPD and related chronic comorbidity among patients aged over 40 years visiting family practices in an area of Madrid. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a health area of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid). The practice population totalled 198,670 persons attended by 129 Family Physicians (FPs), and the study population was made up of persons over the age of 40 years drawn from this practice population. Patients were deemed to have COPD if this diagnosis appeared on their clinical histories. Prevalence of COPD; prevalence of a further 25 chronic diseases in patients with COPD; and standardised prevalence ratios, were calculated. Prevalence of COPD in family medicine was 3.2% (95% CI 3.0-3.3) overall, 5.3% among men and 1.4% among women; 90% of patients presented with comorbidity, with a mean of 4 ± 2.04 chronic diseases per patient, with the most prevalent related diseases being arterial hypertension (52%), disorders of lipid metabolism (34%), obesity (25%), diabetes (20%) and arrhythmia (15%). After controlling for age and sex, the observed prevalence of the following ten chronic diseases was higher than expected: heart failure; chronic liver disease; asthma; generalised artherosclerosis; osteoporosis; ischaemic heart disease; thyroid disease; anxiety/depression; arrhythmia; and obesity. Patients with COPD, who are frequent in family practice, have a complex profile and pose a clinical and organisational challenge to FPs.

  1. Chronic Bronchitis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Among Textile Workers in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafees, A. A.; Fatmi, Z.; Kadir, M. M.; Sathiakumar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and predictors of chronic bronchitis and COPD among textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Karachi, Pakistan, from October to December 2009. Methodology: Male textile workers from 15 mills of Karachi were inducted. Data was collected using American Thoracic Society respiratory questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-a) and spirometry. Result: Out of 372 participants, 29 (7.8 percentage) workers had chronic bronchitis (4, 9.1 percentage aged =40 years) and 25 (6.7 percentage) had COPD (12, 27.2 percentage aged ≥40 years). Workers with chronic bronchitis had significantly decreased lung function compared to the healthy workers. Those reporting severe self-perceived dust exposure at work, ≥ 10 pack years of smoking, uneducated, longer duration of work (≥11 years), and ever smokers were more likely to have chronic bronchitis or COPD. In the multivariate analyses, severe self-perceived dust exposure at work (AOR = 7.4; 95 percentage CI: 1.9, 28.0), family history of respiratory illness/symptoms (AOR = 4.8; 95 percentage CI: 1.1, 20.9) and lack of education (AOR = 4.2; 95 percentage CI: 1.1, 16.9) were significant predictors of chronic bronchitis. Duration of work ≥11 years (AOR = 5.5; 95 percentage CI: 1.5, 19.7) and pack years of smoking ≥10 years (AOR = 3.5; 95 percentage CI: 1.1, 11.7) were strong predictors for COPD. Conclusion: There is a high frequency of chronic bronchitis and COPD among textile workers. Multiple important predictors for prevention are identified. (author)

  2. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodruff PG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Albert,1 John Connett,2 Jeffrey L Curtis,3,4 Fernando J Martinez,3 MeiLan K Han,3 Stephen C Lazarus,5 Prescott G Woodruff51Medicine Service, Denver Health and Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, 2Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Mannose-binding lectin is a collectin involved in host defense against infection. Whether mannose-binding lectin deficiency is associated with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is debated.Methods: Participants in a study designed to determine if azithromycin taken daily for one year decreased acute exacerbations had serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations measured at the time of enrollment.Results: Samples were obtained from 1037 subjects (91% in the trial. The prevalence of mannose-binding lectin deficiency ranged from 0.5% to 52.2%, depending on how deficiency was defined. No differences in the prevalence of deficiency were observed with respect to any demographic variable assessed, and no differences were observed in time to first exacerbation, rate of exacerbations, or percentage of subjects requiring hospitalization for exacerbations in those with deficiency versus those without, regardless of how deficiency was defined.Conclusion: In a large sample of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease selected for having an increased risk of experiencing an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, only 1.9% had mannose-binding lectin concentrations below the normal range and we found no association between mannose-binding lectin

  3. [Fundamentals of hospital treatment in exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, J; Vondra, V

