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Sample records for human chorionic villi

  1. DETERMINATION OF COPPER IN EARLY HUMAN CHORIONIC VILLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIWen-Juan; DONGCai-Jin; CHENGZhuai-Sheng; ZONGWen-Ping; WANGZhen-Hai; SHIBin

    1989-01-01

    Some human genetic diseases of mctabolism are associated with enzyme deficiency in chorionic villi and have been reported in previous studies. Some enzyme activities are dependent on trace elements. Tφnnesen reported that genetic diseases due to disorder of copper metabolism could be diagnosed by determination of copper content in ehorionie

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells in human placental chorionic villi reside in a vascular Niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrechini, N. M.; Murthi, P.; Gude, N. M.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Gronthos, S.; Zannettino, A.; Brennecke, S. R.; Kalionis, B.; Brennecke, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The chorionic villi of human term placentae are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) The stem cell "niche" within the chorionic villi regulates how PMSCs participate in placental tissue generation, maintenance and repair, but the anatomic location of the niche has not been defined A numbe

  3. Generation of iPSC lines from primary human chorionic villi cells

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    Björn Lichtner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary human chorionic villi (CV cells were used to generate the iPSC line by retroviral transduction of the four Yamanaka-factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Pluripotency was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. The transcriptomes of the CV-derived iPSC lines and the human embryonic stem cell lines—H1 and H9 have a Pearson correlation of 0.929 and 0.943 respectively.

  4. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

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    Ricardo E. Fretes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms.

  5. Avoidance of Maternal Cell Contamination and Overgrowth in Isolating Fetal Chorionic Villi Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Term Placenta.

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    Sardesai, Varda S; Shafiee, Abbas; Fisk, Nicholas M; Pelekanos, Rebecca A

    2017-04-01

    Human placenta is rich in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), with their origin widely presumed fetal. Cultured placental MSCs are confounded by a high frequency of maternal cell contamination. Our recent systematic review concluded that only a small minority of placental MSC publications report fetal/maternal origin, and failed to discern a specific methodology for isolation of fetal MSC from term villi. We determined isolation conditions to yield fetal and separately maternal MSC during ex vivo expansion from human term placenta. MSCs were isolated via a range of methods in combination; selection from various chorionic regions, different commercial media, mononuclear cell digest and/or explant culture. Fetal and maternal cell identities were quantitated in gender-discordant pregnancies by XY chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization. We first demonstrated reproducible maternal cell contamination in MSC cultures from all chorionic anatomical locations tested. Cultures in standard media rapidly became composed entirely of maternal cells despite isolation from fetal villi. To isolate pure fetal cells, we validated a novel isolation procedure comprising focal dissection from the cotyledonary core, collagenase/dispase digestion and explant culture in endothelial growth media that selected, and provided a proliferative environment, for fetal MSC. Comparison of MSC populations within the same placenta confirmed fetal to be smaller, more osteogenic and proliferative than maternal MSC. We conclude that in standard media, fetal chorionic villi-derived MSC (CV-MSC) do not grow readily, whereas maternal MSC proliferate to result in maternal overgrowth during culture. Instead, fetal CV-MSCs require isolation under specific conditions, which has implications for clinical trials using placental MSC. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1070-1084.

  6. Energy status and HIF signalling in chorionic villi show no evidence of hypoxic stress during human early placental development.

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    Cindrova-Davies, T; van Patot, M Tissot; Gardner, L; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Charnock-Jones, D S

    2015-03-01

    Early human placental and embryonic development occurs in a physiologically low oxygen environment supported by histiotrophic secretions from endometrial glands. In this study, we compare the placental metabolomic profile in the first, second and third trimesters to determine whether the energy demands are adequately met in the first trimester. We investigated whether hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and/or HIF-2α, might regulate transcription during the first trimester. First and second trimester tissue was collected using a chorionic villus sampling-like (CVS) technique. Part of each villus sample was frozen immediately and the remainder cultured under 2 or 21% O2 ± 1 mM H2O2, and ±the p38 MAPK pathway inhibitor, PD169316. Levels of HIF-1α were assessed by western blotting and VEGFA, PlGF and GLUT3 transcripts were quantified by RT-PCR. Term samples were collected from normal elective Caesarean deliveries. There were no significant differences in concentrations of ADP, NAD(+), lactate, and glucose, and in the ATP/ADP ratio, across gestational age. Neither HIF-1α nor HIF-2α could be detected in time-zero CVS samples. However, culture under any condition (2 or 21% O2 ± 1 mM H2O2) increased HIF-1α and HIF-2α. HIF-1α and HIF-2α were additionally detected in specimens retrieved after curettage. HIF-1α stabilization was accompanied by significant increases in VEGFA and GLUT3 and a decrease in PlGF mRNAs. These effects were suppressed by PD169316. In conclusion, our data suggest that first trimester placental tissues are not energetically compromised, and that HIF-1α is unlikely to play an appreciable role in regulating transcriptional activity under steady-state conditions in vivo. However, the pathway may be activated by stress conditions.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of primate chorionic villi following ultrasonic microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B F

    1991-01-01

    Villi from human, macaque and baboon placentae were subjected to ultrasonication after prolonged osmication, and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The technique was often successful in removing the overlying trophoblast and revealing expanses of the trophoblastic basal lamina, a conclusion corroborated by transmission electron microscopy. These preparations bore a remarkable similarity in appearance to microvascular cast preparations of the fetal vasculature. Relatively straight parallel tubules appeared to correspond in position to the location of fetal vessels in intermediate villi, whereas portions of the basal laminae of terminal villi were in the form of convoluted, branched cylinders similar to SEM images of fetal capillaries of terminal villi. The basal lamina did not have evidence of pores as has been described in some basal laminae.

  8. Nuclear Translocation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B in First Trimester Deciduas and Chorionic Villi in Early Spontaneous Miscarriage Women

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    Chun-fang Yan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor kappa B is widely expressed in the distinct subpopulations of chorionic villi and deciduas of first-trimester pregnancies. We examined the cellular distribution and expression of nuclear factor kappa B in the human first-trimester chorionic villi and deciduas of women with early spontaneous miscarriage and viable pregnancy by confocal laser scanning microscope and immunohistochemistry. There is a greater nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B is restricted to villous stromal cells, decidual stromal cells, glandular epithelial cells and vessel endothelial cells in early spontaneous miscarriage than in viable pregnancies. Collectively these observations suggest that over-activation of nuclear factor kappa B has a relationship with early spontaneous miscarriages.

  9. Four years' cytogenetic experience with the culture of chorionic villi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, B; Bouman, K; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; Stoepker, M; Mantingh, A; Beekhuis, [No Value; de Jong, B

    2000-01-01

    In 1958 chorionic villus samples, investigated by culture method, we found 137 (7%) abnormalities. The abnormal results were classified in certain abnormal (generalised abnormal at high probability) and uncertain abnormal (potentially confined to the placenta) results. Certain abnormal were 73 cases

  10. IVF-ET术后流产患者绒毛和蜕膜组织凋亡及相关调控蛋白的表达%Human chorionic villi and deciduas apoptosis and related modulin expression of IVF-ET failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先霞; 王繁

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)术后早期自然流产患者绒毛和蜕膜组织凋亡及相关调控蛋白血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)、Bcl-2的表达,探讨其发病和基因调控机制.方法:采用免疫组织化学染色技术检测IVF-ET术后早期自然流产者(IVF-ET组)绒毛及蜕膜组织Bcl-2、VEGF的表达水平,并以同期正常早孕者(正常早孕组)的标本为对照.结果:VEGF主要表达于绒毛滋养细胞和血管内皮细胞胞浆.IVF-ET组VEGF表达明显低于正常早孕组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).Bcl-2主要在绒毛合体滋养细胞上表达.IVF-ET组滋养细胞及蜕膜细胞染色较浅,表达呈弱阳性,正常早孕组染色较深,表达强阳性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:IVF-ET术后早期自然流产者绒毛及蜕膜组织中VEGF及Bcl-2表达显著降低,提示早期妊娠中VEGF及Bcl-2的低表达可能是导致IVF-ET术后早期自然流产的原因之一.%Objective: To investigate the human chorionic villi and deciduas apoptosis and related regulatory protein (VEGF, Bc1-2) expression in early spontaneous abortion after treatment of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and explore the pathomechanisra of spontaneous abortion. Methods: The expression of VEGF and Bcl-2 in the chorionic villi and deciduas was detected and analyzed in 30 cases of early spontaneous abortion patients after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through immunohistochemisty method, Thirty cases of normal early pregnancy as control. Results: Immunohistochemistry displayed that VEGF mainly expressed in cytoplasm of villi trophocyte and vascular endothelial cell. The VEGF level of early spontaneous abortion after IVF-ET group was significantly lower than that of normal early pregnancy group (P<0.05). Bcl-2 mainly expressed in the villi syncytiotrophoblast. Trophoblasts and decidual staining were shallow and weakly positive in early spontaneous abortion after IVF-ET group. But

  11. Assessing Health-Related Quality-of-Life in Prenatal Diagnosis Comparing Chorionic Villi Sampling and Amniocentesis: A Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    David Feeny; Marie Townsend; William Furlong; Darrell Tomkins; Gail Robinson; George Torrance; Patrick Mohide; Qinan Wang

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) effects of chorionic villi sampling (CVS) and genetic amniocentesis (GA) prenatal diagnosis, including factors related to both the processes and the outcomes. Study Design. The HRQL of one hundred twenty six women participating in a randomized controlled clinical trial of CVS versus GA in Toronto and Hamilton, Ontario was assessed in four interviews at weeks 8, 13, 18, and 22 of pregnancy. Statistical analyses included analysis o...

  12. -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production

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    Michael J. Russell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated liposarcomas may display a variety of “heterologous” lines of differentiation, including osseous, vascular, skeletal, and/or smooth muscular. There have been six previously reported examples of leiomyosarcomas associated with high levels of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG production, comprised of cases originating from the retroperitoneum, spermatic cord, small intestine, and uterus. This report describes the first example of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma that combined both of the aforementioned features: extensive heterologous (leiomyosarcomatous differentiation and -hCG production (maximum serum levels 1046 mIU/ml, reference <5 mIU/ml. The tumor, which originated in the retroperitoneum in the region of the right kidney, was rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal within three months of its diagnosis. In addition to characteristic morphologic features, lipogenic and smooth muscle differentiation were confirmed with immunohistochemical stains for MDM2 and smooth muscle actin, respectively. The tumor also displayed diffuse immunoreactivity for -hCG in both primary and metastatic sites. This case further expands the clinicopathologic spectrum of lipogenic tumors.

  13. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion

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    Shagufta Parveen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors.

  14. Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis in 481 Amniocentesis, Chorion Villi Sample and Cordocentesis Specimens

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    Turgay Budak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated a total of 481 amniocentesis , cordocentesis and corion villi sample specimens from patients who were referred to the Prenatal Diagnostic Laboratory of Department of Medical Biology and Genetics Department of Medical Faculty of University of Dicle, between 1999 and 2001. A total of 24 specimens were found cytogenetically abnormal, of which 11 were trisomy 21 ( Down Syndrome, two were Down Syndrome with Robertsonian type of translocation between chromosome 14 and 21, one was mosaic Down Syndrome , one was balanced translocated chromosome carrier, two were Turner Syndrome, one was triple X syndrome, two were triploidy, one was partial trisomy 3, one was derivative chromosome, one was nonrepetitive numerical and structural abnormality, and one was marker chromosome. Unfortunately, we could not have results in 15 of culture samples. There were no false positive and false negative results.

  15. The Expression of Integrin β3 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule(ICAM-1)in Decidua and Chorionic Villi during Mifepristone Induced Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞珍; 王振海; 吴瑞芳

    1999-01-01

    The effects of mifepristone with misoprostol on the expression of the integrin β3 and intercellular adhesion motecule-1 (ICAM-1)in decidua and chorionic villi tissues in early pregnancy in 10 cases were investigated by immuno-ftow cytometry(the eyper-iment group).At the same time,the other 10 cases induced by mechanical vacuum as-piration were collected as the control.The results showed that,the positive rate of inte-grin β3 and ICAM-1 in decidua of the experiment group were 19.1±5. 01% and 20.61±6. 51%;while those in chorionic villi were 21.32±4. 38% and 20. 29±6. 49%,which were significantly lower than those in the control group.These results suggested that integrin β3 and ICAM-1 may take part in the maintenance of early pregnancy.The mechanism of mifepristone induced abortion may be mediated by the down-regulation of the integrin β3 and ICAM-1 expression in decidua and chorionic villi.

  16. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry wa

  17. Arrangement of collagen fibers in human placental stem villi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sati, Leyla; Demir, Ayse Yasemin; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demir, Ramazan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the arrangements and related localization patterns of different collagen types in the stroma of placental stem villi by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. A total of 14 normal human term placental tissue samples were studied. Immunohistochemistry

  18. Expression of VEGF receptors VEFGR-1 and VEGFR-2, angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and Tie-2 in chorionic villi tree during early pregnancy.

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    Ramazan Demir

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the expression of VEGF and its receptors in placentas from normal pregnancies between 22 days p.c. and 48 days p.c. of very early pregnancy. Placental tissues carried out from 19 pregnant women were examined. Immunohistochemical technique, electron microscopy were employed to evaluate the factors expression. In the new developing mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGF and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity was detected in all the placental components, while in the stem villi and in the chorionic plate with large vessels only in some components. In the mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi VEGFR-1 and -2, and angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was dominantly observed in the heamangiogenic cells and cells cords, whereas the matured villi showed immunoreactivity only in other components. The ultrastructural findings were higher in respect to the all of the early pregnancy days. The placental samples from all of pregnancies, showed the VEGF and its receptors in optimal expression levels, whereas the angiopoietin receptors Tie-1 and -2 showed a higher expression levels in respect to other study factors. The receptors protein levels increased from the early days to the advanced days of gestation, but this alteration was not significant. The intensity of the immunolabeling for these proteins were not significant compared to to each other of gestatin days were examined. These findings demonstrated that a dysregulation of the placental expression of the VEGF and its receptors related to the different degrees of the gestational periods. Probably, this event may be related to complete vasculugenesis and angiogenesis in placental villi.

  19. Early gestation chorionic villi-derived stromal cells for fetaltissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee Lankford; Taryn Selby; James Becker; Volodymyr Ryzhuk; Connor Long; Diana Farmer; Aijun Wang

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the potential for early gestationplacenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) forfetal tissue engineering.METHODS: PMSCs were isolated from early gestationchorionic villus tissue by explant culture. Chorionic villussampling (CVS)-size tissue samples (mean = 35.93 mg)were used to test the feasibility of obtaining large cellnumbers from CVS within a clinically relevant timeframe.We characterized PMSCs isolated from 6 donor placentasby flow cytometry immunophenotyping, multipotencyassays, and through immunofluorescent staining. Proteinsecretion from PMSCs was examined using two cytokinearray assays capable of probing for over 70 factorsin total. Delivery vehicle compatibility of PMSCs wasdetermined using three common scaffold systems: fibringlue, collagen hydrogel, and biodegradable nanofibrousscaffolds made from a combination of polylactic acid (PLA)and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Viral transductionof PMSCs was performed using a Luciferase-GFPcontaininglentiviral vector and efficiency of transductionwas tested by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometryanalysis.RESULTS: We determined that an average of 2.09 ×106 (SD ± 8.59 × 105) PMSCs could be obtained fromCVS-size tissue samples within 30 d (mean = 27 d, SD± 2.28), indicating that therapeutic numbers of cells canbe rapidly expanded from very limited masses of tissue.Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry demonstratedthat PMSCs were positive for MSC markers CD105,CD90, CD73, CD44, and CD29, and were negative forhematopoietic and endothelial markers CD45, CD34,and CD31. PMSCs displayed trilineage differentiationcapability, and were found to express developmentaltranscription factors Sox10 and Sox17 as well as neuralrelatedstructural proteins NFM, Nestin, and S100β.Cytokine arrays revealed a robust and extensive profileof PMSC-secreted cytokines and growth factors, anddetected 34 factors with spot density values exceeding103. Detected factors

  20. False Negative NIPT Results: Risk Figures for Chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 Based on Chorionic Villi Results in 5967 Cases and Literature Review.

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    Diane Van Opstal

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV, some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytogenetic studies of CV, we tried to estimate this risk. 5967 CV samples of pregnancies at high risk for common aneuplodies were cytogenetically investigated in our centre between January 2000 and December 2011. All cases of fetal trisomy 13, 18 and 21 were retrospectively studied for the presence of a normal karyotype or mosaicism < 30% in short-term cultured (STC- villi. 404 cases of trisomies 13, 18 and 21 were found amongst 5967 samples (6,8%. Of these 404 cases, 14 (3,7% had a normal or low mosaic karyotype in STC-villi and therefore would potentially be missed with NIPT. It involved 2% (5/242 of all trisomy 21 cases and 7.3% (9/123 of all trisomy 18 cases. In 1:426 (14/5967 NIPT samples of patients at high risk for common aneuploidies, a trisomy 18 or 21 will potentially be missed due to the biological phenomenon of absence of the chromosome aberration in the cytotrophoblast.

  1. Specific activity of radioiodine-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin ligand

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    Crespi, M. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Sandringham. National Inst. for Virology); Kay, G.W.; Van der Walt, L.A. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Johannesburg. Dept. of Pathology)

    1983-10-01

    The article deals with the determination of the specific activity of radioiodine-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin ligand. The iodiation of human chorionic gonadotropin and the counting efficiency of /sup 125/I are discussed.

  2. Retrospective study of trisomy 18 in chorionic villi with fluorescent in situ hybridization on archival direct preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Van Opstal, Diane; Berg, Cardi; Jahoda, M.; Brandenburg, Helen; Los, F.J.; in 't Veld, Peter

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTrisomy 18 in direct chorionic villus preparations needs further investigation since the chromosome abnormality may be confined to the placenta and may not represent the actual fetal karyotype. We performed, retrospectively, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the chromosome 18 centromere probe (L1.84) on interphase nuclei of destained slides of all cases of full trisomy 18 (n=22) and mosaic trisomy 18 (n=8) detected among 7600 first-trimester chorionic villus samples du...

  3. Angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7 decrease sFlt1 release in normal but not preeclamptic chorionic villi: an in vitro study

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    Moorefield Cheryl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During preeclampsia, placental angiogenesis is impaired. Factors released from the placenta including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, placental growth factor (PLGF, soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt1, and soluble endoglin (sEng are regulatory molecules of placental development and function. While the renin angiotensin system has been shown to regulate angiogenic factors in other research fields, these mechanisms have not been extensively studied during pregnancy. Methods We evaluated the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II and angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] on the release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, and sEng from placental chorionic villi (CV. CV were collected from nulliparous third-trimester normotensive and preeclamptic subjects. CV were incubated for 0, 2, 4, and 16 hours with or without Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM or Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. The release of VEGF, PLGF, sFlt1, sEng, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and human placenta lactogen (HPL was measured by ELISA. Results The release of sFlt1, PLGF, sEng from normal and preeclamptic CV increased over time. Release of sFlt1 and sEng was significantly higher from preeclamptic CV. VEGF was below the detectable level of the assay in normal and preeclamptic CV. After 2 hours, sFlt1 release from normal CV was significantly inhibited with Ang II (1 nM and 1 microM and Ang-(1-7 (1 nM and 1 microM. There was a time-dependent increase in HPL indicating that the CV were functioning normally. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a critical inhibitory role of angiotensin peptides on sFlt1 in normal pregnancy. Loss of this regulation in preeclampsia may allow sFlt1 to increase resulting in anti-angiogenesis and end organ damage in the mother.

  4. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

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    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight. DESIGN: Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors. RESULTS: Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  5. Retrospective study of trisomy 18 in chorionic villi with fluorescent in situ hybridization on archival direct preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane); C.D.F. van den Berg (Cardi); M.G. Jahoda (M.); H. Brandenburg (Helen); F.J. Los; P.A. In't Veld (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTrisomy 18 in direct chorionic villus preparations needs further investigation since the chromosome abnormality may be confined to the placenta and may not represent the actual fetal karyotype. We performed, retrospectively, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the chromosome 18

  6. The Influences of Mifepristone, Norethisterone and Tamoxifen on the Glycosphingolipids Compositions from Human Chorionic Tissue during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翠翔; 周剑萍; 于传鑫; 张俊慧; 张厦英; 刘银刊

    1996-01-01

    By using the Ladisch partitioning and microscale-analysis of HPTLC the comparative quantitative and qualitative studies of gangtiosides (Gg) and neutral gtycosphingotipids ( N-GSL ) compositions from human chorionic villi tissues of normal early pregnant women and women treated with mifepristone, norethisterone (NET) and tamoxifen (TAM) were reported in this paper. The patterns of Gg and N-GSL in three treated groups were similar to those in normal pregnant group, The total values of Gg from the ckorionic villi tissues reduced significantly in three treated groups (P<0. 01), In all treated groups, the amounts of NeuNAC-Gal-Glc-cer (GM3) , NeuNAC-NeuNAC-Gal-Gtc-cer ( GD3) and Gal-GalNAC-(NeuNAC)-Gal-Glc-eer(GM1 ) were decreased significantly compared with those in normal (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05), In NET and TAM groups, Neu NAC-Gal-GalNAC-(NeuNAC-NeuNAC )-Gal-Glc-cer( GT16 ) was markedly lower than that in normal (P<0. 01), The total values of N-GSL extracted from the chorionic villi tissues were obviously higher in mifepristone and TAM groups than those in normal (P<0. 01). The Gal-Gte-cer(LacCer) (CDH) and Gal-Gal-Glc-cer(Gat-LacCer) (CTH)were greatly increased in mifepristone group as compared with normal (P<0. 05 ), Paragloboside : Gat-GalNAC-Gal-Gtc-cer (PG) in NETgroup was significantly higher than that in normal (P<0. 01 ).

  7. Management of Nonpregnant Women with Elevated Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

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    Bernd C. Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is useful in evaluating and monitoring early pregnancy as well as trophoblastic disease. Here we describe the management of women with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin in a case of a 51-year-old female who was unsuccessfully treated for ectopic pregnancy. She was subsequently diagnosed with pituitary hCG production, which should be considered as differential diagnosis before treatment is initiated.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1155 - Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system... Test Systems § 862.1155 Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system. (a) Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test system intended for the early detection of pregnancy—(1) Identification. A human...

  9. Optimization of techniques for multiple platform testing in small, precious samples such as human chorionic villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Margareta D; Akhlaghpour, Marzieh; Lee, Bora; Barlow, Gillian M; Xu, Ning; Wang, Erica T; Mackey, Aaron J; Farber, Charles R; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-der I; Goodarzi, Mark O; Guller, Seth; Williams, John

    2016-11-01

    Multiple testing to understand global changes in gene expression based on genetic and epigenetic modifications is evolving. Chorionic villi, obtained for prenatal testing, is limited, but can be used to understand ongoing human pregnancies. However, optimal storage, processing and utilization of CVS for multiple platform testing have not been established. Leftover CVS samples were flash-frozen or preserved in RNAlater. Modifications to standard isolation kits were performed to isolate quality DNA and RNA from samples as small as 2-5 mg. RNAlater samples had significantly higher RNA yields and quality and were successfully used in microarray and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq libraries generated using 200 versus 800-ng RNA showed similar biological coefficients of variation. RNAlater samples had lower DNA yields and quality, which improved by heating the elution buffer to 70 °C. Purification of DNA was not necessary for bisulfite-conversion and genome-wide methylation profiling. CVS cells were propagated and continue to express genes found in freshly isolated chorionic villi. CVS samples preserved in RNAlater are superior. Our optimized techniques provide specimens for genetic, epigenetic and gene expression studies from a single small sample which can be used to develop diagnostics and treatments using a systems biology approach in the prenatal period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  11. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING 32p-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Xu; Zhang Yunjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore if strand breaks of DNA in human early chorionic villus cells in uterus were induced by diagnostic ultrasound and to evaluate the method used for detection of single-stranded breaks and doublestranded breaks in human DNA. Methods 60 normal pregnant women aged 20-30, who underwent artificial abortion during 6-8 weeks of gestation, were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups: All 30 cases were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in uterus for 10 minutes, and 24 hours later chorionic villi were extracted; the other 30 cases were taken as the control group. Single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA in villus cells in all cases were isolated by the alkaline unwinding combined with hydroxylapatite chromatography, and were quantitatively detected using32 P-labeled Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization. Results There was no significant difference in quantity and percentage in single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA between 2 groups (P>0.05). 32 P-Alu probe could only hybridize with human DNA, and could detect DNA isolated from as few as 2.5 × 103 chorionic villus cells and 0.45 ng DNA in human leukocytes. Conclusion The results suggested that there were no DNA strand damages in human chorionic villus cells when the uterus was exposed to diagnostic ultrasound for 10 minutes. The method, 32P-Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization, was even more specific, sensitive and accurate than conventional approaches.

  12. Genetic diagnosis of chorionic villi from first-trimester miscarriages by SNP array%早期自然流产绒毛组织SNP-array遗传学诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春玉; 胡平; 王艳; 杨吟秋; 徐青; 骆潇洁; 李璃; 孟露露; 马定远; 许争峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical value of single nucleotide polymor-phism array ( SNP-array) in the genetic diagnosis of chorionic villi from first-trimester miscar-riages. Methods:A cohort of 82 patients with first-trimester miscarriage undergoing dilation and curettage were enrolled in this study. Karyotyping by standard G-banding analysis was carried out on the cultured chorionic villi cell, while SNP-array analysis was performed on genomic DNA extracted from chorionic villi. Results:72 of 82 cases were successfully analyzed by G-banding karyotyping and the remaining 10 cases were failed,while SNP-array analysis succee-ded in all of the 82 cases. G-banding detected 35 normal and 37 abnormal karyotypes. SNP-ar-ray detected 30 cases of normal and 52 abnormal karyotypes. SNP-array revealed 6 abnormal chromosomes in 10 cases without G-banding analyses. Analyses from 12 cases by G-banding were discordant with those by SNP-array. SNP-array detected 4 cases of uniparental disomies ( UPD) . Conclusion:SNP-array could be used for genetic diagnosis of the first-trimester mis-carriages,due to its high-accuracy,high-throughput and rapid-analysis.%目的:初步探讨单核苷酸多态性阵列( SNP-array)在早期流产绒毛遗传学诊断中的临床应用价值。方法:选取临床诊断为早期自然流产的82例患者,刮宫术后获取绒毛组织,行常规绒毛细胞培养G显带核型分析,并同时提取绒毛组织DNA进行SNP-ar-ray检测,比较两者的检测结果。结果:常规绒毛细胞培养G显带核型诊断成功率87.8%(72/82),SNP-array诊断成功率为100%(82/82)。 G显带分析获得结果72例,核型正常35例,核型异常37例,异常率51.4%(37/72)。82例SNP-array分析结果中,核型正常30例,核型异常52例,异常率63.4%(52/82)。 G显带分析失败的10例标本中, SNP-array检出6例异常;G显带与SNP-array结果不符的12例中,包括2例全基因组单亲二倍体( uniparental disomy,UPD),2例是部分染色

  13. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPERATION AND PURIFICATION OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHaifeng; XuYutai; 等

    1995-01-01

    Separation and purification of human chorionic gonadotropion(HCG) in the urine sample of early pregnant women by D3520 resin adsorption chromatography is reported.The crude product obtained by DEAE-Cellulose 23 and DEAE-Sephadex A50 column chromatography showed a high activity of HCG. Further purification of the sample by gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex G75 column gives a final preparation of 6000-6500 IU/mg.The preparation meets the requirements of the pyrogn test in Chinese Law of Pharmacopeia.

  14. Potential Therapy for Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V

    2015-12-01

    The scientific evidence suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infects human fallopian tubes by molecular mimicry in which pathogens act like a ligand to bind to epithelial cell surface human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors. The hCG-like molecule has been identified as ribosomal protein L12 in NG coat surface. Human fallopian tube epithelial cells have been shown to contain functional hCG/LH receptors. As previously shown in human fallopian tube organ and cell culture studies, cellular invasion and infection can be prevented by exposing the cells to excess hCG, which would outnumber and outcompete NG for receptor binding. Based on these data, we suggest testing hCG in clinical trials on infected women.

  15. Syndecan expressions in the human amnion and chorionic plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lorenzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour depending on the cellular microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 are expressed in fetal membrane tissue with different immunolocalizations. Syndecan-1 is expressed in the amniotic epithelium, localizing at basolateral cell surfaces. Syndecan-2 and syndecan-4, in contrast, are mostly localized in intracellular compartments, in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells and in some fibroblasts of the chorionic plate as well as in the amniotic epithelial cells. In the latter, syndecan-4 is mainly localized in the apical part of the cells. Our results strongly suggest a key role of syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 in the determination of structural and functional characteristics of human amnion and chorionic plate. Since the solute exchanges between fetus and mother take place in fetal membranes, our data suggest that syndecans are important players in the placenta for the establishment of the fetal-maternal inter-communication.

  16. Syndecan expressions in the human amnion and chorionic plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, T; Turi, A; Crescimanno, C; Morroni, M; Castellucci, M; David, G; Tranquilli, A L; Marzioni, D

    2010-10-27

    The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour depending on the cellular microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 are expressed in fetal membrane tissue with different immunolocalizations. Syndecan-1 is expressed in the amniotic epithelium, localizing at basolateral cell surfaces. Syndecan-2 and syndecan-4, in contrast, are mostly localized in intracellular compartments, in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells and in some fibroblasts of the chorionic plate as well as in the amniotic epithelial cells. In the latter, syndecan-4 is mainly localized in the apical part of the cells. Our results strongly suggest a key role of syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 in the determination of structural and functional characteristics of human amnion and chorionic plate. Since the solute exchanges between fetus and mother take place in fetal membranes, our data suggest that syndecans are important players in the placenta for the establishment of the fetal-maternal inter-communication.

  17. Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane J Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report a rare case of precocious puberty (PP due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-producing germinoma located in the suprasellar region. A 10-year-old male patient presented with sexual precocity, headache, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and papilledema. Significant acceleration of bone age in relation to chronological age, high serum total testosterone levels, and hypopituitarism (unresponsiveness to stimulation test were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed a large suprasellar tumor and triventricular dilatation. High hCG levels were found in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hormone replacement therapy and transcranial surgery associated with radiotherapy were performed, with complete regression of sexual characteristics and normal laboratory tests post-operatively. Clinical and laboratory findings, in addition to MRI scans, led to the diagnosis of an hCG-producing tumor and PP, which represents a rare report in the literature.

  18. Luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin: origins of difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Janet; Smitz, Johan

    2014-03-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are widely recognized for their roles in ovulation and the support of early pregnancy. Aside from the timing of expression, however, the differences between LH and hCG have largely been overlooked in the clinical realm because of their similar molecular structures and shared receptor. With technologic advancements, including the development of highly purified and recombinant gonadotropins, researchers now appreciate that these hormones are not as interchangeable as once believed. Although they bind to a common receptor, emerging evidence suggests that LH and hCG have disparate effects on downstream signaling cascades. Increased understanding of the inherent differences between LH and hCG will foster more effective diagnostic and prognostic assays for use in a variety of clinical contexts and support the individualization of treatment strategies for conditions such as infertility.

  19. Optimizing the villi visualization by tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for comprehensive imaging of human duodenum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Emilie; Queneherve, Lucille H.; Grant, Catriona N.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Fasano, Alessio; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) affects around 1% of the global population and can cause serious long-term symptoms including malnutrition, fatigue, and diarrhea, amongst others. Despite this, it is often left undiagnosed. Currently, a tissue diagnosis of CD is made by random endoscopic biopsy of the duodenum to confirm the existence of microscopic morphologic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. However, duodenal endoscopic biopsy is problematic because the morphological changes can be focal and endoscopic biopsy is plagued by sampling error. Additionally, tissue artifacts can also an issue because cuts in the transverse plane can make duodenal villi appear artifactually shortened and can bias the assessment of intraepithelial inflammation. Moreover, endoscopic biopsy is costly and poorly tolerated as the patient needs to be sedated to perform the procedure. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. TCE involves swallowing an optomechanically-engineered pill that generates 3D images of the GI tract as it traverses the lumen of the organ via peristalsis, assisted by gravity. In several patients we have demonstrated TCE imaging of duodenal villi, however the current TCE device design is not optimal for CD diagnosis as the villi compress when in contact with the smooth capsule's wall. In this work, we present methods for structuring the outer surface of the capsule to improve the visualization of the villi height and crypt depth. Preliminary results in humans suggest that new TCE capsule enables better visualization of villous architecture, making it possibly to comprehensively scan the entire duodenum to obtain a more accurate tissue diagnosis of CD.

  20. Fertility Rates of Ewes Treated with Medroxyprogesterone and Injected with Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin plus Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Anoestrous Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. W. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate the efficiency of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP to estrous ewes synchronization. Ninety Texel ewes were investigated during seasonal anoestrous. The ewes received intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for nine days. At the time of sponges' withdrawal, the ewes were divided into three groups (G: (1 receiving 2 mL of saline i.m. (n=30, (2 receiving eCG 400 IU i.m. (n=30, and (3 receiving eCG 400 IU plus hCG 200 IU i.m. (n=30. Twelve h after sponges' removal, teaser rams were used to estrus check and remained with the ewes for 96 h. The artificial insemination was made with fresh semen 10 h after estrus detection. The effect of the treatment was not significant for the estrous rates among the groups: 73%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The main effect was observed in the pregnancy and lambing rates among the groups: 70%, 86%, 56%, and 80%, 120%, 56%, respectively. Based on these results from our study, the use of the MAP—eCG is the best choice to improve the fertility rate on ewes.

  1. Immunohistochemical Localization of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptorin Decidua and Villi of Human Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王介东; 伏耀; 施文良; 朱逢第; 乔根梅; 王幼劬

    1992-01-01

    Imtnunohistochemical assessment of estrogen recceptor(ER) and progesterone receptors(PR) were performed using monoetonat antibodies to the receptors. A totalof 81 samples. from pregnant women at 5-13 weeks of gestation were immunostained by peroxidase anti-peroxidase method (PAP). hnmunostaining pattern of PR in early pregnant decidua was similar to that of the late luteal phase of normal endometrium characterized by little reaction in supecfieiat glandular epithelia and retatively intense in stroma. Positive stainig was atsa revealed in structure of blood vessels including pericyte and smooth muscle cells. An interesting finding is that endothelial cells Of the vessels expressed PR which has not been reported in normal cyclic endometrium. The endothelial nature of their PR partitive cell was further confirmed by immunostaining of specific endothelial marker, Factor VⅢ. The trophoblast population in villi anddecidua also showed positive reaction inctnding villous trophoblast, column andinterstitial trophobtast. In eontrast to PR, little ER were revealed in deteected tissue.

  2. Linear regression of postevacuation serum human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations predicts postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Sweep, F.C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) follow-up after evacuation of hydatidiform moles is essential to identify patients requiring chemotherapeutic treatment for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). We propose a model based on linear regression of postevacuation serum hCG co

  3. Myth vs. Fact: The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exactly is hCG? Human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced during pregnancy to help nourish the growing fetus. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved hCG for a number of medical uses. ... understand that hormones are powerful and must be prescribed with caution. ...

  4. Concomitant intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin preserves spermatogenesis in men undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tung-Chin; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-02-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy results in decreased serum gonadotropins and intratesticular testosterone, and impairs spermatogenesis, leading to azoospermia in 40% of patients. However, intratesticular testosterone can be maintained during testosterone replacement therapy with co-administration of low dose human chorionic gonadotropin, which may support continued spermatogenesis in patients on testosterone replacement therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the records of hypogonadal men treated with testosterone replacement therapy and concomitant low dose human chorionic gonadotropin. Testosterone replacement consisted of daily topical gel or weekly intramuscular injection with intramuscular human chorionic gonadotropin (500 IU) every other day. Serum and free testosterone, estradiol, semen parameters and pregnancy rates were evaluated before and during therapy. A total of 26 men with a mean age of 35.9 years were included in the study. Mean followup was 6.2 months. Of the men 19 were treated with injectable testosterone and 7 were treated with transdermal gel. Mean serum hormone levels before vs during treatment were testosterone 207.2 vs 1,055.5 ng/dl (p testosterone 8.1 vs 20.4 pg/ml (p = 0.02) and estradiol 2.2 vs 3.7 pg/ml (p = 0.11). Pretreatment semen parameters were volume 2.9 ml, density 35.2 million per ml, motility 49.0% and forward progression 2.3. No differences in semen parameters were observed during greater than 1 year of followup. No impact on semen parameters was observed as a function of testosterone formulation. No patient became azoospermic during concomitant testosterone replacement and human chorionic gonadotropin therapy. Nine of 26 men contributed to pregnancy with the partner during followup. Low dose human chorionic gonadotropin appears to maintain semen parameters in hypogonadal men on testosterone replacement therapy. Concurrent testosterone replacement and human chorionic gonadotropin use may preserve fertility in hypogonadal males

  5. Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma after human chorionic gonadotropin normalization following hydatidiform mole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maestá, Izildinha; Leite, Fábio Vicente; Michelin, Odair Carlito

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response to chemo......BACKGROUND: Primary pulmonary choriocarcinoma (PPC) is rare and frequently leads to death. CASES: Two young patients presented with previous molar pregnancy and spontaneous serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) normalization. Patient 1 was referred to our center after partial response...... 3 years after diagnosis. Patient 2 presented with persistently high hCG, though the affected organ was not identified. Chemotherapy was unsuccessful. Patient reevaluation showed an isolated pulmonary mass. Pulmonary lobectomy was performed; 2 weeks later, hCG was normal and consolidation with 2...

  6. Clinical Experience: Using Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allografts for Acute and Reconstructive Burn Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Debra Ann; Hickey, Sean; Glat, Paul; Lineaweaver, William C; Goverman, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    Amniotic membrane is immunologically privileged and is a reservoir of growth factors and cytokines known to modulate inflammation and enhance the healing process, while also possessing antimicrobial, antifibrosis, and antiscarring properties. These properties establish a strong argument for using amniotic membrane derived products as a treatment for burns. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of commercially available dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allografts in patients with partial-thickness and full-thickness burns.

  7. Does Postevacuation β -Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Level Predict the Persistent Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    β -human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level is not a reliable marker for early identification of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after evacuation of hydatidiform mole. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate β -HCG regression after evacuation as a predictive factor of malignant GTN in complete molar pregnancy. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated a total of 260 patients with complete molar pregnancy. Sixteen of the 260 patients were excluded. Serum leve...

  8. Elevated serum progesterone/ MII oocyte ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration can predict impaired endometrial receptivity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration may affect in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with poor IVF outcome. Materials and Methods: To determine the relationship between serum progesterone on the day of HCG and the outcome of IVF-embryo transfer treatment, 378 infertile patients und...

  9. Effect of transvaginal ultrasound on human chorionic villus cell apoptosis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, X L; Wang, H T; Zou, J L; Cheng, L; Wang, F; Ma, L L; Li, J

    2015-12-29

    With the advancement of ultrasonic technology in recent years, sonography has become a common medical diagnostic tool, as it has elevated output sonic intensity and elongated exposure time. This study investigates the effect of ultrasound on human chorionic villus cell apoptosis during early pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed for a total of 60 women who had undergone induced abortion at our hospital. They were randomly divided into the control, short ultrasound (10 min), and long ultrasound (20 min) groups (N = 20 each). Twenty-four hours after ultrasonic exposure, chorionic villus tissues were extracted during induced abortion, and were tested for cell apoptosis using flow cytometry. Bax and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein levels were also quantified by immunohistochemistry. We found that the long ultrasound group had significantly higher cell apoptosis rates compared to the short ultrasound group, which in turn had higher rates compared to the control group (P ultrasound groups (P ultrasound groups, however, were downregulated as compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). It is therefore possible that transvaginal sonography can potentiate the apoptosis of human chorionic villus cells by increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio.

  10. Stability of human chorionic gonadotropin and its alpha subunit in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Hussa, R O; Carman, F R; Rinke, M L; Cook, C L; Yussman, M A

    1983-05-01

    The stability of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its alpha-subunit in whole blood, plasma, and serum under a variety of sample handling conditions commonly encountered in clinics, hospital wards, physician's offices, and clinical service laboratories was investigated with the use of radioreceptor assay, radioimmunoassays, as well as hormone integrity determinations. The results clearly demonstrate that hCG and its alpha-subunit are stable in unfrozen whole blood, plasma, and serum for at least 6 days and in frozen plasma and serum samples for at least 6 months. Repeated freezing and thawing of the samples during this period had no effect. Separation of plasma or serum from erythrocytes is not needed for at least 12 hours. Hemolysis in samples resulted in a 20% to 30% decrease in hCG and its alpha-subunit levels, which may be attributable to sample dilution.

  11. Comparison of angiogenic, cytoprotective, and immunosuppressive properties of human amnion- and chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Yamahara

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be obtained from the fetal membrane (FM, little information is available regarding biological differences in MSCs derived from different layers of the FM or their therapeutic potential. Isolated MSCs from both amnion and chorion layers of FM showed similar morphological appearance, multipotency, and cell-surface antigen expression. Conditioned media obtained from amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs inhibited cell death caused by serum starvation or hypoxia in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Amnion and chorion MSCs secreted significant amounts of angiogenic factors including HGF, IGF-1, VEGF, and bFGF, although differences in the cellular expression profile of these soluble factors were observed. Transplantation of human amnion or chorion MSCs significantly increased blood flow and capillary density in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. In addition, compared to human chorion MSCs, human amnion MSCs markedly reduced T-lymphocyte proliferation with the enhanced secretion of PGE2, and improved the pathological situation of a mouse model of acute graft-versus-host disease. Our results highlight that human amnion- and chorion-derived MSCs, which showed differences in their soluble factor secretion and angiogenic/immuno-suppressive function, could be ideal cell sources for regenerative medicine.

  12. Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Producing Osteosarcoma of the Sacrum in a 26-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Glass

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic secretion of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin is considered a poor prognostic marker in epithelial tumors. However, very few cases have been reported in sarcomas. We present the case of a 26-year-old female who presented with a metastatic osteosarcoma. She underwent usual testing prior to starting treatment and was found to have elevated levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. As the patient was not pregnant, another source of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin secretion had to be considered. The tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin by immunohistochemistry, and serum levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin were used to monitor tumor progression and response to chemotherapy. We review the literature and discuss a potential role of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of such patients.

  13. An integrative view on the physiology of human early placental villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Ghosh, Debabrata; Sengupta, Jayasree

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is an indispensable organ for intrauterine protection, development and growth of the embryo and fetus. It provides tight contact between mother and conceptus, enabling the exchange of gas, nutrients and waste products. The human placenta is discoidal in shape, and bears a hemo-monochorial interface as well as villous materno-fetal interdigitations. Since Peter Medawar's astonishment to the paradoxical nature of the mother-fetus relationship in 1953, substantial knowledge in the domain of placental physiology has been gathered. In the present essay, an attempt has been made to build an integrated understanding of morphological dynamics, cell biology, and functional aspects of genomic and proteomic expression of human early placental villous trophoblast cells followed by a commentary on the future directions of research in this field.

  14. Application of copy number variation analysis based on next-generation sequencing in the genetic analysis of missed abortion chorionic villi%基于高通量测序的染色体组拷贝数分析技术在流产胚胎组织遗传学诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚红; 蔡莉蓉; 祝建疆; 杨锴; 闻小慧; 曾雯; 陈佳靓

    2016-01-01

    genetic analysis of missed abortion chorionic villi. Methods From August 2012 to May 2014, chorionic villi from 74 cases of missed abortion at 6-13 gestational weeks in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital were collected and analyzed by karyotype analysis and NGS-CNVA. The results of the two methods were compared. Results (1) Karyotype analysis was carried out for the villi from the 74 missed abortion patients. Thirty cases were euploid, 26 cases were aneuploid, while 18 cases had structural abnormalities. The resolution of the karyotyping was 320 bands and the average report time was 22 days. (2) All of the 74 samples obtained NGS-CNVA results and the report time was 7-10 days. (3) The NGS-CNVA results of 56 cases were consistent with karyotype. Among them, 28 cases (28/56, 50%) had no copy number variants (CNV), and 19 cases (19/56, 34%)had CNV between 1 Mb and 10 Mb. 9 cases (9/56,16%) had CNV≥10 Mb found by NGS-CNVA, but not found by karyotyping. (4) According to the results of NGS-CNVA, karyotype were reviewed. The reviewed results found 7 cases with CNV<10 Mb and 3 cases with CNV≥10 Mb in 30 cases which got normal karyotype results at the first analysis. (5) Among the 18 cases of structural abnormalities, 6 cases were Robertsonian translocation. Sequencing technology could confirm the specific area of chromosome deletion/duplication in 8 cases, but could not locate them. Conclusions NGS-CNVA has lower failure rate, higher resolution, lower specimen requirement and shorter report time than karyotype analysis when used for the genetic analysis of missed chorionic villi . NGS-CNVA could be a useful genetic analysis method for the missed abortion villi.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Tadhg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. Study Design Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. Results Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  16. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  17. Secretion of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin by non-small cell lung cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varma Seema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a case of non-small cell lung cancer that was found to stain positive for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin on immunohistochemistry. Only a few case reports have described lung cancers that secrete beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian man presented with symptoms of weakness, fatigue and weight loss for the past two months. On examination, he was found to have generalized lymphadenopathy, and radiologic workup revealed numerous metastases in the lungs, liver and kidneys. Biopsy of the supraclavicular lymph node revealed metastatic large cell lung cancer with beta-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone positivity. The serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was 11,286 mIU/ml (upper limit of normal, 0.5 mIU/ml in non-pregnant females. He was diagnosed with stage 4 lung non-small cell lung cancer. The patient refused chemotherapy. He was discharged home with hospice care. Conclusion The markedly elevated serum values of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin initially prompted the medical team to investigate germinal tumors. In the presence of a negative testicular ultrasound, workup was performed to find an extratesticular source of the tumor. Finally, the diagnosis was made with a tissue biopsy. This case illustrates that atypical markers can be seen in many cancers, emphasizing the role of immunohistochemistry and tissue biopsy in establishing the diagnosis.

  18. Gastric Cancer in the Setting of Persistently Elevated Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency room for the evaluation of failed surgical and medical management of a suspected ectopic pregnancy. When imaging studies were performed, she had lymphadenopathy and diffuse sclerosis of the osseous framework. Multiple biopsies were performed and revealed poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma with signet ring features. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy confirmed the findings of a Stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. Signs and symptoms of gastric carcinoma are vague. However, to our knowledge, an elevation in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is not an associated finding. Persistence of hCG has many causes from abnormal pregnancy to menopause and other forms of cancer.

  19. Gastric cancer in the setting of persistently elevated human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Latoya R; Erler, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency room for the evaluation of failed surgical and medical management of a suspected ectopic pregnancy. When imaging studies were performed, she had lymphadenopathy and diffuse sclerosis of the osseous framework. Multiple biopsies were performed and revealed poorly differentiated metastatic carcinoma with signet ring features. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy confirmed the findings of a Stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. Signs and symptoms of gastric carcinoma are vague. However, to our knowledge, an elevation in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is not an associated finding. Persistence of hCG has many causes from abnormal pregnancy to menopause and other forms of cancer.

  20. [Mechanism of regulation of synthesis and secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, David; Chirinos, Mayel; García-Becerra, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an essential hormone for development and sustaining of gestation. Adequate hCG production is fundamental for pregnancy success since abnormal hCG serum concentrations have been correlated with pregnancy anomalies such as recurrent abortions and preeclampsia. Regulation of hCG production involves diverse molecules associated with different signaling pathways, which have complicated the establishment of the mechanisms involved in its production. The present study provides a critical review of the most relevant findings related to hCG production and functions during pregnancy, in order to help to understand some related pathologies and to treat them more adequately.

  1. Human placental development is impaired by abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Marpeau, Olivier; Guibourdenche, Jean; Ferreira, Fatima; Badet, Josette; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Frendo, Jean-Louis

    2007-11-01

    Placental development is markedly abnormal in women bearing a fetus with trisomy 21, with defective syncytiotrophoblast (ST) formation and function. The ST occurs from cytotrophoblast (CT) fusion and plays an essential role by secreting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is essential to placental development. In trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21) pregnancies, CTs do not fuse and differentiate properly into STs, leading to the secretion of an abnormal and weakly bioactive hCG. In this study we report for the first time, a marked decrease in the number of mature hCG receptor (LH/CG-R) molecules expressed at the surface of T21-affected CTs. The LH/CG-R seems to be functional based on sequencing that revealed no mutations or deletions and binding of recombinant hCG as well as endogenous hCG. We hypothesize that weakly bioactive hCG and lower LH/CG-R expression may be involved in the defect of ST formation. Interestingly, the defective ST formation is mimicked in normal CT cultures by using LH/CG-R small interfering RNA, which result in a lower hCG secretion. Furthermore, treatment of T21-affected CTs with recombinant hCG overcomes in vitro the T21 phenotype, allowing CTs to fuse and form a large ST. These results illustrate for the first time in trisomy 21 pathology, how abnormal endogenous hCG signaling impairs human placental development.

  2. A link between high serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin and chorionic expression of its mature functional receptor (LHCGR in Down's syndrome pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG is released from placental trophoblasts and is involved in establishing pregnancy by maintaining progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum. Serum hCG is detected in the maternal circulation within the first 2–3 wks of gestation and peaks at the end of the first trimester before declining. In Down's syndrome (DS pregnancies, serum hCG remains significantly high compared to gestation age-matched uncompromised pregnancies. It has been proposed that increased serum hCG levels could be due to transcriptional hyper-activation of the CGB (hCG beta gene, or an increased half life of glycosylated hCG hormone, or both. Another possibility is that serum hCG levels remain high due to reduced availability of the hormone's cognate receptor, LHCGR, leading to lack of hormone utilization. We have tested this hypothesis by quantifying the expression of the hCG beta (CGB RNA, LHCGR RNA and LHCGR proteins in chorionic villous samples. We demonstrate that chorionic expression of hCG beta (CGB mRNA directly correlates with high serum hCG levels. The steady-state synthesis of LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–5 in DS pregnancies was significantly higher than that of controls, but the expression of full-length LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–11 in DS was comparable to that of uncompromised pregnancies. However, the synthesis of high molecular weight mature LHCGR proteins was significantly reduced in DS compared to uncompromised pregnancies, suggesting a lack of utilization of circulating hCG in DS pregnancies.

  3. Morphology and morphometric analysis of stromal capillaries in full term human placental villi of smoking mothers: an electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, G; Dhuria, R; Salhan, S; Jain, A K

    2011-01-01

    The capillaries of placental villi play a very important role in the feto-maternal exchange of gases and nutrients. A morphological change in their structure may lead to the impairment of placental function. In this study an attempt has been made to find out the morphological and morphometric features of the capillaries in full term placental villi of non smoking mothers as well as active and passive smoking mothers under an electron microscope. A total number of 163 placentae from active, passive and nonsmoking mother (n = 61+42+60) were processed for electron microscopic study. The ultrathin sections were examined under electron microscope and images were recorded. Morphometry and statistical analysis were carried out with the help of software. The study revealed that the endothelial cells of stromal capillaries of the placental villi were oedematous and the cytoplasm was rich in dilated endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, fibrils and fine filaments in both groups of the smokers' placenta in comparison to control. Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the perimeter of the stromal capillary of the tertiary villi of placenta in both active and passive smokers from mean value of 71.65 ± 47.82 µ to mean value of 59.77 ± 29.72 µ (p = 0.07) and 49.49 ± 20.94 µ (p = 0.0005) respectively. In case of passive smoker, area of the capillary (µm²) reduced significantly (p = 0.00004) from mean value of 266.29 ± 331.86 µm² to 116.64 ± 83.62 µm² whereas the number of capillary per villus increased significantly (p = 0.046) from mean value 2.42 ± 1.84 to 4.2 ± 3.16. The thickness of basement membrane of the endothelial cells of stromal capillaries of the placenta increased significantly in active as well as passive smokers (p = 0.00001). The ultrastructural changes noticed in the endothelial cells of placental villi may be due to hypoxia resulting from tobacco consumption either in active or passive form by the pregnant mothers. Thus, targeted

  4. Human placental TEF-5 transactivates the human chorionic somatomammotropin gene enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S W; Wu, K; Eberhardt, N L

    1999-06-01

    Human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) gene expression in the placenta is controlled by an enhancer (CSEn) containing SV40-related GT-IIC and SphI/SphII enhansons. These enhancers are controlled by members of the transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) family. Recently TEF-5, whose mRNA is abundant in placenta, was shown to bind cooperatively to a unique, tandemly repeated element in CSEn2, suggesting that TEF-5 regulates CSEn activity. However, expression of TEF-5 using a cDNA lacking the 5'-untranslated region and containing a modified translation initiation site was not accompanied by CSEn activation. Using nested, degenerate PCR primers corresponding to conserved TEF domains, several novel TEF-1-related cDNAs have been cloned from a human placental cDNA library. The open reading frame of one 3033-bp clone was identical to TEF-5 and contained 300- and 1423-bp 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, respectively. The in vitro generated approximately 53-kDa TEF-5 polypeptide binds specifically to GT-IIC and SphI/SphII oligonucleotides. Overexpression of TEF-5 in BeWo cells using the intact 3033-bp cDNA transactivates the hCS and SV40 enhancers and artificial enhancers comprised of tandemly repeated GT-IIC enhansons, but not OCT enhansons. The data demonstrate that TEF-5 is a transactivator that is likely involved in the transactivation of CSEn enhancer function. Further, the data suggest that elements within the untranslated regions, initiation site, or both control TEF-5 expression in ways that influence its transactivation function.

  5. Transport of ova transferred to rabbit oviducts at varying intervals after human chorionic gonadotropin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, L; Pauerstein, C J

    1980-01-01

    Ova obtained from donors were transfered to the oviducts of New Zealand White rabbits at various times after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. The rabbits were killed at varying intervals after transfer. The genital tracts were removed, divided into segments (ampulla, isthmus, uterus, and vagina), and flushed to recover the ova. The experiments demonstrated the following: (1) A mechanism is present that retains some of the transferred ova above the ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ). This mechanism is most efficient 60 hours after hCG injection. (2) Transferred ova that succeed in negotiating the AIJ are found in locations appropriate to the time elapsed from ovulation, rather than from transfer; i.e., they "catch up" to the endogenous ova.

  6. Potential Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Sjögren Syndrome With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Sjögren syndrome (SS) ameliorate during pregnancy, through dampening (immunotolerance) of the maternal immune system which protects the fetus from rejection. A large number of studies have shown that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) contributes to this tolerance. Studies on animal models have reaffirmed that hCG treatment mimics the benefits of pregnancy. Based on the scientific evidence, randomized clinical trials comparing hCG with current therapies and/or placebo are recommended for RA, SS, and for other autoimmune diseases such as, type 1 diabetes and ankylosing spondylitis, which also get better during pregnancy and hCG treatment seems to help.

  7. Studies on stabilities of some human chorionic gonadotropin complexes with {beta}-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Moumita [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sen, Kamalika [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sen, Souvik [Malda Town Divisional Railway Hospital, Malda 732102 (India); Lahiri, Susanta, E-mail: susanta.lahiri@saha.ac.i [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone, whose one of the structural subunits is identical to that of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). As a consequence, the receptors of TSH also act as receptor for hCG hormone. Keeping in mind this interesting property of hCG we have studied the complex formation ability of various no-carrier-added {beta}-emitting isotopes of {sup 61}Cu (3.3 h), {sup 62}Zn (9.2 h), {sup 90}Nb (14.60 h) and {sup 99}Mo (66.02 h) with hCG molecule. Stability of the hCG-M (M=metal ions) complexes was investigated by dialysis with respect to triple distilled water and ringer lactate solution, which has the same composition as extracellular fluid.

  8. Determination of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Postmortem Samples in Ectopic Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Lesta, Maria del Mar; Fanton, Laurent; Ventura, Francesco; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Increased human chorionic gonadotropin levels (HCG) can be detected in femoral blood, bile, and vitreous humor collected during autopsy of pregnant women using a standard kit designed for living patients. In the study herein, the concentrations of HCG were measured in postmortem serum, vitreous, bile, cerebrospinal, and pericardial fluids in 4 cases of fatal ectopic pregnancy and 40 controls using a quantitative electrochemiluminescence immunoassay designed for living patients. No false-negative cases were identified in any of the analyzed samples in any of the ectopic pregnancy cases. No correlations were found between total HCG levels in postmortem serum and the other tested specimens. The results of this study would suggest that higher HCG in bile, vitreous, pericardial, and cerebrospinal fluids may confirm the existence of ectopic pregnancy and therefore identify other situations in which this hormone is increased, although gestational age cannot be reliably estimated using these values. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Ontological differences in first compared to third trimester human fetal placental chorionic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma N Jones

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC isolated from fetal tissues hold promise for use in tissue engineering applications and cell-based therapies, but their collection is restricted ethically and technically. In contrast, the placenta is a potential source of readily-obtainable stem cells throughout pregnancy. In fetal tissues, early gestational stem cells are known to have advantageous characteristics over neonatal and adult stem cells. Accordingly, we investigated whether early fetal placental chorionic stem cells (e-CSC were physiologically superior to their late gestation fetal chorionic counterparts (l-CSC. We showed that e-CSC shared a common phenotype with l-CSC, differentiating down the osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic pathways, and containing a subset of cells endogenously expressing NANOG, SOX2, c-MYC, and KLF4, as well as an array of genes expressed in pluripotent stem cells and primordial germ cells, including CD24, NANOG, SSEA4, SSEA3, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, STELLA, FRAGILIS, NANOS3, DAZL and SSEA1. However, we showed that e-CSC have characteristics of an earlier state of stemness compared to l-CSC, such as smaller size, faster kinetics, uniquely expressing OCT4A variant 1 and showing higher levels of expression of NANOG, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 than l-CSC. Furthermore e-CSC, but not l-CSC, formed embryoid bodies containing cells from the three germ layer lineages. Finally, we showed that e-CSC demonstrate higher tissue repair in vivo; when transplanted in the osteogenesis imperfecta mice, e-CSC, but not l-CSC increased bone quality and plasticity; and when applied to a skin wound, e-CSC, but not l-CSC, accelerated healing compared to controls. Our results provide insight into the ontogeny of the stemness phenotype during fetal development and suggest that the more primitive characteristics of early compared to late gestation fetal chorionic stem cells may be translationally advantageous.

  10. Biological properties of dehydrated human amnion/chorion composite graft: implications for chronic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Thomas J; Rennert, Robert; Zabek, Nicole; Massee, Michelle; Lim, Jeremy J; Temenoff, Johnna S; Li, William W; Gurtner, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Human amnion/chorion tissue derived from the placenta is rich in cytokines and growth factors known to promote wound healing; however, preservation of the biological activities of therapeutic allografts during processing remains a challenge. In this study, PURION® (MiMedx, Marietta, GA) processed dehydrated human amnion/chorion tissue allografts (dHACM, EpiFix®, MiMedx) were evaluated for the presence of growth factors, interleukins (ILs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on samples of dHACM and showed quantifiable levels of the following growth factors: platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), PDGF-BB, transforming growth factor α (TGFα), TGFβ1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), placental growth factor (PLGF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF). The ELISA assays also confirmed the presence of IL-4, 6, 8 and 10, and TIMP 1, 2 and 4. Moreover, the relative elution of growth factors into saline from the allograft ranged from 4% to 62%, indicating that there are bound and unbound fractions of these compounds within the allograft. dHACM retained biological activities that cause human dermal fibroblast proliferation and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. An in vivo mouse model showed that dHACM when tested in a skin flap model caused mesenchymal progenitor cell recruitment to the site of implantation. The results from both the in vitro and in vivo experiments clearly established that dHACM contains one or more soluble factors capable of stimulating MSC migration and recruitment. In summary, PURION® processed dHACM retains its biological activities related to wound healing, including the potential to positively affect four distinct and pivotal physiological processes intimately involved in wound healing: cell proliferation, inflammation, metalloproteinase activity and recruitment of progenitor cells. This suggests

  11. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-10-03

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but also other biologically active contaminants, such as growth factors, binding proteins and prion proteins. The actual amount of molecular LH in hMG preparations varies considerably due to the purification process, thus hCG, mimicking LH action, is added to standardise the product. However, unlike LH, hCG plays a different role during the natural human menstrual cycle. It is secreted by the embryo and placenta, and its main role is to support implantation and pregnancy. More recently, recombinant gonadotropins (r-hFSH and r-hLH) have become available for ART therapies. Recombinant LH contains only LH molecules. In the field of reproduction there has been controversy in recent years over whether r-hLH or hCG should be used for ART. This review examines the existing evidence for molecular and functional differences between LH and hCG and assesses the clinical implications of hCG-supplemented urinary therapy compared with recombinant therapies used for ART.

  12. Prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-2 expression and activity increases with term labor in human chorion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mijovic, J E; Zakar, T; Nairn, T K; Olson, D M

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the changes in prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase (PGHS) specific activity and the levels and distribution of PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 mRNA in chorion collected at term before the onset of labor (CS...

  13. Paper-based microfluidic devices for electrochemical immunofiltration analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangli; Fang, Cheng; Zeng, Ruosheng; Zhao, Xiongjie; Jiang, Yuren; Chen, Zhencheng

    2017-02-02

    An electrochemical immunofiltration analysis was introduced into microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for the first time, which was based on photolithography and screen-printing technology. The hydrophilic test zones of the aldehyde-functionalized screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were biofunctionalized with capture antibodies (Ab1). A sensitive immune detection method was developed by using primary signal antibody functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs/Ab2) and alkaline phosphatase conjugated secondary antibody (ALP-IgG). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was performed to detect the electrochemical response. The microfluidic paper-based electrochemical immunosensor (μ-PEI) was optimized and characterized for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a model analyte, in a linear range from 1.0mIUmL(-1) to 100.0 IU mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.36mIUmL(-1). Additionally, the proposed μ-PEI was used to test HCG in real human serum and obtained satisfactory results. The disposable, efficient, sensitive and low-cost μ-PEI has exhibited great potential for the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) devices that can be applicated in healthcare monitoring.

  14. Potential of human fetal chorionic stem cells for the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gemma N; Moschidou, Dafni; Abdulrazzak, Hassan; Kalirai, Bhalraj Singh; Vanleene, Maximilien; Osatis, Suchaya; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Horwood, Nicole J; Marenzana, Massimo; De Coppi, Paolo; Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R; Fisk, Nicholas M; Guillot, Pascale V

    2014-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic bone pathology with prenatal onset, characterized by brittle bones in response to abnormal collagen composition. There is presently no cure for OI. We previously showed that human first trimester fetal blood mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted into a murine OI model (oim mice) improved the phenotype. However, the clinical use of fetal MSC is constrained by their limited number and low availability. In contrast, human fetal early chorionic stem cells (e-CSC) can be used without ethical restrictions and isolated in high numbers from the placenta during ongoing pregnancy. Here, we show that intraperitoneal injection of e-CSC in oim neonates reduced fractures, increased bone ductility and bone volume (BV), increased the numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes, and upregulated endogenous genes involved in endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Exogenous cells preferentially homed to long bone epiphyses, expressed osteoblast genes, and produced collagen COL1A2. Together, our data suggest that exogenous cells decrease bone brittleness and BV by directly differentiating to osteoblasts and indirectly stimulating host chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. In conclusion, the placenta is a practical source of stem cells for the treatment of OI.