    1996-10-01

    Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Involves Administration of O2, beta 2 adrenergic, anticholinergic drugs, corticoids, theophylline, antibiotics, mucolytics and supported ventilation. The objective of oxygen treatment is to increase the oxygen saturation to a minimum of 90%, PaO2 = 8 kPa, without an increase of PaCO2 by more than 1.33 kPa or a reduction of the pH below 7.25. Beta 2 adrenergic substances are the most potent bronchodilatating agents. Inhalation of the preparation in solution is optimal. Neither the interval of administration nor the dosage are uniform. In Europe most frequently the following solutions are recommended: salbutamol (Ventolin) 0.5%-2.5 mg. This dose can be repeated, depending on tolerance, after 30-60 minutes, fenoterol (Berotec) 0.1%, most frequently an initial dose of 0.5-1.25 mg is used. In chronic obstructive lung disease inhalation of ipratropium in solution is preferred (Atrovent) 0.025%. American authors agreed on 0.5 mg after 4-8 hour intervals. A combination of adrenergic and cholinergic agents is useful as each drug acts by a different mechanism. The effect can potentiate while no undesirable effects develop. Views on corticoid administration in chronic obstructive lung disease differ. Some investigations did not prove a positive effect while others did. In the authors' department preference is given to the intravenous administration of 160 mg methylprednisolone divided into two doses per day. Intravenous administration of aminophylline is indicated if inhalation treatment is not effective enough or if inhalation treatment cannot be administered. Aminophylline is administered continually or intermittently in infusion, the dose for adults being 0.5-0.9 mg/kg/hour. Opinions on antibiotics differ. Some authors recommend them, others do not. The objective of antibiotic treatment is to shorten the duration of the exacerbation and to prevent deterioration in a patient with a minimal respiratory

  4. Stage 1 development of a patient-reported experience measure (PREM) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan; Andrew, Sharon; Hodson, Matthew; Roberts, C Michael

    2017-07-24

    The study aimed to explore patients' experience of living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their perspective of their community healthcare for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to extract affective responses in order to develop potential items for a patient-reported experience measure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Qualitative face-face interviews were conducted, in the community, with 64 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease recruited from General Practices and Breathe-Easy community groups in the Outer North East, East and City areas of London and Essex, UK. A two phase analysis of the qualitative data was conducted to identify themes arising from patients' description of living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their perceptions of their community healthcare and subsequently the affective responses underlying the themes raised by patients, which gave emotional colour to the themes, bringing the thematic analysis closer to the subjective patient experience. Five themes were identified from the interview data: 'Journey to diagnosis'; 'Smoking'; 'Usual care'; 'My everyday life'; and 'Exacerbations'. Twenty-one affective responses were identified and categorised as either 'negative', 'positive' or 'bivalent'. 'Frustration', a negative affective response was prevalent in four themes. 'Gratitude', 'hope' and 'happiness/enjoyment' were among the more positive responses more prevalent across several themes. By conducting a novel two-way analysis (thematic and affective) it was possible to identify themes and affective responses that were aligned to those themes. This enabled the development of 38 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific experience items to take forward for further testing including item reduction and validity and reliability in the next stage of the patient-reported experience measure development. GIVING IMPORTANCE TO PATIENTS' EMOTIONS: An exploration of patient perceptions of living with

  5. Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Philippot

    Full Text Available Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2-3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1-3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor, storage (ferritin and export (ferroportin genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC. The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Furthermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively. In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative

  6. Clinical utility of computed tomographic lung volumes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Sei Won; Huh, Jin Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do

    2014-01-01

    Published data concerning the utility of computed tomography (CT)-based lung volumes are limited to correlation with lung function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the CT expiratory-to-inspiratory lung volume ratio (CT Vratio) by assessing the relationship with clinically relevant outcomes. A total of 75 stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients having pulmonary function testing and volumetric CT at full inspiration and expiration were retrospectively evaluated. Inspiratory and expiratory CT lung volumes were measured using in-house software. Correlation of the CT Vratio with patient-centered outcomes, including the modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea score, the 6-min walk distance (6MWD), the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, and multidimensional COPD severity indices, such as the BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index (BODE) and age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction (ADO), were analyzed. The CT Vratio correlated significantly with BMI (r = -0.528, p < 0.001). The CT Vratio was also significantly associated with MMRC dyspnea (r = 0.387, p = 0.001), 6MWD (r = -0.459, p < 0.001), and SGRQ (r = 0.369, p = 0.001) scores. Finally, the CT Vratio had significant correlations with the BODE and ADO multidimensional COPD severity indices (r = 0.605, p < 0.001; r = 0.411, p < 0.001). The CT Vratio had significant correlations with patient-centered outcomes and multidimensional COPD severity indices. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, BR

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  8. Unemployment in chronic airflow obstruction around the world: results from the BOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønseth, Rune; Erdal, Marta; Tan, Wan C; Obaseki, Daniel O; Amaral, Andre F S; Gislason, Thorarinn; Juvekar, Sanjay K; Koul, Parvaiz A; Studnicka, Michael; Salvi, Sundeep; Burney, Peter; Buist, A Sonia; Vollmer, William M; Johannessen, Ane

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine associations between chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) and unemployment across the world.Cross-sectional data from 26 sites in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study were used to analyse effects of CAO on unemployment. Odds ratios for unemployment in subjects aged 40-65 years were estimated using a multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear model with study site as random effect. Site-by-site heterogeneity was assessed using individual participant data meta-analyses.Out of 18 710 participants, 11.3% had CAO. The ratio of unemployed subjects with CAO divided by subjects without CAO showed large site discrepancies, although these were no longer significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and education. The site-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for unemployment was 1.79 (1.41-2.27) for CAO cases, decreasing to 1.43 (1.14-1.79) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and forced vital capacity. Of other covariates that were associated with unemployment, age and education were important risk factors in high-income sites (4.02 (3.53-4.57) and 3.86 (2.80-5.30), respectively), while female sex was important in low- to middle-income sites (3.23 (2.66-3.91)).In the global BOLD study, CAO was associated with increased levels of unemployment, even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and lung function. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  9. Pulmonary function tests and impulse oscillometry in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients′ offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have showed an increased prevalence of airflow obstruction in first degree relatives of individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Considering no specific research had evaluated airway resistance in offspring of patients with severe COPD, we utilized a spirometry and a impulse oscillometry (IO to evaluate this population. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, from November 2011 to July 2012, we consecutively evaluated 54 offsprings of severe COPD patients (case group admitted in the pulmonary ward, affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and control group. Pulmonary function tests and the IO were obtained for both groups. Student′s t-test was used for inter-group comparisons, and P values below 0.05 were taken as significant. Results: Abnormal increased airway resistance was seen in cases in comparison with controls (R5 Hz [46.29%, P = 0.01], R25 Hz [42.59%, P < 0.001]. Also, considering the spirometry, case group had pulmonary function parameters less than control group (forced vital capacity [FVC]; P = 0.02, forced expiratory volume in 1 st s; P < 0.001, forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75; P < 0.001, FEF 25-75/FVC; P < 0.001 but they were in normal range. Conclusion: This study demonstrated increased airway resistance among the severe COPD offsprings. The IO may be a sensitive tool for detection of high risk subjects in families with COPD.

  10. First pass and gated blood pool in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, F.S.; Meneguetti, J.C.; Cukier, A.; Terra Filho, M.; Tiss, E.; Romeiro Neto, M.; Camargo, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied. The spirometry demonstrated predominantly reduction of vital capacity with signs of pulmonary hyperinflation. Obstruction of the proximal and distal airways was also noted. Total pulmonary resistance and static lung compliance were increased in the majority of these patients. Hypoxemia was present in the entire group, with no carbon dioxide retention. Various degrees of pulmonary artery dilatation were detected on the radioisotopic examination, suggesting pulmonary hypertension, confirmed by the increased mean pulmonary transit time. Regional disturbance of myocardial motility of the right ventricle was observed in 90% of the patients, being severe in 15%. The end-systolic volume was increased in 95% of the patients and the end-diastolic in 55%. These changes represent an initial functional disturbance, which does not allow to draw conclusions about reduction of the cardiac output or the ejection fraction. Left ventricular motility was normal in 85% of the patients, reduced in 15% and severely reduced in only one patient. Left ventricular volume was discrete or moderately increased in six patients (20%). The ejection fraction was decreased in one patient (5%). The increased ejection fraction observed in three patients is likely a consequence of a rise in the ejected volume by a normal myocardium. The aorta was elongated in 75% of the patients. Taking into consideration the patients' age, it could be concluded that aortosclerosis with structural changes of its caliber is the cause of the elongation. (author) [pt