  15. Interaction Of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Modifies Secondary And Tertiary Protein Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hakeim Hussein K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP have good biocompatibility and bioactivity inside human body. In this study, the interaction between CaPNP and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was analyzed to determine the changes in the protein structure in the presence of CaPNP and the quantity of protein adsorbed on the CaPNP surface. The results showed a significant adsorption of hCG on the CaPNP nanoparticle surface. The optimal fit was achieved using the Sips isotherm equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 68.23 µg/mg. The thermodynamic parameters, including ∆H° and ∆G°, of the adsorption process are positive, whereas ∆S° is negative. The circular dichroism results of the adsorption of hCG on CaPNP showed the changes in its secondary structure; such changes include the decomposition of α-helix strand and the increase in β-pleated sheet and random coil percentages. Fluorescence study indicated minimal changes in the tertiary structure near the microenvironment of the aromatic amino acids such as tyrosine and phenyl alanine caused by the interaction forces between the CaPNP and hCG protein. The desorption process showed that the quantity of the hCG desorbed significantly increases as temperature increases, which indicates the weak forces between hCG and the surface.

  16. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Knockout (LuRKO) Mice and Transgenic Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)-Overexpressing Mice (hCG αβ+) Have Bone Phenotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yarram, S. J; Perry, M. J; Christopher, T. J; Westby, K; Brown, N. L; Lamminen, T; Rulli, S. B; Zhang, F.-P; Huhtaniemi, I; Sandy, J. R; Mansell, J. P

    2003-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the role of sex steroids during periods of major skeletal turnover, but the interaction of the gonadotropic hormones, which include LH, FSH, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG...

  17. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM). Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). Free testosterone (T...

  18. Different Expression and Clinical Significance of DNA Methyltransferases in the Chorionic Villi of Early Embryo Growth Arrest%DNA甲基转移酶在胚胎停育绒毛组织中的表达差异及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭为伟; 高静; 周磊; 黄维清; 孔庆暖

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L mRNA and protein in the chorionic villi of early embryo growth arrest and explore its clinical significance. Methods:We randomly selected 40 women as observational group in which were diagnosed with early embryo growth arrest by B ultrasound and accepted complete curettage of uterine cavity after visiting the Obstetrical Department of the Qingdao Municipal Hospital between January 2013 and June 2014, during the same period, select another 40 women who performed induced abortion with normal early pregnancy as control group.①Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used on the normal groups (40 cases) and the early embryo growth arrest group (40 cases) to quantitatively determine DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L mRNA expression in the chorionic villi tissues. ②Streptavidin- Perosidase (SP) immunochemistry and Western blot were performed on the two groups to detect the expression and distribution of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L. Results: ①qRT-PCR showed there were no statistically significant difference of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L expression in two groups (P>0.05).②Immuno-chemistry showed DNMTs were predominately distributed on the villous trophoblasts which the cytoplasm and nuclear had varying degrees of positive staining. And semi-quantitative analysis indicated that the expression of DNMT3A of early embryo growth arrest was significantly lower, compared with that of the normal group (P0.05). Conclusions:The lower expression of the DNMT3A protein might be involved in the pathogenesis of early embryo growth arrest.%目的:探讨胚胎停育绒毛组织中DNA甲基转移酶(DNMTs)4种亚型DNMT1、DNMT3A、DNMT3B与DNMT3L的mRNA及蛋白表达差异,并探讨其临床意义。方法:随机选取2013年1月-2014年6月在青岛市立医院妇产科门诊就诊的经B型超声(B超)证实为胚胎停育而行清宫术的40例患者为观察组,并选取同期

  19. Sensitive immunoassay of human chorionic gonadotrophin based on multi-walled carbon nanotube-chitosan matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Chen, Shihong; An, Haizhen

    2008-10-01

    A novel amperometric immunosensor for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) assay has been fabricated through incorporating toluidine blue (TB) and hemoglobin (Hb) on the multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)-chitosan (CS) modified glassy carbon electrode, followed by electrostatic adsorption of a conducting gold nanoparticles (nanogold) film as sensing interface. The MWNT-CS matrix provided a congenial microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules and promoted the electron transfer to enhance the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Due to the strong electrocatalytic properties of Hb and MWNT toward H(2)O(2), the Hb and MWNT significantly amplified the current signal of the antigen-antibody reaction. The immobilized toluidine blue as an electron transfer mediator exhibited excellent electrochemical redox property. After the immunosensor was incubated with HCG solution, the access of activity center of the Hb to toluidine blue was partly inhibited, which leaded to a linear decrease in the catalytic efficiency of the Hb to the oxidation of immobilized toluidine blue by H(2)O(2) over HCG concentration ranges from 0.8 to 500 mIU/mL. Under optimal condition, the detection limit for the HCG immunoassay was 0.3 mIU/mL estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Moreover, the proposed immunosensor displayed a satisfactory stability and reproducibility.

  20. Pregnancy rates with recombinant versus urinary human chorionic gonadotropin in in vitro fertilization: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeke, József; Kanyó, Katalin; Zeke, Helga; Cseh, Aron; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Szilágyi, András; Konc, János

    2011-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated the equal efficacy of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) and recombinant hCG (rhCG) products in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, limitations inherent with RCTs necessitate the reinforcement of RCT results in real-life. We retrospectively analyzed pregnancies after treatment with rhCG and uhCG products (n = 391, and 96, resp.). We found that laboratory-verified pregnancy occurred more frequently in rhCG patients than in those on uhCG (43% versus 30%, P = 0.02). The association remains significant (P = 0.002) after its adjustment for clinical characteristics. The prevalence of laboratory-verified pregnancies was higher with GnRH agonist use (P = 0.012) and BMI under 30 kg/m(2) (P = 0.053) while decreased the age (P = 0.014) and the number of previous failed attempts (P = 0.08). Similar (but not significant) trends were observed with rates of pregnancy filled the 24th week. These results reinforce RCTs supporting the notion that rhCG is more efficient as uhCG during IVF.

  1. Expression of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin β (hCGβ) in Lactobacillus Casei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-mei WANG; Hong JIANG; Zheng-hong YUAN; Da-jin LI

    2003-01-01

    Objective To construct a recombinant lactobacillus (Lb.) strain excreting the human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit, hCGβMethods The hCGβ cDNA was ligated to the signal peptide sequence of S-layer protein from Lb. brevis and then cloned into down-stream of lactose-inducible promoter of an integrative plasmid, pIlac. After electroporation into Lb. casei CECT5276, PCR using the genomic DNA of the recombinant lactobacillus as template was performed to confirm whether the hCGβ gene had been integrated into the genome. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to determine the level of hCGβ in the supernatant and the cell lysate. Results The hCGβ was integrated into the genome of Lb. casei CECT5276. The highest concentration of hCGβ in the culture supernatant amounted to 440 mIU/mL 21 h after lactose induction. About 2/3 of the objective proteins were excreted into the supernatant.Conclusion We have obtained stable and efficient hCGβ excretion in Lb. casei, which was inducible by lactose.

  2. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention strategies: reducing the human chorionic gonadotropin trigger dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sonya; Parker, Kasey; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews the biological plausibility and evidence for the use of a low triggering dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). A systematic search of the literature revealed very little published data for or against the use of low-dose hCG in the prevention of OHSS after assisted reproductive technology. We have had success at avoiding OHSS as a result of gentle stimulation and low-dose sliding scale hCG trigger based on estradiol (E₂) levels. We therefore present the biological plausibility for such an approach by reviewing the relationship between OHSS, vascular endothelial growth factor, and hCG; the physiology of hCG; the relationship between risk of OHSS and E₂ at trigger; and the physiology of alternative methods of triggering such as recombinant luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. We also present the results of a quasi-experimental before and after study of the sliding scale protocol for hCG trigger dose in in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

  3. Persistent Human Chorionic Gonadotropin After Methotrexate Treatment and an Emergency Surgical Procedure for Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Mangold, Michelle; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    The case study is a 33-year-old white female with persistently elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels following methotrexate treatment and emergency surgery for ectopic pregnancy. At the time of the first methotrexate dose, the serum hCG concentration was 27,995 IU/L. The laboratory was consulted 3.5 months after the surgery, because serum hCG levels had stopped declining and had leveled off to around 80 to 90 IU/L but with negative urine pregnancy tests. Laboratory studies ruled out heterophile antibody interference and hook effect by multiple methods including analysis by different serum hCG assays, treatment with heterophile antibody blocking agents, and dilution studies. Three additional doses of methotrexate over six months were required for serum hCG concentrations to decline to undetectable levels. This case illustrates challenges that may arise with serum hCG measurements in management of ectopic pregnancies. Close collaboration between the laboratory and clinical service is key for optimal patient care.

  4. Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody interaction in BIAcore

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Banerjee Ashish; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy

    2004-03-01

    Kinetic studies of macromolecular ligand-ligate interaction have generated ample interest since the advent of plasmon resonance based instruments like BIAcore. Most of the studies reported in literature assume a simple 1 : 1 Langmuir binding and complete reversibility of the system. However we observed that in a high affinity antigen-antibody system [human chorionic gonadotropin-monoclonal antibody (hCG-mAb)] dissociation is insignificant and the sensogram data cannot be used to measure the equilibrium and kinetic parameters. At low concentrations of mAb the complete sensogram could be fitted to a single exponential. Interestingly we found that at higher mAb concentrations, the binding data did not conform to a simple bimolecular model. Instead, the data fitted a two-step model, which may be because of surface heterogeneity of affinity sites. In this paper, we report on the global fit of the sensograms. We have developed a method by which a single two-minute sensogram can be used in high affinity systems to measure the association rate constant of the reaction and the functional capacity of the ligand (hCG) immobilized on the chip. We provide a rational explanation for the discrepancies generally observed in most of the BIAcore sensograms.

  5. Adjuvant gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist trigger with human chorionic gonadotrophin to enhance ooplasmic maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Elias, Rony T; Neri, Queenie V; Gerber, Rachel S; Lekovich, Jovana P; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates whether an adjuvant gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) improves fresh intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle outcomes in patients with poor fertilization history after standard HCG trigger alone. This study compared 156 patients with trigger who underwent another ICSI cycle with a combined 2 mg GnRHa and 1500 IU HCG ovulatory trigger. There was no difference in the baseline demographics, ovarian stimulation outcomes or sperm parameters of the groups. More mature oocytes were retrieved in the combined trigger group compared with the HCG trigger group: 12 (9-14) versus 10 (7-12); P = 0.01. The fertilization rate in the combined trigger group (59.2%) was higher than the HCG group (35.3%); P = 0.01. The odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were 1.8 and 1.7 times higher, respectively, when comparing the former group to the latter; P = 0.03. The results suggest that combined GnRHa and HCG trigger in ICSI cycles is a reasonable approach to increase oocyte maturity, specifically ooplasmic maturity, thereby increasing fertilization and improving ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with a history of poor fertilization after standard HCG trigger alone. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Graphene Oxide-Based Fluorescent Method for the Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG has been regarded as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and some cancers. Because the currently used methods (e.g., disposable Point of Care Testing (POCT device for hCG detection require the use of many less stable antibodies, simple and cost-effective methods for the sensitive and selective detection of hCG have always been desired. In this work, we have developed a graphene oxide (GO-based fluorescent platform for the detection of hCG using a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-labeled hCG-specific binding peptide aptamer (denoted as FITC-PPLRINRHILTR as the probe, which can be manufactured cheaply and consistently. Specifically, FITC-PPLRINRHILTR adsorbed onto the surface of GO via electrostatic interaction showed a poor fluorescence signal. The specific binding of hCG to FITC-PPLRINRHILTR resulted in the release of the peptide from the GO surface. As a result, an enhanced fluorescence signal was observed. The fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the hCG concentration in the range of 0.05–20 IU/mL. The detection limit was found to be 20 mIU/mL. The amenability of the strategy to hCG analysis in biological fluids was demonstrated by assaying hCG in the urine samples.

  7. Effect of Adding Human Chorionic Gonadotropin to The Endometrial Preparation Protocol in Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, one of the initial embryonic signals, isprobably a major regulator of the embryo-endometrial relationship. This study aims to assess theadvantage of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase of hormonally prepared cycles forthe transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos.Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Infertile women who werecandidates for frozen-thawed embryo transfers entered the study and were divided into two groups,HCG and control. The endometrial preparation method was similar in both groups: all women receivedestradiol valerate (6 mg po per day from the second day of the menstrual cycle and progesteronein oil (100 mg intramuscular (I.M. when the endometrial thickness reached 8 mm. Estradiol andprogesterone were continued until the tenth week of gestation. In the HCG group, patients received anHCG 5000 IU injection on the first day of progesterone administration and the day of embryo transfer.Results: In this study, 130 couples participated: 65 in the HCG group and 65 in the control group.There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding basic characteristics.Implantation rate, chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and abortion rateswere similar in both groups.Conclusion: Although HCG has some advantages in assisted reproductive technology (ARTcycles, our study did not show any benefit of HCG supplementation during the secretory phase offrozen cycles (Registration Number: IRCT201107266420N4.

  8. INDUKSI MATURASI BELUT SAWAH (Monopterus albus DENGAN HORMON HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN DAN ANTIDOPAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwin Kusuma Atmaja Putra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian maturasi belut sawah (Monopterus albus dengan Hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin dan antidopamin dilakukan di Kolam Percobaan Babakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh hormon hCG dan kombinasinya terhadap maturasi belut sawah. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode ekperimental secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan kontrol (NaCl, hCG (dosis 20 IU/kg, antidopamin (AD (dosis 0,01 mg/kg, dan hCG+AD (dosis 20 IU+0,01 mg/kg dengan tujuh ulangan individu. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan ANOVA. Parameter uji pada penelitian ini di antaranya adalah konsentrasi estradiol-17β, gonado somatik index (GSI, hepatosomatik index (HSI, histologi gonad, tingkat kematangan gonad, diameter telur, tingkat kebuntingan, dan kualitas air (oksigen terlarut (DO, pH, amoniak, dan suhu. Hasil terbaik pada akhir penelitian ini adalah perlakuan hCG+AD dengan nilai konsentrasi estradiol-17β (13,63-95,49 pg/mL, GSI (1,25%, HSI (1,53%, TKG (IV, diameter telur (0,88 mm, dan tingkat kebuntingan (85,71%. Perlakuan kontrol dan antidopamin tidak berpengaruh dan hanya mampu mencapai tingkat kematangan gonad I. Hasil analisis parameter kualitas air adalah berkisar DO (5,32-5,58 mg/L, amoniak (0,558-0,978 mg/L, pH (6,06-6,36, dan suhu (27,80oC-27,94oC. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa hCG dapat menginduksi pematangan gonad belut sawah.

  9. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilés-Salas Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ≥ 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ≥ 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ≥ 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

  10. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  11. Interventional study to find out effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and antioxidants on idiopathic male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata V. Padvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male contributes about 50% for cases with combined male and female infertility. When the cause is not known, it is term as idiopathic infertility. It affects 25% of men. Many advances have been made in reproductive medicine which provides great opportunities, couples which were considered untreatable now have got chance to have their own babies. Various ART procedures like ICSI have been proven as an efficient therapy in severe male factor infertility. However, the cost per cycle and complications such as multiple gestations cannot be ignored. Medical management of infertility can be specific or empirical depending on etiology. Specific medical management is use when certain etiology is identified. However, in absence of specific etiology use of empirical medical treatment can be attempted in order to improve treatment results. In this study our aim is to evaluate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and antioxidants on semen parameters in men with idiopathic male infertility. Methods: Thirty men with abnormal semen parameters were included in study. Patients were treated with injection hCG-2000 IU three times a week for three months along with the antioxidants. After 3 months of treatment repeat semen analysis were performed and results were compared with pre-treated seminal parameters. Results: Results showed significant increase in sperm count (p value ≤ 0.001, total motility (p value=<0.001, and progressive forward motility (p value = <0.001, while no significant difference is seen in rest of the parameters. Conclusions: Use of hCG and antioxidants in idiopathic male infertility can significantly improve seminal parameters in idiopathic male infertility.

  12. Acquired uterine vascular abnormalities associated with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin: Experience at a Korean teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Da Hye; Yi, Sang Wook; Sohn, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang Soo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our experience with the diagnosis and management of acquired uterine vascular abnormalities associated with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Through this case series, we sought to establish our protocol for the treatment and follow-up of uterine vascular lesions associated with persistent hCG. We examined the clinical presentations of 28 Korean women with acquired vascular uterine abnormalities associated with persistent hCG who were seen in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Gangneung Asan Teaching Hospital, Gangneung-si, Korea between October 2006 and July 2012 and retrospectively reviewed their medical records. The mean patient age was 32.5 ± 6.4 years, and the mean parity was 1.4 ± 1.2. The mean size of the vascular lesions in color Doppler sonography and multidetector computed tomography with angiography was 3.1 ± 1.6 cm and 3.9 ± 1.6 cm, respectively. Multidetector computed tomography revealed arteriovenous malformation-like vascular lesions (n = 15) and pseudoaneurysms (n = 3). Treatments included clinical observation (n = 11), uterine artery embolization (n = 11), hysterectomy (n = 4), and chemotherapy, including single methotrexate (MTX) treatment and combination chemotherapy (n = 9). When the uterine vascular lesion is not decreased, or if weekly clinical follow-up reveals that the serum β-hCG level is persistently elevated or sustained in conjunction with vaginal hemorrhage, a proper management strategy is required. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Identification of Extracellular Matrix Components and Biological Factors in Micronized Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jennifer; Priddy, Lauren B.; Lim, Jeremy J.; Massee, Michelle; Koob, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The use of bioactive extracellular matrix (ECM) grafts such as amniotic membranes is an attractive treatment option for enhancing wound repair. In this study, the concentrations, activity, and distribution of matrix components, growth factors, proteases, and inhibitors were evaluated in PURION® Processed, micronized, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM; MiMedx Group, Inc.). Approach: ECM components in dHACM tissue were assessed by using immunohistochemical staining, and growth factors, cytokines, proteases, and inhibitors were quantified by using single and multiplex ELISAs. The activities of proteases that were native to the tissue were determined via gelatin zymography and EnzChek® activity assay. Results: dHACM tissue contained the ECM components collagens I and IV, hyaluronic acid, heparin sulfate proteoglycans, fibronectin, and laminin. In addition, numerous growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and protease inhibitors that are known to play a role in the wound-healing process were quantified in dHACM. Though matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were present in dHACM tissues, inhibitors of MMPs overwhelmingly outnumbered the MMP enzymes by an overall molar ratio of 28:1. Protease activity assays revealed that the MMPs in the tissue existed primarily either in their latent form or complexed with inhibitors. Innovation: This is the first study to characterize components that function in wound healing, including inhibitor and protease content and activity, in micronized dHACM. Conclusion: A variety of matrix components and growth factors, as well as proteases and their inhibitors, were identified in micronized dHACM, providing a better understanding of how micronized dHACM tissue can be used to effectively promote wound repair. PMID:28224047

  14. Pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin after i.m. administration in goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M; Shahin, M; Wuttke, W; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation addresses the pharmacokinetics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), intramuscularly (i.m.) administered to goats. Nine pluriparous does of the Boer goat breed, 2-6 years of age and weighing 45-60 kg, were administered 500 IU hCG (2 ml Chorulon) deep into the thigh musculature 18 h after superovulatory FSH treatment. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein at 2  h intervals for the first 24h, at 6 h intervals until 42 h, and at 12 h intervals until 114 h after administration. After centrifugation, plasma hCG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Pharmacokinetical parameters were as follows: lag time, 0.4 (s.e.m. 0.1) h; absorption rate constant, 0.34 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; absorption half-life, 2.7 (s.e.m. 0.5) h; elimination rate constant, 0.02 (s.e.m. 0.002) h; biological half-life, 39.4 (s.e.m. 5.1) h; and apparent volume of distribution, 16.9 (s.e.m. 4.3) l. The plasma hCG profile was characterized by an absorption phase of 11.6 (s.e.m. 1.8) h and an elimination phase of 70.0 (s.e.m. 9.8) h, with considerable individual variation in bioavailability and pharmacokinetical parameters. Biological half-life was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with peak concentration (r=-0.76), absorption rate constant (r=-0.78), and elimination rate constant (r=-0.87). The results indicate that after rapid absorption, hCG remains in the circulation for an extended period. This has to be taken into account when assessing the stimulatory response to hCG treatment on an ovarian level.

  15. Structural analysis of gubernaculum testis in cryptorchid patients submitted to treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel S. El Zoghbi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To make a histological and stereological analysis of gubernaculum testis elastic system fibers, collagen and striated muscle cells in patients with cryptorchidism treated with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gubernacula tissue samples were obtained from 12 patients with cryptorchidism. Patients' ages ranged from 1 to 3 years (mean 1.8. Of the 12 patients, 6 were treated with hCG. The samples were stained with Masson's trichrome to highlight muscle fibers and collagen, and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin to highlight the elastic system fibers. The volumetric density of these components was determined by stereological methods. RESULTS: The volumetric density of collagen was increased in patients treated with hCG, ranging from 85.62% to 94.48%, while in patients not submitted to hCG treatment the volume density ranged from 52.12% to 89.46% (p = 0.0052. The volumetric density of the elastic system fibers was higher in patients treated with hCG, ranging from 9.62% to 19.62%, while patients not submitted to hCG treatment the volume density of elastic system fibers was between 10.38% and 12.38% (p = 0.0030. The volume density of striated muscle fibers in patients treated with hCG ranged from 4.76% to 39.16%, while and in patients not treated hCG it ranged from 3.24% to 11.14% (p = 0.0052. CONCLUSION: Gubernacular components alter significantly when submitted to treatment with hCG. Patients who underwent hCG treatment and had no complete testicular migration had an increase in the concentration of elastic and striated muscle fibers and a decrease in the volumetric density of collagen.

  16. IMMUNE MODULATORY EFFECTS of HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN on DENDRITIC CELLS SUPPORTING FETAL SURVIVAL in MURINE PREGNANCY

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    Dominique Dauven

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are critically involved in the determination of immunity versus tolerance. Hence, DCs are key regulators of immune responses either favoring or disfavoring fetal survival. Several factors were proposed to modulate DC phenotype and function during preg-nancy. Here, we studied whether the pregnancy hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG is involved in DC regulation.In vitro, bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs were stimulated in the presence or absence of urine-purified (uhCG or recombinant hCG (rhCG preparations. Subsequently, BMDC matu-ration was assessed. Cytokine secretion of activated BMDCs and their capability to enforce TH1, TH2, TH17 or Treg cell differentiation was determined after rhCG treatment. Moreover, the in vivo potential of hCG-modulated BMDCs to influence pregnancy outcome, Treg cell number and local cytokine expression was evaluated after adoptive transfer in a murine abor-tion-prone model before and after conception. Both hCG preparations impaired the maturation process of BMDCs. rhCG treatment did nei-ther alter cytokine secretion by BMDCs nor their ability to drive TH1, TH2 or TH17 differen-tiation. rhCG-treated BMDCs augmented the number of Treg cells within the T cell popula-tion. Adoptive transfer of rhCG-treated BMDCs after conception did not influence pregnancy outcome. However, transfer of hCG-treated BMDCs prior to mating had a protective effect on pregnancy. This positive effect was accompanied by increased Treg cell numbers and decidual IL-10 and TGF-β expression. Our results unveil the importance of hCG in retaining DCs in a tolerogenic state, thereby promoting Treg cell increment and supporting fetal survival.

  17. Immune Modulatory Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on Dendritic Cells Supporting Fetal Survival in Murine Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauven, Dominique; Ehrentraut, Stefanie; Langwisch, Stefanie; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Schumacher, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in the determination of immunity vs. tolerance. Hence, DCs are key regulators of immune responses either favoring or disfavoring fetal survival. Several factors were proposed to modulate DC phenotype and function during pregnancy. Here, we studied whether the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is involved in DC regulation. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were stimulated in the presence or absence of urine-purified or recombinant hCG (rhCG) preparations. Subsequently, BMDC maturation was assessed. Cytokine secretion of activated BMDCs and their capability to enforce TH1, TH2, TH17, or Treg cell differentiation was determined after rhCG treatment. Moreover, the in vivo potential of hCG-modulated BMDCs to influence pregnancy outcome, Treg cell number, and local cytokine expression was evaluated after adoptive transfer in a murine abortion-prone model before and after conception. Both hCG preparations impaired the maturation process of BMDCs. rhCG treatment did neither alter cytokine secretion by BMDCs nor their ability to drive TH1, TH2, or TH17 differentiation. rhCG-treated BMDCs augmented the number of Treg cells within the T cell population. Adoptive transfer of rhCG-treated BMDCs after conception did not influence pregnancy outcome. However, transfer of hCG-treated BMDCs prior to mating had a protective effect on pregnancy. This positive effect was accompanied by increased Treg cell numbers and decidual IL-10 and TGF-β expression. Our results unveil the importance of hCG in retaining DCs in a tolerogenic state, thereby promoting Treg cell increment and supporting fetal survival. PMID:27895621

  18. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Chorionic villus sampling Chorionic villus sampling E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... It's been added to your dashboard . Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test . It’s used to ...

  19. New discoveries on the biology and detection of human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Laurence A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is a glycoprotein hormone comprising 2 subunits, alpha and beta joined non covalently. While similar in structure to luteinizing hormone (LH, hCG exists in multiple hormonal and non-endocrine agents, rather than as a single molecule like LH and the other glycoprotein hormones. These are regular hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and the free beta-subunit of hyperglycosylated hCG. For 88 years regular hCG has been known as a promoter of corpus luteal progesterone production, even though this function only explains 3 weeks of a full gestations production of regular hCG. Research in recent years has explained the full gestational production by demonstration of critical functions in trophoblast differentiation and in fetal nutrition through myometrial spiral artery angiogenesis. While regular hCG is made by fused villous syncytiotrophoblast cells, extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells make the variant hyperglycosylated hCG. This variant is an autocrine factor, acting on extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells to initiate and control invasion as occurs at implantation of pregnancy and the establishment of hemochorial placentation, and malignancy as occurs in invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hyperglycosylated hCG inhibits apoptosis in extravillous invasive cytotrophoblast cells promoting cell invasion, growth and malignancy. Other non-trophoblastic malignancies retro-differentiate and produce a hyperglycosylated free beta-subunit of hCG (hCG free beta. This has been shown to be an autocrine factor antagonizing apoptosis furthering cancer cell growth and malignancy. New applications have been demonstrated for total hCG measurements and detection of the 3 hCG variants in pregnancy detection, monitoring pregnancy outcome, determining risk for Down syndrome fetus, predicting preeclampsia, detecting pituitary hCG, detecting and managing gestational trophoblastic diseases, diagnosing quiescent

  20. Effects of preventing O-glycosylation on the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a member of a family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones that have a common alpha subunit but differ in their hormone-specific beta subunits. The beta subunit of hCG (hCG beta) is unique among the beta subunits in that it contains four mucin-like O-linked oligosaccharides attached to a carboxyl-terminal extension. To study the effects of O-glycosylation on the secretion and assembly of hCG, expression vectors containing either the hCG beta gene alone o...

  1. Human chorionic gonadotropin and implantation%人绒毛膜促性腺激素与胚胎种植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 陈晓燕; 徐少元

    2013-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG)is a glycoprotein hormone comprised of 2 subunits a and b that are noncovalently joined. HCG is primarily produced by the embryo and later by the syncytiotrophoblast. HCG has been detected at variable levels both in pre-implantation embryo culture media in vitro and in women serum after fertilization around implantation period or early pregnancy. HCG is not only considered to assess embryo competence both in anatomic and biochemical,but also contributes to improve luteal function and endometrial modification or placenta construction for supporting early pregnancy.

  2. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  3. Gossypol inhibits human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by cultured canine testicular interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, M; Kulp, S; Chang, W; Lin, Y C

    1996-03-01

    Gossypol (GP) is a natural polyphenolic compound that possesses antifertility and antisteroidogenic activities in both males and females. The dog is highly sensitive to GP toxicity, yet GP's effect on canine testicular steroidogenesis has never been reported. Thus, the present study examines GP's effects on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced testosterone (T) production by primary cultured canine testicular interstitial cells. After decapsulation and enzymatic dissociation of canine testes in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with Ham's Nutrient Mixture F-12 (1:1; DME/F-12) containing 0.1% collagenase, 0.1% BSA, and 10 micrograms/ml DNase 1 (37 degrees C, 20 min), interstitial cells were isolated by sedimentation and filtration (140 microns) and then cultured in supplemented DME/F-12 medium (5 micrograms/ml insulin, 5 micrograms/ml transferrin, 5 ng/ml sodium selenite; DME/F-12/S) containing 0.1% fetal bovine serum (FBS). FBS was used to enhance cell attachment during the first 24 hours of culture. After 24 hours, the medium was replaced with serum-free DME/F-12/S and the cells were cultured for an additional 24 hours. Thereafter, cells were treated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) alone and in combination with GP (0.05, 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 microM). Media were collected for T radioimmunoassay and cells for protein estimation after 8, 16 and 24 hours of treatment. Treatment with hCG significantly (p production over that of controls at all treatment times examined. At 8, 16 and 24 hours, T secretion was elevated from 0.91 +/- 0.25, 1.32 +/- 0.42, and 1.41 +/- 0.40 pg/microgram protein to 2.36 +/- 0.50, 2.84 +/- 0.60, and 2.82 +/- 0.43 pg/microgram protein, respectively. At 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 microM, GP significantly (p production was reduced by 2.5 and 5.0 microM GP to 1.08 +/- 0.55 and 0.93 +/- 0.61 pg/microgram protein, respectively. GP, however, did not reduce T production to below basal levels. These results demonstrate the inhibition of hCG-induced T production by GP in

  4. Early serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trends after medication abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, Katherine D; Maurer, Rie; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B; Bartz, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Despite increased reliance on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for early pregnancy monitoring, there is limited information about hCG trends soon after medication abortion. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a predictable decline in serum hCG values shortly after medication abortion. This is a retrospective study of women with early intrauterine pregnancies who underwent medication abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol and had a serum hCG level on Day 1 (day of mifepristone) and a repeat value on Day 2 to 6. The percent hCG decline was calculated from baseline to repeat measure, with repeat values from the same patient accounted for through repeated measure analysis of variance. Eighty-eight women with a mean gestational age of 5.5 weeks and median baseline hCG of 5220 IU met study criteria over a 3-year period. The mean decline (±SD) in hCG from the Day 1 baseline value was 56.9%±29.5% on Day 3, 73.5%±38.6% on Day 4, 86.1%±8.8% on Day 5, and 92.9%±3.4% on Day 6. Eighty-two women (93% of the cohort) had a complete abortion without further intervention. The least square means hCG decline among these women was 57.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 50.3-64.9%] on Day 3, 78.9% (95% CI: 75.0-82.8%) on Day 4 and 86.2% (95% CI: 81.3-91.1%) on Day 5. There is a rapid decline in serum hCG within the first few days after early medication abortion. Further research is needed to delineate how soon after medication abortion this decline may be specific enough to confirm abortion completion. This study provides the largest cohort of patients followed with serial hCG values in the first few days after medication abortion. Our findings demonstrate the trend in hCG decline in this population, which may be predictable by Day 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of human mesenchymal stromal cells from four neonatal tissues: Amniotic membrane, chorionic membrane, placental decidua and umbilical cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Anelise Bergmann; Salton, Gabrielle Dias; Furlan, Juliana Monteiro; Schneider, Natália; Angeli, Melissa Helena; Laureano, Álvaro Macedo; Silla, Lúcia; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi; Paz, Ana Helena

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being investigated as a potential alternative for cellular therapy. This study was designed to compare the biological characteristics of MSCs isolated from amniotic membrane (A-MSCs), chorionic membrane (C-MSCs), placental decidua (D-MSCs) and umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) to ascertain whether any one of these sources is superior to the others for cellular therapy purposes. MSCs were isolated from amniotic membrane, chorionic membrane, umbilical cord and placental decidua. Immunophenotype, differentiation ability, cell size, cell complexity, polarity index and growth kinetics of MSCs isolated from these four sources were analyzed. MSCs were successfully isolated from all four sources. Surface marker profile and differentiation ability were consistent with human MSCs. C-MSCs in suspension were the smallest cells, whereas UC-MSCs presented the greatest length and least width. A-MSCs had the lowest polarity index and UC-MSCs, as more elongated cells, the highest. C-MSCs, D-MSCs and UC-MSCs exhibited similar growth capacity until passage 8 (P8); C-MSCs presented better lifespan, whereas insignificant proliferation was observed in A-MSCs. Neonatal and maternal tissues can serve as sources of multipotent stem cells. Some characteristics of MSCs obtained from four neonatal tissues were compared and differences were observed. Amniotic membrane was the least useful source of MSCs, whereas chorionic membrane and umbilical cord were considered good options for future use in cell therapy because of the known advantages of immature cells. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Small gene family encoding an eggshell (chorion) protein of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobek, L.A.; Rekosh, D.M.; Lo Verde, P.T.

    1988-08-01

    The authors isolated six independent genomic clones encoding schistosome chorion or eggshell proteins from a Schistosoma mansoni genomic library. A linkage map of five of the clones spanning 35 kilobase pairs (kbp) of the S. mansoni genome was constructed. The region contained two eggshell protein genes closely linked, separated by 7.5 kbp of intergenic DNA. The two genes of the cluster were arranged in the same orientation, that is, they were transcribed from the same strand. The sixth clone probably represents a third copy of the eggshell gene that is not contained within the 35-kbp region. The 5- end of the mRNA transcribed from these genes was defined by primer extension directly off the RNA. The ATCAT cap site sequence was homologous to a silkmoth chorion PuTCATT cap site sequence, where Pu indicates any purine. DNA sequence analysis showed that there were no introns in these genes. The DNA sequences of the three genes were very homologous to each other and to a cDNA clone, pSMf61-46, differing only in three or four nucleotices. A multiple TATA box was located at positions -23 to -31, and a CAAAT sequence was located at -52 upstream of the eggshell transcription unit. Comparison of sequences in regions further upstream with silkmoth and Drosophila sequences revealed very short elements that were shared. One such element, TCACGT, recently shown to be an essential cis-regulatory element for silkmoth chorion gene promoter function, was found at a similar position in all three organisms.

  7. Effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on follicular growth and ovulation in gonadotrophin-treated gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Cassar, Glen; Friendship, Robert M; Garcia, José C; Dominguez, J Carlos; Kirkwood, Roy N

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of additional human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) on the ovarian response of gilts previously treated with 200 IU hCG combined with 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) (eCG/hCG). Seventy-one prepuberal gilts (105 ± 7.5 kg) were assigned to groups: i) eCG/hCG (hCG-0; n = 25); ii) eCG/hCG followed by 100 IU of hCG at 24 h (hCG-100; n = 24); iii) eCG/hCG followed by 200 IU hCG at 24 h (hCG-200; n = 10); and iv) controls (CON; n = 12). Ovulation response was assessed by ovarian dissection or real-time ultrasonography. Additional hCG did not significantly improve numbers of gilts ovulating. Numbers of corpora lutea increased with hCG, and was higher in hCG-200 (P hCG-0, the frequency of cysts in gilts was higher in hCG-100 (P hCG-200 (P hCG. We conclude that supplemental hCG will increase the number of corpora lutea but will be associated with follicular cyst development in a dose dependent manner.

  8. Oxygen tension and normalisation pressure modulate nifedipine-sensitive relaxation of human placental chorionic plate arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E J; Wareing, M; Greenwood, S L; Baker, P N

    2006-01-01

    Fetoplacental blood vessel constriction in response to reduced oxygenation has been demonstrated in placenta perfused in vitro. In pulmonary vessels, hypoxic vasoconstriction involves Ca2+ influx into smooth muscle through membrane ion channels including voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). We hypothesised that VGCCs are involved in agonist-induced constriction of fetoplacental resistance vessels and that their contribution is modulated by oxygen. Chorionic plate small arteries were studied using wire myography. Arteries were normalised at high (0.9 of L(13.3 kPa)) or low (0.9 of L(5.1 kPa)) stretch and experiments performed at 156, 38 or 15 mmHg oxygen. At low stretch, U46619 (thromboxane-mimetic) or KCl (smooth muscle depolarisation) constriction was greater at 38 than 156 or 15 mmHg oxygen. An L-type VGCC blocker nifedipine, inhibited KCl constriction by >85% but was less effective in U46619 constrictions (43-67%). At high stretch, nifedipine inhibition of KCl- and U46619-induced constriction was less at 15 than 38 or 156 mmHg oxygen. Oxygen did not affect constriction to U46619 or nifedipine-induced relaxation when vessels were normalised at high stretch. In conclusion, oxygen modulates chorionic plate arterial constriction at low stretch but regulation is lost at high stretch. U46619 constriction is underlain by VGCCs and nifedipine-insensitive processes; their relative contribution is influenced by oxygen.

  9. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have d

  10. First trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta in early and late pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahasanovic, Azra; Sørensen, Steen; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) measured in maternal plasma at the first trimester screening, in women who later developed early or late pre-eclampsia (PE) to women...

  11. Biologic effect of a hybrid preparation of human chorionic gonadotropin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, E

    1982-01-01

    Alpha and beta-hCG subunits were recombined generating a hybrid hCG preparation (AB1ER-CR-2XY) which met the required specifications of a pharmaceutical product. The biologic activity contained in each vial of AB1ER-CR-2XY was equivalent to 10 000IU of hCG-IS. This preparation was given as a single dose of 10 000IU by the i.m. route to four female subjects presenting unexplained infertility. The hCG hybrid was demonstrated to effect gonadal stimulation in humans.

  12. Evolution of the human brain, chorionic gonadotropin and hemochorial implantation of the placenta: insights into origins of pregnancy failures, preeclampsia and choriocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A; Khanlian, Sarah A; Kohorn, Ernest I

    2008-08-01

    Hyperglycosylated chorionic gonadotropin (CG-H) signals placental cytotrophoblast cell growth and invasion, and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) promotes uterine vascularization. A hypothesis is presented relating the evolution of these molecules to the evolution of human hemochorial implantation and that of the human brain. Deep placental invasion, vascularization and hemochorial placentation, under the influence of CG and CG-H, are a critical part of the nutrition and energy-generating mechanisms needed for human brain development and thus for the evolution of humans. Insufficient CG-H production and the resulting inappropriate implantation is associated with an unduly high incidence of pregnancy failures in humans. Low levels of CG-H and inappropriate hemochorial placentation also appear to be associated with subsequent preeclampsia. It is also of note that human CG-H drives invasion by gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that have been described only in humans.

  13. The nature of reversible and not readily reversible bovine corpus luteum plasma membranes bound human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V; Carman, F R

    1986-10-01

    125I-human chorionic gonadotropin (125I-hCG) bound to plasma membranes of bovine corpora lutea consisted of reversible and not readily reversible fractions. The not readily reversible fraction progressively increased as the length and the temperature of preincubation were increased. The not readily reversible fraction was, however, completely eluted after any time or temperature of preincubation. Although the not readily reversible and reversible bound 125I-hCG were precipitated equally well with 10% trichloroacetic acid, the not readily reversible bound 125I-hCG was able to rebind much higher to fresh plasma membranes compared to reversible bound 125I-hCG. These findings suggest that while not readily reversible bound 125I-hCG was intact, the reversible bound 125I-hCG was somewhat altered during the binding reaction.

  14. Human chorionic gonadotrophin priming for fertility treatment with in vitro maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavey, Jane; Vincent, Katy; Child, Timothy; Granne, Ingrid E

    2016-11-16

    In vitro maturation (IVM) is a fertility treatment that involves the transvaginal retrieval of immature oocytes, and their subsequent maturation and fertilisation. Although the live birth rate is lower than conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with ovarian stimulation, it is a useful treatment, as it avoids the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Women with polycystic ovaries (PCO) or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are at an increased risk of OHSS. Thus, IVM may be a more useful treatment in this patient group.Strategies to maximise the maturation rates of the immature oocytes are important. This review focuses on the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) prior to immature oocyte retrieval. To determine the effectiveness and safety of hCG priming in subfertile women who are undergoing IVM treatment in the context of assisted reproduction. We searched the following electronic databases up to 29 August 2016: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. We also searched the trial registries ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTPR to identify ongoing and registered trials. We sought recently published papers not yet indexed in the major databases, and reviewed the reference lists of reviews and retrieved studies as sources of potentially relevant studies. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared hCG priming with placebo or no priming in women undergoing IVM. We also included RCTs that compared different doses of hCG, or the timing of oocyte retrieval. The primary outcomes were live birth rate and miscarriage rate per woman randomised. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, and with a third author, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the original authors where data were missing. For dichotomous outcomes, we used the Mantel-Haenszel method to calculate

  15. Chorionic villus sampling in continuing pregnancies. II. Cytogenetic reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A O; Simpson, J L; Rosinsky, B J; Elias, S

    1986-06-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 103 chorionic villus samples. Analysis of the 103 samples revealed six abnormalities. In three of the six the abnormalities were confirmed in fetal or neonatal tissue (47,XY, + 13; 46,XY, t(13q13q); 45,X). In three samples the abnormalities detected were not confirmed; in two of the three the abnormalities were detected only in long-term cultures, whereas in the other samples the abnormality was restricted to direct analysis of the villi after overnight incubation. Our initial experience leads us to conclude that certain abnormalities in chorionic villus sampling may not be indicative of fetal abnormalities; 45,X/46,XX or 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is such a complement. Discrepancies between cytogenetic analysis of intact villi processed soon after sampling and of cells grown in culture can be managed by adhering to several suggested guidelines and by liberal use of confirmatory amniocentesis.

  16. Case of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism with non-mosaic discordance between short-term villi (45,X) and cultured villi (46,XY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, C; Van Opstal, D; Brandenburg, H; Los, F J

    2000-07-31

    We report on a prenatally detected case of discordant non-mosaic karyotypes following chorionic villus sampling. A 45,X karyotype was found in cytotrophoblast cells and a 46,XY karyotype in mesenchymal core cells. A subsequent amniocentesis showed a true 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Confirmatory studies, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in various fetal and placental tissues as well as in the original villi preparations changed the presumed condition of generalized mosaicism with culture confined normality to that of generalized mosaicism with absolute concordance. This case underscores the importance of the investigation of both short-term and cultured villi preparations, the implementation of prenatal FISH studies, and the need for thorough follow-up investigation in cases of discrepant results.

  17. Heightened seizure susceptibility associated with brain dermoid cyst and the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Paolo; Rocchi, Raffaele; Cerase, Alfonso; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2007-07-15

    It is known that the intramuscular injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) lowers the threshold for motor evoked responses (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans. We describe the case of a patient with a clinically silent left-sided nasofrontal dermoid cyst who, while being treated with hCG/LH for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, presented with simple partial seizures, ipsilateral to the cyst, with secondary generalization. Motor cortex excitability was studied by single and paired TMS and MEPs were recorded from FDI. Resting motor threshold (RMT), active motor threshold (AMT), MEP size, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were tested during and after suspension of hormonal therapy. RMT and AMT were lower, MEP size was larger, ICI was decreased while ICF was slightly diminished during treatment. Overall, this indicated a reduced intracortical inhibition during hormonal therapy. It is concluded that treatment with hCG/LH may favour seizure onset in the presence of potentially epileptogenic lesions such as an intracranial dermoid cyst.

  18. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on gold-silicon carbide nanocomposites for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Shuangmei; Deng, Shuangsheng; Lv, Qi; Lin, Jie; Li, Can-Peng

    2014-07-15

    Uniform and highly dispersed gold-silicon carbide (Au@SiC) nanocomposites were prepared via simple way and used for fabrication of label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Using Au@SiC as electrode material and using ferricyanide as mediator, the proposed immunosensor provides a simple and economic method with higher sensitivity and a wider concentration range for detection of hCG. Under the optimal condition, the approach provided a good linear response range from 0.1 to 5 IU/L and 5 to 1000 IU/L with a low detection limit of 0.042 IU/L. The immunosensor showed good selectivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of hCG in human serum samples. The proposed method provides a promising platform of clinical immunoassay for other biomolecules. In addition, the bio-functionalization of SiC combined with other nanomaterials will provide promising approach for electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform.

  19. Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin significantly improves the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist cycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Ming-Huei; Wu, Frank Shao-Ying; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2013-01-01

    ...) agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can improve the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles...

  20. Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Grafts May Accelerate the Healing of Ulcers on Free Flaps in Patients With Venous Insufficiency and/or Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Edward P.; Friedman, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ulceration of free flaps in patients with venous insufficiency and/or lymphedema is an uncommon but challenging problem. We hypothesized that dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (Epifix) grafts would accelerate healing of these challenging ulcers. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data identified 8 lower extremity free flaps with ulcerations in the context of venous insufficiency and/or lymphedema. The first 4 were flaps that had been treated with conse...

  1. ?-human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting intracranial germ-cell tumor associated with high testosterone in an adult man: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wen-Ping; Chien, Hung-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A 38-year-old male patient presented with general weakness, polydipsia and a body weight loss of 10 kg in two years. Hypopituitarism with central hypothyroidism and central adrenal insufficiency were noted at Taipei City Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). However, hypogonadotropic hypergonadism was also observed. The patient was diagnosed with an intracranial ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) secreting germ-cell tumor, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor involved the pin...

  2. Current Status of Monocyte Differentiation-Inducing (MDI Factors Derived from Human Fetal Membrane Chorion Cells Undergoing Apoptosis after Infl uenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Uchide

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infection induces apoptosis and the expression of a set of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-β and IFN-γ, in cultured human fetal membrane chorion cells. Monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI activity in culture supernatants is simultaneously increased by the virus infection. The MDI activity is predominantly influenced by IL-6 molecule in culture supernatants, and partly by TNF-α and IFN-β, but not IFN-γ, molecules. The MDI factors are able to induce the mRNA expression of macrophage class A scavenger receptor (SR-A, which is one of adhesion and apoptotic cell-recognizing molecules, and gp91phox, which is a catalytic subunit of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase enzyme complex, on monocytic cells. As a result, monocytes are initiated to differentiate into well-matured macrophages capable of adhering and producing superoxide through NADPH oxidase. The matured macrophages, obtained from human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells by the treatment with MDI factors, phagocytose apoptotic chorion cell debris resulting from the virus infection. Subsequent to phagocytosis, an abrupt increase of superoxide production by macrophages may occur. In this article, we summarize recent knowledge about the MDI factors derived from human fetal membrane chorion cells undergoing apoptosis after influenza virus infection, and discuss their possible pathological roles during pregnancy.

  3. Regenerative and Antibacterial Properties of Acellular Fish Skin Grafts and Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane: Implications for Tissue Preservation in Combat Casualty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Skuli; Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Rolfsson, Ottar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur Fertram

    2017-03-01

    Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane. We evaluated cell ingrowth capabilities of the biological materials with microscopy techniques. Bacterial barrier properties were tested with a 2-chamber model. The microstructure of the acellular fish skin is highly porous, whereas the microstructure of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane is mostly nonporous. The fish skin grafts show superior ability to support 3-dimensional ingrowth of cells compared to dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (p < 0.0001) and the fish skin is a bacterial barrier for 24 to 48 hours. The unique biomechanical properties of the acellular fish skin graft make it ideal to be used as a conformal cover for severe trauma and burn wounds in the battlefield. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Treatment of cryptorchidism with human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin releasing hormone. A double-blind controlled study of 243 boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Müller, J; Buhl, S;

    1988-01-01

    We have conducted a modified double-blind study on the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and placebo on bilateral and unilateral maldescended testes. One hundred and fifty-five boys with bilateral and 88 boys with unilateral cryptorchidism fulfilled...... the inclusion criteria and completed the treatment protocol. The boys were between 1 and 13 years of age. hCG was administered as intramuscular injections twice weekly for 3 weeks. GnRH and placebo were given intranasally. hCG was superior to GnRH and placebo in the treatment of bilateral maldescended testes (p......% after placebo and GnRH, respectively (p = 0.07). The testis had moved to a more distal position in 46% of the boys treated with hCG. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups with regard to age or initial position of the testes. We conclude that a success rate of 25% justifies...

  5. Regenerative and reparative effects of human chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium on photo-aged epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiankun; Chen, Yan; Ma, Kui; Zhao, Along; Zhang, Cuiping; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cells are an important regenerative source for skin wound healing. Aged epidermal cells have a low ability to renew themselves and repair skin injury. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly UVB, can cause photo-aging of the skin by suppressing the viability of human epidermal cells. A chorion-derived stem cell conditioned medium (CDSC-CNM) is thought to have regenerative properties. This study aimed to determine the regenerative effects of CDSC-CNM on UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells. Epidermal cells were passaged four times and irradiated with quantitative UVB, and non-irradiated cells served as a control group. Cells were then treated with different concentrations of CDSC-CNM. Compared to the non-irradiated group, the proliferation rates and migration rates of UVB-induced photo-aged epidermal cells significantly decreased (p cells significantly improved their viability, and their ROS generation and DNA damage decreased. The secretory factors in CDSC-CNM, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and the related signaling pathway protein levels, increased compared to the control medium (CM). The potential regenerative and reparative effects of CDSC-CNM indicate that it may be a candidate material for the treatment of prematurely aged skin. The functions of the secretory factors and the mechanisms of CDSC-CNM therapy deserve further attention.

  6. A 15-year-old female with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated human chorionic gonadotropin: pregnancy, right? Not so fast….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arun; Ocon, Anthony J; Nibhanipudi, Kumara

    2012-10-01

    Nongestational choriocarcinoma, a rare ovarian tumor, may present in young women with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), all of which may be mistaken for pregnancy. A 15-year-old Hispanic female, who reported no sexual activity, presented with 6 months of amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and progressive abdominal distension. Initially, suspicion of pregnancy was considered. Physical examination was significant for abdominal distension, but no uterine fundus or fetal anatomy could be palpated, and auscultation did not reveal any fetal heart sounds or bruits. Laboratory values showed elevated urine hCG, cancer antigen 125, and cancer antigen 19.9 levels but normal serum hCG level and was inconsistent with pregnancy. Computed tomographic scans revealed a large abdominal heterogeneous mass and pleural effusions. Salpingo-oophorectomy with total omentectomy and inversion appendectomy removed a 21 × 20.5 × 16.5-cm tumor. Pathological testing determined it to be a nongestational choriocarcinoma. This rare tumor is more common in the pediatric adolescent population than in adults. Surgical resection and chemotherapy often result in a positive prognosis. In female adolescent patients presenting with elevated hCG level, amenorrhea, and abdominal distention, choriocarcinoma should be considered, especially in those with no history of sexual activity or before menarche.

  7. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI. After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH surge in timing insemination on the treatment outcome after follicular monitoring with timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination, with or without ovarian stimulation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 2000 consecutive completed treatment cycles (637 timed-intercourse and 1363 intrauterine insemination cycles. Stimulation protocols included clomiphene alone or with FSH injection, letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor alone or with FSH, and FSH alone. LH-surge was defined as an increase in LH level ≥200% over mean of preceding two days. When given, hCG was administered at a dose of 10,000 IU. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate per cycle. Results Higher pregnancy rates occurred in cycles in which hCG was given. Occurrence of an LH-surge was associated with a higher pregnancy rate with clomiphene treatment, but a lower pregnancy rate with FSH treatment. Conclusions hCG administration is associated with a favorable outcome during ovarian stimulation. Awaiting occurrence of LH-surge is associated with a better outcome with CC but not with FSH treatment.

  8. Associations between maternal serum free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikunalai, P; Wanapirak, C; Sirichotiyakul, S; Tongprasert, F; Srisupundit, K; Luewan, S; Traisrisilp, K; Tongsong, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the strength of relationship between maternal free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) concentrations and rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Consecutive records of the database of our Down screening project were assessed for free β-hCG levels and pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies with foetal chromosomal or structural anomalies and those with underlying disease were excluded. Free β-hCG levels of 0.5 and decreased risk of preterm birth and GDM with relative risk of 0.73 and 0.62. In the second trimester (n = 5470), both low and high β-hCG groups had significant increased risks of the most common adverse outcomes, i.e. spontaneous abortion, IUGR and preterm birth. In conclusion, abnormally low ( 2.0 MoM) free β-hCG levels are generally associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Nevertheless, high free β-hCG levels in the first trimester may possibly decrease risk of preterm delivery and GDM.

  9. Final Oocyte Maturation in Assisted Reproduction with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone agonist (Dual Trigger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sofia Andrade de; Calsavara, Vinícius Fernando; Cortés, Gemma Castillón

    2016-12-01

    Final oocyte maturation with Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and ovarian stimulation with Follicle Stimulation Hormone (FSH) combined with Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonist to block Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is a standard procedure of in vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). However, GnRH agonist has been replacing the use of hCG in certain situations, especially in patients at risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS). Some studies have also shown advantages in the combined use of GnRH agonist concurrently with hCG in inducing final oocyte maturation, a treatment known as "Dual Trigger". In theory, this method combines the advantages of both induction regimens, and it has brought promising results. The objective of this study is to compare Dual Trigger with the use of hCG alone or the use of GnRH agonist alone. A systematic review of articles on Dual Trigger and a retrospective cohort study comparing the three methods of induction of final oocyte maturation have been conducted. It has been found that Dual Triggering for poor responder patients had a statistically significant increase in the number of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, and fertilized embryos in the positive beta hCG rate, implantation rate, and newborn/transferred embryo (TE) rate.

  10. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation. Results: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79. Discussion: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. Conclusion: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF.

  11. Human chorionic somatomammotropin and growth hormone gene expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is dependent on proximal promoter sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, M.W.; Nickel, B.E.; Klassen, M.E.; Cattini, P.A. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)); Zhang, Wengang; Eberhardt, N.L. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-06-12

    Human placental chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS-A or hCS-B) and pituitary growth hormone (hGH-N) are related by structure and function. The hCS-A gene is expressed in rat pituitary tumor (GC) cells after gene transfer. Deletion of hCS-A 5{prime}-flanking DNA reveals repressor activity upstream of nucleotide {minus}132, and a region essential for expression in GC cells between nucleotides {minus}94 and {minus}61. The sequences in this region differ from the equivalent hGH-N gene DNA by one nucleotide, and include the binding site for a pituitary-specific factor (GHF-1), required for hGH-N expression in GC cells. Exchange of hGH-N with hCS-A gene DNA in this region maintains expression in GC cells. By contrast, modification of these sequences blocks expression. These data indicate that proximal promoter sequences, equivalent to those bound by GHF-1 on the hGH-N gene, are required for hCS-A expression in GC cells.

  12. Expression of Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Genes in Renal Cell Cancer and Benign Renal Disease Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永光; 曾甫清; 肖传国; 刘俊敏

    2003-01-01

    To study the expression of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) genes in renal cellcarcinomas (RCC) and benign renal disease tissues, nested reverse transcription-polymerase chainreaction (RT-PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis were employed to detect the expression ofβhCG genes in 44 cases of RCC tissues and 24 cases of benign renal disease tissues. It was foundthat 52% RCC samples revealed positive for βhCG mRNA expression. Positive rate in advancedstage and poorly differentiated RCC was higher, but there was no significant difference. The posi-tive rate of βhCG mRNA expression was 54% in 24 cases of benign renal tissues, including 3 casesout of 6 polycystic kidneys, 7 cases out of 13 renal atrophies, 2 cases out of 2 oncocytomas and 1case out of 2 pyonephrotic kidneys. β7 was most frequently transcribed subtype gene independent onthe histology. These findings suggested βhCG gene transcription is not only involved in RCC but al-so in benign renal diseases.

  13. Development of Some Organs Derived from the Three Embryonic Germ Layer in a Degus Ectopic Pregnancy and Presence of a Cytotrophoblast That Mimics Human Chorionic Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bosco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of abdominal pregnancy in an adult female degu from which we recovered two large tissular masses from the peritoneal cavity. The bigger one showed a number of thin vascular connections to the serosa layer of the small intestine. It was also directly connected to the smaller mass by a thin membranous process. The surface of the bigger mass facing the small intestine wall showed the presence of chorionic villous that resembled a villous human chorionic placenta, rather than the hemomonochorial labyrinthine placenta, characteristic of this species. This unusual finding leads us to postulate that in the degu’s uterus the cytotrophoblast is exposed to a number of factors that will activate cascades of cellular and molecular events that ultimately will be signaling the cytotrophoblast to develop into a labyrinthine hemomonochorial placenta. In absence of the proper uterine environment, as is the case of the abdominal pregnancy in the peritoneal cavity reported here, the lack of signaling will lead the cytotrophoblast to develop into a villous chorionic placenta, similar to that observed in human.

  14. Influence of multiple injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on urine and serum endogenous steroids concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Pralong, François; Dvorak, Jiri; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2011-12-10

    Since it is established that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) affects testosterone production and release in the human body, the use of this hormone as a performance enhancing drug has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Nowadays, the only validated biomarker of a hCG doping is its direct quantification in urine. However, this specific parameter is subjected to large inter-individual variability and its determination is directly dependent on the reliability of hCG immunoassays used. In order to counteract these weaknesses, new biomarkers need to be evidenced. To address this issue, a pilot clinical study was performed on 10 volunteers submitted to 3 subsequent hCG injections. Blood and urine samples were collected during two weeks in order to follow the physiological effects on related compounds such as the steroid profile or hormones involved in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The hCG pharmacokinetic observed in all subjects was, as expected, prone to important inter-individual variations. Using ROC plots, level of testosterone and testosterone on luteinizing hormone ratio in both blood and urine were found to be the most relevant biomarker of a hCG abuse, regardless of inter-individual variations. In conclusion, this study showed the crucial importance of reliable quantification methods to assess low differences in hormonal patterns. In regard to these results and to anti-doping requirements and constraints, blood together with urine matrix should be included in the anti-doping testing program. Together with a longitudinal follow-up approach it could constitute a new strategy to detect a hCG abuse, applicable to further forms of steroid or other forbidden drug manipulation.

  15. In Vitro Infection of Trypanosoma cruzi Causes Decrease in Glucose Transporter Protein-1 (GLUT1 Expression in Explants of Human Placental Villi Cultured under Normal and High Glucose Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mezzano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic Chagas' disease agent, induces changes in protein pattern of the human placenta syncytiotrophoblast. The glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT1 is the primary isoform involved in transplacental glucose transport. We carried out in vitro assays to determine if T. cruzi infection would induce changes in placental GLUT1 protein expression under normal and high concentration of glucose. Using Western blot and immunohistological techniques, GLUT1 expression was determined in normal placental villi cultured under normal or high concentrations of glucose, with or without in vitro T. cruzi infection, for 24 and 48 hours. High glucose media or T. cruzi infection alone reduced GLUT1 expression. A yet more accentuated reduction was observed when infection and high glucose condition took place together. We inform, for the first time, that T. cruzi infection may induce reduction of GLUT1 expression under normal and high glucose concentrations, and this effect is synergic to high glucose concentrations.

  16. Comparison of medical abortion follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin testing and in-office assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Erin L; Chen, Beatrice A; Meyn, Leslie A; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to compare lost to follow-up (LTFU) rates in women having a medical abortion who chose follow-up by in-office ultrasound assessment or serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) testing. This retrospective chart review included 865 women who underwent medical abortion in a free-standing outpatient clinic from September 1, 2007, through September 30, 2010. Patients had a 1-week follow-up evaluation after receiving the medications consisting of in-office ultrasound assessment or serial serum β-hCG testing. Ultrasound assessment was offered throughout the study period, and serum β-hCG testing was offered as of September 1, 2008. Demographic and medical data were reviewed to evaluate LTFU rates based on patient's chosen method of follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors that were independently associated with lack of follow-up. LTFU rates increased from 18% to 27% in the first and third years of the study period, respectively (p=.009). LTFU rates with ultrasound and β-hCG testing were 22.9% and 33.7%, respectively (p=.024). In multivariable analysis, follow-up method was not associated with increased LTFU. Increased parity, any previous induced abortion, increased distance from home to clinic site and unemployment were independently associated with increased LTFU. Although LTFU rates are higher with serum β-hCG testing than in-office ultrasound follow-up in our patient population, the women who choose this method are inherently more likely not to follow-up because of other characteristics that predict a high likelihood of being LTFU. Offering serum β-hCG testing does not decrease the LTFU rate in women having a medical abortion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical abortion follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin compared with ultrasonography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayananda, Ila; Maurer, Rie; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2013-03-01

    To estimate whether follow-up with serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) results in fewer unplanned visits and interventions than follow-up with ultrasonography. Women were randomized to either in-clinic serum hCG or ultrasound follow-up after medical abortion. The primary outcome, unplanned interventions and visits, was measured as a composite binary outcome including: additional clinic or emergency room visits, repeat dosing of misoprostol, and surgical evacuation of the uterus. Surveys were administered at initial follow-up and again 1 month after abortion to inquire about unscheduled visits, interventions, and patient satisfaction. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of additional interventions and visits. A total of 376 patients was randomized. Most participants were white (56%), single (83%), nulliparous (63%), and had completed high school (96%). Average participant age was 26±6 years and average gestational age was 46±6 days. Within 2 weeks of abortion, there was no significant difference in the rate of unplanned interventions and visits between arms, 8.2% (13/159) in the serum hCG arm compared with 6.6% (10/151) in the ultrasound arm (relative risk 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-2.73, P=.60). By 4 weeks postabortion, 4.4% (6/135) in the ultrasound arm and 1.4% (2/142) in the hCG arm had undergone surgical evacuation (relative risk 0.32, 95% CI 0.07-1.54, P=.16). The majority in both the serum hCG (88%) and ultrasound (95%) arms was satisfied with their assigned follow-up method. Medical abortion follow-up with serum hCG does not reduce the rate of unplanned interventions and visits compared with ultrasonography. Overall, the number of unplanned interventions is low and both methods of follow-up are acceptable to women.

  18. Human chorionic gonadotrophin in early gestation induces growth of estrogenic ovarian follicles and improves primiparous sow fertility during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Jemma; Langendijk, P; Chen, T Y; Bouwman, E; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-09-01

    Reduced summer farrowing rates may be due to inadequate corpora luteal (CL) support. Porcine CL become dependent on LH from 12 d of pregnancy and the embryonic estrogen signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) is initiated at about 11-12 d after insemination. We hypothesised that injection of the LH analogue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) would induce growth of estrogenic follicles and, by mimicking the signal for MRP and stimulating progesterone secretion, increase primiparous sow fertility. In Experiment 1, during a 28 d lactation 53 mixed parity sows were full-fed either throughout lactation (n=16) or until 18 d and then feed restricted during the last 10 d of lactation (n=36). At 12 d after mating restrict-fed sows were injected with 1000IU hCG (n=17) or were not injected (n=19); the full-fed sows acted as non-treated positive controls. Transrectal ovarian ultrasound exams were performed on days 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28; blood samples were obtained on days 12, 14, and 15 for estradiol and progesterone assay. For Experiment 2, during the summer months primiparous sows received 1000IU hCG 12 d after mating (n=28) or were non-injected controls (n=27). Pregnancy status was determined at 28 d and sows allowed to go to term to determine farrowing rates and litter sizes. In Experiment 1, injection of hCG increased (Pfeeding level on wean-estrus interval, farrowing rate or subsequent litter size. In Experiment 2, hCG injection was associated with a higher pregnancy rate (Psow fertility during the summer months.

  19. Effect of intrauterine injection of human chorionic gonadotropin before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostajeran, Fatemeh; Godazandeh, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Sayed Mehdi; Movahedi, Minoo; Jabalamelian, Seyed Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor to controlled implantation is one of the early embryonic signals in primates that is secreted by the embryo before its implantation. This study was designed to assess the effects of intrauterine injection of hCG before the embryo transfer in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle on pregnancy rate in infertile patients. This randomized study was done on 100 infertile patients in two groups: intervention group received injection of 700 IU of intrauterine hCG 10 min before embryo transfer and control group did not receive hCG. The pregnancy rate was tested 2 weeks after embryo transfer, and if the pregnancy test was positive, a transvaginal ultrasound was performed 3 weeks later to search for signs of pregnancy, such as the presence of a gestational sac, embryo, and fetal heart rate, and confirmed as successful pregnancy. Pregnancy test was positive in 13 (28.6%) of 46 patients in hCG group and in control group was positive in 6 (12.5%) of 48 patients. The pregnancy rate between hCG group and control group was not significantly different (P = 0.54). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with IVF fertilization was 20.8% and in their controls was 7.4% (P = 0.51). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with ICSI fertilization was 36.4% and in their controls was 19% (P = 0.16). The intrauterine injection of 700 IU of hCG before embryo transfer improved pregnancy rate compared to control group but was not significantly different.