  11. Computerized tomographic quantification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as the principal determinant of frontal P vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Lovely; Sareen, Pooja; Gandagule, Amit; Spodick, David

    2012-04-01

    Verticalization of the P-wave axis is characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We studied the correlation of P-wave axis and computerized tomographically quantified emphysema in patients with COPD/emphysema. Individual correlation of P-wave axis with different structural types of emphysema was also studied. High-resolution computerized tomographic scans of 23 patients >45 years old with known COPD were reviewed to assess the type and extent of emphysema using computerized tomographic densitometric parameters. Electrocardiograms were then independently reviewed and the P-wave axis was calculated in customary fashion. Degree of the P vector (DOPV) and radiographic percent emphysematous area (RPEA) were compared for statistical correlation. The P vector and RPEA were also directly compared to the forced expiratory volume at 1 second. RPEA and the P vector had a significant positive correlation in all patients (r = +0.77, p <0.0001) but correlation was very strong in patients with predominant lower lobe emphysema (r = +0.89, p <0.001). Forced expiratory volume at 1 second and the P vector had almost a linear inverse correlation in predominantly lower lobe emphysema (r = -0.92, p <0.001). DOPV positively correlated with radiographically quantified emphysema. DOPV and RPEA were strong predictors of qualitative lung function in patients with predominantly lower lobe emphysema. In conclusion, a combination of high DOPV and predominantly lower lobe emphysema indicates severe obstructive lung dysfunction in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: etiology, impact, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Siddiqi, Tauseef A; Quan, Stuart F

    2015-03-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and may frequently be complicated by sleep disorders. Insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are commonly encountered in patients with COPD. Nocturnal hypoxemia is also prevalent in COPD may occur despite adequate awake oxygenation and can be especially severe in rapid eye movement sleep. Additionally, several factors--some of them unique to COPD--can contribute to sleep-related hypoventilation. Recognition of hypoventilation can be vital as supplemental oxygen therapy itself can acutely worsen hypoventilation and lead to disastrous consequences. Finally, accruing data establish an association between restless leg syndrome and COPD--an association that may be driven by hypoxemia and/or hypercapnia. Comorbid sleep disorders portend worse sleep quality, diminished quality of life, and multifarious other adverse consequences. The awareness and knowledge regarding sleep comorbidities in COPD has continued to evolve over past many years. There are still several lacunae, however, in our understanding of the etiologies, impact, and therapies of sleep disorders, specifically in patients with COPD. This review summarizes the latest concepts in prevalence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of diverse sleep disorders in COPD. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: moving beyond the asthma algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Erin; Lazarus, Stephen C

    2009-11-01

    For many years, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was considered a disease of fixed airflow obstruction for which there was no good treatment. Out of desperation and frustration, health care providers extrapolated from asthma to COPD, and standard asthma therapy was adopted without evidence for efficacy. In recent years, we have gained a better understanding of the pathophysiologic differences between asthma and COPD, and prospective controlled trials have provided a rationale for therapy. Smoking cessation is critically important, both as primary prevention and as an effective way to slow the decrease in lung function in patients with established disease. beta(2)-Adrenergic and anticholinergic agonists improve lung function and relieve symptoms in most patients. Tiotropium improves exercise tolerance and quality of life and reduces exacerbations and hospitalizations. The increase in lung function seen with tiotropium is sustained with continued use over at least 3 to 4 years. Inhaled corticosteroids decrease exacerbations and improve quality of life, and their effect seems greatest in patients with lower lung function and in exacerbation-prone patients. There is no evidence that inhaled corticosteroids alone affect mortality, despite the reduction in exacerbations and increased risk of pneumonia. In some patient populations, inhaled fluticasone, salmeterol, or the combination might slow the rate of loss of lung function. Rather than reflexively using effective asthma therapy in the patient with COPD, current and future therapy for COPD is increasingly evidence based and targeted to specific inflammatory pathways that are important in patients with COPD.