  20. A review of luteinising hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin when used in assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezcurra, Diego; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropins extracted from the urine of post-menopausal women have traditionally been used to stimulate folliculogenesis in the treatment of infertility and in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Products, such as human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), consist not only of a mixture of the hor...

  1. Profil Gonad Kodok Lembu Betina yang Diberi Human Chorionic Gonadotropin dan Ekstrak Hipofisis Kodok Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Mudite Adnyane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulllfrog (Rana catesbeiana are naturally reach sexual maturity at the age of 3 years aftermetamorphosis. This research aims to study the gonad growth of female bullfrog. given human chorionicgonadotropin (hCG and hipofise extract of local frog in order to accelerate the maturity. There were 40female bullfrog used in this study and divided into four treatment groups and one control. The treatmentswere injections of 150 IU hCG, 200 IU hCG, 8 hipofise, 16 extract of hipofise and controls. The injectionswere conducted once a month for four months. Every month after the first injection, two of bullfrogs fromeach group were measured their body and gonad weight, in addition, the stage of ovary was also observedeither in macroscopically and microscopically. The results showed that hCG treatment group gave betterresults compared with the treatment of hipofise extract of local frog. The injection of 200 IU hCG gave thebest result of gonad maturity index (IKG 4.9%, compared with other treatment groups. Giving a dose of200 IU hCG and 16 hipofise exctract of local frog can be used to accelerate the maturity of female bullfrog

  2. Chorionic villus sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedure, its risks, and alternative procedures such as amniocentesis . You will be asked to sign a consent ... CVS can be done sooner in pregnancy than amniocentesis, usually at about 10 to 12 weeks. Chorionic ...

  3. Ovarian and Adrenal Androgens and Their Link to High Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Levels: A Prospective Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the association between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and hyperandrogenism was identified more than 40 years ago, relevant questions remain unanswered. Design and Methods. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study in 23 women with a diagnosis of a complete hydatidiform mole (HM. Results. All participants completed the study. Before HM evacuation mean hCG was markedly higher in the cases than in the control group (P≤0.001. Free testosterone (T and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S were found to be higher in the cases (2.78 ± 1.24 pg/mL and 231.50 ± 127.20 μ/dL when compared to the control group (1.50 ± 0.75 pg/mL and 133.59 ± 60.69 μ/dL (P=0.0001 and 0.001, respectively. There was a strong correlation between hCG and free T/total T/DHEA-S concentrations (r=0.78; P≤0.001, r=0.74;  P≤0.001, and r=0.71;  P≤0.001, respectively. In the cases group 48 hours after HM evacuation, hCG levels were found to be significantly lower when compared to initial levels (P=0.001 and free T and DHEA-S declined significantly (P=0.0002 and 0.009. Conclusion. Before uterus evacuation, hCG, free T, and DHEA-S levels were significantly higher when compared with controls finding a strong correlation between hCG and free T/DHEA-S levels. Forty-eight hours after HM treatment hCG levels declined and the difference was lost. A novel finding of our study is that in cases, besides free T, DHEA-S was also found to be significantly higher and both the ovaries and adrenal glands appear to be the sites of this androgen overproduction.

  4. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clulow John

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of all the Australian amphibians. This study developed and optimised the induction of oviposition in a non-threatened member of this taxon, the great barred frog (Mixophyes fasciolatus. Methods Gravid female M. fasciolatus were induced to oviposit on one or more occasions by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG with or without priming with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG. Treatments involved variations in hormone doses and combinations (administered via injection into the dorsal lymph sacs, and timing of administration. Pituitary homogenates from an unrelated bufonid species (Rhinella marina were also examined with hCG. Results When injected alone, hCG (900 to 1400 IU induced oviposition. However, priming with two time dependent doses of PMSG (50 IU, 25 IU increased responses, with lower doses of hCG (200 IU. Priming increased response rates in females from around 30% (hCG alone to more than 50% (p = 0.035, and up to 67%. Increasing the interval between the first PMSG dose and first hCG dose from 3 to 6 days also produced significant improvement (p Conclusions This study found that M. fasciolatus is amongst the few amphibian species (including Xenopus (Silurana and some bufonids that respond well to the induction of ovulation utilising mammalian gonadotropins (hCG. The optimal protocol for M. fasciolatus involved two priming doses of PMSG (50 IU and 25 IU administered at 6 and 4 days respectively, prior to two doses of hCG (100 IU, 24

  5. Comparison of Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 Systems for Determining Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin-Beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoyong; Sun, Yifan; Zhang, Hongyu; Liang, Ka; Long, Kang; Li, Jin; Tang, Shifu; Liu, Chunming

    2016-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin-beta (β-hCG) is an important index used to monitor embryonic development following embryo transfer. Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 are widely used automated immunoassay systems used to measure serum β-hCG concentrations; however, the correlations between serum β-hCG levels measured with these two immunoassays and the accuracy of the immunoassays have not been fully evaluated. Serum β-hCG levels were measured in 133 serum samples using the Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 automated immunoassay systems. Passing-Bablok regression analysis was used to compare the correlation in serum β-hCG levels obtained using the two immunoassays. A Bland-Altman plot analysis was used to identify mean ratios and 95% CIs of the mean ratios of the β-hCG results between the two immunoassays. In this graphical method the mean ratios between the two techniques were plotted against the averages of the two techniques. The total coefficients of variations (CVs) of serum β-hCG ranged from 3.12 - 4.66% for Cobas e601 and 3.18 - 4.99% for Architect i2000sr. The measured value of serum β-hCG detected by the two immunoassays was statistically significant (p coefficient r was 0.9628. At a high concentration of serum β-hCG (> 10000 IU/L, n = 81), the correlation coefficient r was 0.8076. The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the measured value of serum β-hCG detected by Architect i2000sr was about 1.25 times higher than that of Cobas e601. The mean ratio was 1.12 at a low concentration of serum β-hCG, and it was 1.33 at a high concentration. Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 have good concordance for determining serum β-hCG. However, the β-hCG values measured with Architect i2000sr were 25% higher than those obtained using Cobas e601.

  6. Complex signatures of locus-specific selective pressures and gene conversion on Human Growth Hormone/Chorionic Somatomammotropin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedman, Laura; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Kelgo, Piret; Laan, Maris

    2008-10-01

    Reduced birth weight and slow neonatal growth are risks correlated with the development of common diseases in adulthood. The Human Growth Hormone/Chorionic Somatomammotropin (hGH/CSH) gene cluster (48 kb) at 17q22-24, consisting of one pituitary-expressed postnatal (GH1) and four placental genes (GH2, CSH1, CSH2, and CSHL1) may contribute to common variation in intrauterine and infant growth, and also to the regulation of feto-maternal and adult glucose metabolism. In contrast to GH1, there are limited genetic data on the hGH/CSH genes expressed in utero. We report the first survey of sequence variation encompassing all five hGH/CSH genes. Resequencing identified 113 SNPs/indels (ss86217675-ss86217787 in dbSNP) including 66 novel variants, and revealed remarkable differences in diversity patterns among the homologous duplicated genes as well as between the study populations of European (Estonians), Asian (Han Chinese), and African (Mandenkalu) ancestries. A dominant feature of the hGH/CSH region is hyperactive gene conversion, with the rate exceeding tens to hundreds of times the rate of reciprocal crossing-over and resulting in near absence of linkage disequilibrium. The initiation of gene conversion seems to be uniformly distributed because the data do not predict any recombination hotspots. Signatures of different selective constraints acting on each gene indicate functional specification of the hGH/CSH genes. Most strikingly, the GH2 coding for placental growth hormone shows strong intercontinental diversification (F(ST)=0.41-0.91; p<10(-6)) indicative of balancing selection, whereas the flanking CSH1 exhibits low population differentiation (F(ST)=0.03-0.09), low diversity (non-Africans, pi=8-9 x 10(-5); Africans, pi=8.2 x 10(-4)), and one dominant haplotype worldwide, consistent with purifying selection. The results imply that the success of an association study targeted to duplicated genes may be enhanced by prior resequencing of the study population in order

  7. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trend within the first few days after medical abortion: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, Katherine D; Bartz, Deborah; Maurer, Rie; Stenquist, Asha; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2017-03-01

    To prospectively describe the decline in serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the first 5 days after complete medical abortion and evaluate the influence of initial hCG and gestational duration. We conducted a prospective, physiologic study of women ≤63 days gestation who underwent medical abortion with 200 mg mifepristone and 800 mcg buccal misoprostol. We stratified enrollment into two gestational cohorts, hCG values on Day 1 (day of mifepristone), Day 3, Day 5 and a routine follow up hCG on Days 7-14. We calculated the percent hCG decline from Day 1 to each repeat measure and evaluated trends based on initial serum hCG level and gestation. We enrolled 66 women; 59 were protocol-adherent and included in our analysis. Mean gestation on Day 1 was 49 days and mean baseline hCG was 72,332 IU. Fifty-seven subjects (97%) had a complete medical abortion without further intervention. The mean serum hCG decline among subjects with complete medical abortion was 70.0±10.6% [range 36.9-98.6%] on Day 3 and 91.4±4.4% [range 68.4-97.7%] on Day 5. The mean serum hCG decline from Day 1 to routine follow-up on Days 7-9 was 97.1±1.7% [range 92.4-99.2%], from Day 1 to Day 10-11 was 98.5±1.4% [range 94.7-99.6%] and from Day 1 to Day 12-14 was 98.7±2.8% [range 86.7-99.9%]. There was no difference in percent hCG decline stratified by initial hCG or gestation. There is a rapid and predictable decline in serum hCG as early as Day 5 after complete medical abortion through 63 days gestation. Rate of hCG decline is not affected by initial hCG or gestational duration. For women who require confirmation of complete abortion sooner than 1 week after mifepristone, due to patient preference, logistical constraints or in the setting of pregnancy of unconfirmed location, a single repeat hCG on Day 5 may be clinically useful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of flunixin meglumine, recombinant bovine somatotropin and/or human chorionic gonadotropin on pregnancy rates in Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, R C; Perdigão, A; Mesquita, F S; Sá Filho, M; Nogueira, G P; Machado, R; Membrive, C M B; Binelli, M

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to compare pharmacological strategies aiming to inhibit prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF(2α)) synthesis (flunixin meglumine; FM), stimulate growth of the conceptus (recombinant bovine somatotropin; bST) and progesterone (P(4)) synthesis (human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG), as well as their combinations, regarding their ability to improve pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Lactating Nelore cows (N = 975), 35 to 70 days postpartum, were synchronized and inseminated by timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 0. On Day 7, cattle were allocated into eight groups and received one of the following treatments: saline (S) on Days 7 and 16 (Group Control); S on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group FM); bST on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST); bST on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + FM); hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group hCG); hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group hCG + FM); bST and hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG), or bST and hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG + FM). The aforementioned treatments were administered at the following doses: 2.2 mg/kg FM (Banamine®; Intervet Schering-Plough, Cotia, SP, Brazil), 500 mg bST (Boostin®; Intervet Schering-Plough), and 2500 IU hCG (Chorulon®; Intervet Schering-Plough). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 40 days after TAI by transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different among treatments. However, there was a main effect of hCG treatment to increase pregnancy rates (63.0 vs. 55.4%; P = 0.001). Concentrations of P(4) did not differ significantly among groups on Day 7 or on Day 16. However, consistent with the higher pregnancy rates, hCG increased P(4) concentrations on Day 16 (10.6 vs. 9.6 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.05). We concluded that hCG treatment 7 days after TAI improved pregnancy rates of lactating Nelore cows, possibly via a mechanism leading to induction of higher P(4) concentrations, or by reducing the luteolytic stimulus during maternal recognition of

  9. EXPRESSION OF P53 PROTEIN AND PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN IN HUMAN GESTATION TROPHOBLASTIC DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄铁军; 王志忠; 方光光; 刘志恒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between p53 protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and benign or malignant gestational trophoblastic disease (MGTD). Methods: The histotomic sections of 48 patients with gestational trophoblastic disease and 24 patients of normal chorionic villi were stained using immunohistochemistry. The monoclonal antibodies were used to determine p53 protein and PCNA. Results: The frequency of p53 and PCNA positive expression were significantly different among the chorionic villi of normal pregnancy, hydratidiform mole (HM) and MGTD. But neither p53 nor PCNA has any relation with the clinical staging or metastasis of MGTD. Conclusion: Both P53 and PCNA are valuable in diagnosis of human gestational trophoblastic disease.

  10. Effect of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin on day 5 after timed artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A B; Bender, R W; Souza, A H; Ayres, H; Araujo, R R; Guenther, J N; Sartori, R; Wiltbank, M C

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive management programs that synchronize ovulation can ovulate a smaller than normal follicle, potentially resulting in inadequate progesterone (P4) concentrations after artificial insemination (AI). Ovulation of the dominant follicle of the first follicular wave with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment can produce an accessory corpus luteum and increase circulating P4 concentrations. This manuscript reports the results of 2 separate analyses that evaluated the effect of hCG treatment post-AI on fertility in lactating dairy cows. The first study used meta-analysis to combine the results from 10 different published studies that used hCG treatment on d 4 to 9 post-AI in lactating dairy cows. Overall, pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) were increased 3.0% by hCG treatment post-AI [34% (752/2,213) vs. 37% (808/2,184); Control vs. hCG-treated, respectively]. The second study was a field research trial in which lactating Holstein cows (n=2,979) from 6 commercial dairy herds were stratified by parity and breeding number and then randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: control (no further treatment, n=1,519) or hCG [Chorulon i.m.: 2,000 IU (in 3 of the herds) or 3,300 IU (in 3 herds); n=1,460] on d 5 after a timed AI (ovulation synchronized with Ovsynch, Presynch-Ovsynch, or Double-Ovsynch). In a subset of cows, the hCG profile and P4 changes were determined. Treatment with hCG increased P4 (4.3 vs. 5.3 ng/mL on d 12). Pregnancies per AI were greater in cows treated with hCG (40.8%; 596/1,460) than control (37.3%; 566/1,519) cows. Interestingly, an interaction among treatment and parity was observed; primiparous cows had greater P/AI after hCG (49.7%; 266/535) than controls (39.5%; 215/544). In contrast, older cows receiving hCG (35.7%; 330/925) had similar P/AI to controls (36.0%; 351/975).Thus, targeted use of hCG on d 5 after TAI enhances fertility about 3.0% (based on meta-analysis) to 3.5% (based on our field trial). Surprisingly, this

  11. Production of specific antisera for radioimmunoassay of human luteinizing hormone (LH) in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). [/sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorell, J.I.; Jeppsson, S.; Holmstrom, B.

    1976-09-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay for LH, which measures plasma LH in the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described. Rabbits were immunized with highly purified native LH. One of the antisera with a difference in its reactivity against LH and hCG was further purified by affinity chromatography on a column with hCG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The adsorbed antiserum and /sup 125/I-LH was used in a double antibody assay. The LH standard (MRC/68/40) efficiently inhibited the binding of /sup 125/I-LH, and the standard curve showed a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml in the sample. hCG up to 10,000 ng/ml did not inhibit the binding of /sup 125/I-LH. The plasma level of LH in pregnant women in the first trimester was low (1.3 +- 0.1 ng/ml). When LH was measured in fertile or menopausal women with or without stimulation with LH/FSH releasing hormone (LH-RH)/sup x/ the results agreed to those found with our conventional LH-assay based on antiserum against hCG.

  12. A randomized three-way cross-over study in healthy pituitary-suppressed women to compare the bioavailability of human chorionic gonadotrophin (Pregnyl®) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, B.M.J.L.; Geurts, T.B.P.; Odink, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of s.c. and i.m. administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG; Pregnyl®). In a randomized, single centre, three-way cross-over study, 18 healthy pituitary-suppressed volunteers were assigned to single HCG injections of 5000 and 1

  13. Mobilities of the inner three core residues and the Man(α1→6) branch of the glycan at Asn78 of the α-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin are restricted by the protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Thijssen-van Zuylen, C.W.E.M.; Beer, T. de; Leeflang, B.R.; Boelens, R.; Kaptein, R.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone involved in the maintenance of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy. The free -subunit of hCG has a biological activity of its own, namely, stimulation of prolactin secretion from term pregnancy decidual cells [Blithe, D. L.,

  14. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression normograms for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia treated with EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and vincristine) chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lybol, C.; Westerdijk, K.; Sweep, F.C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background We present normograms for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression in patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) successfully treated with multiagent chemotherapy in order to predict treatment resistance. Patients and methods We collected data for 46 patients w

  15. Dried blood spot measurement of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) from a low-resource setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, J. L.; Schielen, P. C. J. I.; Belmouden, I.; Pennings, J. L. A.; Klipstein-Grobusch, K.

    ObjectivesThe objectives of the article is to compare pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and free -subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (-hCG) concentrations in dried blood spots (DBSs) with serum of samples obtained from a public hospital in a low-resource setting and to evaluate

  16. 125I-labelled human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as an elimination marker in the evaluation of hCG decline during chemotherapy in patients with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T B; Engbaek, F; Marqversen, J

    1999-01-01

    The rate of reduction in the concentration of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) following chemotherapy for germ cell tumours may follow a complex pattern, with longer apparent half-life during later stages of chemotherapy, even in patients treated successfully. The commonly used half-life...

  17. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González-Ortega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete.

  18. Birth after human chorionic gonadotropin-primed oocyte in vitro maturation and fertilization with testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, Claudia; Piña-Aguilar, Raul Eduardo; Cancino-Villareal, Patricia; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Antonio Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of in vitro maturation (IVM) with surgical retrieved testicular sperm in a normo-ovulatory female. Human chorionic gonadotropin-primed IVM, testicular biopsy for sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh sperm were performed. Fourteen cumulus-oocyte complexes were obtained in germinal vesicle or metaphase I stage, eight oocytes reached metaphase II, seven presumptive zygotes were obtained, and three cleavage stages embryos in day 2 were transferred producing a singleton pregnancy. A single healthy newborn was obtained. Our results suggest that IVM may be an alternative for in vitro fertilization in normo-ovulatory women even if surgical retrieval of sperm is needed. Further research is required to depict contributing factors to the success of IVM in indications different from polycystic ovaries syndrome and the role of male gamete. PMID:27803591

  19. Flow and mixing by small intestine villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y F; de Loubens, C; Love, R J; Lentle, R G; Janssen, P W M

    2015-06-01

    Flow and mixing in the small intestine are multi-scale processes. Flows at the scale of the villi (finger-like structures of ≈500 μm length) are poorly understood. We developed a three-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann model to gain insight into the effects of villous movements and the rheology of digesta on flow, mixing and absorption of nutrients at the periphery of the intestinal lumen. Our model simulated the hydrodynamic consequences of villi movements that resulted from folding of the mucosa during longitudinal contractions. We found that cyclic approximation and separation of groups of villi generated laminar eddies at the edges of the group and augmented mass transfers in the radial direction between the inter-villous space and the intestinal lumen which improved the absorption of nutrients and mixing at the periphery of the lumen. This augmentation was greater with highly diffusible nutrients and with high levels of shear-thinning (pseudoplasticity) of the fluid. We compared our results with bulk flows simulations done by previous workers and concluded that villous movements during longitudinal contractions is a major radial mixing mechanism in the small intestine and increases mixing and absorption around the mucosa despite adverse rheology.

  20. Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform in Chorionic Villi in the Early Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the early spontaneous abortion. , in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of iNOS in trophoblasts in the early pregnancy with and without spontaneous abortion (group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ ). By light microscopy and computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS), light density (D) and the positive cell number per statistic square (N/S) in situ hybridization were used to analyze the positive cell index, while total positive cells (N) and the positive unit (Pu) were used in immunohistochemistry. By in situ hybridization, D and N/S in trophoblasts were 0. 35±0. 028, 0. 07±0. 011 respectively in group Ⅰ and 0. 18±0. 016,0. 015±0. 003 in group Ⅱ . In terms of immunohistochemical staining, N and Pu were 0. 058±±0. 007, 11. 94±2. 01 in group Ⅰ and 0. 013±0. 009, 1. 08±0. 35 in group Ⅱ in trophoblasts. Significant differences existed between two groups. It is concluded that the higher nitric oxide produced by the higher expression of iNOS in trophoblasts might play an important role in the early spontaneous abortion.

  1. GONAD REMATURATION ON Pangasionodon hypophthalmus FEMALE THROUGH INJECTION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Tahapari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of spawning is influenced by internal and external factors. One of the factors that affect the var iabi li ty of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus female reproductive is the change of seasons that cause disrupted continuity of the seed availability, especially in the dry season. In the present study, combination of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin + HCG (hormone chorionic gonadotropin hormone injections was done to induce gonad development. The treatments in this study were without hormone injections as control (A, injection of PMSG 10 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg (B, and injection of PMSG 20 IU/kg HCG + 10 IU/kg (C. Injections were conducted at intervals of two weeks as many as six times. The results showed that gonad maturation generally occurs 2-4 weeks after estradiol-17 peak. PMSG + HCG hormone injections gave a significant effect on increasing the quantity and quality of eggs production. The fecundity in the A, B, C treatments, were 233,700±220,676; 300,305±24,581 and 488,433±142,228; respectively. Number of larvae produced from the A, B, C treatments, were 156,979±170,838; 229,997±18,081 and 362,713±101,850; respectively. Combination of PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg hormone injection gave the best result on fecundity and the number of larvae production.

  2. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  3. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Oxidative Stress by Apoptosis Inhibition, Cell Survival Signalling Activation and Mitochondrial Function Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Surico

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Previous reports have made it hypothetically possible that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG could protect against the onset of pregnancy-related pathological conditions by acting as an antioxidant. In the present study we planned to examine the effects of hCG against oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Methods: HUVEC were subjected to peroxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The modulation of nitric oxide (NO release by hCG and its effects on cell viability, glutathione (GSH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial transition pore opening (MPTP were examined by specific dyes. Endothelial and inducible NO synthase (eNOS and iNOS, Akt and extracellular -signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 activation and markers of apoptosis were analyzed by Western Blot. Results: In HUVEC, hCG reduced NO release by modulating eNOS and iNOS. Moreover, hCG protected HUVEC against oxidative stress by preventing GSH reduction and apoptosis, by maintaining Akt and ERK1/2 activation and by keeping mitochondrial function. Conclusion: The present results have for the first time shown protective effects exerted by hCG on vascular endothelial function, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions and activation of cell survival signalling. These findings could have clinical implications in the management of pregnancy-related disorders.

  4. Down-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding an importer of sulfoconjugated steroids during human chorionic gonadotropin-induced follicular luteinization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristy A; Bouchard, Nadine; Lussier, Jacques G; Sirois, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (SLCO/OATP) superfamily are capable of importing anionic compounds across the lipid bilayer in a sodium-independent manner. Member 2B1 has been shown to transport few substrates, two of which are dihydroepiandrosterone-3-sulfate (DHEA-S) and estrone-3-sulfate. Steroid sulfatase (STS) catalyses the hydrolysis of these steroids into their unconjugated counterparts. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation of SLCO2B1 and STS mRNAs during human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced ovulation/luteinization. The equine SLCO2B1 cDNA was cloned and shown to encode a 709-amino acid protein (OATP2B1) that is highly conserved when compared to mammalian orthologs. RT-PCR/Southern blot analyses were performed to study the regulation of SLCO2B1 and STS transcripts in equine preovulatory follicles isolated between 0 and 39h after hCG treatment. Results showed high levels of SLCO2B1 mRNA expression before hCG, with a marked decrease observed in follicles obtained 24-39h post-hCG (Pimport sulfoconjugated DHEA and estrogens, and that STS can remove the sulfonate moiety from these steroids, their down-regulation in luteinizing preovulatory follicles may provide an additional biochemical basis for the decrease in ovarian 17beta-estradiol biosynthesis after the LH surge.

  5. Pelvic pain, free fluid in pelvis, and human chorionic gonadotropin serum elevation: recurrence of malignant ovarian germ-cell tumor or early pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyński, B; Rogala, E; Nowicka, A; Nurzyńska-Flak, J; Kotarski, J

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of metastatic germ-cell tumor of the ovary does not exclude the possibility of pregnancy in the future. Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) serves as pregnancy test, and has also been proven to be a useful marker for ovarian germ-cell tumors. This paper is a case report of a 19-year-old patient who was admitted to a district hospital in emergency due to pelvic pain, amenorrhoea, and free fluid in the pelvis. Laboratory tests demonstrated slight increase in beta-hCG serum concentration and transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) showed no evidence of gestational sac in the uterus. At the age of 14, the patient was diagnosed with malignant germ-cell tumor of the left ovary in FIGO Stage IV and was treated with four courses of chemotherapy according to TGM-95 protocol with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin, followed by conservative surgery and adjuvant two courses of cytostatics. The initial diagnosis was recurrence of ovarian malignancy and the patient was referred to an oncology center. Wait-and-see approach and repeated ultrasound examination confirmed a normal intrauterine pregnancy which concluded with the delivery of a healthy newborn through cesarean section.

  6. Diagnostic sensitivity of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in esophageal carcinoma (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bagaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal carcinomas are very lethal disease relatively unresponsive to therapy. The continued development of new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens offers hope that in the future, this carcinoma may be amenable to either more effective palliative treatment or possibly increased cure. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the marker with best diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG levels were assessed in healthy subjects (n = 50 and patients (n = 50 initially diagnosed of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic examination and biopsy before receiving any therapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 10.0 (SPSS Inc. USA and MedCalc to estimate mean ± standard deviation, the significance of the observed differences (P value, for calculating sensitivity and for plotting receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, AFP, and β-HCG detected in esophagus cancer was 38%, 18%, 10%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion: From the above studied markers, CEA has the highest sensitivity followed by β-HCG, CA19-9 and AFP. Although the sensitivity of tumor markers in esophagus cancer is low, they may be useful additional parameter in the prediction of neoplasms involved at the early stage of tumor growth.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2004-01-01

    To present the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings of prenatally diagnosed mosaic trisomy 16. A 30-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of a positive maternal serum screen result with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfreebeta-hCG). Cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid at 21 weeks' gestation revealed mosaicism for trisomy 16, 47,XX,+16[3]/46,XX[15]. Ultrasonography demonstrated right diaphragmatic hernia and agenesis of left umbilical artery. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The karyotype of the cord blood was 46,XX. Cytogenetic analyses of the multiple sampled tissue specimens showed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 in the placenta and 47,XX,+16/46,XX with various levels of trisomy 16 in the umbilical cord and skin. Molecular studies showed that the trisomy 16 in the placenta was likely to have resulted from a maternal meiosis II nondisjunction error. Partial dosage increase of an extra maternal allele was noted in the skin and umbilical cord. Fetuses with mosaic trisomy 16 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated MSAFP and MShCG. Fetal blood sampling is of a limited value in confirming mosaic trisomy 16 ascertained through amniocentesis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Involvement of Ovarian Estradiol Biosynthesis and Pituitary FSH Expression in the Mechanism of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation of Uterine Growth in Immature Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Rafert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work, we showed that human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG alone is able to stimulate uterine ponderal growth in immature female rats. In the present paper, we provide new information indicating that a single 100 ng hCG injection increased ovarian androgen availability and aromatase activity. These changes are consistent with an increase in ovarian estradiol secretion. Ovarian activin βA and activin βB subunit RNAs expression were also increased following hCG injection. Most interestingly, this treatment also led to an increase in FSHβ subunit mRNA expression in the pituitary, which might be due to hCG-stimulated ovarian activin secretion. We have not been able so far to follow the kinetics of the plasma concentrations of activin and FSH in hCG-treated animals compared to control animals. This has to be explored in the future to provide a more complete assessment of our model.

  9. A study of intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) before frozen-thawed embryo transfer after two or more implantation failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pinxiu; Wei, Lihong; Li, Xinlin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) before frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) after two or more implantation failures (TIFs). The study was a prospective randomized single-blind study of 161 cycles in patients undergoing FET who had TIFs. The intervention group received an intrauterine injection of 1000 IU of hCG before embryo transfer (ET) (n = 62). A placebo group (n = 49) received an intrauterine injection of physiological saline before ET. A control group (n = 50) did not receive an intrauterine injection. Clinical pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and ongoing pregnancy rates were compared between the three groups. The clinical pregnancy rates were 59.68%, 53.06%, and 32.00% in the hCG group, placebo group, and control group, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the hCG and placebo groups than in the control group. There were no significant differences in the abortion rates among the three groups. An intrauterine administration of hCG before FET significantly improved the pregnancy rates after TIFs. But local injury caused by the operation of intrauterine perfusion may play an important role in improving clinical pregnancy rates.

  10. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regulates the expression of Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR)via the ERK1/2 pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianzhong; SUN Yan; WU Jianyun; PAN Hongmei; ZHANG Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    It has previously been shown that Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) can stimulate steroidogenesis in Leydig cells.In the present study,the mechanisms of hCGstimulated steroidogenesis in Leydig cells of immaturated pigs were investigated.It was found that both hCG and 8Br-cAMP could enhance the expression level of both the Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and mRNA,and increase the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) significantly depending on stimulating time.However,the effect of 8-Br-cAMP was more significant than that of hCG.While appending the inhibitor of Protein Kinase A (PKA) to Leydig cells in culture,the expression level of StAR protein,mRNA and the activity of ERK1/2 began to drop significantly,but the level of StAR mRNA could still be detectable.While appending the inhibitor of MAPK (PD98059),the expression level of StAR protein and mRNA declined significantly.These results infer that at the beginning of hCG stimulation,hCG increases the level of StAR protein by cAMP-PKA.With prolonged stimulating time,hCG increases the level of StAR protein through cAMP-PKA-ERK1/2.

  11. Human chorionic gonadotropin potentially affects pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent implantation failure by regulating the homing preference of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Liang-Hui; Li, Guan-Gui; Zhu, Yuan-Chang; Tu, Wen-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yu; Lian, Ruo-Chun; Chen, Xian; Li, Yu-Ye; Zhang, Tao; Huang, Yong; Zeng, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been suggested to play important roles during the initial stage of pregnancy. However, the clinical relevance and mechanism of the effects of hCG on Treg functions in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) remain to be elucidated. Thirty-four RIF and twenty-three control women were included in the study. Endometrial and peripheral Tregs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. Tregs were generated from naïve CD4(+) T cells by stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of hCG, and the subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and qPCR. The percentages of endometrial FOXP3(+) Tregs and peripheral CCR4(+) FOXP3(+) Tregs were significantly lower in the women with RIF than in the healthy controls. In addition, the percentages of CCR4(+) FOXP3(+) Tregs and TGF-β-expressing FOXP3(+) Tregs were increased following the stimulation of naïve CD4(+) T cells with anti-CD3/CD28, and these increases were concomitant with AKT and ERK dephosphorylation. The results of this study provide novel evidence supporting a role of hCG in regulating the differentiation of peripheral FOXP3(+) Tregs. The alterations of circulating Tregs may positively affect the pregnancy outcomes of patients with a history of RIF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Low-Dose Urinary Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Is Effective for Oocyte Maturation in In Vitro Fertilization/ Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles Independent of Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Hoyos, Luis; Khan, Sana; Dai, Jing; Singh, Manvinder; P Diamond, Michael; E Puscheck, Elizabeth; O Awonuga, Awoniyi

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is no agreement on the optimal urinary derived human chorionic gonadotropin (u-hCG) dose requirement for initiating final oocyte maturation prior to oocyte collection in in vitro fertilization (IVF), but doses that range from 2500- 15000 IU have been used. We intended to determine whether low dose u-hCG was effective for oocyte maturation in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles independent of body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of 295 women who underwent their first IVF/ICSI cycles between January 2003 and December 2010 at the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. Treatment cycles were divided into 3 groups based on BMI (kg/ m(2)): BMI. Women's BMI need not be taken into consideration in choosing the appropriate dose of u-hCG for final oocyte maturation prior to oocyte collection in IVF. Only maternal age at the time of IVF negatively influenced CPRs and LBRs in this study.

  13. β-human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting intracranial germ-cell tumor associated with high testosterone in an adult man: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Ping; Chien, Hung-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chun

    2017-07-01

    A 38-year-old male patient presented with general weakness, polydipsia and a body weight loss of 10 kg in two years. Hypopituitarism with central hypothyroidism and central adrenal insufficiency were noted at Taipei City Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). However, hypogonadotropic hypergonadism was also observed. The patient was diagnosed with an intracranial β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) secreting germ-cell tumor, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor involved the pineal gland, stalk, posterior pituitary gland, right basal ganglion, hypothalamus, corpus callosum and posterior hippocampus. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-hCG level was 1936 IU/l, while the α-fetoprotein (AFP) level was 2:1. The patient was successfully treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as demonstrated by a marked decrease in size of the tumor and in the serum β-hCG levels. Intracranial β-hCG secreting germ-cell tumors are rare in adults and manifest differently compared with patients of early pubertal age. In contrast with the precocious puberty frequently observed in young patients, the diagnosis of adult patients is often delayed and the symptoms are associated with tumor size and location. The present case report described an adult male with an intracranial β-hCG secreting GCT, demonstrating hypopituitarism and asymptomatic hyperandrogenemia, and reviews and discusses the literature relevant to the case.

  14. Maternal and fetal mechanisms of B cell regulation during pregnancy: human Chorionic Gonadotropin stimulates B cells to produce IL-10 while alpha-fetoprotein drives them into apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Fettke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus is an essential requisite for pregnancy. While T cell functions are well documented, little is known about the participation of B cells. We have previously suggested that IL-10 producing B cells are involved in pregnancy tolerance in mice and humans. By employing murine and human systems, we report now that fetal trophoblasts positively regulate the generation of IL-10 producing B cells. We next studied the participation of hormones produced by the placenta as well as the fetal protein alpha-fetoprotein (AFP in B cell modulation. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG, but not progesterone, estrogen or a combination of both, was able to promote changes in B cell phenotype and boost their IL-10 production, which was abolished after blocking hCG. The hCG-induced B cell phenotype was not associated with augmented galactosylation, sialylation or fucosylation of IgG subclasses in their Fc. In vitro, hCG induced the synthesis of asymmetrically glycosylated antibodies in their Fab region. Interestingly, AFP had dual effects depending on the concentration. At concentrations corresponding to maternal serum levels, it did not modify the phenotype or IL-10 secretion of B cells. At fetal concentrations, however, AFP was able to drive B cells into apoptosis, which may indicate a protective mechanism to avoid maternal B cells to reach the fetus.Our data suggests that the fetus secrete factors that promote a pregnancy-friendly B cell phenotype, unraveling interesting aspects of B cell function and modulation by pregnancy hormones and fetal proteins.

  15. [Snow white small intestinal villi in hypobetalipoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerg, K J; Borchard, F; Luley, C; Schubert, G E

    1996-09-01

    In contrast to the severe clinical picture of abetalipoproteinemia patients with hypobetalipoproteinemia are often asymptomatic. We demonstrate a 52-years-old female patient with a white mucosa of the small intestine casually observed by endoscopy. The white appearance of the mucosa was limited to the villi. As demonstrated by light and transmission electron microscopy this was caused by fat loaded enterocytes similar to the picture of abetalipoproteinemia. Fasting serum lipids and apolipoproteins were only if the lower norm level for some parameters, but no increase of the serum lipids was observed after an oral fat load. Because of the missing symptoms, the typical histomorphology and laboratory findings the snow white mucosa of the small intestine is due by the hetocygote form of the autosomal dominant hypobetalipoproteinemia with fat loaded enterocytes.

  16. Type I and II Diabetic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Respond In Vitro to Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft Treatment by Increasing Proliferation, Migration, and Altering Cytokine Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Massee, Michelle; Chinn, Kathryn; Lim, Jeremy J; Godwin, Lisa; Young, Conan S.; Koob, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Human amniotic membranes have been shown to be effective for healing diabetic foot ulcers clinically and to regulate stem cell activity in vitro and in vivo; however, diabetic stem cells may be impaired as a sequela of the disease. In this study, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) allografts (EpiFix®; MiMedx Group) were evaluated for their ability to regulate diabetic stem cells in vitro. Approach: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from normal, type I diabetic,...

  17. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As(III)) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As(III) on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As(III) on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As(III) were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As(III) than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As(III) in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As(III)-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As(III) cytotoxicity between these cells.

  18. Layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles and cysteamine on gold electrode for immunosensing of human chorionic gonadotropin at picogram levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushani, Mahmoud, E-mail: mahmoudroushani@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, P.O. Box, 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valipour, Akram [Department of Chemistry, Ilam University, P.O. Box, 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valipour, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box, 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    The development of an electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described with a limit of detection as low as 0.3 pg mL{sup −1} in phosphate buffer. In this immunosensor, cysteamine (Cys) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to immobilize an anti-hCG monoclonal antibody onto a gold electrode (GE). The structure of AuNPs has been confirmed by EDS, SEM, and TEM analysis. Due to the large specific surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of AuNPs, electron transfer was promoted and the amount of hCG antibody was enhanced significantly. A systematic study on the effects of experimental parameters such as pH, incubation time in the hCG solution and urea solution used for experiments on the binding between the immobilized antibody and hCG has been carried out. Under optimal experimental parameters, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal changes of the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} are used to detect hCG with two broad linear ranges: 0.001 to 0.2 and 0.2 to 60.7 ng mL{sup −1}. The LOD value proves more sensitive in comparison with previously reported methods. The prepared immunosensor showed high sensitivity and stability. In addition, the immunosensor was successfully used for the determination of hCG in human serum. - Highlights: • AuNPs were used for covalent attachment of anti-body onto GE. • AuNPs joint to GE via Cys, which were similar to electron-transfer tunnel. • A simple method and a sensitive immunosensing for hCG were reported.

  19. A Point-of-Care Immunosensor for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Clinical Urine Samples Using a Cuneated Polysilicon Nanogap Lab-on-Chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the placenta, is a key molecule that indicates pregnancy. Here, we have designed a cost-effective, label-free, in situ point-of-care (POC immunosensor to estimate hCG using a cuneated 25 nm polysilicon nanogap electrode. A tiny chip with the dimensions of 20.5 × 12.5 mm was fabricated using conventional lithography and size expansion techniques. Furthermore, the sensing surface was functionalized by (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and quantitatively measured the variations in hCG levels from clinically obtained human urine samples. The dielectric properties of the present sensor are shown with a capacitance above 40 nF for samples from pregnant women; it was lower with samples from non-pregnant women. Furthermore, it has been proven that our sensor has a wide linear range of detection, as a sensitivity of 835.88 μA mIU(-1 ml(-2 cm(-2 was attained, and the detection limit was 0.28 mIU/ml (27.78 pg/ml. The dissociation constant Kd of the specific antigen binding to the anti-hCG was calculated as 2.23 ± 0.66 mIU, and the maximum number of binding sites per antigen was Bmax = 22.54 ± 1.46 mIU. The sensing system shown here, with a narrow nanogap, is suitable for high-throughput POC diagnosis, and a single injection can obtain triplicate data or parallel analyses of different targets.

  20. A Point-of-Care Immunosensor for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Clinical Urine Samples Using a Cuneated Polysilicon Nanogap Lab-on-Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S R; Hashim, U; Gopinath, Subash C B; Poopalan, P; Ramayya, H R; Iqbal Omar, M; Haarindraprasad, R; Veeradasan, P

    2015-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein hormone secreted from the placenta, is a key molecule that indicates pregnancy. Here, we have designed a cost-effective, label-free, in situ point-of-care (POC) immunosensor to estimate hCG using a cuneated 25 nm polysilicon nanogap electrode. A tiny chip with the dimensions of 20.5 × 12.5 mm was fabricated using conventional lithography and size expansion techniques. Furthermore, the sensing surface was functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and quantitatively measured the variations in hCG levels from clinically obtained human urine samples. The dielectric properties of the present sensor are shown with a capacitance above 40 nF for samples from pregnant women; it was lower with samples from non-pregnant women. Furthermore, it has been proven that our sensor has a wide linear range of detection, as a sensitivity of 835.88 μA mIU(-1) ml(-2) cm(-2) was attained, and the detection limit was 0.28 mIU/ml (27.78 pg/ml). The dissociation constant Kd of the specific antigen binding to the anti-hCG was calculated as 2.23 ± 0.66 mIU, and the maximum number of binding sites per antigen was Bmax = 22.54 ± 1.46 mIU. The sensing system shown here, with a narrow nanogap, is suitable for high-throughput POC diagnosis, and a single injection can obtain triplicate data or parallel analyses of different targets.

  1. A prospective, randomised comparative study of weekly versus biweekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft in the management of diabetic foot ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelen, Charles M; Serena, Thomas E; Snyder, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if weekly application of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft reduce time to heal more effectively than biweekly application for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. This was an institutional review board-approved, registered, prospective, randomised, comparative, non-blinded, single-centre clinical trial. Patients with non-infected ulcers of ≥ 4 weeks duration were included for the study. They were randomised to receive weekly or biweekly application of allograft in addition to a non-adherent, moist dressing with compressive wrapping. All wounds were offloaded. The primary study outcome was mean time to healing. Overall, during the 12-week study period, 92·5% (37/40) ulcers completely healed. Mean time to complete healing was 4·1 ± 2·9 versus 2·4 ± 1·8 weeks (P = 0·039) in the biweekly versus weekly groups, respectively. Complete healing occurred in 50% versus 90% by 4 weeks in the biweekly and weekly groups, respectively (P = 0·014). Number of grafts applied to healed wounds was similar at 2·4 ± 1·5 and 2·3 ± 1·8 for biweekly versus weekly groups, respectively (P = 0·841). These results validate previous studies showing that the allograft is an effective treatment for diabetic ulcers and show that wounds treated with weekly application heal more rapidly than with biweekly application. More rapid healing may decrease clinical operational costs and prevent long-term medical complications. PMID:24618401

  2. Differences in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole levels in plasma and fat between pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars in response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskam, I C; Lervik, S; Tajet, H; Dahl, E; Ropstad, E; Andresen, Ø

    2010-10-01

    The concentrations of the boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole in plasma and fat, together with those of testosterone in plasma, were investigated in pubertal purebred Duroc and Landrace boars following stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Higher initial levels of androstenone and testosterone were found in Duroc than Landrace boars. Duroc boars, which were approximately ten days older than the Landrace boars, also showed a more advanced stage of spermatogenesis than Landrace boars. While Landrace boars had the highest skatole levels. Following stimulation with hCG the relative increases in testosterone, androstenone, and skatole concentrations were highest in Landrace boars. The level of androstenone in fat three days after hCG stimulation exceeded 1 microg/g fat in all stimulated boars. The decreases in plasma levels of androstenone and testosterone on Days 2 and 3 after hCG stimulation were more pronounced in Landrace than Duroc boars. However, unlike the plasma androstenone and testosterone levels, the plasma concentrations of skatole did not decrease on Days 2 and 3 following stimulation, but remained elevated on Day 3. These results indicate that the lower levels of testicular steroids in Landrace boars compared with Duroc boars was not due to a lower production capacity, but more likely to a faster disappearance of steroids in Landrace boars. In the present study, age, live weight, and testicular development did not significantly contribute to the variation in fat androstenone. The present data and previous reports on candidate genes related to androstenone biosynthesis and metabolism suggests that future selection against factors associated with boar taint remains a possible solution for the problem of boar taint in the swine industry.

  3. Pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin cutoff value for medical treatment success with single-dose and multi-dose regimen of methotrexate in tubal ectopic pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhwan; Jung, Young Mi; Lee, Da Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate individual pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cutoff value for medical treatment success with single-dose and multi-dose regimen of methotrexate in tubal ectopic pregnancy. Methods Eighty-five women who received methotrexate for the treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy during 2003 to 2015 were selected. Fifty-three women received a single-dose regimen and 32 women received a multi-dose regimen. Medical treatment failure was defined as necessity of surgical treatment. The medical treatment success rate was estimated in both regimens and the pretreatment serum hCG titer to predict the success was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Results Pretreatment clinical and laboratory parameters were similar between group of single-dose regimen and multi-dose regimen. Treatment success rate was 64.2% in the single-dose regimen group and 71.9% in the multi-dose regimen group (P>0.05). Pretreatment serum hCG titer was an independent prognostic factor for treatment success in each regimen. Serum hCG cutoff value to predict the treatment success was 3,026 IU/L in single-dose regimen group and 3,711 IU/L in multi-dose regimen group. Conclusion We recommend use of single-dose regimen when pretreatment serum hCG <3,026 IU/L but multi-dose regimen may be favored when initial serum hCG level between 3,026 and 3,711 IU/L. PMID:28217676

  4. Combined detection of α-fetoprotein and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin in screening for trisomy 21 and management of cases in the moderate risk value range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Sun, Yun; Hong, Dongyang; Wang, Yanyun; Xu, Zhengfeng; Jiang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Down syndrome is the most common cause of prenatal chromosomal abnormalities, and prenatal serum screening is an effective method for decreasing the birth prevalence of children with Down syndrome. The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of duplex screening and investigate the treatment of cases under specific conditions. The medians of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) were calculated and compared with those embedded in the 2T software. The detection and false-positive rates were analyzed under different conditions, and the distribution of Down syndrome cases was investigated in different risk ranges. Finally, suitable recommendations for further diagnostic investigation were provided according to the status of each individual. The medians of free β-HCG and AFP were found to differ from the corresponding medians embedded in the 2T software (P<0.01), and on the basis of a 5% false-positive rate, the detection rate would increase from 63.6 to 67.8% when compared with medians embedded in the 2T software, indicating we should establish our own medians of free β-HCG and AFP. In addition, residual cases (risk value <1/300) with relevant Down syndrome indications mainly concentrated at risk values between 1/1,000 and 1/300, and partial residual screening cases were verified through diverse methods. These findings indicated that different laboratories should establish their own medians; furthermore, what is classed as moderate risk is extremely important in screening for Down syndrome and reasonable recommendations may be offered under different conditions.

  5. Evaluation of dual trigger with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin in improving oocyte maturity rates: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature oocytes are prerequisite for achieving the process of in vitro fertilization. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is the standard trigger used for stimulating ovulation but is associated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger achieves oocyte maturation and lowers the incidence of OHSS, but it has limitations of higher pregnancy loss rate and miscarriage rates. Coadministration of both hormones is found to improve the pregnancy rates and the number of mature oocytes retrieved. We aimed to assess if the dual trigger is better than the conventional hCG in triggering oocyte maturation. METHODOLOGY: The study included 76 female patients aged 24–43 years who were randomly divided into two groups with 38 patients in each arm. The study included patients with antimullerian hormone (AMH 4 ng/ml and AFC/ovary >12 to avoid OHSS risk with hCG trigger. RESULTS: The study showed statistically insignificant differences between dual group versus hCG group in terms of the number of oocytes retrieved (10.0 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.0; P = 0.2816, the number of mature oocytes recovered (8.4 ± 5.0 vs. 7.2 ± 4.0; P = 0.2588, fertilization rate (5.9 ± 4.2 vs. 5.6 ± 3.3; P = 0.7390, and the number of usable embryos on day 3 (4.0 ± 3.0 vs. 4.0 ± 2.4; P = 0.8991. CONCLUSION: The dual trigger is equivalent to hCG in triggering oocyte maturation.

  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations during the late first trimester are associated with fetal growth in a fetal sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarovic, Mirjana; Korevaar, Tim I M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P; Steegers, Eric A P

    2017-02-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We studied the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth and birth weight. In addition, we investigated effect modification by gestational age of hCG measurement and fetal sex. Total serum hCG (median 14.4 weeks, 95 % range 10.1-26.2), estimated fetal weight (measured by ultrasound during 18-25th weeks and >25th weeks) and birth weight were measured in 7987 mother-child pairs from the Generation R cohort and used to establish fetal growth. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a standardized birth weight lower than the 10th percentile of the study population. There was a non-linear association of hCG with birth weight (P = 0.009). However, only low hCG concentrations measured during the late first trimester (11th and 12th week) were associated with birth weight and SGA. Low hCG concentrations measured in the late first trimester were also associated with decreased fetal growth (P = 0.0002). This was the case for both male and female fetuses. In contrast, high hCG concentrations during the late first trimester were associated with increased fetal growth amongst female, but not male fetuses. Low hCG in the late first trimester is associated with lower birth weight due to a decrease in fetal growth. Fetal sex differences exist in the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth.

  7. The steroid response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation in men with Klinefelter syndrome does not change using immunoassay or mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roli, L; Santi, D; Belli, S; Tagliavini, S; Cavalieri, S; De Santis, M C; Baraldi, E; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Granata, A R; Pagotto, U; Pasquali, R; Rochira, V; Carani, C; Simoni, M; Trenti, T

    2017-08-01

    Liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed in parallel to Immunoassays (IAs) and today is proposed as the "gold standard" for steroid assays. Leydig cells of men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are able to respond to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, even if testosterone (T) production was impaired. The aim was to evaluate how results obtained by IAs and LC-MS/MS can differently impact on the outcome of a clinical research on gonadal steroidogenesis after hCG stimulation. A longitudinal, prospective, case-control clinical trial. (clinicaltrial.gov NCT02788136) was carried out, enrolling KS men and healthy age-matched controls, stimulated by hCG administration. Serum steroids were evaluated at baseline and for 5 days after intramuscular injection of 5000 IU hCG using both IAs and LC-MS/MS. 13 KS patients (36 ± 9 years) not receiving T replacement therapy and 14 controls (32 ± 8 years) were enrolled. T, progesterone, cortisol, 17-hydroxy-progesterone (17OHP) and androstenedione, were significantly higher using IAs than LC-MS/MS. IAs and LC-MS/MS showed direct correlation for all five steroids, although the constant overestimation detected by IAs. Either methodology found the same 17OHP and T increasing profile after hCG stimulation, with equal areas under the curves (AUCs). Although a linearity between IA and LC-MS/MS is demonstrated, LC-MS/MS is more sensitive and accurate, whereas IA shows a constant overestimation of sex steroid levels. This result suggests the need of reference intervals built on the specific assay. This fundamental difference between these two methodologies opens a deep reconsideration of what is needed to improve the accuracy of steroid hormone assays.

  8. A Positive Feedback Loop between Glial Cells Missing 1 and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Regulates Placental hCGβ Expression and Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Mei-Leng; Wang, Liang-Jie; Chuang, Pei-Yun; Chang, Ching-Wen; Lee, Yun-Shien; Lo, Hsiao-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Song

    2015-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is composed of a common α subunit and a placenta-specific β subunit. Importantly, hCG is highly expressed in the differentiated and multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed via trophoblast cell fusion and stimulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). Although the ubiquitous activating protein 2 (AP2) transcription factors TFAP2A and TFAP2C may regulate hCGβ expression, it remains unclear how cAMP stimulates placenta-specific hCGβ gene expression and trophoblastic differentiation. Here we demonstrated that the placental transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) binds to a highly conserved promoter region in all six hCGβ paralogues by chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-chip) analyses. We further showed that cAMP stimulates GCM1 and the CBP coactivator to activate the hCGβ promoter through a GCM1-binding site (GBS1), which also constitutes a previously identified AP2 site. Given that TFAP2C may compete with GCM1 for GBS1, cAMP enhances the association between the hCGβ promoter and GCM1 but not TFAP2C. Indeed, the hCG-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway also stimulates Ser269 and Ser275 phosphorylation of GCM1, which recruits CBP to mediate GCM1 acetylation and stabilization. Consequently, hCG stimulates the expression of GCM1 target genes, including the fusogenic protein syncytin-1, to promote placental cell fusion. Our study reveals a positive feedback loop between GCM1 and hCG regulating placental hCGβ expression and cell differentiation. PMID:26503785

  9. Combined GnRH-agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin trigger improves ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with history of poor fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rony T; Pereira, Nigel; Artusa, Lisa; Kelly, Amelia G; Pasternak, Monica; Lekovich, Jovana P; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of a combined GnRH-agonist (GnRH-a) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger in improving ICSI cycle outcomes in patients with poor fertilization history after standard hCG trigger in prior ICSI cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with a fertilization rate of trigger were compared to those who underwent another ICSI cycle with a combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger. Oocyte maturity, fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates were compared. A multiple linear regression model was used to explore the association between combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger (vs hCG trigger alone) and fertilization rate. A total of 427 patients with mean age of 37.3 ± 1.94 years and mean baseline fertilization rate of 17.9 ± 2.03% were included, of which 318 (74.5%) and 109 (25.5%) patients underwent a subsequent ICSI cycle with hCG and combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger, respectively. The baseline parameters of the male and female partner were similar. The mean fertilization rate in the combined trigger group was 16.4% (95% CI: 7.58-25.2%) higher than the hCG trigger group, even after adjustment for confounders. Patients in the combined trigger group had higher oocyte maturity (82.1 vs 69.8%), higher clinical pregnancy (27.5 vs 5.67%), and higher live birth rates (20.2 vs 3.46%) compared to the hCG trigger group. Combined GnRH-a and hCG trigger in ICSI cycles increase oocyte maturity, fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates in patients with a history of poor fertilization after standard hCG trigger alone.

  10. The birds and the beans: a low-fidelity simulator for chorionic villus sampling skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Cartin, Angelina; Pinette, Michael G

    2012-08-01

    Because no simulation models are described for chorionic villus sampling (CVS), we sought to design and construct a CVS training simulator. Using materials available from our labor floor and local supermarket, we built and demonstrated a practical model for learning transabdominal and transcervical CVS. The simulator can be used to teach single- or dual-operator transabdominal CVS and traditional transcervical CVS. Aspirated "villi" immediately inform the teacher and learner of successful procedures. No image degradation or sonographically visible tracks resulted from use, permitting more than one trainee to benefit from a model. This model for transabdominal and transcervical CVS provides realistic imaging, tactile sensations, and immediate feedback.

  11. Villi Pogga ja Tarmo Prikk juhtisid ettevõtted disainiauhinnani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Villi Pogga juhitud Aquator ja Tarmo Priki juhitud Thulema said Saksamaal Essenis toimunud rahvusvahelisel konkursil Design Management Europe eriauhinna. Auhinda annab välja Esseni Disainikeskus koostöös 16 Euroopa disainikeskusega

  12. Histopathological study of spinal meningioma originating from the arachnoid villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Morii, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Maki; Hori, Yumiko; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Umegaki, Masao; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2011-02-01

    Although the histogenesis of meningiomas remains unclear, it is believed that arachnoid cells are the most likely origin of this type of neoplasm. Further, little attention has been paid to the histopathology of spinal meningiomas arising from the arachnoid villi. We came across a case of spinal meningioma that was locally attached to the arachnoid membrane. The associated arachnoid villi were investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. We confirmed the presence of tumor cells under the fibrous capsule that forms the outer component of the arachnoid villi. Tumor cells grew out from the apical portion of the arachnoid villi. Furthermore, immunohistochemical study suggested that arachnoid cells made the transition to tumor cells on the arachnoid cell layer.

  13. Villi Pogga ja Tarmo Prikk juhtisid ettevõtted disainiauhinnani

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Villi Pogga juhitud Aquator ja Tarmo Priki juhitud Thulema said Saksamaal Essenis toimunud rahvusvahelisel konkursil Design Management Europe eriauhinna. Auhinda annab välja Esseni Disainikeskus koostöös 16 Euroopa disainikeskusega

  14. Chorionic gonadotropin and its receptor are both expressed in human retina, possible implications in normal and pathological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Dukic-Stefanovic

    Full Text Available Extra-gonadal role of gonadotropins has been re-evaluated over the last 20 years. In addition to pituitary secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, the CNS has been clearly identified as a source of hCG acting locally to influence behaviour. Here we demonstrated that human retina is producing this gonadotropin that acts as a neuroactive molecule. Müller glial and retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells are producing hCG that may affects neighbour cells expressing its receptor, namely cone photoreceptors. It was previously described that amacrine and retinal ganglion (RGC cells are targets of the gonadotropin releasing hormone that control the secretion of all gonadotropins. Therefore our findings suggest that a complex neuroendocrine circuit exists in the retina, involving hCG secreting cells (glial and RPE, hCG targets (photoreceptors and hCG-release controlling cells (amacrine and RGC. The exact physiological functions of this circuit have still to be identified, but the proliferation of photoreceptor-derived tumor induced by hCG demonstrated the need to control this neuroendocrine loop.

  15. The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trohimovych O.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to present views proliferation and apoptosis plays an important role in the mechanisms of placenta formation, particularly in process of vasculogenesis that begins on the third week of pregnancy. Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses. Methods. 98 samples of abortive and surgical material in pregnant women in terms of 4-10 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed. 48 samples were obtained from women with missed abortion (1st group, 20 samples from women with spontaneous abortion (2nd group; 20 samples from women with tubal pregnancy (3rd group; 10 samples from pregnant women with normal singleton pregnancy, after medical abortion on their own wish (control group. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods were used. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs to Ki-67 and bcl-2 were applied. Results. Pathological picture of spontaneous abortion is characterized by the dominance of violation of blood circulation, presence of significant foci of hemorrhage occurring parallel with a pronounced disruption of apoptosis and proliferation in chorionic villi and decidual tissue, leading to the detachment of placenta. Conclusion. In 75% of cases of tubal pregnancy ectopic cytotrophoblast invasion is caused by prominent changes in the structure of the fallopian tube. First of all due to the inflammatory process and a sharp reduction of proliferation in the basal chorion and parietal deciduitis in 65% of cases. Citation: Trohimovych OV. [The immunohistochemical features of chorion and endometrium in women with early pregnancy losses]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:58-64. Russian.

  16. Comparison of second-trimester maternal serum free-β-human chorionic gonadotropin and α-fetoprotein between normal singleton and twin pregnancies: a population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ming-ming; ZHONG Xiao-ling; HU Ya-li; ZHANG Chun-yan; RU Tong; LIU Qi-lan; XU Bi-yun; CHEN Qi-guang; XU Zheng-feng; ZHANG Yin

    2010-01-01

    Background The second-trimester maternal serum screening in twin pregnancy is still controversial, as the serum marker levels in twins are not as clear as those in singletons. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the levels of the second-trimester maternal serum free p-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-HCG) and a-fetoprotein (AFP) in normal twin and singleton pregnancies and to estimate feasible analysis methods for utilizing these markers in second trimester screening for twin pregnancy. Methods On the basis of a prospective population-based study of second-trimester maternal serum screening, the concentrations of maternal serum AFP and free β-HCG of 195 normal twin pregnancy and 26 512 singleton controls at gestational weeks 15 to 20 were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in one laboratory. The levels of markers were compared between the twins and singletons using weight-correction and gestational age-specific model. Results According to the research protocol, 95 communities were randomly sampled, which covered the whole Jiangsu province, the east of China. A total of 26 803 pregnant women (98%), from the target population accepted prenatal screening for maternal serum AFP, β-HCG detection, and all babies were followed up for at least six months. There were 197 (0.73%) twin pregnancies, of which one case had fetal trisomy 18, and one case with fetal anencephaly. The others were normal twin pregnancy. From a total enrollment of 26 803 women participants, 26 512 women with normal singleton pregnancies were selected as the model controls. The other 291 pregnancies, including trisomy 21, neural tube defect (NTD), trisomy 18, and other fetal abnormalities, were excluded. No significant differences were found in the medians of gestational age-specific maternal serum free β-hCG and AFP in normal twin pregnancy comparing with twice those in model controls with the exception of the medians for free β-hCG during the 16th gestational week

  17. Screening for trisomy 18 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Wright, D; Maiz, N; Pandeva, I; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-09-01

    To derive a model and examine the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomy 18 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was performed at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks in 56 893 singleton pregnancies, including 56 376 cases of euploid fetuses, 395 with trisomy 21 and 122 with trisomy 18. The measured free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were converted into a multiple of the median (MoM) and then into likelihood ratios (LR). Similarly, the measured NT was transformed into LRs using the mixture model of NT distributions. In each case the LRs for NT and the biochemical markers were multiplied by the age and gestation-related risk to derive the risk for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. Detection rates (DRs) and false-positive rates (FPRs) were calculated by taking the proportions with risks above a given risk threshold. In screening with the algorithm for trisomy 21, at a FPR of 3%, the estimated DRs of trisomies 21 and 18 were 89% and 82%, respectively. The use of an algorithm for trisomy 18 identified 93% of affected fetuses at a FPR of 0.2%. When the algorithm for trisomy 21 was used and screen positivity was fixed at a FPR of 3%, and in addition the algorithm for trisomy 18 was used and screen positivity was fixed at a FPR of 0.2%, the overall FPR was 3.1% and the DRs of trisomies 21 and 18 were 90% and 97%, respectively. A beneficial side effect of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 is the detection of a high proportion of fetuses with trisomy 18. If an algorithm for trisomy 18 in addition to the one for trisomy 21 is used, more than 95% of trisomy 18 fetuses can be detected with a minor increase of 0.1% in the overall FPR.

  18. First-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A: impact of maternal and pregnancy characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Wright, D; Spencer, K; Molina, F S; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-05-01

    To use multiple regression analysis to define the contribution of maternal variables that influence the measured concentration of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and the interaction between these covariates, in first-trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 21. This was a multicenter study of prospective screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of fetal nuchal translucency thickness, and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. In the pregnancies subsequently found to have trisomy 21 and in those with no obvious chromosomal abnormality, we used multiple regression analysis to account for pregnancy characteristics that influence the measured concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. We fitted Gaussian distributions to the distribution of log multiples of the median (MoM) values in trisomy 21 and in unaffected pregnancies. There were 491 cases of trisomy 21 and 96 803 chromosomally normal pregnancies. Compared with values in Caucasian women, those who were parous, non-smokers and those who conceived spontaneously, PAPP-A was 57% higher in women of Afro-Caribbean origin, 3% higher in South Asians, 9% higher in East Asians, 2% higher in nulliparous women, 17% lower in smokers and 10% lower in those conceiving by in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Free beta-hCG was 12% higher in women of Afro-Caribbean origin, 9% lower in South Asians, 8% higher in East Asians, 2% higher in nulliparous women, 4% lower in smokers and 9% higher in those conceiving by IVF. In screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A the estimated detection rate was 65% for a false-positive rate of 5%. In first-trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 21 it is essential to adjust the measured values of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A for maternal and pregnancy characteristics. Copyright (c) 2008 ISUOG

  19. Screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency thickness, free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Wright, D; Baker, A; Sahota, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-06-01

    To derive a model and examine the performance of first-trimester combined screening by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Prospective combined screening for trisomy 21 was carried out at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks in 56,771 singleton pregnancies, including 56,376 cases with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby (unaffected group) and 395 cases with trisomy 21. The blood test and ultrasound scan were carried out in the same visit. In each case the maternal age-related risk for trisomy 21 at term was calculated and adjusted according to the gestational age at the time of screening to derive the a-priori risk. The measured NT was transformed into a likelihood ratio using the mixture model of NT distributions. The measured free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were converted into a multiple of the median (MoM) for gestational age, adjusted for maternal weight, ethnicity, smoking status, method of conception and parity, and a likelihood ratio was subsequently calculated. The likelihood ratios for NT and for the biochemical markers were multiplied by the a-priori risk to derive the patient-specific risk. Detection rates and false-positive rates were calculated by taking the proportions with risks above a given risk threshold after adjustment for maternal age according to the distribution of pregnancies in England and Wales in 2000-2002. These standardized rates were compared with detection and false-positive rates estimated using Monte Carlo methods to sample from the modeled Gaussian distributions. The performance of screening based on the model was in good agreement with that observed in our population. In a strategy for first-trimester combined screening where the blood test and scan are carried out in the same visit it was estimated that, for false-positive rates of 3% and 5%, the detection rates were 92% and 94

  20. Intrauterine administration of human chorionic gonadotropin does not improve pregnancy and life birth rates independently of blastocyst quality: a randomised prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirleitner, Barbara; Schuff, Maximilian; Vanderzwalmen, Pierre; Stecher, Astrid; Okhowat, Jasmin; Hradecký, Libor; Kohoutek, Tomáš; Králícková, Milena; Spitzer, Dietmar; Zech, Nicolas H

    2015-07-04

    Successful embryo implantation depends on a well-timed maternal-embryonic crosstalk. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by the embryo is known to play a key role in this process and to trigger a complex signal transduction cascade allowing the apposition, attachment, and invasion of the embryo into the decidualized uterus. Production of hCG was reported to be dependent on blastocyst quality and several articles suggested that intrauterine hCG injection increases pregnancy and implantation rates in IVF patients. However, no study has as yet analysed birth rates as final outcome. Our objective was to determine whether clinical outcome after blastocyst transfer can be improved by intrauterine injection of hCG and whether this is dependent on blastocyst quality. A prospective randomised study was conducted in two settings. In cohort A, hCG application was performed two days before blastocyst transfer. In cohort B, the administration of hCG occurred just prior to embryo transfer on day 5. For both cohorts, patients were randomised to either intrauterine hCG application or to the control group that received culture medium. Clinical outcome was analysed according to blastocyst quality of transferred embryos. The outcome of 182 IVF-cycles (cohort A) and 1004 IVF-cycles (cohort B) was analysed. All patients received a fresh autologous blastocyst transfer on day five. Primary outcomes were pregnancy rates (PR), clinical pregnancy rates (cPR), miscarriage rates (MR), and live birth rates (LBR). No improvement of clinical outcome after intrauterine hCG administration on day 3 (cohort A) or day 5 (cohort B) was found, independently of blastocyst quality transferred. The final outcome in cohort A: LBR after transfer of top blastocysts was 50.0 % with hCG and 53.3 % in the control group. With non-top blastocysts, LBR of 17.1 % (hCG) and 18.2 % (control) were observed (n.s.). In cohort B, LBR with top blastocysts was 53.3 % (hCG) and 48.4 % (control), with non

  1. Chorionic gonadotropin induces dendritic cells to express a tolerogenic phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wan (Hui); M.A. Versnel (Marjan); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); C.G. van Helden-Meeuwsen; D. Fekkes (Durk); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); N.A. Khan (Nisar Ahmed); R. Benner (Robbert); R.C.M. Kiekens (Rebecca)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been suggested to play an immunoregulatory role in addition to its endocrine function, thus contributing to the prevention of fetal rejection. We hypothesized that hCG is involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance by the r

  2. Detection of Human Parvovirus B19 Nonstrutural Protein DNA by Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction in Gravida Serum and Pregnant Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) assay was developed to detect human parvovirus B19 DNA corresponding to the nonstructural protein in clinical specimens in a routine diagnostic laboratory. The sensitivity of this highly specific assay was up to 0. 005 fg of B19 DNA. Parvovirus B19 was identified in sera of 20 pregnant women with abnormal pregnant outcome. Among these 20 cases, intrauterine parvovirus infection did exist in 7 pregnant women because parvovirus B19 DNA was detected in the pregnant tissues of them such as placenta tissues,chorionic villi, amniotic fluid, fetal spleen, liver and abdominal fluids.

  3. Mobiilside uustulnukad võtavad alles hoogu / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uued mobiilsideoperaatorid Vertelson Mobiil, CityGSM ja Top Connect valmistuvad turuletulekut ette. Vt. samas: Villy Paimets. Mobiilsideturul tüli majas. OÜ Top Connect konflikti kavandatavate teenuste osutamise pärast läbi Radiolinja võrgu kommenteerivad Radiolinja Eesti juhatuse esimehelt Sami Seppänenilt ja OÜ Top Connect juhatuse liikmelt Vladislav Sobolevilt

  4. Mobiilside uustulnukad võtavad alles hoogu / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uued mobiilsideoperaatorid Vertelson Mobiil, CityGSM ja Top Connect valmistuvad turuletulekut ette. Vt. samas: Villy Paimets. Mobiilsideturul tüli majas. OÜ Top Connect konflikti kavandatavate teenuste osutamise pärast läbi Radiolinja võrgu kommenteerivad Radiolinja Eesti juhatuse esimehelt Sami Seppänenilt ja OÜ Top Connect juhatuse liikmelt Vladislav Sobolevilt

  5. Endometrial cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is inhibited by human chorionic gonadotrophin, and is increased in the decidua of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, A W; Duncan, W C; King, A E;

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a considerable cause of morbidity and occasional mortality. Currently, there is no reliable test to differentiate ectopic from intrauterine gestation. We have previously used array technology to demonstrate that differences in gene expression in decidualized...... chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels. Immortalized endometrial epithelial cells were cultured with physiological concentrations of hCG. CRISP-3 mRNA and protein expression were greater in endometrium from ectopic when compared with intrauterine pregnancies (P ... to epithelium and granulocytes of endometrium. CRISP-3 serum concentrations were not different in women with ectopic compared with intrauterine pregnancies. CRISP-3 expression in endometrium was not related to the degree of decidualization or to serum progesterone levels. Endometrial CRISP-3 expression...

  6. Epitope mapping from real time kinetic studies – Role of cross-linked disulphides and incidental interacting regions in affinity measurements: Study with human chorionic gonadotropin and monoclonal antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonavinakere Seetharam Srilatha; P Tamil Selvi; Gundlupet Satyanarayana Murthy

    2005-06-01

    Real time kinetic studies were used to map conformational epitopes in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The epitopes were identified in the regions (5–14 and 55–62). The association rate constant (+1) was found to be altered by chemical modification of hCG, and the ionic strength of the reaction medium. Based on these changes, we propose the presence of additional interactions away from the epitope-paratope region in the hCG-MAb reaction. We have identified such incidental interacting regions (IIRs) in hCG to be the loop region 35–47 and 60–84. The IIRs contribute significantly towards the of the interaction. Therefore, in a macromolecular interaction of hCG and its MAb, is determined not only by epitopeparatope interaction but also by the interaction of the nonepitopic-nonparatopic IIRs. However, the specificity of the interaction resides exclusively with the epitope-paratope pair.

  7. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa

    2013-10-17

    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMETRICAL CHANGES OF THE PLACENTAL TERMINAL VILLI IN NORMAL AND PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED WITH GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Bhanu P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJECTIVES Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is escalating in Indian women amounting to 10% of the total pregnancies mainly due to the diet, obesity and sedentary life style. Placenta is a crucial organ of intrauterine life. The functional units of the placenta such as chorionic villi, foetal blood vessels, and the syncytial knots are altered histologically in gestational diabetic condition. The present study is undertaken to observe the morphological and micrometrical changes of the GDM and normal placenta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total number of 96 placentas, out of which 48 are GDM and 48 from control were procured for the present study. The placentas were collected from our General Hospital, Nellore, AP. Morphology and micrometry of the placentas were studied. RESULTS The shape of placenta was similar in both groups, but the weight in GDM (537.27±131.97 g, diameter (168.2±13.23 mm and thickness (29.9±3.45 mm were significantly (P<0.005 increased when compared to control. The mean number (9.01±2.25 mm3 and diameter (0.08±0.03 mm of the terminal villi and number of foetal blood vessels (21.76±8.52 mm3 were found to be increased in GDM, but the diameter of the blood vessel (0.04±0.02 mm was decreased and highly significant (P<0.001. The syncytial knots and fibrinoid necrosis were also observed in GDM when compared to the normal placenta. CONCLUSION The placentas from GDM were observed with significant morphological and histological changes as compared to controls, which may alter the perinatal outcome resulting in macrosomia, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation.

  9. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  10. Anticuerpos monoclonales contra la gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG para su uso en la detección de embarazo Monoclonal antibodies against human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG for their use in pregnancy detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha V. Rodríguez Pendás

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta la generación de 2 anticuerpos monoclonales (AcM de ratón dirigidos contra la hormona gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG, a partir de la inmunización de ratones BALB/c con hCG humana, purificada en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN. Los AcM obtenidos son de la clase IgG y fueron purificados a partir de líquido ascítico, mediante cromatografía de afinidad en proteína G Sepharosa. El estudio de afinidad y especificidad demostró que estos anticuerpos podían ser útiles en ensayos inmunoenzimáticos, con el uso de uno de ellos en el sistema microELISA, de nuestra institución, para la detección cualitativa de embarazo en orina.The generation of 2 mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (CGh, starting from the immunization of BALB/c mice with human CGh purified at the National Institute of Endocrinology (NIEN is reported. IgG monoclonal antibodies were obtained. They were purified starting from the ascitic fluid by affinity chromatography in protein G Sepharose. The affinity and specificity study showed that these antibodies could be useful in immunoenzimatic assays, using one of them in the microELISA system of our institution for the qualitative detection of pregnancy in urine.

  11. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Lelic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05, volume density (p <0.01 and absolute volume (p<0.0001 of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05.In anemic mothers’ placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group. 

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone administered at the time of human chorionic gonadotropin trigger improves oocyte developmental competence in in vitro fertilization cycles: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Julie D; Shen, Shehua; McCulloch, Charles; Jalalian, Liza; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether an additional follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) bolus administered at the time of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger can improve the developmental competence of the oocyte. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Academic medical center. Women undergoing a long agonist suppression in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol for treatment of infertility. FSH bolus at time of hCG trigger versus placebo. Primary outcome; fertilization; secondary outcomes: oocyte recovery, implantation rate, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates. A total of 188 women (mean age: 36.2 years; range: 25 to 40 years) were randomized. Fertilization (2PN/#oocyte) was statistically significantly improved in the treatment arm (63% vs. 55%) as was the likelihood of oocyte recovery (70% vs. 57%). There was no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate (56.8% vs. 46.2%) or ongoing/live birth rate (51.6% vs. 43.0%). Improvements in IVF success rates have largely been due to optimization of embryo culture and stimulation protocols; less attention has been directed toward methods to improve induction of final oocyte maturation. This was the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to modify the ovulation trigger to improve oocyte competence, as demonstrated by the statistically significant improvement in fertilization. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of plasma human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and beta-hCG activities in the late luteal phase: evidence of the occurrence of spontaneous menstrual abortions in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, M; Roger, M; Barrat, J; Michelon, B

    1979-02-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and beta-hCG activities were measured during the late luteal phase in 321 cycles of 147 infertile women. In 71 cycles the hCG measurement permitted the diagnosis of pregnancy between the 10th and 14th days after the thermal nadir. The slope of the regression line derived from hCG levels during the first 22 days of pregnancy was significantly lower in pregnancies which aborted before the 60th day than in normal pregnancies (P less than 0.01). Among 72 cycles ended by apparently normal menses which exhibited an LH-hCG activity at least equal to 7 mIU of hCG/ml during the late luteal phase, the beta-hCG activity was measured in 49 cycles during which hCG had not been given. Significant beta-hCG activity (greater than or equal to 4 mIU of hCG/ml) was detected in 19 cases. This finding supports the assumption that secretory trophoblastic tissue had been present and that spontaneous menstrual abortions had occurred in these women.

  14. Type I and II Diabetic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Respond In Vitro to Dehydrated Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane Allograft Treatment by Increasing Proliferation, Migration, and Altering Cytokine Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massee, Michelle; Chinn, Kathryn; Lim, Jeremy J; Godwin, Lisa; Young, Conan S; Koob, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Objective: Human amniotic membranes have been shown to be effective for healing diabetic foot ulcers clinically and to regulate stem cell activity in vitro and in vivo; however, diabetic stem cells may be impaired as a sequela of the disease. In this study, dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) allografts (EpiFix(®); MiMedx Group) were evaluated for their ability to regulate diabetic stem cells in vitro. Approach: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from normal, type I diabetic, and type II diabetic donors were treated with soluble extracts of dHACM and evaluated for proliferation after 3 days by DNA assay, chemotactic migration after 1 day by transwell assay, cytokine secretion after 3 days by multiplex ELISA, and gene expression after 5 days by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Although diabetic ADSCs demonstrated decreased responses compared to normal ADSCs, dHACM treatment stimulated diabetic ADSCs to proliferate after 3 days and enhanced migration over 24 h, similar to normal ADSCs. dHACM-treated diabetic ADSCs modulated secretion of soluble signals, including regulators of inflammation, angiogenesis, and healing. All ADSCs evaluated also responded to dHACM treatment with altered expression of immunomodulatory genes, including interleukins (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1RA. Innovation: This is the first reported case demonstrating that diabetic ADSCs respond to novel amniotic membrane therapies, specifically treatment with dHACM. Conclusion: dHACM stimulated diabetic ADSCs to migrate, proliferate, and alter cytokine expression suggesting that, despite their diabetic origin, ADSCs may respond to dHACM to accelerate diabetic wound healing.

  15. A comprehensive analysis of the chorion locus in silkmoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Nohata, Junko; Guo, Huizhen; Li, Shenglong; Liu, Jianqiu; Guo, Youbing; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Liu, Chun; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Shiping; Labropoulou, Vassiliki; Swevers, Luc; Tsitoura, Panagiota; Iatrou, Kostas; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2015-11-10

    Despite more than 40 years of intense study, essential features of the silkmoth chorion (eggshell) are still not fully understood. To determine the precise structure of the chorion locus, we performed extensive EST analysis, constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig, and obtained a continuous genomic sequence of 871,711 base pairs. We annotated 127 chorion genes in two segments interrupted by a 164 kb region with 5 non-chorion genes, orthologs of which were on chorion bearing scaffolds in 4 ditrysian families. Detailed transcriptome analysis revealed expression throughout choriogenesis of most chorion genes originally categorized as "middle", and evidence for diverse regulatory mechanisms including cis-elements, alternative splicing and promoter utilization, and antisense RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed multigene family associations and faster evolution of early chorion genes and transcriptionally active pseudogenes. Proteomics analysis identified 99 chorion proteins in the eggshell and micropyle localization of 1 early and 6 Hc chorion proteins.

  16. Enhancement of Absorption by Micro-Mixing induced by Villi Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxing; Brasseur, James; Banco, Gino

    2009-11-01

    Motions of surface villi create microscale flows that can couple with lumen-scale eddies to enhance absorption at the epithelium of the small intestine. Using a multigrid strategy within the lattice-Boltzmann framework, we model a macro-scale cavity flow with microscale ``villi'' in pendular motion on the lower surface and evaluate the couplings between macro and micro-scale fluid motions, scalar mixing, and uptake of passive scalar at the villi surface. We study the influences of pendular frequency, villous length, and villous groupings on absorption rate. The basic mechanism underlying the enhancement of absorption rate by a villous-induced ``micro-mixing layer'' (MML) is the microscale ``pumping'' of low concentration fluid from between groups of villi coupled with the return of high concentration fluid into the villi groups from the macroscale flow. The MML couples with the macrosacle eddies through a diffusion layer that separates micro and macro mixed layers. The absorption rate increases with frequency of villi oscillation due to enhanced vertical pumping. We discover a critical villus length above which absorption rate increases significantly. The absorption is influenced by villus groupings in a complex way due to the interference between vertical and horizontal geometry vs. MML scales. We conclude that optimized villi motility can enhance absorption and may underlie an explanation for the existence of villi in the gut. [Supported by NSF

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of chorionicity in twins.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, T

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound scan in predicting chorionicity in twin pregnancies in our unit. The presence or absence of lambda sign, T-sign, dividing membrane thickness and number of placentae were used to determine chorionicity. We retrospectively analysed these antenatal markers in 268 sets of twins delivered over a 5 year period and compared it with the postpartum placental histology and neonatal gender. Of 268 twin deliveries, 204 (76%) had both chorionicity and placental histology to compare. 67 of 84 (80%) were correctly diagnosed antenatally as monochorionic and 137 of 151 (91%) as dichorionic. In 31 cases (15%) the ultrasound diagnosis of chorionicity didn\\'t match placental histology. Seventeen were thought to be monochorionic antenatally but were confirmed dichorionic on placental histology. Overall chorionicity was correctly diagnosed in 171\\/204 (84%) using transabdominal ultrasound scan (USS) in all trimesters. However the sensitivity and specificity of USS was much higher for dichorionic twins when carried out before 14 weeks of gestation.

  18. In vitro effect of 4-nonylphenol on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated hormone secretion, cell viability and reactive oxygen species generation in mice Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Tomáš; Tvrdá, Eva; Tušimová, Eva; Kováčik, Anton; Bistáková, Jana; Forgács, Zsolt; Lukáč, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    Nonylphenol is considered an endocrine disruptor and has been reported to affect male reproductive functions. In our in vitro study, we evaluated the effects of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on cholesterol levels, hormone formation and viability in cultured Leydig cells from adult ICR male mice. We also determined the potential impact of 4-NP on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 44 h of cultivation. The cells were cultured with addition of 0.04; 0.2; 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 μg/mL of 4-NP in the present of 1 IU/mL human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and compared to the control. The quantity of cholesterol was determined from culture medium using photometry. Determination of hormone production was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Metabolic activity assay was used for quantification of cell viability. The chemiluminescence technique, which uses a luminometer to measure reactive oxygen species, was employed. Applied doses of 4-NP (0.04-5.0 μg/mL) slight increase cholesterol levels and decrease production of dehydroepiandrosterone after 44 h of cultivation, but not significantly. Incubation of 4-NP treated cells with hCG significantly (P concentration (5.0 μg/mL). The viability was significantly (P cells. Taken together, the results of our in vitro study reported herein is consistent with the conclusion that 4-nonylphenol is able to influence hormonal profile, cell viability and generate ROS.

  19. Timing of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone administration in IVF/ICSI protocols using GnRH agonist or antagonists: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Min; Liu, Xiru; Qi, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of altering the timing of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration on the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or antagonist. We systematically searched six databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the effects of altering the timing of hCG administration on the clinical outcome of IVF and ICSI using GnRH agonist or antagonist were included. A meta-analysis was conducted following a quality evaluation performed with Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.2. Seven RCTs and a total of 1295 participants were included. Significant difference was observed regarding estradiol and progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration and oocyte retrieval between early hCG and late hCG administration group and in favor of the latter. The fertilization rate was not statistically different between early and 24-h late hCG groups, but it is significantly higher in the 48-h late hCG group. The pooled results showed no significant differences in the ongoing pregnancy rate per oocyte pick-up, the miscarriage rate and the live birth rate. The prolongation of follicular phase by delaying hCG administration could increase estradiol, progesterone levels and oocyte retrieval, which will not influence ongoing pregnancy rate per oocyte pick-up, miscarriage rate and live birth rate. Postponing hCG may enable increased flexibility of cycle scheduling to avoid weekend procedures.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals New Insights into the Modulation of Endometrial Stromal Cell Receptive Phenotype by Embryo-Derived Signals Interleukin-1 and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: Possible Involvement in Early Embryo Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Calvo, Ezequiel; Rao, C. V.; Akoum, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the conceptus in uterine cavity necessitates an elaborate network of interactions between the implanting embryo and a receptive endometrial tissue. We believe that embryo-derived signals play an important role in the remodeling and the extension of endometrial receptivity period. Our previous studies provided original evidence that human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) modulates and potentiates endometrial epithelial as well as stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1 (IL1), one of the earliest embryonic signals, which may represent a novel pathway by which the embryo favors its own implantation and growth within the maternal endometrial host. The present study was designed to gain a broader understanding of hCG impact on the modulation of endometrial cell receptivity, and in particular, cell responsiveness to IL1 and the acquisition of growth-promoting phenotype capable of receiving, sustaining, and promoting early and crucial steps of embryonic development. Our results showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, immune modulation, tissue remodeling, apoptotic and angiogenic processes. This points to a relevant impact of these embryonic signals on the receptivity of the maternal endometrium, its adaptation to the implanting embryo and the creation of an environment that is favorable for the implantation and the growth of this latter within a new and likely hostile host tissue. Interestingly our data further identified a complex interaction between IL1 and hCG, which, despite a synergistic action on several significant endometrial target genes, may encompass a tight control of endogenous IL1 and extends to other IL1 family members. PMID:23717664

  1. Do increased levels of progesterone and progesterone/estradiol ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin affects pregnancy outcome in long agonist protocol in fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of elevated levels of serum progesterone (P 4 and estradiol (E 2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin and their cut-off value on in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes is still not clear. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the association between serum P 4 , E 2 and progesterone/estradiol ratio (P 4 /E 2 on pregnancy outcome in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles with long agonist protocol. Setting and Design: Retrospective, single center, cohort study. Materials and Methods: A review of complete data of 544 women undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles (539 cycles with long agonist protocol from January 2012 to February 2014 was done. Data were stratified into Three groups according to the number of oocytes retrieved: low (≤4 oocytes obtained, intermediate (5-19 oocytes obtained, and high ovarian response (≥20 oocytes obtained. Statistical Analysis: Fishers exact test/Chi-square was carried for comparing categorical data. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to determine the cut-off value for P 4 and P 4 /E 2 detrimental for pregnancy. Results: A negative association was observed between pregnancy rate (PR and serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 levels with no effect on fertilization and cleavage rate. The overall cut-off value of serum P 4 and P 4 /E 2 ratio detrimental for pregnancy was found to be 1.075 and ≥0.35, respectively. Different P 4 threshold according to the ovarian responders were calculated, 1.075 for intermediate and 1.275 for high responders. Serum E 2 levels were not found to be significantly associated with PR. Conclusion: Serum P 4 levels and P 4 /E 2 ratio are a significant predictor for pregnancy outcome without affecting cleavage and fertilization rate while serum estradiol levels do not seem to affect PR.

  2. Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin significantly improves the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Huei; Wu, Frank Shao-Ying; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether dual triggering of final oocyte maturation with a combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can improve the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Infertility unit of a university-affiliated medical center. Normal responders to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation who were undergoing IVF-ICSI with a GnRH antagonist protocol. Standard dosage of hCG trigger (6,500 IU of recombinant hCG) versus dual trigger (0.2 mg of triptorelin and 6,500 IU of recombinant hCG). Live-birth, clinical pregnancy, and implantation rates per cycle. A total of 376 patients with 378 completed cycles with embryo transfer were enrolled (hCG trigger/control group: n = 187; dual trigger/study group: n = 191). The dual trigger group demonstrated statistically significantly higher implantation (29.6% vs. 18.4%), clinical pregnancy (50.7% vs. 40.1%), and live-birth (41.3% vs. 30.4%) rates as compared with the hCG trigger group. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of patient demographics, cycle parameters, or embryo quality. Dual trigger of final oocyte maturation with a GnRH-agonist and a standard dosage of hCG in normal responders statistically significantly improves implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live-birth rates in GnRH-antagonist IVF cycles. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Compartmentalized localization of 11β-HSD 1 and 2 at the feto-maternal interface in the first trimester of human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianlan; Wang, Wangsheng; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yu; Sun, Kang

    2016-10-01

    Glucocorticoids are engaged in a number of actions at the feto-maternal interface for the establishment of early pregnancy. However, excessive glucocorticoids can be deleterious to fetal development. Therefore, compartmentalized distribution of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 2), which regenerates and inactivates cortisol respectively, would ensure an optimal cortisol concentration at the feto-maternal interface for the establishment of early gestation. However, the distribution pattern of 11β-HSD1 and 2 at the feto-maternal interface in early human pregnancy is not clearly defined. Here we showed that 11β-HSD1 distributed extensively on the maternal side including decidual stromal cells and epithelial cells but scarcely on the fetal side except for localization in the fetal blood vessels of the chorionic villi. In contrast, 11β-HSD2 was abundantly localized in syncytial layer of the chorionic villi and the decidual epithelium. In primary cultures, cortisol upregulated not only 11β-HSD1 expression in decidual stromal cells but also 11β-HSD2 expression in villous trophoblasts of early pregnancy. Further studies revealed that cortisol inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β and 6 in decidual stromal cells and villous trophoblasts, and stimulated expression of human chorionic gonadotropin in villous trophoblasts. Collectively, this study has revealed a compartmentalized distribution pattern of 11β-HSD 1 and 2 at the feto-maternal interface, both of which can be upregulated by glucocorticoids, suggesting that a coordinated interaction between 11β-HSD 1 and 2 may exist to ensure an optimal cortisol concentration at discrete locations at the feto-maternal interface for the establishment of early pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Follicle-stimulating hormone potentiates the steroidogenic activity of chorionic gonadotropin and the anti-apoptotic activity of luteinizing hormone in human granulosa-lutein cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Nicoli, Alessia; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-02-15

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating ovarian function and pregnancy, respectively. Since these molecules act on the same receptor (LHCGR), they were traditionally assumed as equivalent in assisted reproduction techniques (ART), although differences between LH and hCG were demonstrated at molecular and physiological level. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that co-treatment with a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose in the ART therapeutic range potentiates different LH- and hCG-dependent responses in vitro, measured in terms of cAMP, phospho-CREB, -ERK1/2 and -AKT activation, gene expression, progesterone and estradiol production in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLC). We show that in the presence of FSH, hCG biopotency is about 5-fold increased, in the presence of FSH, in terms of cAMP activation. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation and steroid production is increased under hCG and FSH co-treatment. LH effects, evaluated as steroidogenic cAMP/PKA pathway activation, do not change in the presence of FSH, which, however, increases LH-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT, but not CREB phosphorylation, resulting in anti-apoptotic effects. The different modulatory activity of FSH on LH and hCG action in vitro corresponds to their different physiological functions, reflecting proliferative effects exerted by LH during the follicular phase and before trophoblast development, and the high steroidogenic potential of hCG requested to sustain pregnancy from the luteal phase onwards.

  5. 人绒毛膜来源的间充质干细胞成骨成脂分化潜能%Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Chorion-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞; 尹晓娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨人绒毛膜来源的间充质干细胞(hCDMSC)体外生长特性和成骨成脂分化潜能,证实人绒毛膜来源的间充质干细胞作为组织工程种子细胞的可行性.方法:取胎盘组织基蜕膜面用胶原酶和胰蛋白酶法分离培养,通过传代扩增观察细胞形态,MTT法检测细胞增殖曲线,体外向成骨、成脂诱导分化,茜素红和油红O染色鉴定细胞分化能力,RT-PCR测定骨细胞和脂肪细胞特异性基因表达.结果:hCDMSC细胞具有间充质干细胞特性,茜素红和油红O染色呈阳性反应,成骨和成脂标志性基因表达阳性.结论:人绒毛膜来源的间充质干细胞在体外诱导条件下可以向成骨细胞和脂肪细胞诱导分化,可以作为组织工程的种子细胞.%Objective: To study the growth characteristics and the potency of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells ( hCDMS) in vitro, to validate whether hCDMS could be used in tissue engineering. Methods: The hCDMSC were isolated from placental basal deciduas by collagens and trypsinase digestion methods. After serial sub cultivation in vitro, the stem cells were introduced. Morphologic appearance of hCDMS was observed and the proliferation rate was measured by MTT assay. The osteogenic potential was evaluated by alizarin red staining, otherwise the adipogenic potential by oil red 0 staining. Then the adipogenic and osteogenic specific markers of differentiated cells assayed by RT-PCR method. Results: hCDMSC possed characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. The alizarin red staining and oil red 0 staining results were positive. Under induction, cells expressed osteogenic and adipogenic marker genes. Conclusions: hCDMSC can be induced to differentiate into osteoblastes and lipoblastes in appropriate condition in vitro, so it can be used as a cell source in tissue engineering.

  6. Mobilities of the inner three core residues and the Man(alpha 1--6) branch of the glycan at Asn78 of the alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin are restricted by the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuylen, C W; de Beer, T; Leeflang, B R; Boelens, R; Kaptein, R; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F

    1998-02-17

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone involved in the maintenance of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy. The free alpha-subunit of hCG has a biological activity of its own, namely, stimulation of prolactin secretion from term pregnancy decidual cells [Blithe, D. L., et al. (1991) Endocrinology 129, 2257-2259]. Glycosylation at Asn78 of the alpha-subunit is required for the stability of the protein, but the exact nature of the stabilizing effect is not known. In our previous study, it was indicated that GlcNAc-1 at Asn78 has a reduced mobility, whereas the glycan at Asn52 is highly mobile [De Beer, T., et al. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 241, 229-242]. In the present investigation, it is shown that the PNGase F susceptibility of the Asn52-linked glycan in the free alpha-subunit is absent in the heterodimer. Thus, the high mobility of the glycan at Asn52 may be characteristic for the free alpha-subunit. For accurate modeling of alpha hCG, knowledge of the behavior of each of the glycans is essential. In this context, the mobility of the glycans and their interactions with the protein are explored by NMR spectroscopy using desialylated, partially deglycosylated free alpha-subunit (as-pd alpha) carrying glycans at Asn78 only. NOEs between GlcNAc-2 and several amino acid residues indicate that GlcNAc-2 is involved in stabilizing alpha hCG. From the values of 13C relaxation parameters T2 and T1 rho of the constituting monosaccharide residues, it was concluded that the inner three residues have a severely restricted mobility. The Man-4 and Man-4' residues of the diantennary oligosaccharide exhibit a similar relaxation behavior, suggesting that the Man-4' branch occurs in a single conformation of the C5-C6 linkage of Man-3 instead of in rapidly interconverting conformations that are known to exist for this linkage for the free oligosaccharide.

  7. First-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 with different combinations of placental growth factor, free β-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Hoopmann, M; Abele, H; Alkier, R; Lüthgens, K

    2012-11-01

    To examine placental growth factor (PlGF) in euploid and trisomy 21 pregnancies at 11-13 weeks' gestation and to model the impact on first-trimester combined screening. PlGF was measured in 509 (409 euploid and 100 trisomic) fetal serum samples derived from prospective first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 at 11-13 weeks' gestation. The serum samples were stored at -80°C, following the measurement of free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels, for median time spans of 0.9 and 4.1 years in the euploid and trisomy 21 pregnancies, respectively. The effect of additional PlGF measurement at the time of combined screening was investigated by simulating fetal nuchal translucency (NT) measurements and multiples of the median (MoM) values for PAPP-A, free β-hCG and PlGF for 20,000 euploid and 20,000 trisomy 21 pregnancies. Patient-specific combined risks were calculated based on maternal age and fetal NT in addition to free β-hCG, PAPP-A and PlGF, PAPP-A and PlGF or free β-hCG and PlGF, and detection and false-positive rates were calculated. Median PlGF-MoM was 1.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.04) in euploid fetuses and significantly lower, at 0.73 (95% CI, 0.70-0.76), in trisomy-21 fetuses (P hCG provided detection rates of 82% and 79%, with false-positive rates of 2.7% and 3.0%, respectively. In pregnancies with trisomy 21 PlGF is reduced. The impact on the overall screening performance for trisomy 21 is low and does not justify the measurement of PlGF solely for trisomy 21 screening. However, as PlGF is measured with the aim of assessing the risk for pre-eclampsia, further improvement in screening for trisomy 21 can be considered as an added benefit. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Impact of bias in serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A multiples of the median levels on first-trimester screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D; Abele, H; Baker, A; Kagan, K O

    2011-09-01

    To examine the effect of bias in median multiples of the median (MoM) levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) on first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21. The effects of deviations in the MoM levels of free β-hCG and PAPP-A were investigated by simulating nuchal translucency (NT) at 12 weeks and MoM values for PAPP-A and free β-hCG for 500 000 euploid and 500 000 trisomy 21 pregnancies at 9 and at 12 weeks of gestation. Likelihoods were calculated using the mixture model for NT and the standard Gaussian model for log MoM PAPP-A and free β-hCG values. Deviations in MoM marker levels were simulated by applying percentage changes of 5% to 20% to MoM values. Detection and false-positive rates were calculated with and without adjustments of the maternal serum marker levels by taking the proportion of euploid and aneuploid cases above given thresholds for each maternal age and then taking a weighted average with respect to the maternal age distribution. With median MoM levels on target, the modeled detection and false-positive rates in combined screening for trisomy 21 at 12 weeks of gestation with a fixed risk cut-off of 1 in 100 were 85% and 2.5%, respectively. For median MoM levels of free β-hCG and PAPP-A between 0.8 and 1.2 MoM, detection rates ranged from 77% to 91%, with corresponding false-positive rates ranging from 1.0% to 6.1%. In first-trimester screening for trisomy 21, biases in the serum marker MoM levels of 10% can increase false-positive rates by over 50%, whilst biases of 20% can more than double false-positive rates. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 孕妇血清人绒毛膜促性腺激素与妊娠期高血压疾病相关性的研究%Maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin and gestational hypertension disease correlation studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云波; 吴梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin ( HCG ) and pregnancy induced hypertension (HDCP) correlation. Methods Using a prospective comparison analytic method, the study of outpatient regular production seized in 600 pregnant women, according to the clinical manifestations were divided into the normal pregnancy group and the gestational hypertensive group, in different gestational age determination of bloodβ -HCG changes and analysis. Results ①8~12 weeks of gestation in normal pregnant women blood β-HCG increased significantly, during the second trimester of pregnancy is maintained at low levels ( P<0.01);② HDCP patients in late pregnancy serum p-HCG was significantly higher than in normal pregnancy ( P<0.01), pre-eclampsia group blood β -HCG value was higher than that of gestational high blood pressure group ( P<0.05);③gravid 28~36 week is HDCP high gestational week, and easy development of preeclampsia. Conclusion The blood β -HCG can be used as a clinical predictors of HDCP to effectively detect index.%目的:探讨孕妇血清人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)与妊娠期高血压疾病(HDCP)的相关性.方法:采用前瞻性对照分析的方法,研究门诊定期产检的600名孕妇,根据临床表现分为正常妊娠组和妊娠期高血压组,于不同妊娠时期测定血β-HCG的变化并加以分析.结果:①正常妊娠孕妇妊娠8~12周血β-HCG明显升高,孕中晚期则维持在较低水平(P<0.01);②HDCP患者妊娠中晚期血β-HCG较正常妊娠孕妇明显升高(P<0.01),子痫前期组血β-HCG值又高于妊娠期高血压组(P<0.05);③妊娠28 ~ 36周是HDCP的高发孕周,且易发展为子痫.结论:血β-HCG可以作为临床预测HDCP发生的有效检测指标.

  10. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  11. A LIGHT AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF PLACENTAL VILLI ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY AND HYPERTENSIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón Sandoval OC

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the structure of the placental villi associated with obesity and hypertension using light and scanning electron microscopy.Two placentas at term obtained of woman pregnancy associated to stillborn were taken for microscopical analysis. Woman pregnancy weighed 75 and 85 Kg as body mass index and their hypertension with more of 90/150 mmHg. They had 39 and 41 years old. The placental weights were 600 and 650 gr respectively after of draining all their blood during 30 minutes post delivery. Five small fragments were taken by each placenta and evaluated with light and scanning electron microscopy. Stem villi showed obstructive vessels with damage in their walls and reticular tissue under the syncytio was a permanent finding. Immature intermediate villi were frequent. Severe degenerative changes are noted in peripheric stem villi. Fibrotic villi, very poor developed mature intermediate villi, filiform terminal villi, corangiosis, deposition of fibrinoid and vasodilatation were found in placental villi. No inflammation and low arborization was seen. These results indicate immaturity persistent, low maturation degree and severe degenerative changes affecting the structure of placental villi without inflammation

  12. Instabilities of monolayered epithelia: shape and structure of villi and crypts

    CERN Document Server

    Hannezo, Edouard; Joanny, Jean-Francois; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.078104

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar to the buckling of a metallic plate under compression. We use the results to rationalize the various structures of the intestinal lining observed \\emph{in vivo}. Taking into account the coupling between cell division and local curvature, we obtain different patterns of villi and crypts, which could explain the different morphologies of the small intestine and the colon.

  13. Instabilities of Monolayered Epithelia: Shape and Structure of Villi and Crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, E.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2011-08-01

    We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar to the buckling of a metallic plate under compression. We use the results to rationalize the various structures of the intestinal lining observed in vivo. Taking into account the coupling between cell division and local curvature, we obtain different patterns of villi and crypts, which could explain the different morphologies of the small intestine and the colon.

  14. Chorion peroxidase-mediated NADH/O2 oxidoreduction cooperated by chorion malate dehydrogenase-catalyzed NADH production: a feasible pathway leading to H2O2 formation during chorion hardening in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Qian; Li, Guoyu; Li, Jianyong

    2000-01-01

    A specific chorion peroxidase is present in Aedes aegypti and this enzyme is responsible for catalyzing chorion protein cross-linking through dityrosine formation during chorion hardening. Peroxidase-mediated dityrosine cross-linking requires H2O2, and this study discusses the possible involvement of the chorion peroxidase in H2O2 formation by mediating NADH/O2 oxidoreduction during chorion hardening in A. aegypti eggs. Our data show that mosquito chorion peroxidase is able to catalyze pH-dep...

  15. [Diagnosis of ovum viability: comparative analysis between ultrasound and chorionic gonadotropin hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, G; Farías Gómez, E; Castelazo Guemez, J M

    1991-08-01

    In a retrospective study carried out in the Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia del Centro Médico León, Gto., Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 61 patients were studied in order to compare the sensitivity and specificity values and the correlation coefficient between the hormonal assays (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, HCG) and the ultrasound scanning. The qualitative concentrations of HCG had a sensitivity of 37.5% and a specificity of 100%. The levels of subunit beta of HCG had sensitivity of 25% and specificity of 100%. The whole correlation coefficient of the hormonal method (HCG) was R = 0.51 (P less than 0.01). The ultrasound monitoring had a sensitivity of 855 and specificity of 100%, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.88 (P less than 0.01). It was concluded that ultrasound scanning has a better sensitivity and higher correlation than human chorionic gonadotropin assays in the diagnosis of ovum vitality.

  16. Mouse intestinal villi as a model system for studies of rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos A; Santana, Ana Y; Acosta, Orlando

    2010-09-01

    Rotavirus replicates in the mature enterocytes lining the villi of the small intestine and the availability of an in vitro system for culturing these natural target cells would contribute to substantial advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of rotavirus. A novel in vitro system was established for culturing isolated small intestinal villi from suckling mice, and the susceptibility of the villus cells to the wild-type murine rotavirus EDIM-Cambridge (ECwt) infection was assessed by immunocytochemistry staining and ELISA. Cell viability of cultured villi infected by rotavirus was estimated to be higher than 70% 16 h post-infection, whereas the accumulated rotavirus structural and non-structural antigen was found to reach a maximum value at 24 h post-infection. Terminal apoptosis was found in about 65% of villus cells 22 h post-infection as detected with either propidium iodide or Hoechst 33342 staining. Mock-infected villus cells exhibited a slight tendency toward more extensive chromatin fragmentation compared to their rotavirus-infected counterpart, mainly when caspase-3 activity was measured. Examination of villus cells by ELISA indicated that the amount of rotavirus structural antigen accumulated at 12 h post-infection was nearly the same regardless of the intestinal section (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) used. The isolation, culture and infection of small intestinal villi from suckling mice has led to the introduction of a useful model for rotavirus studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes of microvascular architecture, ultrastructure and permeability of rat jejunal villi at different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Min Chen; Jin-Sheng Zhang; Xiang-Lin Duan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes of microvascular architecture, ultrastructure and permeability of rat jejunal villi at different ages.METHODS: Microvascular corrosion casting, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Evans blue infiltration technique were used in this study.RESULTS: The intestinal villous plexus of adult rats consisted of arterioles, capillary network and venules. The marginal capillary extended to the base part of the villi and connected to the capillary networks of adjacent villi. In newborn rats,the villous plexus was rather simple, and capillary network was not formed. The villous plexus became cone-shaped and was closely arrayed in ablactation rats. In adult rats,the villous plexus became tongue-shaped and was enlarged both in height and width. In aged rats, the villous plexus shrank in volume and became shorter and narrower. The diametral ratio of villous arteriole to villous venule increased as animals became older. The number of endothelial holes,the thickness of basal membrane and the permeability of microvasculature were increased over the entire course of development from newborn period to aged period.CONCLUSION: The digestive and absorptive functions of the rat jejunum at different ages are highly dependent upon the state of villous microvascular architecture and permeability, and blood circulation is enhanced by collateral branches such as marginal capillary, through which blood is drained to the capillary networks of adjacent villi.

  18. DNA methylation patterns in human tissues of uniparental origin using a zinc-Finger gene (ZNF127) from the Angelman/Prader-Willi region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowery-Rushton, P.A.; Surti, U.; Locker, J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    In order to further our understanding of the epigenetic modification of DNA and its role in imprinting, we examined DNA methylation patterns of human tissues of uniparental origin. We used complete hydatidiform moles (CHM), which are totally androgenetic conceptions, to examine the paternal methylation pattern in the absence of a maternal contribution and we used ovarian teratomas to represent the maternal counterpart. We carried out an analysis of DNA methylation of a gene which has been shown to contain sites which are differentially methylated in a parent-specific fashion. The gene, ZNF127, is located on chromosome 15q11-q13 in the region associated with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The parent-of-origin DNA methylation has been postulated to reflect the presence of an imprint and recent studies have confirmed that ZNF127 is differentially expressed only from the paternal chromosome. We identified a unique pattern of hyper- and hypomethylated sites in androgenetic conceptions which was nearly identical to the paternal pattern found in sperm. This may represent the paternal germ-line methylation imprint. We also studied partial hydatidiform moles, non-molar triploid conceptions, normal chorionic villi, and somatic tissue. These all demonstrated a modified DNA methylation pattern characteristic of normal chorionic villi with only limited findings of the imprint. Our results suggest that human androgenetic conceptions may provide an excellent model to analyze epigenetic DNA modifications, such as methylation, in imprinted genes. The paternal allele-specific methylation imprint will also be useful clinically to confirm the androgenetic nature of suspected molar conceptions in which parental blood samples may not be available. 55 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Cytogenetic confirmation of a positive NIPT result: evidence-based choice between chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis depending on chromosome aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opstal, Diane; Srebniak, Malgorzata I

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) there is a small chance of a false-positive or false-negative result. This is partly due to the fact that the fetal cell-free DNA present in maternal plasma is derived from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), which is not always representative for the fetal karyotype due to chromosomal mosaicism. Therefore, a positive NIPT result should always be confirmed with invasive testing, preferably amniocentesis, in order to investigate the fetal karyotype. However, since this invasive test can only be safely performed after 15.5 weeks of gestation while NIPT can be done from the 10(th) week of gestation, this potentially means an unacceptable long waiting time for the prospective parents to receive a definitive result. Based on our experience with cytogenetic investigations in CV and the literature, we determined whether CV sampling may be appropriate for confirmation of an abnormal NIPT result.

  20. Effects of human chorionic somatomammotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin on skin homografts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisantes, A; Fraga, A; Galimidi, S; Mendez-Tula, A; Brovetto-Cruz, J

    1976-01-01

    The action of HCS and HCG on cell-mediated immunity has been investigated. Full-thickness skin homografts were performed in 40 whole adult female Wistar rats. Brown rats of the A X C strain were selected as donors. The animals were divided into four groups injected with HCS, HCG, HCS + HCG, and saline. The graft rejection time and the wet and dry weight of thymus and spleen were evaluated. No hormonal treatment showed any effect on skin graft survival. Thymus weight, both wet and dry, decreased significantly by treatment with HCP or HCS + HCG. No modification was observed in spleen weight. These results do not agree with the theory that HCS and HCG modify immunological competence of maternal lymphocytes and thus may contribute to prevent rejection of the fetus.

  1. Application of trans-abdominal chorionic villus sampling in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal diseases in first trimester of gestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Qing-wei; Xiang Yang; Hao Na; Zhou Jing; Lu Ke; Tan Li; Sun Nian-hu

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the feasibility and safety of prenatal diagnosis by traneabdominal chorionic villus sam-pling(TA-CVS)via the guidance of B-mode ultrasound in the first trimester of gestation.To explore the technique of long time culture and chromosome preparation of villi in early pregnancy.To evaluate the feasibility of the above techniques in the application of the prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis.Methods:One hundred and thirty-five singleton pregnancies at risk were referred from January 2001 to Decem-ber 2007.Results:The average maternal age was 35.2 years.TA-CVS was performed in the 10~13th weeks of gestation and the average gestational age was 10.89 weeks.All attempts at sampling were successful.The rate of operation-associated fetal loss was 0.74%.The failure rate of prenatal diagnosis because of inadequate amount of specimen was 0.The average culture time was 5-7 days.The success rate of the cell culture was 98.5%.No maternal con-temination and bacterial contamination happened.Fifteen cases of abnormal karyotype and one case of confined pla-cantel mosaiciem were diagnosed.Conclusion:TA-CVS appears to be safe and feasible and might to be offered in the prenatal diagnosis in the first trimester of gestation.The technique of long time culture and chromosome preparation of villi is stable and reliable.It is feasible to apply these techniques in the clinical practice of prenatal cytogenetic diagnose in the early pregnancy.

  2. Analysis on the levels of vitamin A and vitamin E in human villi tissue and risk factors of spontaneous abortion%自然流产者绒毛织中维生素A、E含量及流产影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思萍; 康阳; 马静; 卞华伟; 高永清

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解孕早期妇女的自然流产状况与维生素A、E营养状况的关系,为指导孕妇健康膳食提供科学依据.方法 于2010年10月~2011年4月在广州市收集进行流产刮宫术的孕妇绒毛组织共258例(自然流产组63例,对照组195例).对研究对象进行问卷调查及24h膳食调查,并采用高效液相色谱法检测绒毛组织中的维生素A、E含量.结果 自然流产组与对照组的比较中,年龄、体质指数、婚姻状况、流产史、孕周的差异均具有统计学意义(均有P<0.05);多因素Logistic回归分析显示,自然流产的危险因素为年龄(与≤22岁相比,23~岁组:OR=3.903,95%CI:1.533~9.937;≥29岁组:OR=2.896,95%CI:1.116 ~7.519)、流产史(OR=2.174,95% CI:1.105 ~4.278)和孕周≥8周(OR=3.532,95%CI:1.813 ~6.883).自然流产组能量、蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物、维生素A、维生素E的摄入量与对照组比较,差异也无统计学意义.自然流产组绒毛组织中维生素A、E含量与对照组的比较,差异均无统计学意义(均有P>0.05).结论 年龄、流产史是自然流产的危险因素;未见自然流产者膳食维生素A、E摄入量及绒毛组织中维生素A、E含量增加.%Objective To assess the relationship between dietary factors and risk factors of spontaneous abortion in women. Methods Study population included 258 cases of early pregnancy (63 cases who had spontaneous abortion and 195 normal pregnancy who had elective abortion as a control group) during Oct 2010 to Apr 2011 at Guangzhou, and 24 h dietary recall and the questionnaire survey were used to evaluate the diet and other factors. The levels of vitamin A and vitamin E in villi tissue of subjects were measured by high performance liquid phase chromatography (HPLC) . Results The age (23-, OR = 3.903, 95% Cl; 1. 533-9. 937; Ss29, OR = 2.896, 95% CI: 1. 116-7. 519) , gestational age≥8 weeks (Ofl = 3.532, 95% CI: 1.813-6. 883) and abortion

  3. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trisomy 21 risk estimation in first trimester pregnancies can be performed by a combined test based on ultrasound measurement of fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal plasma concentrations of free ß human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGß) and pregnancy-associated plasma...

  4. Biological variation of free β chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in first trimester pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Finn Stener; Sørensen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Trisomy 21 risk estimation in first trimester pregnancies can be performed by a combined test based on ultrasound measurement of fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal plasma concentrations of free β human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) and pregnancy-associated plasma...

  5. Chorionic Villus Sampling and Marked Membrane Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Akhlaghpoor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The major concern about the invasive prenatal diagnostic tests is the"nfrequency of procedure induced pregnancy loss. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS is the invasive"ntest of choice in the first trimester after the 10th gestational week. Our experience suggests"nmarked chorioamniotic separation is an uncommon finding after the 10th gestational week. This"nstudy assesses the rate of marked membrane separation in a 10 to 14-week gestational period"nand its effect on post CVS fetal loss."nPatients and Methods: Forty-one patients (5.2% were selected among 782 patients as cases"nwith marked membrane separation (mean maternal age, 26.9 years. CVS procedures were"nperformed with a 20-gauge Chiba needle attached to a 20-ml syringe under ultrasound guidance."nFollow-up was performed by phone call and clinical visits until 24 weeks of gestation. For the"ncontrol group, the follow-up was performed for only 2 weeks. Early fetal loss in the first two"nweeks of post procedural period, and late fetal loss from 2 weeks after procedure till the 24th"ngestational week were considered as CVS complications."nResults: We detected 2.4% early fetal losses after the procedure. Fourteen cases voluntarily"nunderwent therapeutic abortion due to beta-thalassemia or hemophilia. One fetus with"nmicrocephaly was spontaneously aborted in the 21st gestational week. Twenty-five neonates"nwere delivered alive at term and one prematurely at the 32nd week. Marked membrane separation"nhad no significant effect on early post CVS fetal loss rate."nConclusion: The procedure does not have a major impact on the early post CVS fetal loss in"npatients with marked membrane separation.

  6. Anthropometry of fetal vasculature in the chorionic plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Z; Elad, D; Almog, R; Hazan, Y; Jaffa, A J; Eytan, O

    2007-12-01

    Normal fetal development is dependent on adequate placental blood perfusion. The functional role of the placenta takes place mainly in the capillary system; however, ultrasound imaging of fetal blood flow is commonly performed on the umbilical artery, or on its first branches over the chorionic plate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural organization of the feto-placental vasculature of the chorionic plate. Casting of the placental vasculature was performed on 15 full-term placentas using a dental polymer mixed with colored ink. Observations of the cast models revealed that the branching architecture of the chorionic vessel is a combination of dichotomous and monopodial patterns, where the first two to three generations are always of a dichotomous nature. Analysis of the daughter-to-mother diameter ratios in the chorionic vessels provided a maximum in the range of 0.6-0.8 for the dichotomous branches, whereas in monopodial branches it was in the range of 0.1-0.3. Similar to previous studies, this study reveals that the vasculature architecture is mostly monopodial for the marginal cord insertion and mostly dichotomous for the central insertion. The more marginal the umbilical cord insertion is on the chorionic plate, the more monopodial branching patterns are created to compensate the dichotomous pattern deficiency to perfuse peripheral placental territories.

  7. 孕早期绒毛产前诊断地中海贫血1072例分析%Analysis of Chorionic Villus Sampling Applied to Prenatal Diagnosis of 10 72 Cases of Thalassemia in First Trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何升; 张强; 唐燕青; 韦媛; 陈秋莉; 郑陈光

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨地中海贫血高风险妊娠的产前诊断效果,为控制该类患儿的出生提供参考。方法孕10~15周孕妇1072例,取绒毛样本进行α和-β-地中海贫血基因检测。结果在1072例绒毛样本中,727例进行α-地贫基因分析,568例(78.13%)检出α-地贫;336例进行β地-贫基因分析,256例(76.19%)检出β-地贫;9例进行α-和β-地贫基因分析,均检出地贫基因。其中共检出Hb Bart′s症142例和β-地贫纯合子或双重杂合子胎儿75例,均在产前诊断后1周内终止妊娠。结论采用绒毛进行地中海贫血产前诊断能有效地减少该类患儿的出生。%Objective To control the birth of children with thalassemia by applying prenatal diagnosis to high risk pregnancy .Methods Chorionic villi samplings were performed in 1 072 pregnancies of gestational age of 10 to 15 weeks for the gene detection of α-or β-thalassemia .Results Out of 1 072 chorionic villi samples ,727 were given gene analysis of α-thalassemia , 568 ( 78 .13%) were carriers with α-thalassemia;336 were given gene analysis ofβ-thalassemia ,256 ( 76 .19%) were carriers with β-thalassemia;9 were given gene analysis of α-and β-thalassemia , all of which were carriers with thalassemia .There were 142 cases of Hb Bart′s disease and 75 cases of homozygous or double heterozygous β-thalassemia ,they all received termination of pregnancy within one week after prenatal diagnosis . Conclusion Chorionic villi sampling is a feasible and effective technique for prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia ,which might effectively control the birth of children with thalassemia .

  8. Fibulin-5 expression in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauster, Martin; Berghold, Veronika M; Moser, Gerit; Orendi, Kristina; Siwetz, Monika; Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-02-01

    Fibulin-5 is a secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein and displays a diverse panel of biological functions, which can be segregated into elastogenic as well as extra-elastogenic functions. While elastogenic functions of fibulin-5 include essential roles in early steps of elastic fibre assembly, extra-elastogenic functions are widespread. Depending on the cell type used, fibulin-5 mediates cell adherence via a subset of integrins, antagonizes angiogenesis and inhibits migration as well as proliferation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this study, we focused on the spatiotemporal expression of fibulin-5 in the human placenta. With progressing gestation, placental fibulin-5 expression increased from first trimester towards term. At term, placental fibulin-5 mRNA expression is lower when compared with other well-vascularized organs such as lung, kidney, heart, uterus and testis. In first trimester, placenta immunohistochemistry localized fibulin-5 in villous cytotrophoblasts and extravillous cytotrophoblasts of the proximal cell column. In term placenta, fibulin-5 was detected in the endothelial basement membrane and adventitia-like regions of vessels in the chorionic plate and stem villi. Cell culture experiments with the villous trophoblast-derived cell line BeWo showed that fibulin-5 expression was downregulated during functional differentiation and intercellular fusion. Moreover, cultivation of BeWo cells under low oxygen conditions impaired intercellular fusion and upregulated fibulin-5 expression. The spatiotemporal shift from the trophoblast compartment in first trimester to the villous vasculature at term suggests a dual role of fibulin-5 in human placental development.

  9. Food restriction alters villi morphology in obese rats: gut mechanism for weight regain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Gang; Sun, Xiao Wei; Gao, Peng; Xie, Lan; Liu, Wen Qian; Xiao, Hai Tao; Ai, Hua

    2012-09-01

    Weight regain after a long-term weight-loss program is a greater problem in obesity treatment than is weight reduction. Hence, the gut may elevate the absorption rate and nutrient transportation remarkably during chronic food restriction. The extension of gut absorption may be one possible reason for weight regain. But there is little information about the mechanisms that regulate intestinal absorption during food restriction. In this study, we show that the surface absorptive areas of gut villi may be enlarged in the jejunum of rats maintained on a food restriction regimen compared with animals submitted to swimming or sedentary behavior. Our findings show that simply reducing the amount of food intake results in an increased appetite accompanied with obvious weight regain, and suggest that the resulting enlargement of villi surface areas plays a key role in the regain of weight reduction. These results bolster accumulating evidence that gut absorption may be a substantial mechanism for resistance of weight loss and enhancing the weight regain process.

  10. review of chorionic villus sampling in prenatal diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries, chorionic villus sampling is the procedure of choice for prenatal diagnosis with the principal advantage over others, ... these technological advances and facilitated an easier diagnosis .... CVS is a surgical procedure with both surgical and laboratory ... easy by the combined effect of xylocaine infiltration and verbal.

  11. Patterns of inner chorion structure in Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Julia V A; Perondini, André L P; Selivon, Denise

    2017-03-01

    The inner chorion structure of Anastrepha eggs from 16 species of various infrageneric taxonomic groups is described by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The layers of the chorion, the outer egg membrane, are structurally similar. Furthermore, an additional trabecular layer (ATL) that exists in some species, together with other characteristics, facilitates the recognition of four patterns of chorion structuring: Pattern I, in which the ATL layer is absent, is found in Anastrepha amita, the Anastrepha fraterculus complex, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha suspensa and Anastrepha zenildae (fraterculus group), and Anastrepha bistrigata and Anastrepha striata (striata group); Pattern II in Anastrepha serpentina (serpentina group), Anastrepha grandis (grandis group) and Anastrepha pseudoparallela (pseudoparallela group), in which the ATL presents large open spaces with pillars; Pattern III, found in Anastrepha consobrina (pseudoparallela group), in which the ATL is composed of round cavities; and Pattern IV, found in Anastrepha alveata and Anastrepha pickeli (spatulata group), where the large ATL cavities are reticulated. Comparatively, the chorion structure in Anastrepha eggs is more complex than in eggs of other fruit flies, e.g., Bactrocera, Rhagoletis and Ceratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemangioma in the newborn: increased incidence after chorionic villus sampling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauland, C.G.; Smit, J.M.; Bartelink, L.R.; Zondervan, H.A.; Spauwen, P.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the effects of transcervical chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis on the prevalence of hemangiomas of infancy. METHODS: This is a cohort study of 250 consecutive assessable transabdominal amniocentesis procedures and 250 consecutive assessa

  13. OBSERVATIONS ON VASCULAR PATTERN OF CHORIONIC BLOOD VESSELS OF PLACENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Sarwar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Placenta is a choriodecidual structure develops during pregnancy implanted on the uterine wall and car ries vital functions. It is connected to the foetus through umbilical cord. The branches of umbilical vessels that traverse along foetal surface of placenta are referred as chorionic vessels. There are two different patterns of chorionic vessels – Dispersa l and Magistral. In the dispersal type, the umbilical vessels undergo successive divisions with gradually diminishing caliber towards periphery while in magistral pattern the vessels traverse to the edge of placenta without appreciable decrease in diameter of vessels. The present study has been done for visualization of the pattern of chorionic vessels in placenta obtained from labour room of a tertiary care hospital in eastern Bihar, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty (150 fres h and intact placenta of full term pregnancies collected from Obstetrics & Gynaecology department were included in the study. After washing with distilled water, removal of blood clots were done with slight digital pressure applied over arteries and vein a nd later on by irrigation with saline. The cut end of the umbilical cord was carefully visualized to identify the umbilical arteries and vein. Dye was injected into umbilical vessels under normal physiological pressure and diameter of chorionic blood vesse ls were taken at the center and periphery. Ultimately each vessel was followed and examined to observe the dispersal and magistral pattern of chorionic blood vessels of placenta. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Out of the total of one hundred and fifty (150 full term placenta obtained and examined in the Anatomy department during the study period, 64% Dispersal type & 36 % of Magistral type of arterial pattern of branching of chorionic vessels were observed. Vein and its tributaries presented Dispersal pattern in 60% and Magistral pattern in 40%. There is a significant

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid absorption disorder of arachnoid villi in a canine model of hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrocephalus results from inadequate passage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into systemic circulation. Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the disorders of CSF absorption by arachnoid villi during the different phases of hydrocephalus. Materials and Methods: Silicone oil was injected into the fourth ventricle of 15 canines as an experimental group. Saline solution (0.9% NaCl was injected in another nine canines as a control group. In order to block CSF transport through the cribriform plate, an external ethmoidectomy was performed in five dogs from experimental group and three dogs from control group at three days (acute stage, two weeks (sub-acute stage, and 12 weeks (chronic stage respectively. Tritiated water was injected into the canines′ cortical subarachnoid space and blood levels were measured at intervals of 1h, 4h, 8h, 16h and 48h respectively. Time-concentration curve of tritiated water was drafted. The area under the curve (AUC was calculated for variance analysis and t-testing. Results: In the chronic group, the tritiated water concentration rose slowly to a peak at 16h. It was significantly lower than other groups at 1h, 4h, 8h and 16h, but was higher than other groups at 48h. Analysis of the AUC showed significant differences among all the groups (P<0.01. There were no significant differences in the AUC between control groups, the acute group, and the sub-acute group (P>0.05; however, the AUC of the chronic group was significantly lower than other groups (P<0.05. Conclusions: The CSF absorption ability of arachnoid villi is significantly damaged in a long-term state of hydrocephalus.

  15. Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis: Histological and Clinical Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Bradley; Heinrich, Stephen; Ward, Kenneth; Craver, Randall

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic T-cell chorionic vasculitis (E/TCV) is composed of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes originating within chorionic vessels, radiating toward the intervillous space and away from the amnion in a fashion different from the fetal vascular response seen in amnionitis. Clinical significance and risk factors are not well established. We report four pregnancies (five infants, one triplet was spared) with E/TCV, gestational ranging from 23 weeks to term. All had concurrent acute chorioamnionitis, three had the typical acute fetal inflammatory response. One had placental fetal obstructive vasculopathy and an upper extremity reduction defect (radio-ulnar synostosis), the mother had pre-eclampsia. A second case involved 2 of 3 23 week previable triplets. Our third case had a metatarsus varus resistant to casting, the mother had gestational diabetes. The last case was a normal infant. We review the literature, discuss the clinical findings and present the histologic characteristics of this infrequently recognized lesion.

  16. 21 CFR 522.1081 - Chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... repeated in 14 days if the animal's behavior or examination of the ovaries per rectum indicates retreatment... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1081...

  17. Designing a Long Acting Erythropoietin by Fusing Three Carboxyl-Terminal Peptides of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin β Subunit to the N-Terminal and C-Terminal Coding Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analog of EPO was designed by fusing one and two CTPs to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends of EPO (EPO-(CTP3, respectively. This analog was expressed and secreted efficiently in CHO cells. The in vitro test shows that the activity of EPO-(CTP3 in TFI-1 cell proliferation assay is similar to that of EPO-WT and commercial rHEPO. However, in vivo studies indicated that treatment once a week with EPO-(CTP3 (15 μg/kg dramatically increased (~8 folds haematocrit as it was compared to rHuEPO. Moreover, it was found that EPO-(CTP3 is more effective than rHuEPO and Aranesp in increasing reticulocyte number in mice blood. The detected circulatory half-lives of rHuEPO, Aranesp, and EPO-(CTP3 following IV injection of 20 IU were 4.4, 10.8, and 13.1 h, respectively. These data established the rational for using this chimera as a long-acting EPO analog in clinics. The therapeutic efficacy of EPO-CTP analog needs to be established in higher animals and in human clinical trials.

  18. 药物流产后异常子宫出血患者血清雌激素、孕激素和人绒毛促性腺激素水平%Estrogen, Progesterone, and Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Levels in Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding after Drug Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永红; 王素平

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of estrogen (E2) , progesterone (P) , and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels with abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with drug abortion. Methods: A total of 59 patients taking mifepristone plus misoprostol for abortion were divided into two groups. In the control group (29 cases, group C) , the time of uterine bleeding was less than 14 days; in the abnormal uterine bleeding (30 cases, group A) , the time of uterine bleeding was more than 14 days. The levels of E2, P and hCG of the 2 groups in 14, 18 and 22 days after initiation of bleeding were compared. Results: There was no significant difference of E2 levels between the 2 groups (P >0.05); On the 14th day, P level of group A was higher than that of group C (P < 0.05); On the 14th , 18th , and 22nd days, the hCG levels in group A were significantly higher than those in group C (P <0. 05). Conclusion: The abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with medical abortion is related with P and hCG levels.%目的:研究药物流产后患者体内雌激素(E2)、孕激素(P)及人绒毛促性腺激素(hCG)水平与异常子宫出血的关系.方法:59例患者口服米非司酮配伍米索前列醇药物终止早期妊娠,将子宫出血时间超过14 d的30例患者作为异常子宫出血组,子宫出血时间少于14 d的29例患者作为对照组,比较2组外周静脉血清中E2、P及hCG水平.结果:两组患者体内E2差异无显著性(P>0.05),在出血第14天时,异常子宫出血组患者体内P明显高于对照组(P<0.05),在第14、18和22天hCG均高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:药物流产后异常子宫出血与患者体内P和hCG水平有关.

  19. Immunoregulation of mononuclear phagocytic cells by human chorionic gonadotropin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wan (Hui)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe pregnancy hormone hCG is secreted by trophoblasts in the placenta and peaks in the first trimester of pregnancy. hCG is a member of the pituitary glycoprotein family, and is consists of an α-subunit and a β-subunit. The primary function of hCG is to induce the production of progester

  20. Human chorionic somatommamotropin (HCS) and pregnancy. Its relation with insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Villapun, J C; Cifuentes de Castro, I; Serrano Rios, M

    1976-01-01

    Plasma HCS levels have been measured in normal and pathological pregnant women. In the normal group HCS levels increased from 6--8 weeks till 33-34 weeks and then felt significantly. HCS pattern in prediabetic and chemical diabetic pregnant women was similar to the normal group. However HCS levels in chemical diabetics were significantly higher during the first two trimesters. HCS levels increased in twin pregnancy, diminished in cases of eclampsia, hypertension, fetal growth retardation, mole and blighted ovum, and disappeared after intrauterine death. Nothing could be deduced from the obese and Rh-isoimmunization groups. It is confirmed the value of HCS determination as an index of placental maturation. Also, insulin/HCS ratio may be of some aid in the study of carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy.