  14. Socioeconomic impact of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Kyungjoo; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Rhee, Chin Kook; Lee, Jin Hwa

    2017-06-01

    Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) is defined as having both features of asthma and COPD, which are airway hyper-responsiveness and incompletely reversible airway obstruction. However, socioeconomic impact of ACOS have not been well appreciated. Adults with available wheezing history and acceptable spirometry were selected from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) in 2007-2009. Their data were merged with the Korean National Health Insurance claim data. 'Asthma group' was defined as having self-reported wheezing history and FEV 1 /FVC ≥0.7, 'COPD group' was defined as having FEV 1 /FVC COPD, 8.4%; asthma, 5.8% and NAD, 83.6%. Total length of healthcare utilization and medical costs of ACOS group was the top among four groups (PCOPD group (P=0.025). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that ACOS group (β=12.63, P<0.001) and asthma group (β=6.14, P<0.001) were significantly associated with longer duration of healthcare utilization and ACOS group (β=350,475.88, P=0.008) and asthma group (β=386,876.81, P<0.001) were associated with higher medical costs. This study demonstrated that ACOS independently influences healthcare utilization after adjusting several factors. In order to utilize limited medical resources efficiently, it may be necessary to find and manage ACOS patients.

  15. The lung microbiome in moderate and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa A Pragman

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an inflammatory disorder characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract contributes to approximately 50% of COPD exacerbations. Even during periods of stable lung function, the lung harbors a community of bacteria, termed the microbiome. The role of the lung microbiome in the pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. The COPD lung microbiome, like the healthy lung microbiome, appears to reflect microaspiration of oral microflora. Here we describe the COPD lung microbiome of 22 patients with Moderate or Severe COPD compared to 10 healthy control patients. The composition of the lung microbiomes was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Sequences were analyzed using mothur, Ribosomal Database Project, Fast UniFrac, and Metastats. Our results showed a significant increase in microbial diversity with the development of COPD. The main phyla in all samples were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Principal coordinate analyses demonstrated separation of control and COPD samples, but samples did not cluster based on disease severity. However, samples did cluster based on the use of inhaled corticosteroids and inhaled bronchodilators. Metastats analyses demonstrated an increased abundance of several oral bacteria in COPD samples.

  16. Large-scale external validation and comparison of prognostic models: an application to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra, Beniamino; Haile, Sarah R.; Lamprecht, Bernd; Ramírez, Ana S.; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Kaiser, Bernhard; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban-González, Cristóbal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J.; de-Torres, Juan P.; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R.; Marin, Jose M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Sobradillo, Patricia; Lange, Peter; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Antó, Josep M.; Turner, Alice M.; Han, MeiLan K.; Langhammer, Arnulf; Leivseth, Linda; Bakke, Per; Johannessen, Ane; Oga, Toru; Cosio, Borja; Ancochea-Bermúdez, Julio; Echazarreta, Andres; Roche, Nicolas; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Sin, Don D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Puhan, Milo A.

    2018-01-01

    External validations and comparisons of prognostic models or scores are a prerequisite for their use in routine clinical care but are lacking in most medical fields including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our aim was to externally validate and concurrently compare prognostic scores

  17. Role of aberrant WNT signalling in the airway epithelial response to cigarette smoke in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Hilde; de Bruin, Harold G.; van den Berge, Maarten; Bennink, Lisa J. C.; Brandenburg, Simone M.; Gosens, Reinoud; van Oosterhout, Antoon J.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    Background WNT signalling is activated during lung tissue damage and inflammation. We investigated whether lung epithelial expression of WNT ligands, receptors (frizzled; FZD) or target genes is dysregulated on cigarette smoking and/or in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods We

  18. CITRIC-ACID COUGH THRESHOLD AND AIRWAY RESPONSIVENESS IN ASTHMATIC-PATIENTS AND SMOKERS WITH CHRONIC AIR-FLOW OBSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AUFFARTH, B; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANDERMARK, TW; POSTMA, DS; KOETER, GH

    The relation between citric acid cough threshold and airway hyperresponsiveness was investigated in 11 non-smoking patients with allergic asthma (mean FEV1 94% predicted) and 25 non-atopic smokers with chronic airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 65% predicted). Cough threshold was determined on two

  19. Generic versus Disease-Specific Instruments in Quality-of-life Assessment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malý, Marek; Vondra, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2006), s. 211-215 ISSN 0026-1270 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : health-related quality of life * questionnaires * chronic obstructive pulmonary disease * reproducibility * responsiveness Subject RIV: FC - Pulmology Impact factor: 1.684, year: 2006