  1. Histological alterations of intestinal villi and epithelial cells after feeding dietary sugar cane extract in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Kawai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of sugar cane extract (SCE on the piglet intestinal histology were observed. Twelve castrated male piglets weaned at the age of 26 days were allotted to three groups fed diets containing 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SCE. At the end of feeding experiment, each intestinal segment was taken for light or scanning electron microscopy. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency did not show a difference among groups. Most of the values for villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis numbers were not different among groups, except for that the villus area of the 0.10% SCE group and the cell area of both SCE groups increased significantly at the jejunum compared to the control (P<0.05. For cell mitosis numbers, the 0.10% SCE group was higher than the 0.05% SCE group at the jejunum. Compared with the majority of flat cells of each intestinal segment in the control, the SCE groups had protuberated cells. In the 0.05% SCE group, deeper cells at the sites of recently exfoliated cells in the duodenum, cell clusters aggregated by protuberated cells in the jejunum and much more protuberant cells in the ileum were observed. These histological intestinal alterations suggest that SCE could raise the functions of intestinal villi and epithelial cells, especially at the 0.05%.

  2. Impact of progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on outcome of in vitro fertilization%HCG注射日孕酮水平和体外受精-胚胎移植妊娠结局的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 胡晓东; 莫美兰; 彭月婷; 曾勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the impact of progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on pregnancy outcome of in vitro fertilization in controlled ovarian hyperstmiulation.Methods:Retrospective analysis the 889 cycles of IVF -ET which were used with down regulation long protocol in our reproductive medical centre from October 2009 to March 2011,and 56 cycles of FET which had given up fresh embryo transfer because of high progesterone levels from October 2009 to November 2011.All the patients were divided into three groups according to serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration,group A:P < 3.17nmol/L 657 cycles; group B:3.17nmol/L≤P <4.76nmol/L 181 cycles; group C:P≥4.76nmol/L 77 cycles.Results:Compared with the other two groups,P≥ 1.5ng/ml group significantly reduced implantation and pregnancy rates but the average follical diameter and the actopic pregnancy rate was significantly higher (P < 0.01).There were no statistical differences in the number of fetilization rates,embryos cleavage rates,high quality embryos rates.Compared with C group,the patients giving up fresh embryo transfer because of high progesterone levels have higher clinical pregnancy rates of frozen thawed embryo transfer cycles.Conclusions:In controlled ovarian hyperstmiulation,the increase of progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin admin istration has effect only on clinical pregnancy outcome of IVF-ET,without affecting on clinical pregnancy rate of thawed embryo transfer.Therefore,the patients who have high progesterone levels maybe considered giving up fresh embryo transfer and freezing total embryo.%目的 探讨在控制性超排卵中,HCG注射日孕酮水平与体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)妊娠结局的关系.方法 回顾性分析2009年10月至2011年3月在我院生殖中心采用长方案垂体降调节行IVF-ET的889个新鲜周期,以及2009年10月至2011年11月因HCG日P≥4.76nmol/L而取

  3. Expression and its clinical significance of HLA-G in HCMV-infected placental villi at early pregnant stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-wen; LI Fen; SHENG Qiu; YU Xue-wen; REN Yong-hui; LI Xue-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression and its clinical significance of HLA-G in HCMV intrauterine infected placental villi at early pregnant stage. Methods: PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to screen the peripheral blood for HCMV-DNA in 462 women who had willingly undergone induced abortion.Then immunohistochemistry was also used to detect expressions of mouse anti-HCMV early antigen (HCMV-EA) and mouse anti-HLA-G in HCMV-DNA positive cases' placental villi. The difference of HLA-G expressions between the intrauterine infection group(HCMV EA positives), the intrauterine infection-free group (HCMV-EA negatives) and the normal control group (50 cases of healthy early placental villi) was compared. Results: Of the 78 cases,which were detected HCMV DNA positive, 11 (14.10%)were HCMV-EA positive. Compared with the other two groups, HLA-G expressions in the intrauterine infection group were both obviously decreased(both P<0.001). HLA-G expression positions in all three groups were mainly located in the cytotrophoblast. Conclusion: Intrauterine HCMV infection at early pregnant stage is closely related to HLA-G expression at the maternal-fetal interface. The virogenetic products may affect the expression of HLA-G at the maternal-fetal interface and that of its immunological function,thus leading to different clinical outcomes.

  4. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zalizar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.

  5. Double trouble: the importance of reporting chorionicity and amnionicity in twin pregnancy ultrasound reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Sarah; Wilkinson, Chris

    2015-02-01

    An obstetric ultrasound report in a twin pregnancy that does not unambiguously determine chorionicity and amnionicity in the first trimester is substandard. This article will assist radiologists to understand the importance of reporting the chorionicity and amnionicity in all twin obstetric scans.

  6. Similar risk for hemangiomas after amniocentesis and transabdominal chorionic villus sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauland, Constantijn G.; Smit, Jeroen M.; Scheffers, Saskia M.; Bartels, Ronald H.; van den Berg, Paul; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Spauwen, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: In an earlier study we have shown that transcervical chorionic villus sampling in excess of 90 mg increases the risk for hemangiomas of infancy three- to four-fold compared to amniocentesis. In the present study we investigated whether transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA-CVS), in which

  7. Similar risk for hemangiomas after amniocentesis and transabdominal chorionic villus sampling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauland, C.G.; Smit, J.M.; Scheffers, S.M.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Berg, P. van den; Zeebregts, C.J.A.; Spauwen, P.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: In an earlier study we have shown that transcervical chorionic villus sampling in excess of 90 mg increases the risk for hemangiomas of infancy three- to four-fold compared to amniocentesis. In the present study we investigated whether transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA-CVS), in which

  8. Implication of Hsc70, PDI and integrin αvβ3 involvement during entry of the murine rotavirus ECwt into small-intestinal villi of suckling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Ana Y; Guerrero, Carlos A; Acosta, Orlando

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, a homologous rotavirus, ECwt, infecting small intestinal villi isolated from ICR and BALB/c mice were used as a model for identifying cell-surface molecules involved in rotavirus entry. Small-intestinal villi were treated with anti-Hsc70, anti-PDI, anti-integrin β3 or anti-ERp57 antibodies or their corresponding F(ab')2 fragments before inoculation with rotavirus ECwt, RRV or Wa. Pretreatment of villi decreased virus infectivity by about 50-100 % depending of the rotavirus strain, antibody structure and detection assay used. Similar results were obtained by treating viral inocula with purified proteins Hsc70, PDI or integrin β3 before inoculation of untreated villi. Rotavirus infection of villi proved to be sensitive to membrane-impermeant thiol/disulfide inhibitors such as DTNB and bacitracin, suggesting the involvement of a redox reaction in infection. The present results suggest that PDI, Hsc70 and integrin β3 are used by both homologous and heterologous rotaviruses during infection of isolated mouse villi.

  9. Effect of Kaempferol on the BaP Induced Apoptosis in Human Chorionic Trophoblast Cells HTR8/SV neo%山奈酚对BaP引起的人绒毛膜外滋养层细胞HTR8/SV neo凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连立芬; 陈亚琼; 侯海燕; 曹波; 吴念

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究山奈酚对苯并芘(BaP)引起的人绒毛膜外滋养层细胞HTR8/SV neo凋亡的影响。方法:通过四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法观察及测定,最终选取10μmol/L BaP和0.01,0.1,1μmol/L山奈酚共同处理人HTR8/SV neo细胞48 h,光镜下观察不同浓度BaP作用下细胞生长情况,吉姆萨(Gimesa)染色及Hochest33342荧光染色观察细胞凋亡情况,利用流式细胞术测定细胞凋亡率变化。结果:①流式细胞术测定结果表明BaP单独作用细胞存活率为(72.58±0.29)%,与0.01,0.1,1μmol/L山奈酚同时作用时细胞存活率分别为(84.96±1.34)%、(89.54±1.64)%和(91.01±1.26)%,两者同时作用组细胞存活率均高于BaP单独作用组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。②单独BaP作用可引起细胞染色质浓缩,出现凋亡小体等典型凋亡形态、细胞核致密浓染、碎裂状。结论:山奈酚对BaP引起的HTR8/SV neo细胞凋亡有明显的抑制作用。%Objective:To study the effect of kaempferol on the BaP induced apoptosis in human chorionic trophoblast cells HTR8/SV neo. Methods:10μmol/L BaP were added 0.01,0.1,1μmol/L kaempferol jointly deal with human HTR8/SV neo cells 48 h,observed cells growth under the inverted microscope,Gimesa staining and Hochest33342 fluorescent staining observed morphologic changes,determination of apoptosis rate changes by flow cytometry. Results: ①Flow cytometry results showed that BaP alone cell viability was (72.58 ±0.29)%, with 0.01,0.1,1 μmol/L kaempferol the role of cell viability was (84.96 ±1.34)%, (89.54 ±1.64)% and (91.01 ±1.26)%, respectively, compared with BaP alone group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). ②BaP alone can cause cell chromatin condensation,apoptotic bodies and other typical apoptotic morphology,dense hyperchromatic nuclei,fragmentation shape. Conclusions:Kaempferol showed a protective effect on BaP induced apoptosis in

  10. Gonadotrofina coriônica humana e hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina como indutores da reprodução do jundiá = Human chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone as breeding inducers of jundiá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros reprodutivos de machos e fêmeas de jundiá adultos após a aplicação do HCG (gonadotrofina coriônica humana e do GnRHa (hormônio liberador do hormônio gonadotrópico e compará-los àqueles obtidos quando usado o extrato hipofisário da carpa comum. Etapa 1 (Machos - quatro grupos, com oito machos cada, receberam os seguintes tratamentos: M1: sem hormônio; M2: extrato hipofisário 0,5 mg kg-1; M3: HCG 200 UI kg-1; M4: GnRHa+inibidor dopaminergético 0,1 glóbulo(Ovopel® kg-1. Etapa 2 (fêmeas – 36 fêmeas foram divididas em cinco grupos: F1: extrato hipofisário em duas aplicações, 0,5 e 5,0 mg kg-1; F2: HCG em duas aplicações, 200 e 400 UI kg-1; F3: HCG 400 UI kg-1 em doseúnica; F4: HCG 1000 UI kg-1 em dose única; F5: GnRHa+inibidor dopaminergético 1 glóbulo(Ovopel® kg-1. O uso do extrato hipofisário da carpa comum aumentou significativamente o volume de sêmen liberado e estimulou maior quantidade de fêmeas à liberar óvulos. O HCG e o GnRHa não apresentaram resultados positivos no tocante à reprodução induzida do jundiá, nas doses utilizadas neste estudo.In this study we analyzed reproductive parameters of males and females of jundiá induced by HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin and GnRHa (gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and compared the results tothose using carp pituitary extract. Stage 1 (Males - four groups with eight males each received one of the following treatments: M1: without hormone; M2: pituitary extract 0.5 mg kg-1; M3: HCG 200 UI kg-1; M4: GnRHa+dopamine receptor antagonist 0.1 pellet (Ovopel® kg-1. Stage 2 (Females – thirty-six females were separated in 5 groups: F1: pituitary extract in two applications, 0.5 and 5.0 mg kg-1; F2: HCG in two applications, 200 and 400 UI kg-1; F3: HCG 400 UI kg-1 in a single dose; F4: HCG 1000 UI kg-1 in a singledose; F5: GnRHa+dopamine receptor antagonist 1 pellet (Ovopel® kg-1. The pituitary extract

  11. Relationship between Serum Progesterone Concetrations and Pregnancy on the day of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Adiministration during Luteal Phase Long Protocol%黄体期长方案中人绒毛膜促性腺激素注射日血清孕酮水平与临床妊娠关系的研究

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    张胜坤; 程静; 黄朝霞; 吕杰强

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨黄体期长方案中人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)注射日血清孕酮水平与临床妊娠的关系.方法 回顾性分析2009年1月~ 2010年10月在温州医学院附属第二医院生殖中心行黄体期长方案且有完整资料的370个IVF周期.以1.0、1.5、2.0、2.5、3.0ng/ml分别作为截断值,比较不同截断值时高低孕酮组的一般临床资料、实验室指标及临床妊娠率.结果 不同截断值时,两组的临床妊娠率无明显差别(P>0.05);当以1.0、1.5、2.0和2.5ng/ml为截断值时,高孕酮组获卵数、成熟卵数、HCG日雌二醇水平高于低孕酮组,差异有统计学意义(P≤0.05).结论 1VF-ET黄体期长方案中HCG注射日孕酮水平在一定范围内升高对临床妊娠无影响,高孕酮水平可能是较多的卵泡同步发育造成的.%Objective To explore the relationship between serum progesterone concentration and pregnancy on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin ( HCC) during long protocol. Methods From January 2009 to October 2010, 370 circles with serum progesterone measurement on the day of HCG administration for final ooeyte maturation in IVF were analyzed retrospectively in Center of Reproductive Health in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical Colleage. When the cutoff of serum progesterone were set at 1.0,1.5,2.0, 2. S ,3.0ng/ml, respectively,general clinical data,laboratory results and the clinical pregnancy rate between all patients at lower and higher group at different cutoff were analyzed. Results No significant difference was found with respect to pregnant rate between lower and higher serum progesterone groups at any cutoff. However, the number of ooeyte retrieved was larger in higher group than in the lower group when the cutoff was 1.0,1.5,2.0 and 2. 5ng/ml, and so the estriol level and mature eggs. Conclusion The serum progesterone concentration on the day of HCC administration do not influence clinical pregnant rate in the long protocol. The

  12. Validación de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección cualitativa de gonadotropina coriónica humana en el embarazo Validation of a kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG for the qualitative detection of human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnancy

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    Gema E. García Dafonte

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentaron los resultados de la estandarización de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección de la gonadotropina coriónica humana (HCG en muestras de orina de mujeres embarazadas y de su validación diagnóstica en el nivel primario. CUALINEN-HCG es un microELISA de doble captura, que cuenta con un anticuerpo monoclonal específico para la subunidad b de la hCG (AcM-b hCG-IG1 y de conjugados enzimáticos con el sustrato colorimétrico correspondiente, obtenido y purificado en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Los resultados de la validación analítica del CUALINEN-HCG mostraron que era capaz de distinguir entre muestras de orinas positivas y negativas con una relación positivo/negativo de 10 veces; se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación del 6 % en estudios de precisión (interensayos e intraensayos realizados para el control positivo. Se procesaron 91 muestras de orina matutina de mujeres con amenorrea de entre 4 y 16 sem a partir de la última fecha de menstruación. En las que el embarazo fue diagnosticado posteriormente. Se logró la validación en el nivel primario del CUALINEN-HCG con una sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica de 85 y 95 %, respectivamente y una exactitud diagnóstica del 90 %. Se recomendó su uso como herramienta auxiliar para el diagnóstico del embarazo en nivel primario a partir de la primera semana de ausencia de la menstruación (5 sem de amenorrea.The results of the standardization of a Kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG, for the detection of the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG in urine and their diagnostic validation at primary level are presented. CUALINEN-HCG is a double capture micro ELISA that involves the participation of a specific monoclonal antibody for the b subunit of the hCG (AcM-bhCG-IG1 and the enzymatic conjugated with the corresponding colorimetric substrate, obtained and purified in the National Institute of Endocrinology. The results of the analytic validation of the

  13. IGF-II Y LA GONADOTROPINA CORIÓNICA REGULAN LA PROLIFERACIÓN, MIGRACIÓN E INVASIÓN DE CÉLULAS DE TROFOBLASTO HUMANO IGF-II and Chorionic Gonadotropin Regulate Proliferation, Migration and Invasion of Human Trophoblast Cells

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    RICARDO CABEZAS-PEREZ

    Full Text Available Son conocidas las propiedades del factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo II (IGF-II y de la hormona gonadotropina coriónica (hCG en implantación y migración trofoblástica; sin embargo, los mecanismos moleculares a través de los cuales ejercen sus efectos no están completamente caracterizados. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la interacción potencial entre los efectos funcionales de hCG e IGF-II en la regulación de la proliferación, migración e invasión trofoblástica. Utilizando la línea celular HTR-8/SVneo de trofoblasto extravelloso se estableció que IGF-II promueve la proliferación celular y de manera novedosa se demostró que hCG, a concentraciones elevadas, es capaz de estimular la proliferación trofoblástica, a través de un mecanismo independiente al empleado por IGF-II. En contraste, la capacidad invasiva del trofoblasto fue regulada por IGF-II y hCG, planteando la existencia de un efecto aditivo en sus acciones. En conclusión, nuestros resultados demuestran el papel de hCG e IGF-II en la regulación de la proliferación e invasión del trofoblasto y plantean la existencia de interacciones a nivel de sus acciones biológicas, contribuyendo a un mejor entendimiento de la biología del trofoblasto y sus patologías.Both IGF-II and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG are important regulators of human trophoblast migration and implantation; however the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential cross-talk between functional effects of hCG and IGF-II in the regulation of trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasion. Using the HTR-8/SVneo trophobast cell line we found that IGF-II stimulates cell proliferation and, for the first time we demonstrate that hCG at high doses is able to promote trophoblast proliferation through a mechanism independent of IGF-II. In contrast, trophoblast invasiveness was regulated by both IGF-II and hCG and an additive

  14. A curva de regressão da gonadotrofina coriônica humana é útil no diagnóstico precoce da neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional pós-molar? Are curves of human chorionic gonadotropin useful in the early diagnosis of post-molar trophoblastic neoplasia?

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    Lúcia Regina Marques Gomes Delmanto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a utilidade da curva de regressão normal da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG no diagnóstico precoce de neoplasia trofoblástica gestacional pós-molar (NTG. MÉTODOS: estudo longitudinal, incluindo 105 pacientes com mola hidatiforme completa (MHC acompanhadas no Centro de Doenças Trofoblásticas de Botucatu, entre 1998 e 2005. Os títulos da hCG sérica foram mensurados quinzenalmente em todas as pacientes. Curvas individuais de regressão da hCG das 105 pacientes foram estabelecidas. A comparação entre a curva de regressão normal estabelecida em nosso serviço com as curvas individuais da hCG foi usada no rastreamento e diagnóstico (platô/ascensão de NTG. O número de semanas pós-esvaziamento quando a hCG excedeu o limite normal foi comparado com o número semanas em que a hCG apresentou platô/ascensão. RESULTADOS: das 105 pacientes com MHC, 80 apresentaram remissão espontânea (RE e 25 desenvolveram NTG. Das 80 pacientes com RE, 7 (8,7% apresentaram, inicialmente, dosagem da hCG acima do normal, mas, no devido tempo, alcançaram a remissão. Todas as 25 pacientes com NTG apresentaram desvio da curva normal da hCG em 3,8±2,5 semanas e mostraram platô ou ascensão em 8,4±2,9 semanas (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the usefulness of the normal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG regression curve in the early diagnosis of post-molar trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN. METHODS: a longitudinal study including 105 patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM followed up at the Botucatu Center of Trophoblastic Diseases from 1998 to 2005. Serial serum hCG titers were measured fortnightly in all patients. Individual curves of the 105 patients were built. Comparison between the normal regression curve established at our center with individual hCG curves was used to screen and diagnose (plateau/rise GTN. The number of weeks postevacuation when hCG levels exceeded the normal limits was compared with the number of weeks when h

  15. 血清β人绒毛膜促性腺激素与孕早期血脂对预测妊娠高血压疾病的价值%Value of Serum β Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Blood Lipid in Early Pregnancy in Predicting Pregnancy-induced Hypertension Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝清梅; 张文慧; 陈文英; 李银芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨血清β人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)与孕早期血脂对预测妊娠高血压疾病的价值。方法选取2011年1月至2014年1月入住我院的妊娠高血压产妇150例,设为妊娠高血压组,另选取同期入住我院的正常健康产妇150例为正常对照组。比较两组孕妇一般性资料、孕早期(37~60天)血脂水平以及妊娠中期血清β-HCG水平,分析孕妇并发妊娠高血压的危险因素。结果妊高组患者的β-HCG、甘油三酯、胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白水平均明显高于正常组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。 Logistic回归分析显示,甘油三酯(OR =2.561)、高密度脂蛋白(OR =2.023)、β-HCG (OR =1.347)和低密度脂蛋白(OR =1.248)均是导致妊娠高血压的危险因素。结论血清β人绒毛膜促性腺激素与孕早期血脂均是导致妊娠高血压的危险因素,可以作为妊高症诊断的临床参考。%Objective To explore the value of serumβhuman chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) and blood lipid in early pregnancy in predicting pregnancy-induced hypertension disease. Methods 150 cases of pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension disease admitted to our hospital from January 2011 to January 2014 were selected as gestational hypertension group, 150 cases of healthy pregnant women admitted to our hospital in same period were set as normal group. The general information, levels of blood lipid in early pregnancy (37 ~ 60 d) and serum β-HCG level in second trimester of pregnancy were compared between two groups, the risk factors of pregnancy-induced hypertension was analyzed. Results The levels ofβ-HCG, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein in gestational hypertension group were significantly higher than those in control group, with statistical difference (P<0.05). The analysis of Logistic regression showed that triglyceride (OR =2.561), high-density lipoprotein (OR =2

  16. Testosterona e gonadotrofina coriônica humana estimulam a esteroidogênese em células da granulosa de folículo pré-ovulatório de égua? Do testosterone and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulate steroidogenesis in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle in mare?

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    M.C. Caldas-Bussiere

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o papel da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG e da testosterona na produção de progesterona (P4 e 17beta -estradiol (E2 pelas células da granulosa cultivadas in vitro de folículo antral de égua. Os tratamentos usados foram: 1- controle (nenhum hormônio adicionado, 2- 1UI hCG (0,3mig/ml e 3- 10UI hCG (3,0mig/ml. O tratamento com hCG foi realizado na presença ou não de testosterona (144ng/ml. O meio foi coletado e substituído com 0,25, 3, 6, 12, 24 e 144h de cultivo. As concentrações de P4 e E2 foram mensuradas por radioimunoensaio. Não se observou diferença entre os tratamentos 1 e 3 quanto à produção de P4 e E2; o tratamento 1 resultou em aumento da concentração de progesterona após 24h de cultura (PThe role of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and testosterone was evaluated in the progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17beta (E2 production by granulosa cells of antral follicles from mare cultivated in vitro. The treatment (groups with gonadotropin consisted of: 1- control (no added hormone; 2- 1 IU hCG (0.3mg/ml and 3- 10 IU hCG (3.0mg/ml. The treatment with hCG was carried out in the presence or not of testosterone (144ng/ml. The culture medium was collected and replaced at 0.25, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 144h of culture. The concentrations of P4 and E2 were measured by radioimunoassay. Analyses of variance were used for P4 and E2, and mean of the factors were compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. No difference was observed between 1 and 2 groups. Treatment with 1 IU of hCG increased progesterone concentration after 24h of culture (P<0.01, only in the presence of testosterone. The concentration of estradiol increased in the presence of testosterone, reaching maximum concentration with 6h of culture (P<0.01, and reduced gradually until the observed concentration at 0.25h of culture. The addition of hCG had no effect in the synthesis of this steroid. The testosterone modulates the action of the luteinizing hormone

  17. Serendipity in Refractory Celiac Disease: Full Recovery of Duodenal Villi and Clinical Symptoms after Fecal Microbiota Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Yvette H; van Gils, Tom; van Gils, Nienke A; Kassam, Zain; Mulder, Chris J J; Aparicio-Pagés, Nieves

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of refractory celiac disease type II (RCD II) and preventing the development of an enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma in these patients is still difficult. In this case report, we describe a patient with RCD II who received fecal microbiota transfer as treatment for a recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and remarkably showed a full recovery of duodenal villi and disappearance of celiac symptoms. This case suggests that altering the gut microbiota may hold promise in improving the clinical and histological consequences of celiac disease and/or RCD II.

  18. Bacteria localization and chorion thinning among preterm premature rupture of membranes.

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    Kimberly B Fortner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bacterial colonization of the fetal membranes and its role in pathogenesis of membrane rupture is poorly understood. Prior retrospective work revealed chorion layer thinning in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM subjects. Our objective was to prospectively examine fetal membrane chorion thinning and to correlate to bacterial presence in PPROM, preterm, and term subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Paired membrane samples (membrane rupture and membrane distant were prospectively collected from: PPROM = 14, preterm labor (PTL = 8, preterm no labor (PTNL = 8, term labor (TL = 10, and term no labor (TNL = 8, subjects. Sections were probed with cytokeratin to identify fetal trophoblast layer of the chorion using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using broad range 16 s ribosomal RNA probe. Images were evaluated, chorion and choriodecidua were measured, and bacterial fluorescence scored. Chorion thinning and bacterial presence were compared among and between groups using Student's t-test, linear mixed effect model, and Poisson regression model (SAS Cary, NC. RESULTS: In all groups, the fetal chorion cellular layer was thinner at rupture compared to distant site (147.2 vs. 253.7 µm, p<0.0001. Further, chorion thinning was greatest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups combined, regardless of site sampled [PPROM(114.9 vs. PTL(246.0 vs. PTNL(200.8 vs. TL(217.9 vs. TNL(246.5]. Bacteria counts were highest among PPROM subjects compared to all other groups regardless of site sampled or histologic infection [PPROM(31 vs. PTL(9 vs. PTNL(7 vs. TL(7 vs. TNL(6]. Among all subjects at both sites, bacterial counts were inversely correlated with chorion thinning, even excluding histologic chorioamnionitis (p<0.0001 and p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal chorion was uniformly thinner at rupture site compared to distant sites. In PPROM fetal chorion, we demonstrated pronounced global thinning

  19. MOSAICISM CONFINED TO PLACENTA IN PREGNANCIES WITH ADVERSE OUTCOME

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    向阳; KarinSundberg; BjarneBeck; 孙念怙

    1995-01-01

    Chorionic villi and feral tissues from 50 pathological human conceptions ar gesrarional weeks 9-40 were cultured and cytogenetically analyzed to explore the existence of chromosomal mosaicism confined to the extraembryonic tissues and to clarify the relationship between confined placental mosaicism and adverse outcome of pregnancy. Chorionic villi and fetal rlssues from 12 second trimester gesrations terminated for social reasons served as a control group. In two pathological gestations, true mosaicism was found exclusively in chorionic cells and could not be confirmed in cells derived from the fetal tissues, One of these was severely growth retarded, Concordant results were obtained in all other cases,

  20. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in twin gestations: which is the best sampling technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonazzi, Giuliana; Curti, Alessandra; Farina, Antonio; Pilu, Gianluigi; Bovicelli, Luciano; Rizzo, Nicola

    2010-04-01

    To compare the fetal loss rate sampling techniques in twins. Retrospective cohort study of 204 twin pregnancies, who underwent amniocentesis (100) or chorionic villus sampling (104). Fetal loss rate sampling group and 4.00% in amniocentesis group (P value not significant). According to sampling technique, fetal loss rate was 4.17% (chorionic villus sampling 1 puncture), 2.70% (amniocentesis 1 puncture), 3.75% (chorionic villus sampling 2 punctures), and 4.76% (amniocentesis 2 punctures), (P values not significant). Preterm premature rupture of the membranes rate sampling group and 10% in amniocentesis group (P value not significant). According to sampling technique, preterm premature rupture of the membranes rate was 12.5% (chorionic villus sampling 1 puncture), 8.1% (amniocentesis 1 puncture), 6.9% (chorionic villus sampling 2 punctures), and 11.1 % (amniocentesis 2 punctures), (P values not significant). Double entry technique does not affect significantly the outcomes evaluated, in both amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Holoprosencephaly: signalling interactions between the brain and the face, the environment and the genes, and the phenotypic variability in animal models and humans

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    Graf, Daniel; Marcucio, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common developmental defect of the forebrain characterized by inadequate or absent midline division of the forebrain into cerebral hemispheres, with concomitant midline facial defects in the majority of cases. Understanding the pathogenesis of HPE requires knowledge of the relationship between the developing brain and the facial structures during embryogenesis. A number of signalling pathways control and coordinate the development of the brain and face, including Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), and Nodal signalling. Mutations in these pathways have been identified in animal models of HPE and human patients. Due to incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity of HPE, patients carrying defined mutations may not manifest the disease at all, or have a spectrum of defects. It is currently unknown what drives manifestation of HPE in genetically at risk individuals, but it has been speculated that other gene mutations and environmental factors may combine as cumulative insults. HPE can be diagnosed in utero by a high-resolution prenatal ultrasound or a fetal magnetic resonance imaging, sometimes in combination with molecular testing from chorionic villi or amniotic fluid sampling. Currently, there are no effective preventive methods for HPE. Better understanding of the mechanisms of gene-environment interactions in HPE would provide avenues for such interventions. PMID:25339593

  2. Pengaruh Penambahan Chorionic Gonadotrophin pada Medium Maturasi terhadap Kemampuan Maturasi, Fertilisasi, dan Perkembangan Embrio secara In Vitro Kambing Peranakan Ettawa (The Effect of Chorionic Gonadotrophin Addition Into Maturation Medium on The Abili

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    Nurvina Septi Adifa

    2012-02-01

    the values of 40.8%, 11.4%, and 12.2% respectively. Based on the result it could be concluded that chorionic gonadotrophin addition into maturation medium had not increased ettawa crossbred oocytes maturation, fertilization, and in vitro cleavage rate. The best maturation, fertilization, and in vitro cleavage rate were found using maturation medium without any addition of chorionic gonadotrophin. (Key words: Does oocyte, Chorionic gonadotrophin, In vitro maturation, In vitro fertilization, In vitro embryo development

  3. Chorionic gonadotropin and uterine dialogue in the primate

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    Strakova Zuzana

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implantation is a complex spatio-temporal interaction between the growing embryo and the mother, where both players need to be highly synchronized to be able to establish an effective communication to ensure a successful pregnancy. Using our in vivo baboon model we have shown that Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG, as the major trophoblast derived signal, not only rescues the corpus luteum but also modulates the uterine environment in preparation for implantation. This response is characterized by an alteration in both the morphological and biochemical activity in the three major cell types: luminal and glandular epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CG and factors from the ovary have a synergistic effect on the receptive endometrium. Novel local effects of CG which influence the immune system to permit the survival of the fetal allograft and prevent endometrial cell death are also discussed in this review. An alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation pathway observed in epithelial endometrial cells and the possibility of differential expression of the CG/LH-R isoforms during gestation, open many questions regarding the mechanism of action of CG and its signal transduction pathway within the primate endometrium.

  4. The Value of β-human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Progesterone, Endometrial Thickness combined Detection in the Early Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy%三种指标联合检测在早期异位妊娠诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭艳; 曾杰; 谢伟涵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨β-人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)、孕酮、子宫内膜厚度联合检测在早期异位妊娠诊断中的价值。方法选择2005年11月至2012年11月潍坊市妇幼保健医院收治的疑似早期异位妊娠患者164例,根据妊娠结局分为异位妊娠组(异位妊娠组,64例),宫内妊娠流产组(宫内妊娠流产组,38例),正常宫内妊娠组(正常宫内妊娠组,62例),采用经阴道超声测量其子宫内膜厚度,并测定患者的血清孕酮及β-HCG值,比较3组子宫内膜厚度及血β-HCG、孕酮水平。结果异位妊娠组子宫内膜厚度(0.65±0.30) cm、β-HCG(1846±655) U/L及孕酮(20±3) nmol/L水平明显低于宫内妊娠流产组(1.04±0.32) cm、(2580±1216) U/L、(33±4) nmol/L 及正常宫内妊娠组(1.38±0.19) cm、(3211±1405) U/L、(60±14) nmol/L(P<0.05);在三组中子宫内膜厚度及血β-HCG、孕酮联合诊断的准确率(95.3%、92.1%、98.4%)差异均无统计学意义 P>0.05),而单项指标判断早期异位妊娠差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。相关性分析结果显示,在异位妊娠及宫内妊娠中,子宫内膜厚度与孕酮及β-HCG值均呈正相关( P<0.05)。结论血清孕酮及β-HCG值可判定妊娠发生,但对异位妊娠与宫内未形成孕囊的早早孕鉴别较难,配合超声检查子宫内膜厚度,可以判定孕囊的着床部位,对早期鉴别异位妊娠有重要意义。%Objective To investigate the value of β-human chorionic gonadotropin(β-HCG) ,progester-one,endometrial thickness combined detection in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.Methods A total of 164 cases with suspected ectopic pregnancy admitted to Weifang City Maternal and Child Health Hospital from Nov.2005 to Nov.2012 were divided into ectopic pregnancy group(64 cases),intrauterine pregnancy abortion group(38 cases

  5. 血清瘦素、胱抑素C和人绒毛膜促性腺激素在妊娠高血压综合征检测中的意义%Study on clinical significance of serum leptin,cystatin C and human chorionic gonadotropin in patients with pregnancy - induced hyper- tension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炳刚; 李虹; 刘大庆

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察血清瘦素、胱抑素 C(CysC)和人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β- HCG)在妊娠高血压综合征检测中的意义。方法选取2011年1月至2014年6月收治的妊娠高血压患者150例为妊高症组;同期正常妊娠的患者60例为正常妊娠组;另选同期健康非妊娠妇女30例为健康对照组。观察健康对照组,正常妊娠组和妊高症组的瘦素、CysC 和β- HCG 水平,与妊高症严重程度的关系,各指标之间的相互关系。结果正常妊娠组和妊高症组的瘦素、CysC 和β-HCG 水平明显高于健康对照组( P ﹤0.01),而妊高症组明显高于正常妊娠组( P ﹤0.01)。随着妊高症病情严重程度的增加,瘦素,CysC 和β- HCG 水平出现明显的增高( P ﹤0.01)。妊高症患者瘦素水平与 CysC( r =0.673,P ﹤0.01)和β- HCG( r =0.838,P ﹤0.01)水平呈正相关,CysC 与β- HCG( r =0.792,P ﹤0.01)水平呈正相关。结论检测瘦素、CysC 和β- HCG 水平有助于对妊娠高血压患者的诊断和分级,其异常升高应引起临床的高度重视。%Objective To observe the clinical significance of serum leptin,cystatin C(CysC)and human chorionic gonadotropin(β -HCG)in patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension. Methods A total of 150 patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension during January 2011 to June 2014 were selected as pregnancy - induced hypertension group;60 patients with normal pregnancy at the same period were allocated in normal pregnancy group,and 30 healthy women without pregnancy were selected as healthy control group. Levels of leptin,CysC and β - HCG were examined among pregnancy - induced hypertension group,normal pregnancy group and healthy control group,the relationship among levels of leptin,CysC and β - HCG and the severity of patients with pregnancy - induced hypertension were observed,the correlation between each marker had been evaluated. Results Levels of leptin

  6. The clinical significance of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated estriol in perinatal screening%甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇在产前筛查中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞春玉; 吴学礼

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇在产前筛查中的临床意义。方法:选取我院2014年12月至2015年6月孕周为15~20周的妊娠孕妇血清标本2070例,予以产前甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇的检测,并且结合孕妇的年龄、孕周、体质量等因素,运用配套的仪器产前筛查风险软件统计唐氏综合症、18–三体综合征及神经管缺陷的风险比例,予以高危孕妇做详细确诊,并依据随访与诊断结果比较高危组与低危组甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素、非结合雌三醇水平,及出生缺陷阳性确诊率,产前筛查孕妇的年龄分布与出生缺陷的筛查阳性率。结果:高危组甲胎蛋白水平显著高于低危组[(28.74±1.35) vs.(6.93±1.20)μg/L],人绒毛膜促性腺激素水平显著高于低危组[(2.43±0.37) vs.(1.76±0.25) ng/L],非结合雌三醇水平明显低于低危组[(5.35±1.23) vs.(7.26±1.14)μg/L],两组比较差异明显(P35岁孕妇(26.24%);高危组孕妇出生缺陷总确诊阳性率(7.14%)明显高于低危孕妇(0.21%),两组比较差异显著。结论:甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇产前筛查能够有效筛查出生缺陷的概率,达到优生,值得推广运用。%Objective: To investigate the clinical signiifcance of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3) in perinatal screening.Methods: Selected 2 070 serum samples in pregnant women with gestational age of 15~20 weeks from December 2014 to June 2015 in our hospital, detected AFP, HCG and uE3 in prenatal testing, and combining with the age, gestational age, body weight and other factors, counted the riskratio of Down syndrome, trisomy 18 and the proportion of risk of neural tube defects by supporting instrument risk prenatal screening sotfware to diagnose in detail for high-risk women, and compared

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1A (CDG1A) by a combination of enzymology and genetic linkage analysis after amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlwood, J; Clayton, P; Keir, G; Mian, N; Young, E; Winchester, B

    1998-07-01

    Two pregnancies at risk for the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome Type 1A (CDG1A, phosphomannomutase deficient) were monitored by enzyme and genetic linkage analyses. The index case in both families had a proven deficiency of phosphomannomutase (PMM). An unaffected fetus was predicted in family 1 following amniocentesis. Normal PMM activity was found in cultured amniotic fluid cells and there was no elevation of lysosomal enzymes in the amniotic fluid. Genetic linkage analysis using microsatellite markers closely linked to the CDG1A gene confirmed this prediction. A healthy child was born. In the second family direct assay of chorionic villi showed a profound deficiency of PMM and genetic linkage analysis showed the fetus to have the same haplotype as the proband. The pregnancy was terminated and a deficiency of PMM was confirmed in cultured fibroblasts from the fetus. Reliable prenatal diagnosis of CDG Type 1A (PMM-deficient) can be achieved by a combination of biochemical and molecular genetic tests.

  8. Effect of Mifepristone on the Telomerase Activity in Chorion and Decidua during Early Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-qing XIA; Ya-li XIONG; Yong-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate telomerase activity in chorion and decidua from abortion induced by mifepristone incorporated with misoprostol at early pregnancy Methods TRAP-SYBR Green assay was used to detect the expression of telomerase. Forty specimen were obtained from medicinal abortion (experiment group) and forty were from normal induced abortion (control group).Results Positive expression, of chorion telomerase was significantly different between the experimental group (28%, 11/40) and the control group (73%, 29/40) (P<0. 05).While in decidua, the positive rate was 28% (11/40) in the experimental group and 20% (9/40) in the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05).Conclusion It is suggested that miferistone may significantly decrease the telomerase activity in chorion but not in decidua.

  9. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  10. Differential Expression Profile of Growth Hormone/Chorionic Somatomammotropin Genes in Placenta of Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Context: The human growth hormone/chorionic somatomammotropin (hGH/CSH) locus at 17q22-24, consisting of one pituitary-expressed postnatal (GH1) and four placenta-expressed genes (GH2, CSH1, CSH2, and CSHL1), is implicated in regulation of postnatal and intrauterine growth. A positive correlation has been reported between the offspring’s birth weight and serum placental GH (coded by GH2) and placental lactogen (coded by CSH1, CSH2) levels in pregnant women.

  11. In vitro and in vivo human herpesvirus 8 infection of placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariantonietta Di Stefano

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus infection of placenta may be harmful in pregnancy leading to disorders in fetal growth, premature delivery, miscarriage, or major congenital abnormalities. Although a correlation between human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection and abortion or low birth weight in children has been suggested, and rare cases of in utero or perinatal HHV-8 transmission have been documented, no direct evidence of HHV-8 infection of placenta has yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of placental cells to HHV-8 infection. Short-term infection assays were performed on placental chorionic villi isolated from term placentae. Qualitative and quantitative HHV-8 detection were performed by PCR and real-time PCR, and HHV-8 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Term placenta samples from HHV-8-seropositive women were analyzed for the presence of HHV-8 DNA and antigens. In vitro infected histocultures showed increasing amounts of HHV-8 DNA in tissues and supernatants; cyto- and syncitiotrophoblasts, as well as endothelial cells, expressed latent and lytic viral antigens. Increased apoptotic phenomena were visualized by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine nick end-labeling method in infected histocultures. Ex vivo, HHV-8 DNA and a latent viral antigen were detected in placenta samples from HHV-8-seropositive women. These findings demonstrate that HHV-8, like other human herpesviruses, may infect placental cells in vitro and in vivo, thus providing evidence that this phenomenon might influence vertical transmission and pregnancy outcome in HHV-8-infected women.

  12. Influence of water hardening of the chorion on cadmium accumulation in medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Larrea, Maite; Sánchez-Fortún, Sebastián; Hinton, David E

    2003-07-01

    This report describes a study in which in vitro fertilization methods were used to expose medaka (Oryzias latipes) eggs to cadmium (Cd(2+)). This approach was applied to address the differential sensitivity and cumulative potential of Cd(2+) when exposure was initiated early (before fertilization and water hardening of the chorion) versus later during embryo development (i.e., well after the chorion has undergone water hardening). Following range finding exposures (2.5, 10, 20, 40 or 80 mg/l) under artificially controlled experimental procedures, results from hatching success and embryo malformations showed the earlier exposure interval more sensitive than the assay involving only the embryonated egg. Subsequent accumulation studies have shown that the exposure initiated before fertilization apparently led to more Cd(2+) deposition in the chorion compared to the exposure during embryonated stages of the eggs. Similarly, values for total Cd(2+) indicated higher concentrations in those eggs exposed prior to--and during--water hardening. Results suggest an alteration of the properties of the zona radiata in the early-stage eggs, making it more permeable to the potential exit or entrance of waterborne agents even after water hardening. Ongoing studies must now address the development of more realistic exposure conditions of the gametes by using incubation media with osmolarities similar to surface waters, and by shortening duration for gamete exposure. Also, sensitive methods to localize Cd(2+) and to delineate the transfer from the chorion to the embryo are needed.

  13. Egg morphology and chorionic ultrastructure of key stored product insect pests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were imaged with scanning electron microscopy to explore how respiratory openings on the chorion surface may be related to the efficacy of fumigants. Each P. interpunctella eg...

  14. Characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides in chorion peroxidase of Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junsuo S; Li, Jianyong

    2005-09-01

    A peroxidase is present in the chorion of Aedes aegypti eggs and catalyzes chorion protein cross-linking during chorion hardening, which is critical for egg survival in the environment. The unique chorion peroxidase (CPO) is a glycoprotein. This study deals with the N-glycosylation site, structures, and profile of CPO-associated oligosaccharides using mass spectrometric techniques and enzymatic digestion. CPO was isolated from chorion by solubilization and several chromatographic methods. Mono-saccharide composition was analyzed by HPLC with fluorescent detection. Our data revealed that carbohydrate (D-mannose, N-acetyl D-glucosamine, D-arabinose, N-acetyl D-galactosamine, and L-fucose) accounted for 2.24% of the CPO molecular weight. A single N-glycosylation site (Asn328-Cys- Thr) was identified by tryptic peptide mapping and de novo sequencing of native and PNGase A-deglycosylated CPO using matrix-assisted laser/desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The Asn328 was proven to be a major fully glycosylated site. Potential tryptic glycopeptides and profile were first assessed by MALDI/TOF/MS and then by precursor ion scanning during LC/MS/MS. The structures of N-linked oligosaccharides were elucidated from the MS/MS spectra of glycopeptides and exoglycosidase sequencing of PNGase A-released oligosaccharides. These CPO-associated oligosaccharides had dominant Man3GlcNAc2 and Man3 (Fuc) GlcNAc2 and high mannose-type structures (Man(4-8)GlcNAc2). The truncated structures, Man2GlcNAc2 and Man2 (Fuc) GlcNAc2, were also identified. Comparison of CPO activity and Stokes radius between native and deglycosylated CPO suggests that the N-linked oligosaccharides influence the enzyme activity by stabilizing its folded state.

  15. Pre-eclampsia (PE) and Chorionicity in Women with Twin Gestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupama; Singh, Arati; Surapaneni, Tarakeswari; Nirmalan, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-Eclampsia (PE) affects 6-31% of pregnant women with multiple gestations. There are conflicting reports on the association of PE with Chorionicity and zygosity; however, there is a lack of information on this potential association in a population of pregnant Asian Indian women. Aim: To determine as to whether chorionicity and zygosity were associated with PE in a population of Asian Indian women with twin gestations. Settings and Design: A retrospective observational study was done at a single tertiary care centre in Southern India. Material and Methods: The study included pregnant women with twin gestations, who was delivered at the study institute in 2012. Hypertension in pregnancy was categorized, based on the criteria of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Chorionicity was determined by using ultrasonography and zygosity was determined, based on clinical criteria. Point estimates and the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) around point estimates of PE and associations of chorionicity and zygosity with PE were determined by using bivariate analysis, logistic regression models and area under Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: This study included 208 women with twin gestations. The incidence of PE in dichorionic twin gestations was 13.17% (n=22, 95% CI: 8.66, 18.96), it was 4.87% (n=2, 95% CI: 0.83, 15.19) in monochorionic twin gestations, it was 16.36% (n=9, 95% CI: 8.29, 27.91) in dizygous twin gestations and it was 4.88% (n=2, 95% CI: 0.83, 15.19) in monozygous twin gestations. Neither chorionicity (adjusted OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 0.55, 12.19) nor zygosity (adjusted OR 2.72, 95% CI: 0.49, 15.13) were associated with PE In a multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusion: Although it was not statistically significant, the clinical incidence of PE was higher in dichorionic and dizygous twin gestations. PMID:24596736

  16. Identification of the origin and localization of chorion (egg envelope) proteins in an ancient fish, the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Conte, Fred S; McInnis, Elizabeth; Fong, Tak Hou; Cherr, Gary N

    2014-06-01

    In many modern teleost fish, chorion (egg envelope) glycoproteins are synthesized in the liver of females, and the expression of those genes is controlled by endogenous estrogen released from the ovary during maturation. However, among the classical teleosts, such as salmonid, carp, and zebrafish, the chorion glycoproteins are synthesized in the oocyte, as in higher vertebrates. Sturgeon, which are members of the subclass Chondrostei, represent an ancient lineage of ray-finned fishes that differ from other teleosts in that their sperm possess acrosomes, their eggs have numerous micropyles, and early embryo development is similar to that of amphibians. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of chorion formation and the phylogenetic relationship between sturgeon and other teleosts, we used specific antibodies directed against the primary components of sturgeon chorion glycoproteins, using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry approaches. The origin of each chorion glycoprotein was determined through analyses of both liver and ovary, and their localization during ovarian development was investigated. Our data indicate that the origin of the major chorion glycoproteins of sturgeon, ChG1, ChG2, and ChG4, derive not only from the oocyte itself but also from follicle cells in the ovary, as well as from hepatocytes. In the follicle cell layer, granulosa cells were found to be the primary source of ChGs during oogenesis in white sturgeon. The unique origins of chorion glycoproteins in sturgeon suggest that sturgeons are an intermediate form in the evolution of the teleost lineage.

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of SOLD1, a novel member of the retrotransposon-derived Ly-6 superfamily, in bovine placental villi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Ushizawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ly-6 superfamily members have a conserved Ly-6 domain that is defined by a distinct disulfide bonding pattern between eight or ten cysteine residues. These members are divided into membrane-type and secretory-type proteins. In the present study, we report the identification of a novel Ly-6 domain protein, secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1, from bovine placenta. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SOLD1 mRNA was expressed in trophoblast mononucleate cells and the protein was secreted into and localized in the extracellular matrix of the mesenchyme in cotyledonary villi. SOLD1 bound mainly with type I collagen telopeptide. We confirmed secretion of SOLD1 from the basolateral surface of a bovine trophoblast cell line (BT-1. It may be related to the organization of the extra-cellular matrix in the mesenchyme of fetal villi. Since trophoblast mononucleate cells are epithelial cells, their polar organization is expected to have a crucial role in the SOLD1 secretion system. We established that SOLD1 is an intronless bovine gene containing the Alu retrotransposon, which was integrated via cytoplasmic reverse transcription. CONCLUSION: We identified a novel retrotransposon-like Ly-6 domain protein in bovine placenta. SOLD1 is a crucial secreted protein that is involved in the organization of the mesenchyme of the cotyledonary villi. Furthermore, the gene encoding SOLD1 has an interesting genomic structure.

  18. Prostaglandin-induced radioprotection of murine intestinal crypts and villi by a PGE diene analog (SC-44932) and a PGI analog (Iloprost)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Wayne R.; Collins, Paul W.

    The aminothiols exemplified by WR-2721 are effective radioprotectors; however, their toxicity associated with hypotension, nausea, and emesis has limited their development for applications in medicine or in hazardous radiation environments. There is a need for new radioprotectors that have fewer toxic side effects when given alone or combined with reduced amounts of thiols. A variety of prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to be radioprotective agents and some appear to have fewer toxic side effects than the aminothiols. Iloprost, a stable PGI, analog protects the clonogenic epithelial cells of intestinal crypts but does not protect epithelial cells of the villi. In contrast, an E-series omega chain diene analog designated SC-44932 protects epithelial cells of both crypts and villi. When the two are combined, protection of the crypts is additive and the villi are protected to the same degree as when SC-44932 is given alone. Since radioprotection for some PGs has been shown to be dependent upon receptors, we suggest that the pattern of radioprotection seen with these two analogs depend on the location of the respective receptors or on the ability of differentiated villus cells to respond to PGs. By studying different analogs, we hope to identify mechanisms associated with PG-induced radioprotection and to identify the most protective PG analogs for applications of radioprotection.

  19. Elevated expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in placental villi and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in decidua are associated with prolonged bleeding after mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yaling; Qian, Zhida; Huang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and -2) in the villi and the decidua are associated with prolonged bleeding after medical abortion. Case-controlled study. University hospital. Mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion patients were divided into two groups (20 women each) based on the length of time (>14 or ≤14 days) of bleeding after the abortion. Discharged villi and deciduas were collected. The expression levels of MMP-2 and -9 and TIMP-1 and -2 in the villi and deciduas were assessed with semiquantitative immunohistochemistry. The median semiquantitative immunohistochemistry staining index (SI) scores for MMP-9 expression in the villi were elevated in the bleeding group compared with the control group (median SI scores 0.31 and 0.03, respectively). TIMP-2 expression was elevated in the decidua in the bleeding group compared with the control group (median SI scores 1.00 and 0.20, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the two groups in the expression levels of MMP-2 in the villi or of MMP-2, MMP-9, or TIMP-1 or of the ratios of MMP-9/TIMP-1 or MMP-2/TIMP-2 in the decidua. Elevated expression levels of MMP-9 in the villi and of TIMP-2 in the decidua were associated with prolonged bleeding after medical abortion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Analysis of recombinant and native human lutropin/luteotrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography; Analise de luteotrofina humana e de gonadotrofina corionica humana, recombinante e natural, por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia em fase reversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Beatriz Elane de

    2009-07-01

    Specific RP-HPLC conditions for the analysis of recombinant and native hLH and hCG preparations and of their subunits were set up. Heterodimeric hLH and hCG and their alpha and beta subunits all migrated with significantly different retention times (t{sub R}) in the following order of increasing hydrophobicity: alpha-hCG < alpha-hLH < hCG < hLH < -beta-hCG < beta-hLH. With basis on these conditions, a total of eleven preparations were studied: the International Standard of recombinant hLH-WHO 96/602, a commercial recombinant and two highly purified pituitary hLH, a recombinant and two urinary hCG preparations and four heterogeneous urinary products containing hLH + hFSH. All hLH preparations showed very similar retention times for the main peak (t{sub R} = 38.35 +- 0.42 min; RSD = 1.1 %; n = 4 preparations), while the hCG main peak ran about 4 % faster when compared to this average value. Human LH, hFSH and hCG peaks could also be identified in the heterogeneous urinary preparations. Quantitative analysis could be validated for the seven homogeneous preparations and accuracy, precision and sensitivity were calculated on the basis of a highly linear dose-response curve (r=0.99998; p<0.0001; n=20). Quantification of the different gonadotropins in the heterogeneous urinary preparations was also carried out, though with clear accuracy limitations. (author)

  1. Stereological Analysis of Human Placenta in Cases of Placenta Previa in Comparison with Normally Implanted Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Sakhavar, Nahid; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, Hamidreza; Ezazi-Bojnourdi, Tahmine

    2015-01-01

    Background Placenta previa (PP) is an obstetric complication that can affect maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is rising due to cesarean sections. There is no quantitative data of placenta in PP. In this study, quantitative parameters of placenta in cases with PP in comparison with normally implanted controls were investigated. Methods In this quasi experimental study, placentas from pregnancies with PP and normally implanted controls (n = 10) were obtained from women who underwent cesarean section. Three full-thickness columns of each placenta were sampled using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS). Columns were cut into slices and slices were sectioned with 4 µm thickness. SURS selected sections were stained by Masson's trichrome. Stereological analysis was done on 8-10 SURS microscopic fields of each section. Absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. Statistical analysis was done using Mann Whitney-U test and significant level was set at p placenta. These changes probably can be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus. PMID:25927025

  2. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  3. Laser-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of peptide-analogues of silkmoth chorion protein segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaki, D C; Aggeli, A; Chryssikos, G D; Yiannopoulos, Y D; Kamitsos, E I; Brumley, E; Case, S T; Boden, N; Hamodrakas, S J

    1998-07-01

    Silkmoth chorion, the proteinaceous major component of the eggshell, with extraordinary mechanical and physiological properties, consists of a complex set of proteins, which have a tripartite structure: a central, evolutionarily conserved, domain and two more variable 'arms'. Peptide-analogues of silkmoth chorion protein central domain segments have been synthesized. Laser-Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies suggest the preponderance of antiparallel beta-pleated sheet structure for these peptides, both in solution and in the solid state.

  4. Effects of flucycloxuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on reproductive events and thickness of chorion in mealworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hami, M; Taibi, F; Soltani-Mazouni, N

    2004-01-01

    Flucycloxuron (FCX), a benzoylphenylurea derivative, was evaluated on Tenebrio molitor. The compound was incorporated into the diet and administrated to newly emerged females at various doses (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg). FCX was found to affect several reproductive events such as the duration of preovipostion and oviposition period, the fecundity, the viability of eggs and the duration of embryonic development, respectively. Morphological study of ovaries showed that FCX reduced both oocytes number, the ovaries weight and the size and the volume of the basal oocyte during the sexual maturation. In addition, it reduced the thickness of chorion from freshly laid eggs. However, electron microscopic study revealed that this compound had no significant effect on the fine structure of chorion. Finally, measurements of ovarian ecdysteroids production by an enzyme immunoassay indicated a reduction in the hormonal amounts recorded.

  5. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Akanksha Gupta; Kedige, Suresh D.; Kanu Jain

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have ...

  6. [Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle: pregnancy outcomes by technique used].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallina, J; Anselem, O; Haddad, B; Touboul, C; Tsatsaris, V; Le Ray, C

    2014-11-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle. Retrospective bicentric study including all women who had a transabdominal chorionic villus sampling between 2005 and 2009 (172 using biopsy forceps and 160 using needle). The primary endpoint was the rate of fetal loss, after excluding medical abortion due to the result of the biopsy. The secondary endpoint was the rate of premature rupture of the membrane. All cases were reviewed to try to determine the responsibility of the biopsy. The pregnancy outcomes were not different between the two groups: 4 (4.4%) fetal losses in the biopsy forceps group and 6 (7.4%) in the needle group (P=0.52). Only one case (1.2%) of fetal loss can be attributed to the biopsy, using a needle, and none (0%) following a forceps biospy (P=0.29). The rate of premature rupture of the membrane was comparable in the two groups. The pregnancy outcomes following chorionic villus sampling using a biopsy forceps or a needle seem comparable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro test on the ability of a yeast cell wall based product to inhibit the Escherichia coli F4ac adhesion on the brush border of porcine intestinal villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Priori, D; Gandolfi, G; Colombo, M; Coloretti, F; Goossens, T; Bosi, P

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a yeast cell wall (YCW)-based product (SENTIGUARD C; Nutriad) to inhibit the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ac (ETEC) adhesion on the brush border of porcine intestinal villi was tested. The ETEC suspensions were preincubated with 2 batches of the product (A and B) at different concentrations (10, 5, and 0.5%, wt/vol) or with their filtrates (AF and BF) and then with intestinal villi susceptible to ETEC adhesion. In all the trials, ETEC suspensions were also preincubated with egg yolk (E) immunized against ETEC to assess the maximum inhibition of the adhesiveness or directly with the villi [control group (Con)] to verify the maximum adhesiveness of the pathogen. For each treatment, 20 different villi were observed, brush border measured, and the adherent pathogens counted. A scanning electron microscope analysis was used to confirm the ability of ETEC to adhere on the YCW. The E treatment significantly reduced the pathogen adhesion on the villi compared with the C group in all the trials (P intestinal infection from ETEC in young pigs with the affinity of ETEC to YCW.

  8. Reduced expression of 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase in chorion during labor is associated with decreased PRB and increased PRA and GR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; He, Ping; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Jie; Gao, Lu; You, Xingji; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2013-05-01

    The chorion laeve controls the levels of active prostaglandins within the uterus by NAD-dependent 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). The expression of PGDH in chorion is modulated by glucocorticoids and progesterone. In this study, we investigated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and progesterone receptor A and B (PRA and PRB) in the regulation of PGDH expression in chorion, and we determined whether reduced PGDH expression in chorion during labor is associated with the changes in GR and PR expression by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited PGDH expression whereas progesterone stimulated PGDH expression in chorionic trophoblasts. DEX suppressed PGDH expression in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells. The inhibitory effect of DEX did not occur in GR knockdown cells. Progesterone inhibited PGDH in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells and it stimulated PGDH in PRB overexpression cells whereas it suppressed PGDH in PRA overexpression cells. Knockdown of c-Jun resulted in a loss of progesterone- and DEX-induced effects. PGDH was down-regulated in chorion tissues during labor. PRB was decreased whereas PRA and GR were increased in chorion during labor. Glucocorticoids inhibit PGDH expression via GR in chorionic trophoblasts. Progesterone enhances PGDH expression through PRB, whereas it inhibits PGDH expression via GR and PRA. Decreased PGDH expression is associated with increased GR and PRA, although decreased PRB, in chorion during labor.

  9. Parathion, a cholinesterase-inhibiting plaguicide induces changes in tertiary villi of placenta of women exposed: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levario-Carrillo, M; Feria-Velasco, A; De Celis, R; Ramos-Martínez, E; Córdova-Fierro, L; Solís, F J

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe the anatomy of placentas from women who were at risk of exposure to parathion during their pregnancy, when examined with the light and scanning electron microscopes. Twenty term placentas were analyzed; 10 from women living in an agricultural area, who were at risk of exposure to parathion during their pregnancy, and 10 from women living in an urban area, not expressly exposed to pesticides. Each sample was examined with both light and scanning electron microscopes. Cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced in blood from women of the exposed group. In some placentas of women exposed to parathion, recent microinfarctions, microcalcifications and increased deposition of fibrinoid material were seen, along with a larger proportion of atypical characteristics of villi, such as bullous and balloon-like formations with nonhomogeneous surface, and other areas devoid of microvilli. These observations suggest that in chronic exposure to pesticides, the rate of atypical characteristics of placental villi increases, which could be related to changes in the fetus biology. In this study, one newborn from the exposed group showed intrauterine growth retardation and another one, some signs of hypoxia.

  10. Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin improve clinical outcomes in PCOS patients undergoing AIH%促性腺激素释放激素激动剂联合小剂量人绒毛膜促性腺激素诱发排卵改善多囊卵巢综合征患者夫精人工授精的临床结局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤海瑜; 刘红艳; 高天旸; 全燕; 梁营秋; 任欣; 李瑾; 陈海霞; 王保平; 陈南侨

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical outcomes of using GnRHa alone or combination of GnRHa and hCG to induce follicular maturation in PCOS patients on ovulation induction. Methods Retrospectively analyzed 125 cases of PCOS patients performed AIH, using GnRHa (GnRHa group, 61 cases) alone or combination of GnRHa and hCG (GnRHa+hCG group, 64 cases) to induce follicular maturation, compared the two groups‟ ovulation number, ovulation rate, serum E2 and P levels a week after ovulation, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and the incidence of OHSS and LUFS. Results There were no significant difference in age, duration of infertility, infertility type, BMI, base serum FSH, LH, PRL, E2 and T levels in the two groups. The Gn dosage and days, number of follicles (≥14 mm), serum E2, P level and endometrial thickness differences at HCG day were not statistically significant in two groups except serum LH. The ovulation number, ovulation rate, serum E2 and P levels a week after ovulation, LUF and OHSS incidence in two groups were no significant difference on the rate. There were no significant difference in biochemical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, live birth rates in two groups of patients, but GnRHa+hCG group‟s clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher than GnRHa group (25.0% and 11.5%, respectively, P=0.05). We also found that there were five cases of twin pregnancies in GnRHa+hCG group, but no case of twin pregnancy in GnRHa group. Conclusion Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin could optimize clinical pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing AIH, and did not increase the risk of OHSS.%目的:比较单独使用促性腺激素释放激素激动剂(GnRHa)与 GnRHa 联合小剂量人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)诱发排卵在多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者促排卵后行夫精人工授精(AIH)的临床

  11. 南昌地区妊娠14~20周妇女血清甲胎蛋白和游离绒毛膜促性腺激素的MOM值测定及临床应用%Detection and clinical application of MOM values of serum alpha-fetoprotein and free human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnant women during 14~20 gestational weeks in Nanchang region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖华; 刘艳秋; 刘淮

    2011-01-01

    目的:运用计算出的AFP及F-βHCG的MOM值与目前采用的MOM值对孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,期待能更有效地筛查出南昌地区胎儿神经管缺陷及唐氏综合征高危孕妇.方法:依据2005~2007年到江西省妇幼保健院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇各孕周AFP、F-βHCG的中位数,计算出AFP、F-βHCG的MOM值,用计算出的MOM值(研究组)和目前采用的MOM值(对照组)分别对2008年来该院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,对筛查出的高危孕妇进行羊水检测和随访,比较两种MOM值对胎儿神经管缺陷畸形和唐氏综合征筛查的阳性率、假阴性率及假阳性率.结果:神经管缺陷畸形、唐氏综合征阳性率研究组高于对照组,具有统计学意义(P<0.01);假阴性率研究组与对照组比较,结果无统计学意义;假阳性率研究组较对照组降低,结果具有统计学意义,(神经管缺陷畸形P<0.05,唐氏综合征P<0.01).结论:应用本地区MOM值进行神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,能更有效地筛查出本地区的神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征胎儿.%Objective: To screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome by calculated MOM values and values currently used of serum alpha - fetoprotein (AFP) and free β human chorionic gonadotropin (F - β HCG) in pregnant women, in order to screen out the high risk pregnant women of fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome in Nanchang region.Methods: The MOM values of AFP and F - β HCG were calculated according to the medians of AFP and F - β HCG in pregnant women of different gostational weeks who visited the prenatal diagnosis outpatient of the hospital from 2005 to 2007, then the calculated MOM values ( study group) and the MOM values currently used ( control group) were used to screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome among the pregnant women who visited the prenatal

  12. Size does matter - Determination of the critical molecular size for the uptake of chemicals across the chorion of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelka, Katharina E; Henn, Kirsten; Keck, Andreas; Sapel, Benjamin; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2016-12-21

    In order to identify the upper limits of the molecular size of chemicals to cross the chorion of zebrafish, Danio rerio, differently sized, non-toxic and chemically inert polyethylene glycols (PEGs; 2000-12,000Da) were applied at concentrations (9.76mM) high enough to provoke osmotic pressure. Whereas small PEGs were expected to be able to cross the chorion, restricted uptake of large PEGs was hypothesized to result in shrinkage of the chorion. Due to a slow, but gradual uptake of PEGs over time, molecular size-dependent equilibration in conjunction with a regain of the spherical chorion shape was observed. Thus, the size of molecules able to cross the chorion could be narrowed down precisely to ≤4000Da, and the time-dependency of the movement across the chorion could be described. To account for associated alterations in embryonic development, fish embryo toxicity tests (FETs) according to OECD test guideline 236 (OECD, 2013) were performed with special emphasis to changes in chorion shape. FETs revealed clear-cut size-effects: the higher the actual molecular weight (=size) of the PEG, the more effects (both acutely toxic and sublethal) were found. No effects were seen with PEGs of 2000 and 3000Da. In contrast, PEG 8000 and PEG 12,000 were found to be most toxic with LC50 values of 16.05 and 16.40g/L, respectively. Likewise, the extent of chorion shrinkage due to increased osmotic pressure strictly depended on PEG molecular weight and duration of exposure. A reflux of water and PEG molecules into the chorion and a resulting re-shaping of the chorion could only be observed for eggs exposed to PEGs ≤4000Da. Results clearly indicate a barrier function of the zebrafish chorion for molecules larger than 3000 to 4,000Da.