  20. Perceptions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and their physiotherapists regarding the use of an eHealth intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, S.N.W.; Huisman, C.; Kort, H.S.M.; Troosters, T.; Lammers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: If eHealth interventions are not used (properly), their potential benefits cannot be fulfilled. User perceptions of eHealth are an important determinant of its successful implementation. This study examined how patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their

  1. Genetic loci associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap with loci for lung function and pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbs, Brian D.; de Jong, Kim; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bosse, Yohan; Shrine, Nick; Artigas, Maria Soler; Wain, Louise V.; Hall, Ian P.; Jackson, Victoria E.; Wyss, Annah B.; London, Stephanie J.; North, Kari E.; Franceschini, Nora; Strachan, David P.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hokanson, John E.; Crapo, James D.; Castaldi, Peter J.; Chase, Robert P.; Bartz, Traci M.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Gharib, Sina A.; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan W.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Groen, H. J.; Locantore, Nicholas; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Rennard, Stephen I.; Vestbo, Jurgen; Timens, Wim; Pare, Peter D.; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Dupuis, Josee; O'Connor, George T.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Vonk, Judith M.; de Koning, Harry J.; Leng, Shuguang; Belinsky, Steven A.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boezen, H. Marike

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide(1). We performed a genetic association study in 15,256 cases and 47,936 controls, with replication of select top results (P <5 x 10(-6)) in 9,498 cases and 9,748 controls. In the combined meta-analysis, we

  2. Identifying asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with persistent cough presenting to general practitioners : descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiadens, HA; de Bock, GH; Deker, FW; Huysman, JAN; Springer, MP; Postma, DS

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients not known to have these disorders, who present in general practice with persistent cough, and to ascertain criteria to help general practitioners in diagnosis. Design: Descriptive study. Setting:

  3. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul; Frith, Peter A.; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; van der Palen, J.A.M.; Effing, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Background  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals ofmotivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease.

  4. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul D.L.P.M.; Frith, Peter A.; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; van der Palen, Job; Effing-Tijdhof, Tanja W

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals of motivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease.

  5. Determinants of Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Tsung; Frei, Anja; ter Riet, Gerben; Puhan, Milo A.

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), most were cross-sectional and focused on single determinants only. The aim of this study was to determine how COPD patients' physical activity changes over time and to

  6. Overweight in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease needs more attention: a cross-sectional study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, L.D.M.; Leemrijse, C.J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Dijk, C.E. van; Bakker, D.H. de; Nielen, M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) primarily focus on the prevention of weight loss, while overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in patients with milder stages of COPD. This cross-sectional study examines the association of overweight and obesity with the

  7. Pinterest as a Resource for Health Information on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A Social Media Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R.; Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth H.; Alber, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how Pinterest group pinboards are used to communicate health information on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method A nonprobability census sampling method retrieved 399 pins from the 10 most followed COPD group pinboards. Pins were coded according to COPD information categories,…

  8. Genetic loci associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap with loci for lung function and pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbs, Brian D; de Jong, Kim; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bossé, Yohan; Shrine, Nick; Artigas, María Soler; Wain, Louise V; Hall, Ian P; Jackson, Victoria E; Wyss, Annah B; London, Stephanie J; North, Kari E; Franceschini, Nora; Strachan, David P; Beaty, Terri H; Hokanson, John E; Crapo, James D; Castaldi, Peter J; Chase, Robert P; Bartz, Traci M; Heckbert, Susan R; Psaty, Bruce M; Gharib, Sina A; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan W; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Groen, H J; Locantore, Nicholas; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Rennard, Stephen I; Vestbo, Jørgen; Timens, Wim; Paré, Peter D; Latourelle, Jeanne C; Dupuis, Josée; O'Connor, George T; Wilk, Jemma B; Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Vonk, Judith M; de Koning, Harry J; Leng, Shuguang; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S; Barr, R Graham; Sparrow, David; Litonjua, Augusto A; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Lahousse, Lies; Brusselle, Guy G; Stricker, Bruno H; Uitterlinden, André G; Ampleford, Elizabeth J; Bleecker, Eugene R; Woodruff, Prescott G; Meyers, Deborah A; Qiao, Dandi; Lomas, David A; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Hawrylkiewicz, Iwona; Sliwinski, Pawel; Hardin, Megan; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Schwartz, David A; Postma, Dirkje S; MacNee, William; Tobin, Martin D; Silverman, Edwin K; Boezen, H Marike; Cho, Michael H