  13. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, A J; Jensen, P K; Hertz, Jens Michael;

    1988-01-01

    First trimester prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was attempted in 350 pregnancies after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling. The cytogenetic investigation was performed using both a short-term method (24 h incubation) and cell culture. Adequate samples were obtained in 99.1 per cent and in all...... of 181 cases where the 24 h incubation revealed a male karyotype. Studies of culture morphology showed that colonies of convoluted cells may serve as a marker for contamination with maternal cells in culture. For the present, we recommend using a short-term method as well as cell culture for cytogenetic...

  14. Shape matching algorithm to validate the tracing protocol of placental chorionic surface vessel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R.G.; Salafia, C.M.; Girardi, T.; Conrad, L.; Keaty, K.

    2015-01-01

    Variability in placental chorionic surface vessel networks (PCSVNs) may mark developmental and functional changes in fetal health. Here we report a protocol of manually tracing PCSVNs from digital 2D images of post-delivery placentas and its validation by a shape matching method to compare the similarity between paint-injected and unmanipulated (uninjected and deflated vessels) tracings of PCSVNs. We show that tracings of unmanipulated vessels produce networks that are very comparable to the networks obtained by tracing paint-injected PCSVNs. We suggest that manual tracings of unmanipulated PCSVNs can extract features of PCSVN growth and structure that may impact fetal wellbeing. PMID:26100723

  15. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Kedige, Suresh D; Jain, Kanu

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  16. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining and chorion (a layer next to it, have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  17. The effect of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor on the proliferation of human chorionic cells in vitro%表皮生长因子和成纤维细胞生长因子对绒毛细胞体外增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪莲; 赵坤; 谢梅青; 谢建生; 姚吉龙; 古艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective; To study the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on the proliferation of human trophoblastic cells. Methods: 12 samples of human first trimester villus tissue and 16 samples villus tissue of reappear a-bortion were used. The confluent cells were digested, cultured with different concentrations of EGF, FGF, EGF + FGF or for 24, 48 and 72h. The proliferation and apoptosis of cells were detected by MTT method and TUNEL staining. Results: The speed of cell growth was increased with the concentration of 10. Ong/ml EGF and FGF ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion; EGF or FGF can control the proliferation of human trophoblastic cells. EGF or FGF significantly promoted the proliferation of human trophoblastic cells at a definite concentration. The cooperation of EGF and FGF exhibits the best result.%目的 探讨表皮生长因子(EGF),成纤维细胞生长因子(FGF),对人绒毛滋养层细胞体外生长的调控作用.方法 对12例人早孕绒毛离体组织及16例复发性流产绒毛进行体外分离培养,细胞汇合后消化,做细胞增殖试验,在相同的生长期加入EGF,FGF,EGF+FGF培养24,48,72h,用MTT法、DNA切口末端标记法测定EGF,FCF对2组绒毛滋养层细胞的作用.结果 10.0ng/ml EGF及FGF刺激细胞生长,EGF +FGF刺激细胞生长的作用最强,10.0ng/ml EGF,FCF不刺激细胞凋亡,两组结果具有一致性,MTT法、DNA切口末端标记法结果一致.结论 人滋养层细胞的生长受到EGF,FGF的调控,EGF及FGF具有促进细胞增殖作用;EGF,FGF联合应用具有最佳的协同效应.

  18. Analysis of embryo villi chromosomal abnormality in missed abortion%稽留流产胚胎绒毛染色体异常的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静; 张立军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨稽留流产与胚胎染色体异常之间的关系。方法在无菌条件下,采集87例首次稽留流产患者的胚胎绒毛,采用长期培养法制备绒毛染色体标本,进行绒毛320~400条带染色体分析。结果有84例绒毛染色体制备成功,绒毛培养的成功率为96.6%,其中发现核型异常45例(核型异常发生率为53.6%),染色体数目异常43例(染色体数目异常发生率为95.6%)。年龄≥35岁的患者核型异常的发生率为71.4%,<35岁的患者核型异常的发生率为44.6%,两者比较有显著性差异(χ2=5.385,P<0.05)。结论染色体数目异常是稽留流产的重要原因之一,尤其是≥35岁患者的染色体数目异常的发生率明显升高。绒毛染色体分析是稽留流产病因诊断的重要手段,可为再次生育提供优生指导依据。%Objective To explore the relationship between missed abortion and embryo chromosomal abnormality .Methods Under aseptic conditions , embryo villi of 87 cases of missed abortion for the first time were collected , and long-term culture of villi chromosome specimens was prepared for 320-400 banding chromosome analysis .Results Totally 84 cases of villi chromosome were successfully prepared , with the successful rate of 96.6%.There were 45 cases with abnormal karyotype ( incidence of 53.6%) and 43 cases with abnormal chromosome number (incidence of 95.6%).The incidence of abnormal karyotype in patients older than and equal to 35 was 71.4%, and that in patients younger than 35 was 44.6%.The difference was significant (χ2 =5.385,P<0.05).Conclusion Abnormal chromosome number is one of the important causes of missed abortion .The incidence of chromosome number abnormality is especially high in patients older than and equal to 35.Villi chromosome analysis is an important means of diagnosing missed abortion pathogeny , and it can provide basis for guidance of eugenics in birth

  19. Superovulation using the combined administration of inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin increases the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Takeo

    Full Text Available Superovulation is a reproductive technique generally used to produce genetically engineered mice. Superovulation in mice involves the administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG to promote follicle growth and then that of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG to induce ovulation. Previously, some published studies reported that inhibin antiserum (IAS increased the number of ovulated oocytes in ddY and wild-derived strains of mice. However, the effect of IAS on the C57BL/6 strain, which is the most widely used inbred strain for the production of genetically engineered mice, has not been investigated. In addition, the combined effect of IAS and eCG (IASe on the number of ovulated oocytes in superovulation treatment has not been examined. In this study, we examined the effect of IAS and eCG on the number of ovulated oocytes in immature female mice of the C57BL/6 strain in superovulation treatment. Furthermore, we evaluated the quality of obtained oocytes produced by superovulation using IASe by in vitro fertilization (IVF with sperm from C57BL/6 or genetically engineered mice. The developmental ability of fresh or cryopreserved embryos was examined by embryo transfer. The administration of IAS or eCG had a similar effect on the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice. The number of ovulated oocytes increased to about 3-fold by the administration of IASe than by the administration of IAS or eCG alone. Oocytes derived from superovulation using IASe normally developed into 2-cell embryos by IVF using sperm from C57BL/6 mice. Fresh or cryopreserved 2-cell embryos produced by IVF between oocytes of C57BL/6 mice and sperm from genetically engineered mice normally developed into live pups following embryo transfer. In summary, a novel technique of superovulation using IASe is extremely useful for producing a great number of oocytes and offspring from genetically engineered mice.

  20. Superovulation using the combined administration of inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin increases the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Toru; Nakagata, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Superovulation is a reproductive technique generally used to produce genetically engineered mice. Superovulation in mice involves the administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) to promote follicle growth and then that of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce ovulation. Previously, some published studies reported that inhibin antiserum (IAS) increased the number of ovulated oocytes in ddY and wild-derived strains of mice. However, the effect of IAS on the C57BL/6 strain, which is the most widely used inbred strain for the production of genetically engineered mice, has not been investigated. In addition, the combined effect of IAS and eCG (IASe) on the number of ovulated oocytes in superovulation treatment has not been examined. In this study, we examined the effect of IAS and eCG on the number of ovulated oocytes in immature female mice of the C57BL/6 strain in superovulation treatment. Furthermore, we evaluated the quality of obtained oocytes produced by superovulation using IASe by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with sperm from C57BL/6 or genetically engineered mice. The developmental ability of fresh or cryopreserved embryos was examined by embryo transfer. The administration of IAS or eCG had a similar effect on the number of ovulated oocytes in C57BL/6 female mice. The number of ovulated oocytes increased to about 3-fold by the administration of IASe than by the administration of IAS or eCG alone. Oocytes derived from superovulation using IASe normally developed into 2-cell embryos by IVF using sperm from C57BL/6 mice. Fresh or cryopreserved 2-cell embryos produced by IVF between oocytes of C57BL/6 mice and sperm from genetically engineered mice normally developed into live pups following embryo transfer. In summary, a novel technique of superovulation using IASe is extremely useful for producing a great number of oocytes and offspring from genetically engineered mice.

  1. Feeding of different levels of metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, fecal microflora, volatile fatty acids and villi height in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Teck C; Thanh, Nguyen T; Foo, Hooi L; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Azhar, Bin K

    2010-04-01

    The effects of feeding different dosages of metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456) on the performance of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 504 male Ross broilers were grouped into 7 treatments and offered different diets: (i) standard corn-soybean based diet (negative control); (ii) standard corn-soybean based diet +100 ppm neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control); (iii) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.1% metabolite combination of L. plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (Com3456); (iv) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.2% of Com3456; (v) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.3% of Com3456 (vi) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.4% of Com3456 and (vii) standard corn-soybean based diet + 0.5% of Com3456. Supplementation of Com3456 with different dosages improved growth performance, reduced Enterobacteriaceae and increased lactic acid bacteria count, and increased villi height of small intestine and fecal volatile fatty acid concentration. Treatment with 0.4% and 0.2% Com3456 had the best results, especially in terms of growth performance, feed conversion ratio and villi height among other dosages. However, the dosage of 0.2% was recommended due to its lower concentration yielding a similar effect as 0.4% supplementation. These results indicate that 0.2% is an optimum level to be included in the diets of broiler in order to replace antibiotic growth promoters.

  2. Oxytocin receptor expression in human term and preterm gestational tissues prior to and following the onset of labour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DC Wathes; SC Borwick; PM Timmons; ST Leung; S Thornton

    1999-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA expression has previously been demonstrated in human myometrium, decidua, chorion and amnion but the effect of gestational age and the onset of labour has not been determined in these individual tissues...

  3. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  4. Prediction of miscarriage and stillbirth at 11-13 weeks and the contribution of chorionic villus sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akolekar, Ranjit; Bower, Sarah; Flack, Nicola; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Nicolaides, Kypros H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To derive models for estimating risk of miscarriage and stillbirth from maternal characteristics and findings of first-trimester screening for aneuploidies and to define the procedure-related risk of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) after adjusting for these factors. Method We examined 33

  5. Fetal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms and maternal serum AFP before and after first-trimester transabdominal chorionic villus sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Brezinka (Christoph); A.M. Hagenaars (A.); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractDoppler flow velocity waveform recording in the fetal ductus venosus and umbilical artery as well as maternal blood sampling for serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) was performed before and after transabdominal chorion villus sampling (TACVS) in 36 women of advanced maternal age (≥ 36 years)

  6. Optimization and Performance Assessment of the Chorion-Off [Dechorinated] Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzica-Kelly, Julieta M; Zhang, Cindy X; Augustine-Rauch, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    The Dechorinated Zebrafish Embryo Developmental toxicity assay was originally developed from a training set of 31 compounds and reported to be 87% concordant with in vivo teratogenicity data (Brannen, K. C., Panzica-Kelly, J. M., Danberry, T. L., and Augustine-Rauch, K. A. (2010). Development of a zebrafish embryo teratogenicity assay and quantitative prediction model. Birth Defects Res. 89, 66-77.). The assay includes scoring larva treated in a concentration range for malformations of specific morphological structures/organ systems. The model includes identifying a no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and the concentration resulting in 25% lethality (LC25) at 5 days postfertilization. An LC25/NOAEL ratio ≥10 classifies a compound positive for teratogenic potential. A consortium effort evaluated a modified version of this assay which involved enzymatic chorion treatment instead of manual dissection and used experimental replicates for final classification. The modified assay achieved an 85% overall predictivity (Gustafson, A. L., Stedman, D. B., Ball, J., Hillegass, J. M., Flood, A., Zhang, C. X., Panzica-Kelly, J., Cao, J., Coburn, A., Enright, B. P., et al. (2012). Inter-laboratory assessment of a harmonized zebrafish developmental toxicology assay - progress report on phase I. Reprod. Toxicol. 33, 155-164.). The objective of this study was to perform a thorough performance evaluation of the dechorinated assay by repeating the original training set and testing additional compounds in experimental replicates. When the initial training set was repeated with inclusion of experimental replicates, the overall predictivity was 83%. Model performance was tested with an additional 34 compounds and achieved overall predictivity of 74%. When the training and test sets were combined (63 compounds) the assay's final sensitivity was 83% and the specificity was 71%. Total predictivity was 78% with relatively balanced predictivity for nonteratogens (77%) and teratogens (78%). The

  7. Induction of follicular luteinization by equine chorionic gonadotropin in cyclic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-rong; Wang, Wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2015-12-01

    The effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on follicular development and ovulation in cyclic guinea pigs were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Three groups of guinea pigs (n=12) were administrated subcutaneously with saline, 20 or 50 IU of eCG, respectively, on cyclic Day 12 (Day 1=vaginal openings). Ovaries were collected at 4 and 8 d after administration (6 animals per group each time). The eCG administration induced significant and distinct morphological changes in the ovaries, as it promoted the luteinization of granulosa cells, but not follicular development. In addition, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were immunolocalized specifically in luteinized follicles. Our experiments together indicate that eCG administration can induce follicular luteinization but not superovulation in guinea pigs. The eCG in cyclic guinea pigs functions similar to that of luteinizing hormone (LH), but not follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

  8. Fetal loss rate after chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis: an 11-year national registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, A; Vestergaard, C H F; Lidegaard, Ø

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the fetal loss rate following amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS). METHODS: This was a national registry-based cohort study, including all singleton pregnant women who had an amniocentesis (n = 32 852) or CVS (n = 31 355) in Denmark between 1996 and 2006. Personal...... registration numbers of women having had an amniocentesis or a CVS were retrieved from the Danish Central Cytogenetic Registry, and cross-linked with the National Registry of Patients to determine the outcome of each pregnancy. Postprocedural fetal loss rate was defined as miscarriage or intrauterine demise...... before 24 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: The miscarriage rates were 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3-1.5) after amniocentesis and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.7-2.0) after CVS. The postprocedural loss rate for both procedures did not change during the 11-year study period, and was not correlated with maternal age. The number...

  9. Expression and immunolocalisation of the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin in the human yolk sac and placenta across gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, K A; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Cindrova-Davies, T

    2013-11-01

    Megalin and cubilin are multifunctional endocytic receptors associated with many transporting epithelia. They play an essential role in transport of nutrients through the visceral yolk sac of rodents during embryogenesis. Here, we immunolocalise them to the endodermal layer of the human yolk sac, and to the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells of placental villi. In villi, the protein level of both receptors increased with gestation. The mRNA for megalin remained constant, while that encoding cubilin increased with gestation. These results suggest megalin and cubilin may be important in human maternal-fetal transfer, and that they increase across gestation to facilitate this function.

  10. Structural and functional analysis of rare missense mutations in human chorionic gonadotrophin β-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Venclovas, Česlovas; Rull, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    from Estonia, Finland and Denmark] using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The mutation CGB5 p.Val56Leu (rs72556325) was identified in a single heterozygous RM patient and caused a structural hindrance in the formation of the hCGα/β dimer. Although the amount of the mutant hCGβ assembled...

  11. Effect the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG hormone following superovulation treatment in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polmer Situmorang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A numbers of studies had been reported to evaluate the effect of hormone for superovulation treatment in buffaloes, however the numbers of embryo recovered is still very small. One of the limiting factors which affect the numbers of embryo recovered is preovulatery LH concentration. The experiment was carried out to study the effect of hCG following superovulation treatments in buffaloes as an effort to increase the embryo recovered. Ten (10 buffaloes in three different genotypes (Riverine, swamp and its crosses were superovulated using follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. A total of 12 ml FSH (Folltropin was injected intramuscularry twice a day with 12 hours interval in a decreasing doses for 4 days (2.5, 2.5; 2.0, 2.0; 1.0, 1.0 and 0.5, 0.5 ml. Prostaglandin was injected intramuscularry 2 days after the first injection of FSH followed by administration of 500 IU hCG two days later. At the same days of administration of hCG, artificial insemination (AI using frozen semen was conducted and repeated again after 12 and 24 hours. Blood collecting was conducted 3 times a week for obtaining the progesteron level of plasma blood. Embryo was collected by non-surgically technique on day 6 of estrus cycle by flushing each horn of uterus with 500 ml Dubelco's Phosphat Buffer Saline (DBPS. Parameter recorded were diameter of ovary (DO, total corpus luteum (TCL, number of embryo collected (NE, percentage of recovery rate (%RR and peak progesteron level (PP. Administration of hCG significantly increase the response of buffalo to superovulation treatment. The mean of DO (cm, TCL, NE and RR (% was 4.0, 6.3, 2.1 and 37.2 and 4.5, 7.5, 3.9 and 48.1 for controll and 500 IU hCG respectively. The mean NE was significantly higher (P<0.05 in hCG than those control. The peak progesterone concentration was highly significant higher (P<0.01 in hCG (8.9 ng/ml than those control (6.8 ng/ml. Both left and right ovary gave a similar response to superovulation treatments. In conclusion the admission of hCG following superovulation treatments using folltrophin increase the number of embryos recovered.

  12. Midtrimester serum B-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin levels and the subsequent development of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddami Tabrizi N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is one of the commonest conditions peculiar to pregnancy, to describe the occurrence of hypertension, proteinuria and edema in pregnancy. It is about seven times more frequent in first gestation and uncommon before 20 week's gestation. Serum BhCG levels were prospectively determined in 260 midtrimester singleton pregnancies where admitted from October 1999 until September 2000 at Mirza Kouchak Khan hospital, prenatal clinic. Obstetric chart review was undertaken after delivery to identify cases in which pre eclampsia developed. The median maternal age was 26.0 years, and the median gestational age at the time of blood collection was 19.0 weeks. Of these, 17 cases (6.5 percent had pre eclampsia. The median level of the BhCG was 35060.5 mlu/ml in those with pre eclampsia, whereas that in those without pre eclampsia was 33755.1 mlu/ml. The difference was not significant (P=0.28. Although elevated midtrimester serum BhCG levels in clinically normal patients was reported in severaly pre eclampsia women, this is not a good test for early detection of mild pre eclampsia.

  13. Hourly human chorionic gonadotropin secretion profiles during the peri-implantation period of successful pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohstroh, Pete N; Overstreet, James W; Stewart, Dennis R; Nakajima, Steven T; Cragun, Jeffrey R; Boyers, Stephen P; Lasley, Bill L

    2007-06-01

    To characterize the hourly profiles of hCG secretion in blood during conceptive cycles that ended in successful pregnancy. Prospective study. University fertility clinic and research laboratories. Healthy spontaneously ovulating women with regular menses, no history of infertility, and either no male partner or an azospermic partner. Frequent blood samples were collected daily from 11 spontaneously ovulating women during 11 cycles of artifical insemination with donor semen. The concentrations of hCG, LH, and FSH were measured in the blood by immunoassay. The concentration of hCG in the frequent blood samples and the rate that the concentration of hCG changed during the period of frequent sampling. For the conceptive cycles resulting in successful pregnancies analyzed, hourly hCG concentrations were observed to increase in a consistent nonpulsatile manner. These data provide the first characterization of the hourly secretion profile of hCG in early pregnancy as well as provide further evidence that individual daily blood samples are sufficient for the accurate assessment of pregnancy.

  14. Heterogeneity of human chorionic gonadotropin in various biological fluids as revealed by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S C; Hsieh, C Y; Ouyang, P C; Chen, H C

    1989-01-01

    This study demonstrates that chromatofocusing is powerful in analyzing multiple forms of hCG from biological fluids. For analyzing hCG from biological fluids, it is necessary to perform chromatofocusing, in the range of pH 6.2-3.0 and pH 9.0-6.0. By chromatofocusing, highly purified hCG (CR121) was found to be acidic, in the range of pI 4.22-3.8, and hCG beta was more acidic, in the range of pI 4.0-3.2. Moreover, hCG from the first trimester pregnancy, hydatidiform mole or choriocarcinoma was also mainly acidic. Therefore, chromatofocusing in the range of 6.2-3.0 was suitable for analyzing purified hCG, hCG beta, and urinary hCG from the first trimester pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. On the other hand, because hCG in the third trimester pregnancy and the toxemia of pregnancy were mainly alkaline, the chromatofocusing system in the range of pH 9.0-6.0 was suitable for analyzing hCG from the third trimester pregnancy and the toxemia of pregnancy.

  15. The Effect of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Treatment Before Testicular Sperm Extraction in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Gul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate our experience on empirical hCG treatment of patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA. Material and Method: hCG group consisted of 34 patients who were empirically treated with hCG despite normal serum FSH and LH levels and normal testicular volumes. hCG was administered as 2500 IU twice weekly subcutaneous injections for 10 to 14 weeks prior to testicular sperm extraction (TESE. Control group consisted of 49 age and spouse age matched patients who underwent TESE in the same time period. Sperm retrieval rate (SRR, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, lutenizing hormone (LH and testosterone levels, volume of testicles, fertilization rate (FR, implantation rate (IR, pregnancy rate (PR, live birth rate (LBR and cancel rate (CR and surgical technique were compared between the two groups. Results: Conventional technique was used in 14 of the 17 patients (82.3% with successful sperm retrieval in the hCG group, and 18 of the 28 patients (64.3% in the control group (p=0.170. There were no differences between groups in terms of SRR (p=0.338. There were no significant differences in patient age, mean infertility period, mean values of FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol levels, and testis volume between the two groups (p>0.05. There were no statistically significant differences for FR, IR, PR, LBR between the two groups (p>0.05. Discussion: Empirical hCG treatment in patients with idiopathic NOA did not result in improved SRR. hCG treatment did not have any effect on the success of ICSI.

  16. Standardization of Epitopes for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Peter; Lapthorn, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    hCG and its variants are markers for pregnancy tests, pregnancyrelated complications, trophoblastic diseases, pre-natal screening of Down's syndrome and doping controls. Strong demands are imposed on diagnostic methods by the dynamic changes in the absolute and relative levels of hCG protein backbone variants and glycosylation isoforms in serum and urine during development of pregnancy or the progression/remission of tumors. Observed differences in the results between commercial diagnostic immunoassays reflect the unequal molar recognition of the different metabolic hCG variants, in particular the hCG beta core fragment (hCGβcf), by the diagnostic antibodies (Abs), as their epitopes are not standardized, and the fact that suboptimal hCG standards are used. To rapidly characterize Abs by their epitope recognition and specificity to evaluate their suitability for diagnostic immunoassays a procedure of comparative epitope mapping has been developed using epitope-defined reference Abs. Comparative epitope mapping of diagnostic Abs will provide the basis for the standardization of diagnostic antigenic domains/epitopes and consequently for improved reliability of hCG measurements. Diagnostic first line assays likely consist of pairs of Abs that recognize specific epitopes at the top of the neighboring peptide loops 1 and 3 (Ł1+3) and the cystine knot (ck) of hCGβ, respectively. In future, significant improvements of reliability, robustness and comparability of the results of immunoassays for complex glycoproteins such as hCG will be achieved by the use (i) of standardized diagnostic Abs against welldefined epitopes and (ii) of the new International Standards for hCG and for five hCG variants established by WHO, that are calibrated in molar (SI) units.

  17. Acquired uterine vascular abnormalities associated with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin: Experience at a Korean teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Hye Ju

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: When the uterine vascular lesion is not decreased, or if weekly clinical follow-up reveals that the serum β-hCG level is persistently elevated or sustained in conjunction with vaginal hemorrhage, a proper management strategy is required.

  18. Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling in the invasive prenatal diagnoses:a report of 60 cases%经腹绒毛取样侵入性产前诊断60例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田矛; 覃婷; 张继红; 伍欣; 万里凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:总结早孕期经腹绒毛取样( transabdominal chorionic villus sampling,TA-CVS)操作的适应证、并发症及胎儿结局。方法选取该院门诊孕妇60例,单胎妊娠,平均年龄(29.27±4.1)岁,平均孕周(12.61±0.86)周。手术适应证为胎儿染色体异常高危因素20例;双亲同型地贫携带者42例。无手术禁忌证,术前测量体温、血压、脉搏。超声引导TA-CVS,52例标本送染色体核型分析(染色体高危因素20例,因地贫基因诊断而同时送检32例),42例送检地中海贫血基因(β-地贫11例,α-地贫31例)。结果检出β-地贫双重杂合子或纯合子6例,重型α-地贫8例,血红蛋白H病6例。7例超声检测胎儿水肿/颈部囊性水囊瘤中检出常染色体三体3例。无手术并发症。1例术后2周流产,流产率为1.67%。结论 TA-CVS的优点在于早诊断、早干预,且胎儿丢失率低。主要产前诊断适应证是单基因遗传病和早孕期超声检测异常病例的染色体病检出。%Objective To summarize the indications and the complications of transabdominal chorionic villus sampling( TA-CVS) in the first trimester of pregnancy.Methods 60 women with single pregnancy came from the outpatient department of obstetrics in our hospital.Their average age was ( 29.27 ± 4.1 ) years, and their average gestational age were (12.61 ±0.86)weeks.The indications of the procedure included the suspicion of the fetal chro-mosomal disorder(20 cases), and coupling with the same type thalassemia carrier(42 cases).The body temperature, blood pressure, and pulse were measured before the TA-CVS.The samples of villi were sent to check the karyotypes, or detect the thalassemia genotypes.Results The homozygote or double heterozygote of β-thalassemia were detected in 6 cases, severeα-thalassemia in 8 cases, and hemoglobin H disease in 6 cases.Autosomal trisomy was detected in 3 cases out of 7 fetus edema/cystic hydroma

  19. Quantification of urinary chorionic gonadotropin in spontaneous abortion of pre-clinically recognized pregnancy: method development and analytical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Fátima; Aniceto, Pedro; Aguiar, Pedro; Simão, Filipa; Segurado, Susana

    2007-05-01

    Determination of environmental impacts on reproductive health and specifically on the incidence of early spontaneous abortion requires accurate estimates of the latter. This negative reproductive outcome can be detected by the pattern of elevation and decline of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels near and shortly beyond the expected time of implantation, requiring daily biomonitoring of hCG levels during the relevant period of the menstrual cycle. Prospective pregnancy studies to assess effects of potentially toxic exposures on human reproductive outcomes can involve up to three menstrual cycles and a huge number of samples in each, for the quantification of the inherently very low hCG levels usually can be determined only in serum. The invasive nature of blood collection, the number of samples needed for the development of prospective studies, and the lack of quantitative methods for the determination of low hCG levels in urine point to the need for collecting urine rather than blood and make it imperative to develop suitable quantitative methods for biomonitoring of very low levels of hCG in urine. This paper describes the development and validation procedures of an automated solid-phase two-site chemiluminescent immunometric assay for the quantification of urinary hCG in early pregnancy and early pregnancy loss. For the validation, both undiluted and diluted urine and control samples have been prepared. From the results, it can be concluded that the assay has a calibration range that extends to 5000 mIU/ml, with a detection limit of approximately 1.2 mIU/ml, practically identical to that found by the IMMULITE 2000 manufacturer's validation study. The intra- and inter-assay precision ranges up to a maximum of around 7%, meaning that the practical limit for functional sensitivity can be established as low as 10%. This means that the immunoassay from DPC can identify, with relatively high confidence, non-pregnant women and the typical "rise and fall" pattern

  20. Chromosomal Mosaicism in Human Feto-Placental Development: Implications for Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana Grati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal mosaicism is one of the primary interpretative issues in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, the mechanisms underlying feto-placental chromosomal mosaicism are presented. Based on the substantial retrospective diagnostic experience with chorionic villi samples (CVS of a prenatal diagnosis laboratory the following items are discussed: (i The frequency of the different types of mosaicism (confined placental, CPM, and true fetal mosaicisms, TFM; (ii The risk of fetal confirmation after the detection of a mosaic in CVS stratified by chromosome abnormality and placental tissue involvement; (iii The frequency of uniparental disomy for imprinted chromosomes associated with CPM; (iv The incidence of false-positive and false-negative results in CVS samples analyzed by only (semi-direct preparation or long term culture; and (v The implications of the presence of a feto-placental mosaicism for microarray analysis of CVS and non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS.

  1. Amyloid-like fibrils from an 18-residue peptide analogue of a part of the central domain of the B-family of silkmoth chorion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconomidou, V A; Chryssikos, G D; Gionis, V; Vriend, G; Hoenger, A; Hamodrakas, S J

    2001-06-22

    Chorion is the major component of silkmoth eggshell. More than 95% of its dry mass consists of the A and B families of low molecular weight structural proteins, which have remarkable mechanical and chemical properties, and protect the oocyte and the developing embryo from the environment. We present data from negative staining, Congo red binding, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-Raman, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and modelling studies of a synthetic peptide analogue of a part of the central domain of the B family of silkmoth chorion proteins, indicating that this peptide folds and self-assembles, forming amyloid-like fibrils. These results support further our proposal, based on experimental data from a synthetic peptide analogue of the central domain of the A family of chorion proteins, that silkmoth chorion is a natural, protective amyloid [Iconomidou et al., FEBS Lett. 479 (2000) 141-145].

  2. The Autosomal Chorion Locus of the Medfly Ceratitis Capitata. I. Conserved Synteny, Amplification and Tissue Specificity but Sequence Divergence and Altered Temporal Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, D.; Konsolaki, M.; Tolias, P. P.; Kafatos, F. C.; Komitopoulou, K.

    1997-01-01

    We report the isolation, full sequence characterization, amplification and expression properties of medfly chorion genes corresponding to the autosomal chorion locus of Drosophila. These genes are found adjacent to the paramyosin gene and are organized in the same order and tandem orientation as their Drosophila homologues, although they are spaced further apart. They show substantial sequence divergence from their Drosophila homologues, including novel peptide repeats and a new spacing of the tyrosines, which are known to be cross-linked in Dipteran chorion. The genes are amplified and expressed during oogenesis, as in Drosophila. Three of them are expressed in the same relative temporal order as in Drosophila but the fourth gene, the homologue of s15, shows a clear shift to an earlier expression period. This is the first known instance of changed temporal regulation in dipteran chorion genes. PMID:9409839

  3. Zika Virus Infects Early- and Midgestation Human Maternal Decidual Tissues, Inducing Distinct Innate Tissue Responses in the Maternal-Fetal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisblum, Yiska; Oiknine-Djian, Esther; Vorontsov, Olesya M; Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Meir, Karen; Shveiky, David; Elgavish, Sharona; Nevo, Yuval; Roseman, Moshe; Bronstein, Michal; Stockheim, David; From, Ido; Eisenberg, Iris; Lewkowicz, Aya A; Yagel, Simcha; Panet, Amos; Wolf, Dana G

    2017-02-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a cause of congenital brain anomalies and a range of placenta-related abnormalities, highlighting the need to unveil the modes of maternal-fetal transmission. The most likely route of vertical ZIKV transmission is via the placenta. The earliest events of ZIKV transmission in the maternal decidua, representing the maternal uterine aspect of the chimeric placenta, have remained unexplored. Here, we show that ZIKV replicates in first-trimester human maternal-decidual tissues grown ex vivo as three-dimensional (3D) organ cultures. An efficient viral spread in the decidual tissues was demonstrated by the rapid upsurge and continued increase of tissue-associated ZIKV load and titers of infectious cell-free virus progeny, released from the infected tissues. Notably, maternal decidual tissues obtained at midgestation remained similarly susceptible to ZIKV, whereas fetus-derived chorionic villi demonstrated reduced ZIKV replication with increasing gestational age. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that ZIKV substantially upregulated the decidual tissue innate immune responses. Further comparison of the innate tissue response patterns following parallel infections with ZIKV and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) revealed that unlike HCMV, ZIKV did not induce immune cell activation or trafficking responses in the maternal-fetal interface but rather upregulated placental apoptosis and cell death molecular functions. The data identify the maternal uterine aspect of the human placenta as a likely site of ZIKV transmission to the fetus and further reveal distinct patterns of innate tissue responses to ZIKV. Our unique experimental model and findings could further serve to study the initial stages of congenital ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis and evaluate the effect of new therapeutic interventions. In view of the rapid spread of the current ZIKV epidemic and the severe manifestations of congenital ZIKV infection, it is crucial to learn

  4. Peroxidised dietary lipids impair intestinal function and morphology of the small intestine villi of nursery pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, David S; Odle, Jack; Moeser, Adam J; Boyd, R Dean; van Heugten, Eric

    2015-12-28

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing degrees of lipid peroxidation on structure and function of the small intestine of nursery pigs. A total of 216 pigs (mean body weight was 6·5 kg) were randomly allotted within weight blocks and sex and fed one of five experimental diets for 35 d (eleven pens per treatment with three to four pigs per pen). Treatments included a control diet without added lipid, and diets supplemented with 6 % soyabean oil that was exposed to heat (80°C) and constant oxygen flow (1 litre/min) for 0, 6, 9 and 12 d. Increasing lipid peroxidation linearly reduced feed intake (Pdigestibility of gross energy (P=0·001) and fat (PAbsorption of mannitol (linear, P=0·097) and d-xylose (linear, P=0·089), measured in serum 2 h post gavage with a solution containing 0·2 g/ml of d-xylose and 0·3 g/ml of mannitol, tended to decrease progressively as the peroxidation level increased. Increasing peroxidation also resulted in increased villi height (linear, Plipid peroxidation progressively diminished animal performance and modified the function and morphology of the small intestine of nursery pigs. Detrimental effects were related with the disruption of redox environment of the intestinal mucosa.

  5. Stereological Changes of Human Placenta in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Compared with Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that can cause changes in the placenta. In this study, quantitative changes of placenta were investigated using stereological methods.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 10 placentas from systemic lupus erythematosus pregnancy (antinuclear antibody>10, and 10 placentas from normal uncomplicated pregnancy were obtained from Imam Ali Hospital. Volume of placentas was estimated using Cavalieri's principle. 3 full-thickness columns of each placenta were taken using systematic uniform random sampling (SURS. After fixation in modified Lillie's solution, they were cut into 5 mm slices. 5-7 sections selected from each slice using SURS and stained by Masson’s trichrome. Then stereological analyses were done on 8-10 SURS fields of each section. Placental volume, absolute volume and volume density of chorionic villi, intervillous space, syncytiotrophoblast, fibrin and blood vessels in chorionic villi were estimated in both groups. The Mann Whitney-U test was employed to determine statistically significant differences between the means. Significant level was set at p<0.05.Results: Total volume and volume density of fibrin and total volume and volume density of blood vessels significantly increased in SLE group in comparison with control group (p<0.01. Volume density of syncytiotrophoblast increased 50% in SLE group in comparison with control group, this increase was statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: Results showed that systemic lupus erythematosus disease can cause significant changes in the structure of placenta that may be influential on the evolution and survival of fetus.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations of Maternal Circulation: Wall Shear Stress in the Human Placenta and Its Biological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, E.; Bhatt, M.; Bertin, G. I.; Deloison, B.; Salomon, L. J.; Deloron, P.; Fournier, T.; Barakat, A. I.; Tsatsaris, V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the human placenta the maternal blood circulates in the intervillous space (IVS). The syncytiotrophoblast (STB) is in direct contact with maternal blood. The wall shear stress (WSS) exerted by the maternal blood flow on the STB has not been evaluated. Our objective was to determine the physiological WSS exerted on the surface of the STB during the third trimester of pregnancy. Material and Methods To gain insight into the shear stress levels that the STB is expected to experience in vivo, we have formulated three different computational models of varying levels of complexity that reflect different physical representations of the IVS. Computations of the flow fields in all models were performed using the CFD module of the finite element code COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4. The mean velocity of maternal blood in the IVS during the third trimester was measured in vivo with dynamic MRI (0.94±0.14 mm.s-1). To investigate if the in silico results are consistent with physiological observations, we studied the cytoadhesion of human parasitized (Plasmodium falciparum) erythrocytes to primary human STB cultures, in flow conditions with different WSS values. Results The WSS applied to the STB is highly heterogeneous in the IVS. The estimated average values are relatively low (0.5±0.2 to 2.3±1.1 dyn.cm-2). The increase of WSS from 0.15 to 5 dyn.cm-2 was associated with a significant decrease of infected erythrocyte cytoadhesion. No cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes was observed above 5 dyn.cm-2 applied for one hour. Conclusion Our study provides for the first time a WSS estimation in the maternal placental circulation. In spite of high maternal blood flow rates, the average WSS applied at the surface of the chorionic villi is low (<5 dyn.cm-2). These results provide the basis for future physiologically-relevant in vitro studies of the biological effects of WSS on the STB. PMID:26815115

  7. Identification of Fetal Inflammatory Cells in Eosinophilic/T-cell Chorionic Vasculitis Using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Philip J; Li, LiQiong; Wang, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic/T-cell chorionic vasculitis (ETCV) is an inflammatory lesion of placental fetal vessels. In contrast to acute chorionic vasculitis, inflammation in ETCV is seen in chorionic vessel walls opposite the amnionic surface. It is not known whether inflammation in ETCV consists of maternal cells from the intervillous space or fetal cells migrating from the vessel. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to differentiate fetal versus maternal cells in ETCV. Placentas with ETCV, previously identified for a published study, were used. Infant sex in each case was identified using the electronic medical record. For male infants, 3-μm sections were cut from archived tissue blocks from placentas involving ETCV and stained with fluorescent X- and Y-chromosome centromeric probes. A consecutive hematoxylin/eosin-stained section was used for correlation. FISH analysis was performed on 400 interphase nuclei at the site of ETCV to determine the proportion of XX, XY, X, and Y cells. Of 31 ETCV cases, 20 were female and 10 were male (1 sex not recorded). Six of 10 cases with male infants had recuts with visible ETCV. In these 6 cases the average percentages (ranges) of XY cells, X-only cells, and Y-only cells in the region of inflammation were 81 (70-90), 11 (6-17), and 8 (2-14), respectively. There was a 2:1 female:male infant ratio in ETCV. Similar to acute chorionic vasculitis, the inflammation in ETCV is of fetal origin. It is still unknown, however, whether the stimulus for ETCV is of fetal or maternal origin.

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in the second-trimester human fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    midtrimester human fetuses with a gestational age ranging from 13 to 22 weeks. The first detectable EGF immunoreactivity occurred in week 15-16 fetuses in the placenta, the skin, the distal tubules of the kidney, the surface epithelium of the stomach, and the tips of the small intestinal villi, as well...

  9. Prenatal diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling in multiple pregnancies prior to fetal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Catte, L; Camus, M; Bonduelle, M; Liebaers, I; Foulon, W

    1998-05-01

    Ovulation induction and assisted-reproduction techniques have dramatically increased the incidence of high-risk multiple pregnancies over the past 10 years. Perinatal outcome may be improved by the use of multifetal reduction. The fetus to be reduced used to be selected only on technical grounds. We report on the results of prenatal diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) during the first trimester in 32 multifetal pregnancies in which fetal reduction was requested. The mean gestational age at CVS was 10.5 weeks. Chromosomal analyses were available for all sampled fetuses, three of which were chromosomally abnormal. In 24 couples, fetal reduction to twin pregnancies was successfully carried out within 1 week after the CVS. In seven cases, the couples elected not to proceed with fetal reduction after receiving information that the chromosomal analysis was normal in all fetuses. Mean gestational ages at delivery were, respectively, 34.6 and 31.8 weeks in the reduced and the nonreduced groups (p = 0.04). No fetal losses occurred in either group; one neonatal death was observed after a preterm delivery because of preeclampsia in a twin pregnancy. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis during the first trimester in multiple pregnancies prior to fetal reduction appears to be feasible, accurate, and safe. Abnormal chromosomal results indicate the fetus(es) to be reduced. The parents' decisions not to proceed with the fetal reduction procedure, where chromosomal results in all the fetuses were normal, were unexpected.

  10. Prenatal detection of chromosome aneuploidies in uncultured chorionic villus samples by FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryndorf, T.; Christensen, B.; Vad, M.; Philip, J. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    We developed a 1-d FISH assay for detection of numerical chromosome abnormalities in uncultured chorionic villus samples (CVS). Probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y were used to determine ploidy by analysis of signal number in hybridized nuclei. Aneuploidy detection using this assay was directly compared with the results obtained by conventional cytogenetic analysis in a consecutive, clinical study of 2,709 CVS and placental samples. The FISH assay yielded discrete differences in the signal profiles between cytogenetically normal and abnormal samples. On the basis of these results, we generated FISH-assay cutoff values that discriminated between karyotypically normal and aneuploid samples. Samples with mosaicism and a single sample with possible heritable small chromosome X probe target were exceptions and showed poor agreement between FISH results and conventional cytogenetics. We conclude that the FISH assay may act as a more accurate and less labor-demanding alternative to {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} CVS analysis. 22 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masanori T; Hosaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2006-08-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) influences the secretion of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) from the pineal gland. The present study examined the possible presence of LH/chorionic gonadotropin (CG) receptor in the pineal gland of adult female rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that LH/CG receptor mRNA is expressed in the pineal gland. Western blotting showed that the pineal gland, like the ovary, contains an 80 kDa receptor protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LH/CG receptor, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (a regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) and serotonin (a melatonin precursor) are localized primarily to the same cells of the pineal gland. We further found that the levels of pineal LH/CG receptor protein in normal cycling female rats change significantly during the estrous cycle, being lowest at early metestrus. These results demonstrate that LH/CG receptor is expressed in the pineal gland, primarily in melatonin-synthesizing cells, namely pinealocytes. Furthermore, it is suggested that LH influences pineal melatonin secretion through binding to this receptor. In addition, LH/CG receptor levels in the pineal gland are regulated during the estrous cycle under normal physiological conditions.

  12. Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis: 5 years' experience at a university centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, P; Piiroinen, O; Honkonen, E; Lakkala, T; Aula, P

    1994-03-01

    The fetal loss rates and fetal congenital birth defects in 821 transabdominal (TA) chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and 771 amniocentesis (AC) cases were evaluated from a 5-year period (1987-1991) at the University Central Hospital of Turku. The parents were given the option of choosing between the two sampling procedures. CVS was performed, in most cases, at 11 weeks of gestation; and AC, at 15 weeks. The rate of total post-procedure loss was 6.7 per cent in the CVS group and 4.4 per cent in the AC group (p = 0.08). The rate of spontaneous abortions was 1.9 per cent in the CVS group and 1.0 per cent in the AC group (p = 0.10). The number of birth defects was low in both study groups. No limb reduction cases were observed. Mosaicism was noted in 14 CVS cases and in five AC cases. We conclude that TA-CVS is a safe and practical alternative to AC in prenatal fetal karyotyping.

  13. Combined activities of Gurken and decapentaplegic specify dorsal chorion structures of the Drosophila egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, F; Roth, S

    2000-02-01

    During Drosophila oogenesis Gurken, associated with the oocyte nucleus, activates the Drosophila EGF receptor in the follicular epithelium. Gurken first specifies posterior follicle cells, which in turn signal back to the oocyte to induce the migration of the oocyte nucleus from a posterior to an anterior-dorsal position. Here, Gurken signals again to specify dorsal follicle cells, which give rise to dorsal chorion structures including the dorsal appendages. If Gurken signaling is delayed and starts after stage 6 of oogenesis the nucleus remains at the posterior pole of the oocyte. Eggs develop with a posterior ring of dorsal appendage material that is produced by main-body follicle cells expressing the gene Broad-Complex. They encircle terminal follicle cells expressing variable amounts of the TGFbeta homologue, decapentaplegic. By ectopically expressing decapentaplegic and clonal analysis with Mothers against dpp we show that Decapentaplegic signaling is required for Broad-Complex expression. Thus, the specification and positioning of dorsal appendages along the anterior-posterior axis depends on the intersection of both Gurken and Decapentaplegic signaling. This intersection also induces rhomboid expression and thereby initiates the positive feedback loop of EGF receptor activation, which positions the dorsal appendages along the dorsal-ventral egg axis.

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease agent reduces HIV-1 replication in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappa Stella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several factors determine the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, such as coinfections in placentas from HIV-1 positive mothers with other pathogens. Chagas' disease is one of the most endemic zoonoses in Latin America, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The purpose of the study was to determine whether T. cruzi modifies HIV infection of the placenta at the tissue or cellular level. Results Simple and double infections were carried out on a placental histoculture system (chorionic villi isolated from term placentas from HIV and Chagas negative mothers and on the choriocarcinoma BeWo cell line. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (VD lethal strain, either purified from mouse blood or from Vero cell cultures, 24 h-supernatants of blood and cellular trypomastigotes, and the VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 reporter virus were used for the coinfections. Viral transduction was evaluated by quantification of luciferase activity. Coinfection with whole trypomastigotes, either from mouse blood or from cell cultures, decreased viral pseudotype luciferase activity in placental histocultures. Similar results were obtained from BeWo cells. Supernatants of stimulated histocultures were used for the simultaneous determination of 29 cytokines and chemokines with the Luminex technology. In histocultures infected with trypomastigotes, as well as in coinfected tissues, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and MCP-1 production was significantly lower than in controls or HIV-1 transducted tissue. A similar decrease was observed in histocultures treated with 24 h-supernatants of blood trypomastigotes, but not in coinfected tissues. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the presence of an intracellular pathogen, such as T. cruzi, is able to impair HIV-1 transduction in an in vitro system of human placental histoculture. Direct effects of the parasite on cellular structures as well as on cellular/viral proteins essential for HIV-1 replication might influence

  15. Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester: does chorionicity impact on maternal serum free beta-hCG or PAPP-A levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K

    2001-09-01

    In a study of 180 twin pregnancies I have examined the distribution of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), in addition to fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), in twins classified as monochorionic or dichorionic, based on ultrasound appearance at 10-14 weeks of gestation. In 45 monochorionic and 135 dichorionic twin pregnancies the median MoM free beta-hCG was not significantly different (1.00 vs 1.01), whilst that for PAPP-A was lower (0.89 vs 1.01) but again with no statistical significance. Previous reports of an increased fetal NT in monochorionic twins pregnancies could not be confirmed (1.03 vs 1.00). It is concluded that the existing pseudo risk twin correction algorithm is appropriate for both monochorionic and dichorionic twins in providing accurate first trimester risks for trisomy 21. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin to enhance reproductive performance in aged rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa E. Elkomy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty low-conception rate does aged 18 to 24 months (in four groups were used to determine the effect of replacement of prostaglandin (PG F2α (PGF2α injection by oral administration with sunflower oil (Sun (rich in omega 6 or linseed oil (Lin (rich in omega 3 on reproductive and productive performance. Group 1 was injected with 20 U of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 54 h before artificial insemination (AI and used as reference group. Group 2 was injected with 20 U of eCG+0.5 mg of PGF2α, 54 h before AI. Group 3 was orally given 3 mL of Sun/doe/day, for seven consecutive days before AI+20 U of eCG, 54 h before AI. Group 4 was treated like Group 3 except that the oil was Lin. Aged does treated with eCG+Sun had elevated blood 17-β estradiol concentration (P≤0.01 accompanied with a decrease of progesterone concentrations compared to the other experimental groups. Contrarily, no significant differences were found between eCG+Lin and eCG+PGF2α treatments on the previous two hormones. Likewise, aged does treated with eCG+Sun and eCG+Lin were statistically similar to those injected with ECG+synthetic PGF2α on blood prostaglandin profile, but still significantly higher than the control group. Treatment with eCG+Sun increased the percentage of fertile does (P≤0.01 and the litter size at birth compared to the other experimental groups. In conclusion, replacement of the PGF2α injection by oral administration of Sun or Lin to aged does improved sexual hormone synthesis and secretion, litter size and bunny body weight at birth.

  17. Technique modifications for reducing the risks from amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujezinovic, Faris; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2012-08-15

    Currently, the techniques for amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) tend to be described in local and national guidelines, but certain aspects, including the choice of instruments, is predominantly based upon the operator's personal preference. A survey of practice in the specialist UK centres revealed a wide variation of practice; therefore, standardising any element of technique could potentially influence the safety of the procedure. The objective of this review was to compare the safety and effectiveness of all techniques of performing both amniocentesis and CVS for prenatal diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 April 2012). We included all randomised comparisons of different methods of performing amniocentesis after 15 weeks' gestation, or CVS (transabdominal or transvaginal) with each other or with no testing. We excluded quasi-randomised studies (e.g. alternate allocation). Both review authors independently assessed for inclusion all the potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Both review authors independently assessed trial quality. Both review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five randomised studies with total of 1049 women evaluating five different technique modifications during either amniocentesis (three studies) or CVS (two studies).For amniocentesis three interventions were evaluated - intramuscular progesterone, hexoprenaline and selecting high or low puncture sites for late 'blind' procedure - each intervention in a single small study. There was no conclusive evidence of benefit for any of them. The same applies for terbutaline tocolysis and use of continuous vacuum aspiration during CVS. Overall, the quality of evidence summarised in this review is not of sufficient quality to change current clinical practice. In the absence of clear evidence, the operators should continue to use methods and technique modifications with which

  18. Maternal anxiety and its correlation with pain experience during chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Katharina; Kundu, Sudip; Erlenwein, Joachim; Elsaesser, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Scharf, Alexander; Staboulidou, Ismini

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures, such as chorion villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC), are routinely performed to exclude or diagnose fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate anxiety-dependent pain experience during CVS and AC and the potential factors that increase anxiety and pain levels. Patients and methods During a 2-year period, women undergoing invasive procedures in three specialist centers were asked to participate in the study. Anxiety was evaluated before the procedure using the Spielberger State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory, and pain was evaluated directly after the procedure using a verbal rating scale. Results Among the women, 348/480 (73%) underwent AC, while 131/480 (27%) underwent CVS. There was a significant correlation between state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001). A positive correlation existed between the degree of anxiety and the level of pain experienced (p=0.01). There was a positive correlation for trait anxiety (p=0.0283) as well as for state anxiety (p=0.0001) and pain perception (p=0.0061) when invasive procedure was performed owing to abnormal ultrasound finding or to a history of fetal aneuploidy. Maternal age was found to be another influencing factor for the experienced pain (p=0.0016). Furthermore, the analysis showed a significant negative correlation between maternal age and anxiety. That applies for trait anxiety (p=0.0001) as well as for state anxiety (p=0.0001). The older the woman, the less anxious the reported feeling was in both groups. The main indication for undergoing CVS was abnormal ultrasound results (45%), and the main reason for undergoing AC was maternal age (58%). Conclusion Procedure-related pain intensity is highly dependent on the degree of anxiety before the invasive procedure. In addition, the indication has a significant impact on the emerging anxiety and consequential pain experiences. These influencing factors should therefore be considered during counseling

  19. MMP-2及TIMP-1、TIMP-2在自然流产绒毛和蜕膜组织中的表达及意义%Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1,2 in chorionic villi and deciduas from women with spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕荟明; 孙状壮; 李力男; 宋巍; 王卓然

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)及金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂-1(TIMP-1)和金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂-2(TIMP-2)在早孕自然流产绒毛和蜕膜组织中的表达及意义.方法 采用S-P免疫组织化学染色的方法,对31例自然流产者(实验组)及36例人工流产者(对照组)绒毛及蜕膜组织中MMP-2和TIMP-2的表达进行分析;采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术对绒毛组织中MMP-2及TIMP-1的mRNA表达量进行分析.结果 无论是绒毛组织还是蜕膜组织中MMP-2的表达两组之间均无统计学差异;但实验组两种组织中的TIMP-2强阳性(Ⅲ级)表达率均显著低于对照组(P<0.01);实验组TIMP-1 mRNA的表达量显著低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 自然流产绒毛和蜕膜组织中MMP-2的正常表达及TIMP-1、TIMP-2的低表达导致MMP-2与TIMP-1及TIMP-2的比值升高,该比值失调可能与自然流产发生有关.

  20. 白血病抑制因子在正常早孕、先兆流产及难免流产患者绒毛组织中的表达%Expression of leukemia inhibitory factor in chorionic villi of normal early pregnancy, threatened abortion and inevitable abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹洁; 徐键

    2006-01-01

    目的测定白血病抑制因子(LIF)在正常早孕、先兆流产及难免流产患者绒毛组织中表达的差异,探讨LIF在先兆流产及难免流产发病中的作用.方法采用放射免疫法检测正常早孕妇女(正常早孕组,30例)、先兆流产患者(先兆流产组,30例)及难免流产患者(难免流产组,30例)血清孕酮及人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)水平;采用免疫组化技术--链霉菌抗生物素蛋白-过氧化酶连接(SP) 法对LIF在3组妇女绒毛组织中的表达进行组织学定位和半定量分析;采用蛋白印迹法对3组妇女绒毛组织中LIF的相对表达量进行测定. 结果 (1)血清孕酮及hCG水平在正常早孕组、先兆流产组及难免流产组分别为(95±26)、(90±26)、(36±17)nmol/L及(75±14)、(68±13)、(13±3)kU/L.正常早孕组与先兆流产组血清孕酮及hCG水平分别比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);而难免流产组与其他两组妇女血清孕酮及hCG水平分别比较,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 LIF对妊娠的正常维持有一定的保护作用,LIF在早孕绒毛组织中的低表达,可能与hCG及孕酮水平下降有关,是导致难免流产的原因之一.

  1. Detection of chromosome aneuploidy and copy number variation in abortion fetus or chorionic villi using NGS technology%NGS技术检测自然流产胚胎或绒毛染色体非整倍体及拷贝数变异的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳; 毕川; 高雅; 季刚; 汪凌云; 张红云; 李云; 王军; 王威

    2015-01-01

    目的 探索新一代测序技术(NGS)在检测自然流产胚胎或绒毛组织染色体非整倍体和拷贝数变异(CNV)应用中的价值.方法 选择20例自然流产患者的绒毛进行染色体核型分析,同时应用NGS技术进行染色体非整倍体和拷贝数变异的检测,并以染色体核型分析结果为“金标准”进行NGS方法的评估.后于201 3年共收集1 074例自然流产胚胎或绒毛组织,应用NGS技术完成染色体非整倍体和CNV的检测,并对检测结果进行分析.结果 20例自然流产样本的NGS结果与核型分析结果对比,检测灵敏度和特异性均为100%.临床检测的1 074例流产组织样本中,42例样本DNA不符合质控标准,实际完成检测1032例.1 032例组织样本中阳性445例(43.12%),其中非整倍体369例(82.92%),以16、X、22、21、15、1 8号染色体高发;CNV共76例(17.08%),阳性样本集中发生在8-12w.阴性587例(56.88%).根据孕妇年龄将样本分为三组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 NGS技术用于检测流产组织的非整倍体和拷贝数变异具有较高的灵敏度和特异性,是适用于临床的有效检测方法.

  2. Pregnancy close to the edge: an immunosuppressive infiltrate in the chorionic plate of placentas from uncomplicated egg cell donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonkeren, Dorrith; Swings, Godelieve; Roberts, Drucilla; Claas, Frans; de Heer, Emile; Scherjon, Sicco

    2012-01-01

    In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED) tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ED pregnancies, but never in placentas from normal term pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess its origin and its cellular composition. The relation between the lesion, the clinical and histological parameters were assessed. In addition we investigated the relation with the number of HLA-mismatches and KIR genotype of mother and child.In ten out of twenty-six (38.5%) placentas from ED pregnancies an inflammatory lesion was present in the chorionic plate. A significantly lower incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in the group with the lesion; 0% versus 45.5%. A significant relation was found between this lesion and the presence of intervillositis, chronic deciduitis, presence of plasma cells and fibrin deposition in the decidua. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with X/Y-chromosome probes showed that the majority of cells present in the lesion are of maternal origin. The expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and of the type 2 macrophage (M2) marker CD163+ was significantly higher in the lesion. The incidence of a fetal HLA-C2 genotype was significantly higher in cases with a lesion compared to the group without the lesion. In conclusion, a striking relationship was observed between the presence of a not previously described inflammatory lesion in the chorionic plate and the absence of pre-eclampsia in ED pregnancies. The lesion consists of mainly maternal cells with a higher expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and the M2 marker CD163+. These findings suggest a protective immune mechanism which might contribute to the prevention of severe clinical complications like pre-eclampsia.

  3. Pregnancy close to the edge: an immunosuppressive infiltrate in the chorionic plate of placentas from uncomplicated egg cell donation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorrith Schonkeren

    Full Text Available In pregnancies achieved after egg donation (ED tolerance towards a completely allogeneic fetus is mediated by several complex immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which numerous aspects are still unknown. A distinct lesion not described previously in the literature, was repeatedly found in the chorionic plate in a substantial portion of placentas from ED pregnancies, but never in placentas from normal term pregnancies. The aim of this study was to assess its origin and its cellular composition. The relation between the lesion, the clinical and histological parameters were assessed. In addition we investigated the relation with the number of HLA-mismatches and KIR genotype of mother and child.In ten out of twenty-six (38.5% placentas from ED pregnancies an inflammatory lesion was present in the chorionic plate. A significantly lower incidence of pre-eclampsia was found in the group with the lesion; 0% versus 45.5%. A significant relation was found between this lesion and the presence of intervillositis, chronic deciduitis, presence of plasma cells and fibrin deposition in the decidua. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation with X/Y-chromosome probes showed that the majority of cells present in the lesion are of maternal origin. The expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and of the type 2 macrophage (M2 marker CD163+ was significantly higher in the lesion. The incidence of a fetal HLA-C2 genotype was significantly higher in cases with a lesion compared to the group without the lesion. In conclusion, a striking relationship was observed between the presence of a not previously described inflammatory lesion in the chorionic plate and the absence of pre-eclampsia in ED pregnancies. The lesion consists of mainly maternal cells with a higher expression of the macrophage marker CD14+ and the M2 marker CD163+. These findings suggest a protective immune mechanism which might contribute to the prevention of severe clinical complications like pre-eclampsia.

  4. Ville Jehe : renessansimees / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Delfi juhatuse esimehest Ville Jehest. Vt. samas: Kaks suurt kirge: disain ja idamaised võitluskunstid. Lisad: Ville Jehe; Kas teadsite, et Ville Jehe. Kommenteerivad Eesti Loto juhatuse esimees Aivar Lepp, Eesti Energia juhatuse esimees Sandor Liive ja abikaasa Ülle

  5. Ville Jehe : renessansimees / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Delfi juhatuse esimehest Ville Jehest. Vt. samas: Kaks suurt kirge: disain ja idamaised võitluskunstid. Lisad: Ville Jehe; Kas teadsite, et Ville Jehe. Kommenteerivad Eesti Loto juhatuse esimees Aivar Lepp, Eesti Energia juhatuse esimees Sandor Liive ja abikaasa Ülle

  6. Hepatitis B Virus Expression in Villi from Paternal HBeAg Positive Early Abortion Embryo%父系HBeAg阳性流产胚胎绒毛中HBV-DNA的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林淑仪; 李芳; 陈励和; 崔咏怡; 禤庆山

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate hepatitis B virus (HBV-DNA) expression in villi from paternal HBeAg positive early abortion embryo. Methods: Early abortion embryos, whose paternal serum HBsAg positive and maternal serum HBsAg negative, were collected. They were divided into G1 paternal HBeAg (+)and maternal HBsAb (+), G2 paternal HBeAg (+) and maternal HBsAb (-), G3 paternal HBeAg (-) and maternal HBsAb (+), and G4 maternal HBsAb (-) and paternal HbeAg (-). parents serum HBV antigen and antibody measurement was performed by ELISA, HBV-DNA expression in villi was measured by fluori-metric quantitative PCR. Results: Among 142 villi from paternal HBsAg positive early abortion embryo, 3 of 84 villi from paternal HBeAg positive early abortion embryo were detected for HBV-DNA expression. The positive rate was 3.57%. 2 cases in G2 paternal HBeAg (+) and maternal HBsAb (-), and 1 case in Gl paternal HBeAg (+) and maternal HBsAb (+). In groups whose paternal HBeAg were positive (G1 and G2), there was no significant difference for villi HBV-DNA expressing rate (P>0.05). Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus might more likely transmit vertically to early embryo villi in paternal HBeAg positive cases.%目的:探讨在父系HBeAg阳性的流产胚胎中,乙型肝炎病毒在绒毛中的表达.方法:募集仅父系感染乙型肝炎病毒组合,即母HBsAg(-)且父HBsAg(+)流产胚胎.接以下组合将入选对象分为4组:组1为父HBeAg(+)母HBsAb(+);组2为父HBeAg(+)母HBsAb(-);组3为父HBeAg(-)母HBsAb(+);组4为父HBeAg(-)母HBsAb(-),采用酶联免疫吸附实验(ELISA)对胎儿父、母亲血清进行乙肝抗原、抗体检测,并使用荧光定量PCR法对胚胎绒毛进行HBV DNA检测.结果:父系感染乙型肝炎病毒的142例胚胎中,仅在父系HBeAg阳性组别(1、2组)84例胚胎中发现3例绒毛HBV-DNA升高,阳性率为3.57%.其中父HBeAg(+)母HBsAb(-)组合中2例,父HBeAg(+)母HBsAb(+)组合中1例.父系HBeAg均阳性,母系HBsAb阳性与阴性组间

  7. Comparative study of P19 EC stem cell differentiation in between conventional hanging drop and the zebrafish chorion as a bio-derived material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae Seok Na; Lee, Hwang; Sun Uk Kim; Chang Nam Hwang; Sang Ho Lee; Ji Yoon Kang; Jai Kyeong Kim; James Jungho Pak

    2008-07-01

    Various materials including glass and polymers have been widely used for stem cell culture due to their biocompatibility. However, the roles of these materials are fundamentally limited because they cannot realize or imitate the complex biological functions of living tissues, except in very simple cases. Here, the development of a bio-derived material suitable for stem cell culture and improvement of differentiation efficiency to specific cell lineages with no stimulating agents by using a chorion obtained from a fertilized zebrafish egg through the removal of the yolk and embryonic cell mass from the egg is reported. Mouse P19 EC stem cells introduced into the empty chorion form a uniform embryoid body (EB) without addition of any inducing agent. It is demonstrated that the zebrafish chorion with nanopores improves efficiencies greatly in the EB formation, cell proliferation, and lineage-specific differentiations compared to those of the conventional hanging drop culture method.

  8. The role of prostaglandins in human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, W

    1998-06-01

    Parturition is the process of giving birth, and the molecular mechanisms involved are still to be elucidated. Among the various factors involved prostaglandins appear to have an important role. They are synthesized within the human fetal membranes (amnion and chorion) and decidua and act to ripen the cervix, change membrane structure and contract the myometrium. Prostaglandin concentrations increase in amniotic fluid prior to myometrial contractions, and the activity of prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) increases in the chorion laeve and amnion at labour. This increase is due to increased expression of the PGHS-2 isoenzyme rather than the PGHS-1 isoenzyme. In animal pregnancy, there is also an increase in the expression of the PGHS-2 isoenzyme, and in both human and animal pregnancies this increase appears to occur in the fetal tissues rather than in the maternal tissues. Prostaglandin metabolism also plays an important role in altering prostaglandin output by the human fetal membranes. Prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) activity decreases in certain cases of preterm labour, and at term it decreases in the area of the chorion laeve covering the cervix. This may allow active prostaglandins produced by the amnion and chorion to access the cervix and myometrium. Recent studies have indicated that glucocorticoids may be important in regulating prostaglandin formation within the human fetal membranes by increasing expression of PGHS-2 in the amnion and decreasing PGDH activity in the chorion. Prostaglandin formation is also important in infection-induced preterm labour and both phospholipase and PGHS-2 activities can be increased by various cytokines. Prostaglandins are important for the onset of both term and preterm parturition and their effects may result from changes in prostaglandin synthesis, prostaglandin metabolism and expression of various prostaglandin receptors.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of Zellweger syndrome by measurement of very long chain fatty acid (C26 : 0) β-oxidation in cultured chorionic villous fibroblasts: Implications for early diagnosis of other peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R.J.A.; Wijland, M.J.A. van; Roermund, C.W.T. van; Schutgens, R.B.H.; Bosch, H. van den; Tager, J.M.; Nijenhuis, A.; Tromp, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we show that cultured chorionic villous fibroblasts efficiently catalyse the peroxisomal β-oxidation of hexacosanoic acid (cerotic acid), a saturated very long chain fatty acid containing 26 carbon atoms. Hexacosanoic β-oxidation was found to be strongly impaired in cultured chorionic

  10. Incidence of Autoantibodies to C1Q Complement Component in Women with Miscarriages and Autoantibodies to Phospholipids and Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzhinskaya, I V; Van'ko, L V; Kashentseva, M M; Kiryushchenkov, P A; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-12-01

    Autoantibodies to C1q complement component are often detected in patients with autoimmune diseases. The complement system is involved in the pathophysiology of gestosis. The incidence of anti-C1q autoantibodies was studied in women with miscarriages and autoantibodies to phospholipids and chorionic gonadotropin. Serum C3 and C4 complement components and anti-C1Q autoantibodies (IgG) were measured by ELISA. The median levels of C3 and C4 in patients with miscarriages were lower than in healthy women. Anti-C1q autoantibodies were more often found in the patients than in controls; patients with autoantibodies to phospholipids formed a risk group. Median levels of anti-C1q autoantibodies were higher in the patients with autoantibodies to phospholipids and chorionic gonadotropin than in healthy women. Hence, activation of the complement system and hyperproduction of anti-C1q autoantibodies were unfolding in patients with miscarriages, mainly in the patients with autoantibodies to phospholipids.

  11. An immunohistochemical detection of actin and myosin in the indigenous bacteria-adhering sites of microvillous columnar epithelial cells in Peyer's patches and intestinal villi in the rat jejunoileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Tetsurou; Namba, Makiko; Qi, Wang-Mei; Yamamoto, Kenkichi; Yokoo, Yuh; Miyata, Hidenori; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    The mechanism of physical elimination of indigenous bacteria was ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically investigated in microvillous columnar epithelial cells of Peyer's patches and intestinal villi of the rat jejunoileum. From ultrastructural observation, the microfilaments accumulated to form several electron-dense layers beneath the bacteria adhering to the cell membrane, which was slightly invaginated in the epithelial cells of Peyer's patches and intestinal villi. As the microfilamentous layers were forming, the end portions of invaginations were deformed into a cone-shape and were finally collapsed. At the same time, the end portions of the adhered bacteria were also deformed into cone-shapes. The bacterial cells were moved back toward the invagination orifices with no morphological change in their inner structure. From immunohistochemical observation, beta-actin and nonmuscle-type myosin were detected at the thin layer just beneath the invaginated cell membrane. These findings suggest that indigenous bacteria which adhere to epithelial cells are removed by only a physical action of actin and myosin filaments, but are not killed. This bacterial cell removal system might lead to the establishment of a settlement of indigenous bacteria on host cells.

  12. High-fat diet intake from senescence inhibits the attenuation of cell functions and the degeneration of villi with aging in the small intestine, and inhibits the attenuation of lipid absorption ability in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazushi; E, Shuang; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    We examined the effect of a high-fat diet from senescence as a means of preventing malnutrition among the elderly. The senescence-accelerated mouse P8 was used and divided into three groups. The 6C group was given a normal diet until 6 months old. The 12N group was given a normal diet until 12 months old. The 12F group was given a normal diet until 6 months old and then a high-fat diet until 12 months old. In the oral fat tolerance test, there was a decrease in area under the curve for serum triacylglycerol level in the 12N group and a significant increase in the 12F group, suggesting that the attenuation of lipid absorption ability with aging was delayed by a high-fat diet from senescence. To examine this mechanism, histological analysis in the small intestine was performed. As a result, the degeneration of villi with aging was inhibited by the high-fat diet. There was also a significant decrease in length of villus in the small intestine in the 12N group and a significant increase in the 12F group. The high-fat diet from senescence inhibited the degeneration of villi with aging in the small intestine, and inhibited the attenuation of lipid absorption ability.

  13. Inhibition of diabetes in NOD mice by human pregnancy factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases regress in many patients during pregnancy. A prominent feature of pregnancy is the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in blood and urine. In this report we tested the effect of clinical grade hCG (c-hCG) on the development of

  14. Inhibition of diabetes in NOD mice by human pregnancy factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Khan, A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of Th1 mediated autoimmune diseases regress in many patients during pregnancy. A prominent feature of pregnancy is the presence of human chorionic gonadotrophin hormone (hCG) in blood and urine. In this report we tested the effect of clinical grade hCG (c-hCG) on the development of

  15. Induction of follicular luteinization by equine chorionic gonadotropin in cyclic guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-rong LI; Wei WANG; Fang-xiong SHI

    2015-01-01

    题目:正常发情周期豚鼠经孕马血清促性腺激素诱导的卵泡黄体化研究  目的:研究孕马血清促性腺激素(eCG)对发情周期豚鼠卵巢卵泡的作用。  创新点:首次发现eCG对于发情周期豚鼠发挥了类似促黄体素的作用,而非促卵泡素的作用。  方法:将成年雌性豚鼠(400~700 g,连续2次以上观察到稳定的16天发情周期)分为对照组(腹腔注射生理盐水)和实验组(腹腔注射eCG)。实验组根据注射强度分为20 IU组和50 IU组,并分别于注射后4和8天采集豚鼠卵巢。用苏木精-伊红染色法(H&E)和免疫组化法观察豚鼠卵巢变化情况。测定注射后4天卵巢卵泡大小和数量,测定注射后8天卵巢和子宫重量、黄体数量、黄体化细胞数量和闭锁黄体细胞比例。  结论:本实验中,豚鼠经eCG注射后卵巢变化结果显示:发情期豚鼠卵巢经 eCG 注射发生明显的形态改变(图1),50 IU组豚鼠卵巢在注射后8天出现了黄体化未破裂卵泡(LUF)现象(图3)。免疫组化结果显示增值细胞核抗原(PCNA)和类激素调节蛋白(StAR)都免疫定位于黄体化卵泡(图8)。综上所述,eCG 对于发情期豚鼠发挥了类似促黄体素的作用。%The effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on follicular development and ovulation in cyclic guinea pigs were investigated by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Three groups of guinea pigs (n=12) were administrated subcutaneously with saline, 20 or 50 IU of eCG, respectively, on cyclic Day 12 (Day 1=vaginal openings). Ovaries were collected at 4 and 8 d after administration (6 animals per group each time). The eCG ad-ministration induced significant and distinct morphological changes in the ovaries, as it promoted the luteinization of granulosa cel s, but not fol icular development. In addition, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and

  16. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  17. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  18. Amniocentesis before 14 completed weeks as an alternative to transabdominal chorionic villus sampling : A controlled trial with infant follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, HTC; Vandenbussche, FPHA; Keirse, MJNC; Oepkes, D; Oosterwijk, JC; Beverstock, G; Kanhai, HHH

    1998-01-01

    A (semi-) randomized controlled study with long-term follow-up was conducted to compare the effects of transabdominal chorionic villus sampling and early amniocentesis on fetal mortality and child morbidity. Women requesting early prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age were allocated to early

  19. Human macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces the differentiation of trophoblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Saito, M; Enomoto, M; Ito, A; Motoyoshi, K; Nakagawa, T; Ichijo, M

    1993-01-01

    When human cytotrophoblastic cells in the early stage of pregnancy were cultured in a serum-free medium in the presence of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), the cytotrophoblastic cells fused and formed a typical syncytiotrophoblast which had a dense distribution of microvilli revealed under an electron microscope. On the other hand, cytotrophoblasts incubated with anti-M-CSF antibody showed hardly any syncytiotrophoblast formation. Following this finding, we studied the differentiation of chorionic cells from the viewpoint of hormone secretion. When cytotrophoblasts were incubated in the presence of M-CSF, the supernatant of the culture showed an increase in human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen levels in proportion to the concentration of M-CSF added. When cytotrophoblasts were incubated in the presence of anti-M-CSF antibody or anti-fms antibody, human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen secretion were suppressed. Thus, M-CSF was morphologically and endocrinologically found to induce the differentiation of chorionic cells.

  20. Triploidy--Observations in 154 Diandric Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Brink Scholz

    Full Text Available Hydatidiform moles (HMs are abnormal human pregnancies with vesicular chorionic villi, imposing two clinical challenges; miscarriage and a risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN. The parental type of most HMs are either diandric diploid (PP or diandric triploid (PPM. We consecutively collected 154 triploid or near-triploid samples from conceptuses with vesicular chorionic villi. We used analysis of DNA markers and/or methylation sensitive-MLPA and collected data from registries and patients records. We performed whole genome SNP analysis of one case of twinning (PP+PM.In all 154 triploids or near-triploids we found two different paternal contributions to the genome (P1P2M. The ratios between the sex chromosomal constitutions XXX, XXY, and XYY were 5.7: 6.9: 1.0. No cases of GTN were observed. Our results corroborate that all triploid human conceptuses with vesicular chorionic villi have the parental type P1P2M. The sex chromosomal ratios suggest approximately equal frequencies of meiosis I and meiosis II errors with selection against the XYY conceptuses or a combination of dispermy, non-disjunction in meiosis I and meiosis II and selection against XYY conceptuses. Although single cases of GTN after a triploid HM have been reported, the results of this study combined with data from previous prospective studies estimate the risk of GTN after a triploid mole to 0% (95% CI: 0-1,4%.

  1. Triploidy—Observations in 154 Diandric Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Nanna Brink; Bolund, Lars; Nyegaard, Mette; Faaborg, Louise; Jørgensen, Mette Warming; Lund, Helle; Niemann, Isa; Sunde, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidiform moles (HMs) are abnormal human pregnancies with vesicular chorionic villi, imposing two clinical challenges; miscarriage and a risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). The parental type of most HMs are either diandric diploid (PP) or diandric triploid (PPM). We consecutively collected 154 triploid or near-triploid samples from conceptuses with vesicular chorionic villi. We used analysis of DNA markers and/or methylation sensitive-MLPA and collected data from registries and patients records. We performed whole genome SNP analysis of one case of twinning (PP+PM).In all 154 triploids or near-triploids we found two different paternal contributions to the genome (P1P2M). The ratios between the sex chromosomal constitutions XXX, XXY, and XYY were 5.7: 6.9: 1.0. No cases of GTN were observed. Our results corroborate that all triploid human conceptuses with vesicular chorionic villi have the parental type P1P2M. The sex chromosomal ratios suggest approximately equal frequencies of meiosis I and meiosis II errors with selection against the XYY conceptuses or a combination of dispermy, non-disjunction in meiosis I and meiosis II and selection against XYY conceptuses. Although single cases of GTN after a triploid HM have been reported, the results of this study combined with data from previous prospective studies estimate the risk of GTN after a triploid mole to 0% (95% CI: 0–1,4%). PMID:26562155

  2. Association of testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with elevated serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin-like material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    1996-01-01

    in nontesticular non-germ cell tumors including non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) as well. It has never been investigated whether testicular NHL is also associated with elevated S-hCG-1. In the present study the relationship of testicular NHL with increased S-hCG-1 was investigated. In the Danish population-based NHL...... registry, LYFO registry, 12 cases with testicular involvement of the lymphoma at the time of diagnosis and that had S-hCG-1 measured prior to treatment were identified, and cases with elevated S-hCG-1 were analyzed clinicopathologically. Of these, 2 patients had elevated levels. Both cases were high...

  3. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the Barred Frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Clulow John; Clulow Simon; Guo Jitong; French Andrew J; Mahony Michael J; Archer Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Protocols for the hormonal induction of ovulation and oviposition are essential tools for managing threatened amphibians with assisted reproduction, but responses vary greatly between species and even broad taxon groups. Consequently, it is necessary to assess effectiveness of such protocols in representative species when new taxa become targets for induction. The threatened genus Mixophyes (family Myobatrachidae) has amongst the highest proportion of endangered species of...

  4. Serum inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels before and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that cryptorchidism is associated with degenerative changes in both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The gonadal peptide hormone inhibin B reflects Sertoli cell function. Low inhibin B levels are found in a large portion of formerly cryptorchid men who show compromised...... seminiferous tubule function. It is not known if inhibin B can be used to demonstrate early damage of seminiferous tubules in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism....

  5. Testosterone Secretion in Response to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) in Eugonadal and Hypogonadal Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江源; 郭爱岩

    1994-01-01

    Two injections of hCG in dose of 2000 IU were administered in an interval of 96 hours, and venous blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr for testosterone determination. A biphasic curve of testosterone release was foand in normal adult men (n=4), patients with Klinefelter syndrome (n=10) and patients with hypogonadism due to pituitary tumor (n=8), respeetively, but not in prepubertal boys (n=4) and patients with IHH(n=9). Only after the second loading of hCG the first peak of testosterone secretion emerged in the latter two groups. The second peak values after the second injection of hCG were signfieantly greater than those after the first injection in all groups. Whereas the maximal increments of the second peak were much lower in normal adult men and patients with Klinefelter syndrome than those in other 3 groups.It was suggested that (1) the first peak of testosterone secretion was depending upon the previous exposure to high concentration of hCG or LH; (2) repeated administration of hCG had a setf-priming effect on testosterone release; and (3) the desensitization of Leydig cells existed after a single injection of hCG and its removal was incomplete after an intermission of 96 hours.

  6. Induction of ovulation in quarter horse mares through the use of deslorelin acetate and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Figueiredo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to compare two protocols of induction for ovulation by desloreline acetate and hCG in Quarter Horse mares. The choice of the animals was based on the observations by the estrus, by rectal palpation of the ovaries and by ultrassonography of the follicular dynamics. After estrus detection and follicle control, the measurement of the follicles and the classification of uterus were carried out. The animals that had dominant follicle (diameter more than 35 mm and swollen uterus were used. In these conditions, the mares received hCG or desloreline acetate. Once ovulation occurred, the artificial insemination was carried. Two groups were performed: G1 (20 animals received 1.5 mg desloreline acetate and G2 (20 animals received 1700 IU of hCG. Following 6h intervals, the control follicular was performed by ultrasonography. The follicular average diameter was 42.6 cm for the groups and set up a score of 0 to 3 of uterine edema displayed by the device as well as the time of ovulation. In conclusion, the desloreline acetate showed better performance than hCG, because the ovulation was induced in less time (nine hours than hCG (p<0.05.The pregnancy rate was 80 and 75 %, respectively in G1 and G2.

  7. Oogenesis, fertilisation and early embryonic development in rats. II: Dose-dependent effects of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, H H; Yang, X F; Tain, C F; Liew, L P; Ratnam, S S

    1992-07-01

    A total of 950 female Wistar rats in 81 groups were involved in this study. Different groups of rats were stimulated with PMSG (0, 10 & 20 IU) at diestrus followed, 48-52 hr later, by different doses of HCG (0, 10, 20, 30 & 40) for ovulation induction. The dose-dependent effects of HCG, either with or without the use of PMSG for stimulation of multiple follicular development, on the quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilisability, quality of Day 2-embryos, viability of pregnancy and status of embryos retrieved on Day 2, 3, 4 or 5 of pregnancy in different subgroups of rats were examined. Results showed that more oocytes and embryos fertilised in vivo were retrieved from rats supraphysiologically stimulated with 20 IU of PMSG. The addition of HCG did not increase the number of ovulated oocytes or Day-2 embryos. In other words, the number of oocytes or embryos produced is dependent on the dose of PMSG administered during diestrus rather than on the dose of HCG given for ovulation induction. Hence, no increase in the amount of HCG is required to effectively ovulate bigger cohort of preovulatory follicles in supraphysiologically stimulated rats. As was shown earlier, in vitro and in vivo fertilisation rates were reduced when higher doses of PMSG were used. Similarly, these rates were reduced when increasing doses of HCG were used in rats not previously stimulated with PMSG. When higher doses of HCG were used in rats stimulated earlier with PMSG (10 and 20 IU), the in vitro but not the in vivo fertilisation rates were further reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Trophoblastic Infiltration in Tubal Pregnancy Evaluated by Immunohistochemistry and Correlation with Variation of Beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

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    Danyelle Farias Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate trophoblastic cell proliferation and angiogenesis in tubal pregnancy assessed by immunohistochemical study and their correlation with an average variation of β-hCG in an interval of 48 hours before surgery. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on 18 patients with a diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. The patients were divided into two groups of ectopic pregnancy of which 11 showed rise of β-hCG levels and 7 patients showed declining β-hCG levels in an interval of 48 hours prior to surgery. Trophoblastic cell proliferation and angiogenesis were assessed by Ki-67 and VEGF, respectively. Trophoblastic cell proliferation was assessed by Ki-67 and was classified into three groups (grade I: less than 1/3 of stained nuclei, grade II: 1/3 to 2/3 of the stained nuclei, and grade III: more than 2/3 of the nuclei stained. The cases analyzed for VEGF were divided into three groups (grade I: less than 1/3 of the stained cytoplasm; grade II: 1/3 to 2/3 of the stained cytoplasm; grade III: more than 2/3 of the stained cytoplasm. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square, ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. The mean variation in the serum β-hCG levels in 48 hours in tubal pregnancy patients correlated with trophoblastic cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 and showed a decline of 13.46% in grade I, a rise of 45.99% in grade II, and ascension of 36.68% in grade III (P=0.030. The average variation in the serum β-hCG in 48 hours, where angiogenesis was evaluated by VEGF, showed a decline of 18.35% in grade I, a rise of 32.95% in grade II, and ascension of 37.55% in grade III (P=0.047. Conclusions. Our observations showed a direct correlation of increased levels of serum β-hCG in 48h period prior to surgery with higher trophoblastic cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 and angiogenesis assessed by VEGF in tubal pregnancy.

  9. Hook effect in Abbott i-STAT β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) point of care assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, Urs; Pretorius, Carel J; Gous, Rehna S; Martin, Cameron; Hale, Vincent J; Ungerer, Jacobus P J

    2014-09-01

    Point-of-care testing for β-hCG has been widely advocated to allow rapid diagnosis/exclusion of pregnancy in the emergency department. A quantitative blood β-hCG assay has the additional benefit of being able to monitor the viability of pregnancy, using serial measurements, to determine the appropriate expected increase in β-hCG levels over time (e.g. ectopic pregnancy), and aiding in determining if an intrauterine gestational sac should be visible on sonographic imaging. Evaluation of the newly released Abbott i-STAT β-hCG point-of-care assay with the Beckman Coulter β-hCG laboratory assay in use. Whole blood, plasma and serum samples with a wide range of β-hCG concentrations were analysed by both methods. The Abbott I-STAT β-hCG compares favourably, can be performed on heparinised whole blood, plasma and serum, and shows acceptable accuracy and precision. However a hook effect at elevated β-hCG was shown in gestational trophoblastic disease as well as normal pregnancies. The i-STAT β-hCG performs acceptably in its intended use in the early detection of pregnancy, but results should always be interpreted within the clinical context, as a hook effect may occur. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus human chorionic gonadotropin in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized trial

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    Amr Hassaan Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare GnRH agonist to hCG for triggering ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate. Study design: Prospective randomized study. Materials & methods: Eighty five infertile women with PCOS participated in a randomized allocation concealed prospective trial and had induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate. GnRH agonist 0.2 mg subcutaneously (group 1 or hCG 10,000 IU intramuscularly (group 2 was given to trigger ovulation. Primary outcome was mid-luteal serum progesterone, while secondary outcomes were ovulation rates and clinical pregnancy rates along 3 cycles. Results: No difference was found between group 1 and group 2 regarding mean serum progesterone and clinical pregnancy rates in each cycle. Cumulative pregnancy rates were similar (17.14% versus 20% respectively; P = 0.332. Ovulation rates were 80% versus 68.6% (P = 0.413; 94.3% versus 90.9% (P = 0.669; 97.1% versus 93.7% (P = 0.603 in the two groups respectively. However, a significant rise in number of patients with mid-luteal serum progesterone >10 ng/mL was noted in the 3rd cycle between both groups, (P < 0.0001 for group 1 while P = 0.007 for group 2. Conclusion: Triggering ovulation with GnRH-a after treatment with clomiphene citrate in PCOS, in view of its known protective effect against OHSS, may be an effective physiological alternative to conventional hCG without compromising luteal function and pregnancy rates after repeated cycles of treatment.

  11. Is the effect of premature elevated progesterone augmented by human chorionic gonadotropin versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Matthew T; Patounakis, George; Healy, Mae Wu; DeCherney, Alan H; Devine, Kate; Widra, Eric; Levy, Michael J; Hill, Micah J

    2016-09-01

    To compare the effect of P on live birth rate between hCG and GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) trigger cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Large private assisted reproductive technology (ART) practice. A total of 3,326 fresh autologous ART cycles. None. Live birth. A total of 647 GnRH-a trigger cycles were compared with 2,679 hCG trigger cycles. Live birth was negatively associated with P in both the hCG trigger (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.76) and the agonist trigger cohorts (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.45-0.69). Interaction testing evaluating P and trigger medication was not significant, indicating that P had a similar negative effect on live birth rates in both cohorts. Progesterone ≥2 ng/mL occurred more commonly in GnRH-a trigger cycles compared with hCG trigger cycles (5.5% vs. 3.1%) and was negatively associated with live birth in both the hCG trigger (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.73) and agonist trigger cohorts (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.90). When P ≥2 ng/mL, the live birth rates were poor and similar in the hCG and GnRH-a cohorts (5.9% vs. 14.2%), indicating that P ≥2 ng/mL had a similar negative effect on live birth in both cohorts. Elevated serum P on the day of hCG was negatively associated with live birth rates in both hCG and GnRH-a trigger cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Chorion biopsy in mongrel dogs Biopsia do cório fetal em cães

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    Guilherme J. Ferreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With the great development of the gestational studies in all of the species, we noticed the necessity of adaptations of these techniques for prenatal diagnosis in dogs. Based on this, we studied the feasibility of chorion biopsy guided by ultrasound. Our results demonstrated accuracy on the sex determination being 2 males and 12 females, as well as it would be possible to identify chromosome alteration due to the quality of samplings. Sex determination was accomplished with the identification of Y gene chromosomes in PCR technique. After the collection, fragments were prepared for light microscopy studies and revealed fetal chorion tissue, blood colloid and erythrocyte. In the whole material we found hemosiderin impregnations due to the hemolysis and to the residue of blood of the placental marginal hematomes. The submitted female dogs to this technique demonstrated normal puppy births without death.Com o grande desenvolvimento dos estudos gestacionais em todas as espécies, percebemos a necessidade de adaptarmos técnicas para diagnóstico pré-natal para cães. Assim, buscamos bases nas técnicas já existentes empregadas em humanos, e através destas, conseguimos estabelecer um método para coleta em cães, utilizando PCR para garantirmos a integridade das amostras. O procedimento foi realizado através de punção da cinta placentária com agulha de biopsia guiada por ultra-som. De todas as 14 amostras coletadas, duas apresentaram-se positivas para o cromossomo Y, presente apenas em machos, confirmando assim a viabilidade das amostras demonstrando com isso que através desta técnica podemos coletar material fetal para diagnóstico de alterações gênicas ou cromossômicas presentes nos cães antes mesmo destes virem a termo. A microscopia de material revelou fragmentos de cório fetal, colóide sangüíneo e eritrócitos. Em todo o material encontramos impregnações de hemosiderina devido à hemólise e ao resíduo de sangue dos hematomas

  13. Biodiversity of multiple Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) family: gene cloning and chorionic protein purification in domestic and wild eutherians (Placentalia) - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Szafranska, Bozena; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Majewska, Marta

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This review presents a broad overview of chorionic glycoproteins encoded by the Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) gene family and also serves to illustrate how the recent discovery of the PAG family has contributed to our general knowledge of genome evolution, placental transcription and placental protein expression. The complex and large PAG family is restricted to the Artiodactyla order, although single PAG-like genes have also been identified in species outsid...

  14. ALTERATION OF CHOLESTEROL SULFATE IN HUMAN SERA DURING THE COURSE OF PREGNANCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓓; 张淑兰; 岩森正男

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the concentrations of cholesterol sulfate (CS) in human sera and placental villi during the course of pregnancy. And to analyze its inhibitory activity on thrombin and further characterize the functional significance of CS. Methods The concentrations of CS were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on 60 cases of normal pregnant women and 30 cases of normal placental villi. The effect of CS in human sera on the activity of thrombin was analyzed. Results The concentrations of CS in human sera gradually increased from the first to third trimester of gestation with a correlation coefficient of 0.69, and a correlation between the concentration of CS and weeks of gestation (P <0.01 ). CS was also contained in the placental villi, and its concentrations at the second and third trimester of gestations were 4. 7 and 6. 2-fold of that at the first trimester of gestation. CS inhibited the activity of thrombin. Conclusion Placental CS is one of the sources of CS in the serum, probably by shedding. From the observation that CS inhibited the activity of thrombin, the increased expression of CS may play an important role in the regulation of blood coagulation during the course of pregnancy.

  15. EFFECT OF TAMOXIFEN ON THE SECRETORY FUNCTION OF HUMAN TROPHOBLASTIC CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANGui-Zhen; CHUYun-Hong; ZHOUYu-Fen

    1989-01-01

    Gu et al observed the morphological damages and the suppressed secretion of HCG in vitro cultured human placental chorionic tissues caused by tamoxifen (20ug/ml).TarnoxiFeu blood concentrations, during oral administration. 20rag, b.i.d, in early pregnant

  16. Determination of optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro using integrating sphere techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Jiang Wei; Da Xing; Jian-Jun Lu; Huai-Min Gu; Guo-Yong Wu; Ying Jin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the present study is to compare the optical properties of normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion in vitro at 476.5, 488, 496.5, 514.5 and 532 nm. We believe these differences in optical properties should help differential diagnosis of human colon tissues by using optical methods.METHODS: In vitro optical properties were investigated for four kinds of tissues: normal human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion, and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa and muscle layer/chorion. Tissue samples were taken from 13 human colons (13 adenomatous, 13 normal). From the normal human colons a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion), and from the adenomatous human bladders a total of 26 tissue samples, with a mean thickness of 0.40 mm, were used (13 from mucosa/submucosa and 13 from muscle layer/chorion). The measurements were performed using a double-integratingsphere setup and the optical properties were assessed from these measurements using the adding-doubling method that was considered reliable.RESULTS: The results of measurement showed that there were significant differences in the absorption coefficients and scattering coefficients between normal and adenomatous human colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength,and there were also significant differences in the two optical parameters between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength. And there were large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa at the same wavelength, there were also large differences in the anisotropy factors between both colon muscle layer/chorion at the same wavelength.There were large differences in the value ranges of the absorption coefficients, scattering coefficients and anisotropy factors between both colon mucosa/submucosa,and there

  17. Pregnancy Outcome of Chorionic Villus Sampling on 260 Couples with Beta- Thalassemia Trait in North of Iran

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    Nesa Asnafi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nChorionic villus sampling (CVS is a new method and its true risk of fetal loss and complications is not still clearly determined. The objective of this study was to review the clinical pregnancy outcome of transabdominal CVS (TA-CVS performed on women with minor beta thalassemia. TA-CVS performed on 300 women with a singleton pregnancy and we could follow 213 women until delivery. Data regarding induced legal abortion, spontaneous abortion, vaginal leakage, Vaginal bleeding and deformity of extremities ( limb reduction were obtained by questionnaire in five years. All CVS were performed by one operator. The mean gestation at time of CVS was 82.4±11.3 days. 79.2% of the procedures were made between 10-13 completed weeks and in other women (20.7% TA-CVS was performed at 13-16 weeks. The majority (86.9% required only one puncture. There were 47 pregnancy terminations because of fetal major beta thalassemia diagnosis (18 %. The rate of spontaneous abortion in our study was over ally (1.4% and in two patients vaginal bleeding was noticed. We didn't find any vaginal leakage and limb reduction in our survey. TA-CVS is an accurate and safe procedure in experienced hands. It should be considered as one of the safe available procedures for women who require prenatal genetic diagnosis and wish to receive earlier diagnostic information for probable termination of pregnancy.

  18. Transverse limb reduction defects after chorion villus sampling: a retrospective cohort study. GIDEF--Gruppo Italiano Diagnosi Embrio-Fetali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, P; Tozzi, A E; Agosti, S; Bocchino, G; Bovicelli, L; Dalprà, L; Carbone, L D; Lituania, M; Luttichau, A; Mantegazza, F

    1993-11-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed in five Italian obstetrical centres from 1984 to 1991 in order to verify the association between chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and transverse limb reduction defects (TLRDs). TLRD rates by period of gestation at CVS were calculated, and the study's results were compared with data from the general population. Of the 3430 pregnancies for which CVS was performed, 2759 had a known outcome. The overall rate for TLRDs was 1 in 1143 CVS pregnancies, four times higher than that of the general population in Italy (1 in 4458). The rate of TLRDs was 2.9/1000 for CVS performed at 9 weeks' gestation and 1.0/1000 for CVS at 10 weeks' gestation. A scalp defect was detected in a pregnancy in which CVS was performed at 10 weeks. A high proportion of pregnancies lost to follow-up and the poor quality of the data may have affected the results. Nevertheless, our results suggest an association between CVS carried out at less than 10 weeks' gestation and TLRDs which is consistent with the findings of other studies. CVS should not be prepared at less than 10 weeks' gestation until additional evidence is obtained.

  19. Relación entre Área Total y Área Epitelial de vellosidades placentarias porcinas en diferentes estadíos gestacionales Relationship between Total area and Epithelial area of porcine placental villi at different gestational periods

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    C. I Merkis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La placenta porcina es epiteliocorial y no invasiva. Las interdigitaciones entre el epitelio trofoblástico fetal y el epitelio uterino conforman vellosidades de las cuales depende el crecimiento y desarrollo fetal. El objetivo fue determinar el Área Total y el Área Epitelial de vellosidades placentarias porcinas en diferentes períodos gestacionales mediante un analizador digital de imágenes. Se realizaron preparados histológicos de 5 placentas porcinas de cada período gestacional estudiado: 28, 55, 70 días de gestación y a término (aproximadamente 114 días. Para la medición de los parámetros morfométricos se utilizó un equipo de análisis digital de imágenes. Resultados: a los 55 días de gestación los valores medios del Área Total de las vellosidades fueron similares a los encontrados en placentas a término. Hay una disminución significativa del Área Total a los 70 días de gestación. El Área Epitelial se encuentra desarrollada desde los 28 días de preñez observándose una disminución hacia el día 70 y un aumento al final de la gestación. Conclusión: se observó desarrollo de vellosidades placentarias porcinas hasta los 55 días de preñez, disminución del Área Total y Epitelial hacia el día 70 y aumento del Área Epitelial de vellosidades en placentas a término.The porcine placenta is epitheliochorial and non-invasive. The maintenance of the pregnancy is supported by villi which make interdigitations between the epithelial trophoblastic cells and the epithelial uterine cells during pregnancy. The objective of this work was to study the placental tissue using a digital analysis of images that allows measuring the total area and the epithelial area. Histologic sections of the five porcine placenta of 28, 55, 70 days and a term were used. The measure of the morphometric parameter was realized by digital analysis of images. Results: at 55 days of pregnancy the mean values of villi total area were comparable to that

  20. The evaluation of chorionic membrane in guided tissue regeneration for periodontal pocket therapy: a clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothiwale, Shaila V

    2014-03-01

    Periodontal regenerative therapy is aimed at reconstruction and to restore the architecture and function of lost or injured tissues. Melcher (J Periodontol 47(5):256-260, 1976) introduced the concept of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) for osseous reconstructive surgery. The aim of the present innovative clinical and radiographic study was to evaluate the effect of chorionic membrane (CM) in GTR in periodontal pocket therapy. Ten patients with moderate to severe periodontitis were selected in the single blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients were treated with periodontal pocket therapy along with CM in study sites and the control sites were treated with periodontal pocket therapy alone. The clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 12 months. The radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Clinical parameters included gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), pocket probing depth (PPD) and relative attachment level (RAL). Digital images were analysed for bone gain (BG) and density. Data were evaluated using t test. Statistical significant differences were found in both sites at 12 months for GI, PI, PPD and RAL. Highly significant reduction was seen in GI 0.40 ± 0.08 (p = 0.0001), PI (0.41 ± 0.18), PPD 2.50 ± 0.53 mm (p = 0.0431) and increased BG 0.86 ± 0.18 (p < 0.0001) were observed in study sites. This shows that CM when used with pocket therapy can have influence on clinical parameters. Radiographic findings from this study demonstrated significant BG and density in sites treated with CM as compared to control sites.

  1. Selective modulation of follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathways with enhancing equine chorionic gonadotropin/antibody immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Durand, Guillaume; Reiter, Eric; Maurel, Marie-Christine

    2010-06-01

    The injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) in dairy goats induces the production of anti-eCG antibodies (Abs) in some females. We have previously shown that Abs negatively modulate the LH and FSH-like bioactivities of eCG, in most cases, compromising fertility in treated females. Surprisingly, we found out that some anti-eCG Abs improved fertility and prolificity of the treated females, in vivo. These Abs, when complexed with eCG, enhanced LH and FSH ability to induce steroidogenesis on specific target cells, in vitro. In the present study, we analyzed the impact of three eCG/anti-eCG Ab-enhancing complexes on two transduction mechanisms triggered by the FSH receptor: guanine nucleotide-binding protein alphaS-subunit/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and beta-arrestin-dependent pathways, respectively. In all cases, significant enhancing effects were observed on ERK phosphorylation compared with eCG alone. However, cAMP production and PKA activation induced by eCG could be differently modulated by Abs. By using a pharmacological inhibitor of PKA and small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of endogenous beta-arrestin 1 and 2, we demonstrated that signaling bias was induced and was clearly dependent on the complexed Ab. Together, our data show that eCG/anti-eCG Ab-enhancing complexes can differentially modulate cAMP/PKA and beta-arrestin pathways as a function of the complexed Ab. We hypothesize that enhancing Abs may change the eCG conformation, the immune complex acquiring new "biased" pharmacological properties ultimately leading to the physiological effects observed in vivo. The modulation of ligand pharmacological properties by Abs opens promising research avenues towards the optimization of glycoprotein hormone biological activities and, more generally, the development of new therapeutics.

  2. Effect of weaning to oestrus interval and equine chorionic gonadotropin on vaginal electrical impedance during peri-oestrus in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezác, P; Borkovcová, M; Krivánek, I

    2009-12-01

    The influence of weaning to oestrus interval, its interaction with parity and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on changes of vaginal impedance in sows after weaning was examined. The impedance measurements were carried out by a four-terminal method. Sows were monitored for oestrus via exposure to a sexually mature boar. The interval from weaning to oestrus was longer in primiparous than multiparous sows (p<0.01). A significant negative correlation was found between the interval from weaning to oestrus and parity. Repeated measures analysis showed that the interval from weaning to oestrus and parity and their interactions had a significant effect on the vaginal impedance in peri-oestrus. The vaginal impedance during pro-oestrus gradually decreased in all groups of sows with the weaning to oestrus interval from 4 to 8 days (p<0.05). In the subsequent period, the vaginal impedance increased and was significantly lower from 1 to 3 days after oestrus onset in sows with the weaning to oestrus interval 7-8 days than 4-6 days. Similarly, the vaginal impedance during pro-oestrus gradually decreased in all groups of sows with parity 1-5 (p<0.01). In the next period, the vaginal impedance increased and was significantly lower from 2-3 days after oestrus onset in sows of parity 1 than parity 2-5. Repeated measures analysis showed that eCG treatment had a significant effect on the vaginal impedance in peri-oestrus. Sows treated with eCG displayed the decrease and increase of vaginal impedance due to oestrus onset earlier than untreated sows. The results indicate that the weaning to oestrus interval, its interaction with parity and eCG markedly affect the vaginal impedance in sows during peri-oestrus.

  3. ABNORMAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE CHORION AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPTUS

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    DD Farhud; H Sadighi ; M.R. Mohammad Hassani ; A. Samavat; R. Zakizadeh ; Z. Yazdani

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemias, because of climatic, geographic and ecological conditions, are the most common among the genetically endemic in Iran, especially m provinces adjacent to the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. There are over 14,000 cases of thalassemia major reported in Iran. Data, collected by the Iranian Ministry of Health, and analyzed at the Department of Human Genetics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, showed relative distribution of 3194 patients referring for the iron chelating drug, disferal, in 24 provinces in Iran. 3304 cases were studied for sex and age groups. Higher percentages and sex ratios were observed in each age group and further clarified as the age increased. 3386 cases were considered for ABO and Rh blood groups. Significant high incidence of group 0 (41.228% was followed by groups A (29.090% and B (23.2 13%, and group AB with the lowest (6.467%. A significant low incidence of Rh negative was also observed (6.852%.

  4. Impact of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Associated with Temporary Weaning, Estradiol Benzoate, or Estradiol Cypionate on Timed Artificial Insemination in Primiparous Bos Indicus Cows

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    Andre Luis Bastos Souza

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the impact of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG associated with different timed artificial insemination (TAI protocols on the pregnancy rate (PR in Bos indicus cows previously treated with progesterone. Five hundred and fifty-seven primiparous cows were subjected to the following treatments: on day 0 (d0, GeCGTW (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Temporary Weaning;n=178 received 0,558 g intravaginal progesterone (P4+1.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (IM; on d8 (P4 removal+0,075 mg D-cloprostenol + 400 IU eCG + TW for 48 h; on d10, TAI + calves return to dam; GeCGEB (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol benzoate; n=176 the same as GeCGTW without TW + application of 1.0 mg of EB on d9; GeCGEC (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol Cypionate; n=203, the same as GeCGTW without TW+1.5 mg EC (IM. On d35, post TAI, pregnancy diagnosis (PD was performed. Non-pregnant animals remained under clean-up bulls for 90 days. After this period, the animals were subjected to PD using ultrasound. The PR of TAI was 51.1%, 47.1%, and 47.8% for GeCGTW, GeCGEB24, and GeCGEC (P>0.05 respectively. The PR under clean-up bulls was 88.3%, 47.3%, and 31.1% (P<0.05. The final PR (TAI+clean-up bulls of the groups was 94.4%, 72.1%, and 64.0%, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that no differences in PR among the protocols related to TAI were detected; PR in the GeCGTW protocol under clean-up bulls was higher compared to others (P<0.05; the overall PR of cows subjected to TAI+clean-up bulls was significantly higher in GeCGTW than in the other groups.

  5. Efectividad Detección de glicoconjugados en las vellosidades placentarias porcinas de diferentes períodos gestacionales - Detection of glycoconjugates in porcine placental villi from different gestational periods

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    Sanchis, Eva Gabriela

    2009-12-01

    presence in the placental interface is of particular interest. The aim of the present work was to investigate the glycoconjugates present in the placental villi forming the interface of different gestational periods to improve our knowledge about certain mechanisms involved in the maintenance of gestation and placentation, indispensable for pregnancy to succeed. Cross-bred swines from Río Cuarto, Argentina (33, 11º S, 64, 3º Oslaughterhouses were used. The following placentas collectedbetween 2005 and 2007 were obtained: ±28 (n=2, ±55 (n=2, ±60(n=1, ±70 (n=1 and ±114 days of pregnancy (n=3. Placentalstructure was studied by light microscopy and the expression ofglycoconjugates by lectinhistochemistry using lectins conjugated withfluorescein isotiocianate. Positive (1 and abundant (2 values ofsialic acid were detected, while oligosaccharides bounding PHA-P,PHA-L y PHA-E showed their highest expression in intermediateperiods of gestation, with abundant (2 and strong (3 intensities. α-gal, β-gal and galNAc labeled the most at Days 55 and 70. Glucoseand mannose were the most commonly found residues in porcineplacenta, being present in every analyzed period. These findings are similar to those informed in several animal species havingepitheliochorial placenta, despite of differences in the occurrence and intensity. The studied saccharides showed variation of detection in porcine placental villi throughout gestation. Glucose and mannosewere more frequent than the rest of the glycoconjugates analyzed inthe present study.

  6. Deep Brain Photoreceptor (val-opsin) Gene Knockout Using CRISPR/Cas Affects Chorion Formation and Embryonic Hatching in the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chong Yee; Moriya, Shogo; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-rod non-cone photopigments in the eyes and the brain can directly mediate non-visual functions of light in non-mammals. This was supported by our recent findings on vertebrate ancient long (VAL)-opsin photopigments encoded by the val-opsinA (valopa) and val-opsinB (valopb) genes in zebrafish. However, the physiological functions of valop isoforms remain unknown. Here, we generated valop-mutant zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas genome editing, and examined the phenotypes of loss-of-function mutants. F0 mosaic mutations and germline transmission were confirmed via targeted insertions and/or deletions in the valopa or valopb gene in F1 mutants. Based on in silico analysis, frameshift mutations converted VAL-opsin proteins to non-functional truncated forms with pre-mature stop codons. Most F1 eggs or embryos from F0 female valopa/b mutants showed either no or only partial chorion elevation, and the eggs or embryos died within 26 hour-post-fertilization. However, most F1 embryos from F0 male valopa mutant developed but hatched late compared to wild-type embryos, which hatched at 4 day-post-fertilization. Late-hatched F1 offspring included wild-type and mutants, indicating the parental effects of valop knockout. This study shows valop gene knockout affects chorion formation and embryonic hatching in the zebrafish. PMID:27792783

  7. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    METHODS: Chorionic villi obtained from 10 women in transabdominal ... manual dissection of visible blood clots. The aim is to ... demonstrate the application of boiling- based method of .... automated Rapid Method of Extracting. Genomic DNA ...

  8. Isolation of human Leydig cell mesenchymal precursors from patients with the androgen insensitivity syndrome: testosterone production and response to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemes, H; Cigorraga, S; Bergadá, C; Schteingart, H; Rey, R; Pellizzari, E

    1992-05-01

    Mature Leydig cells, the main source of testicular testosterone in mammals, arise from immature mesenchymal precursors through an LH-dependent differentiation process. In order to study the steroidogenic potential of these precursors, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells were obtained from the testicular interstitium of two patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. After double digestion with collagenase and separation of the suspensions in a Percoll density gradient, the cells were cultured in Ham's F12 medium: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (1:1) supplemented with antibiotics, transferrin, insulin, hydrocortisone, and vitamin E with or without 1 IU of hCG/ml. At 11 days in culture, samples were removed for morphological characterization and determination of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (3 beta-HSD). Testosterone concentration was determined by RIA in the culture medium at different intervals. Cultured cells were mesenchymal in appearance, elongated in shape, with numerous processes running in different directions. No mature Leydig cells were present. In basal conditions, the percentages of 3 beta-HSD-positive cells at 11 days on patients 1 and 2 were 33% and 28%, respectively, and the testosterone concentrations in the culture media were 4.8 and 8.4 ng.10(6) cells.24 h, respectively. In cultures stimulated with hCG, there was an increase of histochemical reactivity (47% and 42% in patients 1 and 2, respectively) and in the amount of testosterone secreted (10.2 and 12.0 ng.10(6) cells, respectively). Electron microscopic studies of cultures grown in the absence of hCG demonstrated a homogenous population of poorly differentiated, fibroblastic-type mesenchymal cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Human placental development is impaired by abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin signaling in trisomy 21 pregnancies: hCG signaling is impaired in trisomy 21 pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Marpeau, Olivier; Guibourdenche, Jean; Ferreira, Fatima; Badet, Josette; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Frendo, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    ...), which is essential to placental development. In trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21) pregnancies, CTs do not fuse and differentiate properly into STs, leading to the secretion of an abnormal and weakly bioactive hCG...

  10. Korralik ja aus mees / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. mai lk. 6-7. Tallinna uus abilinnapea Deniss Boroditsh. Vt. samas: CV; Poliitika: miks astuda just Keskerakonda?; Sport: Keskerakond meelitab noorsportlasi. Kommenteerivad: Lauri Laasi, Konstantin Kotivnenko, Jüri Sirel ja Asser Jaanimets

  11. Riigi teaduspreemiate 2003 kandidaadid / Villi Ehatamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehatamm, Villi

    2003-01-01

    2003.a. teaduspreemia kandidaadid: J. Einasto, A.-E. Kaasik, R. Hagelberg, H. Rätsep, R. Pullat, M. Kilp, V. Laan, P. Normak, S. Keevallik, V. Hižnjakov, M. Selg, T. Pehk, T. Rang, M. Mihkla, A. Eek, E. Meister, H.-J. Kaalep, J. Harro, A. Metspalu, T. Jürimäe, J. Haberman, A. Miidel, T. Nõges, E. Pihu, A. Raukas, R. Gross, T. Paaver, A. Valdmann, Ü. Tamm, M. Mandre, K. Ots, H. Pärn, J. Klõseiko, T. Rajasalu, V. Vensel, E. Berg, J. Reiljan, U. Varblane, K. Katus, A. Puur, A. Põldma, K. Rebane, M. Hallik, M. Must, A. Univere, E. Juhkam, I. Käsi, V. Lonn, E. Niit, K. Kirme

  12. Liikluskindlustuse hind kerkib sammhaaval / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Kohustusliku liikluskindlustuse hind kasvab iga päevaga, hinnatõus peatub 1. mail. Põhjuseks EL-iga liitumisel kindlustuse sisse arvutatav roheline kaart. Diagrammid: Kindlustuspoliisi hind sõltub kehtima hakkamise ajast

  13. Õhtud ovaalsaalis / Villi Ahven

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ahven, Villi

    1996-01-01

    'Vanemuise' väikeses teatrimajas toimuvast. Ka salongiõhtutest 'Mu kurbused on alasti' (Indrek Hirve luule), 'Elulootus' (Doris Kareva, Artur Alliksaare, Juhan Viidingu ja Uku Masingu luule) ja 'Lõpetamata romanss' (Ivan Bunini jutustus 'Zoika ja Valeria'), lisaks muusikat

  14. Riigi teaduspreemiate 2003 kandidaadid / Villi Ehatamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehatamm, Villi

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. teaduspreemia kandidaadid: J. Einasto, A.-E. Kaasik, R. Hagelberg, H. Rätsep, R. Pullat, M. Kilp, V. Laan, P. Normak, S. Keevallik, V. Hižnjakov, M. Selg, T. Pehk, T. Rang, M. Mihkla, A. Eek, E. Meister, H.-J. Kaalep, J. Harro, A. Metspalu, T. Jürimäe, J. Haberman, A. Miidel, T. Nõges, E. Pihu, A. Raukas, R. Gross, T. Paaver, A. Valdmann, Ü. Tamm, M. Mandre, K. Ots, H. Pärn, J. Klõseiko, T. Rajasalu, V. Vensel, E. Berg, J. Reiljan, U. Varblane, K. Katus, A. Puur, A. Põldma, K. Rebane, M. Hallik, M. Must, A. Univere, E. Juhkam, I. Käsi, V. Lonn, E. Niit, K. Kirme

  15. Atrophy of the intestinal villi in a post-gastrectomy patient with severe iron deficiency anemia Atrofia de las vellosidades intestinales en un paciente postgastrectomizado con anemia ferropénica grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lizarraga

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims: Iron deficiency anemia is a common complication of gastric surgery that in certain patients can be refractory to treatment with oral iron and needs to be treated parenterally. Methods: A 48-year woman underwent gastric surgery for a gastric ulcer. She was referred to the nutrition unit for the study and treatment of a 3-year iron deficiency anemia refractory to oral iron supplementation. Blood tests, endoscopy and jejunal biopsy were made to study the case. Results: Intestinal villi atrophy in the absence of celiac disease was the result. She was treated with intravenous iron, resolving the villous atrophy and thus oral iron supplementation could be effective. Conclusion: This case illustrates that iron deficiency may cause villous atrophy. In this setting, parenteral iron administration is necessary to correct the haematological and non-hematological alterations associated with this deficiency.Introducción y objetivos: La anemia ferropénica es una complicación frecuente tras la cirugía gástrica que en algunos pacientes puede ser refractaria al tratamiento con hierro oral, siendo necesaria su administración por vía parenteral. Métodos: Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 48 años intervenida de gastrectomía para tratamiento de una úlcera gástrica. Fue remitida a la unidad de nutrición para estudio y tratamiento de una anemia ferropénica de 3 años de evolución refractaria al tratamiento con hierro oral. Para el estudio del caso se realizó analítica y endoscopia digestiva alta con biopsia yeyunal. Resultados: En el estudio realizado la paciente presentaba atrofia de la mucosa yeyunal en ausencia de enfermedad celíaca. Fue tratada con hierro intravenoso desapareciendo la atrofia intestinal, tras lo cual continuamos con suplementos de hierro por vía oral. Conclusión: Este caso ilustra que la deficiencia de hierro puede producir atrofia intestinal. Si esto ocurre, es necesario la suplementación de este metal

  16. 粘附因子CD44v3在正常绒毛和葡萄胎中的表达及相关性研究%Expression of CD44 v3 and Their Correlation in Normal Placetal Villi and Hydatidiform Mole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白兴武

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨CD44v3在正常绒毛和葡萄胎中的表达及相关性.方法:采用免疫组化SABC法检测CD44v3在50例正常绒毛,50例良性葡萄胎,40例恶性葡萄胎的表达情况.结果:CD44v3在正常绒毛,良性葡萄胎,恶性葡萄胎中阳性表达率分别是:8.0%,30.6%,90.0%,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:CD44v3的过表达促进葡萄胎的浸润、转移,可作为葡萄胎的浸润、转移及评价预后生物学指标.%Objective: To investigate the expression of CD44 v3 and their correlation in normal placetal villi and hydatidiform mole. Method: The expression of CD44 v3 protein was detected in 50 specimens nomal placetal villi ,50 specimens benign hydatidiform mole and 40 specimens of malignant hydatidiform mole by immunohistochemistry (SABC method ). Result: In normal placetal villi, benign hydatidiform mole, malignant hydatidiform mole ,the expression rate of CD44 v3 were 8.0%, 30.6% and 90.0% respectively . Conclusion:The expressions of CD44v3 are correlated to invasion and metastasis of hydatidiform mole, thus can be as markers to predict metastasis and invasion of hydatidiform mole and the prognosis of these patients as well.

  17. Simplified purification of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)--an example of the use of magnetic microsorbents for the isolation of glycoproteins from serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christine; Wagner, Kerstin; Frankenfeld, Katrin; Franzreb, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Classical purification of the glycoprotein equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) from serum includes pH fractionation with metaphosphoric acid, two ethanol precipitation steps as well as dialysis followed by fixed-bed chromatography. A simplified process requiring only 1/3 of the solvent and improving the yield from 53 to 65% has been developed. The process comprises an ultra-/diafiltration step after the first ethanol precipitation, directly followed by an adsorption/desorption procedure based on magnetic microadsorbents with N,N-diethyl-ammonium functionalization. The process reaches an overall purification factor of eCG of more than 1800 and an average product activity of 1300 IU(ELISA)/mg. After adapting the parameters of the fractionation and the type of magnetic microadsorbents, the new concept is likely to be transferable to other serum proteins.

  18. The effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome of the second twin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Sofie; Nickelsen, Carsten; Petersen, Janne;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome in the second twin. Additionally, to investigate predictors of adverse outcome in both twins. Methods: Data included vaginally delivered twins (≥ 36 weeks) from Copenhagen...... University Hospitals (2001-09). The association between delivery interval and adverse outcome parameters were compared for monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) twins by multiple linear regression. Predictors were studied by logistic regression. Results: There were 554 twin pairs: 57 MC and 485 DC. We...... found no difference in the decrease of pH (p = 0.912) and Apgar (p = 0.609) in relation to increasing time interval. Neonatal unit (NICU) admissions did not differ (p = 0.167). Apgar ≤ 7 (p twin, whereas first (p = 0.001) or second (p twin Apgar...

  19. High-resolution imaging diagnosis of human fetal membrane by three-dimensional optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hugang; Avila, Cecilia; Kaplan, Cynthia; Pan, Yingtian

    2011-11-01

    Microscopic chorionic pseudocyst (MCP) arising in the chorion leave of the human fetal membrane (FM) is a clinical precursor for preeclampsia which may progress to fatal medical conditions (e.g., abortion) if left untreated. To examine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for noninvasive delineation of the morphology of human fetal membranes and early clinical detection of MCP, 60 human FM specimens were acquired from 10 different subjects undergoing term cesarean delivery for an ex vivo feasibility study. Our results showed that OCT was able to identify the four-layer architectures of human FMs consisting of high-scattering decidua vera (DV, average thickness dDV ~ 92+/-38 μm), low-scattering chorion and trophoblast (CT, dCT ~ 150+/-67 μm), high-scattering subepithelial amnion (A, dA ~ 95+/-36 μm), and low-scattering epithelium (E, dE ~ 29+/-8 μm). Importantly, 3D OCT was able to instantaneously detect MCPs (low scattering due to edema, fluid buildup, vasodilatation) and track (staging) their thicknesses dMCP ranging from 24 to 615 μm. It was also shown that high-frequency ultrasound was able to compliment OCT for detecting more advanced thicker MCPs (e.g., dMCP>615 μm) because of its increased imaging depth.

  20. Analytical theory of oxygen transport in the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Filoche, M; Grebenkov, D S

    2015-03-07

    We propose an analytical approach to solving the diffusion-convection equations governing oxygen transport in the human placenta. We show that only two geometrical characteristics of a placental cross-section, villi density and the effective villi radius, are needed to predict fetal oxygen uptake. We also identify two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake in a given placenta: (i) the maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone if there were no tissue blocking the flow and (ii) the ratio of transit time of maternal blood through the intervillous space to oxygen extraction time. We derive analytical formulas for fast and simple calculation of oxygen uptake and provide two diagrams of efficiency of oxygen transport in an arbitrary placental cross-section. We finally show that artificial perfusion experiments with no-hemoglobin blood tend to give a two-orders-of-magnitude underestimation of the in vivo oxygen uptake and that the optimal geometry for such setup alters significantly. The theory allows one to adjust the results of artificial placenta perfusion experiments to account for oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation. Combined with image analysis techniques, the presented model can give an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the human placenta efficiency.

  1. Adhering maternal platelets can contribute to the cytokine and chemokine cocktail released by human first trimester villous placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschitz, A; Siwetz, M; Schlenke, P; Gauster, M

    2015-11-01

    Placental villous explant culture has been increasingly recognized as suitable model to study secretion of inflammatory and immune modulating factors by human placenta. Most of these factors likely derive from the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas extraplacental sources such as maternal peripheral blood cells are rarely considered. Due to their small size and absence of a nucleus, platelets adhering to perivillous fibrinoid of normal placenta are frequently ignored in routine immunohistochemistry. Here we demonstrate adhering maternal platelets on first trimester placental villi after explant culture and point out that platelet-derived factors must be considered when analyzing the inflammatory secretion profile of human placenta.

  2. LOCALIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LAMININ AND LAMININ RECEPTOR IN THE HUMAN PLACENTAL VILLI%人胎盘绒毛层粘连蛋白及其受体的定位与定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔彩莲; 李英

    1998-01-01

    目的:研究层粘连蛋白(laminin, LN)及其受体(laminin receptor,LN-R)在早、中、晚期人胎盘绒毛的定位及其相对含量变化.方法:取早期、中期和晚期胎盘绒毛,常规制作石蜡组织切片,采用免疫组织化学ABC法和图像分析技术进行LN及LN-R定位和定量测定.结果:LN阳性反应主要位于绒毛上皮基膜和绒毛血管内皮基膜;LN-R的阳性反应位于绒毛上皮合体滋养层表面及合体滋养层和细胞滋养层的细胞质内,细胞核呈阴性.LN及LN-R的含量以早期胎盘绒毛中最高,中期及晚期含量明显降低.结论:人胎盘绒毛含有LN及LN-R,随着胎盘周龄的增加,二者的含量均降低.

  3. Development of microfluidic cell culture devices towards an in vitro human intestinal barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin

    folds that closely resembled the intestinal villi and formation of a tight barrier. Furthermore, the microelectrodes embedded in the microchip also allow real-time monitoring of the barrier integrity by means of measuring the trans-epithelial electrical resistance. Demonstrations of transport studies...... using different compounds on the in vitro human intestinal model in the microfluidic device showed comparable results with static cultures. In addition, a normal commensal intestinal bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) was successfully co-cultured on the luminal surface of the cultured epithelium...

  4. Endocrine gland-derived endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is a potential novel regulator of human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, C; Hoffmann, P; Sapin, V; Blanchon, L; Salomon, A; Sergent, F; Benharouga, M; Sabra, S; Guibourdenche, J; Lye, S J; Feige, J J; Alfaidy, N

    2014-09-01

    EG-VEGF is an angiogenic factor that we identified as a new placental growth factor during human pregnancy. EG-VEGF is also expressed in the mouse fetal membrane (FM) by the end of gestation, suggesting a local role for this protein in the mechanism of parturition. However, injection of EG-VEGF to gravid mice did not induce labor, suggesting a different role for EG-VEGF in parturition. Here, we searched for its role in the FM in relation to human parturition. Human pregnant sera and total FM, chorion, and amnion were collected during the second and third trimesters from preterm no labor, term no labor, and term labor patients. Primary human chorion trophoblast and FM explants cultures were also used. We demonstrate that circulating EG-VEGF increased toward term and significantly decreased at the time of labor. EG-VEGF production was higher in the FM compared to placentas matched for gestational age. Within the FM, the chorion was the main source of EG-VEGF. EG-VEGF receptors, PROKR1 and PROKR2, were differentially expressed within the FM with increased expression toward term and an abrupt decrease with the onset of labor. In chorion trophoblast and FM explants collected from nonlaboring patients, EG-VEGF decreased metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and increased PGDH (prostaglandin-metabolizing enzyme) expression. Altogether these data demonstrate that EG-VEGF is a new cytokine that acts locally to ensure FM protection in late pregnancy. Its fine contribution to the initiation of human labor is exhibited by the abrupt decrease in its levels as well as a reduction in its receptors. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. 氯菊酯异构体对人类绒毛膜癌 JEG-3细胞内分泌的选择性干扰%Endocrine disruption effect of permethrin isomers to the chorion carcinoma JEG-3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮利喜; 王萍; 朱欣凯; 陆颖冲; 赵美蓉

    2016-01-01

    The endocrine disruption effect of four permethrin isomers to the chorion carcinoma JEG-3 cells was investigated. JEG-3 cell lines was employed as thein vitro model and the potential risks of these compounds to maternal-fetal health were also evaluated. Four permethrin isomers were separated by HPLC. The results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that those four isomers, in RNA levels, exhibited selective influence on the relative expression amounts of the genes correspounding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its receptor, the enzymes of the steroidogenesis pathway and human leucocyte antigen G (HLA-G). The endocrine disruption effects induced by 1R-cis-PM and 1S-trans-PM were more significant than that induced by 1S-cis-PM and 1R-trans-PM.%以人类绒毛膜癌 JEG-3细胞为模型,通过考察拟除虫菊酯类农药氯菊酯(permethrin, PM)及其异构体对 JEG-3细胞内分泌相关基因的干扰情况,探讨了氯菊酯及其异构体暴露对产妇胎儿健康的潜在风险。通过高效液相色谱拆分得到氯菊酯的4个异构体,采用实时荧光定量反转录聚合酶链式反应(reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR)法检测目的基因的相对表达水平,发现氯菊酯异构体对 JEG-3细胞促性腺激素释放激素(GnRHI, GnRHII)及其受体(GnRHR)、胆甾醇类雌激素合成关键基因以及胚胎免疫耐受相关基因(HLA-G)在 mRNA水平的相对表达量均呈现选择性干扰,其中1R-cis-PM和1S-trans-PM对滋养层细胞内分泌相关基因表达量的影响大于其他2个异构体。

  6. The vanishing twin: morphologic and cytogenetic evaluation of an ultrasonographic phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Vejerslev, L O; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Twin pregnancy was observed by ultrasonographic examination in the 6th week of gestation. After singleton term delivery a thickening of the membranes opposite to the main placenta showed degenerated chorionic villi embedded between one layer of amnion and chorion; no fetal parts were observed. Vi...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of true placenta accreta: a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Tarachkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available True placenta accreta is the attachment of chorionic villi to the myometrium, possibly penetrating into the thickness of the myometrium and its outside, including through the serous tunic. The main current diagnostic techniques are considered to be ultrasonography, laboratory diagnosis (elevated human chorionic gonadotropin and placental lactogen levels, and clinical data (pain and vaginal discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging is deemed to be an adjuvant technique. By using a clinical example, this paper considers the capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose this abnormality and to choose a right treatment policy. The abnormality is compared with the conditions (trophoblastic tumor and myoma with lysis that are similar in their diagnosis and magnetic resonance pattern. The disorder in question is rather rare and its detailed consideration, determination of the capabilities of various techniques, and comparison with externally similar cases areimportant for the development of diagnostic opportunities.

  8. Six new species of Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from New World jays of the genus Cyanocorax Boie (Passeriformes: Corvidae), with notes on the chorionic structure of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Michel P; Cicchino, Armando C

    2015-02-01

    The only species of previously named Myrsidea Waterston, 1915 from Neotropical jays of the genus Cyanocorax Boie (Passeriformes: Corvidae), Myrsidea fallax Kéler, 1938 (type-host Cyanocorax cyanomelas Vieillot), is redescribed and six new species of lice in the genus Myrsidea are described: Myrsidea pseudofallax n. sp. [type-host C. c. chrysops (Vieillot)]; M. moriona n. sp. [type-host C. m. morio (Wagler)]; Myrsidea daleclaytoni n. sp. [type-host C. v. violaceus Du Bus de Gisignies]; Myrsidea lindolphoi n. sp. [type-host C. caeruleus (Vieillot)]; Myrsidea melanocyanei n. sp. [type-host C. melanocyaneus chavezi (Miller & Griscom)]; and Myrsidea cristatelli n. sp. [type-host C. cristatellus (Temminck)]. A key to the identification of both sexes of these seven species is provided. Immature stages of M. daleclaytoni n. sp. (all instars) and M. cristatelli n. sp. (nymph III) are described. External chorionic architecture of the eggs is described and illustrated for six Myrsidea spp. from corvine birds: M. picae (Linnaeus, 1758) ex Pica p. pica L.; M. cornicis (DeGeer, 1778) ex Corvus c. corone L.; M. isostoma (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866) ex Co. f. frugilegus L.; M. interrupta (Osborn, 1896) ex Co. brachyrhynchus Brehm; M. fallax ex Cy. cyanomelas; and M. moriona n. sp. ex Cy. m. morio. This is the first review of the data on Myrsidea spp. infesting Neotropical Corvidae.

  9. Comparison of pre-procedural anxiety and depression scores for patients undergoing chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis: An alternative perspective on prenatal invasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhal, Cem Yasar; Mendilcioglu, Inanc; Ozekinci, Murat; Simsek, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pre-procedural anxiety and depression levels of patients undergoing chorion villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC). Patients referred to our department for fetal karyotype analysis with a positive first or second trimester screening test for aneuploidy between January 2013 to June 2015 were included. CVS and AC procedures were performed in patients with gestation periods of between 11-14 and 16-20 weeks, respectively. Anxiety was evaluated using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). A total of 1,400 patients were included. Compared to first trimester controls, patients undergoing CVS had significantly higher STAI-state and BDI-II results. Likewise, patients undergoing AC had higher STAI-state and BDI-II scores than controls in the second trimester. In terms of STAI-trait results, no difference was found between the groups. Our results also showed that, compared to AC group, patients undergoing CVS had similar STAI-state, STAI-trait and but higher BDI-II scores. We conclude that evaluating the stress and depression levels of these patients should be one of the routine procedures in pregnancy follow-up.