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. We performed a genetic association study in 15,256 cases and 47,936 controls, with replication of select top results (P < 5 × 10(-6)) in 9,498 cases and 9,748 controls. In the combined meta-analysis, we

  9. Supplemental oxygen prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress in muscle-wasted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Meijer, P.L.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Thijs, H.M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although oxygen therapy is of clear benefit in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), recent studies have shown that short-term supplementary oxygen may increase oxidative stress and inflammation within the airways. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether systemic

  10. The complications of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik A; Kirenga, Bruce J; Gebremariam, Tewodros Haile; Nyale, George; de Jong, Corina; van der Molen, Thys

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In most low and middle-income countries, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise. Areas covered: Unfortunately, COPD is a neglected disease in these countries. Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, in rural areas, COPD is even unknown regarding public awareness

  11. An Official American Thoracic Society Public Policy Statement : Novel Risk Factors and the Global Burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, Mark D.; Anthonisen, Nicholas; Coultas, David; Kuenzli, Nino; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Postma, Dirkje; Romieu, Isabelle; Silverman, Edwin K.; Balmes, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although cigarette smoking is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a substantial proportion of COPD cases cannot be explained by smoking alone. Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors for COPD besides personal cigarette smoking. Methods: We

  12. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities : Results from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, HR; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, JP; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan,

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure: research and clinical practice in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiumeo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and comorbidities, increasing with age, is the challenge that nowadays health care systems are facing to better care treat these patients. For this reason a clinical trial was conducted in the province of Trento by a group of 30 volunteer general practitioners members of SNAMID (Scientific Society for Continuing Medical Education of General Practitioners. The objectives were to identify: i prevalence of COPD in patients (65-98 years in the province of Trento; ii presence and incidence of heart failure (HF in COPD patients; iii early detection of other chronic diseases; and iv improving electronic medical records (EMR as an innovation way of professional care management. From May 2011 to October 2013, 17 doctors completed the two-year work using the EMR. The studied patients were men and women (65-98 years, suffering from COPD; the considered data included: anthropometric information, smoking status, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 diagnosis of COPD, HF and chronic diseases, specific blood and instrumental tests. The extracted results were then linked with data of sentinel therapies, collected by the EMR. The database obtained identified patients with COPD or HF not previously recognized with ICD-9 diagnosis. The study identified the sentinel drugs chosen for COPD and HF, excluding other drugs not selective for the study or confusing for a proper statistical evaluation.

  14. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces cardiac inflammation and dysfunction in a rat obstructive sleep apnea model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Bian, Yeping; Yu, Fuchao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Guanghao; Li, Yang; Song, Songsong; Ren, Xiaomei; Tong, Jiayi

    2016-11-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia is considered to play an important role in cardiovascular pathogenesis during the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We used a well-described OSA rat model induced with simultaneous intermittent hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were individually placed into plexiglass chambers with air pressure and components were electronically controlled. The rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia 8 hours daily for 5 weeks. The changes of cardiac structure and function were examined by ultrasound. The cardiac pathology, apoptosis, and fibrosis were analyzed by H&E staining, TUNNEL assay, and picosirius staining, respectively. The expression of inflammation and fibrosis marker genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Chronic intermittent hypoxia/low pressure resulted in significant increase of left ventricular internal diameters (LVIDs), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and blood lactate level and marked reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increased TUNNEL-positive myocytes, disrupted normal arrangement of cardiac fibers, and increased Sirius stained collagen fibers. The expression levels of hypoxia induced factor (HIF)-1α, NF-kB, IL-6, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) were significantly increased in the heart of rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. In conclusion, the left ventricular function was adversely affected by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which is associated with increased expression of HIF-1α and NF-kB signaling molecules and development of cardiac inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. © 2016 by the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavngaard, Trine; Søgaard, Lise; Mortensen, J

    2005-01-01

    visual defect score (r=0.80, pemphysema (pulmonary function test and HRCT). The defect scores were largest on 81mKr SPECT (the score on HP 3He MRI...... was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. METHODS: HP 3He MRI, 81mKr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed....... The three scans were scored visually as percentage of non-ventilated/diseased lung, and a computer-based objective measure of the ventilated volume in HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT and an emphysema index in HRCT were calculated. RESULTS: We found a good correlation between HP 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT for both...