  10. The effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome of the second twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortø, Sofie; Nickelsen, Carsten; Petersen, Janne; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of chorionicity and twin-to-twin delivery time interval on short-term outcome in the second twin as well as to investigate the predictors of adverse outcome in both twins. Data included vaginally delivered twins (≥36 weeks) from Copenhagen University Hospitals (2001-2009). The association between delivery interval and adverse outcome parameters was compared for monochorionic (MC) and dichorionic (DC) twins by multiple linear regression. Predictors were studied by logistic regression. There were 554 twin pairs, of which 57 were MC and 485 DC. We found no difference in the decrease of pH (p = 0.912) and Apgar (p = 0.609) in relation to increasing time interval. Neonatal unit (NICU) admissions did not differ (p = 0.167). Apgar ≤7 (p < 0.001) and pH ≤ 7.20 (p = 0.002) increased first twin risk of NICU admission, whereas first (p = 0.001) or second (p < 0.001) twin Apgar ≤7 and second twin pH ≤7.00 (p = 0.003) increased second twin risk of NICU admission. Increasing delivery interval was associated with a significant decrease in pH and Apgar, but there was no difference between MC and DC twins. Low Apgar of the first twin increased the risk of second twin NICU admission.

  11. Biodiversity of multiple Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) family: gene cloning and chorionic protein purification in domestic and wild eutherians (Placentalia)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranska, Bozena; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Majewska, Marta

    2006-01-01

    This review presents a broad overview of chorionic glycoproteins encoded by the Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein (PAG) gene family and also serves to illustrate how the recent discovery of the PAG family has contributed to our general knowledge of genome evolution, placental transcription and placental protein expression. The complex and large PAG family is restricted to the Artiodactyla order, although single PAG-like genes have also been identified in species outside the Artiodactyla. The PAGs are members of the aspartic proteinase (AP) superfamily. Unexpectedly, however, some members of the PAG family possess amino acid substitutions within and around the active site that likely render them unable to act as proteinases. This paper summarises the available information regarding biodiversity of PAG gene expression based on cDNA cloning, mRNA localisation studies and the structural organisation of the PAG genes with a particular emphasis on PAG promoters. It also compares available data regarding PAG protein purifications, sequencing and their N-glycodiversity. Finally, it discusses the scientific relevance, possible functional roles of the PAGs and describes possible profitable applications related to the detection of PAG proteins in the blood of pregnant domestic and wild species.

  12. The vanishing twin: morphologic and cytogenetic evaluation of an ultrasonographic phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Vejerslev, L O; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Twin pregnancy was observed by ultrasonographic examination in the 6th week of gestation. After singleton term delivery a thickening of the membranes opposite to the main placenta showed degenerated chorionic villi embedded between one layer of amnion and chorion; no fetal parts were observed. Vi....... Postconceptional nondisjunction leading to tetraploidy in one twin conceptus may explain demise in early pregnancy. Tetraploidy observed by chorionic villus biopsy must be confirmed by amniocentesis before interruption of the pregnancy is considered....

  13. Serum insulin-like factor 3 is highly correlated with intratesticular testosterone in normal men with acute, experimental gonadotropin deficiency stimulated with low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Mara Y; Lin, Kat; Bay, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To study the potential role for using serum biomarkers, including insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, antimüllerian hormone, and inhibin B, as correlates of intratesticular T (IT-T) concentrations in men....

  14. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G

    2007-01-01

    . PATIENT(S): Patients under observation previously had been recruited into two concurrently performed, independent, randomized controlled trials (comparing hCG with GnRH-agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation in GnRH-antagonist multiple-dose protocols in normal responder patients) encompassing...

  15. Occult abnormal pregnancies after first post-embryo transfer serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Bartolucci, Alison; Sueldo, Carolina; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2016-04-01

    To assess the occult pregnancy rate after "negative" first post-embryo transfer (ET) serum β-hCG results. Two-part retrospective cohort study and nested case series. University-based fertility center. A total of 1,571 negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results were included in the study; 1,326 results (primary cohort, June 2009-December 2013) were initially reported as <5 mIU/mL and 245 results (secondary cohort, January 2014-March 2015) were reported as discrete values from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL. None. Rates of occult pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and complications after negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results. A total of 88.8% (1,178/1,326) of the negative first post-ET results reported as <5 were actually <1.0 mIU/mL. Occult pregnancy was incidentally identified in 1.2% (12/1,041) of subjects with follow-up. Six had ectopic pregnancies, and seven experienced serious complications; 11 (91.7%) of the 12 occult pregnancies had a first post-ET serum β-hCG level of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL and 1 (8.3%) <1.0 mIU/mL. All pregnancies with serious complications had initial β-hCG levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL. Of the 245 results reported as discreet values, occult pregnancies were diagnosed in 5.5% (9/163) of subjects with follow-up. One had an ectopic pregnancy, which was treated with methotrexate. There were no serious complications in the secondary cohort. The majority of negative first post-ET serum β-hCG levels are <1.0 mIU/mL. Results from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL may fail to exclude abnormal pregnancy and are associated with poor outcomes compared with β-hCG levels <1.0 mIU/mL. Serial serum β-hCG may be warranted in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Study on Immuno-response and Antisera Properties of Recombinant β-subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in C57 Black Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周清平; 申庆祥; 李卫华; 丁训诚

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-response of recombinant hCG-β and natural hCCwas compctratively investigated by using Freund's adjuvant. The results showed that, the properties and merits of the antibodies elicited by both kinds of hCG-β were similar. The antisera had high affinity for binding with hCG (Kαγβ=5.86×106/mol/L, Kαγβ=8.18×106/mol/L), and were found to be effective in in hibiting the binding of 125I-hCG to receptors in rat testes. Results also indicated that, similar to the antisera induced by natural hCG-β, the recombinant hCG-β induced antisera had capacity of neutralizing the biological activities of hCG. Recombinant hCG-β could be used as an immunogen for contraceptive vaccine.

  17. Initial maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels in pregnancies achieved after assisted reproductive technology are higher after preimplantation genetic screening and after frozen embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeika, Elie; Singh, Sonali; Malik, Shaveta; Knochenhauer, Eric S; Traub, Michael L

    2017-06-21

    Few published articles have compared initial hCG values across all different types of ART cycles, including cycles with fresh or frozen embryo transfer. No articles have compared initial hCG values in cycles utilizing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). The purpose of this study is to compare initial hCG values after fresh embryo transfer, frozen embryo transfer, and after PGS. This was a single-center retrospective cohort study at an academically affiliated private IVF center. All fresh and frozen embryo transfers between January 2013 and December 31, 2015 were included. We compared mean initial serum hCG values 14 days after oocyte retrieval for fresh cycles and 9 days after frozen embryo transfer. We examined cycles of single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET). Two hundred elven IVF (fresh embryo transfer), 128 FET (frozen embryo transfer cycles, no PGS), and 111 PGS cycles (ovarian stimulation with embryo cryopreservation, PGS, and frozen transfer in a subsequent estrogen-primed cycle) with initial positive hCG values were analyzed. In patients achieving a positive hCG after SET, initial hCG values were higher after PGS compared to FET (182.4 versus 124.0 mIU/mL, p = 0.02) and IVF (182.4 versus 87.1 mIU/mL, p transfer of a frozen embryo compared to a fresh embryo. This suggests that initial hCG values relate to the chromosomal status of embryos. Initial hCG values may help determine intervention and monitoring later in pregnancy.

  18. Comparison of gene expression profiles in granulosa and cumulus cells after ovulation induction with either human chorionic gonadotropin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa.......To explore differences in follicle transcriptomes in patients having oocyte maturation with either a bolus of hCG or GnRHa....

  19. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Regression Curve for Predicting Response to EMA/CO (Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide and Vincristine) Regimen in Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaburi, Athithan; Boonyapipat, Sathana; Supasinth, Yuthasak

    2015-01-01

    An hCG regression curve has been used to predict the natural history and response to chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic disease. We constructed hCG regression curves in high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) treated with EMA/CO and identified an optimal hCG level to detect EMA/CO resistance in GTN. Eighty-one women with GTN treated with EMA/CO were classified as primary high-risk GTN (n=65) and single agent-resistance GTN (n=16). The hCG levels prior to each course of chemotherapy were plotted in the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles to construct the hCG regression curves. Diagnostic performance was evaluated for an optimal cut-off value. The median hCG levels were 264,482 mIU/mL mIU/mL and 495.5 mIU/mL mIU/mL for primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance GTN, respectively. The 50th percentile of the hCG level in primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance turned to normal before the 4th and the 2nd course of chemotherapy, respectively. The 90th percentile of the hCG level in primary high-risk GTN and single agent-resistance turned to normal before the 9th and the 2nd course of chemotherapy, respectively. The hCG level of ≥118.6 mIU/mL mIU/mL at the 5thcourse of EMA/CO predicted the EMA/CO resistance in primary high-risk GTN patients with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 100%. EMA/CO resistance in primary high-risk GTN can be predicted by using an hCG regression curve in combination with the cut-off value of 118.6 mIU/mL at the 5thcourse of chemotherapy.

  20. Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β- hCG) Clearance Curves in Women with Successfully Expectantly Managed Tubal Ectopic Pregnancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Samir; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Ben-Nagi, Jara; Koch, Marianne; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2015-01-01

    To establish clearance curves for serum β -hCG in women with successfully expectantly managed tubal ectopic pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. Non- viable tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on transvaginal ultrasound. If initial serum β hCG was less than 5000 IU/L and patients were asymptomatic, expectant management was offered. Patients underwent serial β hCG measurements until serum β hCG was less than 20 IU/l, or the urine pregnancy test was negative. Early Pregnancy and Gynaecology Assessment Unit, Kings College Hospital, London (December 1998 to July 2006). We included 161 women with diagnosed non-viable tubal ectopic pregnancy who underwent successful expectant management. Serum β hCG level. Mean initial serum β- hCG was 488 IU/L (41 - 4883) and median serum β hCG clearance time was 19 days (5 - 82). The average half-life of β hCG clearance was 82.5 hours (±SD 50.2) in patients with steadily declining serum β- hCG levels compared to 106.7 hours (±SD 72.0) in patients with primarily plateauing β-hCG levels in the declining phase. However, these differences were not significant (p>0.05). We identified a median follow-up of 19 days until serum β hCG clearance in women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and successful expectant management. Although non- significant, women with initially plateauing serum β hCG showed a longer follow-up time until clearance compared to women with steadily declining β hCG levels. This information may serve as a guideline enabling clinicians to predict the length of follow-up for women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and expectant management.

  1. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING ~(32)P-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Genetic effects of ultrasound on fetus havebeen extensively studied since ultrasonograph waswidely appliedin obstetric practice.In recent years,there have been reports onin vivomolecular geneticeffects of diagnostic ultrasound[1-4].In vitroexperi-ments have found that single-stranded breaks(ssbs)and double-stranded breaks(dsbs)in DNA are themain indices for DNA lesions induced by ultra-sound[5].But,no reports on whether ultrasound cancausein vivossbs and dsbs in DNAare available.Tofurther explore the potent...

  2. A decrease in serum estradiol levels after human chorionic gonadotrophin administration predicts significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, L A; Molinaro, T A; Sammel, M D; Dokras, A

    2012-09-01

    Although close observation of serum estradiol (E2) levels remains a mainstay of assessing clinical response to controlled ovarian stimulation, the prognostic value of any change in E2 levels after administration of hCG remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum E2 response after hCG administration and the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 21-45 years undergoing their first IVF cycle from 1999 to 2008 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum E2 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. IVF cycles were stratified by post-hCG E2 response and appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistics were performed. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live births were the primary outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictive factors associated with outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 1712 IVF cycles, 1065 exhibited a >10% increase (Group A), 525 had a plateau (± 10%, Group B) and 122 showed a >10% decrease (Group C) in post-hCG E2 levels. While the E2 levels on the day of hCG were similar across groups, Group C had more patients with diminished ovarian reserve, required higher gonadotrophin doses and had the lowest implantation rates. After adjusting for age, total gonadotrophin dose, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes and number of transferred embryos, the associations between post-hCG E2 decline (Group C) and clinical pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.84, P= 0.007] and live birth (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.71, P= 0.002) were significant. We also found significant associations between E2 plateau (Group B) and clinical pregnancy (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, P= 0.013) and live birth (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, P= 0.032) when adjusting for the same factors. In our study, >10% decrease in E2 levels after hCG administration was associated with 40-50% reduction in clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Similarly, post-hCG E2 plateau (± 10%) lowered the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates by >25%. Our study suggests that the change in the post-hCG E2 level is another parameter that can be used by clinicians to counsel patients regarding their likelihood of success with assisted reproductive technologies prior to oocyte retrieval.

  3. Dual trigger of oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin to optimize live birth rates in high responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Daniel; Benadiva, Claudio; Kummer, Nicole; Budinetz, Tara; Nulsen, John; Engmann, Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    To compare live birth rates after dual trigger of oocyte maturation with GnRH agonist (GnRHa) and low-dose hCG versus GnRHa alone in high responders with peak E(2) triggered with GnRHa alone or GnRHa plus 1,000 IU hCG (dual trigger) for oocyte maturation. GnRHa alone versus dual trigger. Live birth, implantation, and clinical pregnancy rates and OHSS. The dual-trigger group had a significantly higher live birth rate (52.9% vs. 30.9%), implantation rate (41.9% vs. 22.1%), and clinical pregnancy rate (58.8% vs. 36.8%) compared with the GnRHa trigger group. One case of mild OHSS occurred in the dual-trigger group, and there were no cases of OHSS in the GnRHa trigger group. Dual trigger of oocyte maturation with GnRHa and low-dose hCG in high responders with peak E(2) birth without increasing the risk of significant OHSS. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. EPO improves the proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of trophoblast and decidual stromal cells through activating STAT-5 and inactivating p38 signal in human early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu Qing; Zhang, Yu Quan; Li, Ming Qing; Du, Mei Rong; Wei, Wei Wei; Li, Da Jin

    2011-01-01

    The erythropoietin (EPO) belongs to the family of angiogenic factors, which is regulated by Hypoxia-inducible factor- 1α (HIF-1α). As known, EPO are expressed in human villi and decidua, but the function is not clear. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of HIF-1α, EPO and its receptor (EPOR) in the biological functions of trophoblast and decidual stromal cell (DSC) in human early pregnancy. The expression of EPO, EPOR and HIF-1α was evaluated in the villi and deciduas by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Thereafter, we silenced HIF-1α expression in HTR-8/SVneo cell line and decidual stromal cells (DSCs). The effects of EPO on the proliferation and apoptosis of trophoblasts and DSCs, and activation of signal molecules were investigated by BrdU proliferation assay, flow cytometry and western blot, respectively. We have observed that the HIF-1α silence results in the lower expression of EPO in trophoblasts and DSCs. The anti-EPO neutralizing antibody can inactivate the phosphorylation of STAT5 and activate p38 of these cells in a dosage-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expressions of EPO, EPOR and HIF-1α in the villi and decidua from the unexplained miscarriage were significantly lower than that of the normal early pregnancy. This study suggests that HIF-1α may regulate the expression of EPO, which plays a favorable regulatory role in the proliferation and survival of human first-trimester trophoblast cells and DSCs via inactivating p38 and activating STAT5 in an autocrine manner, while the inadequate EPO expression at maternal-fetal interface may lead to pregnancy wastage in humans.

  5. Ectopic pregnancy-derived human trophoblastic stem cells regenerate dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway to treat parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tony Tung-Yin; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Wang, Yu-Chih; Kao, Mi-Chun; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Singh, Sher; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Lee, Jau-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, several practical limitations remain. As such, finding the appropriate stem cell remains the primary issue in regenerative medicine today. We isolated a pre-placental pluripotent stem cell from the chorionic villi of women with early tubal ectopic pregnancies. Our objectives in this study were (i) to identify the characteristics of hTS cells as a potential cell source for therapy; and (ii) to test if hTS cells can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for PD. hTS cells expressed gene markers of both the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM). hTS cells exhibited genetic and biological characteristics similar to that of hES cells, yet genetically distinct from placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) efficiently induced hTS cells into trophoblast neural stem cells (tNSCs) in 1-day. Overexpression of transcription factor Nanog was possibly achieved through a RA-induced non-genomic c-Src/Stat3/Nanog signaling pathway mediated by the subcellular c-Src mRNA localization for the maintenance of pluripotency in tNSCs. tNSC transplantation into the lesioned striatum of acute and chronic PD rats not only improved behavioral deficits but also regenerated dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, evidenced by immunofluorescent and immunohistological analyses at 18-weeks. Furthermore, tNSCs showed immunological advantages for the application in regenerative medicine. We successfully isolated and characterized the unique ectopic pregnancy-derived hTS cells. hTS cells are pluripotent stem cells that can be efficiently induced to tNSCs with positive results in PD rat models. Our data suggest that the hTS cell is a dynamic stem cell platform that is potentially suitable for use in disease models, drug discovery, and cell therapy such as PD.

  6. Detection of human aneuploidies in prenatal and postnatal diagnosis using molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucheria Kiran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal aneuploidies especially trisomies 13, 18, 21, monosomy X and 47, XXY account for up to 95% of live born cytogenetic abnormalities. The diagnosis of aneuploidies usually done by conventional cytogenetic analysis (CCA is associated with technical difficulties and requires about 1-3 weeks for providing a result, especially in prenatal diagnosis. In the present study, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH was used on interphase cells for rapid prenatal and postnatal detection of aneuploidies. The frequent indications of high pregnancies included for prenatal diagnosis were previous child with chromosomal abnormalities, abnormal ultrasound scan and advanced maternal age (> 35 years. Interphase FISH was done using probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y on uncultured chorionic villi and amniotic fluid samples. All samples were analyzed subsequently using conventional cytogenetics. The analysis of aneuploidies for chromosomes 13, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y using FISH was extended to abortuses from spontaneous abortion cases. In cases where cytogenetics was not informative, a diagnosis could be made using interphase FISH. For postnatal diagnosis, interphase FISH was done to confirm low-level mosaicism in patients with primary amenorrhea, suspected cases of Klinefelter syndrome, and mental retardation using probes specific for various autosomes, X and Y chromosomes. FISH was also done using probe specific for the sex-determining region (SRY on the Y chromosome in cases with ambiguous genitalia. The SRY region could be identified in cases that lacked the Y chromosome on conventional cytogenetic analysis thereby emphasizing on the high resolution of FISH technique in detecting sub-microscopic rearrangements. To conclude, interphase FISH decreases the time interval between sampling and diagnosis. This is of tremendous value in prenatal diagnosis of urgent high-risk pregnancies, management of ambiguous genitalia and low

  7. Dose- and time-related changes in aerobic metabolism, chorionic disruption, and oxidative stress in embryonic medaka (Oryzias latipes): Underlying mechanisms for silver nanoparticle developmental toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuan, E-mail: uyuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing (China); Zhou Qunfang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely employed in commercial products, and are thus inevitably released into the aquatic environment. Many studies have indicated that AgNPs could induce toxicological effects on embryonic fish. To understand the mechanism of AgNP developmental toxicity, we determined the effects of AgNPs on the egg membrane, aerobic metabolism, antioxidant system, lipid peroxidation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) generation in early-life medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). AgNP treatment at 62.5-1000 {mu}g/L caused significant increase in retarded development and abnormalities. Destruction of the surface ornamentation and egg envelope was observed at a higher AgNP concentration ({>=}125 {mu}g/L) using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, an indicator of anaerobic metabolism, and superoxide dismutase activity was observed in the treated embryos. In contrast, the total reduced glutathione level decreased. A high thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentration was generated upon AgNP exposure from day 1 to day 7 postfertilisation. The biochemical parameters suggested that oxidative stress was induced by the AgNPs. Unexpectedly, a dose-dependent reduction in ROS and {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation upon high AgNP exposure ({>=}250 {mu}g/L) was observed. Although the morphological damages induced by the AgNPs were irreversible, restorable antioxidant defenses were noted in the well-developed embryos. This finding supported the idea that the stage of morphogenesis and organogenesis is a critical window to chemical exposure or environmental stress. Overall, the results suggested that hypoxia, disturbed egg chorion, and oxidative stress are mechanistically associated with AgNP toxicity in embryonic fish.

  8. The innermost chorionic layer of Drosophila. I. The role of chorin octamers in the formation of a family of interdigitating crystalline plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, C W; Edelstein, S J

    1987-02-20

    The innermost chorionic layer (ICL) within egg shells of Drosophila melanogaster is composed of thin, abutting three-dimensional crystalline plates which form a closed, membrane-like sheath. Collectively, the crystals within the sheath appear to form a family of related three-dimensional crystals in space group C222; however, specimens prepared for electron microscopy are actually two-dimensional crystals in c222. The projected structures of the negatively stained crystals have been studied by minimal dose electron microscopy employing image reconstruction methods. Thin sections indicate that unit cells within the ICL are composed of paired layers; top and bottom layers are related by centrally located 2-fold axes, aligned parallel to the surface of the ICL. The most probable structural unit of the crystals is a tetramer of chorin dimers with a point group symmetry of 222, which is denoted a chorin octamer. Projection maps were computed from average transforms of two-dimensional crystals for delta (the primitive unit cell angle) equal to 84 degrees, 90 degrees and 97 degrees (+/- 1.5 degrees). The maps indicate that the molecular transitions responsible for the observed family of crystals involve concerted intramolecular rearrangements about molecular 2-fold axes. The significance in vivo of the family of crystals within the ICL is not known; however, structural considerations suggest that the observed polymorphism may reflect one facet of an intrinsic bonding flexibility of the ICL octamer that may play a role in the formation of interplate junctions and the assembly of a continuous closed sheath. The ICL may therefore serve as a structural bridge between the vitelline membrane-wax layer and the endochondrial floor, allowing the larva to shed the inner egg shell layers during hatching.

  9. Biological activities of recombinant equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (eLH/CG) expressed in Sf9 and Mimic insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legardinier, Sébastien; Duonor-Cérutti, Martine; Devauchelle, Gérard; Combarnous, Yves; Cahoreau, Claire

    2005-02-01

    Equine luteinizing hormone (eLH) and chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) are composed of identical alpha and beta polypeptide chains, but eCG subunits are much more heavily glycosylated and sialylated. Consequently, eCG exhibits a much longer half-life than eLH in blood. Recombinant eLH/CG, expressed in Sf9 and Mimic insect cells, were compared with one another and to the natural hormones eCG and eLH. Mimic cells are stably-transformed Sf9 cells, expressing five mammalian genes encoding glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of complex N-carbohydrate chains. Recombinant eLH/CG expressed in Mimic cells exhibited a higher apparent molecular weight (MW) than that expressed in Sf9 cells, suggesting that its N-glycosylation was, as expected, more complete. Nevertheless, the two recombinant eLH/CG exhibited lower MW than natural eCG from pregnant mare plasma. The two eLH/CG produced in Sf9 and Mimic cells were found to be active in in vitro LH and FSH bioassays, with potencies similar to those of eCG. By contrast, they exhibited no significant in vivo bioactivity, neither in the specific follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) assay nor in the specific eCG assay. Although recombinant eLH/CG produced in Mimic cells bears more elaborate carbohydrate chains than recombinant eLH/CG from Sf9 cells, it exhibits no significant in vivo bioactivity, probably because of insufficient terminal sialylation of its carbohydrate chains, leading to its rapid removal from blood.

  10. EUCROMIC (European Collaborative Research on Mosaicism in Chorionic Villus Sampling): New initiatives concerning uniparental disomy research and long-term clinical follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLozier-Blanchet, C.D.; Hahnemann, J.M.; Vejersley, L.O.

    1994-09-01

    Since 1986 the European collaborative study on mosaicism in chorionic villus sampling (CVS), based in Glostrup, Denmark. has been collecting cytogenetic and clinical data on pregnancies in which testing revealed mosaicism or fetal/extrafetal chromosomal discrepancies. From 1986-1992, data on 60,823 samples, including 751 mosaics and 241 nonmosaic discrepancies, was collected. This information has proven helpful in prenatal counseling, by indicating which chromosomes are most often involved in mosaicism, whether the latter is likely to be confirmed in the fetus and/or placenta, and the relationship of cytogenetic results obtained by different culture techniques to pregnancy outcome. Since December 1, 1993 the European collaborative study has been funded by the European Community and by the Swiss government as a concertation project, {open_quotes}EUCROMIC{close_quotes}, a step which has allowed enlargement of the database and broadening of the project goals. Forty-five genetics centers are currently involved in this effort to monitor not only CVS, but changing trends in prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Two ancillary projects, based in Geneva, were initiated in early 1993: long-term clinical follow-up of children born after CVS mosaicism, and a search for uniparental disomy (UPD) in these same children (as well as in abortuses). Clinical data is collected from the initial reporting centers via questionnaires; at the time of writing, clinical follow-up has been obtained for over 250 children liveborn after CVS mosaicism. UPD testing results are received from the individual centers; for those not having the possibility to do the parental origin analyses themselves, testing is offered in one of several EUCROMIC-UPD laboratories.

  11. Purification of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) using magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in combination with high-gradient magnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christine; Heidenreich, Elena; Franzreb, Matthias; Frankenfeld, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Current purification of the glycoprotein equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) from horse serum includes consecutive precipitation steps beginning with metaphosphoric acid pH fractionation, two ethanol precipitation steps, and dialysis followed by a numerous of fixed-bed chromatography steps up to the specific activity required. A promising procedure for a more economic purification procedure represents a simplified precipitation process requiring only onethird of the solvent, followed by the usage of magnetic ion exchange adsorbents employed together with a newly designed 'rotor-stator' type High Gradient Magnetic Fishing (HGMF) system for large-scale application, currently up to 100 g of magnetic adsorbents. Initially, the separation process design was optimized for binding and elution conditions for the target protein in mL scale. Subsequently, the magnetic filter for particle separation was characterized. Based on these results, a purification process for eCG was designed consisting of (i) pretreatment of the horse serum; (ii) binding of the target protein to magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in a batch reactor; (iii) recovery of loaded functionalized adsorbents from the pretreated solution using HGMF; (iv) washing of loaded adsorbents to remove unbound proteins; (v) elution of the target protein. Finally, the complete HGMF process was automated and conducted with either multiple single-cycles or multicycle operation of four sequential cycles, using batches of pretreated serum of up to 20 L. eCG purification with yields of approximately 53% from single HGMF cycles and up to 80% from multicycle experiments were reached, with purification and concentration factors of around 2,500 and 6.7, respectively.

  12. Iron metabolism in BeWo chorion carcinoma cells. Transferrin-mediated uptake and release of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ende, A; du Maine, A; Simmons, C F; Schwartz, A L; Strous, G J

    1987-06-25

    Growing human choriocarcinoma BeWo b24 cells contain 1.5 X 10(6) functional cell surface transferrin binding sites and 2.0 X 10(6) intracellular binding sites. These cells rapidly accumulate iron at a rate of 360,000 iron atoms/min/cell. During iron uptake the transferrin and its receptor recycle at least each 19 min. The accumulated iron is released from the BeWo cells at a considerable rate. The time required to release 50% of previously accumulated iron into the extracellular medium is 30 h. This release process is cell line-specific as HeLa cells release very little if any iron. The release of iron by BeWo cells is stimulated by exogenous chelators such as apotransferrin, diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, desferral, and apolactoferrin. The time required to release 50% of the previously accumulated iron into medium supplemented with chelator is 15 h. In the absence of added chelators iron is released as a low molecular weight complex, whereas in the presence of chelator the iron is found complexed to the chelator. Uptake of iron is inhibited by 250 microM primaquine or 2.5 microM monensin. However, the release of iron is not inhibited by these drugs. Intracellular iron is stored bound to ferritin. A model for the release of iron by BeWo cells and its implication for transplacental iron transport is discussed.

  13. Salmo salar: morfología ultraestructural de la pared del corion en ovas normales y con problemas de eclosión Salmo salar: ultrastructural morphology of chorion, from normal and with hatching problems ova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jaramillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El “corion duro” es un fenómeno de reciente ocurrencia y se caracteriza porque algunos alevines con ojo no son capaces de degradar el corion que les rodea o lo hacen sólo de manera parcial, produciéndose en ambos casos la muerte del alevín. Este fenómeno ha causado fracasos reproductivos importantes en algunas pisciculturas del sur de Chile, desconociéndose hasta ahora la razón de su ocurrencia. En este estudio se realizaron mediciones del grosor del corion de Salmo salar así como de las fibras que forman parte de éste en ovas fertilizadas, no fertilizadas, con desarrollo normal y ovas que no lograron eclosionar. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las leves variaciones observadas en el grosor del corion entre los diferentes estados de desarrollo de las ovas estudiadas no explican la ocurrencia del “corion duro”. Sin embargo, la disposición de las fibras proteicas que forman el estrato interno del corion parece ser la respuesta a este fenómeno. Las ovas que no eclosionan presentan “corion duro” y exhiben un estrato interno carente de poros a diferencia de lo que se observa en las ovas que desarrollan normalmente y que logran la eclosión. Se propone que problemas en la síntesis de alguna de las sub-unidades que forman la coriogenina serían los responsables de la formación de un estrato interno carente de poros, siendo ésta la razón del “corion duro”.Either eyed alevins unable to digest the chorion or those digesting it partially, are both suffering the “hard chorion” phenomenon; in both cases alevins can not survive producing high mortality rates. During recent years, the salmon farming industry in Southern Chile has been facing massive mortality events caused by “hard chorion”. Since “hard chorion” is a recently observed phenomenon there are no literature reporting its origin. The aim of this study was to find differences in the ultrastructure of chorion fibers from Salmo salar ova at different

  14. 应用SNP微阵列检测稽留流产组织绒毛染色体异常%SNP microarray analysis of retention abortion chorionic villus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲红; 任晨春; 田英; 王文靖; 王承缙; 陈淑琴; 梁玥宏; 张海霞; 张月香

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare villus cell culture and karyotype analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technology for the detection of chorionic villus chromosome in patients with retention of abortion.Methods Forty cases were analyzed with the two methods.Results Chorionic villus culturing was successful in 29 cases,among which 10 were found to have an abnormal karyotypes.For the SNP microarray analysis,all 40 cases were successful,among which 16 were shown to have an abnormal molecular karyotype.Conclusion SNP microarray technology is highly accurate and specific,which is particularly suitable for the detection of chromosomal deletions or duplications,uniparental disomy,lowpercentage mosaicism and other chromosomal abnormalities.It has provided an effective supplement to the conventional chorionic villus culture and karyotype analysis.%目的 比较用绒毛细胞培养核型分析与单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)微阵列技术对稽留流产绒毛进行染色体检测的优缺点.方法 对确诊为稽留流产的40位孕妇应用上述两种方法检测绒毛染色体.结果 绒毛培养成功29份,发现核型异常10例;SNP微阵列均检测成功,发现异常分子核型16例.结论 SNP微阵列检测准确率高,特异性强,尤其能检测微缺失或重复、单亲二倍体、低比例嵌合体等染色体异常,是对传统的绒毛细胞培养核型分析的有效补充.

  15. 胶原酶消化绒毛组织培养技术在产前诊断中的应用%The application of collagenase digestion for chorionic villus cell culture in prenatal diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天盛; 周元圆; 韦波; 费冬梅; 黄红倩; 欧珊; 郑陈光

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索建立一种稳定且培养成功率高,操作简便的产前绒毛染色体制备的方法,提高绒毛产前诊断的成功率.方法 181例进行产前诊断的绒毛组织分两组,采用胶原酶分别消化10min和15min,制备绒毛细胞悬液进行细胞培养、染色体核型分析.结果 181例绒毛组织培养成功179例,失败2例,培养成功率为98.90%,平均培养时间为10-12天;消化15min比消化10min细胞更容易贴壁,原代培养成功率更高.179例培养成功的绒毛组织检出异常核型14例,其中镶嵌型5例,检出染色体多态性15例.结论 采用胶原酶消化绒毛组织,可以提高细胞培养成功率,提高孕早期产前诊断的成功率,适合各级有条件的医疗保健机构推广应用.%Objective: To establish a method of prenatal chorionic villus samples chromosome preparation which is stable, higher success rate and easier to prepare, enhance the success rate of villus prenatal diagnosis. Methods; 181 cases of chorionic villus samples were divided into two groups, digested by collagense for 10 minutes and 15 minutes respectively, and the resulting individual cell suspension were used to establish primary cultures for cytogenetic analysis. Results; 179 of 181 cases were cultured successful and 2 of 181 cases failed. Culture success rate was 98. 9% , the average of culture time was 10 -12 days. Collagenase digestion for 15 minutes was superior to 10 minutes in adherent cultures, the success rate of primary culture was higher. 14 cases of chromosomes aberration and 15 cases of chromosome polymorphism were detected in 179 cases of successful culture, and 5 cases chromosome mosaicism of 14 cases chromosomes aberration. Conclusion; The application of collagenase digestion for the chorionic villus tissue could improve success rate of the chorionic villus cell culture and prenatal diagnosis in the first trimester, it was worth to be extend.

  16. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2016-01-01

    permeability, relative to DM and IF pigs (P Relative to IF pigs, BC pigs also had lower density of mucosa-associated bacteria and of some putative pathogens in colon, together with higher intestinal villi, mucosal mass, brush-border enzyme activities, colonic short chain fatty acid levels......Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm...

  17. Correlation between activated NF-κB and synthetase regulating PGF in chorion before and after labor%临产前后绒毛膜中激活的 NF-κB 与 PGF 合成调节酶的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓颖; 黄鹰; 王晓波; 高青云; 储莉鸣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the changes and relationship between activation of NF-κB and the expression of PGF synthetase in chorion before and after labor in term pregnancy.Methods Fifteen cases of term labor ( TL) and 15 cases of term non-labor ( TNL) were selected as the objects of study.Western Blot test was used to observe the expression of activated NF-κB, COX-2 and AKR1B1 in their chorion, and the correlation between them was analyzed.Results Compared with the TNL group, the levels of COX-2 and AKR1B1 increased in TL group, there were significant differences between two groups (F value was 7.737 and 8.772, respectively, both P<0.01), and the level of activated NF-κB was also higher in TL group (F=38.563,P<0.05).Both the expressions of COX-2 and AKR1B1 were positively correlated with the activated NF-κB in chorion before and after labor (r value was 0.243 and 0.168, respectively, both P<0.05). Conclusion The levels of NF-κB, COX-2 and AKR1B1 protein increase in human chorion after labor, and the activated NF-κB can up-regulate the expression of PGF synthetase and lead to increased synthesis of PGF.It may be the mechanism of NF-κB participating in initiation of labor.%目的:分析足月妊娠妇女临产前后绒毛膜中核因子-κB( NF-κB)的激活与前列腺素F( PGF)合成调节酶的蛋白表达变化及其相关性。方法收集足月妊娠临产及未临产妇女各15例的绒毛膜组织,采用Western Blot方法检测其中NF-κB的激活水平以及环氧合酶( COX)-2、醛糖还原酶( AKR1B)1的蛋白水平,并分析NF-κB的激活水平与COX-2、AKR1B1表达的相关性。结果①临产组绒毛膜中COX-2、AKR1B1的蛋白水平均高于未临产组,差异均有极显著性( F值分别为7.737和8.772,均P<0.01);NF-κB的激活水平也高于未临产组,差异有显著性(F=38.563,P<0.05);②临产前后绒毛膜中NF-κB的激活水平与COX-2、AKR1B1的表

  18. A 3D co-culture microtissue model of the human placenta for nanotoxicity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muoth, Carina; Wichser, Adrian; Monopoli, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    and functionality of the placental tissue. The effects of NPs on the human placenta are not well studied or understood, and predictive in vitro placenta models to achieve mechanistic insights on NP-placenta interactions are essentially lacking. Using the scaffold-free hanging drop technology, we developed a well-organized...... and highly reproducible 3D co-culture microtissue (MT) model consisting of a core of placental fibroblasts surrounded by a trophoblast cell layer, which resembles the structure of the in vivo placental tissue. We could show that secretion levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were significantly higher...

  19. Localization and possible role of membrane type metallo-proteinase and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 in early stages of placentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Human placental tissues from the first and second trimesters of gestation have been investigated using riboprobe in situ hybridisation of mRNA sequences coding for membrane type metalloproteinase (MT-1-MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). Results show that (i) both mRNAs express at a relatively high level in the chorion laeve trophoblast cells and the adjacent decidual cells of fetal membrane; (ii) the most abundant expression of the two mRNAs was found in the extravillous trophoblast between Rohrs and Nitabuch striae of basal plate, trophoblast shell and gland cells of the decidua; (iii) isolated or small groups of cytotrophoblast cells in the chorionic villi and in the cells lining arterioles in decidua and stem villi also expressed both MT-1-MMP and TIMP-1 at defferent extents. The data suggest that the coordinated expression of the MT-MMP and its inhibitor TIMP in defferent cells of the placental tissue may play an essential role in trophoblast invasion and angiogenesis related to placentation in the first two trimesters of gestation. They may also have an ability to effect separation of fetal from material tissue at a favorable junctional site during parturition.

  20. 326 cases of early pregnancy chorionic biopsy prenatal diagnosis analysis%326例早孕期绒毛膜活检产前诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马京梅; 潘虹; 孙瑜; 付杰; 于丽; 杨慧霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨早孕期绒毛膜活检( chorionic villus sampling,CVS)在产前诊断不同指征的应用价值及其安全性。方法对2012年1月至2014年12月在本院早孕期CVS进行回顾性分析,比较不同产前诊断指征构成、CVS手术并发症、培养成功率及结果。结果3年间326例早孕期CVS术中,指征以超声异常最为多见(144/326,44.2%),其次是单基因病家族史(79/326,24.2%)、不良孕产史(52/326,15%)和孕妇高龄(40/326,12.1%)。近远期随访并发症仅发现1例“单基因病家族史”指征孕妇术后6个月发生不明原因胎死宫内。绒毛行基因分析及荧光原位杂交技术检查均成功,绒毛行核型分析,总体成功率为95.7%(312/326),从2012~2014年成功率逐年提高(3年分别为91.0%、93.5%、98.3%)。染色体核型分析发现35例染色体异常(11.2%,35/312),其中32例产前诊断指征为“超声异常”(32/144,22.2%),以“单基因病家族史”指征者亦发现2例染色体异常(2/79,2.5%),不良孕产史1例染色体异常(1/52,1.9%)。结论早孕期CVS产前诊断适用于已知胎儿遗传疾病高风险孕妇,安全有效,但均应同时进行核型分析除外可能染色体异常。%Objective To explore the value and safety of first trimester chorionic villus sampling ( CVS) for different indications of prenatal diagnosis. Method A retrospective study was conducted in Peking University First Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. The proportion of different prenatal diagnosis indications, procedure-related complications, report rate and result of karyotyping were analyzed. Result During the three-year period all 326 CVS cases were involved. The proportion of “abnormal ultrasound findings” was the highest (144/326, 44. 2%), fol-lowed by “family history of single gene disorders” (79/326,24. 2%), “negative reproductive history” (52/326, 15%),“advanced maternal age” (40/326,12. 1%). The follow-up record for safety evaluation found one

  1. Radioimmunodetection of human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficiency of radioimmuno-detection in locating the xenograft of human chorio-carcinoma in nude mouse. Methods: Radioimmuno-detection was performed using cocktail antibodies of 131I-labeled mouse anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibodies to locate the xenograft of human choriocarcinoma in nude mouse. Radioactivity in different tissues was measured and the tumor/non-tumor ratio was calculated. Normal mouse IgG was used as control IgG. Results: The accumulation of radioactivity in the xenograft area could be recognized as early as 24 h after the injection of the radiolabelled antibodies. 72-96 h after the injection, the xenograft could be clearly shown. The minimal shown xenograft was 0.8 cm in diameter. The tumor/non-tumor ratio increased with the time and was obviously higher than that in control group. Conclusion: Radioimmunodetection can efficiently locate human choriocarcinoma xenograft in nude mouse.

  2. Regulation by retinoids of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta (5-4)-isomerase and 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase cytochrome P-450 messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the K9 mouse Leydig cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, A; Rogier, E; Astraudo, C; Duquenne, C; Finaz, C

    1994-12-01

    Vitamin A is a potent regulator of testicular function. We have reported that retinol (R) and retinoic acid (RA) induced a down regulation of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) binding sites in K9 Leydig cells. In the present study we evaluated the effect of R and RA on LH/CG receptors, cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (P-450 scc), 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase (P-450 17 alpha) and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) mRNA levels in K9 mouse Leydig cells. To validate K9 cells as a model for studying Leydig cell steroidogenesis at the molecular level, we first investigated the effect of hCG on mRNA levels of the steroidogenic enzymes. P-450 scc, 3 beta HSD and P-450 17 alpha were expressed constitutively. The addition of 10 ng/ml hCG enhanced mRNA levels for the three genes within 2 h. Maximal accumulation of P-450 scc, P-450 17 alpha and 3 beta HSD mRNA in treated cells represents a 2.5-, 8.5- and 4-fold increase over control values, respectively. P-450 17 alpha expression reached a maximum by 4 h and then declined rapidly to return to control value by 24 h. The pattern of LH/CG receptor mRNAs in K9 cells was very similar to that of MA10 Leydig cells and showed six transcripts of 1.1, 1.6, 1.9, 2.6, 4.2 and 7.0 kb. Treatment of cells with R or RA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in all six species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Molecular characterisation of non-absorptive and absorptive enterocytes in human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gassler, N; Newrzella, D; Böhm, C;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Perturbation of differentiation of the crypt-villus axis of the human small intestine is associated with several intestinal disorders of clinical importance. At present, differentiation of small intestinal enterocytes in the crypt-villus axis is not well characterised. SUBJECTS...... genes, and vesicle/transport related genes was found. CONCLUSION: Two types of enterocytes were dissected at the molecular level, the non-absorptive enterocyte located in the upper part of crypts and the absorptive enterocyte found in the middle of villi. These data improve our knowledge about...... the physiology of the crypt-villus architecture in human small intestine and provide new insights into pathophysiological phenomena, such as villus atrophy, which is clinically important....

  4. Gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina: purificação, caracterização e resposta ovariana em ovinos e suínos Equine chorionic gonadotrophin: purification, characterization and ovarian activity in ewes and gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Guimarães Aleixo

    1995-01-01

    pessaries impregnated with medroxiprogesterone acetato for 11 to 14 days. In treatment I, ewes (n = 55 were injected (IM with 500UI of puritied eCG at the moment of pessaries withdraw, while in treatment II, the ewes (n = 10 received 500UI of comercial eCG. The results observed were 2.1 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.3 ovulations (P > 0.05 for treatments I and II, respectively. One hundred-twenty gilts, with mean weight of 87.2kg, were divided m two treatments. The animals in treatment I (90 gilts received 500UI of puntied eCG and, 72 hours later, 500UI of hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin. In treatment II hormones were not injected. The results observed were 25.9 ± 22.2 and 0.0 corpora lutea (P < 0.001 for treatments I and II, respectively. These results demonstrated that the eCG purified has purity and biological activity similar to the comercial product used as control, and that it is efficient in inducing ovarian activity in ewes and gilts.

  5. The allo-epi-endothelial lining of the intervillous space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockleford, C D

    2010-12-01

    An unusual monolayer of cells lines the interface between the basal plate and the intervillous space in human term placenta but not the chorionic villi. Our recent descriptions of it are based on advanced microscopy, phenotyping and cytogenetic approaches. The papers show that the layer is partly epithelial (ectoderm) and partly endothelial (mesoderm): it is partly derived from the fetus and partly from the mother. This first accurate description of a naturally occurring human allo-epi-endothelium (monolayer of cells derived from two embryological germ layers and two individuals) is of interest in anatomy, obstetrics and gynaecology, developmental biology, histology and immunology. The most extensive evidence for this mosaic applies to the intervillous space lining layer of the basal plate where the endothelial proportion is of the order of 50%; it extends throughout central, intermediate and peripheral parts of the basal plate and is a consistent feature of the intervillous space lining of the chorionic plate also. Its presence lining chorionic plate is noteworthy as it includes the furthest parts of the sinus from the supplying and draining vessels which are endothelial lined.

  6. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...... in endothelial cells of the fetal vessels. Cotinine, lipid profiles, estradiol, l-arginine, and dimethylarginines that may affect NO production were determined in maternal and fetal blood. Serum cotinine verified self-reported smoking. Newborns of smokers had a lower weight (P

  7. Expression and localization of the progesterone receptor in mouse and human reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Clement, Christian Alexandro; Thorup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    were unstained or faintly stained. Pubertal female mice were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy and western blotting before and after injection with FSH and LH followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection after a 48-h period. PR immunolocalization to the oviduct cilia...... examined, primary granulosa cell cilia lacked PR staining. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis of tissues from oviduct, uterus, and ovary confirmed antibody specificity, and identified two bands corresponding to the PR isoforms PR-A and PR-B. Upon hCG stimulation, a new band cross-reacting with anti...

  8. Evidence for a spatial and temporal regulation of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression in human amnion in term and preterm parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deug-Chan; Romero, Roberto; Kim, Jung-Sun; Yoo, Wonsuk; Lee, JoonHo; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Chong Jai

    2010-09-01

    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) is a key enzyme involved in parturition. PTGS2 mRNA was found to be differentially expressed between placental amnion (amnion overlying the placental disc) and reflected amnion (amnion of the extraplacental chorioamniotic membranes) in term placentas. The aim was to evaluate the spatial and temporal regulation of PTGS2 expression in the amnion and the chorion-decidua. PTGS2 expression was analyzed in the amnion and chorion-decidua obtained from 32 women: term not in labor (n = 12), term in labor (n = 12), and preterm labor (n = 8), by immunoblotting and densitometry. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the amnion and chorion-decidua was measured by a specific immunoassay. Compared to preterm labor cases, PTGS2 expression increased at term before the onset of labor far more prominently in placental amnion (4.5-fold; P = 0.002) than in reflected amnion (1.4-fold; P = 0.007). There was a significant increase in PTGS2 expression in reflected amnion (2.9-fold; P human parturition.

  9. Performance, digestibility and morphometry of ileal villi of rabbits fed with levels of inclusion of “Lithothamnium” Desempenho, digestibilidade e morfometria da vilosidade ileal de coelhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de inclusão de “Lithothamnium”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Maurício Carvalho Guedes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the potential of seaweed meal (Lithothamnium sp in the nutrition of rabbits it were realized analysis of the presence of trace elements in the composition of Lithothamnium, a performance test with determination of apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, protein and energy and morphometric analysis of the ileal villi of rabbits fed with diets at different levels of inclusion (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00%. We used 60 New Zealand White rabbits of both sexes, at 30 days of age.The experimental diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, a control and the other with the different levels of inclusion of Lithothamnium sp. to replace the inert (bentonite from the control diet ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and twelve repetitions. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and regression analysis model with pre-defined by the statistical program SAEG. The results showed that the inclusion of Lithothamnium sp. in different concentrations did not interfere in the variables studied: intake, digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein and energy, weight gain, carcass yield and weight of edible offal. However, it was verified that the level of inclusion of 1.0% interfere in a negative way in the length and width of villi.Com o intuito de avaliar o potencial da farinha de algas marinhas (Lithothamnium sp na nutrição de coelhos, realizaram-se análises de presença de elementos traço na composição do Lithothamnium, um ensaio de desempenho com determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente para matéria seca, proteína e energia e análise morfométrica da vilosidade ileal de coelhos alimentados com dietas de diferentes níveis de inclusão (0,25%; 0,50%; 0,75% e 1,00%. Foram utilizados 60 coelhos Nova Zelândia Branco, de ambos os sexos, com 30 dias de idade. As dietas experimentais foram isoproteicas e isoenergéticas, uma controle e as demais

  10. Karyotype Analysis on Chorionic Villus of Early Pregnancy Loss in Relation to Different Ultrasound Findings%早期妊娠自然流产患者的超声表现与绒毛染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉昆; 刘颖琳; 杜涛; 陈立斌; 刘梅兰; 陈慧; 谭剑平; 张建平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨早期妊娠自然流产患者的不同超声表现与绒毛染色体异常的关系.[方法]2008年1月至2011年12月,在我院诊治的早期自然流产患者,流产前有定期B超和人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)测定,流产后成功行绒毛细胞培养和染色体核型分析者共183例.根据流产前的B超分为有胎心组和无胎心组,比较两组的染色体核型分析结果有无差异.[结果]183例绒毛染色体核型分析中,检出异常核型109例(59.6%),正常核型74例(40.4%).有胎心组102例,异常染色体发生率61.8%,无胎心组81例,异常染色体发生率56.8%,两组比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).有胎心组中最常见的异常染色体为(45,X)、三倍体和16三体,而无胎心组中最常见的异常染色体为16三体,无1例(45,X)和三倍体.有胎心组中可存活常染色体三体(21三体、18三体、13三体)、(45,X)、三倍体29例,占异常染色体的(46.0%),明显高于无胎心组,仅3例,占异常染色体的6.5%,(P<0.05).在有胎心组中,可存活常染色体三体(21三体、18三体、13三体)、(45,X)、三倍体的胚芽长度平均(17.7±6.4)mm,明显大于其他异常染色体的胚芽长度(8.8±5.3)mm (P< 0.05)和正常染色体的胚芽长度(11.1±8.4) mm(P< 0.05).[结论]绒毛染色体异常是早期自然流产的主要原因,可存活常染色体三体(21三体、18三体、13三体)、(45,X)、三倍体多发生于已有胎心的自然流产者.%[ Objective ] To compare the chromosomal karyotype of chorionic villus in early pregnancy loss in relation to different ultrasound findings. [Methods] From January 2008 to December 2011, 183 patients with early pregnancy loss were evaluated by regular ultrasound and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) during pregnancy and karyotyping was performed on chorionic villus after curettage. The proportion and type of chromosomal anomalies in two groups defined by presence or absence of cardiac activity before

  11. Caracterización del canal epitelial de sodio en sinciciotrofoblasto de placenta humana preeclamptica Characterization of the epithelial sodium channel in human pre-eclampsia syncytiotrophoblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana del Mónaco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available El sinciciotrofoblasto (SCT de placenta humana regula la transferencia de solutos y agua entre la sangre fetal y materna. En el presente trabajo observamos que el canal de sodio ENaC (asociado a cuadros como el síndrome de Liddle y pseudohipoaldosteronismo está presente en la membrana apical del SCT y que la subunidad a del canal tiene una expresión reducida en placentas con hipertensión gestacional (preeclampsia. Realizamos estudios a nivel de expresión de ARN (RT-PCR y a nivel proteico (western blot e inmunohistoquímica. En la línea celular BeWo (modelo de SCT humano el canal se encuentra presente y la expresión del mismo es regulada por las hormonas aldosterona, vasopresina, estradiol y progesterona. Analizamos la actividad del ENaC por electrofisiología y observamos corrientes sensibles a amiloride (10 µM cuando las células BeWo se cultivaron 12 horas con aldosterona (100 nM. Esta corriente presentó una magnitud 20 veces mayor que las corrientes basales, un potencial de reversión cercano a 3 mV y una conductancia de 127 ± 26 pS/pF entre los pulsos de -60 y -140 mV aplicados. Las características de esta corriente son similares a las producidas por ENaC en otros tejidos y evidencian la presencia de un canal funcional. El papel del ENaC en el SCT es poco comprendido, aunque la diferencia de expresión en la preeclampsia podría tener consecuencias para el transporte placentario de agua y iones. Nuestros datos son un aporte para futuros estudios de los mecanismos involucrados en la patofisiología de la preeclampsia.The syncytiotrophoblast (SCT, a multinucleated epithelium forming the outer layer of chorionic villi, acts in human placenta as a transporting barrier regulating the transference of nutrients, solutes and water between maternal and fetal blood. Electrolyte homeostasis and extracellular fluid volume are maintained primarily by regulated Na+ transport. The present study was conducted to analyze the presence of the

  12. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues.

  13. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues. PMID:28316944

  14. Co-localization of P2Y1 receptor and NTPDase1/CD39 within caveolae in human placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kittel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1/ CD39 is the dominant ecto-nucleotidase of vascular and placental trophoblastic tissues and appears to modulate the functional expression of type-2 purinergic (P2 Gprotein coupled receptors (GPCRs. Hence, this ectoenzyme could regulate nucleotide-mediated signalling events in placental tissue. This immunohistochemical and immuno-electron microscopic study demonstrates the expression of NTPDase1/CD39, P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors in different cell types of human placenta. Specifically P2Y1 has an exclusive vascular distribution whereas P2Y2 is localized on trophoblastic villi. Co-localization of P2Y1 and NTPDase1/ CD39 are observed in caveolae, membrane microdomains of endothelial cells. The differential localization of these P2 receptors might indicate their unique roles in the regulation of extracellular nucleotide concentrations in human placental tissues and consequent effects on vascular tone and blood fluidity.

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in the second-trimester human fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is considered to be important in mammalian neonatal growth and development. In order to clarify its developmental role, we have investigated, by immunohistochemistry, the localization of EGF and the time of its first appearance in various organs from a series of 25...... midtrimester human fetuses with a gestational age ranging from 13 to 22 weeks. The first detectable EGF immunoreactivity occurred in week 15-16 fetuses in the placenta, the skin, the distal tubules of the kidney, the surface epithelium of the stomach, and the tips of the small intestinal villi, as well...... as in a few Paneth cells. Glandular structures, such as the glands of the cardia and the pyloric part of the stomach, Brunner's glands of the duodenum, the pancreas, and the submucous glands of the trachea, showed positive EGF immunoreactivity later (week 17). Thus, apart from the kidney, staining...

  16. Inner ring deiodination of thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine by human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roti, E.; Fang, S.L.; Green, K.; Braverman, L.E.; Emerson, C.H.

    1983-12-01

    Indirect evidence, based on injection of thyroxine (T4) into the amniotic cavity of humans, and maternal thyroidectomy in the rat, suggests that fetal membranes might be capable of converting T4 to 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) by virtue of inner ring iodothyronine deiodinase activity. The present study was undertaken to provide direct evidence that human fetal membranes contain inner ring iodothyronine deiodinase activity directed toward T4 and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Homogenates of human fetal membranes were incubated with 125I-labeled T4, rT3, and T3, and with stable T4. Conversion of 125(I)-T4 to 125(I)-rT3 was noted in chorion and amnion. 125I-T3 was converted to 125(I)-3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2) in chorion and amnion. 125(I)-rT3 was stable in fetal membranes under the incubation conditions employed. Time-, temperature-, pH-, and protein content-dependent conversion of stable T4 to rT3 was found in fetal membranes. Iodothyronine metabolism did not occur in the absence of dithiothreitol. These studies indicate that human fetal membranes contain an inner ring deiodinase enzyme. Because of its intimate contact with the amniotic cavity, this enzyme may generate a portion of the rT3 found in amniotic fluid.

  17. Sarri võttis Talleksiga taanlastelt Saksa Auto / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Andres Sarri poolt kontrollitav AS Talleks ostis Taani partnerilt Semler Holding välja 50-protsendilise osaluse AS-is Saksa Auto. Lisa: Viimastel aastatel eestlaste poolt välja ostetud ettevõtted. Diagramm: Saksa Auto tulemused paranesid mullu märgatavalt. Vt. samas: Sarri: me ei tee halbu tehinguid; Peeter Raidla. Tuleristsed 90ndate alguse võimuvõitlusest

  18. Meri oli presidendina isepäine / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Lennart Meril oli taasiseseisvunud Eesti presidendina oluline roll Eesti riikluse kujundamisel ja Eesti arenemisel demokraatlikuks riigiks. Kommenteerivad: Marju Lauristin, Siim Kallas, Villu Reiljan, Edgar Savisaar, Mart Sõrg, Juhan Parts ja Hindrek Meri

  19. Ottis osales ka ise kahtlases riigihankes / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Riigi Kinnisvara juht Tiit Ottis palus 2005. aasta mais keskkriminaalpolitseil algatada Kärdla piirivalvekordoni hangete uurimiseks kriminaalasi. Antud hankel osales ka Ottise loodud AS Gustaf, mis pakkus küll odavaimat hinda, kuid konkursi võitis AS Pameron. Vt. samas: Kriminaalasi algatati teo suhtes

  20. Sarri võttis Talleksiga taanlastelt Saksa Auto / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Andres Sarri poolt kontrollitav AS Talleks ostis Taani partnerilt Semler Holding välja 50-protsendilise osaluse AS-is Saksa Auto. Lisa: Viimastel aastatel eestlaste poolt välja ostetud ettevõtted. Diagramm: Saksa Auto tulemused paranesid mullu märgatavalt. Vt. samas: Sarri: me ei tee halbu tehinguid; Peeter Raidla. Tuleristsed 90ndate alguse võimuvõitlusest

  1. The prenatal diagnosis value of chorionic villus sampling in early pregnancy%早孕期绒毛活检在产前诊断中的应用价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芳; 徐慧; 燕凤; 刘淑娟; 宋晖; 陈必良

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早孕期经腹绒毛活检在产前诊断中的应用价值及其安全性.方法 150例孕63-98天的孕妇经腹抽取绒毛组织,剪碎后部分原位培养进行染色体核型分析;部分直接低渗制片进行荧光原位杂交(FISH)分析.结果 150例患者中,培养及核型分析成功148例,成功率98.7%.FISH分析成功149例,成功率99.3%.共发现异常核型20例,包括染色体结构异常2例,常染色体三体6例,性染色体异常6例,染色体多态性5例,嵌合体1例.FISH与核型分析结果完全一致.除1例患者术后当天有少量阴道出血外,未发现明显的并发症.结论 早孕期经腹绒毛活检是一种安全可靠的产前诊断技术,对常见的染色体病和遗传病可做到早发现、早处理,减少中晚期引产的痛苦,避免缺陷儿的出生.%Objective; To investigate the prenatal diagnosis value and safety of chorionic villus sampling in early pregnancy. Methods: Villus specimens retrieved by Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA -CVS) from 150 women pregnant 63 -98 days. Villus were cut to small pieces, some of which were cultured for karyotype analysis and the other were used for FISH. Results; 148 of 150 specimens succeeded for karyotype analysis and the achievement ratio is 98.1%. FISH were succeeded in 149 specimens and the achievement ratio is 99. 3%. There are 20 abnormal karyotype, including 2 structural chromosomal abnormality, 6 somatic chromosome abnormality, 6 sex chromosomal abnormality, 1 chimera and 5 chromosomal polymorphism. The FISH and karyotype is concor-dante. Severe complication is not detected except 1 vaginal bleeding. Conclusion: TA - CVS in early pregnancy is a safe and reliable prenatal diagnostic technique.

  2. Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells from cord blood in coculture with mesenchymal stroma cells from amnion, chorion, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid, cord blood, and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Caroline; Strobel, Julian; Zingsem, Jürgen; Richter, Richard H; Goecke, Tamme W; Beckmann, Matthias W; Eckstein, Reinhold; Weisbach, Volker

    2013-12-01

    In most cases, the amount of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in a single cord blood (CB) unit is not sufficient for allogenic transplantation of adults. Therefore, two CB units are usually required. The ex vivo expansion of HSPCs from CB in coculture with mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) might be an alternative. It was investigated, whether bone marrow-derived MSCs, which have to be obtained in an invasive procedure, introduce a further donor and increases the risk of transmissible infectious diseases for the patient can be replaced by MSCs from amnion, chorion, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid, and CB, which can be isolated from placental tissue which is readily available when CB is sampled. In a two-step ex vivo coculture mononuclear cells from cryopreserved CB were cultured with different MSC-feederlayers in a medium supplemented with cytokines (stem cell factor, thrombopoietin [TPO], and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor). Expansion rates were analyzed as well, by long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) and colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, as by measuring CD34(+)- and CD45(+)-cells. Due to the comparably low number of 5×10(2) to 1×10(4) CD34(+)-cells per cm(2) MSC-monolayer, we observed comparably high expansion rates from 80 to 391,000 for CFU, 70 to 313,000 for CD34(+)-, and 200 to 352,000 for CD45(+)-cells. Expansion of LTC-IC was partly observed. Compared to the literature, we found a better expansion rate of CD34(+)-cells with MSCs from all different sources. This is probably due to the comparably low number of 5×10(2) to 1×10 CD34(+)-cells per cm(2) MSC-monolayer we used. Comparably, high expansion rates were observed from 80 to 391,000 for CFUs, 70 to 313,000 for CD34(+)-, and 200 to 352,000 for CD45(+)-cells. However, the expansion of CD34(+)-cells was significantly more effective with MSCs from bone marrow compared to MSCs from amnion, chorion, and Wharton's jelly. The comparison of MSCs from bone marrow with MSCs from CB and

  3. Ectopic pregnancy-derived human trophoblastic stem cells regenerate dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway to treat parkinsonian rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tung-Yin Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to treat patients with Parkinson's disease (PD; however, several practical limitations remain. As such, finding the appropriate stem cell remains the primary issue in regenerative medicine today. We isolated a pre-placental pluripotent stem cell from the chorionic villi of women with early tubal ectopic pregnancies. Our objectives in this study were (i to identify the characteristics of hTS cells as a potential cell source for therapy; and (ii to test if hTS cells can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for PD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: hTS cells expressed gene markers of both the trophectoderm (TE and the inner cell mass (ICM. hTS cells exhibited genetic and biological characteristics similar to that of hES cells, yet genetically distinct from placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. All-trans retinoic acid (RA efficiently induced hTS cells into trophoblast neural stem cells (tNSCs in 1-day. Overexpression of transcription factor Nanog was possibly achieved through a RA-induced non-genomic c-Src/Stat3/Nanog signaling pathway mediated by the subcellular c-Src mRNA localization for the maintenance of pluripotency in tNSCs. tNSC transplantation into the lesioned striatum of acute and chronic PD rats not only improved behavioral deficits but also regenerated dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, evidenced by immunofluorescent and immunohistological analyses at 18-weeks. Furthermore, tNSCs showed immunological advantages for the application in regenerative medicine. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully isolated and characterized the unique ectopic pregnancy-derived hTS cells. hTS cells are pluripotent stem cells that can be efficiently induced to tNSCs with positive results in PD rat models. Our data suggest that the hTS cell is a dynamic stem cell platform that is potentially suitable for use in disease models, drug discovery, and cell therapy such as PD.

  4. Control of human trophoblast function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondi Carla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trophoblast, i.e. the peripheral part of the human conceptus, exerts a crucial role in implantation and placentation. Both processes properly occur as a consequence of an intimate dialogue between fetal and maternal tissues, fulfilled by membrane ligands and receptors, as well as by hormone and local factor release. During blastocyst implantation, generation of distinct trophoblast cell types begins, namely the villous and the extravillous trophoblast, the former of which is devoted to fetal-maternal exchanges and the latter binds the placental body to the uterine wall. Physiological placentation is characterized by the invasion of the uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells arising from anchoring villi. Due to this invasion, the arterial structure is replaced by amorphous fibrinoid material and endovascular trophoblastic cells. This transformation establishes a low-resistance, high-capacity perfusion system from the radial arteries to the intervillous space, in which the villous tree is embedded. The physiology of pregnancy depends upon the orderly progress of structural and functional changes of villous and extravillous trophoblast, whereas a derangement of such processes can lead to different types of complications of varying degrees of gravity, including possible pregnancy loss and maternal life-threatening diseases. In this review we describe the mechanisms which regulate trophoblast differentiation, proliferation, migration and invasiveness, and the alterations in these mechanisms which lead to pathological conditions. Furthermore, based on the growing evidence that proper inflammatory changes and oxidative balance are needed for successful gestation, we explain the mechanisms by which agents able to influence such processes may be useful in the prevention and treatment of pregnancy disorders.