  16. Organization of metabolic pathways in vastus lateralis of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Howard J; Bombardier, Eric; Burnett, Margaret; Iqbal, Sobia; D'Arsigny, Christine L; O'Donnell, Dennis E; Ouyang, Jing; Webb, Katherine A

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) display differences in organization of the metabolic pathways and segments involved in energy supply compared with healthy control subjects. Metabolic pathway potential, based on the measurement of the maximal activity (V(max)) of representative enzymes, was assessed in tissue extracted from the vastus lateralis in seven patients with COPD (age 67 +/- 4 yr; FEV(1)/FVC = 44 +/- 3%, where FEV(1) is forced expiratory volume in 1 s and FVC is forced vital capacity; means +/- SE) and nine healthy age-matched controls (age 68 +/- 2 yr; FEV(1)/FVC = 75 +/- 2%). Compared with control, the COPD patients displayed lower (P chain and glycogenolysis and glycolysis relative to beta-oxidation.

  17. Pathogenic mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to biomass smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael; Oyarzún, Manuel; Olloquequi, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality and morbidity have increased significantly worldwide in recent decades. Although cigarette smoke is still considered the main risk factor for the development of the disease, estimates suggest that between 25% and 33% of COPD patients are non-smokers. Among the factors that may increase the risk of developing COPD, biomass smoke has been proposed as one of the most important, affecting especially women and children in developing countries. Despite the epidemiological evidence linking exposure to biomass smoke with adverse health effects, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this pollutant can be harmful for the respiratory and cardiovascular systems remain unclear. In this article we review the main pathogenic mechanisms proposed to date that make biomass smoke one of the major risk factors for COPD. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased FKBP51 in induced sputum cells of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients after therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holownia A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Immunophilin FKBP51 assists polypeptide folding, participates in glucocorticoid actions and may play a role in glucocorticoid resistance. FKBP51 is altered in patients with asthma, but its role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD characterized by dysregulation of several pro/antiinflammatory genes is less clear. Methods We assessed changes in nuclear/cytosolic FKBP51 protein using SDS-PAGE/WB and FKBP51 mRNA by qRT-PCR in cells isolated from induced sputum of stable COPD patients treated with formoterol/budesonide or formoterol/budesonide/theophylline for 4 wk. Results Expression of FKBP51 was higher in formoterol/budesonide/theophylline-treated patients, compared with formoterol/budesonide group in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions by about 57% and 31%, respectively (P Conclusions Increased FKBP51 in COPD patients treated with formoterol/budesonide/theophylline may be important in altering signaling from corticosteroid receptors.

  19. Management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedzicha Jadwiga A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are important events in the natural history of this prevalent and devastating condition. This review provides a concise, state of the art summary on prevention and management of exacerbations. Considerable new data underpins evidence in support of many preventative interventions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological, that are now available. Challenges remain in developing new approaches, and delivering those that already exist to the right patient at the right time. Management of an exacerbation remains stepwise according to clinical severity, but there is now additional focus on addressing comorbidities and taking the opportunity at acute events to optimise preventative strategies for the future. Ultimately, exacerbations are heterogeneous events in a heterogeneous disease, and an individualised approach is paramount.

  20. EFFECT OF BRONCHODILATORS ON HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Shugushev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effect of long-acting theophylline (Theotard, KRKA and combination of salmeterol and fluticasone (Seretide, GlaxoSmithKline on heart rhythm variability (HRV and number of arrhythmic episodes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Material and methods. 144 patients with COPD and 35 patients of control group were examined. The analysis of HRV and Holter monitoring were made f on 2th and 14th days.Results. Treatment with both drugs led to increase in power of low- and high frequencies and their ratio (LF/HF, decrease in rate of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Theophylline therapy raised in a number of single and pair supraventricular extrasystoles. Treatment with combination of salmeterol and fluticasone did not change a number of extrasystoles.Conclusion. Combination of salmeterol and fluticasone is more preferable as a broncholytic therapy for patients with COPD and heart rhythm disorders.